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A

DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIO

HANS WEHR

A DICTIONARY
OF

MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC


EDITED
BY
J

MILTON COWAN
THIRD EDITION

Spoken Language

Services, Inc.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Wehr, Hans (Date)

dictionary of

modern written

Arabic.

"An enlarged and improved version of 'Arabisches Wrterbuch fr die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart' and includes the Contents of the 'Supplement zum Arabischen Wrterbuch fr die
Schriftsprache der Gegenwart.'
1.

"

I.

Cowan,

Arabic language-Dictionaries English. J Milton. II. Title.


0-87950-001-8

[PJ6640.W43 1976] 492'.7'321 75-24236

ISBN

Otto Harrauowltz, Wiesbaden 1961, 1066, 1971 Spoken Language Services, Inc. 1976

Spoken Language
P.O.
Ithaca,

Services, Inc.

Box 783 New York 148S0

Preface
Shortly after the publication of Professor Hans Wehr's Arabisches Wrterbuch fr die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart

Committee on Language Programs of the American Council of Learned Societies recognized its excellence and began to explore means of providing an up-to-date English edition. Professor Wehr and I readily reached agreement on a plan to translate, edit, and enlarge the dictionary. This task was considerably lightened and hastened by generous financial support from the American Council of Learned Soin 1952, the
cieties,

the Arabian

American Oil Company, and Cornell

University.

American
are

This dictionary will be welcome not only to English and users, but to orientalists throughout the world who

more

at

home with English than with German.

It is

more

accurate

and much more comprehensive than the original version, which was produced under extremely unfavorable conditions in Germany during the late war years and the early
postwar period.
lthaca,

New

York

Milton Cowan

November 1960

Preface to

The Pocket-Book Edition

In Order to meet the enormous increase of interest in Arabic brought about by political, economic and social develop-

ments of the past decade, we have now published our 3rd


Revised Edition of
this

Dictionary of

Modern

W ritten Arabic in

handy, comprehensive and unabridged version.

Mnster
lthaca,

Hans Wehr
York
J

New

Milton Cowan

February 1976

Introduction

Thi diotionary presents the vocabulary and phraseology of modern mitten Arabic. It is based an the form of the language wbich, throughout the Arab world from Iraq to Moroooo, is found in the proee of books, newapapers, periodicals, and letters. This form is also empioyed in
formal public address, over radio and television, and in religious ceremonial, The diotionary will
be most usefuJ to those working with writinga that have appeared aince the turn of the Century.

The morphology and syntax


triea.

of written Arabio are esaentially the

same

in all

Arab ooun-

Vocabulary differences are limited mainly to the domain of apecialized vocabulary. Thua
it

the written language contmnea, as


linguistio unity of the

haa done throughout centuriea of the paat, to ensure the


It provides a

Arab world.

medium

of

oommunicatkm over the vaat


it

geographica! area whoee numeroua and widely diverser local dialecta


it

tranaoends. Indeed,

gives the

Arab people of many

countriea a Bense of identity

and an awarenesa of their common

culturaJ heritage.

Two

powerful and conflioiing forces have affected the development of the modern Arabio

lexicon.

A reform movement originating toward the end of the last Century in Syria and Lebanon haa reawakened and popularized the old conviotion of educated Arabs that the ancient 'arabiya of pre-Islamio times, which became the classical form of the language kl the
is

early centuries of Islam,


puristic doctrine

better and

more

correct than

any

later form.

Proponenta of this

have held that new vocabulary muat be derived exoluaively in accordance with ancient modela or by aemant extension of older forma. They have insiBted on the replacement of all foreign loanwords with purely Arabio forma and expressiona. The puriata
have had conaiderable influence on the development of modern literary Arabio although there haa been widespread protest againat their extreme point of view. At the same time

and under the inoreaaing influence of Western civization, Arab writers and jouroalists have had to deal with a host of new concepts and ideas previously alien to the Arab way of life. Aa aetual usage demonstrates, the puriats have been unable to eope with the aheer
bulk of

new

linguiatic material

whioh has had to be inoorporated into the language to

make
of

it

ourrent with advances in world knowledge.


writers, especially in the fields of Bcience

The

result is Been in the

tendency

many

and teohnology, simply

to

adopt foreign
the various

words from the European languagea.


colloquial dialects

have

also

found their

Many common, everyday expressions from way into written expression.

From

its

inception, thia diotionary haa been oompiled on acientifio descriptive principlea.

It oontains only

worda and expressiona which were found in context during the course of

wide reading in literature of every kind or which, on the basis of other evidence, can be shown
to be unqueationably a part of the present-day vocabulary. It ia a faithful record of the language ae attested by usage rather than a normative presentation of what theoretically

ought to occur. Consequently,


torical style aide
it

it

not only

liste claasical

words and phrasea of elegant rhe-

by

side with

new

coinages that confonn to the

demands of the

puriata,

but

also oontains neologiama, loan tranalations, foreign loans,

and colloquialiama which may not

be to the linguistio taste of


terials

many
ia

educated Arabs. But since they occur in the corpus of mabased, they are inoluded here.

on which the diotionary

Introduction

VIII

loxicographer dealing with preaent-day Arabio. knowledge, especially those which have developed outside the Arab world, no generally accepted terminology has yet emerged, it is evident that a practical
Since for

A number of special problems oonfront the


many
fields of

dictionary can only approximate the degree of completeneas found in comparable dictionaries

of Western languages. Local terminology, especially for


titles,

many

public institutions, offices,

and administrative
is

diotionary

has developed in the several Arab countries. Although the based mainly on usage in the countries bordering on the eastern Mediterranean,
affairs,

and administrative terms have been included for all Arab countries, but not with equal thoroughness. Colloquialisms and dialect expreasions that have gained ourrenoy in written fonn also vary from country to country. Certainly no attempt at completeneas can
looal official

be made here, and the user working with materials having a maxked regional flavor will be well advised to refer to an appropriate dialeot diotionary or glossary. As a rule, items derived from
local dialecte or limited to looal use

have been so designated with appropriate abbreviations.

normalized journalistio style has evolved for faotual reporting of news or discussion of mattere of political and topical interest over the radio and in the press. Thia style, which
often betrays Western influences, is remarkably uniform throughout the

Arab world.

It

reaches large sections of the population daily

and

constitutes to

them almost the only stylistio


hence easily covered in a

norm.

Its

vocabulary

is

relatively small

and

fairly Btandardized,

dictionary.

standardized.

The vocabulary of scientific and teohnological writingB, on the other hand, is by no means The impact of Western oivilization has confronted the Arab world with the
problem of expressing a vast and ever-inoreasing number of new concepts
in

serious linguistio
for

which no words

Arabic exist. The creation of a

soientifio

and technological terminology

is still

a major intellectual ohallenge. Reluctance to borrow wholesale from European languages

has spurred efforts to coin terms according to productive Arabic patterns. In recent decades innumerable such words have been suggested in various periodioals and in special publications.
Relatively few of these have gained acceptance in

common

usage. Specialists in

all fields

keep coining new terms that are either not understood by other specialists in the same
or are rejeoted in favor of other, equally short-lived, private fabrications.

field

to a lesser eztent, the Iraqi

The Academy of the Arabio Language in Gairo especially, the Damascus Aoademy, and, Academy have produoed and continue to publish vast numbers
all fields

of technical terms for almost

of knowledge.

underestimated the

difficulties of artificial regulation of


it

The aoademies have, however, greatly a language. The problem lies not so

much

in inventing terms as

does in assuring that they gain acceptance. In some instances

neologisms have quickly become part of the stook of the language;


are a large
in

among these, fortunately, number of the terms proposed by academies or by professional specialists. However, many fields, suoh as modern Unguis tics, existential philosophy, or nuclear physics, it is
not possible for professional people from the different Arab states to discuas details of

still

The Bituation is further complioated by the fact that the purists and the aoademies demand the translation into Arabio even of those Oreek and Latin techtheir disoipline in Arabio.
nical

terms which make possible international understanding among

specialists.

Thus while

considerable progress has been

made

in recent decades toward the standardization of Arabic


all fit

terminology, several technical terms which

one definition

may

still

be current, or a

given scientific term

may have

dferent meanings for different experts.

Those teohnical terms which appear with considerable frequency in published works, or
which are familir to
specialists in various fields

and are considered by them to be stand-

XX

Introduotion

ardized terminology, presented no partioular problem. Nevertheless it has not always been oountry, possible to aBoertain the terms in general acceptance with the experta of merely one

Symbol. A desoripall. Doubtful caseB are entered and marked with a special suoh as thi has no poom for the mumerable academio coinages which experiin the enoe has shown are by no means assured of adoption. Only those that are attested
let

alone those of

tive diotionary

literature

have been included.

Classioisms are a further special problem.

Arab authors, Bteeped

in classioal tradition,

Ages. The can and do frequently draw upon words whioh were already archaic in the Middle Arohaisms may orop up in use of classioal patterns is by no means limited to belles-lettres.
effect is intendthe middle of a spirited newspaper article. Wherever an aesthetio or rhetorioal imparting information, ed, wherever the language aims more at expressiveness than at
stylistio authors tend to weave in ancient Arabio and olassioal idioms. They are artistio and passages of devioes of the first Order. They awaken in the reader images from memorized

Koran or anoient literature and contribute to his aesthetio enjoyment. Quotations from the from classioal literature, whose origins and connotations may well elude the Western reader, are
readily recognized

by Arabs who have had a

traditional eduoation

wealth of anoient souroes. In former years


oiting lexical rarities culled

many

writers strove to display their erudition


oollections of Synonyms.

and who have memorized a by


As often
as

from ancient diotionaries and

not the author had to explain such nawdir in footnotes, sinoe nobody eise would understand recent them. This pedantic mannerism is going out of fashion and there is a trend in more
literature

toward smoothness and readability in


it is

style.

Nevertheless

it is

olear

from the

foregoing that
All archaic

not possible to
in

make

a Sharp distinction between living and obsolete usage.

words found
it is

the source material have, therefore, been inoluded in this diotionary,

sometimes evident that they no longer form a part of the living lexioon and forms are aro used only by a small group of well-read literary oonnoisseurs. Suoh included modern but a small sample of what the user is likely to encounter in the writings of a few who authors; the impossibility of inoluding the entire anoient vocabulary is obvious. The user even though
encountere an old Arabio word whioh he does not understand will have to oonsult a lexioon older of the 'arablya. Finally, some modern authors will ocoasionally take great liberties with

sages. Items of this kind

words, so that even highly eduoated Arabs are unable to understand the sense of certain pashave not been entered. They would contribute nothing to a diosoope in times

tionary whose scope did not permit inclusion of source references. The vocabulary of modern Arabic, then, is by no means standardized,
diffioult to delimit.

its

a These results emerge from the very character of modern Arabio written language, powerfully influenced by traditional norms, which nevertheless is required distribto express a multitude of new foreign concepts, not for one oountry only, but for many

uted over a vaat geographical area. Arabic phonology, morphology, and syntax have remained relatively unohanged from earliest times, as has muoh of the vooabulary. Here tradi
tional adherence to anoient linguistio

norms and to the modeis of olassioal literature,

especially

the Koran, has had the effect of preserving the language intaot over the centuries. But as vocabulary and phraseology mUBt adapt to the new and ever-changing requirements
of externa]

ciroumstanoes,

these are
its

more prone to ohange.


peculiar vocabulary,

Striotly

speaking,

every

epoch of Arab history has had


in a separate diotionary.

own

whioh should be

set forth

But

as

we have

seen, the vocabulary of

modern Arabio

con-

fronts the lexicographer

who

aims at completeness with more than a

fair Bhare of Prob-

lems and

difficulties.

Introduction

In the presentation of the entries in the dictionary,


ly in only a

homonymous roots are given

separate-

few especially clear instances. The arrangement of word entriea under a given root does not necessarily imply etymological relationship. Consistent Separation of such roots

was dispensed with because the user of a praotioal dictionary of modern Arabio will not generally be concerned with Semitio etymology. In confonnity with the practice customary
in bilingual diotionaries of modern European languages, where the material is treated in purely synchronic fashion, the origin of older loanwords and foreign terms is not indicated. For reoent loans, however, the source and the foreign word are usually given. Personal

are generally omitted, but large

names numbers of geographical names are included; the niaba

adjectivea of these can be formed at will, hence are not entered unless some peouliarity such as a broken plural is involved. In transliteration, while the ending of nisba adjectivea regularly appears as -i (e.g., janbi, dirsi, mklet), the same ending is shown as -iy for nominal forms of roots with a weak third radioal, i.e., where the third radical is contained
in the

ending

(e.g.,

qasiy, sabiy,

mahmly, mabniy). This

distinetion, not present in Arabic Script,

may prove valuable to the user of the dictionary. Because of a distinetion which retains importance in quantitative metrics, the third person Singular masculine Suffix is transcribed with a long vowel (-h, -M) following Short syllables and with a Short vowel (-Au, -hi) after long syllables. In any bilingual dictionary, the listing of isolated words with one or more
isolated translations
is, striotly epeaking, an inadmissible abstraction. In Order to provide the syntactical Information to be expected in a dictionary of this size, a liberal selection of kiiomatic phrases and sentences illustrating usage has been added. Symbols

showing the
trans-

aecraative and prepositional government of verbs are also supplied.


lations

Synonyms and

have been included in large numbers in Order to delineate as accurately as possible the semantie ranges within which a given entry can be used.

The material
collected

for the dictionary was gathered in several stages. The major portion was between 1940 and 1944 with the co-operation of several German orientalists. The

entire work was set in type, but only one set of galleys survived the war. The author resumed the collection of material in the years 1946 through 1948 and added a considerable number

of entries.

The German

edition of the dictionary, Arabisches Wrterbuch fr die Schriftsprache

der Gegenwart,

in 19S2, was based on a corpus of appnnrimately 45,000 slips containing oitations ftom Arabic sources. The primary source materials consisted of selected

which appeared

works by Th Husain,
al-Manfalti,

Muhammad Husain Haikai, Tauflq al-Haklm, Mahmud Taimr, Juhrn Kalil Jubrn, and Amin ar-Raihani. Further, numerous Egyptian newspapers and periodicals, the Egyptian State almanac, taqwim misr, for 1935 and its
Iraqi counterpart, datil al-'irq, for 1937, as well as a nurober of specialized Egyptian

handbooks wore thoroughly


edition were

sifted.

the

first

edition

of

The secondary sources used in preparation of the German Leon Bercher's Lexiqut arabe-francais (1938), which

provides material fron the Tunisian press in the form of a Supplement to J. B. Belot's Vocabulaire arabe-jrancais, G. S. Colin's Pour lire la presse arabe (1937), the third edition of E. A. Elias' comprehensive Modern Dictionary Arabic- English (1929), and the glossary of the modem Arabic chrestomathy by C. V. Ode-Vassilieva (1929). Items in the secondary sources
for which there were attestations in the primary sources were, of oourse, included. All other items in the secondary sources were carefully worked over, in part with the help of Dr. Tahir Khemiri. Words known to him, or already included in older dictionaries, were incorporated.

Apart from the primary and secondary sources, the author had, of oourse, to consult a number of reference works in European languages, encyclopedias, leiicons, glossaries, teohnical

XI
and
specialized literature

Introduotion

dictionaries,

on the most diverse subjeots

in Order to ascertain the

correct translation of

many teohnioal terms. For

older Arabio forma, the available indioes and

(both Islam and Eastern Churoh), collections of Arabio terminology in the flelds of religion othere were very helpful. These jurisprudence, philosophy, Arabio grammar, botany, and en bloc into the dictionary, collections were, however, not simply aooepted and incorporated

modern meanings aotually attested but used only to sharpen the definition of terms in the
in the

primary source materialB.

After publication of the

German

edition the author oontinued coUecting

and presented

new

material, together with oorrections of the

main work,

in Supplement

contains the results of extensive oolleofcion MikS'il Nu'aima, and


countries, as well ae

Wrterbuch fr die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart, which appeared in 1959. from the writings of 'AbdassalSm

tum arabischen The Supplement


al-'Ujaill,

Karam Malham Karam, from newspapers and

periodicals of

aU Arab

from Syrian and Lebanese textbooks and apecialized literature. In the Arabio beoame available postwar years several lexicographioal works dealing with modern the fourth edition of Elias (1947), to the author: the second edition of Beroher (1944), MiUtn Arabi'Ibri (1947), Charles D. Neustadt and P. Sohusser's Arabio-Hebrew diotionary, oomprehensive Arabic-Russian diotionary, Pellat's Uarabe. vivant (1962), and C. K. Baranov's
these with Arabsko-Buaskiy Slovar (1957). In preparing the Supplement, the author oompared own work but was reluotant to inoorporate items which he could not find attested in
context, and which would merely increase the
sources.

his

number

of entries derived from secondary

they The author is indebted to Dr. Andreas Jaoobi and Mr. Heinrich Becker who, until in oollecting and were caUed up for military Service in 1943, rendered valuable assistanoe manusoript. A concoUating the vast materials of the German edition and in preparing the
siderable

amount of material was contributed by a number of

Arabists.

The author wishes

Prof. Werner Caskel, Dr. Hans Kinderto express his gratitude for such contributions to Riohard Sohmidt, mann, Dr. Hedwig Klein, Dr. Kurt Munzel, Prof. Annemarie Schimmel, Dr.

amount of exoeUent and especiaUy to Prof. Wolfram von Soden, who contributed a large many entries from newsmaterial. I am deeply gratefnl to Dr. Munzel, who contributed Muhammad Saftf. I papers of the postwar period and likewise to his coUeague Dr.
appreciate having been able to disouas

of Dr. Tahir Khemiri was especially useful.

many difficult items with them. The He contributed 1,500 very valuable

assistanoe

items and,

until 1944, his advice to the author during the colleotion

upon many dubious

cases. Prof.

greatly appreoiated advice.

and sifting of material shed light Anton Spitaler likewise provided valuable observations and Contributions to the Supplement were supplied by Dr. Eberhard

Kuhnt, Dr. Gtz Schregle, and Mr. Karl Stowasser. Moreover, in the oourse of two its to writers, and proa number of Arab countries, many Arab contributors, students, scholars, infonnation and counsel. fessional people too numerous to mention generously provided useful
Here, as in the prefaces to the

German

edition of the diotionary

and the Supplement, the


contributed to the

author wishes to express his sinoere thanks to all those


suocess of this undertaking.

who have

This English edition includes

all

the material oontained in the

German

edition of the

dictionary and in the Supplement, as well as a


for

number of

additions

and oorrections the need


have been

wl ich became obvious only

after the publication of the Supplement. Additions

inserted in the proof almost

number of contributions

up to the prsent made by Dr. Walter

time. It was therefore possible to inolude a


Jesser in Alexandria.

The number of

cross-

Introduction

XII

A new type fnt was introduced for the Arabic. The second edition of Webster' b New International Dictionary was used as a Standard reference for spelling and for certain definitions. On the Suggestion of the editor, three changes
references has been conaiderably inoreased.

were made in the System of transliteration used in the German edition, namely,

for

for ,

and g

for

. Also, following hia preferenoe, proper namea were transiiterated without


is

oapital letters, Bince there


tion

no

capitalization in Arabic soript.

The author followed a Sugges(Language 30 174,


:

made by

Prof. Charles A. Ferguson in hia review of the dictionary

1954) to transcribe feminine endings of roots having a

weak

third.radical

(l\-)

with the pausal

form -A instead of

dt.

Also following Dr. Ferguson' s advice, the author has transcribed


letters e,
c, 9, o, ,

many
which
for

more

foreign

words than in the German edition. The


in classioal Arabio,

g, v,

and

p,

have no counterpart

have been added. The system of transcription


is

Arabic word throughout the diotionary


foreign word

simply a transliteration of the Arabic

script.

For
is

and Arabic

dialeot words, however, the usual transliteration of the Arabic

inadequate to indicate the pronunoiation. In order to avoid diacrepancy between spelling and
pronunciation, the author, in his

German

edition,

would oftenrefrain from giving any tranas a

scription at all, but merely enter the foreign

word

rough guide to pronunciation. In the


(e.g.,

present edition practically


viz, vEt)

all

foreign words

have been transcribed

diblmsi, hikoptar,

with the help of the added

letters.

Arab studenta

at the University of Mnster were

consulted for the approzimately corract pronunoiation. Nevertheless, in


foreign source

many

instances the

word

is

also entered becauae pronunoiation variea considerably from Speaker to

Speaker, depending on the dialeot and the degree of assimilation.

One

other deviation from

striot transliteration of

the Arabic was

made

for certain foreign

words in order to provide

a oloser approximation to the usual pronunoiation. In writing European words with Arabic
letters,
I

are,

contrary to regulr praotice in Arabic, frequently used to indicate short


is

vowels.
iljU'li

Where

thi

the case,

we have transoribed accordingly

(e.g.,

J^kPj'

otomliki,

danmark).

Finally, the author wishes to erpreea his Bincere gratitude to the editor, Prof.

J Milton

Gowan, thanks to whose


appreciated

initiative

and energy

this English edition

can

now be

presented to

the public. Hia generoua expenditure of time and effort on this project has been greatly

by

all

involved.

To Theodora Ronayne, who performed


Cowan

the exacting taak of

preparing a meticulously accurate typescript, thereby conaiderably lightening our Iabors,

we

are indeed grateful. Professor

Stowasser, whose quite remarkable

unusual

abilities as

a lexicographer

joine me in recording our special thanks to Mr. Karl oommand of the three languages involved and whose proved indispensable. He has devoted his untiring efforts

to this enterprise for the past four years, oo-ordinating the work of editor and author across

the Atlantic.

The bulk of the

translation
in

was oompleted

in 1967-1958, while

he was

in

Ithaca. During the past

two years

Mnster he has oompleted the incorporation of the

Supplement into the body of the dictionary and assisted the author in seeing the work through
the press.

The

following paragraphs describe the arrangement of entries and explain the use of

Symbols and abbreviations


Arabio words are arranged aocording to Arabic
alphabetical order
.'oota.
j\j

Foreign words are listed in straight


.

by

the letters of the

word

(cf.

bris Paris, jitf kdir cadre)

Arabi-

XIII

Introduction

often with the root if they olearly fit under the roots, are entered both wayB, entry giving a reference to the alphabetical listing (cf. jj\i qnn law, ii'jy naizak spear). Two or more homonymous roots may be entored as separate items, inclnding foreign
cized loanwords,

words treatcd as Arabic forms


French word crime;
reader that the
cf.

(e.g.,

karim under the Arabic root


combination
k-r-k).

'^f nd

'(.'

tlle

also the consonant


letters occurs
is

In Order to indicate to the

same Order of

more than once and that he should not confine


precedcd by a small raised numeral
is

his search to the first listing,

each entry

(cf.

jj,

_,>).

Under a given
stein, if
it

root the sequencc of entries

as follows.

The verb

in

the perfeet of the base


is

exists,

oomes

first

with the transliteration indicating the vowcling. It


in parenthesos, the verbal

followed

by the vowel of the imperfect and,


the derived stems, indicated

nouns or mafdir. Then come


through X. For Arab users
the corresponding

by boldface Roman immerals


used by Western

II

unaccustomed to

this dcsignation genorally

orientalists,

stem forms are: II JjJ ja"aU, III Jeti jula, IV Jil afala, V Jxil tafa'ala, VI J*U3 lajaala, VII Jxl infu'ala, VIII J=il ifta'alu, IX Jjl ifalla, X JjiJ isiafula. Whcrever of there is any irregularity, for the rare stems XI through XV, and for the derived stems
quadriliteral verbs the Arabic

form is entered and translitcrated

(cf.

VII, i*~j VIII, ^**- XII,

-Ulm III). Then come nominal forms arranged aecording to their length. Verbal nouns of the and all active and passive partieiplcs follow at the end. The latter are stems II through

listed as separate

items only

when

their

meaning

is

not immediately obvious from the verb,


is

particularly where a substantival or adjeetival translation

possible

(cf.

^rU-

hjib

under

^JC, J^-U shil under J#). The sequence under a given root is not determined by historical considorations. Thus, a verb derived from a foreign Word is plaeed at the head of the entire
section
(cf.

l aqlama,

t\j II).
definitions are separated

Essentially

synonymous

by commas.

semicolon marks the

beginning of a definition in a different semantic rnge.

The

syntaotic markings

accompanying the

definitions of a verb are

for the aecusative

of a person, * for the aecusative of a thing,

for the feminine of

animate beings,
is

for a

group of persona. from right to


are expressed
left

It should

be noted that the Arabic included in parentheses


(cf.

to be read
in

even
s.o.

if

separated by the word "or"


s.th.

^ji, ^ij).

Verb objeets
o.s.

English

by

(someone) and

(something), the reflexive by

(onesclf).

verbal noun, or in
holds for
all

dash oecurring within a section indicates that the following form of a plural or of a some instances the introduction of a new voweling of the main entry.
following meanings in the section even
all

if

theso are not

synonymous and are


following defini-

separated by semicolons. This dash invalidates

previously given verbal nouns, imperfect


all

vowels, plurals, and othor data qualifying the main entry. It indicates that
tions apply only to this Iatest

sub-entry

(cf.

Ji^- ka\aqu, J.U 'adala).

In the transcription, which indicates the voweling of the unpointed Arabic, nouns are given in pausal form without tanwin. Only nouns derived from vorbs with a weak third
radical are transcribed with nunnation
(e.g.,

^\j

qdin,

^1m
it is

muqladan,

Ju matan

in

contrast with

Sj^
.

&uir).

A
is

raised

following the transcription of a

noun

indicates that

a diptote. This indication

often omitted from Western geographical terms and other recent non-Arabic proper
is

names

because the inflected ending


only theoretical value
(cf.

practically never
2

pronounced and the marking would have


abrll).
in

^^O -'
in

Mokholm,

Jj.,1

The Symbol

precedes newly coined technical terms, chiefly

the fields of technology,

which were repeatedly found

context but whose general aeeeptance

among

specialista could

Introduction

XIV
(cf.

not be established with certainty heating installation).

jUlJ tfz television

aet,

^j*- hads Intuition,

j-

miharr

The symbol

precedes thoae dialect words for which the Arabic Bpelling suggests a
(cf.

colloquial pronunciation

jLu- haddf, 'Ja*-

II).

Dialect words are


eto.).

marked with abbreviations

in lower-case lottere (e.g., syr., leb., saud.-ar., in the sources of a particular


(cf.

These are also used to inrlicate words which were found only

area, This does


jrr,

not neceBsarily mean that a word or meaning

is

confined to that area

j jjU-

baffia,

oUJLt Silmn).

The same

abbreviations, but with capital letters,

mark
(cf.

entries as the generally accepted

technioal terms or the official designations for public officee, institutions, administrative

departments, and the

like,
Isl.

of the country in question

_r-Lf

majlis,

i& mahkama).
(cf.

The
hadat,

abbreviation

Law marks

the traditional terminology of Islamic fiqh

i-ujuris-

li'n,

<i* mt'a),

as distinguished from the technical terms of


jur, (cf.

modern
<J

prudence whioh are oharacterized by the abbreviation

^Af

'amdi,

^Sj talabbus).

For other abbreviated labeis see List of Abbreviations below.


Elatives of the form aj'cdu are translated througbout with the Englih comparative

because this moat often

fite

the meaning.

The

reader should bear in mind, however, that in

oertain contexts they will best be rendered either with the positive or the Superlative.

The heavy

vertical stroke

terminates the definitions under an entry. It


illustrate

is

followed by

phrases, idioms,

and sentences which

the phraseologioal and syntactic use of that


fll

entry. These did not

have to be transcribed in

because

it

has been necesaary to asaume


user,

an elementary knowledge of rabio morphology and synbax on the part of the


which
it is

without

not poasible to use a dictionary arranged according to roote. Consequently, no


is

tranacription
1

given after the vertical Btroke for:


itself,

the entry
.

but

it is

abbreviated wherever

it is
;

part of a genitive

Compound

(e.g.,

al-ma'li

under

hib,

husn
is

al-u.

under vhdvia)

2 3

nounB whose Arabic speUing

relatively

unambiguous

(e.g., I-tfli,

pU, jUT, jU);

words known from elementary grammar, suoh as pronouns, negations, and prepositions
the third peraon perfect of the verb type fa'aia, occasionally also the definite article;

frequent nominal types, such as:


a) the verbal

nouns (mafdir) of the derived atems II and VII

X:

J^"

taf'U,

JUI

infi'l,

jUil

ifti'l,

J^l*il if'ill,

jUisJ

istif'l;

b) the aotive

and passive partioiples of the basio verb stem:

Jpli f'U, <Lli f'a,


c)

and Jj* maf'l, lijJu maf'la;

the nominal types J_i fall, *L*i fa'iia, jU/i*J t

and

J_yj

ful

(also as

plural);

JUi/TZa and *i^yj fu'la as well as J*il af'al;


d) the plural forma jUil af'l, oUil af'ild*,

JJUi fa'l, Jplil


aj'il,

aj'il,
taf'il,

J*U*

maf'il,

JJUi

fa''il,

J*Ui

fa''il,

JJUi

falil, J-*Ui

J-*Uj

J-*U* maf'il,

JUi

fa'lila.

All other poasible vowelings are transcribed (e.g., ij'l, fa"l, fu'ail, fa'vl, af'vl, f'al).

Words
za.it ,

with weak radicals belonging in the form types

listed

above are also transcribed wherever

any uncertainty about the form might arise


iS*i'i\

(cf.

'f

\j

rgin under

^j,

fjj^- C-j
1

under c^ j

4j>-il

under JU*_* masjid).

XV

List of Abbreviations

transoribed aa

unit. Thoy are In transcription, two nouns forming a genitive Compound are treated as a noun, with the entry word abbreviated (of under ^--L. definite article noun

ahib, _1 Sibh). In a
it

noun Compound where the seoond noun


(cf.
is

is

in apposition or attributive,

alone

is

transoribed

the two oonstructions


endings.
viated,

under lj\ ibra, iU- jild). In this manner the difference between brought out clearly without resorting to transliteration of the i'rb
-

feminine noun ending in

a, as first

member

of a genitive
it

Compound,
is

is

also abbre-

and the construct ending

-t is

to be read

even though

not expressed in the

transcription.

inconsistencies will appear

that In view of the great variety and intricacy of the material presented, it is inevitable and that similar examples will be treated here and therc in a dinerent
for certain redundancies,

manner. For such incongruities and

we must ask the user's indulgence.

