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# UNIVERSITY OF HERTFORDSHIRE

Academic Year: 2007/08 Semester: B Faculty of Engineering & Information Sciences School of Physics, Astronomy & Mathematics MAT2 2PAM000?? Number Theory

DURATION OF EXAM: 2 HOURS THE FOLLOWING IS PROVIDED FOR THIS EXAMINATION: Maths Handbook

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES: Full marks may be obtained for complete answers to 4 questions Ensure you write your candidate number on any sheets which are to be handed in. Only University approved calculators are allowed

## This paper consists of 6 questions on ?? pages

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1.

(a)

Let a, b, c, d , k and n with n > 1 be integers. Prove the following congruent results:

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(i) a a ( mod n )

## (ii) If a b ( mod n ) then b a ( mod n )

(iii) If a b ( mod n ) and b c ( mod n ) then a c ( mod n ) . (iv) If a b ( mod n ) then ka + c kb + c ( mod n ) . (b) (c) (v) If ka b ( mod n ) and kc d ( mod n ) then ad bc ( mod n ) Find all the solutions of the linear congruence 18 x 30 ( mod 42 ) Find all the solutions of the linear congruence 5 x 12 ( mod 29 ) Fermats Little Theorem (FLT) is the following: Let p be prime and suppose p does not divide into a. Then a p 1 1 ( mod p ) (a) (b) (c) (d) By using this (FLT) or otherwise prove that 17 divides 11104 + 1 . Prove the corollary to this theorem which states: p If p is a prime then a a ( mod p ) for any integer a.
21 Prove that a a ( mod 15 ) for all a. [Hint: Use the corollary in part (b)]. (i) Define Eulers Phi function ( n ) where n (ii) Show that if p is prime then ( p ) = p 1

2.

## [7 Marks] [4 Marks] [6 Marks] [2 Marks] [2 Marks]

(iii) Use Eulers theorem which states: ( n) If gcd ( a, n ) = 1 then a 1 ( mod n ) where n to prove Fermats Little Theorem (FLT) given above. 3. (a) If n has the primitive root r and ind a denotes the index of a relative to r, then prove the following: (i) ind ( ab ) ind a + ind b ( mod ( n ) )
k (ii) ind a k ind a ( mod ( n ) ) for k > 0 .

[4 Marks]

## (iii) ind 1 0 ( mod ( n ) ) , ind r 1( mod ( n ) ) (b)

9 Solve the congruence 4 x 7 ( mod 13)

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