Control systems are found in abundance in all sectors of industry such as quality control
of manufactured products, automatic assembly line, machine tool control, space
technology and weapon systems, computer control, transportation systems, computer
control, transportation systems, robotics and many others.
Desired Water
Valve VC WATER
level r
TANK
Water in
Fig 14 b) Open loop control
Valve VO
C Water
out
Fig –1.4 a) Water level control
In this form of control, the valves are adjusted to make output c equal to input r but not
readjusted continually to keep the two equal. For this system, this form of control will
normally not yield high performance. A difference between input and output, a system
error e= rc would be expected to develop, due to two major effects.
1. Disturbance acting on the system
2. Parameter variations of the system
These are prime motivations for the use of feed back control. For example, Pressure
variations upstream of Vc and downstream of VO can be important disturbances affecting
inflow and output flow and hence level. A sudden change or gradual change of flow
resistance of the valves due to foreign matter or valve deposits represents a system
parameter variation.
Open loop control systems are control systems in which the output has no effect upon the
control action. The accuracy of the system depends on the calibration. Open loop control
systems must be carefully calibrated and must maintain that calibration in order to be
useful. In the presence of disturbances an open loop control system will not perform the
desired task. As a last example consider a sprinkle used to water the lawn. The system is
adjusted to water a given area by opening the water valve and observing the resulting
pattern. When the pattern is considered satisfactory, the system is calibrated and no
further valve adjustment is necessary. The pattern will be maintained reasonably well if
there is no change in water pressure when a tap is opened inside the house, reducing
pressure, the pattern changes; i.e the open loop control steady state condition.
Referring back to water tank level example of open loop control system, the system is
going possess error when actual water level (c ) In the tank differs from desired level ( r )
To improve performance, the operator could continuously readjust the valves based on
system error e=rc what is missing in open loop control system for more accurate is a link
or feed back from the output to the input of the system A feedback control system in
effect automates this action, as follows:
The output c is measured continuously and fed back to be compared with the input r . The
error e = rc is used to adjust the control valve by means of an actuator ( no shown in fig )
the feed back loop causes the system to take corrective action if output c ( actual level )
deviates from input 'r ' ( desired level ) whatever the reason.
Closed loop or feed back control operates according to a very simple principle.

Electronic thermostat
Controlled output C
Forward path
C
+
Desired temp. ro c 
+ Controller element
Feed back
path element
Human operator
Thermometer Brain of
Actual
operator (rc)
Desired hot Water temp
Steam Co C
water. temp
Muscles C
Steam Hot water ro c + + and Valve
A change in out door temperature is a disturbance to the home heating system. If the out
side temperature falls, the room temperature will likewise tend to decrease.
From the point of view of stability, the open loop control system is easier to build
because system stability is not a major problem. On the other hand, stability is a major
problem in the closed loop control system, which may tend to overcorrect errors that can
cause oscillations of constant or changing amplitude.
It should be emphasized that for systems in which the inputs are known ahead of time and
in which there are no disturbances it is advisable to use openloop control. closed loop
control systems have advantages only when unpredictable disturbances it is advisable to
use openloop control. Closed loop control systems have advantages only when
unpredictable disturbances and / or unpredictable variations in system components used
in a closed –loop control system is more than that for a corresponding open – loop control
system. Thus the closed loop control system is generally higher in cost.
Session 4 28.03.2005
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CONTROL SYSTEM
Input command
4 Steady State
Transient response error
Floor
0
Time
Fig. 18 Elevator input and output
Speed of response, accuracy and stability are the requirements demanded of every control
system. We shall understand the significance of the above taking the example of an
elevator.
As noted earlier, a control system provides an output or response for a given input or
stimulus. The input represents a desired response; the output is the actual response. Take
the case of elevator. For example when the fourth floor button of an elevator is pushed
on the ground floor, the elevator rises to the fourth floor with a speed and floor leveling
accuracy designed for passenger comfort. Fig 1 below shows input and output for the
elevator system. the push of the input and output for the elevator system. The push of the
input and output for the elevator system. The push of the fourth floor button forms the
input and is represented by a step command. Note that in the interest of the passenger
comfort, we would not want the elector to mimic the suddenness of the input. The input
represents what we would like the output to be after the elevator has stopped; the elevator
itself follows the displacement described by the curve marked elevator response.
Two factors make the output different from the input. First compare the instantaneous
change of the input against the gradual change of the output in fig. 1 – physical entities
( position or velocity ) cannot change their states instantaneously. Thus, the elevator
undergoes a gradual change as it rises from ground floor to the fourth floor. We call this
part of the response 'transient response'.
After the transient response elevator approaches its steady state response, which is its
approximation to the commanded or desired response. The accuracy of the elevator's
leveling with the floor is a second factor that could make the output different from the
input. An elevator must be level enough with the fourth floor for the passenger to exit.
MODELING IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN
The two important topics in the study of control systems are
1. Control system analysis
2. Control system design
By control system analysis we mean the investigation under specified conditions of the
performance of the system.
By control system design we mean to find out one which accomplishes given task. If the
performance is unsatisfactory it can be improved with the help of design. Whether it is
control
No physical system can be represented in its full physical intricacies and therefore
idealizing assumption are always made for the purpose of analysis and synthesis of
systems. An idealized physical system is called physical model. A physical system can be
modeled in a number of ways depending up on specific problem to be dealt with and
desired accuracy. For example an electronic amplifier may be modelled as an
interconnection of linear lumped elements or some of these may be pictured as nonlinear
elements in case the stress is on the study of distortion.
Once a physical model of a physical system is obtained, the next step is to obtain a
mathematical model which is the mathematical representation of the physical model
through the use of appropriate physical laws ( Ohm’s law, kirchoff’s law, Newton’s Law,
Hooke’s Law etc). Depending upon the choice of variables and the coordinate system, a
given physical model may lead to different mathematical models. An electrical network,
for example, may be modelled as a set of nodal equations using kirchoff’s current law or
a set of mesh equations using using kirchoff’s voltage law. A control system may be
modelled as a scalar differential equation.The particular mathematical model which gives
a greater insight into the dynamic behaviour of physical system is selected.
When the mathematical model of a physical system is solved for given input, the result
represents the dynamic response of the system.
Linear Systems
A system is called linear if the principle of superposition applies the principle of
superposition states that the response ( output) produced by the simultaneous application
of two different inputs is the sum of two individual responses ( outputs). Hence for the $
linear system the response to several inputs can be calculated by treating one input at a
time and adding the results
On the other hand if the coefficients of the coefficients of the describing differential
equations are functions of time ‘t’ ( the independent variable ) then the mathematical
model is linear time – variant. An example is a missile. The mass of a missile changes
due to fuel consumption.
2 dx
t
2 dx t + X =F
Transfer function2 + dt
dt
The differential equation describing a linear time invariant system can be reshaped into
different forms for the convenience of analysis. For single input single output linear
system, the transfer function representation forms useful. On the other hand, when a
system has multiple inputs and outputs, the vector matrix notation may be more
convenient.
The transfer function of a linear time invariant system is defined as the ratio of the
laplace transform of the output (response) to the laplace transform of the input (driving
function) under the assumption that all initial conditions are zero.
Consider the linear time invariant system defined by the following differential equation.
for n > m
Taking Laplace transform on both sides and assuming zero initial conditions,
C(s) bosm + b1sm1 + …………+ bm
=
R(s) aosn + a1sn1 + …………+ bn
1. The transfer function is an expression relating the output and input of a linear time
invariant system in terms of the system parameters and is a property of the system
itself independent of the input.
2. It does not provide any information concerning the physical structure of the system
( the transfer functions of many different physical systems can be identical).
3. The highest power of in the denominator of the transfer function is equal to the
the order of the system.
4. The transfer function between an input and output of a system is defined as the
laplace transform of impulse.
Session 5 – 30.03.2005
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF PHYSICAL SYSTEMS
The term mechanical translation is used to describe motion with a single degree of
freedom or motion in a straight line. The basis for all translational motion analysis is
Newton’s second law of motion which states that the Netforce F acting on a body is
related to its mass M and acceleration ‘a’ by the equation Σ F = Ma
‘Ma’ is called reactive force and it acts in a direction opposite to that of acceleration. The
summation of the forces must of course be algebraic and thus considerable care must be
taken in writing the equation so that proper signs prefix the forces.
The three basic elements used in linear mechanical translational systems are ( i ) Masses
(ii) springs iii) dashpot or viscous friction units. The graphical and symbolic notations
for all three are shown in fig 19
The spring provides a restoring a force when a force F is applied to deform a coiled
spring a reaction force is produced, which to bring it back to its freelength. As long as
deformation is small, the spring behaves as a linear element. The reaction force is equal
to the product of the stiffness k and the amount of deformation.
Whenever there is motion or tendency of motion between two elements, frictional forces
exist. The frictional forces encountered in physical systems are usually of nonlinear
nature. The characteristics of the frictional forces between two contacting surfaces often
depend on the composition of the surfaces. The pressure between surfaces, their relative
velocity and others. The friction encountered in physical systems may be of many types
( coulomb friction, static friction, viscous friction ) but in control problems viscous
friction, predominates. Viscous friction represents a retarding force i.e. it acts in a
direction opposite to the velocity and it is linear relationship between applied force and
velocity. The mathematical expression of viscous friction F=BV where B is viscous
frictional coefficient. It should be realized that friction is not always undesirable in
physical systems. Sometimes it may be necessary to introduce friction intentionally to
improve dynamic response of the system. Friction may be introduced intentionally in a
system by use of dashpot as shown in fig 110. In automobiles shock absorber is nothing
but dashpot.
a b
Applied force
F
Piston
The basic operation of a dashpot, in which the housing is filled with oil. If a force f is
applied to the shaft, the piston presses against oil increasing the pressure on side ‘b’ and
decreasing pressure side ‘a’ As a result the oil flows from side ‘b’ to side ‘a’ through the
wall clearance. The friction coefficient B depends on the dimensions and the type of oil
used.
Lever
Lever is a device which consists of rigid bar which tends to rotate about a fixed
point called ‘fulcrum’ the two arms are called “effort arm” and “Load arm” respectively.
The lever bears analogy with transformer
F2 Load
L1 L2
Fulcrum
effort F
1
There is viscous friction whenever a body rotates in viscous contact with another body.
This torque acts in opposite direction so that angular velocity is ω given by
T = f ω = f d2 θ Where ω = relative angular velocity between two bodies.
2
dt f = co efficient of viscous friction.
Gear wheel
In almost every control system which involves rotational motion gears are necessary. It is
often necessary to match the motor to the load it is driving. A motor which usually runs at
high speed and low torque output may be required to drive a load at low speed and high
torque.
Driving wheel
N1
N2
Driven wheel
Analogous Systems
Consider the mechanical system shown in fig A and the electrical system shown in fig B
d2x dx
M + + B + K X = f (t)  1
dt2 dt
d2q d2q q
dt2 dt2 c
L + +R + = e  2
Comparing equations (1) and (2) we see that for the two systems the differential
equations are of identical form such systems are called “ analogous systems and the terms
which occupy the corresponding positions in differential equations are analogous
quantities”
Displacement Charge
Velocity Current.
Another useful analogy between electrical systems and mechanical systems is based on
force – current analogy. Consider electrical and mechanical systems shown in fig.
For mechanical system the differential equation is given by
d2x dx
M + 2
+B + K X = f (t)  1
dt dt
Displacement Flux
( angular)
Velocity (angular) Voltage
Although it is equally easy to write the equations for either form of system and thus
equations for either form of system and thus there is no need to consider analogs, to
simplify the analysis, there are significant advantages to the use of electrical analogos
mechanical systems. For example it is not particularly convenient to setup a mechanical
spring mass dashpot system and test its response in the laboratory because such
components are not available in a wide variety of sizes, and are inconvenient to work
with in any event. Since electrical components, as are current and voltage signals in a
variety of forms for test inputs and since currents and voltages are accurately measured
with ease, it is often convenient to study the response equivalent to the mechanical
system of interest, adjusting component values as required to provide the desired results.
CONTROL SYSTEMS
Resource person: S. RAGHAVENDRA
Selection Grade Lecturer
E&EE Dept. SJCE, Mysore.
Chapter 1
Modeling of Physical Systems
X
K1 K2 (output)
M U(t)
(input)
2. Write the force equation for the mechanical system shown in figure
X
(output)
K X1 B2
M F(t)
(input)
B1
3. Write the differential equations for the mechanical system shown in figure.
X1 X2
K1 f12
M1 M2
f(t) f1 f2
4. Write the modeling equations for the mechanical systems shown in figure.
Xi K
X
M M
force f(t)
Xo
B
5. For the systems shown in figure write the differential equations and obtain the transfer
functions indicated.
Yk
K F
Xi Xo Xi Xo C
6. Write the differential equation describing the system. Assume the bar through which
force is applied is not flexible, has no mass or moment of inertia, and all
displacements are small.
b
f(t)
K
X
M
a
B
7. Write the equations of motion in terms of given mechanical quantities.
X2
Force f K1
a b
M1 M2
B1
K2
X1
8. Write the force equations for the mechanical systems shown in figure.
B1
J1
T(t) θ
9. Write the force equation for the mechanical system shown in figure.
K
J1 J2
T(t)
θ1 θ2
10. Write the force equation for the mechanical system shown in figure.
θ1 K θ2 K θ3 K
1 2 3
J1 J2 J3
Torque T
B1 B2 B3
11. Torque T(t) is applied to a small cylinder with moment of inertia J1 which rotates with
in a larger cylinder with moment of inertia J2. The two cylinders are coupled by viscous
friction B1. The outer cylinder has viscous friction B2 between it and the reference frame
and is restrained by a torsion spring k. write the describing differential equations.
J2 K
J1
Torque T1, θ1
B2
B1
12. The polarized relay shown exerts a force f(t) = Ki. i(t) upon the pivoted bar. Assume
the relay coil has constant inductance L. The left end of the pivot bar is connected to the
reference frame through a viscous damper B1 to retard rapid motion of the bar. Assume
the bar has negligible mass and moment of inertia and also that all displacements are
small. Write the describing differential equations. Note that the relay coil is not free to
move.
13. Figure shows a control scheme for controlling the azimuth angle of an armature
controlled dc. Motion with dc generator used as an amplifier. Determine transfer function
θL (s)
. The parameters of the plant are given below.
u (s)
Field resistance = Rf
Field inductance = Lf
14. The schematic diagram of a dc motor control system is shown in figure where Ks is
error detector gain in volt/rad, k is the amplifier gain, Kb back emf constant, Kt is torque
15. Obtain a transfer function C(s) /R(s) for the positional servomechanism shown in
figure. Assume that the input to the system is the reference shaft position (R) and the
system output is the output shaft position ( C ). Assume the following constants.
Gain of the potentiometer (error detector ) K1 in V/rad
Amplifier gain ‘ Kp ’ in V / V
Motor torque constant ‘ KT ’ in V/ rad
Gear ratio N1 N2
Moment of inertia of load ‘J’
Viscous friction coefficient ‘f’
C1
I E0
C2 R Output
input
K.Puttaswamy
Block Diagram
In a block diagram all system variables are linked to each other through functional
blocks. The “Functional Block” or simply “Block” is a symbol for the mathematical
operation on the input signal to the block which produces the output. The transfer
functions of the components are usually entered in the corresponding blocks, which are
connected by arrows to indicate the direction of flow of signals. Note that signal can pass
only in the direction of arrows. Thus a block diagram of a control system explicitly shows
a unilateral property.
Fig 1.1 shows an element of the block diagram. The arrow head pointing towards the
block indicates the input and the arrow head away from the block represents the output.
Such arrows are entered as signals.
X(s)
G(s Y(s)
Fig 1.1
The advantages of the block diagram representation of a system lie in the fact that
it is easy to form the over all block diagram for the entire system by merely connecting
the blocks of the components according to the signal flow and thus it is possible to
evaluate the contribution of each component to the overall performance of the system. A
block diagram contains information concerning dynamic behavior but does not contain
any information concerning the physical construction of the system. Thus many
dissimilar and unrelated system can be represented by the same block diagram.
It should be noted that in a block diagram the main source of energy is not
explicitly shown and also that a block diagram of a given system is not unique. A number
of a different block diagram may be drawn for a system depending upon the view point of
analysis.
Error detector : The error detector produces a signal which is the difference
between the reference input and the feed back signal of the control system. Choice of the
error detector is quite important and must be carefully decided. This is because any
imperfections in the error detector will affect the performance of the entire system. The
block diagram representation of the error detector is shown in fig1.2
R(s)  C(s)
C(s)
Fig1.2
Note that a circle with a cross is the symbol which indicates a summing operation. The
plus or minus sign at each arrow head indicates whether the signal is to be added or
subtracted. Note that the quantities to be added or subtracted should have the same
dimensions and the same units.
Branch point
R(s) C(s)
+
G(s)