Mnster

Hans Wehh

November 1960

List of Abbreviations

abatr.

List of Abbreviationa

XVI

ei.

XVII

List of Abbreviationa

rel.

a particle introducing direct and indirect


questions; queationa;
jl

jjl

abad

pl.

A
j

o
1

am
j\

jLT dbd endless, eternal


l-ol

in alternative

duration, eternity;

\jm

saw'un a

am
you

abadan alwaya,

no matter whether
haps?

or;

forever; ever, (with neg.) never (in the


future), not at
all,

a-wa particle

on no account; (alone,
all!

indicating or implying doubt: or? pertiUi

without negation) never! not at

by

^iiUjI
it,

(taSukku)

wouldn't doubt

would you? do you

J* and jA-OI -bl abada d-dahri forever; ^-bVl -bl abada


|

no means!

-oVl Jl, -bV'

perhaps doubt
Vi a-l

it? or

do you doubt

it?

l-abadin

and

,j<-bVI

-bl

Jl il abadi ha.

and

LI

a-m intemifying
sentencea
etc.,
:

interverily,

forever
^-bl

and ever
abadi everlaating, eternal, endless

j'ectiona

introducing

truly,

indeed,

oh

yes,

IjJiJLi
*Jl

VI Li

(fa-nzur) oh, do look!

why, look!

^jjVl al-abadi eternity


ijJjl

(inndk) why, he
1

is ...!

abadiya

infinite duration, endless

i_>T

ab 2 Auguat(month; Syr., Leb., Jord.,Ir.)


see
_^l

time, eternity
JjT bid wild,

untamed
x>\j\

.->l

OjT
\_>l

bida

pl.

awabid 2
|

unuaual
x>)j\

abba u to long, yearn (ctj Jl


for one'a

il uxifanihi

thing,

prodigious

event

Lj-dl

a.

homeland)

ad-duny the Wondera of the World


-Ojj

'l-^j!

look up alphabe tically


abti abbot {Chr.}
x

mu'abbad
|

eternal,
(sijn) life

endless,

ever-

laating

jjj*

JLI

(It. abate)

^
j
\

impriaonment

j\ abara
(*

(abr) to prick, sting II to pollinate

5JU ibla, ibbla bndle, bale

a palm tree)
j\ ibra
pl.

J
jjcl

see ji) ,1

ibar needle, pin; indicator

abjad aiphabet
^jjjcl

(of

an instrument); shot, injection (med.);


|

sting, prick

lj\ *L~

haqanah ibratan to

abjadi

alphabetic(al)

oLa*:l
|

elementary facta, simple truths

lJj^J-I

an injection; ^\J\ lj\ i. ar-r'i geranium (bot.); Z^-^Lk* j\ (magntlsiya)


give
s.o.

iafV
abada

the lettera of the

aiphabet, the

magnetic
needlework

needle;

J^V'

Jii

sugl

al-i.

aiphabet
-ol i (*ji\

ubd) to stay, linger (^ at a


i

j^> mi'bar needlecase; pack needle


z jljT

place);

u to roam in a state of

wildnesa, run wild, be shy, shy away, run

br see Ji

away
or
s.th.)

(animal, game) II to

make

laating
(*

*--/'

abraMya and i~Zjj\

abrSiya

pl.

-l

permanent,

perpetuato,

eternize

diocese, biahopric (Chr.); parish (CAr.)

V
or

to

be

porpetuated,

become
<m

lasting

permanent; to return to a

r*j\ abramis,
I

(j-x.lj-1

bream

(200Z.)

State of wildness

>y

ifrriz

pure gold

g-ij\ ibrisam, ibrisim silk


jt_j\ ibriq pl.

*i\

abaha and abiha a (abk) to pay attention


(J, also <y to),

heed

(J, also
*l
J

JjjLI abriq* pitcher, jug

s.th.),

take

notice (J, also

^ of

oj* V

j*\ (yu*bahu)

Jj j

abril April

an

insignificant,

unimportant matter V to

display proud, haughty marinere; to turn

j\ abzan
fj\ ifaim
ljij\

pl.

jLI abzin* waahbowl abzim* bucklo, claap

away, keep one's distance, remain aloof


(^p
o.s.

pl. fj\j\

from),
far

look

down (^

upon), think

above

vh4

pl.

^LT

^ and

^^U

(^

s.o or s.th.)

ma'bitf pl.

jjL ma'bujP hollow of the knee,


space
.Lil

popliteal

<f\

ubbaha splendor, pomp, ostentation,

pageantry; pride
<_J

to take or carry under one's

arm

ab

pl.

LT6* father (also


~A L y abati

eccl.};

ancestor,
father!

(* s.th.)

to put one's
s.th.),

arm

(*,

around
{*,

s.o.,

around

forefather;

my

hold in one's
ibf

arm

jl^Vl al-abawn the parents, father and


s.o., s.th.)

mother;
Jaul

\jy\

abn reverend
title

father,

form
\

pl.

^>1>T

bf

m. and

f.

armpit

of address
.u-

and

of a priest (Chr).

jjl
(

abaqa

(jLl

ibq) to escape,

nin away

^p LI aban 'an jaddin handcd


s.th. inherited

down
from

a slave from his master)

from father to son, as


forefathers;
j-.

y\ ab

su'n
;

marabou;
J>^
'

^1

abaq a kind of hemp


r>-"
pl.

y.

'

-"*

pppy

y.

'

jiJ biq

JLI ubbq runaway, escaped;

ab l-havl the Sphinx;


l-yaqzn rooster, oock

llJI

y\ ab

a fugitive
1

Jjl ibil (coli.)

cameis

y\

vbwa fatherhood, patemity

jjil abawi patemal, fatherly

ULI ibla, ibbla bndle, bale


-w_jil

ebonite

>LI
^j-Jj I

ibliz alluvial

deposits (of the Nile)


*J_jjI

(Fr.

abonni) abnik

pl. -t subscription;

iblUP

pl.

ULI

ablisa

devil,

Satan
a deijl

subscription card

(e.g.,

for public convey-

ances, a concert season, etc.)


*j.
I

II

to celebrate, praise, eulogize

ceased person), deliver a funeral oration


(

ab a

(.LI

ib\

l.LI

ib'a)
reject,

to

refuse,
dis|

in praise of s.o.)
4iil

decline; to turn

down,

scom,

ubna passive pederasty


ibbn

dain (* s.th.); to deny (* J*


luij

s.o. s.th.)

VI

<jl

(ill
it;

an yaf'alah) he
<jl

in-

ljl

time;

uLI

ibbna during,

sisted

on doing
.
.

jl Vi ^>l

God

willed

Ll

at the time of, during


ta'bin

that
(of

V to

refuse, decline
.LI

,jol;

commemoration
|

a deat-t.

LI

ib*,

ib'a

rejection;

dislike,

ceased person)

,joI

*U*-

haflat

distaste, aversion, disdain; pride

commemorative celebration
a deceased person)

(in

honor of
jl ably disdainful, scomful; proud, lofty,

lofty-minded

by\* mqtbn catamite; weakng, moLiycoddle,


siasy";

scoundrel

<_J bin pl. L

vbh reserved, tandofiish

unwilling, reluctant, grudging i^wl abtb the eleventh

month

of the Coptic

^yljl abns ebony

calendar

;i

i;^L>l ablqri Epicurean

furnish, give, afford

(<_>

to

s.o.

s.th.),

jjjI abiqriya Epicureanism


r-jTl

provide, supply
pitious,

(<- *

s.o.
{

with) ; to be profor
(#

be favorable

s.o.),

favor

vtrujj

and
bot.)

j\ utrunj oitron

(Citrus

(* s.o.);

to turn out well

for s.o.), be in
( s.o.), (

medica;

favor

{ of);

to suit, befit,
( for s.o.);

become
to agree

^JLjT
jtL

be appropriate
(Turk. ateffi) t&$gi fireman, stoker
s.o.;

with

food)

^i $>

*\S\

[hiuSai'in) every-

ma'tam

pl.

ft, ma'rim.' obsequies, funeral

thing was in bis favor, turaed out well


for

ceremony
1

him, came bis


give (*

way IV
(*

to bring (*

* s.o.

s.th.); to
1jI

s.o. s.th.);

to grant (*
s.o. s.th.)

atn

pl.

JiT tun,

J^l

u*un, u/n female


to s.o.
SjJl

s.th.),

bestow

upon
alms

donkey, she-ass
3

JT

(zakta) to give

to origiresult
(je-

<jjjl

a/n, atin pl.

Jll

vlun,

J^jUI

aitln 2

nate,
(je-

atem, derive, spring,


(je-

arise,

kiln, furnace,

oven
aJuw duty, tax, tribute

from); to end

with), result

in); to get (Jl to), arrive (Jl at); to


jLjI

be easy

duu

pl. jjtji

to do, be feasible without diffioulty, be


attainable, go well, progress; to go about
s.th.

^pujjl (Fr.) oto&fa autobus, bus


(5-jUjjI (Fr.) otomtlki

(J) gently, cautiously


{ s.o.)

to ask to

automatic
automobile

come, induce to come

J yjf and
Jl
al
i

J-jj*yil

(Fr.) otomooij

JU matan
s.th.

pl.
;

ol* maiin place where

(UjI
(

yn, Jl aty, LjU math


s.o.),

comes from place at which one arrives


pl.

to

come

access;

or Jl to; J* over

ou

place

of origin;

origin,

arrive source, provenance; place

(* or Jl at);

Jl to bring, bring forward,


s.th. starts,

where one has

produce, advance, accomplish or achieve


s.th.;
t-

been or to which one has come; place where

jl to bring, give or offer

where

s.th.

ends
j

s.o.

s.th.; to do,

perform
e.g.,

{*

a deed), carry out,

c*\ tin

coming, next; following

f_>~*VI

execute

(*

movements); to commit,

jVl

{usb') the

coming week, next week;

perpetrate {* a sin, a crime); to mention

JVtT

as follows

(J* s.th.); to finiah off (J* s.th., also s.o.); to finish, complete, carry through, dispose,
aettle,

il>l_^

muiin, muwtin favorable, pro-

pitious, opportune, convenient, suitable


iil

wind up, conclude, terminate, bring


atta

to a close (J* a.th.); to destroy, annihilate,

(LjI atta)

to be luxuriant, grow

wipe out (J* s.th.); to eliminate, carry away, sweep away (J* B.th.), do
eradicate,

profusely (hair, plante) II to fix up, prepare


(a

s.th.);

to

furnish

(*

an

apartment)

away (J*
detail

with); to use up, exhauat (also

V to be

or

become

rieh, wealthy, to prosper;

a subject), prcsent exhauatively, in great


(J*
as
s.th.),

to be furnished
i>ljl

Jl

li"

elaborate (J* on s.th.) follows; *_^T Jl (kirihi)

att furniture,

furnishings

(of

an

Jp

apartment, of a room)
ti~uu ta'tit furnishing
<il

to complete, finish s.th.; to spend or use

up the
to

last of s.th.;

destroy

everything,
J'

^-jUIj ^-i-Vl J* Jl wreak havoc;


(buyia)

ait,

tiuJI

atil

abundant, luxuriant,

profusely growing (hair, plants)


Lrl^J
s.th. in

^Oa^

to

tackle
x

the right way, knock on the right


Jjj yu't

j atara u
I

(air,

SjUI atra) to transmit, pass


je-

door;

Jj j*

min

qibali

is

underoffer,

along, report, relate (* s.th.,

from, or
II

mined, weakened, ruined by III to

based on the

authority

of,

s.o.)

to

);

affect, influence

( j or J* s.o., a.th.), act (j or J* upoo), produce an effect, make


( j or J* on) IV to prefer (J* * B.th. to), more (J* than); to have a pre-

j\ ra (prep.) immediately after, right


after

an impression, have influence


to induce (phys.)
like (* s.th.)

&j\
(also

atari

archeologic(al) ;

archeologist
|

^jIjT fri); old, ancient, antique

iSj\ (1U archeologist;

hj\

<ii

(luga)

dead

dilection,

a liking

(* for), like (* H.th.),

be

language

fond (* of); to choose, deem wise or advisable


s.o.,

(jl
|

to

do

s.th.);

to adore

{*,

atir egoistic, eelfiflh

B.th.)

_yX\j

*-J

j\ (nafaah
hope

bi-l-

atara Belfihness, egoism


atlr favored, preferred (J^c

kair) to wih o.s. well,

for the best


jrul

for o.s.

by

s.o.),

to be impressed, be influenced;
in favor (.u* with s.o.); select, exquisite,

to let

o.s.

be impressed, be impresible; to
noble; see also alphabetically
(i_j

be moved, be touched

or J by, also
jl

*); to be exoited, be stimulated; to be

ara remainder, remnant; faint

affeoted

(<-

by,

said

of materials, e.g.,

trace, vestige

iron

by

acid); to be
s.o.'s

induced (phys.); to
follow
a.o.'s

ij\* ma'tara, ma'tura


exploit, feat, glorious
jv\j ta'tir

pl.

j\* ma'Hr*

follow

in

() tracks,
( s.o.);

deed

example, emulate

to pursue, follow
action, effect, influence, im-

up
feel

(*

a question, a problem) ; to perceive,

{* s.th.)

to claim a monopoly; to

poesess alone, with the excluaion of others,

pression (j, J* on); effectiveness, efcacy; induction (phys.)

monopolize
B.th.),

(i_*

B.th.);

to appropriate
(l_j

(^
of);

tfjvb

ta'tiri

produced by induction,

in-

take exclusive possession


s.th.),

ductive, inductional, induced (phys.)


jlil itr preference;

to

preoccupy (*
j

engross

(*

the

altmism; predilec-

attention)

<>!

ytu-l the

Lord has taken

tion; ktve, affection

hfm unto Himself


yl* ta'agur being influenced; agitation,

atar pl. jIjT tr track, trace, vestige;

emotion, feeling; excitability, eensitivity;


(pl. -t) feeling,

sign,

mark; touch; Impression,

effeot, ac-

Sensation, perception

j _J

tion, influence

(j on); tradition

(relating

yUJl
sitive

easily

impressed,

impresaible,

sen-

the deeds and utterances of

Mohammed
(of art, esp.

and

bis

Companions); work

of literature); ancient monument; jTantiquities


relics
| ;

tfjfc

ta'atturi:

^ytdl

^Jl\ (madhab)

remnants, vestiges
1*

religioua

the impreBsionistic

movement

jtf^ll

*m

(d-.

archeology;
*J

ylj taatiuriya impressionism


jlii-l
isti'tr

j^fl jli
(atara)

museum

of antiquitiea;
ineffeotnal;
i

j\

V
arrogation of a
;

ineffective,

jtrj

monop-

J\j

oly

monopolization

preaumption, pre-

(rafi) with retroaotive force O'ur.); -*\

,>*

Xu

sumptuousness; exclusive power


\J\

asbaha ataran ba'da 'ainin to

be deetroyed, be wiped out, leave noth-

jjjU ma'tr transmitted, handed down


j_jjL
J_jS
(qa-ul)

ingbutmemorybehind;,>* -W
dah) to destroy
tj
I

Lr' *'*'

a '*

and !jjjL

it

(kalima)

s.th.

completely; j\ J,
(its)

proverb

(also fi itrihi)

on bis

track, at

Mb

jja

mu'air

affecting,

acting

upon;

heels, after

bim; immediately afterwards,

affective ;

impressive ;
(pl. -t)

moving,

toucbing,
factor,
in-

presently, thereupon;

y^l J immediately

pathetic;
flnence

influencing

afterwards, presently

*j$\

look

up

alphabetically
JiLjI
:

i-j-l

ajabtya horologium (Copt.-Chr.)


ajara

LjI

ulfiya pl.

atfin trivet, tripod (in

^-1

(ajr)

to

reward, recompense,
II to let for rent, let

ancient times

any one of the three stones


fiie)
|

remunerate

( s.o.)

supporting a cooking pot near the


jIj Vi
JIj

out, hire out, rent, lease (* s.th.) ; (with na/*

that which rounds out a number,

sah) to hire

o.s.

out IV to

let for rent, let


;

caps

s.th.,

puts the lid on

s.th.,

the crowning

out, hire out, rent, lease (* s.th.)


hire, lease,

to rent,
s.th.),

touch
JJI

hold under a lease (*

take a lease (* on) ; to hire, engage, take


atala i

to
rieh

consolidate, strengthen II to

become

V to be

on
Consolidated,

( s.o.),

engage the Services

be

of

s.o.)

X
a

Btrengthened ; to become rieh


J?l atl
pl.

to rent, hire, lease, hold under a lease

(*s.th.), take a lease (* on); to charter {*


JjjI utl (coli.;
(bot.)

n. un.

pl,

vessel); to hire, engage,

take on

( b.o.),

atall)

tamarisk
atil

engage the Services


j*1

{
1

of

s.o.)

JJI

and JJj* mv'attal deep-rooted;

ajr

pl.

jy-

ujr

wages,

pay,
re-

of noble origin, highborn


jrl

honorarium, recompense, emolument,


to sin, err,

alima a (um, atam,


slip
o.b.,

A* ma'tam)
shun

muneration; price, rate, fee


|

jj-Jl jj*~\

to eschew sin,

u. as-aafar fares
evil; to restrain
lj>-\

hold back

ujra hire, rent, rental; price, rate,


|

r\ itm pl. *\j\

tm

sin, offense,

misdeed,

fee; fiied rate, (official) charge; postage

crime

4jj"
pl.

Vr

postage; JiJl

lj>-\

u. an-naql

f U ma'tam

transport charges, freight(age), carriage,


L.

ma'tim*

sin, offense,

cartage
_r>-l

misdeed, crime
ajxr

-j ta'fim sin, offense, misdeed, crime


s-T
Lei

pl.

I_^-I

ujar* 2

hireling;

workraan, laborer, day laborer; employee


tim
pl. xl

atama and Jl a^tm

pl.

utam' 1

sinful, criminai,

wicked, ev;

j*?\
girl,

ajira

working

woman,

factory

sinner
Xc
1

female laborer;

woman employee

tjnutZ

antimony

j*-t ta'jir letting, leasing, hiring out,

lottingon lease ; lease |yl*Vlj j^r^l


_r*l

fjA*

a/ir ether

(i'ra)

Lend- Lease Act

Lul atin Athens


Lj^JI atybiy Ethiopia
J^~ji

jL<l ijr pl. -t rent; letting, leasing,

hiring

out, letting

on

lease

jLf^U for

rent, to let
(pl.

atybi Ethiopian;
|

-n)

an

jU-l ijra pl. -t rent; letting, leasing,

Ethiopian
^1 ajja
(fire)

j.jJVI j^AJI Ethiopia

hiring out, letting

on

lease

u
I

(^*-\ ajij) to burn, blaze, flame


kindle, start (* a
fire)

jl*-l iti'jr rent, lease,

tenure
the

II to light,

j^L

ma'jr paid, salaried, on

payroll, gainfully
r-U-l l>

employed; employee;

m* ujj

bitter, salty

water

mercenary, venal, hired, bribed


j*rj* mu'ajjir pl.

^U-l ajjj burning, blazing, hot


jv^U. mvta'ajjij burning, blazing, flam-

-n landlord, lesaor
leaseholder,
lessee,

j>r^* tenant; employer

mwta'jir

_^.T jurr (n. un. 5)

baked brick

jr'jr'

w
a.o.

to do

s.th.);

to enjoin, impose (_>

tivatea the heart, a fascinating, thrilling

on
a.o.

s.o. H.th.);

to take

away

(*

Je from
s.o.

thing; ^Lll

L'i>-I

(mataru)
-U-i

we got caught
(bi-7ipirihi)

s.th.), strip,
off,

deprive {* Je
s.o.

of),

in the rain;

*j~*\^>

to

cut

bar (* Je
(*

from); to reproach,
to hold against

help

s.o.,

stand

by

s.o.,

take care of

s.o.,

blame
s.o.

Je

s.o.

for);

look after s.o.;

*kl
pJI

-U-i .U-l

{nafasah) to
to take s.o.'s

(Je) that... (Ol), fix the blame fje


s.o., jl for

draw breath;
breath

<-Lill

<A*

on
(>_>

the fact that); to obligate


to learn (Je or
j*.

away;

.U-l

(7iaum)
.U-1

sleep

J*

s.o. to);

from

overwhelmed him;
to help
s.o.,

.u

(6t-yadiAt)

s.o.,

* s.th.), acquire
s.o.),

from

te

i*l'

-i>-l

knowledge (Je or j*. (Jilm) to study


i_>

stand by

s.o. II

to lay under
III to

a spell, enchant, bewitch


censure, blame
(>_>,
o

( s.o.)

under
s.th.
s.th.),

s.o.;

to begin, start (j or
foll.

with

Je

s.o. for s.th.);

to

or s.th., with

imperf.: to

do
>_>

punish

(>_>,

Je

s.o.
(),

for); to

hold

s.th.

prepare, set out, be about (j or


s.th.)
|

(Je) against s.o.


s.o.)
|

resent (J* s.th.

in

to

do

*u>\ -U-l (uhbatah) to

make

!j.U-1jJ

l tu'kidnl offense, I
(*

pardon me!
.ucl

preparations,
"5 -U-t
-i*-'

prepare

o.s.,

get

ready;

forgive

me! no

hope! VIII

(makad) to adopt the same


follow s.o.'s example;
s.o.,

ittakada to take

s.th.);

to take on,

course as

s.o. eise,

assume

(* s.th.);

to take up, occupy (*


(* e.g., a resolution);

IJU-l* *l* l*-\

to seize

take possession
-U-l

s.th.); to pass,

adopt

of

a.o. (a

Sensation, or the like); \jtt


its

to take, single out, have in


s.o.

mind

(**, >
s.th.),
e.g.,

(majrhu) to take

course;

<Jl X\

or s.th. as); to

make

use (* of

(majliaah) to take one's seat, sit

down;

use (a s.th.); to imitate, affect (*


s.o.'s

jj^

i-l

(hidrah) to be on one's guard;

manner of speaking)

to
|

make

J_J-L
nice to
o.s.

-U-I

(husn)

to be friendly, be to

(j* m s.th. out of s.o. or s.th.) (Saklan)


\Jj* Jcl

"&J- ikl

s.o.

a_^lic -U-1 (bi-ktirihi)

show
to to

to take on a form or shape;

complaisant
s.o.;

toward
-U-I

s.o.,

try

(mauqifan) to take an attitude,


j:>UI

pleaee

aJ-U

(bi-danbihi)
X^-\

assume a position;

jol-cdl

kl to
-i^l

punish

s.o. for hie

offense; o]j

(raya*

take the necessary measures;

ljl_^f

h) to ask
aAs.

s.o.'s

opinion,

consult s.o.;

(qarran) to pass or adopt a resolution;


-UJj-l

^J>\

-U-l

{ukida r-ra'yu) the matter


i-jL-L ^l {bi-asbbi)

^Jl^il

&\

to take

up new po-

was put to a vote;

sitions (troops)
.U-l

to embrace, adopt s.th., e.g.,


ijjj*yi SjUi-1

vV"^ -^

akd acceptance, reception;

seizure;
|

(hadra) to adopt Euro\*-\

taking out, taking away, removal, etc.


<j\j\ .U-l a.

pean culture; JJL


with
s.o.

iidda) to deal
s.o.

ar-ray voting, vote; ijj


discussion,
l-i=1

-U-1

severely,

give

rough
s.o.'s
A-\

(wa-radd)

debate,

dispute,

time; *jJ* <^* -U-l to obstruct way, hinder s.o. from moving on;
*ijU J* to Shoulder
o.s.;
s.th.,

argument; bj Vj

J^ V ^i
traffic,

(yaqbalu)
.U-l

an indisputable matter; Uaej


'af')

{wa-

take

s.th.

upon

give-and-take;
relationa
(esp.

trade; deal-

JjJI

Jj-\

('udda) to

prepare, set

ings,

business,

commer-

out, get ready to


('dhdari) to

do

s.th.;

\x^

4-1* >-1

cial); discussion,
.U-l
JL>-

debate; fight, battle

put

a.o.

under an Obligation,
s.o.;

ukda

spell,

charm

impose a commitment on
Iji.

J*

-U-l
1

akld prisoner of war

(j\>-}

ukida 'al (Amt) girratin to be


*Xs-\ akida booty, spoils

taken by surprise, be caught unawares;

jUj
like;

-U-I

(muqbala) to repay like for


-L-^L

iU-l
thrilling

akk4

captivating,

fascinating,

i_^UJI

^i

s.th.

which cap-

; ;

i\

Ju-U ma'kad

pl.

JU-l*

makid 2
s.th.,
{el.)
;

place

so

forth,

et

cetera;

j*V' j->

kira

l-

from

which

one

takes
outlet

source

amri eventuay,
all; jj}\ _^-T
L-jJl

finally, in

the end, after

wall

socket,

adoption,

kira d-dahri forever; _^-T

borrowing, loan ; manner of acting,

mode

az-zamn time at
is

which the

of procedura, approach; pl. -U source


referencea, bibliography (in booka); rep-

Day

of

Judgment

to be expected, the

end of the world;

'>' J* to the

last,

rehensible points, faults, flaws, defects,

down

to the grass roots, entirely, com-

shortcomings
easiest

^>Vl
;

o-tU the simplest,

pletely, e.g., j*-T

j* _^i {dummira) to

approach

-Ulli

^^

eaay

to

be completely destroyed, be wiped off the

handle or to use; aee also akada (middle


of paragraph)
irf-lj,

map

j>-\
<!
I*

^- from behind, from the


endlesa, infinite;
last j*-T

rear;

_^-T

mu'kada
J

objection, exception;
"}/

_^\
a.

after

all,

of

all;

_*iJI

y-ljl
last

oi-ioAr the

end of the month, the

censure, blame

!-bUj*

(mv'kadata)
ten days of the month;
last

I^T

pardon me! no

offense, I hope!

^j-^j

lj!

but not

least

i_p-U ma'Jcd taken, seized; taken


aurpriae,

by

lj*-^\ al-kira the hereafter

caught,
with),

trapped

surpriaed
(t-*

taken
Ai

{^

fascinated

by)

_^T kar 3 ,
ukar*

f. <j_/-\

ukr,

pl.

comm.
or

_/-\

ij^U

in force, valid
receipts,

(and

jj^\

karn

o U_^-

ukrayt respectively) another, one more,

oli^L makdt
returns (com.)

takings,

j*-^l

the

other

^j*-l
(

(marratan)
_>

once more; j^^-lM


off,

>

*,

j*-^

he

also,
Lil

i-\

II

to delay, put
(*
a.th.)
;

defer,

postpone,

she also, he in turn, ab in turn, j-^


I also;

adjourn

to
(

hinder,

impede,

ti^^l oJtf
Jl T j
iL-

o\

(in knat) other -

obetruct, hold

up
(*

s.o.,

* s.th.), slow

wise;
^ji~\

^T
Jl

from time to time;


from year to
once in a

down, retard

a.th.);

to
ita

draw

out,

y* jj

(sana)
Cr J
.

delay (j* # a.th. beyond


time); to put back (*,
(* s.th.);

appointed
shelve

year;
while,

<Sj*-\j

{/o*)

from time to time;

tj*-l

*5jT

a.o., s.th.),

(winatan) Bometimes

to set back (* a watch, a dock);

sometimes, at

to auspend, discharge, dismiss,


(> s.o.

remove
be

times

at times
1

from an
fall

office)

V to be

late; to

tf^Vl al-ukr the hereafter


SISto
ufcrow of or relating to the
life

delayed,
linger,

or lag behind (j*), tarry,

heaitate; to default (j* on), be

come

or the hereafter
latest;

behindhand, be in arreara (j* with), be

behind {j*
be

in); to hesitate (j* with); to

^-1

akir last;

rearmost; the

suspended

(from

aervice),
|

be

dia-

second of two;
in

l,r-l

eventually, finally,

charged, be dismiaaed
l

the end, after

all,

at last; recently,
j-1/l
|

dJli -Xm j^-^-i l

after that, he did


...,

not hesitate long


...

lately, the other

day;

/l/1

the

before he

presently, he

former
last

the latter

l_^-T

^j

lj*-l

but not least


retaine ita

_^-T kir pl. -n, -t, _/- \j\ aivkir* last,

ultimate,

utmost, extreme; end, close,

jU^> mi'kr palm which


fruit into the winter

conclusion; foot, bottom (of a paper);

>^l

and ;>^l the hereafter i>^l jUl


\

^-U

ta'kir

delay,

deferment,

post-

the abode in the hereafter, the everlasting

ponement; obstruction, retardation; putting back, temporary shelving

abode;

_^-T J(

il

kirihi

and

,;

j*\i taakkur delay, lag, retardation;


hesitation, tarrying, lingering; slowneas,

~tjj\

akawya brotherhood

(as a re-

ligious association)

tardinesa;

backwardness, underdevelop-

U-

ik' ,

j>-

ukwa

brotherhood

ment

(of

a country)

brotherliness, fratemity
jl*-l

j*-j*

mu'akkar rear part, tau, end;


;

ilcxua

fratemization, fraternity,

stern (of a ship)

remainder, balance (of


\j*-$*

brotherliness
i-t ta'kin fratemization
j_j>-l

a sum, to be paid later);

mu'akka

ran recently, lately, the other day; at


last, finally,

eventually
rear, rear

ajcr barn, stable


befall, affct ( s.o.)

j-j*

mu'akkara
rear

guard
lines

(of

an
jl

adda ut to
il j*l

army)

positions

or

(m.) ;

stern (of a ship) _^l^4 muta'akkir delayed, belated, late;

amr

idd a terrible, evil, horrible

thing occurring later (je than); behind, behind.ol

aduba u (adab) to be well-bred, well-

hand,

in arrears;

backward, underdevel-

mannered, eultured, urbane, have refined


tastes;

oped; lagging, staying behind; defaulter;

or
|

adaba

(adb) to invite

(to

Uj^-ldl the
writers, or the

later,

or modern, authora,

party
(* s.o.)

banquet,

s.o.),

entertain

likefasopposedtoj^ JJtdl);
re|

ijU

>_ol (ma'duba) to

arrange a
II

ol>-uil arrears, balance of a sum

banquet, give
refine,

a
(

formal
s.o.);

dinner
to

to

maining due after previous payment


i^lxil
OloiJt

educate

diseipline,

(buidn)

the

underdevel-

punish, ehastise

(* s.o.)

