Sunteți pe pagina 1din 10

GROUP 2

Exercise 1

PHYTOGRAPHY: THE ROOT

Name: Carl G. Buscato

Score:

Date: December 3, 2012

Section: K28

I. INTRODUCTION

The roots of most plants are found underground although there are plants that have their roots suspended in the air as in orchids. The entire mass of roots is called the root system. The root arises from the radical which later becomes the primary root. Branches that develop from the primary roots are called secondary roots are the tertiary roots.

The primary function of the root is absorption of water and minerals from the soil and anchorage of the plant to the ground. Roots are often useful in the determination as to whether a plant is annual or perennial and they provide important features for identification and classification especially for grasses.

II. MATERIALS

Zea mays Raphanussativus Pachyrrhizuserosus Beta vulgaris Daucuscarota Vanda sp. Paspalum sp.

Bryophyllumpinnata Ipomoea batatas Saccharumofficinale Hedera helix Dioscorea fasciculate Opuntia sp.

Other available roots

III. ACTIVITY

A. Observe the following in your specimens.

1. Types of root systems

a. Taproot - roots that develop from the primary root.

b. Fibrous roots - roots that come out directly from the hypocotyls or may branch off from the primary root, these are usually slender of about the same diameter and size, with numerous small root branches.

c. Adventitious roots roots that are produced from structures other than the primary root or its branches. They could arise from the nodes and sometimes internodes of stems or from the leaves (foliar roots).

Roots also perform functions than the typical ones and in these cases the shape is greatly modified that at times, it is already difficult to distinguish whether the structure is a root or not.

1. Modification in taproot (most of these roots are modified for food storage).

a. Fusiform roots that are shaped like a spindle, i.e. broad in the middle and tapering on both ends.

b. Napiform spherical in shape

c. Conical cone-shaped

d. Tuberous roots when the taproot becomes thick and fleshy but does not form a definite shape.

2. Modification in fibrous roots

a. Pneumatophores or respiratory roots these are roots that resemble conical spikes. Underground roots of plants that are commonly found in marshy and salt lakes give them off vertically upwards. This is also characteristic of mangrove trees.

3. Modification in adventitious roots (grouped according to function).

a. For storage

Nodulose when the slender root becomes swollen at the apex. Moniliform when the swellings in the root occur at frequent intervals or they assume a bead-like formation. Annulated roots when the root has ringlike swellings as in arrow root.

b. For mechanical support

Prop, stilt or brace roots roots that are produced from the main stem and grow vertically downwards to the gorund. Climbing roots roots that climb and are often attached to a support like a fence, a stake, or to another plant.

c. Other functions

Haustoria (-ium) or sucking roots roots of parasitic plants, these penetrate the host plant and absorb nutrient from it. Aerial roots or epiphytic roots roots that are suspended in air. Contractile roots roots that undergo contraction at the uppermost part due to the changes in the shape of the cortical cells.

B. Examine the root system of the available specimens. Write your observations in Table 1.1

Table 1.1 Roots and root systems of some angiosperms

   

TYPE OF

   

SCIENTIFIC

NAME

MONOCOT

OR DICOT

ROOT

SYSTEM

MODIFICATION (if any)

FUNCTION(s)

Raphanus sativus

Dicot

Taproot

Fusiform

Storage

Zea mays

Monocot

Adventitious

Prop

Support

Daucus carota

Dicot

Taproot

Conical

Storage

Pachyrrhizus

Dicot

Taproot

Tuberous

Storage

erosus

Vanda sp.

Monocot

Adventitious

Epiphytic

Absorption

Ipomoea batatas

Dicot

Taproot

Tuberous

Storage

Opuntia sp.

Dicot

Taproot

Napiform

Storage

C. Observe the roots/root system of Zea mays closely. Are there any special features that you have observed? What do you call the root present above the ground? How does this differ from the other types of root? Are there any special function (s) of this root type?

Yes. The roots above the ground are called prop roots. These are modified root that grows from the lower part of a stem or trunk down to the ground, providing a plant with extra support.

D.

Examine the roots of Vanda sp. Cut across one root with sharp razor blade and observe closely use a dissecting microscope or hand lens. Identify and describe this tissue? Is there any special function of this tissue?

Vanda sp. has a tissue that is covered with white or silvery cover, its cell layers are thick. This tissue is called velamen. The velamen also serves a mechanical function, protecting the vascular tissues in the root cortex, shielding the root from transpirational water loss, and, in many cases, adhering the plant to the substrate.

E. Make a sketch of the roots/root systems of your specimens. Below the sketch, indicate the scientific name and the type of root or root system. (Use additional sheet if necessary).

type of root or root system. (Use additional sheet if necessary). Scientific name: Raphanus sativus Root

Scientific name: Raphanus sativus Root system: Taproot

Scientific name: Zea mays Root system: Adventitious Scientific name: Daucus carota Root system: Taproot

Scientific name: Zea mays Root system: Adventitious

Scientific name: Zea mays Root system: Adventitious Scientific name: Daucus carota Root system: Taproot

Scientific name: Daucus carota Root system: Taproot

Scientific name: Pachyrrhizus erosus Root system: Taproot Scientific name: Vanda sp. Common name: Adventitious

Scientific name: Pachyrrhizus erosus Root system: Taproot

Scientific name: Pachyrrhizus erosus Root system: Taproot Scientific name: Vanda sp. Common name: Adventitious

Scientific name: Vanda sp. Common name: Adventitious

Scientific name: Ipomoea batatas Root system: Taproot Scientific name: Opuntia sp. Root system: Taproot

Scientific name: Ipomoea batatas Root system: Taproot

Scientific name: Ipomoea batatas Root system: Taproot Scientific name: Opuntia sp. Root system: Taproot

Scientific name: Opuntia sp. Root system: Taproot

F. Which root system (taproot or fibrous) is more efficient in absorbing water from a deeper source? Explain your answer.

Taproot system is more efficient in absorbing water from deeper source because it enables the plant to anchor better to the soil and obtain water in deeper sources. A taproot is an enlarged, somewhat straight to tapering plant root that grows downward. It forms a center from which other roots sprout laterally.

PHOTODOCUMENTATION: Plant Specimens

PHOTODOCUMENTATION: Plant Specimens
PHOTODOCUMENTATION: Plant Specimens
PHOTODOCUMENTATION: Plant Specimens
PHOTODOCUMENTATION: Plant Specimens