Fig. 1.3
The output C(s) is fed back to the summing point, where it is compared with
reference input R(s). The closed loop nature is indicated in fig1.3. Any linear system may
be represented by a block diagram consisting of blocks, summing points and branch
points. A branch is the point from which the output signal from a block diagram goes
concurrently to other blocks or summing points.
When the output is fed back to the summing point for comparison with the input,
it is necessary to convert the form of output signal to that of he input signal. This
conversion is followed by the feed back element whose transfer function is H(s) as shown
in fig 1.4. Another important role of the feed back element is to modify the output before
it is compared with the input.
B(s)
R(s) C(s) C(s)
+ G(s

B(s)
H(s
Fig 1.4
The ratio of the feed back signal B(s) to the actuating error signal E(s) is called
the open loop transfer function.
open loop transfer function = B(s)/E(s) = G(s)H(s)
The ratio of the output C(s) to the actuating error signal E(s) is called the feed
forward transfer function .
Feed forward transfer function = C(s)/E(s) = G(s)
If the feed back transfer function is unity, then the open loop and feed forward
transfer function are the same. For the system shown in Fig1.4, the output C(s) and input
R(s) are related as follows.
C(s) = G(s) E(s)
E(s) = R(s)  B(s)
= R(s)  H(s)C(s) but B(s) = H(s)C(s)
Eliminating E(s) from these equations
C(s) = G(s)[R(s)  H(s)C(s)]
C(s) + G(s)[H(s)C(s)] = G(s)R(s)
C(s)[1 + G(s)H(s)] = G(s)R(s)
C(s) G(s)
=
R(s) 1 + G(s)H(s)
C(s)/R(s) is called the closed loop transfer function.
The output of the closed loop system clearly depends on both the closed loop
transfer function and the nature of the input. If the feed back signal is positive, then
C(s) G(s)
=
R(s) 1  G(s)H(s)
Fig1.5 shows a closed loop system subjected to a disturbance. When two inputs are
present in a linear system, each input can be treated independently of the other and
the outputs corresponding to each input alone can be added to give the complete
output. The way in which each input is introduced into the system is shown at the
summing point by either a plus or minus sign.
Disturbance
N(s)
R(s) +
+ +
G1(s) G2(s) C(s)

H(s
Fig1.5
Fig1.5 closed loop system subjected to a disturbance.
Consider the system shown in fig 1.5. We assume that the system is at rest
initially with zero error. Calculate the response CN(s) to the disturbance only. Response is
CN(s) G2(s)
=
R(s) 1 + G1(s)G2(s)H(s)
On the other hand, in considering the response to the reference input R(s), we may
assume that the disturbance is zero. Then the response CR(s) to the reference input R(s)is
CR(s) G1(s)G2(s)
=
R(s) 1 + G1(s)G2(s)H(s).
The response C(s) due to the simultaneous application of the reference input R(s) and
the disturbance N(s) is given by
C(s) = CR(s) + CN(s)
G2(s)
C(s) = [G1(s)R(s) + N(s)]
1 + G1(s)G2(s)H(s)
To draw the block diagram for a system, first write the equation which describe the
dynamic behaviour of each components. Take the laplace transform of these equations,
assuming zero initial conditions and represent each laplace transformed equation
individually in the form of block. Finally assemble the elements into a complete block
diagram.
As an example consider the Rc circuit shown in fig1.6(a). The equations for the circuit
shown are
R
ei i eo
C
Fig. 1.6a
ei = iR + 1/c∫ idt (1)
And
eo = 1/c∫ idt (2)
Fig1.6(b)
I(s) Eo(S)
Ei(s) + I(s) 1/C
1/R
_ Fig1.6(c)
Eo(s)
Eo(s) + 1/R I(s) 1/C Eo(s)
Fig1.6(b) _
Fig1.6(d)
TERMINOLOGY
Node: A node is a point representing a variable or signals.
Transmittance : is a gain between the two nodes.
Branch : is a directed line segment joining two nodes. The gain of the branch is a
transmittance.
Input node or source : is a node which has only outgoing branches. This corresponds to
an independent variable .
Output node or Sink : An output node or sink is a node which has only incoming
branches. This corresponds to a dependent variable.
Mixed node : is a node which has both incoming and outgoing branches.
Path : is a traversal of connected branches in the direction of the branch arrows.
Loop : is a closed path.
Loop gain : is the product of the branch transmittance of a loop.
Non touching loops : Loops are nontouching if they do not posses any common nodes.
Forward path : A forward path is a path from an input node to an output node which
does not cross any nodes more then once.
Forward path gain : is the product of the branch transmittances of a forward path.
Input node
x1 a x2 b x3 1 x3 Output node
C
Properties of signal flow graph
a a b ab
=
x1 x2 x1 x2 x3 x1 x3
x2 = ax1 x3 = abx1
fig.(1) Fig. (2)
x1 x2 a+b x2 = (a + b) s1
= x1 x2
b Fig. (3)
x1 x1
a ac
c x4 x4
b x3 = bc
x2 x2 x4 =
(ac)x1
x4 =
(bc)x2
Fig. (4)
x1 a x2 b x3 x1 ab x3 ab
= = x1 1  bc x3
c bc
Fig. (5)
x3 = bx 2 x3 = abx1 + bcx3
x2 = ax1 + cx3 x3 = abx1 + b2cx2
= abx1 + b2c (ax1 + cx3)
= abx1 + b2cax1 + b2c2x3
x3 (1 – b2c2 ) = abx1 (1 + bc)
abx1 (1 + bc)
x3 =
1 – b2c2
ab (1 + bc )
= X1
( 1 + bc) (1  bc)
ab
x3 = x1
1  bc
a11
a22
b1
x2
u1 x1 x2 x3 x1 a21
x3
a12 b2
a23
a13 u2
a31
a33
x1 x2 a32 x3
a22
a11 a33
b1 a21 a32 1
u1 x1 x2 x3
x3
a12 b2 a23
u2
a13
k = Cofactor of kth forward path, determinant of the graph with the loops touching the
kth forward path removed
Or value of for all loops except for those which touch the forward path ‘K’
OR
Value of above by eliminating all loop gains & associated products which are
th
touching to the k forward
path.
BLOCK DIAGRAM
H(s) H(s)
H2
+ +
G1 +
 G2 G3
+
 R(s) C(s)
H1
(2)
1GG32 1
R(s)
C(s)
(1)
H1 (3)
In this system there is only one forward path between the input R(s) and output C(s).
1 The forward path gain is
P 1 = G1 G2 G3
In this figure there are three individual loops. The gains of these loops are
L1 = G1 G2 H1
L2 =  G2 G3 H2
L3 =  G1 G2 G3
Since all the three loops have a common branch, there are no nontouching loops.
Hence determinant
is given by
= 1  [L1+L2+L3]
= 1  [G1G2H1 – G2G3H2 – G1G2G3]
The cofactor of the determinant along the forward path connecting the input node & output node by removing the loops
that touches this path. Since the path p1 touches all the three loops.
We get 1 =1
2. Use the signal flow graph method determine the gain c/R for the block diagram shown.
1 2
R 3 4 5
C
G1
+
G21
+ 3
+