IV to invite aa a

oped countries
Sr^Aaji-\

guest

( s.o.)

to reeeive a fine education

to be well-bred, well-educated, eultured,

Ukfubf OCtOpuS

have refined tastes; to show


courteous,
civil,

o.s.

polite,
o.a.,

j>-\

III to fraternize, aasociate as brothera


(

urbane; to educate

with

s.o.)

to act or

show

o.s.

as a

refine one's tastes


o.a.

(^

by, through); to let


|

brother or friend VI to fraternize, associate as brothers


;-l

be guided

(i_j

by)

-jj

._oIj

(6t-

adabihi) to follow s.o.'s moral

example
re-

ak

pl.

ij*-\

ikwa,

jl_^>-l

ikwn

i_ol

adab

pl.

._jl.sT

db eulture,

brother; fellow
pl. l_jjil speeif.,

man, neighbor; friend; brethren or members of


religious

finement; good breeding, good manners,


social

gracea,

decorum, decency,

pro-

an order;
of the

jl_j>-Vl

brotherhood

priety,

seemliness;

humanity, humane|

Wahabi

sect, militant in character,

ness; the humanities; belles-lettres

c-jj

established

by Ibn Sa'd
*)
_^>-l

in

1910

^-1 L

^j^I
,,-oVl

toilet,

water closet; .-olM

J~L#

and

my

dear friend!

ak

tiqa trust-

fJ* ill-mannered,
i/UI
i_jj"i!l

ill-bred, impolite,

worthy, reliable;

jJ

brother through

uncivU;

('mml)
literati,

populr

both father and mother, brother-german


<l^-\

literature;
lettera;

t-o^l

Jl*-j

^!^l

S-JS'

kulllyat al-.

men (=

of
fa-

ukt

pl.

cJ\yi~\

akait
|

eister;

culte

des lettres) College of arts;


of conduet,
e.g., j_ji-JI

._jIjI

{gram.) cognate; counterpart

l^-l

the

rulea, rules

t-jU
de-

other (of two), its mate,


(after a fem.

its

counterpart

rules

of decorum, etiquette;

i-jIjVI

noun)

cency, morals
Jjl J^l

jj>- Jcuwaiy little brother

adabi moral, ethic(al); literary

6j>-\ akawi brotherly, fraternal

<*-lj

moral Obligation;

LjjL-j

\-td

;;

10

adabiyan wa-mddiyan morally and physically;

V>l,

l*i\

adam, adama skin

-o^

ii-iiJI (jalaafa) ethica,

moral

<jl

adim
|

skin; surface;
f*\
<*

tanned skin,

science
*iLol adabiyt Uterature, bellea-lettres
iJLie.il

leather

^jVl

al-ar$ the surface

of the earth
j.ljl

adabJfna

pl.

-dt

toet, wator
3 pjT

addm tanner

closet

dam*
tji\

Adam
dami

,oT

^jil

oii6

pt.

UjI

tuia6' a

^ human
\

being
poor,

cultured,

refined, educated; well-bred, well-manner-

buman;
(pl.

humane;

ed, civil, urbane; a refined


tastes;

man

of culture

and

inferior,

meager;

-n, joljl

awdim 2 )

man

of letters,

writer,

human
-*jT

being

author
ijjl adiba authoress, writer

damiya humaneness, humanity;

humanism
ban Ijl

iol*

ma'duba

pl.

<>jU

ma'ewitt*

adh

pl.

oljji adawt tool; instrument;

quet, formal dinner _jit to'dit education ; discipline; pun-

Utensil,

implement,
(gram.)

device,
particle
|

appliance
SA-1
IjI

apparatus;
o.

ishment, chastisement; disciplinary pun-

oi-Ajbm
ll.il

machinery of govemment;
definite article (gram.);
*IaI

ishment

^__j jl^Jl

^j-Lf

majlia

at-t.

dis-

._ju_^jl

ciplinary board

JLLJ (tan/idiya) executive agency;


materials, equipment, gear,
*^j_^~

pl.

olj.il

^jIj

ta'dibi disciplinary; punitive, re|

(AarMya)

war material;

i-LL^-l

olj^l

taliatory

<&&

<-* (qadlya) discipli-

(iA(tyafiya)

stand-by equipment

(techn.);

nary action

iJj^. olj.il (manztJiya) household Uten-

wot

ta'addub
civility,

good

breeding,

good

sils,

household effects

manners,
ness, tact

politenesa, courteous-

jjV' al-adn (Hebr.) the Lord;


<js\

Mr

(Isr.)

<_oT dib host


t-oj*

II to

convey, take, bring, lead, steer,


(*,
i

mu'oddit

pl.

-n

educator

Channel
that
s.o.

or

s.o., s.th., Jl to),

see

teacher in a Koranic school (Tun.);

or s.th.

(*,

or

<_j)

gets to (Jl);

muaddab
urbane
jjl

well-bred, well-mannered, civil,

to bring about, cause, effect, produce


(Jl s.th.); to lead, contribute,

be condu-

cive (Jl to a result); to

amount, come

vdra scrotal hernia


adirna 2 Edirne,

practically (Jl to); to tend (Jl to),


(Jl at);

aim

to carry out, execute, discharge


to perform (* a ritual, etc.);

jjl

Adrianople

(city

in
(* s.th.);

NW Turkey)
^LjLjjVI (Fr. adrtatique) al-adriyatxk and
*ilJljjjV1
x

to

do (vr'j wjibah one's duty); to


(-Uj a function,
iJIj

fulfill

a mission);

j bahr

al-a.

the Adriatic Sea

to accomplish (jj^U a task); to take


(L_c

an oath;
(L.0*;

UUll.1

an examination)

*s\

adama

(adm) to take some additional

to render
Jl

kidmatan a Service, J or meaning, a musical


|

food (* with the bread), enrich (* the


bread) "with aome extra food or condi-

to

s.o.

a e.g., a
etc.)

composition,

>*"5*Jl

^jI

(saldm)

ment
a\i\

to greet, Baiute

to load, be conducive,

idm anything eaten with bread;

contribute

(Jl

to results); to be carried

shortening, fatty ingredient

out, be performed, be accomplished ; to

, ;

il

arrive

Jl at),

be lead

( Jl

to)

X to demand,
noun of
(of
II)

(<_

of

s.th.),

be informed

(i_

about) II to

claim {*

from

s.o. s.th.)

call

(i_j

to),esp. to call to prayer (J-^LaJl;);

bl ad* pl. -t (as verbal

to crow (rooster) IV to announce,

make

rendering (of a Service); pursuit, Per-

known
upon
( s.o.)

(.-

s.th.,

i_j

to

s.o. s.th.),

inform,

formance,

execution,

discharge

notify (* s.o.); to call to prayer; to call


s.o.
(),

duty), realization,

effeotuation,

accom-

urge,

admonish, exhort
(i_i

plishment (of a task); rendition, reading


(e.g.,

to do s.th. {_-); to herald

or *

of a musical oompoeition);
f

s.th.);
fulfill-

to foreshadow
(l

(i_j

s.th.); to
|

be on

ment; payment

IjIII

j~*-

kum
art,

the verge
al-a.

of doing s.th.) to

-UjiJtj jjT

good rendition

(of

a work of

of a

(JljjJL)

(zawl)

show

signs

of the
JJJI

musical composition)
Sjjtj

imminent downfall (end); L*ijIj


(lailu bi-ntipf) it

jT

was

close to
(i_

midnight

ta'diya rendering (of a Service);

to herald, announce

s.th.)

to ask
i_j);

pursuit,

Performance,

execution,

dis-

permission (j to do
to ask
house),

s.th.,

rarely

charge (of a duty), realization, effectuation;

permission

accomplishment

(of

a task);

ful-

have

o.s.

enter (J* announced (J* to


to
s.o.),

s.o.'s

s.o.);

fiUment; payment

to take leave (,y of


task, func-

say good-by

&J mu'addan assignment,


underlying idea
jl

(-to)
jl idn permission, authorization
Zt\ if
;

tion ; sense, meaning, signification, import,

oili

God

choose,

God

willing; (pl. jjjl


|

i$ 1. (introducing

a verbal

clause) (and)

udn, olijjl udnt) (postal) order


-b^rJl pl.

uil

then;

iJlj

jl

id

dka

(also written jlil)

Jj^JI

oUjjl postal money order;

then, at that time, at the

same

time, in
as,

<i>jjl uil do.

doing so;

2. (conj.;

temp. and caus.)

jjl

udun, ud,n

f.,

pl.
|

jljT

dn ear;
i^l

when;

since, as, the

more so

as, because;

handle (of a cup)

J**J\-

u^ll
media

jl jl id

anna

since, as, in

view of the fact

(wusf) middle-ear infection, Otitis


(med.)

that; for, because


1

ljl

id

1.

(introducing a

nominal clause
he expressed

jlil

adn

call to
little

prayer
ear; ear lobe
pl.

the subject of which

may

ojl udaina

by
all

i_j

with

foll.

genit.)

and then, and


there

ojU ma'dana,
ma'din 3 minaret
IjI

oit. mi'dana

iL

of

a sudden; (with noun in nominacase


or with
i_j)

tive

waa

and

all

of

sudden there
if,

was

Idn declaration, proclamation,


s.th.)
|

2. (conj.)

when;

whenever; whether,
questions);
VI
L.

if
lil

announcement (^ of
tljJi-l
is

1.^1;

IJ

JL*

(introducing indirect

indicating that the conversation

when, whenever;
not; except
2

lil

(id) unless, if

(was) ended

when

jJU ma'gn authorized; slave with


limited legal rights
(Isl.

Law)

jj iL

ljl

(Dil)

idan then, therefore, in that case,

^ji.

(Sar'i) ofcial

authorized by the cadi

hence, consequently
to perform civil marriages (Isl.
jljT dr 2
Ir.)
1

Law)
(mil.

March (month;

Syr., Leb., Jord.,

JjiL ma'dniya leave, furlough


Syr.); license, franchise (Syr.)

jjl a4ina

a to

listen (Jl to s.o.); to allow,


s.o.

ui_J*

mu'addin muezzin, announoer of

pormit (j J

a.th.);

to hear, learn

the hour of prayer

jil

il tdan see

2 lil

jjl^jl ariuwzx artesian (well)


1

^p! a^tya a to suffer damage, be harmed

i*J

ntosowdissension{^ubetween,among)
*'rf

IV to hrm, hurt, wrong


lest,
,j;jjj

( s.o.);

to

mo2

>jl

annoy,
l yu'di

irritate, trouble ( s.o.)

V
ifS'iyj

inheritance,

heritage;

estate

(of

inheritance)

innocuous, harmless, inoffen I

sive

to aufFer damage, be wronged; to

UTtduksX

orthodox

<-Siyj V

feel offended,
,j}\

be hurt
adk,
Jjjl

the Orthodox Church

adan,

Ijl

adlya damage,

^-Tj^jV' fj^l ar-rm al-urtduks the


Greek Orthodox Cburch
j^jl

hrm; injury;

trouble, aruioyance, griev-

ance, wrong, offense, insult


arija a (araj, _j\arij)

tobe fragrant Vdo.

Jjlil

idya

damage, hrm, harmful^jl araj fragrance, sweet smell


jl arij fragrant, sweet- smelling

neBS, noziousnesB
lil id'

hrm, damage, prejudice;

offense, hurt; grievance, nuisance


ij*

jl
injurik-jI II

arij fragrance, sweet smell

mu'din hurtful, harmful,

taarjaha to rock, Swing


muta'arjih fluctuating

ous, detrimental, prejudicial; annoying,

irksome, troublesome; painful, hurting,


offensive, insulting

wv-jti*

,>i*-jVl al~arjanlin Argentina


pl. jIjI

jjljl

artiqi

and

J^jIjI

artiqa

j^jl

urjwwn purple
urjuwni purple (-colored)
(eg.)

a heretic (Ckr.)
(jl_j*-jl

t/ljT

rmi Aramaean; Aramaio


J^Tj' populr spelling
of j^*-_^ 'araariba a {arab) to be skillful, proficient

<_^jl

(_*

in

s.th.);

gz (q.v.);

Punch

(in a

Punch and Judy

araba

to tighten
( s. o.)

(a

show)
j-jl

a knot) HI
wijl

to try to outwit
pl.
<_jIjT

arab

rb wish (j

for),

II to date (*

letter,

and the

like,

<_*

desire,

need (j of

s.th.);

purpoae, aim,

with a date); to write the hiatory of


s.th. (*)

goal,

end
irb pl. ^IjTrfi

i-*jl

limb

Ljl Ljl Sj*

jU

ta'rik
r j\y f

dating (of a

letter, etc.);

(mazso^aft) to tear s.th. to pieces or to

irik pl.

Uxwrxk 2 date; time; his|

shreds
jl irba skill, resourcefulness, clever-

tory; chronicle, annals

SLJ-1

f.j^i t.al-

hayh biography; curriculum


*U-

vitae; jIj

{'mm) world history;

AjUI

L*U the

ness, smartness

historians
jjI

uria

pl. -jjI

raA knot,

bow

Jtj
^jl
arifc

ftmf historic(al)
-n historiographer,

skillful,

resourceful, clever,
jrjj* mw'arrifc pl.

intelligent

historian,
<>jU

chronicler, annahst;

mu

ma*rab
object

pl.

<_.>jL.

ma'rtfi 8

wish,

'arrak dated
J-j^jl arkabil archipclago

desire;
goal,

of desire, purpose, aim,

end
Arbela, city

Jojl
in

arbll 2 Erbil (the ancient

j^-jl

(5p^)v) pl. i^UjI arkina archon, pl.

Iraq)

notables (Chr.-Copt.)

j\

i_ojl irdabb
pl.

(now usually pronounced ardabb)


ardib 2 ardeb, a dry meaaure

painting); ground floor,


storage,
fjy-ijl

first floor (tun.);

t_jjljl

warehouse charges
(city

[Eg.;

1981)

ardurm 2 Erzurum

in

NE

iijl irdabba cesspool

Turkey)
jl

JjjVl al-urdunn Jordan (river and country)


Jijl
ijT'lAl

(also

*ljjl)

urfa

pl.

ijl

uraf (ijjl)

urdunm Jordanian JjjV'


|

<SlLil

battalion (formerly, Eg.; mit.)


Uijl arpaqa pl. -t

al-mamlaka

al-u. al-hSimlya

the

heresy (Ckr.)

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan


designation)
jljjjl (Fr. ardoise)

(official

jjU see

jj
pl.

arduwz

slate

j^jl

urgun

j^ljl

argin* organ

(mu8.

instr.)

*jjl arz (n. un,


2

cedar
J_>pjt

urgl, argl

a wind instrument

(re-

jjl aruzz rice


(ars) to tili
trris

lated to the clarinet, consisting of

two

^jl arasa

the land
aris peasant,

pipes of unequal length)

^jl
^jjz^j]

and

farmer

jjl

ariqa a to find no sleep II to


sleeplesa
(

make
from

s.o.),

aristuqrfi aristocratic ;

aristocrat

prevent

s.o.

()

sleeping
JsljJii-jl

aristuqrtiya aristocracy
jjl araq
lessness,

insomnia
couch, sofa;

_jL-jl arisf Aristotle

iSji

arika

pl.

dUljl

ar'ik 2

^jl arS indemnity, amercement,


alty; blood

fine,

pen-

throne
iLSj! argila
pl.

money

(for

the shedding of

blood;

Isl.

Law)

jXijl argtP

{syr.)

water

pipe, narghile ^-jji-jl ^yijl (Gr. Qxtenioxonog) archbishop

^oJjl irlandi Iriah


jjj_ijl
(Fr.

archiduc)

archduke,

j-LJjl
l

*j\

arama
jjl

to bite

archduchess

urram

molar teeth

*Ji\

j*-

^jl

ard
;

f.,

pl.

^Ijl ardin,

j~ji
;

aradn

(harraqa) to gnash one's teeth (in anger)


i*jjl

earth land, country, region, area terrain,

ground,

soil
|

^J\
l

(j-*jV

(sufl)

the

arma, urma root, origin; stump

nether world; L-JJUi


the

^jV'
of
;

(muqaddasa)

of a tree
lj.t

Holy Land, Palestine


I

mVram

root (of a tooth)


pl.

^ij
soil-,

ardi

terrestrial,

the

earth

iljT

rm (=

*Tjl

land- (in Compounds)

situated on

of fj

ri'm)

white

antelopes

or near the ground,


Iy;

ground

{adj.); earth-

Underground, aubterranean
ardi Saukl artichoke
(coli.;

,>jV al-arman
J*j!
Li-.jl

the

Armenians
(adj.

j ^jl

armani Armenian

and

n.)

^jl

arad

n.

un.

V)

termite;

armeniy Armenia

woodworm
l~Jj\
(also,

ardlya
of a

pl.

-t

floor;

ground
of a

ijjUjVI al-amivut the Albanians

e.g.,

printed

fabric,

^jljjl arnwuti Albanian

^jl arnab f., ja^ ^jjl


3jjl

pl. .-Jljl

arnib 2 hare; rabbit

jljl
|

izr

m. and

f., pl.

jjl uzur loin-

(hiTtdi)

guinea pig
|

cloth; wrap, shawl; wrapper, covering,

cover

arnaba female hare, doe

<Jj\

tju^l o. al-anf tip of the nose; nose,

jj mi'zar

pl.

jju ma'zir 2 apron;

muzzle
liLJjl

(of

an animal)
pl. iLiljl

wrapper, covering, cover


arnik 2
jjlj*

(Turk. rnek) antik

mu'zara

support, aid,

assiat-

pattern, model; form, blank


bjjl

ance, backing

jjU
urztbb

t'zur

mutual assistance
vzf) to come, ap-

Europe
Jjl azifa

(azaj, Jjjl

jjjl
\ijl ar V
1

urubbi European

(adj.

and

n.)

proach, draw near (a time)


jjl azaqa
i

honey

(azq) to be
pl.

narrow V do.

jjT ort Aryan


ij

jju ma'ziq

jj U ma'ziq 2 narrow
strait, bottle-

jT riya Aryanism

passageway, narrow pass,


neck; predicament,
fix,

dilemma,
(harij)

critical

Ujl onA Jericho


jl

Situation, also ~j~


aziz) to

jju

azza u

(Jrjl

simmer; to hum,
fizzle;

Jjl

azal

pl.

JljT

zl

eternity

(without

buzz; to whiz, hiaa; to


j-ji

to wheeze

beginning), sempiternity
Jjl azall eternal, sempiternal
iJjl

aziz

hum(ming), buzz(ing); whiz-

zing, whizz, whistle (e.g., of bulleta)

azaliya sempiternity, eternity


or

^jl

azaba
i-t1jt.

(azb)

to flow, run (water)


pl.

(jl

to be

become

critical,

come

to a

mi'zb
pl.

ijju ma'ztb 2

and

head (Situation, relations)


i*jl

t_j|>

mizb

i_-ijL

mayztb* drain;

azma

pl.

azamt emergency;
cabinet
t.

crisis
|

gutter, eaves trough

Ijjljj jl

(urizriya)

crisis

'^Jl izb dumpy, pudgy, stocky; small


liLjVl al-uzbak the
jjl azara
(azr) to
{

man

fjtvta'azzum: U-I (j

al-hla critical

development, aggravation of the Situation

Uzbeks
(jju

ma'zm victim

of a crisis

Surround

(* s.th.) II

to j^j\

clothe

s.o.

with an
(

jljl

izr

q.v.);

izmir2 Izmir

(formerly

Smyrna,

sea-

to cover,

wrap up
{

a.o.,

* s.th.); to

port in

W
pl.

Turkey)
Jjpiljl

strengthen, brace

s.o.,

* s.th.) III to

help

s.o.);

to

support,

back

J^jl izmil

azmtl 2 chisel

up,

strengthen

( s.o.)

an
izr

izr

{see

below),

V and VIII to put on wrap o.s. in an


rally,

Ojjl (Engl.)

azt azote, nitrogen

Jjji azti nitrogenous


^jl III to be opposite s.th.
(*),

VI to help each other; to

unite, join forces


jjl azr strength

face

(* s.o.,

jj' -^ &adda

azrah

a s.th.)
Ijl

or

jjl ,j-

xi (min azriht) to help, support,


s.o.,

iz'a (prcp.) opposite, face to face

encourage

back

s.o.

up; Sadda az*

with, facing; in front of; in the face of


(e.g.,
Ijli

ruA to be energetic, vigorous, lusty,


courageoua

of a Situation); as

compared with;
with,

bi-iz'i opposite, face to face

*_l
'<& '
-IjlJ isbidj and ^-L-*l isbidj white lead,
ceruae

facing;

in

front

of;

Ijl

J*

in the face of (e.g., of a Situation)

1
l

r.T s myrtle
pl.
-t

jtj*\
:

(It.

spiro) isbirto alcohol

"^T
^1

ace (playing card)

LJ

-l
t

isbalifa epaulet
J

II to found, establish, set

up

(* e.th.)

C--I see

c
(eJ.)

lay the foundation (* for)

V to be founded,

JLjli-! fliH static

be establiflhed, be set up

jL-l (Fr. Stade) istd Stadium


iliJ urti pl. iJLl cutida master; teacher;

^1

im

foundation, basia; exponent


professor (academic title);

of a power (math.)

^U
(also, of

form of ad-

aas pl.

tr -

usus

foundation

dress to intellectuals (lawyers, journalists, officials,

a building), fundament, groundbasis;

writers

and poets); ledger

work,
(rnua.)

ground,
|

keynote,

tonic
{com.)
|

^U >
of, of,

Jip^l il=^/l (a'zam)

Grand Maatitle

(with foU.

genit.)
of,
,_^l I

on
ter (of

a lodge);

the basia

on the Btrength
,>.
*J

on

jfW iMl
and

of

the Rector of AI Azhar Univeraity;

Sls-1

account

according to;

m^I

(asaa, sihha) completely

unfound-

^.

(hirst; Eg.)

^^

ilsJ (Syr.)
(Syr.) asso-

fll profesBor;

ed (newB, rumor) ^L-l assi fundamental, basic;


ele|

^^ ^ ilsJ
fyiu
j^- ili^l

ciate professor;
ff.)

(mutafarrig ;
(holding
;

part-time

professor

an

mentary
Li
atone

eseential ; principal, chief,

main

office

outside the univeraity)

0*1* ili*l

j?

(hajar) cornerstone, foundation

(muaawf) assistant professor {Eg.;8yr,);


J\j
ili-l

(ff.;

Syr.) visiting
(j'aiai)

professor;

oL L-l
oiples

tusiyt

fundamentals, prin-

JiU j

;;L-l

they aremasterB of

disputation
*jjli-l

ustdiya mastership; professor-

foundation, estabu^Jj ta'sia founding,


lishment, setting up, Institution; grounding,

ship, profeasorate

laying of the substructure (arch.);

JjJlsJ

wtan&J"

Istanbul,

Constantinople

pl. -t facilitiea, Utilities; institutions

J^jU^I istanbll of Istanbul


iUJSl al-sitna,
ili^l/l

~> *\s lS r

ta'stH
|

founding; foundational,
iS

al-astna, aliatna

fundamental

^Jj ^-Lf

(majlia)

con-

Constantinople, Istanbul

Btituent assembly
r~*y>

mu'assis founder

jj^l
-t

istabraq brocade

L~-ja

muassasa

pl.

foundation,

jjlJUl wfrdiiji Strategie

establishment; firm (com.); institution;


Organization

J tjLl

ttsJurJ

Australian

Ulj-1

u^uriiy Auatralia

l ^'

al-asbn, al-iabn the Spaniards

jl~*1 isbni Spanish; (pl. -n)

Spaniard

JJj^l

wtor/ini aterling

JJ^I

=>-

pound

aterling;
i^L-l

JJj^l

^-* mintaqat

al-i. Ster-

isbnak spinach
isbniy Spain

ling area

iJl-I

;,LiJ see

j*\

<j>^1

(It.

stoppa) tow,

oakum; ootton waate


.\

j_j-U ma'ar captivated, faacinated, enthralled


(

jjaji-l (It. -Engl, (udio) i8tdiyp\.\jkAf

by)

istdiySht studio; atelier

_r-l

aairra see

^
|

)jfL*\ istokholm Stockholm


l-Jji-l

~*jj~\*

look up alphabetically

(Engl.) istniy Estonia

Jsfl^-I

isr'W

Israel

JJl^l j* ban
i.

i.

the Israelites; J-Jl^l U_,j daulat


C-jJLL-I i&tiytit steatite,

the

soapatone (min.)

State of Israel

^J
j
I

look

up

alphabetically

JJij-

isr'ili

Israelitish ;

Israelite

to display the courage of a lion (J* against)

Israe (adj. and n.); Jjlj-I


isrl*
Israfil,

oUJI^I
angel

Judaica

the

who

will

J aaad
I

pl.

J usud, usd, j^J usd,


I

sound the trumpet on the


urrection

Day

of Res-

jLT sd

lion;

Leo

(astron.)

o-VI

Ij

leontiasis (med.)
l

Vj-' u&rvb lead (metal)


to bind, fetter, shackle,

s*\ twara

(twr)

JjJlLJ isfanbiU 2 Istanbul, Constantinople


JJa-l isfabl pl. -( stable, barn
*Jfc-l

chain
(

( s.o.);

to capture, take prisoner


fascinate,

s.o.);

to

captivate,

hold

spellbound
attention)
as prisoner j-l ture; aar

(. s.o.),

absorb, arrest (* the

(It.

sloppa) uafubba tow,

oakum

to surrender, give o.s.

up

vXA*'
(leather)
|

a*turlb astrolabe

strap,

thong;

capal-a.

ril*-l

istaqi pl. -/

element
-(

captivity

^\

;xt tiddat

vigor, energy
j~.\

UljLJ

uafuwna

pl.

column

(arch.)

cylinder {ma(A.; of an engine); phono-

uara

pl.

^-1 usar, -t family; dy-

nasty; clan, kinsfolk, relatives;


see

asirra

graph record; pl. ,>LUI as/m 2 highranking, prominent personalities ; stars,


celebrities,

j^
^^-L ljU
all

authorities,

mastere

(e.g.,

of

j-.L bi-asrthi entirely, completely, al-

art: ji)\ ,>I.LI a. al-fann)

together,

of them came,

jl^LJ usfuwni

cylindric(al)

they came one and

all

ZjJ*~\ us\ra. pl. jJ*Ul as/ir" legend, fable,

jUI
tivity;

iar

(leather) strap, thong;

cap|

tale,

myth, saga
fabulous, mythical, leg-

captivation,

enthrallment
fall

jj
t$jjl*-l usfri

jW J

to be subjected to B.th.,

into

the clutches of s.th.


j^-l

endary
usar' 2

a&ir

pl.

*\jJi

^^-1 asr,

JjkJ

ustl pl.

J-UU

aafi/ 2 fleet;

squadron
ol^L-l

tjjUI asr prisoner, captive, prisoner of

war

J-l

iw/

(colloq. for

SbJ)

pl.

ustawt master; foreman, overseer; also


jj-l aaxTQ. pl. -t

female prisoner, Blave

form of address to those in lower


e.g.,

callings,

girl

to a cab driver, coachman, etc.

jS\

air

winning, captivating, fasci-

J&J

aaifa a (asaf) to regret


(

(J* or J

s.th.),

nating; captor

feel sorry

J*

for),

be sad ( J* about)

V do.

I.Lu-l
it's

,_iJ aaaf grief, aorrow, chagrin, regret | pity! lj w asah/ oh, what a

IjJiS^-I w/to(iand

Scotland

jt-l-CJ iakotianii Scottish, Scotch

too bad! Jt~-#

Ijj

-</ lal-asaji

(or

only ^i-^J) unfortunately;


,_iJ ji
aaij

wfeila pl. J*LI aslc' seaport,

commer-

and

M-iuJK Mo/in

do.

cial center (in

the East)

,jj

and

^i_-l <wi/ regretful, sorry,

ilX iekamla stool, footstool


i

sad, grieved, distreased

jjxSL,! iakavdarna' Iskendcron (formerly


Alexandretta, seaport in S Turkey)
|

JaJ& tatusuf regret

JaJ sij regretful, sorry, aad uS'J JtJ ji (joira dai/in) I left him without
regret," I

jxi^.'JI al-iskandarlya Alexandria (oity in

was only too glad to leave him

Egypt)

_L
(eap.

J>j-L

maaf

'alaihi

mourned
la-

LibxSL,! iskandinjly/i Scandinavia

of a dead person,

the late

JJ

II to

sharpen, point, taper ( s.th.)


aaai
(coli.)

mented)

JJ
mu'aij
distressing, sad, regret1L.I

rush

(iof.)

J^,y
table

oraJa pl. -i thorn, spike, prong;


e.g.,

point (also,

of a pen

nib); tip of

JiJi. mute' mm/ sad, sorry, regretful;


\JaJc* aorry!
iljljU w/iwfc and flLl ts/iwfc spinach I (AtriiULu.1 (rimi) garden oraoh

the tongue

-W jj^'
letters j, ^-

oJ-ur/ al-asallya

the

and ^>
|

jjj

J_J
cheek

asil

smooth

J--I

Jbs-

{kadd)

Bmooth

plex hortensis,
,_
I

6o(.)

-I

os/aU asphalt

*JLI cula eliptic, oval

form

-jjUI u/an;', ij/unj

sponge

Lj. mu* omo2 pointed, tapered

jjiiJ

w/anj'i

spongy; porous
(4ol.)

JjjVj

(variant of Jjjl^l)

islmbli

of

jlxj-l isfindn maple


r-lj-i-l vs/id)

Istanbul
jJ

white lead, ceruse

->U islanda Iceland


see
1

j^\

/in

pl.

JU

m/in wedge
J-ji/t
1

^-1

f
(capital of Eritrea)

>j!>-l JorMJi:
acurvy (med.)

o-V

mara4) (

jyeXf

aamnjanf aky-blue, azure, cerulean

jA asmara Aamara
cj.x*I

*_LI cmj/ j .JiiJ uequj pl. 1BLI asgifa,

asmant, ismant cement


(ad]'.)

bishop
li-l

iL^I j-Jj archbiahop

J^rl asmanti cement


/-.I

usqufi episcopal

Lii.1 usqu/iya episcopate, bishoprio


,

asana

u and ostna a to become brackish

(water)

j^

'.

.1

yjiqumn, qumri mackerei

(zaol.)

j?\ sin brackish

sea onion J-iJ isq an Oriental variety of


(Scilla)

(jj and

jj-l)

LI

tt

(am, LI osan) to
;

nurse, treat ( a

wound)

to

make peace
l^1

^j-\

(Engl.) isketi sketch

(jo between, among);

^1 <My

18

LI Man) to be Bad, grieved, distress)


II
(

/l a&ra u (a*)
file,

to

saw

( s.th.);

to console, comfort

to

( b.o.);

to nurse

a patient)
.

III to ahare (one's

wordly

sharpen with a file (* s.th.) mark, indicate, State, enter,


s.th.); to

II to

poesessions,
(

with

s.o.),

be charitable

to

record ( grant a Visa; to provide with


s.th.)

b.o.);

to aasist, Support (s.o.); to


(. s.o.);

a visa (J

console, comfort
(

to treat, eure
^il aiar liveliness, high
spirits,

a.th.,

medically)

to be consoled,

eru-

find

Bolace

VI

berance;
to

share

the

wildness;

worldly

insolence,

imperti-

poaseBsiona; to assist one another, give

nence
ji\

mutual aasistance
tff-f

ar Uvely, sprightly,

in high spirits,

asan

grief,

sorrow, diBtreBs

exuberant; wd; insolent, impertinent, arrogant


jlii. mi'lr pl. j^l^.

">y\

uswa, iswa example, model, pat>_/

IjJ utwatan bi following the model or pattern of, along the linea of;
tern
|

mawHr1 saw
of

j~t
ij^
/.

la'ltr

issuance
offioial

an

offioial

in the

same manner
pl.

as, just as, like

endoreement;

endorsement; visa
visa

UL ma'sh
drama

^X,

ffla'nn tragedy,

ta'iira pl.

-?

murr or jU-l

Jj^iL' transit visa

V-t lasiya

consolation, comfort
(for

^i> mu'aUir

indicator, needle

(of

Uj. mvwah

measuring Instrument)
mu'ath) oonsolajlj- mu'alSar jagged, serrated; marked, designated
(

tion; charity, beneficence

j\_y\

wr, uawr

by, with)

pl.

j_,U tuwir', SjjU


Jil Ufa
pl.

atwira bracelet, hangle

J>UI oAJ/Sn awl, punoh


kali;

o\jJ aswn' Aswan


rj-' asj

(oity in

8 Egypt)

jllil

Ain potash; saltwort (Salsola

bot.)

Sweden
41^1

vjna moss

u-j-l atji
^j-l

Swedish
jj> aAr Assyria

see j-l
ltj^l\

<Sjj oUri Assyrian


L-T fciy Asia
|

(adj.

and

n.)

L.T (fugri) Asia

Minor

^s-!
siyain Asiatio, Asian (adj. and

afit pl. u"~l u#u flowerpot

tOT
n.)

J-l II to close, j-l

shut (a door,

eto.)

J.j y) 1 Asyt
I

(oity in oentral

Egypt)

V-

'I

to be mixed, heterogeneoua, motley

jLT 4>r covenant, compact, oontract load, eneumbrance, brden ; sin pl. jLT bonds, ties
ifr
pl.
;

(a

orowd)
ilil

~>j~J fira pl. _^ljl awSeir* bond, tie


(fig.,

e.g.,

uMba

.V^ll

^Ijl

o.

pl.

^JLSl

oArjJi

mired,

motley orowd

of friendship); Obligation,

oZ-uwW bonds commitment

sUil iSWiya'
jwil iibin

Jrkl *>W
Seville (oity in

pl. -dl stable,

SW

barn

Spain)

jl+i^l iffahn' Isfahan (oity in


pl. ^,,lil see

oentral

Jj

Iran)

J"
X,\ afula u

plU

attOa) to be or

become

sod; sound, pure; proper, actual; firm,


strong, unswervreasonable, sensible; of steadfast; deep-rooted; ing character-, native,

be firmly established; firmly rooted; to origin II to found ( s.th.), to be of noble foundation, establish give s.th. () a firm be or origin of () V to
the foundation
rooted, deep-rooted, or become rmly be or become ingrained; to take root, derive one's origin firmly established; to root out, extirfrom) X to uproot,
(j.

indigenous
reason;

J^VI >MI
J*-l
of

the

actual

J
JU-T

sound,
(

unerring judgment

j^l

apl

pl.

jii,

1 JJU-I o**"

aftemoon time before sunset, late

aul

ojrto

firmness,

steadfastness,

annihilate ( s.th.); pate, extenninate, organ by surgioal an (. remove to (**> * Operation) | s.th. radically eradicate s.th., eliminate

~U

>U

of descent, Btrength of character; nobUity immediately, purity of origin; aflatan


directly, personally
|

3UI

o.

-"'

judgment; juolarity and firmness of

cause, reason; a tree); origin, souroe; (esp., one of a stock lineage, descent, fundament, noble character); foundation, of a book); basis; the original (e.g.,
pl.

JJ

oji pl.

Jj^l root: trunk

( f

ntMe0USly dciousness - 0* ^ >V^ B po


;

'

of one's

own

accord, in one's
privately
(as

own name,
to

personaUy,

opposed

,ji j. Uli-); ".Uj

*lU

o?to ton *"*-

niybatan directly and indirectly

J^l

prinoiples, fundamentals,
(e.g.,

;l_Jj

to'f>ito

pedigree, genealogy

rudimente, element
rules;

of a science);

basio

niles,

prinoiples,
;

axioms;
{fin.)
;

J^t
tion,

ta'afful deep-rootedness
wtf'jl extirpation,

property asset real estate, landed

JUsJ
eurgery
,

extermina-

}Ul

aflan

originally,

primarily;
at aU, not

(redical)

emination; removal by

(with neg.) in the least


Uli J_^l

by no means, not
|

>MI j

originally, at first;

J^tu

mutoV

deep-rooted,

deep-

u. al-fiqh

the 4 foundations
i.e.,

seated; chronic

(illness)

of Islamio

jurispnidence,

Koran,

eensus); fJ^-j
ties;

and ijn' (conSunna, qiy (analogy) ta wld UabUl

iil

ojif

camel the moaning bray of a


i
t.

Silu.

>V " tV

i>l aforo

(fr)

and

II

to bend, ourve

<<*'*>

double-

( s.th.)

(*) entry bookkeeping; J^ll with regulations properly, in conformity


J^.1
initial;

frame (also, jltl tfr pl. -t, >l fr wheel); hoop of eyeglasses); tire (of a
(of a barrel, etc.)
jjU.1 ifora

o?

original,

primary,

primal,

basic, genuine, authentic, pure;


ohief,

rim, feUy (of a wheel)

fundamental, principal,

main j\
|

<^.1\ (tomon) cost price;


(jihi)

iJ-Vl ol^
2

hoop-shaped jjU.1 fori framelike,


*j\ see jjl

the comthe cardmal points (of


Cardinal

pass); J-.I 3J C**)

number;

of pigeon li>l ufrujuMo a variety


OjjUI ofrn

L.1

j^p

('utfw) regulr

member
the
prin-

= jjl"
the al-aflantik, oJ-ofianfi

Jj^l upH
rules,

in

accordance with
to
prevailing

oonforming

.jJLii^l,

jiWI

legist oiples; traditional, ttsual;

Atlantic
JUi^l.1 afl-in^i
'

j_,l

afil

pl.

.*-!

*""' of P ure

and

J^U

<&"># At "

authentic, genuine noble origin; original,

lantic

JW
uXI afW
satin; (pl.

20

^ly

volume of geographical maps


u-Ul affcw Atlantio

^^

atlas>

ji-il

i/*mn,

i/Wen

wormwood,
bot.)

ab-

sinthe (Artemisia absinthium;

&i\
(Art/)

JtU.1 <#tp Atlantio


the Atlantic Pact
ljLI

ifiin pl. Oi-Lil o/fin litany (Chr.)

JtiUVI JJ-I

UiVI ai-a/jn the Afghans; Afghanistan


U_iUil afgntn Afghanistan

oji sea turtle

O0, liT

JUil o/yni Afghan (adj. and

a^
sir;

n.)

pl.

ol>l ^a, aga

lordj

master,

eunuch, harem chamberlain


aZ-ojrijo the Greeks
(adj.

Jil

/<?,

*/?

pl.

jliT /y horizon;

rnge
di stant

of Vision,
lands,

field

of Vision;

.i>VI

oH0m, ,Uy|

pl.

faraway countries, remote regionsinterior

ii>' V^Cj Greek, Grecian


o-]-l a#iMfu*

provinces,

and

n.)

of the

country
|

(as'

distinguished

from the

capital)

August (month)

jliT

t^jV

. al-ard

the remotest parts of the

l V

to grumble, mutter in complaint (a.

earth; J5 y| JliT . oZ-6.Ji the outlying


portions of the country;
jlfifl

about)
ijl uff dirt (in the ears or
nails),

$M oi-a.
under the
earwax, cerumen

jlit feg",

foreigners, travelers

Jil ufqi horizontal

uff interj. expressing anger or displeasure

JliT fql

coming

from

distant

country or region
jlil affq wandering, roving, roaming; tramp, vagabond

wl a/a/displeasure; gnimbling, grumble

cJut ta'otfu/ displeasure;

iii\

grumbling,

afaka

i (afk)

and afita a
lie,

(i/i, /*,

o/oi,

grumble

4yl /*) to
Franks, the Europeans
|

teU a

lie

i >VI

aJ-./ran, the
j^A;

iM
lie,

ifk

and SCjl

o/ifc, pl .

^.

^.^

jVI

Europe European

untruth, falsehood
liar,

u^yl

ifranji

4UI ogit
Jil o/ai.

lying
.

u^jil i/ran* French; J_J^VI the French language; Uj_J>VI the

,'

(Jyl u/i) to g0 downj se( (stare)


setting (of stars)

French

J,il
Jl

>>l

t'/rfe

pl. j,jUI
|

/r! frieze; edge; curb,-.

/ transitory, passing

sidewalk

Ul yj\

rf^^,
I

p]at .

form (of a railroad Station) ; molding (arcA.)

OjWil
jil

.LU y J\

afifn' Plato

o/an stupidity
u;>l

li>l afriq

f.

and Li>l i/ri^s, now usually


afriqiy
f.

a/tn

and

u_,>L

ma'/fln

stupid,

pronounced

Africa

Li^il

foolish, fatuous; fool


iS-l a/artdi pl. -iyo

JUII (Samllya) North Africa


Jijil
ifrigi,

gentleman (when

refer-

now

usually pronounced

o/tljt African; (pl. -n, JjUI a/ri,a)

an

ring to non-Europeans wearing Western clothes and the tarboosh);


(after

the

African

j_ firm,

bravo! well done!

name) a title of respect (<#.); dim! Sir! (eg.) afcmdim/


pardonf What did you say?

p.jjI

afan.

(I

beg your)

&
jfjl
(It.

nvvoatio)
|

wJ advocate, lawyer,
representative of

attorney
the

j^ tfjM
general

of, Ol that); to give jTI II to asBure (. J s.o. s.o. of); to confirm to J ( assurance

attorney

(=

Fr.

avocat

s.th.,

a view)

V to be or become.
o.s. (,>.

convinced, convince
reassure
o.a.,

of

s.th.); to

glnral)

Ojj\ ajyn

opium

OjSi\

CJJ

'** aUa

sure (y. of B.th.); to urgent, imperative, be to of); sure (o. be

make

laudanum
l

requiaite
in

- oka, a weight, uqqa 1-282 kg 1.248 kg, in Syr. =


pl.

Eg.

f\l

ta'kid pl.

tion; emphasis;

- asBurance; confirma-iTl, moet certainlyl

of course

jl>l u^mcn

pl-

jj-fc

reassurance ta'akkud assurance,


(reaolve); certain, sure; firm

S* 5

"^^
aTI oKa

y^J
'

medicament | aqrnbdin composite 'j-&p\ 'Um a-l-1- pharmaceutics, phar-

definite

(desire);

urgent,

imperative

(need); \if\
jfj.

akidm

certainly! surely!

macology
pharmaceutic(al) Jjiljyl aqrabdini
cheeae Jjl aqit cottage
jil iqlii look

mu'aitad

certain, definite, sure;

confirmed

jft, muta'akkid convinced (j.


i/l

of)

up alphabetically

akam

(oir) to plow, tili,

cultivate (>

adapt, acclimate, acclimatize, l agfama to (o.s.) acclimatize to adjust II to'aiamo


Jjl

the land)
jS-l

olMr
pl-

pl. -,

!/l o* plowman

ijBm

pl. JUI

04S" a

climate; area,

administrative region; province, district;


district (?.;

';/!

im

/'

ukar baU ( f0r playlg)

i;>); fJ^
distinguished

COUntry -

(med.) LcjTI eizem eczema

provinces
city)
Lil

(as

from

the

ri Uil o"oJ
regional, looal;
(miyfiA)
terri-

ii

X-rays

iqllmi cUmatic;
|

lj^_Tl extra

territorial

3-JW

.Ul

torial waters

r
*

fl oksiien oxygen
II to'ojv

oJil

igBd

pl.

-^ a i lid
pl.

ke y

cause to rust juTI otsada to oxidize,


"

become rusty sada to oxidize, rust,


i_.ri

i_l'.l

ijdis 2 Euclid

uia

pl.

a*** p oxide

pj

JI

US nm

pil

4*'

hypostasis,
I

the Trinity (.Chr.); divine person within


constitutive element

.,.;

^1 Oxford
oksiien oxygen

^~S
_^_TI
I

(Chr.) Z\ (Gr. eixmv) iqna icon

Jcsir elixir

Oceania V'jiLl uqynsiya


jjS"!
;_r jtf

^iT akuff
I

see

^iT
to eat (. s.th.)

oiMiB Akkadian
JTI
I

aMa u (da, $1 'na'kal)


to
eat up,

akdlmlya academy

consume, awallow, devour,


B.th.); to

destroy (
_.

eat,

gnaw

<

at),

yS

oWMr October

'

eat

away, corrode, erode


(,
s.th.),
|

s.th.);

to

spend unlawfully

enrioh
_^jj|

o.a., JS"I

feather one's nest (* with)

ma'i/ eatable, edible ; pl. food, foodstuffs, eatables, edibles


J l> m-u'kil table

JjTb

o V .TL

(dahru, lariba.) to be old and wora out, be timeworn; LJI JTl (r*) to take

V^J

companion

usunous
ya'famu

intereat;

:
,

.-C

JHi. to-oM and JTU. mato -a a


corroded; eroded; worn, timewora; of cracks; rusty, rust-eaten
fll

ll

Jfj;

min

oitm

tu'kalu

l.'kati/

he

knows how to
.JU.

tackle the matter properly;

Kl OiMuAfi) his skin itched;


(foAn) to

WJJ&

j"
II

t'irj clergy (Chr.)

JS"|
JS"I

eat off a plate; i.

*r-js&\ iUirsiya clericalism

(Jajjais) to encroach lipon

s.o.'. rights

and IV
.

Sj&\
l

ikliriln cleric(al)

to give s.o.

(.) s.th. ()

to eat,
(.

feed (
s.o.)

s.o. s.th.) III to eat,

dine

with

fo'l

iklinil clinical

consumed; to corrode, undergo corrosion; to become old, mm, timewora,


be

to be devoured, be

5fl

eaten away,

ffr

oia, L km
I

.*,
(coli.

ffr

ikSmi
oltom)

j-,

p
l.

uium>
^j..

h,,

heap, pile

of cracks; to be destroyed rosion VI V


fll

U.1^

tfVI
is

,,_,_,

(,,
it

by

cor-

something's fishyl there

more to

than meets the eye


Jl

meal, repast; fodder JfVI i> gurfat al-a. dining room; (es-) ^~JI JTl a. al-bahr land washed away by the sea or the Nile (as opposed
feed
|

J>l

all

food;

iU pact, oovenant;

blood relationship,

oonsanguinity
'VI a-l
!

to

^Jl
JSl

"~

and

a-m See

c>

VI aj see 'yi

uhd, uld food;

fruit

*jtTl

JT

to

bear fruit
*"!

"Vlaii(=VulanZ)l e,t,that...not,in
order that
.

aHa

*
I

. .

pl.

aioW( meal, repast;

VI ill

not, so as not to

bite,

morael
ulcl

(- V
Ol

Ol inl) unless,if not; except,

save;

(after
|

OJIfl
(med.)

negation:)

only,

prurigo,

but,

not
...,

itch

eruption

until

VI

anna except that


(also

X
cious,

>US,

JJ-I alil,

Af

aifii vora-

however, nevertheless ducing main clauses); Ijl


yet,
unless, if not; except

intro-'

VI

illd

id

gluttonous; hearty

eater,

gour-

when; Vlj wa-W

mand, glutton
JST. ma'kal
eats
pl.

(and
ill

if

not

=)

otherwise, orelse; y.j VI

JTC ma'iiP

wa-huwa (with a preceding negation)


...,

food,

unless he
Ol VI

except that he
ill

wa-m hiya
perf.) it

...; j. L, an (with following

Jf t to-aiM wear;
teeo/.)

corrosion; erosion

verb in

was not long

until ...;

presently, forthwith;

J~
...

... Ol

VI

>L

JS"C" to'fcui
(eoi.)

wear; corrosion; erosion

''m hiya ill an had he ... than ...,


J"*

hatl

no sooner
Ol VI

e.g.,

J~ (hamma)

Li

he had no sooner
it

JSo'l

made

i'ifcj(

erosion

(jeoi.)

his plan than

he carried

out

JS'Tiii eater
iB* TKfa gangrenous sore

K-Vl alaski Alaska


uVI aly and

uVTy pl. .

regiment

23

oilt

t_Jl

alaba u

(alb) to gather, join

forcea,

compile, compose, write

(a

a book)

V to

(J* * s.o. against) V to rally, band together, plot, conspire (J*


rally II to incite

be composed, be made up, conaist (j* of); to be united, be combined VI to be


attuned to each other, be in tune, be
in

against)
2

harmony

to

harmonize

,_JVl Jl^r jibl al-alb the

(**

Alps
to be

with)

VIII to be united, be Hnked, be connected

uU^l

al-albn the Albaniana

on familir, intimate terma (u

UUI
1

albniy Albania
il kirihl

with); to form
suit

a
go

coalition (pol.); to
well, agree,

fit,

s.th.),

harmonize

abbreviation of ^-T Jl
bo on, etc.

and

(*. with); to

be well-ordered, neat, tidy

X
Jji

to aeek the intimacy, court the friend(

jJl
f.

alladl,

f.

allati, pl.
ij\j\i\

m.

^JJl alladina
all'i

ahip

of
ilf

s.o.)

J^Jl allti,

allawti, J^Jl

Jei\

pl.

^l

ullf intimate;

close

(relative

pronoun} he who, that which;


|

friend, intimate, confidant; lover


JI ulfa familiarity, intimacy;

who, which, that


l-lutayy
wa-llati

Jllj

LdJ!

j*j

ba'da
dia-

after

lengthy

friend-

cussions, after

much ado
alzs 2 Alsace (region

ship,

love,

affection ;

union,

concord,

harmony, congeniality
^r-ljJl

(Fr. Alsace)

of
.JiJI

NE

France)

alif familir,

intimate; tarne, do-

meaticated (animal); friendly, amicable,


^Jl II to belittle, disparage
(

J*

s.o.)

genial; (pl. .Ju^l al'if 2 ) intimate, close


friend, asaociate,

companion
intimate
;

Jei\

alj pl. J)_^i ulf,


[

Jj^T
^Jl

lf thousand;

millennium
"Jj-

LJj^

(mu'allafa)

or

_jJI

alj

familir,
;

tarne,

thouaanda

and thousands

domesticated (animal) attached, devoted,


faithful
i_JU ma'laf object of familiarity

jJ

^1 olj-ip 'aSart al-u. tens of thou-

sands; J>_^VI
of thousands

oll. mi't al-u. hundreds

.Jtj
JJl

ta'lif

formation

(e.g.,

of a govern-

alfi;

JJI

.u.

Cid) millennial

cele-

ment); union, junction, combination {^>


of separate things); literary work; com-

bration, millenary
2

i_iJI

alif

name
4iJI

of the letter
to end,

4jL

J[

-Jjl

j*

positum, compilation, writing (of a book,


of an article); (pl. .JJL" ta'llf 2
,

from beginning
eLj
tjjju

from

to Z;
it

*JaJ\y)

(wa-yaah) he knows

work, book, publication


i_J

from
3

to Z; L

Jl ABC

ta'luf

harmony;

familiarity,

._JI a/t"/a

{alj)

to be acquainted, familir,

intimacy, mutual affection; comradeship,

conversant

(a

with
(a

s.th.)

to

be

on

camaraderie

intimate terms

with

s.o.); to

he or get
(a to); to

^Wl
(pol.)

i'tilf

concord, harmony; agreecoalition, entente

accustomed, used, habituated


like (a s.th.),

ment ( with); union;

be fond of

(a); to

become
t>

tarne II to accustom, habituate (a

s.o.

to s.th.);

to tarne,
(a

domesticate
e.g.,

(*

an

(j"iWl

i'tilfl
|

coalition-

(in

Com-

animal); to form

a committee,
join,

pounds)
i

HJi^jl j'jj coalition cabinet

a government); to unite, put


together
(y.j

combine,
to

jJU

ma'lf

familir,

accustomed;

different

things);

usual, customary; custom, usage

u&\
<_j* mu'oU/ pl. -n author, writer;

24

Jl

Lilil

almniya German character or

mu'aaf composed, oonsisting, made up (j* of); written, comped; (pl. -t) book,
publication; see also
1 Jil\ alj

characteristios,

Germanity

II

to deify to

( s.o.),

make a god

of

s.o. ()

V JtRu
jll

bocome a

deity, a godhead; to deify

muta'lif harmonious

o.s.

alaqa

(dg)

to

shine,

radiate,

flash,

<!l,

VI

pl.

UT

liha

god, deity,

glitter, gliaten
jil

V and

VIII do.

godhead
*Vl ilaha
pl. -t

a&u? brightness, brilliance


brilliant, ra-

goddess

&i\ allq bright, shining,

^1,
logical;

^\

ildhi divine, of

God; theo-

diant; glittering, flaehing, sparkling


jilj ta*alluq

^L*VVI
concems

al-ilhiyt theological,
|

glow, radiance, effulgence


shining,
bril

spiritual

oLVVI

U- *ilm al-i.

theology jlti roufa'atftg bright,


liant,

radiant

dl ah Allah,

God

(as

the One and

JjJ&\

elektrni electronic

jjj&\ Ji* C?0

U-UM darruka exolamation of admiration and praise, see ja


Only)
|

iija

electronic

Computer
^1JI

aMhumma
were
it

God!

Vi

^1

(iU)

Ul alima a {alam) to be in pain, feel pain;


to suffer
(<_j

unless,

not that, except that, or a negative statement)

from

s.th.)
{

II

and IV to
s.o.),

at
ijl

best

(afber

cause pain or suffering


ache, hurt
Jl

to

pain,

( b.o.)

jUI (id) at leat if or

when;

if

only;

I;

to complain
pain,

m ^\
certainly
ij]l

(na'am)

by

God,

yes!

most

alam

pl.

*VT
j

lm

ache,

Buffering,

agony

JlJu fV' (nafsnly)

ulhiya divine power, divinity

mental agony; fV^I


Passion

^-1

61**

oZ-.

Week

{Chr.)

*jlj ta'Uh deification, apotheosis


*JT lih

Jl o/tm

aching, sore; aad, grievous,


;

(pagan) god
-t

painful, ezcruciating
Jlj

hurting

UT liha pl.

goddess

ta'aum Sensation of pain, pain,

^T lihi
jU.

divine

ache

muta'aih divine, heavenly


etc., see

iy mu'lim

aching, painful; sad, griev-

OjA^l
l

o>*V
fail

ous, distressing
Jli.

muta'aim

aching,

painful;

in

(J\)

al

u to

neglect or
desist,

to do, not to

pain, suffering, deeply afflicted ; tonnented


"*VI il-ma see Jl

do (j
s.th.)
|

s.th.),

refrain

(j from
will

lOf.

jJl V (jahdan) he

go

to

any length, he spares no

effort,
|

goes

^lii

alma

[al

sometimes interpreted as

out of his
l

definite article)

diamond

way for IV to swear J* jT 4J he promised himself that he ...


ila

O
li^l al-almn the
Jlil

oath

Germans
(pl.

almni German;

-an, lil al*

^T

(Fr. haUo) hello!

man) a German
Ulli almniy

Ljyll

oimjnyd and t^Ujl! alminyam

alu-

Germany

25

,1

JI il (prep.) to,
tili,

toward; up
Jl (conj.)

to, as far as;


j

pl

umm

pl.

0I+J ummaht mother;


(of a
pl.

until; l

until

tj^\ Jl

source, origin ; basis, foundation ; original,


original Version

(kiriki)

and bo
that

forth, et cetera; JJi Jl

book); the gist,

beaidea,

moreover, furthermore, in ad;

essence
(typ.)
j

of
jd-\
pl

s.th.;

oL^l

matrix

dition
LJUI

to
Jl

o*

Jl

tili

tomorrow

u. al-kibr cuttlefish, squid;

ilma good-by! fl\ up to where? how far? ^- Jl jJUI ('annt) when? how long? tili away with you get away from me
(liq')

j-J-i

pl pl
pl

u. al-hasan {magr.) u. al-kull river

nightingale
(zool.)\

( U

Jl)

Jj-I
jl.j.a

mussei

u.

durmn Omdurman
skull,

(city in
pl

central Sudan, oppoaite

Khartoum);
brain ;

<iJJi

>JU

Jl (jnibid.) beaidea,
l-U

moreover, moreover,

^0

ar-ra's

cerebral

in addition to that; Ol Jl

membrane, meningea;
ar6a
r

,>*jjIj

j'
f*

r'
pl

<

furthermore;
like;
<Jl

*ii

j*

Jl (gairid.)
like,

and the
cetera;

uw-ar&a'tn

centipede;

u.

L-j

and the

et

iamla(ta) this world, the worldly pleasures;


,>*!!

t>J (wa-man) and other people like that; iUi (addressing the reader)
(rt-ll) *r"

pb 6-u. -*on or *^* pb with


eyes; T^ill
pl

one's
firBt

own

and ^Ul
(^_^JI pl

pl

the

now
in

here you have


is

...;

here

ia (are) ...;

aura of the Koran;


pl

u. al-qur

following

(are)

...,

e.g.,

^jUJl Jlj

Mecca; ^L^Ji
of the
tion

also: the original text

the
. . .

following,
;

the reader will find


Jl j*
-r
1

Book from which Koranic

revela-

what

Ij^I

Jl

^'

(uslb

derivea;

the unconteated portionB

'ibrni)

a etyle of Hebrew approximating


illj

Vj i-i Jl V neither thia way nor that way, belonging to neither


Arabic;
Jl

of the Koran; ^J>\ A u. al-wafan capital, metropolia; iol^A-l oL^I the most im-

portant eventa ; Ctjjl- cl^l matrix (typ.)


1

group; iUI
deciaion
is

j-^/l

it's

up

to

you,

the

JjLJ.1

0I4J the main problems; oL^.1

yours
of Jl ilan)
benefita,
bless-

JJLJl the principal virtuea


il

V^/T

/*

(pl.

umma
|

pl.

p*l

umam
i-l

nation, people;

ings
*<Jl

generation

x+-

munity, the
alya,

Mohammed's ComMohammedans; I-wdl >"^fl

ya

pl.

alayt fat tau (of a aheep);

(muftoAta) the United Nations


ij\

buttock

umm maternal,
(pl.

motherly;illiterate

oLJl iliya Iliad


J

uneducated;

-n) an illiterate

pl

am
of

or? (introducing the aecond


alternative queation)
pl. LI

member

L*i also

ummiya
3
i

ignorance; illiteraoy; aee

an

under

jj*\

a i-l

ama

tm*, j\j*\

amawt bond-

^\ umami
a*j\

international

maid, slave
8 pl

girl

umma motherhood;
amma
J

motherli-

ness,

maternity
(prep.) in front of; in the
pl-lH
Jl

amma u (amm)
(>toa
place),

to go, betake

o.a.,

repair
pl.1

go to see

( s.o.);

(i*L1

imma) to lead the way, lead by one'a


example
( s.o.);

preaence of
front,
jl

(ammi) to the

to lead
to

( s.o.)

in prayer;

forward, onward,
*L.I

(*jJ
II

umma)

be

or become a

V'

(iW

an)

ahead; Jsj i he had no other

mother

to nationalize {* s.th.)

to

alternative but to

...; *L-I

^ij

(tuaqafa)

go, betake o.a., repair (* to a place),

go

to oppose, resist,
iji,\

8 top,

check

s.th.

to see

( a.o.)