H2
H1
∑k Pk k
G4
loop (3)
R 1 G1 G2 G3 1 C
loop (1)
H2
loop (2)
 H1
P=
Mason’s formula
= 1 – (L1 + L2 + L3)
= 1 – (G2G3H2 – G1G2G3H1 – G1G2G4H1)
1 is obtained from
1=1
2= 1
p1 1 + p2 2
p =
G1G2G3 + G1G2G4
=
1  [G1G2G3H2 – G1G2G3H1 – G1G2G4H1]
G1G2G3 + G1G2G4
c/R = p =
1  G1G2H2 + G1G2G3H1 + G1G2G4H1
3. The following equation describes a control system. Construct the signal flow
graph for it and obtain transfer function .
Y2 and Y2
U1 for u2 = 0 U2 for u1 = 0
Solution
The different node variables are Y1 & Y2 ,U1 & U2 are the inputs.
Consider the equation signal flow graph is
a11
b1
U1 Y1
y2
a12
a22
Similarly considering the equation 2
a21
Signal flow graph is Y1 Y2
b2
u2
Combining these two signal the graphs, the total signal graph is
u1 output
aa2211
b1a21
1
YY2 1
Y2
ba212 U1 U2 = o
U2 = 0
u2
Q11 Q22
b1 Q22 1
Transfer function Y2
U1 Y1 Y2
u1 u2 = 0
Assuming u2 = 0
Signal flow graph is
a11 a22
b1 a21 1
U1 Y1 Y2
a12
∑ k Pk k
Using Mason’s gain formula T.F =
k=1
k = No of forward paths = 1
P1 = b1 a21
L1 = a12 a21
L2 = a11
L3 = a22
L2 & L3 are non touching loops
∴ = 1 – [∑ all individual feed back loop gains]
+ [∑ gain products of all possible combinations of two non
touching loops]
= 1 – [ L1 + L2 + L3 ] + L2 L3
1 = cofactor of the determinant eliminating all loop gains which are touching the
first forward path.
1 =1
Y2 P1 1 b1a21
U1 =
1– a12a21 –a11 – a22 + a11a22
Assuming u1 = o
Then the graph is
a11
a22
a21
Y1 Y2
a12 b2
u2
Y2
T.F =
U2 U1 =0
K = No of forward path = 1
P1 = b2
Individual loops are
L1 = a21 a12
L2 = a11
L3 = a22
nontouching loops are L2 & L3
= 1 – [ L1 + L2 + L3 ] + L2 L3
= 1 – a21 a12 – a11 – a22 + a11 a22
1= 1 – a11
Y2 p1 1 b2 (1a11)
= =
U2 1a21a12 – a11 – a22 + a11 a22
4. Construct the signal flow graph for the following set of system equations
Y2 = G1Y1 + G3Y3   (1)
Y3 = G4Y1 + G2Y2 + G5Y3   (2)
Y4 = G6Y2 + G7Y3   (3)
Y1 G1 Y2 Y3
G3
G4
G5
Consider the equation 2, signal flow graph is
Y1
Y2 G2 Y3
G6
Y2 Y3 G7
Y4
G5
G1 G2
Y2 G7
Y1 Y3 Y4
G3
No of forward path = K = 4
Transfer function = ∑ 4 pk Ak
K =1 G6
= p1 1 + p2 2 + p3 3 + p4 4
L1 = G2 G3 L2 = G5 (Self loop )
= 1 – (L1 + L2 )
= 1 – G2G3 –G5
There are no nontouching loop combinations
4 =1
5. From the given block diagram, draw the signal flow the graph and find C(s)
R(s)
1 2
R(s) C(s)
G4
6
5+
7
+GG3 21
3
4
H2
H1
G4
H2
H1
1
No of forward paths = K = 2
Forward path gains are P1 = G1 G2 G3
P2 = G4
1. Find out the laplace transform of the given network and re draw the network in
‘S’ domain
2. Work down the equations for different branch current and node voltages.
R1 R2
Vi C L Vo
Laplace transform of the given network is as shown
R1 R2
V1(s)
I1(s) 1 I2(s)
Vi(s) LS Vo (s)
SC
Equations are
I1(s) = Vi (s) – V1 (s) …… (1)
R1
[ I1(s) – I2 (s)]
V1(s) = ……. (2)
CS
V1(s)  V0 (s)
I2 (s) = …………. (3)
R2
V0(s) = I2(s) LS
Signal flow graph for the equation (1)
1
Vi R1 I1 V1
 1
R1
1
Signal flow graph for equation 2 I1 Sc V1 I2
1
Sc
1
R2
Vi I1 V1 I2 SL Vo
11
Sc
RR21
11
R
Sc21
Vo ∑ PK k
= =
Vi
No of forward paths = 1
V0 P1 1
Vi =
L
Forward path gain Ti =
R1R2C
Feedback loops are
1 1 SL
L1 =  L2 =  L3 = 
SR1C SR2C R2
L
V0 R1R2C SL
= =
Vi 1 1 SL L SR1R2C + R2 + R1 + S2LR1C +
SL
1+ + + +
SR1C SR2C R2 R1R2C
6. Find the transfer function for the given network using Mason’s gain formula
R1
Vi Vo R2
V
V
I(s)
RVi(s)
V
io2(s)
(s)
o (s) I (S ) = Vi(s) – Vo(s)
Z Z= R1
R1Sc + 1
= Vi(s) – Vo(s) 1 + R1Sc
R1
Vo (s) = I (s) R2
1+ R1SC
R1
Vi 1 Vo
 1 + R1Sc
R1
1 + R1Sc
R1 1 R2 Vo
Vi
1+R1Sc
 R1
Loop gown L1 =  R2 1 + R1 Sc
R1
Procedure :
1. To obtain the block diagram from the given signal flow graph, it is
necessary to write set of system equations representing the given signal
flow graph.
2. Assume suitable node variables, write equations for every node.
3. while writing equations remember that the value of the variable
represented by the node is the algebraic sum of all the signals entering at
that node. The outgoing branches have no effect on the value of the node
variable.
(1) Obtain the Block diagram from the signal flow graph, shown below
2S 3 2 1
X
W
ZU
Y
3
4
5
Write the equations for various node variables Y, Z, W and U, Input node is X. There are
only outgoing branches.
Y = (2S ) X – 4Z  5U
Z = 3Y – 3W
W = 2Z
U = 1 W + SZ
The block digram simulation of various equations are
Equation (1)
X
2S + Y


4
From Z
5
From U
Y
 Z
3 +
3 From W
W + U
+
From Z S
X 2S  Y 3 Z 2 W +
+ + U
 
Introduction :
It was pointed out earlier that the performance of a feedback control system is more
preferably measured by its time domain response characteristics. This is in contrast to the
analysis & design of systems in the communication field, where the frequency response is
of more importance, since in this case most of the signals to be processed are either
sinusoidal or periodic in nature. However analytically, the time response of a control
system is usually difficult to determine, especially in the case of high order systems. In
the design aspects, there are no unified ways of arriving at a designed system given the
timedomain specifications, such as peak overshoot, rise time , delay time & setting time.
On the other hand, there is a wealth of graphical methods available in the frequency
domain analysis, all suitable for the analysis & design of linear feedback control systems
once the analysis & design are carried out in the frequency domain, time domain
behavior of the system can be interpreted based on the relationships that exist between
the timedomain & the frequencydomain properties. Therefore, we may consider that the
main purpose of conducting control systems analysis & design in frequency domain is
merely to use the techniques as a convenient vehicle toward the same objectives as with
timedomain methods.
The starting point in frequencydomain analysis is the transfer function.
For a single loop feed back system, the closed loop transfer function is written
C(s) G(s)
M(s) = = (1)
R(s) 1+ G(s) H(s)
C(jω) G(jω)
M(jω) = = (1.1)
R(jω) 1+ G(jω) H(jω)
since the analysis is now in the frequency domain, some of the terminology used in
communication system may be applied to the present control system characterization. For
instance, M(ω) of Eq. (1.4) may be regarded as the magnification of the feed back control
system is similar to the gain or amplification of an electronic amplifier. In an audio
amplifier, for instance, an ideal design criterion is that the amplifier must have a flat gain
for all frequencies. Of course, realistically, the design criterion becomes that of having a
flat gain in the audio frequency range. In control system the ideal design criterion is
similar. If it is desirable to keep the output C(jω) identical to the input R(jω) at all
frequencies, M(jω) must be unity for all frequencies. However, from Eq. (1.1) it is
apparent that M(jω) can be unity only when G(jω) is infinite, while H(jω) is finite &
nonzero. An infinite magnitude for g(jω) is, of course, impossible to achieve in practice,
nor would it be desirable, since most control system become unstable when its loop gain
becomes very high. Further more, all control system are subject noise. Thus in addition to
responding to the input signal, the system should be able to reject & suppress noise &
unwanted signals. This mean that the frequency response of a control system should have
a cutoff characteristic in general, & sometimes even a bandpass characteristic.
The phase characteristic of the frequency response are also of importance. The ideal
situation is that the phase must be a linear function of frequency within the frequency
range of interest . Figure 1.1 shows the gain & phase characteristics of an ideal lowpass
filter, which is impossible to realize physically. Typical gain & phase characteristics of a
feedback control system are shown in Fig. 1.2. The fact is that the great majority of
control systems have the characteristics of a lowpass filter, so the gain decreases as the
frequency increases.
M(ω) 0
ω
1
φm(ω)
0 ωc ω Deg
Fig. 1.1. Gainphase characteristics of an ideal lowpass filter.
0 ω
M(ω) Mp
φm(ω)
1 Deg
0 ω
Peak response Mp :
The peak response Mp is defined as the maximum value of M(ω) that is given in
Eq.(1.4). In general, the magnitude of Mp gives an indication of the relative stability of a
feed back control system. Normally, a large Mp corresponds to a large peak overshoot in
the step response. For most design problems it is generally accepted that an optimum
value Mp of should be somewhere between 1.1 & 1.5.
Resonant frequency ωp :
The resonant frequency ωp is defined as the frequency at which the peak resonance Mp
occurs.
Bandwidth :
The bandwidth , BW, is defined as the frequency at which the magnitude of M(jω),
M(ω), drops at 70.7 percent of its zerofrequency level, or 3 dB down from the zero
frequency gain. In general, the bandwidth of a control system indicates the noisefiltering
characteristics of the system. Also, bandwidth gives a measure of the transient response
properties, in that a large bandwidth corresponds to a faster rise time, since higher
frequency signals are passed on to the outputs. Conversely, if the bandwidth is small,
only signals of relatively low frequencies are passed, & the time response will generally
be slow & sluggish.
Cutoff rate :
Often, bandwidth alone is inadequate in the indication of the characteristics of the
system in distinguishing signals from noise. Sometimes it may be necessary to specify the
cutoff rate of the frequency response at the higher frequencies. However, in general, a
steep cutoff characteristics may be accompanied by a large Mp, which corresponds to a
system with a low stability margin.
The performance criteria defined above for the frequencydomain analysis are illustrated
on the closedloop frequency response, as shown in Fig. 1.3.
There are other criteria defined that may be used to specify the relative stability &
performance of a feedback control system. These are defined in the ensuring sections of
this chapter.
M(ω)
Mp
1 Bandwidth
0 ω
ωp BW
For a secondorder feedback control system, the peak resonance Mp, the resonant
frequency ωp, & the bandwidth are all uniquely related to the damping ratio ξ & the
natural undamped frequency ωn of the system. Consider the secondorder sinusoidal
steadystate transfer function of a closedloop system,
C(jω) ω2n
M(jω) = = (1.6)
R(jω) (jω)2 + 2 ζ ωn (jω) + ω2n
1
=
1 + j 2 (ω/ωn) ζ  (ω/ωn)2
We may simplify the last expression by letter u = ω/ ωn. The Eq. (1.6) becomes
1
M(ju) = ( 1.7)
1 + j2 u ζ  u2
1
M(ju) = M(u) = (1.8)
[( 1 – u ) + ( 2 ζ u)2] ½
2 2
And
2ζ u
M(ju) = φm(u) =  tan 1 (1.9)
1 – u2
The resonant frequency is determined first by taking the derivative of M(u) with respect
to u & setting it equal to zero. Thus
dM(u) 1
= [( 1 – u2 )2 + ( 2ζ u)2] –3/2 ( 4 u3 – 4u + 8uζ2) = 0 (
1.10)
du 2
from which
4u3 – 4u + 8uζ2 = 0 (
1.11)
and
up = √ 1  2ζ2 (
1.13)
The solution Eq. (1.12) merely indicates that the slope of the M(ω) versus ω curve is zero
at
ω = 0; it is not true maximum. The solution of eq. (1.13) gives the resonant frequency,
ωp = ωn √ 1  2ζ2
(1.14)
Since frequency is a real quantity, Eq. (1.14) is valid only for 1 ≥ 2ζ2 or ζ ≤ 0.707. This
means simply that for all values of ξ greater than 0.707, the solution of ωp = 0 becomes
the valid one, & Mp = 1.
1
Mp = (1.15)
2
2√ 1 ζ
It is important to note that Mp is a function of ζ only, whereas ωp is a function of ζ & ωn
3
Mp
0
0.5 0.707 1.0 1.5 2.0
Damping ratio ζ
1
Fig.1.4 Mp versusdamping ratio for a second – order system, Mp =
2ζ √ 1  ζ2
1.0
0.8
up = ωp /ωn
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.5 0.707 1.0
Damping ratio ζ
Fig 1.5. Normalized resonant frequency versusdamping ratio for a second order system,
Up = √ 1  ζ2 .
Fig.1.4 & 1.5 illustrate the relationship between Mp & ζ , & u = ωp / ωn & ζ,
respectively.
Bandwidth :
1
M(u) = = 0.707
2 2 2 ½
[( 1 –u ) + ( 2δu) ]
1
= [( 1 –u2)2 + ( 2δu)2] ½ =
0.707
= √2.
( 1 –u2)2 + 4δ2u2 = 2
1 + u4 – 2u2 + 4δ2u2 = 2
Let u2 = x
1 + x2 – 2x + 4δ2 x = 2
x2 – 2x + 4δ2 x = 1
2 2
x – x ( 2  4δ ) =1
x2 – x ( 2  4δ2 ) – 1 = 0
a = 1, b =  ( 2  4δ2 ) , c = 1
b±√ b2 – 4ac
x=
2a
(2 – 4δ2 ) ±√ (2 – 4δ2 )2 + 4
=
2
(2 – 4δ ) ±√ (4 + 16δ4 – 16δ 2 + 4
2
=
2
(2 – 4δ2 ) ±√ 16 δ4 – 16 δ2 + 8
=
2
u2 = x = (1 – 2δ2 ) ±√ 2 + 4δ4 – 4δ 2
For the second order system under consideration, we easily establish some simple
relationship between the time – domain response & the frequencydomain response of the
system.
1. The maximum over shoot of the unit step response in the time domain depends
upon ζ only.
2. The response peak of the closed  loop frequency response Mp depends upon ζ
only.
3. The rise time increases with ζ , & the bandwidth decreases with the increase of ζ ,
for a fixed ωn, therefore, bandwidth & rise time are inversely proportional to each
other.
4. Bandwidth is directly proportional to ωn.
5. Higher bandwidth corresponds to larger Mp.
Stability Analysis
Every System, for small amount of time has to pass through a transient period, whether
the system will reach its steady state after passing through transients or not. The answer
to this question is whether the system is stable or unstable. This is stability analysis.
For example, we want to go from one station to other. The station we want to
reach is our final steady state. The traveling period is the transient period. Now anything
may happen during the traveling period due to bad weather, road accident etc, there is a
chance that we may not reach the next station in time. The analysis of whether the given
system can reach steady state after passing through the transients successfully is called
the stability analysis of the system.
Concept of stability:
Consider a system i.e. a deep container with an object placed inside it as shown in fig(1)
Force ‘F’
Now, if we apply a force to take out the object, as the depth of container is more, it will
oscillate & settle down again at original position.
Assume that force required to take out the object tends to infinity i.e. always
object will oscillate when force is applied & will settle down but will not come out such a
system is called absolutely stable system. No change in parameters, disturbances, changes
the output.
Now consider a container which is pointed one, on which we try to keep a circular object.
In this object will fall down without any external application of force. Such system is
called unstable system.
While in certain cases the container is shallow then there exists a critical value
of force for which the object will come out of the container.
F
F F
Fig(3) F<Fcritical F>Fcritical
As long as F<Fcritical object regains its original position but if F>Fcritical object will come
out. Stability depends on certain conditions of the system, hence system is called
conditionally stable system.
The stability of a linear closed loop system can be determined from the locations of
closed loop poles in the Splane.
1 1 1
C(s) = 8 4 8 10
S S+2 S+4
=Css + Ct(t)
If the closed loop poles are located in left half of splane, Output response contains
exponential terms with negative indices will approach zero & output will be the steady
state output.
I.e.
Ct (t) = 0
t ∞
Transient output = 0
Such a system is called absolutely stable systems.
Now let us have a system with one closed loop pole located in right half of s plane
C(s) 10
R(s) S(S2)(s+4)
A + B + C 10
= S S2 S+4
2t –4t
C(t) =  1.25 + 0.833e + 0.416e
Here there is one exponential term with positive in transient output
Therefore Css =  1.25
t C(t)
0 0
1 + 4.91
2 + 44.23
4 +2481.88
∞ ∞
From the above table, it is clear that output response instead of approaching to steady
state value as t ∞ due to exponential term with positive index, transients go on
increasing in amplitude. So such system is said to be unstable. In such system output is
uncontrollable & unbounded one. Output response of such system is as shown in fig(4).
C(t) C(t) ∞
OR
Steady state
output
t
(a) fig(4) t
(b)
For such unstable systems, if input is removed output may not return to zero. And if
the input power is turned on, output tends to ∞ . If no saturation takes place in system &
no mechanical stop is provided then system may get damaged.
If all the closed loop poles or roots of the characteristic equation lies in left of splane,
then in the output response contains steady state terms & transient terms. Such transient
terms approach to zero as time advances eventually output reaches to equilibrium &
attains steady state value. Transient terms in such system may give oscillation but the
amplitude of such oscillation will be decreasing with time & finally will vanish. So
output response of such system is shown in fig5 (a) & (b).
t t
(a) fig 5 (b)
Besides these two cases, if one or more pairs simple non repeated roots are located
on the imaginary axis of the splane, but there are no roots in the right half of splane,
the output response will be undamped sinusoidal oscillations of constant frequency &
amplitude. Such systems are said to be critically or marginally stable systems.
For such system one or more pairs of non repeated roots are located on the imaginary
axis as shown in fig6(a). Output response of such systems is as shown in fig6(b).
C(t)
Constant Amplitude & frequency oscillations
X Jω2 