VIII to follow the example

ammi

front, fore-, anterior, for|

(^ of

a.o.)

ward, foremost

*-*UI LJ (nu<#a)

outpost

26

lUt

imm

pl.

a'imma
master ;

imam,

aet o.a.
like

prayer leader ;
line

leader ;

plumb

up as lord and master; to behave an emir; to assume an imperious

attitude; to be imperious, domineering

l*Ll

imma imamah,

function or office

VI to take counsel, deliberate together,


confer, consult with each other; to plot,

of the prayer leader; imamate; leading


Position; precedence

conspire (Je against) VIII to deliberate,

take counsel
-j
1

(i_>
(l->

about); to conspire, plot,


against
ordera
s.o.)
|

tamim
see
\

pl. -dt

nationalization

hatch a plot
to carry out
j*\

^L

_^i*l

l_*t

a-m

a
foll.

s.o.'a

*LI

amm

amr

1.

pl.

jjjl

axumir2 order,
<l-

(with
is

Ji /a) as to, as for, as

command,
ordinance,

Instruction

to do s.th.);

far as...

concerned; but; yet, how-

decree;
|

power,

authority;
r

ever, on the other

hand

Om

LI (ba'du)

{gram.) imperative

JU

j>\

(a formular phrase linking introduction

lin) royal
r

decree
decree,

(formerly,
edict

Eg.);

and actual subject of a book or


approx.:)
topic:
a Ll
...

letter,

_^.\

al\y)

of

the

now

Bey

(formerly,

then,...,

now

to

our

Tun.);

tJjJli _^\

ordinance

having the

force of

law {Tun.); ^S\j ^Vl (wa-n,yl>Jlj j\fi\


i.e.)
(lit.
:

imm

if ; j\

Llj

or (also
jjll^>.l

LI LI)

be

it

or, either

nahy)

pl.

command
-L.

and interdiction,
fll

sovereign power;

power(s), supreme authority;


i\_^\

jy _^\
jjj
|

imbartr emperor
imbartri imperialxst(ic)

(delivery) order (com.);

^ j_jtl^-l
*iJj^'-^'

disposal, at

your

Service.

c^
2.

at your
pl.

umr matter,
imbartriya
empire,

afTair,

concern, business
j*\

im-

*Jlj

j*\

perium; imperialism
jw.1

(accomplished) fact; Jjj**


j*i\ Jjl

common knowledge;
in

at

first,

ambtr
imbiq

pl.

^oLI ambir* ampere (d.)


J-l

the beginning;
or

L ^-V (amrin)
tiH-Lf*

for

(5*!

some reason
isn't
it

other;

^-Vl

,^1
wa-l-

so? iUoT j-VIj LI

(amm

C_J om< crookedness, curvedness, curvation,

amru) things being as they


no doubt,
.

are, there will,

curvature; weakness
ul

..; j*\

j* ^j

\^t

(min amrin)
things

whatever

may happen; however


^j-l
,>j
,^J!

amad

pl.

jLT

md end,
0-w
.ul

terminus, of a

may

be;

jm he has two pos-

extremity; period, Stretch or span


time, time; distance
|

sibities (or alternatives);

^^1 which
,^-iJ

JL for

(introducing a relative clause the ante-

long time (past); -uVl j*- short-dated;


of
short
duration,
short-lived ;

cedent of which
tj*\

is

another clause);
it's all

short-

qudiya amruh

over with him;


is

term
j*\

in the latter

and similar phraaes, ^\

amara u (amr)
instruct ( s.o.
_j

to order, to

command,
with

bid,

frequent paraphrase of "he"


j*\
ij\

do

s.th.),
i_>

commission,
s.th. or to

immar aimple-minded, stupid


imra power, influence, authority,
|

charge, entrust

( s.o.

do

s.th.);

III

amara,

amura v
II

(jLt

imra) to become an emir

command
s.o.,

to invest
(

J^l c-pl.

under hia

command

with authority, make an emir

jLI

amra

-t,

JU

am'ir 2 sign,

J over)
consult

to ask s.o.'s

()

advice,

token, indication, Symptom, mark, characteristic

( s.o.)

to

come to power; to

j"
JjLI
tnwSra

position

or rank

of an

j-t ia'mur Joint conaultation, counsel,


deliberation, Conference; plot, conspiracy
jltjj'l

emir; princely bearing or manners; principality, emirate; authority,

power

!jL*l

i'timr deliberation, counsel, Con-

jJI

i.

al-bahr offioe or Jurisdiction of an


c>ljL*l (*.

ference; plot, conspiracy


IjLil-i

admiral, admiralty; jl> J-U


*,

'umdn) Truoial
jul omfr pl.

Oman
umariJ'
1

isti'mra

(frequently

written

IjUx-l) form, blank


1^.1

Commander;

prince, emir; title of princes of a ruling

jA mir Commander;
orderer,

lord,

master;
client
|

house; tribal chief

^111 j^\ (aly)

Comrank,

purchaser,

customer,

mander of a regiment
approx.:
colonel;

(formerly, Eg.;

^Ut

^1

absolute master, vested with

aa

naval
jJ\

unlimited authority

approx.: oaptain);

l^lfl

approx.:
.>!
l_^l

jjAa ma'mr commissioned, oharged;


commissioner;
civil officer, official, esp.,

major general (Tun,);


1939) approx.; admiral,
(Eg.

jUJI

(Eg.

jUJl

jJ?
j*\

one in executive capacity; the head of


a markaz and qxsm (Eg.)
|

1939) approx.: fleet admiral;

(j^JjJi

jjA* jjA*
jur.);

j*Ji\ a. al-bahr

admiral (when referring to


rank; Eg. 1939
j*J\
_^*l

commissioner
(tafliaa)

of

police ;
(in

xLcl

a non-Arab

officer of this

receiver

bankruptcy;
traffic

approx.: vice-admiral) ;
or Ji*Vl

./Till

i5^i-l

jjXt m. al-haraka

manager

jUJl

j-J fleet admiral

(when
of this
since

(railroad);

Li-adl j_yi m. at-ta^fiya re-

referring to a

non-Arab
a.

officer

ceiver

(in

equity, in bankruptcy; jur.)


pl. -t

rank);

IjJII

j*J

al-liw*

(Ir,,

<UjA* ma'mriya

order,

In-

1933) brigadier; <_JI .1^


'assa

j\

a.

<U-

struction; errand; task, assignment, mission; commission; commissioner's office,

commandant

of the Bey's palace


j^-*JJ-' j**' -

guard {formerly, Tun.);

a '-

administrative branch of a government

mu'mintn Commander of the Faithful,


Caliph
*j^\ amira pl. -t princese

agency,
judicial

e.g.,

SJLi

<ijj^

(qad'iya)
Juris-

commission charged with


in

diction
miri) gov]

outlying communities (Eg.)

^j^\ amiri (and

D ^j*

jjJi* muiamirn conspirators, plotters

ernmental), state-owned, State, public

iSj^

^jl

(<w)

government land

[Syr,);

<Jjjj*
ters;

mu'tamirn conspirators,

plot-

4jj^*Vl *-Lll
jL*l

government presa
constantly urging, always

members

of a congresa, Convention,

ammr
(lj

or Conference, conferaes

demanding
stigating
|

to do

a.th.); inciting, in-

jja mu'tamar
vention, congress

pl. -t
|

Conference; Con-

^Jb SjL^i

<rl\

(nafs,

au)

LJI

j&y

m.

a$-

the baser seif (of man) that inoites to evil

&ulh peace Conference


i}j*\

jj-t ta'mr

soul,
\

mind,

Bpirit;

peri-

II

taamraka to become Americanized,


life,

cardium

(anat.)

jj*\d\

t-^Lpl

pericar-

adopt the American way of


the Americans

imitate

ditis (med.) tj*\}*

mu'mara

pl.

-t

deliberation,

'JjJS

taamruk Americanization
(bot.)

counsel, Conference; plot, conspiracy

^J^l
j*\j

amarillis amaryllis

ta'ammur

imperiousnesB,

domi1^j^*l

neeringneBs;imperious deportment, overbearing manners

amrik (formerly, also Uj^J) America]


1

ojii-l ^ij*

(janvbiya)

South America

^
JJj-l amriki American;
(pl.

28

-n)

an

^y\

amuna u
liable,

(Ll amna) to be faithful, re-

American
Kjj-VI al-amrikn the Americans
JKj^.1 amrikni American;
(pl.

trustworthy;

amina a (amn, uUl


*from)

amn) to be

safe, feel Bafe (j* or

II to reassure ( s.o.), set s.o. 's ()

mind

-n)

at

rest;

to

asaure,

ensure, safeguard,

an American

guarantee, Warrant, bear out, oonfirm,

^1

amsu

(but acc.
;

Ll amsan) the day


the immediate past,

corroborate
(3tjl-\
s.o.,

past,

yesterday

recent time;

(J*,

s.th.);

to

insure
(

against

fire);

to entrust

to

amsi (adv.) yesterday;


long ago
|

J*s.th.); to say
(*_>

"amen" (J*to
(

s.th.)

recently, lately, not

^VIj
(>r

IV to believe

in) VIII to trust ( s.o.),

bi-l-amsi yesterday; not long ago;

-l

have confidence, have faith


entrust

in);

to

6j}\ amsi l-awwal two days ago, the

day before yesterday


*_ umsiya
(

X ^Ll am&iy
eve-

(J*

s.o.

with,

to

s.o.

s.th.)

VIII;

to

ask for protection, for

pl. -t,

promise of security, for

indemnity

ning

(. s.o.)

<yl

fbjwJ

amstirdm Amsterdam

amn
|

safety; peace, security, pro-

tection

jUl

j-VI
tfl e

r
(

mm)

public safe-

jw.1 amJir the sizth


calendar

month

of the Coptic

ty J *^' JLitj

police
safety;
,

UI

amn

security,

peace
quarter

ul imma'

and

*>l

ivnma'a

characterless

shelter,
(mil.);

protection ;
safeguarding,

clemency

person; Opportunist, timeserver


J*l

assurance of pro-

tection; indemnity,

immunity from pun~


(a valedictory phrase)

amoZa u {amal) to hope


entertain hopes ( or

{*

or

*_>

for),

ishment
in

UI

of) II to

hope;

God's protection!
^..l

to ezpect (<> a s.th. of s.o.); to raise

hopes
s.o.),

in s.o.), hold out

hopes

amin

pl.

L.I

uman'*

reliable,

for

give
|

(
V

s.o.)

reason to hope or

trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright, honest; safe, secure; authorized representa-

expeot

\j<*-

*L\ (kairan) tolet s.o.

hope
(*,

for the best


at),

to look attentively
(a,

tive or agent; tnistee; gnarantor (J* of);


chief,

regard,

contemplate
to
consider,

j j

head

Superintendent,

curator,

s.th.);

to

meditate;
(*,

custodian,

guardian,

keeper;

chambcr{mil.)

think over,
lain;

ponder
J*l

master of a gud (Tun.);


quartermaster-sergeant

s.th.), reflect {*,

on)

approx.:
1939)
lain
|

{Eg.

amal

pl.

JUT ml hope, expecalso

JjVt Cr/Vl {awwal) Lord Chamber-

tation (J of s.th.,
fallacious

^)

^JS* JJ

(formerly, at the Eg. Court); j^S~

hope
pl.

L.VI approx.: Chief Master of Ceremo-

J*U ma'mal

J*L ma'm1 hope


pl. -t

niea (ibid.); _^U ,>*'

a al-makzan ware-

house Superintendent; stock clerk; ^-1

J*U ta'ammid
oontemplation
J*T
J*_P
;

consideration

jjl j*
a.

a. rirr

ad-daula

and

pl. C>^L*L"

meditations
as-sirr

^1

,>-.!

permanent secretary of state


^*l
a.

hopeful
hopeful
for,

(Syr.) ;

JjX^JI

as-pundq
*r*Ull
r (

and
^^1
sec-

mu'amm

JUI
expected

,j*J

treasurer;

cashier;

mayor
J_pU ma'ml hoped
Jrfti*

(esp. Ir.);

*U

^J
^*l

mm)

retary general;

i_-iil

a.

al-maktab

muta'ammil contemplative, med* musing

(formerly) a subaltern rank in the Eg.

itative, reflective; pensive, wistful,

navy

(1939)

; ;

20

j\J min amen!


L.1

an

(conj.) that;

in

1.

(conj.) if;

jlj
if;

amna

reliability, trustworthiness

Mxx-n although,

even though, even


or (be
it);

loyalty, faithfulness, fidelity, fealty; integrity, honesty; confidence, trust,

\j

Ol

be

it

Vi i

good

(= V
ticle)

i) look

up
VI

alphabetically 2. (par-

faith;
(pl. -t)

deposition in trust;
s.th.

trusteeship;

not, esp. in the phrase Vi j* l


tZ2 (f.

deposited in trust, a decharge;


secretariat
|

tn

Auu

^ ul)
<\

it is

nothing but,

posit,

trust,

jUl
: jl

it is

no more than
(conj.) that;
(it),

JjOi^aJI a. a$-fiundq

treasury department
secretariat
al-a.

anno

6-m annaA
(it); *Jl

l*

ULI

('mma)

general

since he

because he
(it),

ollLVI

jit

makzan

baggage check

annah while he
introducing
a
yet; wit;

J* whereas he

'ald
(it);

room

main
is

clause:

however,

j^U mtCman place of


<j*.Jj

safety, safe place

<jl

illij

that

to say, namely, to

tamln securing, protection;


; ;

assur-

inna (intensifying particle in-

ance ; safeguarding reassurance ensuring


guaranty, warranty; security, surety; in-

troducing

nominal

clause)

verily,

truly (in most cases not translated in

surance

,^-1

ir*v
-U* ijwu

(ijtim'i)

social

English)
Le
1

security; JjjJ-l

($idda) fire inlife

innam but, but then

yet,

how-

surance;

*Li-l

J* jJb (AoyA)

insur3

ever; rather, on the oontrary


jl

ance

anna

(jol anin,
at)
pl. -t

ta'nn) to groan,

lcl

imn

faith, belief

{<_j

in)

moan
jl

(j,-

uUjI i'timn trust, confidence; credit

anna

moan, groan oLaTj


|

oljl

uLSL-1 isttmn trust, confidence


^.i

wails
^rjl

and laments
anin plaintive sound, wail; groan,

mtn peaceful
reliable,

Oj-U ma'mn
4-L
j*j*
liever

trustworthy
insured
be-

moan(ing)

^^ mw'amman 'alaihi
mu'min
believing,

faithful;

ijlil

annl egotistic;

egoistio(al), self-

ish

y:j*

mu'laman entrusted

J* with)

JUl anniya egoism, selfishness

confidant; sequestrator (jur.)

Jj^UVl al-andl natolia


^Ulil anns pineapple
._Jl

^j-^lJ omnibua omnibus, bus


1
t5_f

amawi of maid
*l

or like a

bondmaid or handII

to blame,
(

censure, reprehend, up-

braid
(adj.)

s.o.)

<S_y\

umawi Ommiad
-.1

<_-ufc la'nib

blame, censure, rebuke


ecclesi-

_jj

ban umayya

the

Ommiads
Ul (pronounced amb) Abba, a high
astic title of the Coptic Church, preceding

LjI amib amoebae

the

names of metropolitans, bishops,


and
sainte

J'^J amirl admiral


patriarchs,
tT>*l, 5*^*1

(< )
jv\j\

amerik, amerika America

jUI anbr
iJljw! amirliya admiralty

pl. _rUl

anbir 2 ,

anbir 2 ware-

house, storehouae, storeroom

30

,-ilJl

(Turk. onbagi) onbaai a mil. rank: cor-

JjJ*i' _r

al-andalus Spain

poral (formerly, Eg.);

^Lil J-Tj approz.:


L_JjAjI indniaiy Indonesia

private
i_^jl, <u_^

first class (Eg.)

see

i_J

^jjl

anisa a and anusa u (uns) to be companionable, sociable, nice, friendly, ge-

\ inblq alembic ij7

nial;

^1

to like s.o. 's


s.o.;
(_.
>

Company,
with

like to

cJ\ anta,
pl.

f.

anti thou,

you (2nd
f.

pers. sing.);

be together with
intimate

to be or get
Jl

on

m.

jjl

antum,
pl.

^jl

antunna you

terms

or

s.o.);

(2nd pers.

and pote form of address);

to be used, accustomed,

habituated

(Jl

dual 1 antum both of you


Ijjl

to); to perceive, notice, find (* a quality,

anta-d

it's

you!

j, j* in

s.o.);

to sense,

feel,
[

make
ij^A-

out,

recognize (* s.th.,

in, at)

^1

oUtSwul antikkna
iSJl an/ifca pl. -t

museum
(eg.)

(li-haditihi) to like to listen to s.o. II to

old, old-fashioned,

put at ease to tarne


;

III to

be friendly, nice

outmoded
jj*Jl

to s.o.); to entertain,
s.o.
{)

amuse

(e>

s.o.)

IV to keep

Company; to
(* s.o.);

en-

anlimn antimony
(ojl uTiwia) to

tertain,

delight,

amuse

to per-

iiJl

anuta u
inine,
II

be or become femeffeminate

ceive, discern,

make out

(with the eyes;


to find, see,

womanly, womanish,

a s.th.); to sense (* s.th.);

to

make

feminine; to effeminate,

make

notice, observe, e.g., LiSi

lj

^T he saw

effeminate; to put into the feminine form


(gram.)
^jjl

that he was duly qualified, that he was a

to

hecome feminine
pl.

(also gram.)

capable
of God)

man V to become incarnate (Son X to be sociable, companionable;


on familir terms, become
inti-

unt

jI

int,

jUl ant fem(of animals);

to get

inine;

female;

a female

mate; to become tarne; to be friendly,


nice,

LiJ

s Jl

al-untayn

the testicles

kind

(o

to s.o.)

to accommodafce o.s.,

^jijl untawx
(in

womanly, female, women's

accustom

o.s., settle
o.s.,

down; to be
o.s.

familir,

Compounds); effeminate, womanish


I

famiarize

acquaint
o.s.,

(<_j

or Jl

with); to inform
SjjJ

gather Information

unta femininity, womanlineas


(>_j

ahout); to take into consideration,


(<

ijjlj tarnt the feminine, feminine

form

take into account, bring into play


s.th.),

(gram.)

draw upon

s.th.

(<~>);

to

listen

iJJ* mu' annal (gram.) feminine (adj.)


\-?rj}_y jjv\
m

(J to s.th.),
.Jl

heed (^ an opinion)

antrbljiy anthropology
(syr.)

uns sociability; intimacy, famili-

arity, friendly

atmosphere
(ka'b)

^Ljil inj s
IJLf
I

pear

(It.

Inghilterra) ingiller

England

H uH' anklebone (anat.)


=

talus, inner

j\Lf*^l al-inglz

the English
English; Englishman
gospel

^1
race

ins (coli.)

man, mankind, human

tijJj^l ingdlizi

J-jtfl

injil pl. Jj--LjI anjil 2

^Jl

insi

human; human being


(coli.)

J-atl tn;'i& evangelical; evangelist

^U

ns

and ^Ul uns people

LLf

injiliya evangelical creed

0-L3 nat

mankind, humanity

^Ijl

anexy

(pl.)

people,

human

beings,

put

a.o.'a

noae out of Joint; *_Vi

V-L-

humans

etuck-up, haughty, proud


Jjl anfi nasal

a-x>\
teous

anis close, intimate; close friend;

friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite, cour-

Uu\

anafa

pride;

rejection;

diadain

(j- of s.th.)
L-jl insn
^r-JI .

man, human being

oL-jl
<Jtjj\

al-'ain pupil (of the eye)

anf proud, haughty, stuck-up,

eupercilioua, diadainful
L-ji insna
(jL-jl

woman
i_j

J-I

isti'nf

fresh

atart,

recomre-

tnn

human humane humani; ;

mencement,
opening
(jur.)
|

renewal,

reaumption,

tarian, philanthropist

(also,

of a legal case); appeal


fjJ

jLil insniya humanity, humaneness;


politeness, civity;

ULJ

(qaddama) to appeal,

mankind, the human

make an appeal
jj-1
L#Lil-l

(jur.)

race

isti'nf i

of appeal,

appellate;

LJlj* mu'nasa intimacy, famiarity,


friendlineaa, geniality,
bility; conviviality

isti'nfiyan

by appeal
jfJI
|

cordiality; aocia-

JuT
(dikr)

nif preceding, above

JjT

preceding, above, above-mention-

^UjI

Inas

exhilaration ;

friendlineaa,

ed; LjT nifan previously, above, in the

geniality ;

famiarity,

intimacy,

cordi-

foregoing
uJcSja

ality; sociability

mu'tanaf

primordial,

virginal

(jJlJ

ta'annus incarnation (Chr.)


Vtins social
life,

atate; beginning

^UI

sociability

U'jm\
i-jTnisapI.
lady, miss
1

(Fr. Anvers) anvers

Antwerp

(city in

~t, (jJljl

awnis2 young

N
JrjJ-l

Belgium)
influuxinz influenza, grippe

,j->>U

ma'ns

familir,

accuatomed
jjl

(j-Ju*
Jti\ (Engl.)

mustanis tarne

aniqa a to be neat, trim, smart, spruce,

comely, pretty; to be happy

(i_>

about),
(* s.o.)
|

minch
acciuga) anlfga (eg.)

be delighted

(i_>

by) IV to please

<j*-jijl

(It.

anchovy
city in

^1
V
(j

<Jj

(iai'u)

he

likes

the

thing

to apply o.a. eagerly


to)
;

and meticulously
fastidious,

*-TlLil

anfkiya2 Antioch

(ancient

to

be

meticuloua,

Syria;

now Antakya,

in S Turkey)

finical; to
4*Ll

be chic, elegant

jrj)jk\
Jjl

onflji ontologic(al) (philo*.)

anqa elegance

anifa a (anaf) to diadain, to

acom

Jjl aniq neat, trim, spruce, comely,


(j*
s.th.,,

do

8.th.);

to

reject

haughtily

pretty; elegant, chic

(a a.th.)

to reaume, renew,

recommence

3j anq Egyptian
I

vulture (Neophron

(* a.th.); (jur.) to

appeal (* a aentence)

percnopterua)

3jl^\
(lit.
:

^
i

je-\

a'azz 2

Jl

anf

pl.

jliTn/,

dy\

unf noae;
\

min
hens'

baidi

l-a.

rarer than the egga

epur (of a mountain); pride

of a vulture,

i.e.)

approx.: scarcer than

ragma
him;

anfiht in defiance of

*J6\ Jj him, to apite

teeth (proverbially for s.th. rare)

<stj\

jS"

(anfah) to humiliate

s.o.,

JJ ta'annuq elegance

32

jiy, mu'niq,
ly,

mniq

pretty,

come-

Ul

in*

pl.

Jl

niya,

uljl
]

awnin

winsome,

nice, pleasing

vessel, Container, receptacle


.

fUUI <S\

jti*

muia'anniq chic, elegant

af-ta'm table Utensils, dishes; mess kit


jfc Ut

annin slowness, deliberateness

*jjj\

anqara Ankara
oll*

muta'annin slow, unhurried, de-

(j-J-iil

a^olis

eel
a

Uberate
jl

dii

nwfc lead (metal)


inkiSri pl. -iya Janizary

ann

(interrog.
it

part.)

where

...

from?

why
^jli&l
and
ever
|

is

that...?
;

direction)
. . .

IJ*J&I, *JS^jl
giltera

(It.

Inghierra) ingilter, in*

<J

Jl 3

why? where? (place how? wherever; how(all) and why shouldn't

England
I

he

... ?

f*SL*j!ji ^ al-anglosaksn the Anglo - Saxons

_jjl anlsn,

j^-Jl aniseed

<Jj~SL~j}&'^\ al-anglosaksniya Anglo-

L*Ji anlmiy anemia

*ij**-

L*-jl

perni-

Saxondom
>J&^I
al-ingliz

cious anemia (med.)


T

the Engliah

aki! IaT hanf (interj.) oh!


II to prepare,
s.th.

(j;>Jd

inglizi English;

Englishman

^1

s.o.,

for)

make ready, equip (J *, * y to be ready, be preo.s.,

^pd&l ankalis
jU^I

eel

pared; to prepare
(coli.)

get ready;

to

ai-anm and fl^i


race

mankind, the

equip
LaI

o.s.,

be equipped (J for)
pl.
,_-*!

human
rj>jt\

uhba

uhab preparation,

unmdaj model, pattern; type, ei-

preparedness, readiness, alertness; equip-

ment,

outfit,

gear

ample; sample, specimen


j^cl

^>J-\ LaI u. al-harb

anamn anemone
an
i

{bot.)

mitary equipment; h-J\ La! J* ready toset out; jl-Ui-Vl LaI J* fully prepared;

on the
*JI

alert (mil.)

*i~*\

-U-l

to

make

one's

to mature,

become

ripe; to
|

draw
<J

preparations, get ready


_jLI

near, approach,
it is

come

(esp. time)

jl

Jl
ihb skin, hide

(high) time that he; esp. in negative

Statements:

b
...1

Jl

a-lam ya'ni?

isn't it

i_

*U taahkub preparedness, readiness;


preparation

about time

to act slowly, proceed

(pl. -t)

unhurriedly, bide one's time, be patient

<_**U*

mula'akhib ready, prepared


i (J_y>l

to

take

one's time, hesitate

(j

in,

with); to wait
Ji

JaI ahala u

uhl) to take a wife, get

married;

be

ahila a to be

on familir

anan
j

pl. ul
LiT

n' (span of) time,

terms
period
jL(Jl

(i~>

with);

pass.

ukila to be in(region,
fit,

JJI

(laili)

all

night long;
habited,
l-laili

populated
fit

place)

J)\Jf\j JJI

UT n'a

waII to

make
*

or suited, to

qualify
possible

afrja n-nahr
SUI

by day and by night


(J a,
s.o.,

s.th. for); to

make
<J

anh deliberateness
|

perseverance,

(a J for s.o. s.th.),


s.th.),

enable (*

s.o. to

do

patience

SU VI J_jt fl al-a. long-suffer-

make

accessible (> J to s.o. s.th.);


(i_j

ing, great patience; 3UVI

^j* long-suffer-

to
fit,

welcome
suited,

s.o.)

"V

to (J

be or become
for
s.th.)
;

ing (adj.)

qualified

to

, ;

33

take a wife; to marry, get married


deserve, merit {*
s.th.),

to

J*U muata'hU worthy, deserving, meriting; entitled

be worthy (* of)

Jl ahl pl. -an, JUI ahlin relatives,


folke, family; kin, kinsfolk; wife; (with
foll.

pi-UI

ihlllaj

myrobalan, emblic
L.;

(fruit

of

Phyllanthus emblica
(geom.)

bot.);

ellipse

genit.) people,

members,

followere,

adherents, possessore, etc.; inhabitants;


deserving, worthy (J of s.th.);
qualified (J for);
pl.

^^nJUaI ihlilaji elliptic(al)


fit,

suited,

>Vt, JUVI
|

the

j\

au or; (with
that

foll.

subj.)

unless, exoept

natives, the native population


a.

CjJI Jl
i.e.)
1

al-bait

members
the

(of the

house,

of the
jloJl
*iji-\

family;

Prophet's

family;

(_jjI)

<-S\

ba u (aub, jl
;

aufta,
,

t_jLI

iyb)

Jl the people living in the house; Jl a. al-kirfa people of the trade;

to

return

t-

<_jT

to catch

contract

auffer, incur s.th.,

be

in for s.th.,

be

left

<JtU-l Jl a.al-hilf people

pledged by oath,
Jl

with, got one's share of

members of a sworn confederacy;


*_^i-'l

Vj' < sides

n kuM* anbin from


<-?_y*j
*->-*'

all

o.

al-Jpibra

people of experience,
a. as-safsafa

or directions;

\f -

experts;
ists;
<:
11

<kJl Jl

Soph-

(wa-vaubin) do.
jjI

Jl o. as-aunna the adherents

auba return
i'yfc

of the Sunna, the Sunnis; jj)\j j-dl J*l


a.

ai-maaar uw-Z-wa6ar the resident pop-

t-jljl

return

LLIj

LUi dahban
;

ulation and the nomads; IaU-^JI Jl o.

wa-iyban there
forth,

and back

back and

al-wajha people of rank and high social


standing;
"}*+-_> "^*l

up and down
ma'b place to which one returns;
|

aAZan wa-sahXan welftiia


*J

uU

come!
you!

iil>

}Ul

aAlan

welcome to
is

(used as verbal noun:) return

-Lj >_j>*^

Ujl^ J*--j J*l

he

a welcome
2

Coming and going


>_jT

guest in our house


look up alphabetically
Jl ahli domestic, family (adj.); native,

resident ;
{

indigenous ;

home,

na-

y jl

and

j-

j\

(It.

opera)

ffpwd

opera

tional

Jl d-bj national

bank
5*s

(Eg.); ^>j>-

opera houae
C-jyji (Fr.) pret operetta

i-UI (harb) civil

war;

5-1*1

(mahkama)

indigenous court (Eg.); J^M

LJI (qatf*)

Jurisdiction of indigenous courts;

r-^V

Cjj\ (Ft. aol)

August (month; magr.)


autobus, bus

JV'

(t'ni;)
1

domestic production; ijj

Jl {uag /) family

wakf

tri^j' (Fr.
JI_ht_Jj'

(tutobus) oiobla

jUI akliya aptitude, fitness, suitableness, competence;


3J_jjUJI

(Fr.) otogrf pl. -f

autograph

qualification
i-L*"V'

LUV
le-

the

civil

rights;
'

J-T

,jMj*jjjI

otqrfi autocratic

gally competent ; Li* V

f ** legally incom-

JlUjJjl (Fr.) otomtikX automatic


J-ij-yjji

petent, under tutelage


(Fr-) o(om&iJ

automobile

J*T hil and Jj*u ma'AJ inhabited,

populated (region, place)


Zj"$Mj*
ities,

Jjjl (Fr.)
abil-

fej pl. -t

hotel

muakkilt qualifications,

^jl au; highest point, acme, pinnacle; cul-

aptitudes

mination, climax; apogee (astron.); peak


(fig.;

J*ti*

mui'akk married

of power, of fame)

34

T h albumen, eggwhite

4t\

fa pl. -t hrm, hurt, damage, ruin, bane,


evil;

O
(jjl)

<>*-T hin

albumin
flex,

epidemic, plague; plant epidemio

jT

da u (aud) to bend,
(* a.th.); to
(

curve,

<J_jJ-

ma'f stricken by an epidemio

crook

brden, oppress, weigh


Jjl

down
;

s.o.);

Jjjijl (Engl.) ovirl Overalls

awida a (aivad) to
to

bend to be bent V to bend ;


ibjl

bow

*(iij')

jT jo u

to bring a.o. (J*)

bad

luck,

cause

diacomfort

or

auda brden, load


II

to brden

( s.o.)

hardship (J* to) with a.th. unpleas-

ij\

awad: jjL

flj

to provide for
in

b.o.'s

ant, troubleaome or difficult


2

needs, stand
ajjl flil

by

s.o.

time of need;
*sj\

(awadah) do.; tosupports.o.,fur-

see

i#l

nish s.o. with the


j\j\

means of Bubsiatence
thirst

^lijl uwaiqt (dimin. of Ojl) short timea;


good times

uwr heat, blaze;


urubb Europe

IjjjI

u-^j' u^>Wj' ojtyni, ogiyns ocean


*Jj\ qiya pl.
-tf

jjjl urubbi European


J-ljjl ruialim*

ounce, a weight of varying

Jerusalem
ura^ battalion

magnitude (Eg.: 37.44 g; Aleppo 320 g; Jerusalem 240 g; Beirut 213.3 g)


jjjjlTjl (Fr. occasion)

&jj\

(=

iLjl)

urfa pl. .Ujl

(formerly, Eg.; mtl.)


special sale
(jl^ijjl

okazyn Clearing

sale,

uruguwy Uruguay
Lil^^Sjl

ukrniy Ukraine
(Fr. oxygene) oksizen
(aul,

IJLfjjl

(It.)

orkestr orchestra

J^^Sj\
iLijjl (Turk. rnek) urnik
pl, dJLjijl arniJc*

oxygen

sample, specimen; model, pattern; form,

(Jjl)

JT la u

JU
to),

ma'l) to return, re-

blank
IjjjjI

vert (Jf to); to go back, be attributed,

be

attributable

(Jl

spring,

derive (Jl
(

urubb, IjjjjI Europe

from)

to lead, conduce, tend

Jl

to),

Ujjjl uru&& European


^[>-jj_jl

result eventually (Jl in); to

come

or go

eventually

(Jl
|

to
Jl

a.o.),

paas

into

the

rguwy Uruguay

hands of

(Jl)
it

y$\ JT the
.
.

long and

Jjl II (eg.) to ridicule (J* s.o.),


s.o.

make fun of

the short of

was that

. ;

Jl

LU.I o jT

(J.)

(ma^fu) he eventually got to the point

where
jjl
,j*T

... II

to interpret, explain (* a.th.)

iwazz

(coli.;

n. un.)

goose, geese

JT l family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan;


myrtle; see also alphabetically

companions, partiaans, people; mirage,


fata
<jT

L'ljwjl uafurdty Australia


IjjwjI (It.)

morgana
la pl. -t Instrument, Utensil; tool;

austny Austria

apparatus; device, implement, appliance;

^Ljl Oslo
L-ji -sf aee Lj
3-ijl

machine
L-l
|J

LrX\
JT

>*$\

. al-hiss

senaory

organs; ijjc
jL\ ijT

(bukriya) steamengine;

. al-jarr tractor;

v^*-

JT (ja*

wiiya

pl.

^Ijl awSin prayer, oration

hannamiya) infernal machine;

*?ij*-

*H
*JT

(Copt.-Chr.)

(harbiya) instrument of war; .iL^^JI

35

l
mobor, engine; 1-Uchine; iTU-l
iULA-'l
3jT .
5JT

calculating

ma-

Vjl axmvalan
place; at
first,

first,

firstly, in
|

the

first

al-hiyka power loom;

in the beginning

JjL Vjl

T sewing machine ;_j*.alj JTradio;


hoisting machine, crano, derrick;
jJ!

and
after

Vjti Vjl

ailj ilT

by and by, gradually, one the other, one by one; l_/*-lj Vjl
Vjl {kiran) firBt

pump;
kina)

^i

<JT

and li^*
3J

Jl

(musafy*

and

\j-\j

and

laBt, alto-

heater;
i*-LL!l

jj^\

T (photographic)
Jill ilT
Jl

gether? simply

and

solely,

merely

camera;
.

Tprinting press;

Jjl awwali prime, primary, primordial,


original, initial, first; elemental, funda-

al-gael

washing machine; 'j*&

incubator;
set (radio);

JUL-VI iJTreceiver, receiving l^* lT (muqaffira) distling


still;

mental,

basic,

principal,

chief,

main;

elementary; primitive, pristine, primeval]


*Jj\

apparatus,
typewriter;
slot

i>b&\
<

5J

T and LjK"

3J

j\J\\

ilT .

Wb

i-j.u

(madrasa) elementary school,


iJjl
i-le
jI_j*

al-qimr

grade school;
materials; Jjl
*Jj\

(mawdd)

machine; LJL-y* *^ (mawjfyo) mualarm; siren;

raw

{'adad)

prime number;

sical Instrument; 4_J^I 5jT

hrn

(of an automobile); #lf*

ijy\j (ftra) pro forma invoice

(om;')
*Jj\

(fig.) tool,

creature, puppet

awwaliya

pl.

-t

fundamental
es-

truth,

axiom; primary constituent,

jT

all

meohanic(al); mechanized;
|

mo-

sential

component, element; precedence;

torized; instrumental; organic

jTi.1^
{qwt)

priority
Jil ayyil, iyyal,

(mihrt)

motor plow; -J VI

ol_^JI

motorized troops; Jl

55^*-

(haraka)

uyyal

pl.

JJLl ay'xP

mechanical movement
JT liya mechanics

stag

ULI iyla
iljJLI

pl. -t

province; regency

JVT
sician
;

lti

pl.

LjVT

ltiya

(eg.)

muupshot;

ailla title
;

deed

(jur.)

singer
2
,

J U mal end
result,
f.

outcome,

final
|

issue,

consequence

JU-I

Jji

awwal

Jjl l, pl.

m.

-n, Jjljl

aw'tf 2

first;

foremoet, most important,

U.I

Jj

at present

and

in

the future
Interpretation,

principal,

chief,

main;

first

part,

be-

ginning;

(with def. article also) earlier,


see
also

JjjU ta'mll explanatkm


Vjl
tti't, liliJjl,

pl.

-f

previous, former;

under Jj

liUVjl ul'ilca these; those,


li

JjV'

J V'

(insn) primitive

man;

ij-L
pl.

of the demonstr. pron.

and

jJIi

Jjl physician-in-chief; JJljVI, tJjJjVI the

forebears,

forefathers,

ancestors;

JJtjl

j^ijl

oJimi Olympic i-ljV


j

'LI

VI the

Olym-

_^Jl o. aH-Sakr the first ten

days of a
lj*

pic

games

month, beginning of a month;

JjV

jLljl olimbiyd Olympiad


j)j\ ul (pl. of jj) owners, possessors, people

li-awwali marratin or JjVI ZjJl for the


first

time;

*ij\

^
A
in

aUIjI

,^*

since its be-

ginnings, from the very beginning; j*


j^\
Jl
*ij\

(with foll.genit.: of)


|

^V'
:

jJjl u. l-amr
JJ-I

{kiriki)

from

beginning

rulers,

powerful leaders;
(lit.

jlJIj

^JjI

to end, from

to Z; j*^\ Jjl

awwala

u. l-hall wa-l-'aqd

masters of solv-

l-amri at

first,

the beginning; JjVI


first

ing

and binding)

do.; uliJI ^Jjl u. i-Sa'n

JjVli each time the

available;
just

U Jjl
when;
1

the responsible people


[ljl

(auwala) the
at

moment when,
outset
of;

uwm
ohm

thirst

the

very

JjVI

^> jS"\
2 j.jl

(aktara)

more than before

(el)

36

fj>j*j\
*liT

omnibiu omnibus, bus


|

jb to'auwuA moaning, sighing; admiring exclamation; plaintive sound, wail

**-'j

jT j and an time; ^\ al-na now J afc tne same time, aimultane-

tjj\

aw

to seek refuge, seek aheiter ( Jl at a

ously;

j*X

Jl

T m (kara) from time to jT ^j


L.

place); to

go

(Jl to

bed); to betake

o.a.,

time;

j^j

(ua-fcaro)

and

repair (Jl to a place); to shelter, houae,

jT

Jju IjT

Bometimes, at timea,

now and

put up, lodge, accommodate, receire as


a guest
(*,

then, once in a while; Uti

UT gradually,
jTj

s.o.,

s.th.)

II

to shelter,

by and by,
timea

little

by

little;

UT

lodge, put up,

accommodate, receive aa

(wtnatan) sometimes

sometimes, at

a guest

( s.o.)

IT to seek

shelter (Jl at

at timea; u^/1

JJ

qabla l-na

a place), to retire (Jl to a place); to

before, previously, formerly; j'SU li-l-na

betake

o.a.,

repair (Jl to

&

place); to

and j^l Jr
erto, so
far;

hatt l-na until


<lftl

now, hith-

shelter, houae,

put up, lodge, accommo-

ba'da l-na from

date

( B.O.)

now

on, henceforth, in the future;

<>

AyJ \wa accommodation, lodging, housing, sholtering

1-l*Lo*

u^l min al-na

fa-fi'idan do.

J&T na'Kn that day, at that time,


then
iilijT

^jl.

ma'wan
dwelling,

pl.

jL ma*win

place

of refuge, retreat, shelter; abode; resting

na4ka that day, at that time,

place;

habitation

JJ jjL
house
.

then
Oj\
oljl
*jljl

(laut) ahelter for the night; doaa

aun calmness,

aerenity, gentlenesa

^jT ^l
jackal
1

Vm w

pl.

jjT cAj bant

awn

pl.

SjjT un'na
-Jtjl

time

JJ

prematurely;

at
*i\j\

the right

time, timely, seasonably,

> jat
^j^" uy

ijTyo,

coli. ,jT

y, pl. -t sign, token,

mark;

miracle; wonder, marvel, prodigy; model,

the wrong time, untimely, unaeasonably;

exemplar, paragon, maaterpiece (j


e.g.,

of,

Zj$\

fr ,> j .

tmie * t"116

of Organization, etc.); Koranio verae,


I

dj^^J (M and j^-l

0 *jT (dwinaten,

u&r) at timea, Bometimea; j^-lj

jl sometimes sometimeB, at timea at


times; jlj^l
*i*U
(/dto)
it is

JX
the

J"jS\

J {y a4-dikr)
(in

the veraes of

Koran; paasage

a book), utter(with
foll.

ance, saying, word;

iLT

genit.)

too late;
it is

moat solemn
gratitude)

assurances

(of

love,

of

ljVI jT (?w) the time haa come,

time (J
*\ji\

for,

to do s.th.)

jl ay
look up
alphabetically
\*l
^ilJjl

that

is (to say), i.e.;

namely, to wit

yes (with

foll. ^ilj

yea, indeed! yeB,

by

onbaH

corporal, aee ^SlJl


\*l

God!)
a VV>
f-

(j\)

*T aha u and II to moan, aigh V to moan, sigh; to sigh with admiration (J

V o-VV
;

0,

(with

foll.

genit. or suffix)

over), exolaim "ah!"


jl

which? what? what kind oft whoever, whoaoever any, every, no matter what
.

. .

avnoah

(interj.)

oh!

(with neg.) no;

Lr!

yyum whatever,

whataoever
TAi,
<*T

cJlT *A, lT

ayyan kna,
ia,

UTAan,
pl. -*

Ijl

wwwahi oh!

ayyatan knat whoever he (or ehe)


oL*T
matter

no

Aa

aigh,

moan;

pl.

who he

(or Bhe) is; 5" j* j}


it

ayyv

aigha of admiration; rapturous exclamationa

man kna whoever

may be,

whoaoever;

JU- jl J* (ayyi hlin) in any caae, at any

rate, at all events,

by

all

means;

-U-Ij ^1

i-jj^jl (Fr.

&Aarpe) sash
<a
i

ayyu whidin any one; OLi ^1 ULI *i j! inna lah Sa'nan ayya Sanin it is of the
greatest importance
(lit.
:

_r

*jl)

^T

to rcturn,
(Jl s.th.)

revert

(Jl

to

it

is

of im._-*!

s.th.); to

become

portance, and of what importance!);


l->L*I

Ljl aidan also, too, as well, likewise,

Ul o

u'jiba bihi

ayyam
*_L
JJl

i'jbin

eqaally;

again;

in

addition,

besides,

how much he admired him!


him
greatly;
jLil
Le!

he admired
aqbala

moreover

'alaihi

ayyam

iqblin
it

he sbowed

the

UIUI

tfd/iyd Italy
Jliajl

greatest interest in

ili Italian; (pl. -n) an Italian

Li

iyy with nominal suffix to express the


accusative
[

jjjl

(Gr. tlxojv) iqna and icon (CAr.)

<~>j>}

iqniya

i)L!
. . . ;

take care not to

..,

pl. -dt

be careful not to
of
...! iiLlj (dial.

> iJL

ilL

beware
uiiil

wayyk), Llj {wayyh)

aik

(coli.; n.

un.

;)

thicket, jungle

with you, with him

Jjl

and ULI
adJ a

see Jjl

jU
jjl

see

j\

JjLI

September

(Syr.,

Leb.,

It.,

II to back,

support

( s.o.,

* a claim,

an

Jord.)
3 ij^ljl

aspiration, etc.); to confirm, corroborate,

ailla title

deed (?W.)

endorse

(*

news,

judgment,

etc.)
(<!) >T

pass. of II

ma

i:

-c^jj j-

(zaujatiht) to lose
c~l

one's wife,
j_j ta'yld corroboration, confirmation,

become or be a widower,

endorsement, backing, support


j^ r jjJjI (Fr. hydrogene) idrozen

L^*-jj j* (zaujih) to lose one's

husband,

become or be a widow
Irl

hydrogen

aima,

*jA

uym and f
oy'im 8 ,
^/Ll

to*

iJL^jj-ul ILj (qunbula) hydrogen


l

bomb

'ayyum widowhood
f\

j\ air pl.

jy) uyr penis

ayyim

pl. ^-Ll

aydiTi

widower, widow
r-

*jU

af/yr 3

May

(Syr., Leb., Ir., Jord.)

aiwam 2

see
r>-

jl^l Irn Iran, Persia


Lei

ayyum

see *^1

ayy
oomo, approach, draw
time for him

jly

irni Iranian, Persian; (pl. -n)


1
(
fc

a Persian, an Iranian
loilyl irland

>')

^ na

to
|

near (time)
Ireland
(pl.

jljVl l {awn) the time


*J

has
-n) Irishman
to...

come:

it's

^jJj-I irlandi Irish;


JLj-I (Engl.) eriydl aerial,

T see j\

antenna
place?)
j.1 Jl

rj>l
i\

i3is Isis

j\ aina wherc? (= at or to whaL j.\ j* min aina where ... from?


|

where? (= to what plauo?)


far

ayisa a (^Ll
s.th.)

iytw)

to despair

(^

of

^ j&

j_\

how
what

we

still

are

from...,

worlda
*_'

separate us from
jya despair
is

...

(fig-);

il J* '**

^LJ

this

compared with that!

38

^\
^j!

al~ainu the where; Space (philo*.

Ifl

ayyuh, with

fem. also
...!

\^J\

ayyatuh

ainam wherever

(vocative particle)

ULI ayyna when? (conj.)


2

when
(el.)

<_jjjl

ayyb 2 Job
jjjjjlfi al-ayybiyn the Ayubite

j>\ II

to ionize (*
_jjI

B.th.)

to be ionized

{jA aiwam* Bee

iyn

pl. -t

ion

pj

>j

^jjI see
fa'yln ionization
2 (jljjl

2 ^/l

^U. muio'ayym
<jl

ionized

tw

pl.

-t recess-like

sitting

room
an

with a raised
iAi, iha,

floor,

usually opening on

ihin (interj.) well!

now

then!

all

the main

room

or courtyard through

right

arcade; estrade

i_j

abbreviation of
bi (prep.)
in,

<_jIj

chapter

LL bbpl.
father,

ol_jjL bbawt,

otjLL pope; papa,

daddy

i_j

at,

on (place and time);


i^jjLj bbatui,
4j_jjLj

with (indicating connection, association,


attendance); with, through, by means
of (deaignating instrumentality or agency,
also with pass. price of);
1

^jLL papal

babawiya papacy

by); for

uu

ba'ba'a to say

"papa"

(child)

at the
of);

by

to the
|

amount

by
at

Jiji bu'bu' root, source, origin; core, heart,

(introducing an oath)

JJL

bi-l-lail

inmost

part;
al-

pupil

of

the

eye,

also

(by) night, jlfJl* bi-n-nahr during the

(J^aII jij>_ b.

in

daytime,
bi-Sarqin

by day

j^Jj

1f \J"

Samlan
fa-bih
right;
...;

northeast ;

C-**J j
it's

l^i
all

JjL bbiP Babel, Babylon JjL bbill Babylonian


4jL

wa-ni'mat in that case


l

j
\

(J

-J

it

is

not

my

intention to

bbih the second

month

of the Coptic

i]\ Xt

-U

hd bi-dka

now we

are even,

we

calendar
7rji\j

are quits; itL_j 4S-<JJ (majVihi) an hour

before his arrival;


givea causative

"with" frequently
e.g.,

babj

pl. pz>\ji

bawblj1 slipper bawbir 3

meaning to a verb,
to rise with s.th.,

jjth bbr

pl. -t, juI_jj

(=

j_y)j)

y^-

(lit.

i.e.)
*j

to

locomotive, engine; steamship, steamer

boost, further,

promote

s.th.;

Jl

*L

to cause s.o. to arrive at, lead s.o. to;


for its use as copula after negations, etc.,

jA> bbnaj camomile


*'

(bot.)

"I;

btista batiste

see

grammar; "&

bi-l

without; jl

lc

bi-m anna in view of the fact that;


since, as,

j^^JjtL btlji pathologic (al)


U-^J_jJL btljiy

inaamuch

aa,

because; J

Lc

pathology
baidinjn
(coli.;

bi-m
L b'

fihi including

U^jL bdinjn and

jljf-ij

name

of the letter

t->

n. un.

) pl. -t

eggplant, aubergine

.u
x

jLj

6>

pl. -

bar; taproom

e -8-> 4- if^i

able
a

quantities
it

^\f (kammiyt) consider^L V (6a' sa) never


;

jL ba'ara a to dig a well


Jj
bi'r f., pl.

mind!
^'
cr'H
.

doesn't matter!

it's

all

right!
. . .

jLT br, jUj bi'r well,

**

doesn't

matter

that

spring
j_Jj

?o"
bu'ra pl. jJj

i*'

a yyu

6o*at.?
it?

what does

it

6u*ar center,

seat

matter? what of
(fca'aun)

^L

4_L

^-J
. . .

(flg.); site; pit;

abyss

he

will

be none the worse for

iU*
Cjj-SIjIj (Fr.

^-L V

(6a' sa) it

won't do you any

paraehute) brSt parachute

hrm! don't worry! don't be afraid


(

(il^m brguwy Paraguay


(jj^jL see <Jjj _r

rJj

obj bantu

bi'a

calamities, ad-

versities, misfortunes

^ji
<JjIj (Fr.) barlcek parquet, parquetry floor
*L"jIj

bu'a,

lL
pl.

ba's' 3 ,

^jj*
a6'a*

bu's misery,

and ^-Jj

fcu'sa

^Jjl

see *\jj
pl. -(

wretchedness, suffering, distress

jIj

6ra

para

(coin)

rj 6a'te wretched
(

pl. L-Jj bu'as'*

miserable,

ajjL brd saltpeter;

gunpowder
bawrid 2
rifle,

^L
J-Uj
J~*lj

6*w miserable, wretched

jjjlj ftrda pl. -bjljj

carbine
,jJjIj

(Fr.) &cwtfZ pastel

6>m 2 Paris
^jjlj

bsU

bacilli

Parisian

^iL b5 senior, chief


ba'z pl. j^Jj

(in

Compounds)
,j!j jlf^lj

Jlj

bz

pl. l_)u

6iz7fr

and jL

jI^Ij bS6&vi

and

approx.

6u'z, o\je bi'zn falcon

master Sergeant (formerly, Eg.)


pSi**
Ij

jljL bzoV pl. -( bazaar


C-Jjlj

fcfcaHm physician-in-chief

j^-j^piL

bSrayyis a naval rank, approz.

zoW basalt
petty officer 3rd class {Eg.)

JjjjjLi

bzbtmd bracelet
(^-

,_jt^ilj bSktib chief clerk

^Jj bausa u
intrepid;

6a* s) to

be strong, brave,
(,j-Jj

Jt'Ij bmufti chief

mufti (Tun.)

^^J

ba'iaa a

6a' a)

to

^rtM;
(

bSmufattiS chief inspector

be

miserable,

wretched

VI

to

feign
_r

misery or distress VIII to be sad, worried,


grieved
Js-jJI
{J

*JL+r'Li

bSmuhandia chief engineer


bSawt (CjIjUL) pasha

UL
Jj bi'sa r-rajulu what an evil

fci pl.

ol^L

man!

jilj 63o, 6tg pl.

J^

6auw&g a sparrow

^L

hawk
ba's strength, fortitude, caurage,
(ob

intrepidity
bcfusa);

verbal

noun
-bJ-1

of

^Jj

jjliUI al-bsqvrd the Bashkirs


^rXilj see jS^L*

hrm, hurt, injury, impairment,


|

detriment, wrong
brave, intrepid;
is
*i

^ul
,^-L
it;

courageous,
there

(6a' sa)

^jAi (Engl.) bs pl. -t bus, autobus

no objection to

unobjectionable;

not bad, rather importaut, consklerable,

j^li bfn concrete, b6ton

6
iplj

bga celluloid; tortoiae ahell


al-bkistn Pakistan

trj

<^ri

it' s

ftu<

over between him and

them, they are through with each other

U-fUI

Co bau settlement, decision;


JLl-TLj bkistnl Pakistan! (adj.
]

La battan

and

n.)

definitely,

once and for

all

Jlj bl

whale

{zool.)

decision;
a

o batta pl. -t adjudication, award final al-battata and o battatan


;

<lJ\

Ulj bla pl, -t bndle, bale

definitely, positively, decidedly, esp.

with

jUU

balt pl.

oljUU

6o^oum(,

^^j

balfi

negations: absolutely not, definitely not


Jj batti definite, definitive
i-L

overcoat; paletot

J\j
jJLj

(It.

balh) ball, dance

battiya,
;

bittiya

pl.

Jla

battly

barrel

tub
battan decidedly, definitely, pos-

bln balloon
Ljli>

jUUI jjr
lands

juzur al-blit/r the Balearic Is-

itively, categorically,

unquestionably, ab-

solutely

*JL (Fr.) bleh ballet


L1j

C-oj Jo&ii adjudication, award


j\j

blt

definite,

definitive

and

S-*Lj

bmiya gumbo, okra (Hibiscus


(man') categorical interdiction

Cj\j

*~>

esculentus L., 6o(.,a populr vegetable in

Egypt)

Ji batara u (batr) to cut

off,

sever (* s.th.);

OL

see ji

to amputate (* s.th.); to mutilate, render

fragmentarily (* a text) VII to be out


*^J\jji\j
i-ili

SSa bnrmiya

Fr. icran

off,

be severed, be amputated
batr cutting
off,

panoramique) Cinemascope screen


J

severance, Sepa-

jJj ia'na the tenth month of the Coptio


calendar
by,
f. IjLj

ration; amputation
Jj\

abtar 2 curtailed, docked, clipped,

trimmed; imperfect, defective, incomt$lj

bya

pl. -t

formerly, in Tunisia,

plete; without offspring


jli>

title aftor

the

names of the membera


battr cutting,

of the Bey's family

sharp

jUI jU dar aUby (formerly) the Tunisian

J\i btir cutting, sharp

government
pl. j_j-j

jJUa

mabtr

broken,

abrupt,

un-

connected; fragmentary, incomplete

j babr

bubr tiger
fl

Uo babg' 2 (and &a&&aj* a )


wt parrot
C~i boXla

.!j

bitr"*,

batr'*

Petra (ancient city of

pl. oljli-j

babg*

Edomites and Nabataeans; ruins now in

SW Jordan)
ilji batrak patriarch

(bau) to cut off, sever (a s.th.);

to complete, finish, achieve, accomplish,

carry out

(*

s.th.);

to

fix,

settle,
s.th.,

de-

Jjj batrl, bitrl petroleum

termine (*
s.th.)
II

s.th.),

decide (*

on

to adjudge, adjudicate, award

il

abta' 2

an
all,

assonant intensifier

of w-J

(* s.th.)

VII to be cut

off; to
j

be finished,
-l
4i

ajma' 2

altogether, whole, entire

be done; to be decided

j*>1\

-iL bti' strong; fll, whole, entire

41

ik> II to cut off (a


1

a.th.)

*wf bajika
II to cut off, sever
final,

a (bajah) to rejoiee
(l_j

(i->

at)

to

vaunt, flaunt
Jij batala i

s.th.),

boast, brag (lj of)

(batl)

and

{*

a.th.);

to

make

dose,
s.th.)

settle,

vv-Jt tabajjuh

bragging, braggery

make
retire
life

conclusive,

clinch

(*

to

M^i* mutabajjih braggart


tJjf.

from the world and devote one's

to

God

(l

Jl);

to be pious, chaste
to
live

bajda,

bujda root,
|

aource,

heart,

es-

and

self-denying;
off,

in

chastity

sence, basis

j-V

-^ the heart of the

VII to be cut

be curtailed, be docked
the Virgin

matter, the actual State of affairs, the


true facts; lf-&J/I _**

{ibn bujdatih)

he

J>=j batl virgin; Jj=JI


<}jZj

Mary

knows the
the right
j-\

Job from the ground up, he is


for
it

batti virginal

man

*Jy* batliya virginity


Js*s* mutabattil

abjar 2 obese, corpulent

an

ascetic, a recluse;

rit

bajasa

(bajs)

and

II

to

open

a.

pious, godly
a

man

passage (for the water), cause (the water)


to flow

V and

VII to flow freely, pour

V_>=j

batl birch tree

forth copiously, gush out


l

io

batta

(batt)

to spread, unroll, unfold

rj~

bajs,

,^-wf

bajis

flowing

freely,

(a s.th., e.g., (a
s.th.)
;

a rg); to scatter, disperse


disseminate,

Streaming
mjt

to

propagate,

baja

(n.

un.

pelican

spread

(a s.th., e.g.,

spirit,

an ideology,
to
Jjt II to honor, revere, venerate, treat

a doctrine); to sprinkle
let s.o. {, also J) in

(a a s.th. on);
s.th. (*, esp.

with
(
*

on

on a
|

deference
s.o.);
s.o.

s.o.),

show reapect

to

secret)

to broadeast, transmit
to peer around;

by radio
<Lj

to give precedence (J* a or

to

j-JI d-j

^Will

to
in

or s.th. over)

to be honored, be

plant, or lay, mines IV to let

( s.o.)

revered, be venerated
J*:

on a secret
scattered

(a)

VII to be spread; to be

bajal Syphilis

(*>.)

Jjj^J tabjU veneration, reverence; def-

ij

batt spreading,

dissemination, prop-

erence, respect

agation; grief, sorrow jo batara


i

^w
erable
jtf

mubajjal revered, respected; ven-

(batira a)

and V to break out with

pimples or pustules (skin)


ju batr
pl. jjij biitr (n.

bajama

{bajm,

>^

bujm)

to

be

un. ju batra

speechless,

dumfounded

pl. batart)

pimples, pustules

yc. II to clinch (* a nail)

ju

batir,

j&

batir pustulate,

pimpled

bahka a
to

(bahh,

bahah,

rj^ buhh,
i*-l*

jj bataqa

u (with

_^Jl

an-nahra) to open

rl bahh, **-j buhha, be or become hoarse,


II

bahha)

be raueous,

flood gates so that the river will overflow


its

banks VII to break forth, burst out,

husky, harsh (voiee)


hoarse
(* s.o.)

and IV to make

well out, pour out, gush out; to emanate,

proeeed, spring (j- or

^ from)

* buhka hoarseness
4-\

jliul inbitg outpouring, effusion, out-

abakh* hoarse
hoarse

pour, outburst; emanation

C^T- mabhh

err%y-

II

iabahbaha to be prosperous, live in


o.a.,

J^

bahtara to disperse, scatter (* s.th.);


to waste, squander, dissipate
II tabahtara pass. of I
(m

easy circumstances; to enjoy

have

s.th.)

a good time

rj^. bakbh gay,

meny
life

Ijji bahtara waste, dissipation

*>-j^ buhbuha middle;

of ease
|

^>w

mubahtir

squanderer,

wastrel,

and comfort,

prosperity, affluence

spendthrift

,y <*-j^- amidst

^w mvbahbah well-to-do, prosperous


enjoying an easy, comfortable
Life

*_^ bahira a to be startled, be bewildered


(with fright)
B

C-& bht pure, unmixed, sheer; exclusive,


also

_/

*: II

to travel

by Bea, make

a voyage IV do.