 steady state
output
X Jω1 
σ
X  Jω1
X  Jω2
Fig 6(a)
non repeated poles on Jω axis. t
If there are repeated poles located purely on imaginary axis system is said to be
unstable.
C(t)
Jω1 x x

σ steady state output
splane
Jω1 x x
Conditionally Stable:
A linear time invariant system is said to be conditionally
stable, if for a certain condition if a particular parameter of the system, its output is
bounded one. Otherwise if that condition is violated output becomes unbounded system
becomes unstable. i.e. Stability of the system depends the on condition of the parameter
of the system. Such system is called conditionally stable system.
Splane can be divided into three zones from stability point of view.
Jω axis
Real
Stable Unstable
SPlane
(repeated)
Sl. Nature of closed Location of closed loop Step response Stability condition
No loop poles. poles in splane
1. Real negative i.e
in LHS of splane Jω C(t)
 Absolutely stable
x x σ
02 01
Real positive in Jω
RHS of splane
C(t)
2. ∞
x σ 
a1 Unstable
t
increasing towards ∞
3. Complex C(t)
conjugate with Jω
negative real x Jω 1
part
a1 σ Absolutely stable.
x t
Jω 2
Damped oscillation
4. Complex Ct
conjugate with
positive real
part Jω1 x
σ
Unstable.
Jω 1 x
t
oscillations with
increasing amplitude
x Jω2 t
OR C(t)
Jω
t
X Jω2
Marginally or
x Jω1
σ
critically stable
Sustained oscillations
x –Jω1 with two frequencies ω1 &
ω2
x – Jω2
t
x x Jω1
oscillation of increasing
amplitude
Relative Stability:
The system is said to be relatively more stable or unstable on the
basis of settling time. System is said to be more stable if settling time for that system is
less than that of other system.
The settling time of the root or pair of complex conjugate roots is inversely
proportional to the real part of the roots.
Sofar the roots located near the Jω axis, settling time will be large. As the roots
move away from Jω axis i.e towards left half of the splane settling time becomes lesser
or smaller & system becomes more & more stable. So the relative stability improves.
Jω C(t)
Stable for P1
x x σ 
P2 P1
Relatively more stable for P2
t
Jω
σ
∝2 ∝1 
x x
The T.F.of any linear closed loop system can be represented as,
In order that the above characteristic equation has no root in right of splane, it is
necessary but not sufficient that,
1. All the coefficients off the polynomial have the same sign.
2. Non of the coefficient vanishes i.e. all powers of ‘s’ must be present in
descending order from ‘n’ to zero.
These conditions are not sufficient.
Hurwitz’s Criterion :
The sufficient condition for having all roots of characteristics equation in left half of s
plane is given by Hurwitz. It is referred as Hurwitz criterion. It states that:
The necessary & sufficient condition to have all roots of characteristic equation in left
half of splane is that the subdeterminants DK, K = 1, 2,………n obtained from Hurwitz
determinant ‘H’ must all be positive.
Method of forming Hurwitz determinant:
a1 a3 a5 …….. a2n1
a0 a2 a4 ..…… a2n2
0 a1 a3 .……. a2n3
0 a0 a2 …….. a2n4
H=
0 0 a1 ……... a2n5
  ……... 
   ……... 
0   ……. an
The order is n*n where n = order of characteristic equation. In Hurwitz determinant all
coefficients with suffices greater than ‘n’ or negative suffices must all be replaced by
zeros. From Hurwitz determinant subdeterminants, DK, K= 1, 2, ….n must be formed as
follows:
a1 a3 a5
D1 = a1 D2 = a1 a3 D3 = a0 a2 a4 DK = H
a0 a2 0 a1 a3
a1 a3 a5 1 4 0
H= a0 a2 a4 = 1 1 0
0 a1 a3 0 1 4
D1 = 1 =1
1 4
D2 = 1 1 = 3
1 4 0
D3 = 1 1 0 = 4 –16 = 12.
0 1 4
1. For higher order system, to solve the determinants of higher order is very
complicated & time consuming.
2. Number of roots located in right half of splane for unstable system cannot be
judged by this method.
3. Difficult to predict marginal stability of the system.
Due to these limitations, a new method is suggested by the scientist Routh called
Routh’s method. It is also called RouthHurwitz method.
Sn1 a1 a3 a5 a7
Sn2 b1 b2 b3
Sn3 c1 c2 c3
   
   
S0 an
Coefficients of first two rows are written directly from characteristics equation.
From these two rows next rows can be obtained as follows.
a1 a2 – a0 a3 a1 a4 – a0 a5 a1 a6 – a0 a7
b1 = , b2 = , b3 =
a1 a1 a1
From 2nd & 3rd row , 4th row can be obtained as
b1 a3 – a1 b2 b1 a5 – a1 b3
C1 = , C2 =
b1 b1
0
This process is to be continued till the coefficient for s is obtained which will be an.
From this array stability of system can be predicted.
Routh’s criterion :
The necessary & sufficient condition for system to be stable is “ All the terms in the
first column of Routh’s array must have same sign. There should not be any sign change
in first column of Routh’s array”.
S3 1 11
S2 6 6
S1 11 * 6 – 6 =10 0
6
S0 6
S3 1 1
S2 +4 16
S1 4  16 = 3 0
4
S0 +16
First element of any of the rows of Routh’s array is zero & same remaining rows
contains at least one nonzero element.
Effect : The terms in the new row become infinite & Routh’s test fails.
S5 1 3 2
S3 0 1.5 0
S2 ∞ …. …
First method : Substitute a small positive number ‘ε’ in place of a zero occurred as a
first
element in the row. Complete the array with this number ‘ε’. Then
examine
lim
Sign change by taking . Consider above Example.
ε 0
S5 1 3 2
S4 2 6 1
S3 ε 1.5 0
S2 6ε  3 1 0
ε
S1 1.5(6ε  3) 0
ε
ε
(6ε  3)
ε
S0 1
S5 1 3 2
S4 2 6 1
S3 +ε 1.5 0

S2 ∞ 1 0
S1 +1.5 0 0
S0 1 0 0
Second method : To solve the above difficulty one more method can be used. In this,
replace ‘s’ by ‘1/Z’ in original equation. Taking L.C.M. rearrange characteristic equation
in descending powers of ‘Z’. Then complete the Routh’s array with this new equation in
‘Z’ & examine the stability with this array.
∴1 + 2 + 3 +6 +2 + 1=0
Z5 Z4 Z3 Z2 Z
Z5 + 2Z4+ 6Z3+3Z2+2Z+ 1 = 0
Z5 1 6 2
Z4 2 3 1
Z3 4.5 1.5 0
Z2 2.33 1 0
Z1  0.429 0
Z0 1
S5 a b c
S4 d e f
Next coefficient ‘e’ is corresponding to alternate power of ‘s’ from 4 i.e. s2 Hence the
term es 2 & so on.
S5 a b c
S4 d e f
S3 4d 2e 0
Auxillary equation is always the part of original characteristic equation. This means the
roots of the auxillary equation are some of the roots of original characteristics equation.
Not only this but roots of auxillary equation are the most dominant roots of the original
characteristic equation, from the stability point of view. The stability can be predicted
from the roots of A(s)=0 rather than the roots of characteristic equation as the roots of
A(s) = 0 are the most dominant from the stability point of view. The remaining roots of
the characteristic equation are always in the left half & they do not play any significant
role in the stability analysis.
Then out of 5 roots of F(s) = 0, the 2 roots which are most dominant (dominant means
very close to imaginary axis or on the imaginary axis or in the right half of splane) from
the stability point of view are the 2roots of A(s) = 0. The remaining 5 –2 = 3 roots are not
significant from stability point of view as they will be far away from the imaginary axis
in the left half of splane.
jω jω
x
x x σ σ σ
x Fig. 8. 10 (b)
Fig 8. 10(a)
2. A pair of roots located on the imaginary axis as shown in the fig. 8.10(b).
3. The nonrepeated pairs of roots located on the imaginary axis as shown in the
fig.8.10 (c).
jω jω
x xx
x
σ σ
x
x xx
4. The repeated pairs of roots located on the imaginary axis as shown in the Fig.8.10
(d).
Hence total stability can be determined from the roots of A(s) = 0, which can be
out of four types shown above.
But there is no sign changes, system cannot be predicted as stable . And in such
case stability is to be determined by actually solving A(s) = 0 for its roots. And from
the location of roots of A(s) = 0 in the splane the system stability must be
determined. Because roots A(s) = 0 are always dominant roots of characteristic
equation.
Imaginary jω
σ
σ 0
1. Stability of the system can be judged without actually solving the characteristic
equation.
2. No evaluation of determinants, which saves calculation time.
3. For unstable system it gives number of roots of characteristic equation having
positive real part.
4. Relative stability of the system can be easily judged.
5. By using the criterion, critical value of system gain can be determined hence
frequency of sustained oscillations can be determined.
6. It helps in finding out range of values of K for system stability.
7. It helps in finding out intersection points of roots locus with imaginary axis.
Ex.1. s6 + 4s5 +3s4 – 16s2 64s – 48 = 0 Find the number of roots of this equation with
positive real part, zero real part & negative real part
S5 4 0 64 0
S4 3 0 48 0
S3 0 0 0
A(s) = 3S4 – 48 = 0 dA = 12S3
ds
S6 1 3 16 48
S5 4 0 64 0
S4 3 0 48 0
S3 12 0 0 0
S2 (ε ) 0 48 0 0
S1 576 0 0 0
ε
S0 48
Lim 576
ε 0 ε +∞
Therefore one sign change & system is unstable. Thus there is one root in R.H.S of the s
– plane i.e. with positive real part. Now
Solve A(s) = 0 for the dominant roots
A(s) = 3s4 – 48 =0
Put S2 = Y
S2 = + 4 S2 = 4
S = ±2 S = ± 2j
So, S = ± 2j are the two parts on imaginary axis i.e. with zero real part. Root in R.H.S.
indicated by a sign change is S = ± 2 as obtained by solving A(s) = 0. Total there are 6
roots as n = 6.
k
G(s) = , Find range of values of K, marginal value of
K
S (1 + 0.4s) ( 1 + 0.25 s) & frequency of sustained oscillations.
K
∴1+ =0
s(1 + 0.4s) ( 1 + 0.25s)
s [ 1 + 0.65s + 0.1s2} + K = 0
∴ 0.1s3 + 0.65s2 +s + K = 0
Now marginal value of ‘K’ is that value of ‘K’ for which system becomes marginally
stable. For a marginal stable system there must be row of zeros occurring in Routh’s
array. So value of ‘K’ which makes any row of Routh array as row of zeros is called
marginal value of ‘K’. Now K = 0 makes row of s0 as row of zeros but K = 0 can not be
marginal value because for K = 0, constant term in characteristic equation becomes zeros
ie one coefficient for s0 vanishes which makes system unstable instead of marginally
stable.
Hence marginal value of ‘K’ is a value which makes any row other than s0 as row of
zeros.
∴ 0.65 – 0.1 K mar = 0
∴ K mar = 6.5
To find frequency, find out roots of auxiliary equation at marginal value of ‘K’
A(s) = 0.65 s2 + K = 0 ;
∴ 0.65 s2 + 6.5 = 0 Because K = 6.5
s2 = 10
s = ± j 3.162
comparing with s = ± jω
ω = frequency of oscillations = 3.162 rad/ sec.
Solution :
S5 1 2 3
S4 1 2 15
S3 0 12 0
S2
S1
S0
S5 1 2 3
S4 1 2 15
S3 ε 12 0
S2 (2ε + 12) 15 0
ε
S1 (2ε + 12)( 12 ) – 15ε
ε 0
2ε + 12
ε
S0 15
Lim 2ε + 12 12
ε 0 =2 + =2+∞ = +∞
ε ε
S4 1 2 15
S3 ε 12 0
There are two sign changes,
so
system is unstable.
2
S +∞ 15 0
S1  12 0
S0 15
1 + G(s) H(s) = 0
e sT
∴ 1 + = 0
s(s+1)
∴ s2 + s + e –sT = 0
Truncating the series & considering only first two terms we get
esT = 1 – sT
∴ s2 + s + 1 – sT = 0
∴ s2 + s ( 1 T ) + 1 = 0
So Routh’s array is
S2 1 1
S 1T 0
S0 1
S′4 1 0 15
S′3 2 14 0
S′2 7 15 0
S′1 18.28 0 0
S′ 0 15
Two sign change, there are two roots to the right of s = 2 & remaining ‘2’ are to the
left of the line s = 2. Hence the system is unstable.
Date : 2 – 5 2005
Stability Analysis
Every System, for small amount of time has to pass through a transient period. Whether
system will reach its steady state after passing through transients or not. The answer to
this question is whether the system is stable or unstable. This is stability analysis.
For example, we want to go from one station to other. The station we want to
reach is our final steady state. The traveling period is the transient period. Now any thing
may happen during the traveling period due to bad weather, road accident etc, there is a
chance that we may not reach the next station in time. The analysis of wheather the given
system can reach steady state after passing through the transients successfully is called
the stability analysis of the system.
Concept of stability:
Consider a system i.e a deep container with an object placed inside it as shown in fig(1)
force ‘F’
Now, if we apply a force to take out the object, as the depth of container is more, it will
oscillate & settle down again at original position.
Assume that force required to take out the object tends to infinity i.e always
object will oscillate when force is applied & will settle down but will not come out such a
system is called absolutely stable system. No change in parameters, disturbances, changes
the output.
Now consider a container which is pointed one, on which we try to keep a circular object.
In this object will fall down without any external application of force. Such system is
called Unstable system.
As long as F<Fcritical object regains its original position but if F>Fcritical object will come
out. Stability depends on certain conditions of the system, hence system is called
conditionally stable system.
The stability of a linear closed loop system can be determined from the locations of
closed loop poles in the Splane.
=Css + Ct(t)
If the closed loop poles are located in left half of splane, Output response contains
exponential terms with negative indices will approach zero & output will be the steady
state output.
i.e.
Ct (t) = 0
t ∞
Transient output = 0
Such system are called absolutely stable systems.
Now let us have a system with one closed loop pole located in right half of s plane
C(s) 10
R(s) S(S2)(s+4)
A + B + C 10
= S S2 S+4
2t –4t
C(t) =  1.25 + 0.833e + 0.416e
Here there is one exponential term with positive in transient output
Therefore Css =  1.25
t C(t)
0 0
1 + 4.91
2 + 44.23
4 +2481.88
∞ ∞
From the above table, it is clear that output response instead of approaching to steady
state value as t ∞ due to exponential term with positive index, transients go on
increasing in amplitude. So such system is said to be unstable. In such system output is
uncontrollable & unbounded one. Output response of such system is as shown in fig(4).
C(t) C(t) ∞
OR
Steady state
output
t
(a) fig(4) t
(b)
For such unstable systems, if input is removed output may not return to zero. And if
the input power is turned on, output tends to ∞ . If no saturation takes place in system &
no mechanical stop is provided then system may get damaged.
If all the closed loop poles or roots of the characteristic equation lies in left of splane,
then in the output response contains steady state terms & transient terms. Such transient
terms approach to zero as time advances eventually output reaches to equilibrium &
attains steady state value. Transient terms in such system may give oscillation but the
amplitude of such oscillation will be decreasing with time & finally will vanish. So
output response of such system is shown in fig5 (a) & (b).
t t
(a) fig 5 (b)
For such system one or more pairs of non repeated roots are located on the imaginary
axis as shown in fig6(a). Output response of such systems is as shown in fig6(b).
C(t)
Constant Amplitude & frequency oscillations
X Jω2 

 steady state
output
X Jω1 
σ
X  Jω1
X  Jω2
Fig 6(a)
non repeated poles on Jω axis. t
If there are repeated poles located purely on imaginary axis system is said to be
unstable.
C(t)
Jω1 x x

σ steady state output
splane
Jω1 x x
Conditionally Stable:
A linear time invariant system is said to be conditionally
stable, if for a certain condition if a particular parameter of the system, its output is
bounded one. Otherwise if that condition is violated output becomes unbounded system
becomes unstable. i.e. Stability of the system depends the on condition of the parameter
of the system. Such system is called conditionally stable system.
Splane can be divided into three zones from stability point of view.
Jω axis
Real
Stable Unstable
SPlane
(repeated)
Real positive Jω
in RHS of s C(t)
∞
2. plane 
x σ
a1 Unstable
t
increasing towards ∞
3. Complex C(t)
conjugate with Jω
negative real x Jω 1
part
a1 σ Absolutely stable.
x t
Jω 2
Damped oscillation
4. Complex Ct
conjugate with
positive real
part Jω1 x
σ
Unstable.
Jω 1 x
t
oscillations with
increasing amplitude
x Jω2 t
OR C(t)
Jω
X Jω2 t
x Jω1 Marginally or
σ critically stable
Sustained oscillations
x –Jω1 with two frequencies ω1 &
ω2
x – Jω2
6. Repeated pair Jω
on imaginary C(t)
axis
x x Jω1

σ Unstable
t
x x Jω1
oscillation of increasing
amplitude
4 – 52005.
Relative Stability:
The system is said to be relatively more stable or unstable on the
basis of settling time. System is said to be more stable if settling time for that system is
less than that of other system.
The settling time of the root or pair of complex conjugate roots is inversely
proportional to the real part of the roots.
Sofar the roots located near the Jω axis, settling time will be large. As the roots
move away from Jω axis i.e towards left half of the splane settling time becomes lesser
or smaller & system becomes more & more stable. So the relative stability improves.
Jω C(t)
Stable for P1
x x σ 
P2 P1
Relatively more stable for P2
t
Jω
σ
∝2 ∝1 
x x
In order that the above characteristic equation has no root in right of splane, it is
necessary but not sufficient that,
3. All the coefficients off the polynomial have the same sign.
4. Non of the coefficient vanishes i.e. all powers of ‘s’ must be present in
descending order from ‘n’ to zero.
These conditions are not sufficient.
Hurwitz’s Criterion :
The sufficient condition for having all roots of characteristics equation in left half of s
plane is given by Hurwitz. It is referred as Hurwitz criterion. It states that:
The necessary & sufficient condition to have all roots of characteristic equation in left
half of splane is that the subdeterminants DK, K = 1, 2,………n obtained from Hurwitz
determinant ‘H’ must all be positive.
0 a1 a3 .……. a2n3
0 a0 a2 …….. a2n4
H=
0 0 a1 ……... a2n5
  ……... 
   ……... 
0   ……. an
The order is n*n where n = order of characteristic equation. In Hurwitz determinant all
coefficients with suffices greater than ‘n’ or negative suffices must all be replaced by
zeros. From Hurwitz determinant subdeterminants, DK, K= 1, 2, ….n must be formed as
follows:
a1 a3 a5
D1 = a1 D2 = a1 a3 D3 = a0 a2 a4 DK = H
a0 a2 0 a1 a3
a1 a3 a5 1 4 0
H= a0 a2 a4 = 1 1 0
0 a1 a3 0 1 4
D1 = 1 =1
1 4
D2 = 1 1 = 3
1 4 0
D3 = 1 1 0 = 4 –16 = 12.
0 1 4
Due to these limitations, a new method is suggested by the scientist Routh called
Routh’s method. It is also called RouthHurwitz method.
Sn1 a1 a3 a5 a7
Sn2 b1 b2 b3
Sn3 c1 c2 c3
   
   
S0 an
Coefficients of first two rows are written directly from characteristics equation.
From these two rows next rows can be obtained as follows.
a1 a2 – a0 a3 a1 a4 – a0 a5 a1 a6 – a0 a7
b1 = , b2 = , b3 =
a1 a1 a1
From 2nd & 3rd row , 4th row can be obtained as
b1 a3 – a1 b2 b1 a5 – a1 b3
C1 = , C2 =
b1 b1
0
This process is to be continued till the coefficient for s is obtained which will be an.
From this array stability of system can be predicted.
Routh’s criterion :
The necessary & sufficient condition for system to be stable is “ All the terms in the
first column of Routh’s array must have same sign. There should not be any sign change
in first column of Routh’s array”.
S3 1 11
S2 6 6
S1 11 * 6 – 6 =10 0
6
S0 6
Ex. 3 s3 + 4s2 + s + 16 = 0
Sol: a0 =1, a1 = 4, a2 = 1, a3 = 16
S3 1 1
S2 +4 16
S1 4  16 = 3 0
4
S0 +16
Date : 5 – 5 –2005.
Special Cases of Routh’s criterion :
Special case 1 :
First element of any of the rows of Routh’s array is zero & same remaining rows
contains at least one nonzero element.
Effect : The terms in the new row become infinite & Routh’s test fails.
S5 1 3 2
S3 0 1.5 0
S2 ∞ …. …
First method : Substitute a small positive number ‘ε’ in place of a zero occurred as a
first
element in the row. Complete the array with this number ‘ε’. Then
examine
lim
Sign change by taking . Consider above Example.
ε 0
S5 1 3 2
S4 2 6 1
S3 ε 1.5 0
S2 6ε  3 1 0
ε
S1 1.5(6ε  3) 0
ε
ε
(6ε  3)
ε
S0 1
S4 2 6 1
S3 +ε 1.5 0