J*

i\

C-*; \z bahtan merely, solely,


. .

to embark, go on board; to put to sea,


set sail, sail, deparb (ship); to

purely, exclusively, nothing but

go down-

stream, be sea-bound (ship on the Nile)

J^

buhtwr stocky, pudgy, thickset


i$J>-

to penetrate deeply, delve (j into);


(

bukivji stocky, pudgy, thickset


(bht)

to study thoroughly
j- bahr pl.

a subjeet)

=V
a

-* bahata a

jU

bihr,

to look, search

jj buhr, jUl
largo
river;

(*

or 06 Aar,

for s.th.), seek (* or

_^l

abhur sea;

s.th.); to

do
noble, or great,
ity or

research; to investigate, examine, study,

man
is

(whose magnanim-

explore (* or

knowledge

comparable to the
(poei.)

s.th.,

less

frequently

with

vastness of the sea); meter

or J*), look into (* or j*); to

j- in the course of, during, (>iL-

discuss (* a subjeet, discuss


(

a question)

III to

j _^ j
|

with

(sanatain) in the
s.o.,

course of
Ja-*jdl

two

years,
l

a question) VI to

have a discussion, discuss together; to


confer,

within two
(abyatf,

years ;

^aj V

j*Jl

have a talk

mutawassifl

the Mediterranean

(*.

with

s.o.,

about)

j-LLJI

(sometimes shortened to ^jVI j^); j- b. al-bolfiq the altic Sea;

w*
abht

bht

pl.

Lij*- bttht,

olj_^,

il*il

V>^-'
of);
6.

j.

b.

al-janb the

South Seas;
(also f^Ull

search

(^

for),

quest

(^

^Vl j~J\ the Red Sea


al-quhum)
;

examination,

_^

Btudy;

research;

investi-

j_^-'l

_^

b.

al-kazar the

gation, exploration; discussion; treatise;


(pl.

Caspian Sea

(also

iW)

L*_SOl j*JI\); ?jj\ j^Ji


b.

study, scientific report (j on)


research

b.ar-rm the Mediterranean; j^-V


(aswad) the

iU:
worker

bahht pl. -n scholar,

Blaek Sea; oUiUJl

j-

az-zulumt the Atlantic; J^J j-

b, l}

jU: bdhhta

eminent scholar

and
J-Jl

c-J.1

j*fcJl

{mayyit)

the

Dead

Sea;

y:

{eg.)

the Nile the

ui-^w mabhat pl. ^i^-U, mabhit 2 subjeet,

theme,

field

of investigation or disof
research;
research,

j>

j*JI

al-bahrain

Bahrein

Is-

cussion,

objeet

lands
tj\j-

study, examination; investigation

bahrni of the Bahrein Islands;

&- L. mubhata

pl.

-l

negotiation,

jjUvJl al-bahrina the inhabitants of the

parley, Conference, talk, discussion


i.*-b
bhit pl.

Bahrein Islands
tjj^-

-n and il*i bukkal

bahrt sea (adj.), marine; maritime;

seholar, research worker; examiner, in-

nautical; naval; navigational ; (in

Eg.)

vestigator

northern, bahriya (with

foll. genit.)

north

43

J~
matio smoke {*
s.th.)

of; (pl. -n,

eailor,
:

Seaman, mariner

to evaporate

_yU

j_^ approx.
;

Seaman apprentice
(jtwi)

(water); to volatilize, turn into

smoke or

(Eg.)

ijjwJl

il>|^Jl

the

naval

haze; to perfume

o.s.,

or be perfumed,

forcea; \j- *1>UU (na&(t) marine flora,

with incense
jlit

water plants
<j

bukr

pl. -t,

abkira vapor,

j-

bahriya navy

fume; steam
ijl bukri fiara Sea-

j^ bahra pond, pool

steam

(adj.),

steam-driven
|

jl^ oAr

pl. -n, jl*

jjjc bakr incense; frankincense


f_j* b. Jt-\

jyC

man, mariner,
ship, of

sailor; pl. Sjl*

crew (of a

maryam cyclamen

(bot.)

an airplane)
abkar 3 suffering from balitosis
pl. j-^
-t,

2jv buhaira pl.


(tun.)

3 J[- bak'ir lake;

^iw mibkara

mabkir* (also

vegetable garden, truck garden


t) censer; thurible; fumigator

\j-

bukrn

crisis (of

an

illness); cli-

jvJ
tion
_^-Ij

tabklr fumigation

max, culmination

(also, e.g.,

of ecstasy)

ji^S tabakkur evaporation, vaporizaj>*S tabahkur deep penetration, delving (j into a subject), thorough study

(jof)
j*<~* mutabahkir thoroughly familir

bkira pl. j-\jt batvkir* steamer,

steamship
(j with); profound, erudite, searching,
penetrating
(

ijtji buwaikira small steambnat


rJc

bakasa a (baks) to deorease, diminisb,


(*
s.th.)
;

jl^ bahlaqa:
gaze <j at)
l

<.

jl<

{'ainatAt'}

to stare,

reduce

to

lessen
;

(e.g.,

4=*JS

qimatah the value of s.th.)


neglect, fail to

to disregard,

heed

(* s.th.)

f2

f'

^ a- ^^ excellent! well done! bravo!


Kj

^-

baks too

little,

too low; very low

bakka u (bakk) to

snore;

to

spout,

(price)

spurt, squirt (* s.th.); to sprinkle, splatter


l

r^-lj

bfcis

Bmall,

little,

trifling,

un-

(t_>

* s.th. with)

important
bakiiS
pl. ^ij^Li1

i^Ljc bakkJca nozzle

bakSlS 2 tip, gratuity


to kill o.b.

ii^i

(eg.)

bukJeeka squirt, ayringe


mJ

baka'a a (bak')

with *

Ob* mibakka
tlji 6afc( luck;

nozzle
-*JI J-

(with grief, anger, rage)


jJfil

a kind of lottery

abkaq 2

f. Ljc

bakq' 2 one-eyed

unlucky; c^JI j- bad luck


Jjtf

bakila a (bakal), bakula

(buhl) to
s.th.,

be

iJf; &afci(

lucky, fortunate

niggardly, be stingy

(i_>

with

^ or
J*
s.o.),

*_y*~*

mabkt lucky, fortunate

J* with regard to
s.o., iy for), stint

s.o.),
(i_>

scrimp

(jp,

in, ^f-

or Jp

Jit II tabaktara to strut, prance


jjc

withhold
to

(je-,

J* from

s.o., <_>s.th.)

VIto

II to vaporize, evaporate

(* s.th.);

give reluctantly, grudgingly f^, J* to


s.o.,
i~>

fumigate

s.th.)

(* s.th.}; to disinfect (* B.th.);

to perfume with incense, expose to aro-

JJ bukt avarice, cupidity, greed

J~
JJc
bafcll pl.

*& bukal' 1

avarioious,

o-i mu9tabidd arbitrary, highhanded,


autocratic,

greedy; miser, skinflint

tyrannical,

despotio ;
'

auto(bi-ra**

iw

mabjpala cause of avarioe, that

crat, tyrant,

despot

*jIj-

",.-

whioh arouses avarice or graed

yihi) opinionated, obstinate,

headstrong
or

jjc bufcnuq
(to oover

pl.

^c

bakniq* kerchief, veil

i-

bada'a a

(#.u

bad') to begin, start

(<_>

the head)
to
distribate,

j with
foll.

s.th.,

a s.th.;

with

s.o.;

with

imperf.: to do s.th. or doing s.th.

badda u (badd)

spread,

respectively ) ;
arise,
s.th.,

to

set

in,

begin,
II

start,

disperse II to divide, distribute, spread,


scatter,

spring up, orop

up

to put (*

disperse

(*

s.th.);

to remove,

J* before
or

s.th. eise), give (*

preced-

eliminate (* s.th.); to waste, squander,


fritter

ence

priority

to

s.th.,

away, dissipate

(* s.th.)

J* over
s.th.,
first

pass.

s.th. eise) III to begin, start

(<_>

of II;

to

be independent, proceed
(<_>

with regard to

s.o.),

make the
(<_>

Step,

independently
i.e.,

in, o.g., in

one's opinion,

take the initiative or lead

in s.th.,

to be opinionated, obstinate, head-

toward
accost

s.o.), e.g.,

jOI&Lj
first

*Ub {kalm) to
s.o.

atrong) ;
(<_>

to

possesa

alone,

monopolize
(<_>

s.o.,

speak

to

IV to do or

s.th.); to

take possession

of
{<_>
;

s.o.),

produce

first (* s.th.),

bring out (* s.th.

seize, grip,

overwhelm, overcome

s.o.;

new)

-Uu

Uj

[gju

L.

yubdi'u

wa-m

said of a feeling, of

an impulse) to
(<_>

dis-

yu'idu he can't think of a blessed thing


to say; -Uwj jO-j he says or does every-

pose

arbitrarily,

highhandedly

of

s.th.); to rule despotically, tyrannically,

thing

conceivable
s.th.)

VIII to begin, start

autocratically
A*

(<_>

over)

(v with
|

budd
-^

way
J

out, escape
if
it is

jS

lil

j-

(buddun)

inevitable
cerall

*X>

bacT beginning, start


\*Xij

.jJ! .u*

from

that...;

V V

(budda)

definitely,
fail;

the (very) beginning;

Ijj* *Li ('au*

tainly, inevitably,

without

by

means j*
;

Uj

it is

necessary, inescapable,
*J

dan wa-bacPan) or *J -U J* * :>_>* ('audak 'al baSikx) or *0j Jl 1^ (il bacCin) he did
it all

unavoidable, inevitable, c-

Oj

V he
it;

over again, he began anew


bad'a,
il-u
|

aimply mut do
-

it,

he oan't get around


in

I-

badVa,
*jI-

l-

bidya

JS*

j-

min huUi buddin

any

caae, at

beginning, start
ginning, at
first

^Vl

in

the be-

any
-

rate

jW

abdid*

(pl.)

Boattered
*l-

bad'a beginning, start;


|

first

step,

OjO-j

fabdid scattering, dispersal, dis-

first

instance
at the

Oj

*1oj

badd' ata

baSin
be-

persion ;

removal,

elimination ;

waste,

right

outset,

at the

very

dissipation
il-Ll-1

ginning
istibdd
arbitrariness,

high-

jl-u bud'i primitive

handedness; despotism; autocracy; ab-

solutem
jjljj^l istibddi arbitrary, highhanded, autocratic, despotio; oLjjIjJ^I istib*

t-u

mabda*

pl.

^jL.

mabdi'*

be-

ginning, start, starting point; basis, foun-

dation ;

principle ;

invention ;

pl.

prin-

ciplea, convictions (of a person); ideology;

ddiyt arbitrary acta


j-L*

rudiments,
disperser;
j

fundamental concepts,
Jculub al-m.

Cle-

mubaddid

scatterer,

ments jjLII <^S"


books

elementary

squanderer, wastrel, spendthrift

45

Cto s.th.)
|

ja-,

mabdai
basic;

original,
LjJL*

initial;

fundaorigi-

JpjJI

jlfl Jl jiL {injzi l-wa'd)


fulfill

mental,

mabdaiyan

to set out to

a promise VI jjLj

nally; in principle
IjLI

jmJ}\ Jl {dihn) to
;

suggest itself strongly,


first

ibtida
|

beginning, Start; novitiate


IoijI

be obvious to appear at
(jl); l
all

glance as

if

{Chr.)

jf.

ifciid'an
foll.

min from,
date)

^S

Jl j-iLj

(dikni) it oecurred
. . .

beginning

...,

os of (with

to

me

of a sudden that

^JI Jl jalJ

(fahm)
Jloijl ibtid'i initial; preparatory, ele-

to

be

immediately

understood

VIII to hurry, rush, hasten (* to); to get

mentary, primary of
;

first

instance

(jur.)

ahead of
( s.o.)
|

s.o.

(),

antieipate,

forestall

original,

primitive

v'-^

'**& {mahf
jlaijV' J*d\

:AJli

UjAjI before she could say


. .

kama) court of first instance;

word he exclaimed
jOj jJj

elementary education; v'-11^ *-j j* {mad* rasa) lower grades of a high school,
approx.
:

badr

pl. jjJj

budr

fll

moon

junior

high

school

(as

dis-

badra
of
j

pl. badart, j\x> bidr huge

tinguished from *j>Ij); v'-^.' "l^-i (&a* hda) approx.: junior high school grad-

amount
dirhama)
of

money

(formerly == 10,000

Jlj*Vl olj-4

enonnous sums

uation certificate
\$s\i

money
jl-b

bdi* beginning, starting


|

_^Vi *^li

badri hurry! quick!

bdi'a l~amr

and j*Vl

jjIj

ning, at first; J[j\

l^ilt

j j

in the beginright

away,

j j

L.

mvbdara

undertaking,

enter-

without thinking twice, unhesitatingly;


.b

prise
jjlj

^j
of

J^jL
all,

bdi'a dl bad'in above

all,

bdira

pl.

j*\jt

bavxidir* herald,
first in-

first

in the first place, primarily;

harbinger, precursor, forerunner,

^"i [$sU\ al-bdi'u dibruh (the person


or thing) mentioned at the outset, the

dication, sign; unforeseen act; Btirring,

impulse,

fit (e.g.,

of rage); blurier, mis|

first-mentioned
^j-U-.

take; j^ji stirrings, impulses

j*-

jaIj

mubtadi*

beginning;

beginner;
2

6.

kairin a good, or generous, impulse

novice {Chr.)
Toi-*

jXj

baidar

pl.

jiLi

baydir*

threshing

mubtada* beginning, start; {gram.)

floor

subjeet of a nominal clause


rjj-ij
ljJU

badara u to come unexpectedly, by surprise; to escape


{,y>

rn
f-Jj

and jjJ (Turk. bodrum) badrm, bad* pl. -t basement

s.o.; e.g.,

words
s.o. 's

in

excitement)

III

to
s.o.

come to
()

bada'a a {bad') to introduce, originate,


start,

()

do

for the first

time (*

s.th.),

be the

mind, oeeur to
strike
s.o.

all
;

of a sudden,
first

(idea,

notion)

to

embark,
(Jl to

to do s.th. (*); to devise, contrive,


s.th.)

invent (a
enter
s.th.)
(Jl

II to

aecuse of heresy

upon

s.th.) or set

out

do
(

s.o.)

IV

I;

to create (a s.th.); to

without delay; to rush, hurry


to a place); to hurry up
Jl
(<_j

(Jl

to

s.o.,

with

achieve unique, excellent results (j in);


to be amazing, outstanding (j in s.th.)

s.th.),

jjb

with

foll.

verbal

noun:

VIII to invent, contrive, devise, think

to

do

s.th.

promptly,

without delay,
fall

hasten to do s.th.; to with


s.o.
(>_>),

upon

up
s.o ()
(i_>

(*

s.th.)

to regard as novel, as
(a
s.th.)

unprecedented
aecost, assail, surprise
s.th.;
e.g., Jk-li. ?'$->

with

j-ib

to
(Jl

9i bad' innovation, novelty; oreationj


\*y-j Uju bad* an

snap rudely at

s.o.); to react,

respond

wa-'audan repeatedly

.
bid* pl.

46

f-jj

f-l-ul

abd" innovator; new,


|

for s.th. s.th. eise); to


s.o.

compensate (**_>
()

original;
l bid'a

unprecedented, novel

f-U

for s.th. with s.th. eise), give s.o.

no wonderi jl f-Jj "^ l fttd'a an no wonder that . j- s-Jj B.th. eise than;
. .

s.th. (*) in

ezchange

for (j)

to change;

to be exchanged VI to ezchange (a s.th.,


also words,

unlike, different from


ijj

views, greetings)

to ex-

bf'a

pl.

p-b

Staa'

Innovation,

change, receive in ezchange, trade, barter


(t_>
t_j

novelty; heretical doctrine, heresy; pl.


creations (of fashion, of art)
|

and a
a
l-j

i_j

s.th.

for); to replace (a
(l-j

f-oJI

JaI

and
l-j

s.th. by), Substitute

a and

a&Z aZ-6. heretics


jj

for s.th. s.th. eise)


ftoaaJ
pl.

ftooT,

f-Jj

bud*

unprecedented,

Jjj

JUI

a&iJ

Substitute,

marveloua, wonderful, amazing, admirable, singular,

alternate, replacement ; equivalent,

comrec-

unique; creator

-j-lJI

1*

pensation,

setoff;

reimbursement,

*ilm aX-b.

tbe art or science of meta(in

ompense, allowance;

price, rate; (gram.)

phors and
**iii

general)
-Jljj

of good style

appositional Substantive standing for an-

other Substantive
badi'a pl.
badcii'*

t^l
i

Jjj b.al-jirya Joj


iil

an aston-

allowance

for

food ;

ishing,

amazing thing, a marvel, a wonder;

i _ri_Jl

b.

asJ-"j

aafaHya tra vel aUo wance ;


subscription
rate;
J/,-!<

_^i V '

original creation

J-u

expense

^.u
f-Jjl

badti rhetorical
abda" 3

account, expense allowance


Jjj badala (prep.) instead of,
of, in lien

more amazing, more ez-

place

ceptional; of even greater originality


f-l-ul

of

t&d' creation, fashioning, ehap-

jstead
ifjj

V->j

badalan min
of

in

place of,

in-

ing; a marveloua, unique achievement;

of, in lieu

uniqueness, aingularity, originality; Creative ability

badla

pl.

oooZf, Jjj
|

&2at
<J ju if Jj

su
al-

(of clothes);

costume

>^-l
<_r,
*J.u

o.

O^'JjI

ibd'i

romantic

(lit.)

hammm
(lit.)

bathing

Buit ;

(ras*

Ov-'JjI ibdaiya romanticism

miya) uniform; iJL^iS


full-dress

(taSriftiya)

uniform
compensation,

f-a mubdi' producing, creating; crea*Jjj

badaliya

trve; creator; ezceptional, unique, out-

smart

Btanding

(in

an achievement,

money
JIj

eap.

of
badala (prep.) instead
of,
L.

an

artist)
f--tu.

JIjj

(conj.) instead of {being, doing, etc.)

mvbtadi' innovator; creator; herJjJj

etio

badil pl. >V-u budal' 2 Substitute,

alternate

(^
|

or ,y for); Btand-in, double

JXj look up alphabetically


Jjj

(theat.);
(<~>

(f. :)

serving as a replacement or
iL.u

badala

to replace
(<~>

a B.th,

by),

Substitute

jyu (mafraza) reserve

ezchange
alter (a

* s.th. for) II to change,

detachment
JIj
l-b

(mil.)

a s.th. to), convert (a a s.th.


.->

baddai grocer; money-changer

into);

to Substitute (a for s.th.,

or

baddla

culvert

pipeline ;

tele-

j-

s.th.),

ezchange,

give

in

ezchange
(a s.th.)

phone ezchange, central

(a B.th.,

wor,}.
(^

for); to (a
*

change

III to

ezchange

with

b.o. B.th.)

IV to

JjL* TttobdiP see Jjj


taidCf change, alteration

replace

a s.th. by),

ezchange (^ a

JjJ-j

ihL. mvbdala
ijjljf

pl. -t

exchange oV.iL
|

hatan and UlaJb


ously
i^-Jj

all

by

itself,

spontane-

{tijriya)

commercial

exchange,

trade relatione
badiha
s.th.

sudden

or

unexinspi-

Jljjl

ibdl exchange, interchange, re(<_j

pected;

improvisation ;

impulse,

placement

by), Substitution

(_j

of);

ration, spontaneous intuition; intuitive

change; phonetic change


(Jo_j

understanding or insight, empathy, inshift,

tabaddul

change,

turn;

stinctive
i^-l
all

grasp, perceptive

faculty

J*
off-

transformation ; transmutation, con Version

by

itself,

spontaneously;

hand; i^-l
repartee;

j-^L*- quick- witted,

quick at

S^U-

^jj presence of

mind

(JiU
^"LJl

tabdul
(.

{mutual)

exchange
|

JiLj

as-aalm exchange of greet-

af

Jj

badihi

and ^Oj badahi

intuitive;

ings; jW^J-'l

JjU

thought transference,

self-evident ; a priori (adj.)

telepathy
JI-lL-I istxbdl

exchange, replacement,

Substitution
t}x>* mubdil: oLjI_jL-V J-L* m.al-ustw wandt automatio record changer

L^Aj badihiya pl. -t an axiom, a fundamental or self-evident truth; truism, commcmplace, platitude
*Ji Jj

bad'ih*

fundamental

or

seif-

evident truths
(jjj)
\jj

JjLi* mutabdal mutual, reciprocal


Jj

bad u to appear, show, become

baduna u and badana u to be


lent

evident, clear, piain or manifest,


fat,

come

corpu-

to light; to be obvious; to seem good,


acceptable, proper (J to
s.o.) III

to show,

jjj

badan

pl. jl-ul

abdn, Jo\ abdun

display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare

body, trank, torso


(J-U

openly

ij\xJL

^jL (*adwa) to show


disclose, reveal,

badani bodily, corporal, physicai,

open
fest,

hostility

IV to

manito

somatic
ljj
j-jXj

show, display, evince (*

s.th.);

demonstrate, bring out, bring to light,

badna corpulence, obeaity


badin
pl.
d>Jj

make
voice

visible {* s.th.); to express, utter,


(a
s.th.)
|

bvdun

stout, cor-

J\j

^^1

(ra'yah)

pulent, fat, obese


ijjjj
(1>jL

to express one's opinion about; Lij ^JjI


(ragbatan) to express a wish or desire

budna corpulence, obesity


bdin
pl.

V
Jj

=
j

I;

to live in the desert VI to pose as

bvdn stout, corpulent,

a Bedouin
-h

fat,

obese

badw desert nomads, Bedouins


;

Oj

badaha a to come, descend Buddenly

(*

upon

s.o.),

befall
( s.o.)

unexpectedly
with
s.th.

tjjjj
(

badawi Bedouin, nomadic; rural a Bed-

s.o.);

(as

to aurprise

distinguished from urban);

(^) III to

appear
before
porize,

ouin

suddenly,
s.o.

unexpectedly
s.th.)

with

(^ VIII to extem-

\j x> badawiya
Bedouin
luj

pl. -t

Bedouin woman,

improvise,

do offhand, on the
(* s.th.)

girl
pl.

spur of the
ifcioj

moment

badh

oljOj

badawt whim,

badha spontaneity, spontaneous

caprice; ill-humor
Sjluj

occurrence, impulse; simple, natural way,


naturalness, matter-of-factness ;i1oj bad-

badwa and bidtoa desert


life;

life,

Bedouin

Bedouinism, nomadism

JJb

48

l-U baida

desert, steppe, wilderness,

jli bidr seedtime

wild
IjuI

jXJ
ibd*

tabdlr waste, squandering, dissi-

expression,

manifestation,

pation
jJL.

declaration
jlj

mvbaddir

aquanderer,

wastrel,

fidm apparent, evident, obvious,

spendthrift
3Xj look

piain, visible; inhabiting the desert; pl.


*1 jj

budk Bedouins

up alphabetically
%

jaL bdiya desert, semidesert, steppe

Ji

badala

(badi) to give or

spend

frecly,

peasantry;

(pl.

s\j>

bouwdin) nomads,

generously (* s.th.); to sacrifice (* s.th.);


to

Qedouins
Iaj bidya

expend

(* s.th.)

to offer, grant ( * s.th.) to

X^r-

Ji

(jahdah)

take pains;

Ji
to

Sljb

ljj^do.;.uLn
(*),

jTji
itliJl

(Jeua

mumadatin)

6o^o- n {ba44) to get the better of


beat, surpass
( s.o.)

to grant every assistance;

^L-11 Ji
to obey
glin)

make
J_k-

efforte;

Ji

s.o.,

defer to s.o.;

i bad& and
shabby,
Sili
fitthy,

iL

bdd elovenly, untidy,

ij*^-J\j

JU JT Ji (Jeua JWI Ji to

and

spare no

squalid
Blovenliness,
filth

effort,

go to any length, give everything,

badda

untidiness,

ehabbiness, d^tineaa,

1i badaa a to

revile,

^.ij fautt'a a, (J* at s.o.); to be obscen* bawdy

abuse (J*

s.o.),

rail

ji

farfu'a

price for or in order to; Ji (maa uuihihi) to sacrifice one's honor; (O^ jp or) ~& ji <- Ji to sacrifice o.s. for s.o.; <*-j Ji (ivus'ah) to do one's utmoat, do one's best T to

pay any
<4*-j l.

fritter

away

one's

fortune,
o.s.

be

over-

*iSM

^4*

disgusting, loathsome, nause-

generous; to prostitute
display

(woman); to

oua, foul, dirty, obsoene,


*\X>

bawdy, ribald
obscenity,
;

bad*

and

!li

badaa

ribaldry, foulness (of language)

disguat,

common, vulgr manners VIII to in common service, make trite, vulgr, commonplaoe to hackney (*
wear out
,

loathing, aversion,

contempt

s.th.); to

abuse

(* s.th.); to express o.s.

in a vulgr

manner, use vulgr language


to degrade
o.a.,

^-i badaka a to be baughty, proud


i-i

4_j JJcjI

demean

o.e.,

badak

luxury,

pomp, splendor;

sacrifice one's dignity

haughtiness, pride
f*\i

Ji
j-Jl>.

badl

giving,

spending;

sacrifice,

bdik

pl.

bawdik*

high,

surrender,

abandonment;

expenditure;

lofty; proud,

haughty

offering, granting

jXt badara

{badr) to sow, disseminate (*

badia suit (of clothes)

B.th., seed,

also

fig.

= to

spread) II to

JJL. mibdal pl. JSL.


pl.

mabdiP

s lipper;

waste, squander, dissipate (* s.th.)


jii

JjL. casual clothing worn around


|

badr

pl.

jjii

budr,

jli

bidr

home

JSL.
life

O^U so-and-so in

his

seeds, seed; seedling; pl.

jji

private
pips, pits,

stones (of fruit)


ijXt
pit,

JlJbi

ibtidl

triteness,
;

commonness,

badra

(n. un.)

a seed, a grain; pip,


(fig.)

commonplaceness banality; debasement,


degradation

stone (of fruit); germ;

germ

cell (of

a development, and the

like)

JiL bd spender

49

je

JJLi*

mutabaddil vulgr,
trite,
;

common

outaide

l_^j \j barran wa-bahran by

Jo~* mvbtadal

hackneyed, banal,

land and sea


,jj barri terrestrial, land (adj.); wild
(of plante

common, vulgr
place (adj.)
x

e veryday ,

common-

and animals)

SJL \j IjL-

(aayyra, m'iya) amphibious vehicle

haira (Ist pera. perf. barirtu, barartu) a

(bin) to be reverent, dutiful, devoted;


to be kind
{

*lj

barrtya

pl.

^j j
I

barrly
x

open

or

i_>

to

s.o.);

to be chari-

country; steppe, desert; see also


<j\j

\j

table, beneficent,

do good

(_

to

s.o.);

to

barrni

outside, outer, exterior,

obey

s.o.,

esp.

God); to treat with


(_

external; foreign, alien


3

reverence, to honor

or

the parents};

to be honest, truthful; to be true, valid

burr wheat
bara'a a

(sworn Statement); to keep

(<_j

a promise,

l_r

anoath)

bar') to create (* s.th., said

II to

Warrant, justify, vindicate;

of God) *j bar* creation


*jj bariya pl.
-t, Ll_r

to acquit, absolve, exonerate, exculpate,


clear (a,

s.o., s.th.)

to justify o.s.
(* s.th., a
o.s.; to

<_> <^-j jj {wajhah) by IV to carry out, fulfill


|

bary creation

promise, an oath)

to justify

(=
alBO

that which
2
_r.

is

ereated); creature; Bee

be justified

birr reverence, piety; righteousness,


Z

^ jUl

tU-bri' the Creator

(God)

probity; godliness, devoutness; kindness;


charitable gift
\$J bari'a a (U\j bar'a) to be or
free,

become
guilt,

be cleared (j* from, esp. from


etc., Jl

barr

and jL brr

pl.

j\j\ abrr
(i_>

and

blame,
(j,-

toward

s.o.);

to recover

Ijj barara reverent, dutiful

toward),

from an

illness)

II

to free, clear,
( s.o.,

devoted (o to); pioua, godly, upright,


righteous; kind
*ji+

acquit, absolve, exculpate


suspicion, blame, guilt)
|

j- from
3*-U \j

J*-_^l

mabarra

pl.

-t

and jL. mabrr2


charitable

(shaia

r-rajul)

he acquitted the

man

good deed, act of


philanthropio
institution,

charity, benefaction;

IV to acquit, absolve, discharge, exculpate


( (*

Organization ;

s.o.); to
s.o.)
|

eause to recover, eure, heal


\j\

home

or hospital set

up with

4i-j

(dimmatah) to clear
guilt,

private funds

s.o.

or

o.s.

from

exonerate

s.o.

or

o.s.

V to

clear o.s. (j*


free o.s.

from suspicion,

j j

tabrlr justification, vindication

from a Charge),

(^ from

respon-

jL brr reverent,
see also under

faithful

and devoted;

sibility, etc.), rid o.s. (,y, of); to declare


o.s.

barr above

innocent,

wash one's hands (^

of);

to be acquitted

to restoro to health, to free o.a.

of the

Jjs* mabrr (accepted into the grace Lord, i.e.) blessed (said of a

eure, heal
rid o.s.
((>.

( s.o.);

(^

from),

of)

deceased person)
j
j >*
bur*

and *jj bur* convalescence,

mubarrir
a]
|

pl.
)}

-t

justification

recovery
*' pl- *L>y' abriy' 2 *\j , *<Sj & ar

excuse
fiable
%

jj*

(mubarrira) unjustibur',
bir'
free,

exempt (^ from), devoid


innocent
;

j barr land

(as

opposed to

sea), terra firma,

((>

of ) ;

guiltless,

guileless,

mainJand; open country; \j barran out,

harmless; healthy, sound

*Ji

50

*\j bar* free,

exempt (^ from)
is

*i
...

jj}\ al-barbar the Berbers

,> *'y (<Wmma*uA) he

innocent of

U\j bar'a being

free; disavowal, with-

tfjj barbari Berber (adj.); barbaric, uncivillzed (pl. j\j barbira) a


;

drawal; innocence, guiltlessness; naivete,


guilelessness, artlessness; (pl. -t) Ucense,

Berber; a barbarian
*ij

j barbariya barbar(ian)ism, barbar-

diploma, patent

fjj^-l 'y patent


>l^

on

ity,

savagery, cruelty

an invention; iJl

exequatur {a

written authorization of a consular officer,


issued
is

;>u
urAJ_r

muiabarbir barbaric, uncivilized

by the govemment to which he


b.

look up alphabetically

accredited) ; Jl l*\j
(dipl.)
;

ai-tiqa

(Tun.)
ijiuj

credentials

l*\j

J* harmless

barbU

(syr.)

tube (of a narghile, of an

without

guilt,

innocent

enema,
!nij

etc.)