S2 ∞ 1 0
S1 +1.5 0 0
S0 1 0 0
Second method : To solve the above difficulty one more method can be used. In this,
replace ‘s’ by ‘1/Z’ in original equation. Taking L.C.M. rearrange characteristic equation
in descending powers of ‘Z’. Then complete the Routh’s array with this new equation in
‘Z’ & examine the stability with this array.
∴1 + 2 + 3 +6 +2 + 1=0
Z5 Z4 Z3 Z2 Z
Z5 + 2Z4+ 6Z3+3Z2+2Z+ 1 = 0
Z5 1 6 2
Z4 2 3 1
Z3 4.5 1.5 0
Z2 2.33 1 0
Z1  0.429 0
Z0 1
S5 a b c
S4 d e f
Next coefficient ‘e’ is corresponding to alternate power of ‘s’ from 4 i.e. s2 Hence the
term es 2 & so on.
S5 a b c
S4 d e f
S3 4d 2e 0
Then out of 5 roots of F(s) = 0, the 2 roots which are most dominant (dominant means
very close to imaginary axis or on the imaginary axis or in the right half of splane) from
the stability point of view are the 2roots of A(s) = 0. The remaining 5 –2 = 3 roots are not
significant from stability point of view as they will be far away from the imaginary axis
in the left half of splane.
jω jω
x
x x σ σ σ
x Fig. 8. 10 (b)
Fig 8. 10(a)
6. A pair of roots located on the imaginary axis as shown in the fig. 8.10(b).
7. The nonrepeated pairs of roots located on the imaginary axis as shown in the
fig.8.10 ©.
jω jω
x xx
x
σ σ
x
x xx
8. The repeated pairs of roots located on the imaginary axis as shown in the Fig.8.10
(d).
Hence total stability can be determined from the roots of A(s) = 0, which can be
out of four types shown above.
After replacing a row of zeros by the coefficients of dA(s) , complete the Routh’s
array. ds
st
But now, the criterion that, no sign in 1 column of array for stability, no longer
remains sufficient but becomes a necessary. This is because though A(s) is a part of
original characteristic equation, dA(s) is not, which is in fact used to complete the
array. ds
So if sign change occurs in first column, system is unstable with number of sign
changes equal to number of roots of characteristics equation located in right half of
splane.
But there is no sign changes, system cannot be predicted as stable . And in such
case stability is to be determined by actually solving A(s) = 0 for its roots. And from
the location of roots of A(s) = 0 in the splane the system stability must be
determined. Because roots A(s) = 0 are always dominant roots of characteristic
equation.
Imaginary jω
σ
σ 0
8. Stability of the system can be judged without actually solving the characteristic
equation.
9. No evaluation of determinants, which saves calculation time.
10. For unstable system it gives number of roots of characteristic equation having
positive real part.
11. Relative stability of the system can be easily judged.
12. By using the criterion, critical value of system gain can be determined hence
frequency of sustained oscillations can be determined.
13. It helps in finding out range of values of K for system stability.
14. It helps in finding out intersection points of roots locus with imaginary axis.
S5 4 0 64 0
S4 3 0 48 0
S3 0 0 0
dA
4
A(s) = 3S – 48 = 0 = 12s3
ds
S6 1 3 16 48
S5 4 0 64 0
S4 3 0 48 0
S3 12 0 0 0
S2 (ε )0 48 0 0
S1 576 0 0 0
ε
S0 48
Lim 576
ε 0 ε +∞
Therefore One sign change & system is unstable. Thus there is one root in R.H.S of the s
– plane i.e. with positive real part. Now
solve A(s) = 0 for the dominant roots
A(s) = 3s4 – 48 =0
Put S2 = Y
S2 = + 4 S2 = 4
S = ±2 S = ± 2j
So S = ± 2j are the two parts on imaginary axis i.e. with zero real part. Root in R.H.S.
indicated by a sign change is S = ± 2 as obtained by solving A(s) = 0. Total there are 6
roots as n = 6.
Date : 9 –5 –
2005.
Ex.2 : For unity feed back system,
k
G(s) = , Find range of values of K, marginal value of
K
S(1 + 0.4s) ( 1 + 0.25 s) & frequency of sustained oscillations.
K
∴1+ =0
s(1 + 0.4s) ( 1 + 0.25s)
s [ 1 + 0.65s + 0.1s2} + K = 0
∴ 0.1s3 + 0.65s2 +s + K = 0
Now marginal value of ‘K’ is that value of ‘K’ for which system becomes marginally
stable. For a marginal stable system there must be row of zeros occurring in Routh’s
array. So value of ‘K’ which makes any row of Routh array as row of zeros is called
marginal value of ‘K’. Now K = 0 makes row of s0 as row of zeros but K = 0 can not be
marginal value because for K = 0, constant term in characteristic equation becomes zeros
ie one coefficient for s0 vanishes which makes system unstable instead of marginally
stable.
Hence marginal value of ‘K’ is a value which makes any row other than s0 as row of
zeros.
∴ 0.65 – 0.1 K mar = 0
∴ K mar = 6.5
To find frequency, find out roots of auxiliary equation at marginal value of ‘K’
A(s) = 0.65 s2 + K = 0 ;
∴ 0.65 s2 + 6.5 = 0 Because K = 6.5
2
s = 10
s = ± j 3.162
comparing with s = ± jω
ω = frequency of oscillations = 3.162 rad/ sec.
Solution :
S5 1 2 3
S4 1 2 15
S3 0 12 0
S2
S1
S0
S5 1 2 3
S4 1 2 15
S3 ε 12 0
S2 (2ε + 12) 15 0
ε
S1 (2ε + 12)( 12 ) – 15ε
ε 0
2ε + 12
ε
S0 15
Lim 2ε + 12 12
ε 0 =2 + =2+∞ = +∞
ε ε
Lim (2ε + 12)( 12 ) – 15ε Lim 24 ε  144 – 15 ε2
ε 0 ε = ε 0 2ε + 12
2ε + 12
ε
0 – 144  0
= =  12
0 + 12
S5 1 2 3
S4 1 2 15
S3 ε 12 0
There are two sign changes,
so
system is unstable.
S2 +∞ 15 0
S1  12 0
S0 15
1 + G(s) H(s) = 0
e sT
∴ 1 + = 0
s(s+1)
∴ s2 + s + e –sT = 0
s2 T2
–sT
e = 1 – sT + + ……
2!
Trancating the series & considering only first two terms we get
esT = 1 – sT
∴ s2 + s + 1 – sT = 0
∴ s2 + s ( 1 T ) + 1 = 0
So routh’s array is
S2 1 1
S 1T 0
S0 1
S′4 1 0 15
S′3 2 14 0
S′2 7 15 0
S′1 18.28 0 0
S′ 0 15
Two sign change, there are two roots to the right of s = 2 & remaining ‘2’ are to the
left of the line s = 2. Hence the system is unstable.
12 – 5  2005.
Frequency – Domain analysis of control systems:
Introduction:
It was pointed out earlier that the performance of a feedback control system is more
preferably measured by its time domain response characteristics. This is in contrast to the
analysis & design of systems in the communication field, where the frequency response is
of more importance, since in this case most of the signals to be processed are either
sinusoidal or periodic in nature. However analytically, the time response of a control
system is usually difficult to determine, especially in the case of high order systems. In
the design aspects, there are no unified ways of arriving at a designed system given the
timedomain specifications, such as peak overshoot, rise time , delay time & setting time.
On the other hand, there is a wealth of graphical methods available in the frequency
domain analysis, all suitable for the analysis & design of linear feedback control systems
once the analysis & design are carried out in the frequency domain, time domain
behavior of the system can be interpreted based on the relationships that exist between
the timedomain & the frequencydomain properties. Therefore, we may consider that the
main purpose of conducting control systems analysis & design in frequency domain is
merely to use the techniques as a convenient vehicle toward the same objectives as with
timedomain methods.
The starting point in frequencydomain analysis is the transfer function.
For a single loop feed back system, the closed loop transfer function is written
C(s) G(s)
M(s) = = (1)
R(s) 1+ G(s) H(s)
C(jω) G(jω)
M(jω) = = (1.1)
R(jω) 1+ G(jω) H(jω)
since the analysis is now in the frequency domain, some of the terminology used in
communication system may be applied to the present control system characterization. For
instance, M(ω) of Eq. (1.4) may be regarded as the magnification of the feed back control
system is similar to the gain or amplification of an electronic amplifier. In an audio
amplifier, for instance, an ideal design criterion is that the amplifier must have a flat gain
for all frequencies. Of course, realistically, the design criterion becomes that of having a
flat gain in the audio frequency range. In control system the ideal design criterion is
similar. If it is desirable to keep the output C(jω) identical to the input R(jω) at all
frequencies, M(jω) must be unity for all frequencies. However, from Eq. (1.1) it is
apparent that M(jω) can be unity only when G(jω) is infinite, while H(jω) is finite &
nonzero. An infinite magnitude for g(jω) is, of course, impossible to achieve in practice,
nor would it be desirable, since most control system become unstable when its loop gain
becomes very high. Further more, all control system are subject noise. Thus in addition to
responding to the input signal, the system should be able to reject & suppress noise &
unwanted signals. This means that the frequency response of a control system should
have a cutoff characteristic in general, & sometimes even a bandpass characteristic.
The phase characteristics of the frequency response are also of importance. The ideal
situation is that the phase must be a linear function of frequency within the frequency
range of interest. Figure 1.1 shows the gain & phase characteristics of an ideal lowpass
filter, which is impossible to realize physically. Typical gain & phase characteristics of a
feedback control system are shown in Fig. 1.2. The fact is that the great majority of
control systems have the characteristics of a lowpass filter, so the gain decreases as the
frequency increases.
M(ω) 0
ω
1
φm(ω)
0 ωc ω Deg
Fig. 1.1. Gainphase characteristics of an ideal lowpass filter.
0 ω
M(ω) Mp
φm(ω)
1 Deg
0 ω
Resonant frequency ωp :
The resonant frequency ωp is defined as the frequency at which the peak resonance Mp
occurs.
Bandwidth:
The bandwidth, BW, is defined as the frequency at which the magnitude of M (jω),
M(ω), drops at 70.7 percent of its zerofrequency level, or 3 dB down from the zero
frequency gain. In general, the bandwidth of a control system indicates the noisefiltering
characteristics of the system. Also, bandwidth gives a measure of the transient response
properties, in that a large bandwidth corresponds to a faster rise time, since higher
frequency signals are passed on to the outputs. Conversely, if the bandwidth is small,
only signals of relatively low frequencies are passed, & the time response will generally
be slow & sluggish.
Cutoff rate:
Often, bandwidth alone is inadequate in the indication of the characteristics of the
system in distinguishing signals from noise. Sometimes it may be necessary to specify the
cutoff rate of the frequency response at the higher frequencies. However, in general, a
steep cutoff characteristic may be accompanied by a large Mp, which corresponds to a
system with a low stability margin.
The performance criteria defined above for the frequencydomain analysis are illustrated
on the closedloop frequency response, as shown in Fig. 1.3.
There are other criteria defined that may be used to specify the relative stability &
performance of a feedback control system. These are defined in the ensuring sections of
this chapter.
M (ω)
Mp
1 Bandwidth
0 ω
ωp BW
For a secondorder feedback control system, the peak resonance Mp, the resonant
frequency ωp, & the bandwidth are all uniquely related to the damping ratio ξ & the
natural undamped frequency ωn of the system. Consider the secondorder sinusoidal
steadystate transfer function of a closedloop system,
C(jω) ω2n
M(jω) = = (1.6)
2 2
R(jω) (jω) + 2 ζ ωn (jω) + ω n
1
=
1 + j 2 (ω/ωn) ζ  (ω/ωn)2
We may simplify the last expression by letter u = ω/ ωn. The Eq. (1.6) becomes
1
M(ju) = ( 1.7)
2
1 + j2 u ζ  u
1
M (ju) = M (u) = (1.8)
[( 1 – u2 )2 + ( 2 ζ u)2] ½
And
2ζ u
1
M(ju) = φm(u) =  tan (1.9)
1 – u2
The resonant frequency is determined first by taking the derivative of M(u) with respect
to u & setting it equal to zero. Thus
dM(u) 1
= [( 1 – u2 )2 + ( 2ζ u)2] –3/2 ( 4 u3 – 4u + 8uζ2) = 0 (
1.10)
du 2
from which
4u3 – 4u + 8uζ2 = 0 (
1.11)
and
up = √ 1  2ζ2 (
1.13)
The solution Eq. (1.12) merely indicates that the slope of the M(ω) versus ω curve is zero
at
ω = 0; it is not true maximum. The solution of eq. (1.13) gives the resonant frequency,
ωp = ωn √ 1  2ζ2
(1.14)
Since frequency is a real quantity, Eq. (1.14) is valid only for 1 ≥ 2ζ2 or ζ ≤ 0.707. This
means simply that for all values of ξ greater than 0.707, the solution of ωp = 0 becomes
the valid one, & Mp = 1.
1
Mp = (1.15)
2 √ 1  ζ2
5
4
3
Mp
0
0.5 0.707 1.0 1.5 2.0
Damping ratio ζ
1
Fig.1.4 Mp versusdamping ratio for a second – order system, Mp =
2ζ √ 1  ζ2
1.0
0.8
up = ωp /ωn
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.5 0.707 1.0
Damping ratio ζ
Fig 1.5. Normalized resonant frequency versusdamping ratio for a second order system,
Up = √ 1  ζ2 .
Fig.1.4 & 1.5 illustrate the relationship between Mp & ζ , & u = ωp / ωn & ζ,
respectively.
Bandwidth :
1
M(u) = = 0.707
[( 1 –u2)2 + ( 2δu)2] ½
1
2 2 2 ½
= [( 1 –u ) + ( 2δu) ] =
0.707
= √2.
( 1 –u2)2 + 4δ2u2 = 2
1 + u4 – 2u2 + 4δ2u2 = 2
Let u2 = x
1 + x2 – 2x + 4δ2 x = 2
x2 – 2x + 4δ2 x = 1
x2 – x ( 2  4δ2 ) =1
x2 – x ( 2  4δ2 ) – 1 = 0
a = 1, b =  ( 2  4δ2 ) , c = 1
b±√ b2 – 4ac
x=
2a
(2 – 4δ2 ) ±√ (2 – 4δ2 )2 + 4
=
2
(2 – 4δ ) ±√ (4 + 16δ4 – 16δ 2 + 4
2
=
2
(2 – 4δ2 ) ±√ 16 δ4 – 16 δ2 + 8
=
2
=
2
u2 = x = (1 – 2δ2 ) ±√ 2 + 4δ4 – 4δ 2
6. The maximum over shoot of the unit step response in the time domain depends
upon ζ only.
7. The response peak of the closed  loop frequency response Mp depends upon ζ
only.
8. The rise time increases with ζ , & the bandwidth decreases with the increase of ζ ,
for a fixed ωn, therefore, bandwidth & rise time are inversely proportional to each
other.
9. Bandwidth is directly proportional to ωn.
10. Higher bandwidth corresponds to larger Mp.
USHA
Introduction:
Time is used as an independent variable in most of the control systems. It is
important to analyse the response given by the system for the applied excitation, which is
function of time. Analysis of response means to see the variation of out put with respect
to time. The output behavior with respect to time should be within these specified limits
to have satisfactory performance of the systems. The stability analysis lies in the time
response analysis that is when the system is stable out put is finite
The system stability, system accuracy and complete evaluation is based on the
time response analysis on corresponding results.
Time Response:
The response given by the system which is function of the time, to the applied
excitation is called time response of a control system.
Practically, output of the system takes some finite time to reach to its final value.
This time varies from system to system and is dependent on different factors.
The factors like friction mass or inertia of moving elements some nonlenierities
present etc.
Example: Measuring instruments like Voltmeter, Ammeter.
Classification:
Transient Response:
It is defined as the part of the response that goes to zero as time becomes very
large. i,e, Lim ct(t)=0
t Æ∞
• The performance of a system can be evaluated with respect to these test signals.
• Based on the information obtained the design of control system is carried out.
• The commonly used test signals are
1. Step Input signals.
2. Ramp Input Signals.
3. Parabolic Input Signals.
4. Impulse input signal.
O t
When, A = 1, r(t) = u(t) = 1
The step is a signal who’s value changes from 1 value (usually 0) to another level
A in Zero time.
In the Laplace Transform form R(s) = A / S
Mathematically r(t) = u(t)
= 1 for t > 0
= 0 for t < 0
t
O
The ramp is a signal, which starts at a value of zero and increases linearly
with time.
Mathematically r (t) = At for t ≥ 0
= 0 for t≤ 0.
In LT form R(S) = A
S2
If A=1, it is called Unit Ramp Input
Mathematically
r(t) = t u(t)
=
{ t for t ≥ 0
0 for t ≤ 0
In LT form R(S) = A = 1
S2 S2
In LT form R(S) = A
S3
• If A = 1, a unit parabolic function is defined as r(t) = t2 u(t)
2
ie., r(t)
=
{ t2 for t ≥ 0
2
0 for t ≤ 0
In LT for R(S) = 1
S3
It is the input applied instantaneously (for short duration of time ) of very high
amplitude as shown in fig 2(d)
Eg: Sudden shocks i e, HV due lightening or short circuit.
It is the pulse whose magnitude is infinite while its width tends to zero.
r(t)
ie., t 0 (zero) applied
momentarily
A
O t
∆t 0
r(t) R(S)
Unit Step 1/S
Unit ramp 1/S2
Unit Parabolic 1/S3
Unit Impulse 1
The 1st order system is represent by the differential Eq: a1dc(t )+aoc (t) = bor(t) (1)
dt
Where, e (t) = out put , r(t) = input, a0, a1 & b0 are constants.
Dividing Eq: (1) by a0, then a1. d c(t ) + c(t) = bo.r (t)
a0 dt ao
Where, T=time const, has the dimensions of time = a1 & K= static sensitivity = b0
a0 a0
Taking for L.T. for the above Eq: [ TS+1] C(S) = K.R(S)
R(S)+ 1 C(S)
TS

From Eq: (4) , We see that the slope of the response curve c(t) decreases monotonically
from 1 . at t=0 to zero. At t= ∞
T
Solution: G(S) = K .
S(1+ST)
Let the value of damping ratio is, when peak overshoot is 75% & when peak
overshoot is 25%
Mp = ξ . ∏
⎯e √ 1 ξ2
ln 0. 75 = ξ . ⇒ 0.0916 = ξ .
∏ √ 1 ξ 2
√ 1 ξ2
ξ1 = 0.091 (0.0084) (1ξ2) = ξ2
ξ2 = 0.4037 (1.0084 ξ2) = 0.0084
ξ = 0.091
k .
2
S+S T .
w.k.t. T.F. = G(S) = 1+ K . = K .
2 2
1+ G(S) . H(S) S+S T S + S T+K
T.F. = K/T .
S2 + S + K .
T T
Wn = K . , 2 ξWn = 1 .
T T
0.091 = K2 . ⇒ K2 . = 0.0508
0.4037 K1 K1
K2 = 0.0508 K1
4) Find all the time domain specification for a unity feed back control system whose open
loop T.F. is given by
G(S) = 25 .
S(S+6)
Solution:
25 .
G(S) = 25 . ∴ G(S) . = S(S+6) .
S(S+6) 1 + G(S) .H(S) 1 + 25 .
S(S+6)
= 25 .
S2 + ( 6S+25 )
5) The closed loop T.F. of a unity feed back control system is given by
Solution:
2ξWn = 10 ⇒ ξ = 10 . = 0.408.
2 x 12.25
7) Fig shows a mechanical system and the response when 10N of force is applied to the
system. Determine the values of M, F, K,.
x(t)inmt
K
f(t) 0.00193
The T.F. of the mechanical system is ,
0.02
M X(S) = 1 .
2
F(S) MS + FS = K
f(t) = Md2X + F dX + KX
F x dt2 dt
F(S) = (MS2 + FS + K) x (S)
1 2 3 4 5
Given : F(S) = 10
S.
∴ X(S) = 10 .
S(MS2 + FS + K)
SX (S) = 10 .
MS2 + FS + K
MP = ⎯e ξ . Π ⇒ ln 0.0965 = ξ .
√ 1  ξ2 Π √ 1  ξ2
0.744 = ξ . ⇒ 0.5539 = ξ2 .
√ 1  ξ2 √ 1  ξ2
0.5539 – 0.5539 ξ2 = ξ2
ξ = 0.597 = 0.6
tp = Π = Π .
Wd Wn√ 1 – ξ2
Sx(S) = 10/ M .
(S2 + F S + K )
M M
Solution:
C(t) = 1+0.2e60t –1.2e10t
Taking L.T., C(S) = 1 . + 0.2 . – 1.2 .
S S+60 S+10
C(S) . = 600 / S .
2
S + 70S + + 600
Given that : Unit step i/p r(t) = 1 ∴ R(S) =
1.
S
C(S) . = 600 / S .
2
R(S) S + 70S + + 600
9) The C.S. shown in the fig employs proportional plus error rate control. Determine
the value of error rate const. Ke, so the damping ratio is 0.6 . Determine the value of
settling time, max overshoot and steady state error, if the i/p is unit ramp, what will be
θR +
θ(S)
__
K1 1 .
R + S(1+S) C
__
K2S
C . = K1 .
2
R S + ( 1 + K2 ) S + K1
Wn2 = K1 ⇒ Wn = √ K1
2ξWn = 1 + K2 ⇒ ξ = 1 + K2
2√ K1
Wd = Wn √ 1  ξ2 ⇒ ∴ Wn = 9.5 . 10.96
rad/Sec
√ 1 – 0.52
K1 = (10.96)2 = 120.34
2ξWn = 1 + K2 , K2 = 9.97
MP = ξ . Π = 16.3%
⎯e √ 1  ξ2
ts = 4 . = 4 . = 0.729 sec
ξWn 0.5 x 10.97
G(S)
R(S) E(S) C(S)
H(S)
C(S) = G(S) . …………………………(1)
R(S) 1+G(S) . H(S)
The closed loop T.F is given by (1). The T.F. b/w the actuating error signal e(t)
and the i/p signal r(t) is,
= 1 .
1 + G(S) . H(S)
Where e(t) = Difference b/w the i/p signal and the feed back signal
The steady state error ess may be found by the use of final value theorem
and is as follows;
Eq : (2) Shows that the steady state error depends upon the i/p R(S) and the forward
T.F. G(S) and loop T.F G(S) . H(S).
The expression for steady state errors for various types of standard test signals are
derived below;
1) Steady state error due to step i/p or position error constant (Kp):
lt G(S) . H(S) = Kp
(S → O )
Where Kp = proportional error constant or position error const.
∴ ess = 1 .
1 + Kp
(1 + Kp) ess =1 ⇒ Kp = 1  ess
ess
2) Steady state error due to ramp i/p or static velocity error coefficient (Kv) :
The ess of the system with a unit ramp i/p or unit velocity i/p is
given by,
ess = lt 1 . ∴ ess = 1 .
S →O S + Kv Kv
Velocity error is not an error in velocity , but it is an error in position error due to
a ramp i/p
3) Steady state error due to parabolic i/p or static acceleration coefficient (Ka) :
The steady state actuating error of the system with a unit parabolic i/p
(acceleration i/p) which is defined by r(t) + 1 . t2 Taking L.T. R(S)= 1 .
2 S3
ess = lt S . 1 . lt 1 .
S →O 1 + G(S) . H(S) S3 S →O
2 2
S + S G(S) . H(S)
2
lt S G(S) . H(S) = Ka.
S →O
∴ ess = lt 1 . = 1 .
2
S →O S + Ka Ka
The open loop T.F. of a unity feed back system can be written in two std, forms;
. .
Let, G(S) = K . [ . H(s) = 1]
S+1
ess (Position) = 1 . = 1 .= 1 .
1 + G(O) . H(O) 1+K 1 + Kp
. .
. Kp = lt G(S) . H(S) = lt K . = K
S →O S →O S+1
ess (Velocity) = 1 . = 1 .= ∞
Kv O
Kv = lt G(S) . H(S) = lt S K . = O.
S→O S→ O S+1
ess (acceleration) = 1 . = 1 .= ∞
Ka O
Ka = lt S2 G(S) . H(S) = lt S2 K . = O.
S→O S→ O S+1
ess (Position) = 1 . = O
1+∞
Kp = lt G(S) . H(S) = lt K . = ∞
S→ O S →O S( S + 1)
Kv = lt S K . = K
S→ O S(S+1)
ess (Velocity) = 1 .
K
ess (acceleration) = 1 . = 1 . = ∞
O O
Ka = lt S2 K . = O.
S→O S (S + 1)
3) Type 2 –System : If, n = 2, the ess to various std, i/p, are , G(S) = K .
2
S (S + 1)
Kp = lt K .= ∞
2
S→O S (S + 1)
.
. . ess (Position) = 1 . = O
∞
Kv = lt S K .= ∞
2
S→O S (S + 1)
.
. . ess (Velocity) = 1 . = O
∞
2
Ka = lt S K . = K.
2
S→O S (S + 1)
.
. . ess (acceleration) = 1 .
K
The error coefficient Kp, Kv, & Ka describes the ability of the system to
eliminate the steady state error therefore they are indicative of steady
state performance. It is generally described to increase the error co
efficient while maintaining the transient response within an acceptable
limit.
PROBLEMS;
= 5
2 S S2 2 (S+2) 2
C(s) = 5
S2+2S+2S+4— S(S+2)+2(S+2)S2
2
= 5
2 S2(S+2) 2
= 10 (S+1)
S2 (S+2)
R(t) = Po + p1t + P2 t2
2
G(s) = 100 position error coefficient
S (S+10)
KP = lt G(s) = lt 100
S 0 S 0 S (S+10)
=:
lt 100 x s2 = 0
S 0 S 0 S (S+10) Ka = lt S2 G(S)
ess
R1 R2 P0 P1
R3 =
P2
+ + + +
Ess = 0+0.1 P1 + ∞ = ∞
The error constants for a non unity feed back system is as follows
(S+2)
G(S).H(S) =
S(S+1) (S+10)
Kp = lt G(S) H(S) = (0+2)
lt =∞
0(0+1) (0+10)
Ka = 0
Static Error:
50
4. A feed back C.S is described as
G(S) = S (S+2) (S+5)
H(S)=1/s.For unit step i/p,cal steady state error constant and errors.
Kp = lt G(S) H(S) = 50
lt =∞
S2 (S+2) (S+5)
Kv = lt G(S) H(S) = 50 x S
lt =∞
S2 (S+2) (S+5)
Ka = lt G(S) H(S) = S2 x 50 50
lt = =
5
= 0/50 = 0
K
5. A certain feed back C.S is described by following H(S) = 1
C.S G(S) = S2 (S+20) (S+30)
Determine steady state error coefficient and also determine the value of
K to limit the steady to 10 units due to i/p r(t) = 1 + 10 + t 20/2 t2.
Kp = lt G(S) H(S) = 50
lt =∞
2
S (S+20) (S+30)
Kv = lt S K
2
S 0 S (S+20) (S+30) =∞
Ka = lt S2 K K
2
S 0 S (S+20) (S+30)600
10 10
Error due o r(t) ramp + =0 i/p
Kv ∞
20 40 20 x 600 12000
Error due to para = = =
i/p, Ka 2Ka K K
,
The 1st order system is represent by the differential Eq: a1dc(t )+aoc (t) = bor(t) (1)
dt
Where, e (t) = out put , r(t) = input, a0, a1 & b0 are constants.
Dividing Eq: (1) by a0, then a1. d c(t ) + c(t) = bo.r (t)
a0 dt ao
Taking for L.T. for the above Eq: [ TS+1] C(S) = K.R(S)
R(S)+ 1 C(S)
TS

C(s) = Wn2
R(s) (S+ ξwn + jwd ) (S+ ξwn  jwd )
C(S) = W n2 . X R (S) = W n2 . = 1 .
(S2+2 ξ Wn S+ Wn2) (S2+2 ξ WnS+ Wn2) S
C(S) = 1 . S+2ξWn .
2 2
S S +2 ξWnS+ Wn
C(S) = 1 . S+ξWn . __ ξ . Wd .
2 2 2
S (S+ ξWn) + Wd √ 1 ξ (S+ ξ Wn) 2 + Wd2
Taking ILT, C(t) = 1eξWnt COS Wdt + ξ . Sin Wdt  (6)
√ 1 ξ2
The error signal for this system is the difference b/w the I/p & o/p.
From Eq: (8) , we see that the Wn represents the undamped natural frequency of the
system. If the linear system has any amount of damping the undamped natural frequency
cannot be observed experimentally. The frequency, which may be observed, is the
damped natural frequency.
Wd =wn√ 1− ξ2 This frequency is always lower than the undamped natural frequency.
An increase in ξ would reduce the damped natural frequency Wd . If ξ is increased
beyond unity, the response over damped & will not oscillate.
If the two poles of C(S) are nearly equal, the system may be approximated by a
R(S)
Critically damped one.
∴ C(S) = W n2 . • 1 .
2 2
S +2 ξ Wn S+ Wn S
= 1 . 1 . Wn .
S (S + Wn) ( S+ Wn)2
= 1 . Wn 2 .
S ( S + Wn )2S
Taking I.L.T.,
If this case, the two poles of C(S) are negative, real and unequal.
R(S)
For a unit step I/p R(S) = 1/S , then,
C(S) = W n2 .
(S+ ξ Wn + Wn √ ξ  1 2
) ( S+ξ Wn  Wn √ ξ – 1) 2
1 . ⎯e (ξ + √ ξ2 – 1) Wn t.
S√ ξ2 – 1 (ξ+ √ ξ2 – 1)
C(t) = 1+ Wn . eS1t .  eS2t . ; t>O
S √ ξ2 – 1 S1 S2
Where S1 = (ξ + √ ξ2 – 1) Wn
S 2 = ( ξ  √ ξ 2 – 1 ) Wn
Response curve
3) Peak time (tp)
4) Max over shoot (Mp)
5) Settling time (ts)
1) Delay time : (td)
It is the time required for the response to reach 50% of its final value
for the 1st time.
jW
S Plane
Peak time : (tp)
Peak time can be obtained by differentiating C(t) W.r.t. t and equating that
derivative to zero.
dc = O = Sin Wdtp Wn . eξWntp
dt t = t p √ 1ξ2
Since the peak time corresponds to the 1st peak over shoot.
∴ Wdtp = Π = tp = Π .
Wd
The peak time tp corresponds to one half cycle of the frequency of damped
oscillation.
PROBLEMS:
(1) Consider the 2nd order control system, where ξ = 0.6 & Wn = 5 rad / sec, obtain
the rise time tr, peak time tp, max overshoot Mp and settling time ts When the
system is subject to a unit step i/p.,
Wd = Wn √ 1 ξ2 = 5 √ 1(0.6) 2 = 4
σ = ξWn = 0.6 x 5 = 3.
MP = ⎯e √ 1 ξ2
(3/4) x 3.14
MP = ⎯e = 0.094 x 100 = 9.4%
LCS
The error coefficient Kp, Kv, & Ka describes the ability of the system to
eliminate the steady state error therefore they are indicative of steady
state performance. It is generally described to increase the error co
efficient while maintaining the transient response within an acceptable
limit.
PROBLEMS;
= 5
2 S S2 2 (S+2) 2
C(s) = 5
S2+2S+2S+4— S(S+2)+2(S+2)S2
2
= 5
3 S2(S+2) 2
= 10 (S+1)
S2 (S+2)
Find the static error constant and the steady state error of the system
when subjected to an i/p given by the polynomial
R(t) = Po + p1t + P2 t2
2
G(s) = 100 position error coefficient
S (S+10)
KP = lt G(s) = lt 100
S 0 S 0 S (S+10)
=:
lt 100 x s2 = 0
S 0 S 0 S (S+10) Ka = lt S2 G(S)
ess
R1 R2 P0 P1
R3 =
P2
+ + + +
Ess = 0+0.1 P1 + ∞ = ∞
The error constants for a non unity feed back system is as follows
(S+2)
G(S).H(S) =
S(S+1) (S+10)
Kp = lt G(S) H(S) = (0+2)
lt =∞
0(0+1) (0+10)
Ka = 0
Static Error:
50
4. A feed back C.S is described as
G(S) = S (S+2) (S+5)
H(S)=1/s.For unit step i/p,cal steady state error constant and errors.
Kp = lt G(S) H(S) = 50
lt =∞
S2 (S+2) (S+5)
Kv = lt G(S) H(S) = 50 x S
lt =∞
S2 (S+2) (S+5)
Ka = lt G(S) H(S) = S2 x 50 50
lt = =
5
= 0/50 = 0
K
5. A certain feed back C.S is described by following H(S) = 1
2
C.S G(S) = S (S+20) (S+30)
Determine steady state error coefficient and also determine the value of
K to limit the steady to 10 units due to i/p r(t) = 1 + 10 + t 20/2 t2.
Kp = lt G(S) H(S) = 50
lt =∞
S2 (S+20) (S+30)
Kv = lt S K
2
S 0 S (S+20) (S+30) =∞
Ka = lt S2 K K
S 0 S2 (S+20) (S+30)600
10 10
Error due o r(t) ramp + =0 i/p
Kv ∞
20 40 20 x 600 12000
Error due to para = = =
i/p, Ka 2Ka K K
,
3) The open loop T.F. of a unity feed back system is given by G(S) = K . where,
S(1+ST)
T&K are constants having + Ve values.By what factor (1) the amplitude gain be
reduced so that (a) The peak overshoot of unity step response of the system is reduced
from 75% to 25% (b) The damping ratio increases from 0.1 to 0.6.
Solution: G(S) = K .
S(1+ST)
Let the value of damping ratio is, when peak overshoot is 75% & when peak
overshoot is 25%
Mp = ξ . ∏
⎯e √ 1 ξ2
ln 0. 75 = ξ . ⇒ 0.0916 = ξ .
∏ √ 1 ξ 2
√ 1 ξ2
ξ1 = 0.091 (0.0084) (1ξ2) = ξ2
ξ2 = 0.4037 (1.0084 ξ2) = 0.0084
ξ = 0.091
k .
2
S+S T .
w.k.t. T.F. = G(S) = 1+ K . = K .
2 2
1+ G(S) . H(S) S+S T S + S T+K
T.F. = K/T .
S2 + S + K .
T T
Wn = K . , 2 ξWn = 1 .
T T
1 .
∴ ξ1 . = 2 √ K 1T = K2 .
ξ2 1 K1
2√ K2T
0.091 = K2 . ⇒ K2 . = 0.0508
0.4037 K1 K1
K2 = 0.0508 K1
4) Find all the time domain specification for a unity feed back control system whose open
loop T.F. is given by
G(S) = 25 .
S(S+6)
Solution:
25 .
G(S) = 25 . ∴ G(S) . = S(S+6) .
S(S+6) 1 + G(S) .H(S) 1 + 25 .
S(S+6)
= 25 .
2
S + ( 6S+25 )
5) The closed loop T.F. of a unity feed back control system is given by
2ξWn = 10 ⇒ ξ = 10 . = 0.408.
2 x 12.25
x(t)inmt
K
f(t) 0.00193
The T.F. of the mechanical system is ,
0.02
M X(S) = 1 .
F(S) MS2 + FS = K
f(t) = Md2X + F dX + KX
F x dt2 dt
2
F(S) = (MS + FS + K) x (S)
1 2 3 4 5
Given : F(S) = 10
S.
∴ X(S) = 10 .
2
S(MS + FS + K)
SX (S) = 10 .
2
MS + FS + K
MP = ⎯e ξ . Π ⇒ ln 0.0965 = ξ .
√ 1  ξ2 Π √ 1  ξ2
0.744 = ξ . ⇒ 0.5539 = ξ2 .
√ 1  ξ2 √ 1  ξ2
0.5539 – 0.5539 ξ2 = ξ2
ξ = 0.597 = 0.6
tp = Π = Π .
Wd Wn√ 1 – ξ2
Sx(S) = 10/ M .
(S2 + F S + K )
M M
Solution:
C(t) = 1+0.2e60t –1.2e10t
Taking L.T., C(S) = 1 . + 0.2 . – 1.2 .
S S+60 S+10
C(S) . = 600 / S .
S2 + 70S + + 600
C(S) . = 600 / S .
R(S) S2 + 70S + + 600
9) The C.S. shown in the fig employs proportional plus error rate control. Determine
the value of error rate const. Ke, so the damping ratio is 0.6 . Determine the value of
settling time, max overshoot and steady state error, if the i/p is unit ramp, what will be
θ(S)
__
K1 1 .
R + S(1+S) C
__
K2S
C . = K1 .
2
R S + ( 1 + K2 ) S + K1
Wn2 = K1 ⇒ Wn = √ K1
2ξWn = 1 + K2 ⇒ ξ = 1 + K2
2√ K1
Wd = Wn √ 1  ξ2 ⇒ ∴ Wn = 9.5 . 10.96
rad/Sec
√ 1 – 0.52
K1 = (10.96)2 = 120.34
2ξWn = 1 + K2 , K2 = 9.97
MP = ξ . Π = 16.3%
⎯e √ 1  ξ2
ts = 4 . = 4 . = 0.729 sec
ξWn 0.5 x 10.97
G(S)
R(S) E(S) C(S)
H(S)
The closed loop T.F is given by (1). The T.F. b/w the actuating error signal e(t)
and the i/p signal r(t) is,
= 1 .
1 + G(S) . H(S)
Where e(t) = Difference b/w the i/p signal and the feed back signal
Eq : (2) Shows that the steady state error depends upon the i/p R(S) and the forward
T.F. G(S) and loop T.F G(S) . H(S).
The expression for steady state errors for various types of standard test signals are
derived below;
2) Steady state error due to step i/p or position error constant (Kp):
lt G(S) . H(S) = Kp
(S → O )
Where Kp = proportional error constant or position error const.
∴ ess = 1 .
1 + Kp
(1 + Kp) ess =1 ⇒ Kp = 1  ess
ess
ess = lt 1 . ∴ ess = 1 .
S →O S + Kv Kv
Velocity error is not an error in velocity , but it is an error in position error due to
a ramp i/p
3) Steady state error due to parabolic i/p or static acceleration coefficient (Ka) :
The steady state actuating error of the system with a unit parabolic i/p
(acceleration i/p) which is defined by r(t) + 1 . t2 Taking L.T. R(S)= 1 .
3 S3
ess = lt S . 1 . lt 1 .
S →O 1 + G(S) . H(S) S3 S →O
2 2
S + S G(S) . H(S)
2
lt S G(S) . H(S) = Ka.
S →O
∴ ess = lt 1 . = 1 .
2
S →O S + Ka Ka
The open loop T.F. of a unity feed back system can be written in two std, forms;
. .
Let, G(S) = K . [ . H(s) = 1]
S+1
ess (Position) = 1 . = 1 .= 1 .
1 + G(O) . H(O) 1+K 1 + Kp
. .
. Kp = lt G(S) . H(S) = lt K . = K
S →O S →O S+1
ess (Velocity) = 1 . = 1 .= ∞
Kv O
Kv = lt G(S) . H(S) = lt S K . = O.
S→O S→ O S+1
ess (acceleration) = 1 . = 1 .= ∞
Ka O
Ka = lt S2 G(S) . H(S) = lt S2 K . = O.
S→O S→ O S+1
ess (Position) = 1 . = O
1+∞
Kp = lt G(S) . H(S) = lt K . = ∞
S→ O S →O S( S + 1)
Kv = lt S K . = K
S→ O S(S+1)
ess (Velocity) = 1 .
K
ess (acceleration) = 1 . = 1 . = ∞
O O
Ka = lt S2 K . = O.
S→O S (S + 1)
3) Type 2 –System : If, n = 2, the ess to various std, i/p, are , G(S) = K .
2
S (S + 1)
Kp = lt K .= ∞
S→O S2 (S + 1)
.
. . ess (Position) = 1 . = O
∞
Kv = lt S K .= ∞
2
S→O S (S + 1)
.
. . ess (Velocity) = 1 . = O
∞
2
Ka = lt S K . = K.
S→O S2 (S + 1)
.
. . ess (acceleration) = 1 .
K
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