4jj-3 tabri'a freeing,

exemption; acquit-

barbafa to splash, paddle,

dabble

(in

tal,

absolution, discharge, exoner&tion

water)
tjjij
(It.

TjL.

mubra'a mubarat, divorce by


wife,

barbone)

barbni, also bjtj


zool.)

red

mutual consent of husband and


either of

muilet (Mullus barbatus;


\jj see <tj

them waiving
(Isl.

all

claims

by way

of compensation

Law)

\j\ ibr' acquittal, abeolution, release;

ij~uj barbia barbel (zool.) JLJ_r burtugl Portugal

releaae of a debtor

from

his liabilities,

remifision of debt (Isl.

Law)

JUjj
*\jc^\ iatibrai J*A-I ljc-1 ist.

burtugli Portuguese

al-hamal

the ceremony of aelecting and purifying the Host before Mass (Copt.-Chr.)
j\j*r^ji

JUjy

burtuql, \Jj burtuqn orange

jUjy

burtuqli tlj\jj burtuqni orange,

baraguwy Paraguay

orange- colored

Jj jljJI al-bvrzxl Brazil

jj
braerl beer parlor,

buttun

pl. ij\j

bartin 9 claw, talon

V_r V to

display, show, play

up her charms

{Sf-^j

(Fr-

brasserie)

taproom
f\j Prague
a\j\j
l>l_r

(woman); to adorn
pretty (woman)
'ry. burj pl.

herseif,

make

herseif

^jj

burj, *^\j\
|

abrj tower;
*\^-\

(Fr. paravent)

baravn folding screen

Castle; sign of the zodiac

-rj

b.

al-hamm pigeon house,


bdrahm Brahma
Uli b.
4j

do vecot ;

r_j

al-miyh water tower


pl.

birba

and
back

ijj

birb

pl.

jl j

barbi
'i^-jL

brija

ancient Egyptian temple, temple ruins

rJji

bawrij3

warship,

battleship; brge

dating

to

ancient

Egypt

(eg.)

labyrinth,
jf-j

maze
f-\j

^j-U- jJl
barbik*

t_-jJ

lab

al-birjs

a kind of equestrian

contest, joust,

tournament

barhak

pl.

water pipe,
'^j-tft-jti

drain, culvert, sewer pipe

al-birjia

Jupiter (ostron.)

jj

barbara to babble noisily

(e.g.,

large

J-_f barjal pl. J-I_r barji compaas, (pair

orowd), jabber, mutter, prattle

of ) dividera

61

>j!

*+j burjuma
finger Joint

pl.

^\j

barjim*

knuckle,

ij bard coldness,

chilliness, coolness;

cooling; alleviation; cold, catarrh

^j- bariha

a (r\j barh) to leave (* or


Jl
for),

^&
on

ij

barad

hail,

~**j

barada

(n.

un.)

place,

depart (* from,
:

hailstone

Jl

one's

to be
Lii

way to); with neg. to continue (= Jlj) j rj l* he i still in ...; r; U (ganiyan) he U still rieh; rj
|
;

ijj bard collyrium


jjy burd coldness, coolness, chilliness;

emotional coldness, frigidity


ijj
liness ;
>-iJI

LU-'I

(Ipafa)

the matter haa come out,

has beoome generally known;


to

ryj
to

1j

burda coldness, coolness,


emotional
b.

chil|

come and go
molest

II

to
s.o.)

beset,
III

harass,

coldness,

frigidity

trouble,
(*

(<-

leave

lijj

ad-dam cold-bloodedness
chill;

place, Jl for), depart (* from, Jl

on

j-iy

bardiya ague, feverish

see

one's

way

to)

also below

-1y barh depart ure; oessation, stop;

*\)j burad** ague, feverish chill


*\j

a wide, empty tract of land, vast ezpanse,


vastness;

U-ly

barhan

openly

and

barrda

cold-storage plant;

re-

frigerator, icebox

plainly, patently
-b j

tabtid

cooling,

chilling ;

cold

j\J tabrih* agonies, torments


of longing, of passkm)

(e.g.,

storage,

rofrigeration ;
|

alloviation,

mitcold**jf-

igation

-^ll

jl+r

J^Az
;

at-t.

o-jL. mvbraha departure


-jLi

storage
i.e.)

plant,

refrigerator

-1>>JI

ffurfat at-t. cold-storage

room
chilly ;

brih (showing the left side,


inauspicious,
f\**)i

ill-boding,

ominous

(as

jjL

brid

cold ;

cool,
silly,

easy
dunce,

opposed to

^jUI al-brika yester-

weak; stupid, inane,


blockhead
|

dull;

day
o-jUl al-brikaia yesterday ^-jUl JJl
|

jU v>l
life;

(korb) the cold


jjIj

war; ojU i*-^ an easy prey;


f (

^*s.

(Zatioto)
l-b.

last

night;

o-jUl Jjl awwala

ai$)

an easy

ojIj <*: (hujja) a


(tibg) light,

weak

the day before yesterday, two daye

argument; jjL ;J
baeco

mild to-

ago

-JU

mu/wirrtA

violent,

intense,

ex-

*s* mvbarrid cooling, refreshing;


l

pl.

refreshments (beverages,

etc.)

cruciating, agonizing (esp., of pains)


i_A*
o_

mubarrad cooled, chilled


file (*

-ju mudarraA

&Ai stricken, afflicted,


2

tormented
l

*j barada u to

a piece of metal,

etc.)

jly barrd fitter (of machinery)

*j barada u to be or beoome cold; to cool,


cool off (also
chil)
fig.);

to

feel cold;

to cool,
(*

jly birda fitter's trade or

work

{*

s.th.);

to soothe,

alleviate

pain);
II

baruda u to be or become cold


make
cold (* s.th.); to refrigerate

*jly burda iron filings

to

*j^ mibrad

pl.

jjL. mabrid 1

file,

rasp

(* s.th.); to cool, chill (* s.th., also fig.);

j^

turd

pl.

*\j\ abrd

garment
outer garment

to soothe, alleviate (* pain)


o.a.,

to refresh

oool

o.s.

off;

to

be soothed, be
cold, cool off

lij burda

Mohammed 's

alleriated VIII to

become

oliy burdya curtain, drape

>j!

52

*ij-

IV to send by mail, to mail (* a


Ojj;

letter)

jjj

burz

prominence,

protection,

6arW post, mail

^^i-l

4j jO!

(jawui)

Protrusion

air

TTiail

j\j birz exorement, feoea; oompetition, oontest,

j4j^ &arid{ portal; messenger, oourier;

match

(in sporta)
eg.)

duel

mailman
*jjjb look up alphabetioally
*if*j
bardi, burdl
Sjjlt

~*jj

buraiza (birSza;

ten-piaater

coin

papyrus

(bot.)

tive;
Cj\j jjJI ]*

jj abraz 1 more marked, more more prominent


I

diatinc-

6ardlya

pl. -t

papyrus

jjL mubraza

competition, conteat,

't/m oJ-6.

papyrology
pl. Jj-ily

match, esp. in sporta; duel; fencing


jlj-1

3\j bardq

bardiq* jug, pitcher

ibrz
off,

bringing

out,

displaying,

setting
r->jOl i^J la' aJ-6.

accentuation ;

production;

bridge (game)

preaentation

jk^ bardaka to poliah, burnish (* a.th.)

Jjb

briz protruding,

projecting, sarelief;

lient; raised,

itiy
jl*i_r

embossed, in

marked,

Itiy

distinct,

oonspicuoua ;

prominent (Per-

sonality)
d\Jj

jjw

mubarriz

surpassihg

(J*

s.o.),

uSj/ bardaqS (= ^jii^) marjoram


jjjy {Fr.
ftorrfure)

bardra ourbstone, curb

superior (J* to s.o.); winner, victor contest)

(in

JjL mubriz competitor, contender;


4*i_r barda'a pl. ilj. ard^i* 1 saddle,

pack-

combatant, fighter; fencer


jr jr (Fr. priae) briz pl. -t (plug) socket, wall

aaddle (for donkeya and cameis)

^jlj- bar4i'i maker of donkey saddies, aaddler

plug, outlet (syr.);


bartfiz* do. (eg.)

\jj

bariza pl.

y\j

j'ij btrdaun pl.

^ily bardin* work

horae,

jade,
l

nag

*'jy) look

up

alphabetioally

j_r

baraza u to

oome

*\jj barazn trumpet


out, show, appear,

oome
j_r barzaip pl. jlj; barzik* interval, gap,

into view, emerge; to jut out, protrude,

stand out, be prominent (also

fig.);

to

break, partition, bar, obatruction; isth-

aurpaas, exoel (J s.o.) II to cause to oome out, bring out, expose, ahow, set
off,

mus
JjJ-r burzq sidewalk
1

accentuate {*
in),

a.th.);

to excel, surpaas
for),

(j J* B -o.
tinguish

stand out (j
by)
III

dia-

^U -r binm
f-iJ,
I

pleurisy

o.a.

(j

to

meet

in
i

combat or duel
oontest

( s.o.);

to compete in a

look

up

alphabetioally

with

s.o.)

IV to cause to come

'^j- birsim

olover, speoif., berseem,

Egyp-

out, bring out, expose,

make
out

manifest

tian olover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.;


bot.)

(* a.th.); to publish, bring


etc.);

(*

a book,
1

to present,

show

(m e.g.,

an identity iSJ buri


pl. jilyl

card)

to evacuate the bowel VI to vie,

abri

mat

oontend

J-j\ abraS* spotted, speckled

63

4J.
proficient
(u> s.th.);

<J>j

look up alphabetically
birUt:
c-Jj;

to oontribute, give, donate

to undertake (voluntary,
for),

cJ-j

^-L

(bai4)

soft-boiled
s.th.),

volunteer (^

be prepared,

eggs

willing (u> to

do

s.th.);

to be ready, be

4jJ.j bar&ilna Barcelona (seaport in


Spain)

NE

on hand

(u->

with)
skill,

lAj

bara'a

proficiency; efciency,

J.j barSama to stare, gaze (Jl at s.th.); to


rivet (> s.th.)
Ir'j
jLi_r

capability, capacity

\*jj buriia superior

skill,

outatanding

barSama riveting

proncienoy
un.
) pl.

burSm and

<jL5_r (n.

-t

fy

tabarrv'

pl.

-t

gift,

donation;

wafer; Host (Chr.)


<*\J>j

contribution
f-jU
ftrt'

burSma

skilIed,

skillful,

proficient,

rivet

capable, efficient; brilliant, outstanding

j\-*j burSmji riveter


l&jf'j burSamjiya riveting

(work of

art)

fj
1

bar'ama to bud, burgeon, sprout

Lr

*j

barifia

a (baraf) to be a leper

^j ^j ^j
amm
x

burp wall gecko (Tarentola

mau-

fj

bur'um

pl.

f\j

har'im*

and p*_r

bur'm

pl. plj-

or^Jm" bud, burgeon;

ritanica, zool.)

blossom, flower

barap leprosy abraf 2 leproua; leper


wall gecko
|

Ltjej burgl pl.i-*l_r 6argt/ B flea;pl. l~*\j

<i

^j\

*L-

(syr.)

small silver coins

^Jl t>jfij b. >

a.

al-bakr shrimp {zool.)

\^j

burpa stock exchange


baratfa

jii^ bargaS
Ji_r

(coli.; n.

un.

gnat(s), midge(s)

^j
j^j

{^jj

bur$) to germinate,

&uruZ cooked, parehed

and crushed

Bprout (plant)
barfz:
4j^*JI

wheat, served together with other food

j^j

b.

al-bahriya fore-

(eg., syr.)

castle,

crew quarters (on a merchant

J.j

vessel)

(Turk. J.JJ* bargi screw


birfir pl.

burfa)

brgt

pl.

J.\j

*Uy barpi'a (**bj

barfa'a) to galJop barfala) to bribe


( s.o.)

jij
ij

ji\j barfir* purple


alphabetically
glitter, aparkle, flash

JUy

barfaia

i*^j

j look up

II tabarfala

to take bribes, be venal

J-U_r birfil pl. JJ-ly barfiP bribe


1

^Sy baraqa u to shine,


IjJl

cjj-

(sam'u) there was lightning to

Ij- barpuna to rave, talk irrationally


>jlj-

IT

I;

emit

bolts

of lightning

ftur/m,

barfm

trank

of

an

(cloud); to flash up, Light up; to brighten


(face); to cable, wire, telegraph (Jl to)

elephant
2

uL^r barfamn

pl.

(*yr., e^.) talj

earthen

3j

barq

pl.

3jj burq
|

lightning; flash

of lightning; ielegraph
oil, eto.)

^_-U

or glase vesael (for preserres,

3j

(kvUab)
flg.,

lightning without a downpour, used


(also
e.g.,

fj

bara'a

a to surpass, excel

{ s.o.);

of

s.o.

given to making promises

baru'a u) to distinguish

o.s.,

be

skillful,

without ever living up to them

4J.

jy
Jj
cable

barqi

telegraphic,

telegraph-

(in

i!y

baraka u to kneel

down
kneel

II

and IV to
II

Compounds)
barqlya pl.
-t

make
telegram,
wire,

(* the camel)

down

to

Jis
dini)

bariq

pl.

jJlj[

bar'iq 2

invoke a blessing (J* or j on s.th., J on s.o.) III to bless (j or s.o., also J or J*), invoke a blessing on; to give
one's

glitter,

Messing

(*

to

s.th.),

sanction

hine, gloss, luster


lustered,

Jj*. jjy jj (ma'

(* s.th.)
(i_->

to be blessed (cj by); to enjoy


find pleasure,

coated

with

metallic

s.th.),

deHght

(i_j

in);

luster

to ask s.o. 'b (^>) blessing

VI to be blessed,
.

3\j

burq

Alborak,

name

of

the
bis

be praised
bless
. . .

... i]j\J

tabraka

. .

God

creature on which

Mohammed made

to be blessed
pl.

ascension to the seven heavens (r^j**)


3\j-

O
eibha

birka

i]j
|

biralc

pond, small
6.

barrq

shining,

lustrous,

epar-

lake; puddle,

pool

i-LJI T,

as-

kling, flashing, glittering, twinkling

swimming pool
pl. -t blessing,

3j* mabraq
/*

glitter, flash
|

^-Jl

3j<+

T/ baraka

benediction
|

m. %9-yubh with the

first

rays of the

o^JI

ii qillat

al-b.

misfortune, bad luck

raorning sun
fjj-l

abrak2 more blessed


tabrik pl. -t

jjU

brig:

J^VI

JjIj

6.

al-amal

glimpse of hope

dL^y
JjI^j

good wish;

blessing,

benediction

jU briqa
twinkle

pl.

baioriq 2 gleam,
iJjL.

mubrak

blessed, fortunate, lucky

Jj mubriq:
a

._Jtf

Jj

teletype

*ilijLr

barrlk 2 (mor.) barracks

jJl al-barga Cyrenaica (region of

E Ubya)

jtfj birkr compass, (pair of) dividera

jij) look up alphabetically look up alphabctically


(3-iiy

jlf/ burkn

pl. J-.S'ij

barkin 2 volcano

*3j^
|
i_"*/

JlT/ burknl volcanic


variegate,
colora
(*
i)\lj

barqasa

barqnSa) to

barlamn parliament
jU.^ barlamnl parhamentary
*-Jli j-

paint
s.th.);

or

daub

with

many

to embellish (* s.th.;

Jy one's

speech) II tabarqaSa reflex. and pass. of


(jtij-

barlamniya parliamentarianism
brillante)

birqis finch

Jlly

(It.

brillanti

brilliant,

dia-

<iij-

barqasa colorful raedley, variety,

mond
,>.Jy bariin

variegation

Berlin
to

J*^* mubarqai
many-colored

colorful,

vaxiegated,

mj

barima a (baram)
weary, tired
(i_j

be or become

of),

be fed up, be bored


(<->

>j barqa'a to

veil,

drape

(*,

s.o.,

s.th.)

(^

with), find annoying, weariaome

II tabarqa'a to

put on a

veil, veil o.a.

s.th.)

to feel
(<->

annoyed

(<->

by), be dis-

jj burqu'
;

pl.

-jly barqi'* veil

(worn

pleased

with); to be fed
tired
(<->

up (^

with),

by women long, leaving the eyes exposed)


3Jj barqq
(coli.;

be

sick

and

of, also j*); to

be

impatient, discontented, dissatisfied; to

n.un.

1}

plum

grieve, be pained

; ;

55

*j
gusted

barim weary, tired


(i_j

(_>

of), dis-

tijLj-

(Engl.)

barmnant permanent wave

at,

with);

dissatisfied,

dis-

jjUI J* <^*jL^ cold

wave

(in hair)

contented

j*j
aj tabarrum wearineas, boredom,
dia-

barmaq

pl.

j*\j

barmig 2

baluster;

spike (of a wheel}

guat; discontent, disaatisfaction; uneasinesa, discomfort,

annoyance

oLfty baramht the seventh month of the


Coptic calendar

^jc* mutabarrim croaa, peevish, vexed,

annoyed
2

tlc^s Birmingham

[j barama u (barm) to twist, twine (* a rope); to shape (* s.th.) rouild and long;
to
roll

a*yj barmda the eighth month of the Coptic


calendar
2 J-jy bar mil pl. J^ij- barmil barrel; keg, cask; tun

up

(*

the

sleeves)

to

settle,

establish, confirm (* B.th.)

IV to twist,
establish,
(*

twine

(a

a rope);

to

aettle,

confirm (* s.th.); to conclude

a pact);

4-jj

barniya

pl.

Jl^ barniy clay


pl.

vessel

to confirm

a judicial judgment); to
f\jj plan, achedule; roater,

ratify (* a treaty, a bill) VII to be aettled,

barnmaj

*ly barmij 2 program,


liat,

be established, be confirmed; to be

index; cur-

twisted, be twined
<*\j

riculum

barrma

pl. -at drilling

machine
twine

^\j~j
1
1

burunjuk gauze, crepe


burnua
pl.
^pjlj-

fj barim rope;
<t

tring, cord,

_r

J_r

barnis 2 (also
Lr-^j

^^y

fcam&s, &wrn

pl.

barnis 2 ) bur-

j barrima

pl. -at drill,

borer, gimlet,

noose,
(of

hooded cloak; caaula, chasuble


priesta)

auger, bit;

oorkscrew

Coptic

rW-

>jr>J.

6.

oZ-

*^ J barrimlya spirochete
ibrm
aettle ment,

hammm

bathrobe
pl.

*\j\

eatabliahment;

^'^
2
1

barniai

-iya

maker

of bur-

confirmation; concluaion (of a pact, etc.);


ratification
|

Aj^j

<J

*jd\

<* mahkamat

wn-naqd
rjjv>

wa-l-t.

Court of Cassation (Eg.)


3

_r

Ji^l JL.

j'i&J

al-barnt the Pyrenees

mdbrm:

+jj*

ti

(silk)

wire

_r

Jy

ftrins

prince

rope, cable
jm

i-jj-Jy brinsesa princesa


firm, strong; irrevocable,

mubram

iajy II tabarnafa to

wear a hat
pl.
-(,

definitely
fied
|

established;

confirmed,

rati-

ajv Lii (gada) inescapable fate;

Jy burnaita

JaJ'j'

&arnif a

itjw j>^j irrevocably


2 ~<tj

(European) hat (men'a and women's)

lamp ahade
burma
pl. *

j buram, a\j birm earthen*j burha


pl.

ware pot
Lj*

buraht, j burah a while, a

time

ahort

time

instant,

moment
|

burm Burmo
barm'i amphibious
|

<aj burhatan a
(after

little

while

^p^j

-Uj

two moments =)

in a ahort

time

<jL/

<J\+j LLj

(dabo

bba) amphibious tank (mil.)

barJtam (syr.)

*j* wtarAam

O V-j

barm'iya amphibian

jPj bardhman

pl. 5**lj-

barhima Brahman

66

<~**j barahmiya

Brahmanism

take in hand (J
(J),

B.th.), set

out to do

s.th.

enter,

embark

j_r

barhana to prove, demonstrate (J* or

(J upon);

to break

forth (j* from); to get going; to break

'er s-th.)

out, let
pl.

fly,

explode (with words, esp.

jUj- burhn

J*\j

barhin* proof

in anger or excitement)
,jj baran dust, earth
*i)j

Uy barhana

proving, demonstration

jj barwa waste, scrap


JJU-Jjjbrotostanti Protestant; (pl. -n)

barrya, j^j^l

i,\j

b.

al-aqlm

pencil Bharpener

a
l\j* mibrh pocketknife

Protestant
iJb-Jjj
brotostantiya

IjL*

Protestantism
test,
bill

mubrdh

pl. C-L jL*

mubrayt con(in

tournament, matoh

games and

jjjj

(It.

proUsto) brotost protest (of a

sports); competition, rivalry


jLi
:

of exchange)

Lj-jL

,_^ill

Jtfrl

a'fi

l-qausa

UU

6^yjj
yjj

brotokl protoeol

riyahd give the

bow
it,

to h\n\

who knows

how
brOtOn proton

to shape

i.e.,

always ask an

e xpert
jLi* mviabrin partieipant in a oontest, contestant,

f\j*rjJ brogrm

program
trumpeter, bugler

contender; competitor,

tjrjj buTji

pl. -fya

rival

jjj barwaza to frame


*\>_j

see

Aj and lj

jljj- barwz,

binoz

pl.

jj\j barwiz*
ILjj> barifniy, birifdniy Britain,
^Ji-Jl

frame

ULLy

(vzm) Great Britain


barifani, birifdnl British; Bri-

^jj

(It.

Pruseia) bursiy Prusaia

jU^j>

^jj
**jj
test,

bursi Praasian
(It.

tannio
pl. -dt
l

and 43jj

prova) brva, brfa

bazza

u (bau)
*

to take away, steal, wrest,

experiment; proof sheet; rehearsal


bronze
|

snateh (*
(*

from

s.o.

s.th.),

rob, strip

jjj

(Fr-) bronz

s.o.

of s.th.); to defeat, beat, out(*

atrip,

excel
(.

s.o.),

triumph, be vic-

tS'jjj

bronzi bronze, bronzy

^ J

toriouB
pilfer

over) Till to take away, steal,


s.th.);

tfyjjJI ('*) the Bronze


l

Age
s.th.),

(*

to take away, snateh


s.o.);

tSJ,

bar

(&wy) to trim, shape (*

nib

(a

money, J* from
|

to rob, fleece
lift

(* a pen),
off,

sharpen (* a pencil); to Scratch

( s.o.)

^Ul

i}\j*\

jl to

money out
people
of

scrape off (* s.th.); to exhaust, tire


( b.o.),

of people's
their

pookets,

relieve

out, wear out, emaciate, enervate

money
ibtixdz
s.o.)

sap the strength of


pete
(

()

III to vie,

com-

Jljl

theft,

robbery; fleecing,

with
vie,

s.o.),

try to outatrip

( s.o.)

robbing (of

VI to

compete, contend, be rivals;

to meet in a conteet, try each other's


strength (esp. in games

bazza

u to

bud, burgeon

and

Sporte)

TU to

buzz, bizz pl. jlj. bizz, Jl>l abz&z

be trimmed, be nibbed, be sharpened;


to defy, oppose (J s.o.); to undertake,

nipple,

mammilla

(of the female breast);

teat, female breast

57

>

bazz

pl. jj'j

busz linen; cloth, dry gooda

jU

fiztn

pl.

1_>

buiA,

Jl^j

bawzin, jl>j

*j bizza clothing, clothes, attire; uni-

tfzn falcon
^pj fco

form

*^"j *j (rasmlya) uniform

and

i-j !>(M5a

pl.

^Lj

fiws cat

jl> bazzz draper, oloth merohant


j\j bizza cloth trade

Lj

6o*o*a a (.^-j
(i_j

6cm')

to treat amicably

s.o.);
(<_

to be intimate, be on familir
with)

terms

jy y
t

bazbz
*

pl.

>jl> bazbiz 2 nozzle, spout


UjIjLj besrbiy Bessarabia

j'j bazara

(bazr) to

sow
seed(s); pl. jljrl

j'j bizr pl.

jjj buzr

^L-J

basbs, 1-L-j basbsa (eg.)

mace

(fio(.);

abzr

andy jUI
At'zra

abzir* spiee

(wiojf.) fennel

j>

(n. un.)

seed;

kernet, pip,

4~>~-j
flour,

6<m6i

(,)

paatry

made of
oil

pit, stone (of fruit);


jl_>

germ

melted butter, sugar and

bazzr seedsman
(6o(.)
1

(Fr.) baaiiliya pastilles, lozenges

j'j buzaira pl. -t epore

U-j bustn

pl. (>jL_j

6a*7tn a garden

fy bazaga u to break dawn (day) to rise


;

forth,

oome out; to

Jli-j tuaint gardener; garden (adj.);

(sun)

horticultural

fj'j

buzg

appearance,

emergence
a

oL-j ftaatana gardening, horticulture


jji-j (Fr.
pl.
j)t(OTt)

rise (of the eun)

feiat,

,>t (Engl.) bistan

3j

bazaqa u (bazq) to spit


Jlj-

^.Ij bastin 2 piston

buzq Bpit,

spittle, saliva

J>i-J

(It.

bastone)

bastni spades (suit of

**!> bazzqa snail; cobra

playing cards)
*-j fttwia Easter;

>*

771162050 pl.

JjL> maMzt^9 spittoon,

Passion

Week

(Cr.)

cuspidor
x

j_j ftoaaro
(bazl)

Jy

bazala
(m

to eplit (* s.th.); to pierce a hole (* in); to tap,

basara u

(j_y-> busr) to scowl, frwn;


(basr)

and VIII to begin too

s.th.),

make

early (* with), take prmature action,

broach

(* s.th.;
s.o.;

a cask); to puneture,
filter

be rash (* in

s.th.)
")

tap

med.); to clear,

(*

j~i buar (n. un.

pl. jL-j biar

unripe

liquid)
J_> bazl puneture, tapping, paracenteeis

dates

j_^U bsr
rhoids

pl.

j^jt baw&ii2 hemor-

(med.)
Jlj- buzl

bung
pl.

(of a cask)
i*-j

basafa
(*

(bas})

to spread, spread out

J>*

mibzal

JjL*

mabzil*

spile,

s.th.);

to level, flatten (* s.th.); to


(* s.th.); to tretch out,

pigot, tap; cock, faucet


a

enlarge,

expand
;

>

(It.

j)weW) bizia
pl.

and

V_>

green peaa

extend

(* s.th.)

to unfold, unroll (*

s.th.)

to grant, offer, present (* s.th.); to sub-

rj\ ibzim

fjLl abzim* buckle, clasp

mit, state, set forth, expound, explain


(* s.th.,

Cjjaj bizml bismuth


Jsijr bizanfi

J or Jp to

s.o.);

to flog
(

(* s.o.;
|

Nejd); to please, delight

s.o.)

U,-;

Byzantine

4-*-lji

(diraaihi) to spread

one's arms;

58

J 4*111

-b

(yada l-mus'ada) to exs.o.;


x'Lii

simple souls, ingenuous people


|

^ aJl

Lj_j

tend a helping hand to


to lay the table;

1^-'

6.

al-yadain

(pl.

busuf)

generous,

basuta

u (>Lj ba*

openhanded

efa) to be simple, openhearted, frank,

iLJl

al-basita the

earth, the world

candid II to spread, spread out, extend,

expand
a.th.);

(*

s.th.);

to

level,

flatten

JJL-J bas'ifi
(*

elements;

simple rem-

to simplify,

make simple
with
s.o.

(* s.th.)

edies, medicinal plants; basic facts

III to set forth, State,

expound, explain;

LLj basta simplicity, plainncss

to be sincere
s.th.),

(<_*

about or in
to s.o. s.th.)

confess frankly

O
L

&j-*\ ubsta

pl.

L--U

absit* rim,

(<_j

felly (of

a wheel)
absaf 2 simpler; wider,

to be spread, be unrolled, be spread

out,

be

extended ;

to

speak at great

jl

more ex-

length (J about), enlarge (j on), treat


exhaustively,

tensive

expound

in

detail

(j

L~-u

tab3lt simplification
(n. vic. 3)

theme); to be friendly, communicative,


sociable,

IfUI inbimt
tenaiveness,

behave

extensity, ex-

unceremoniously,
|

be

extension ;

completely at eaae
talk
freely,

ijoA-l

expansion,

l-;' to

ex-

without

panse; joy, delight, happiness, gaiety,


cheerfulness
tL-L

formality
(intr.);

VII

to

spread, extend,

expand

to be glad,

be delighted, be or become happy


.L-j
rolling,

<Lp 'adcda bsita extensor

(aTiaf.)

basf

extension,

spreading,

un-

J-ji*

mabsf extended, outstretched

unfolding;

presentation,

State-

spread out; extensive, large, sizeable;


detailed,

ment, explanation, exposition; cheering,


delighting, delectation;

elaborate

(book);
well, in

cheerful,

amusement;
|

(Eg.)
6.

happy, gay; feeling


(tun.)
)
'

good health;

numerator (of a fraction)

oJI

L-j

well-to-do
muTibasit extending, spreading;

al-yad avarice, greed, cupidity


ik-j basfa extension, extent, expanae;
size,

>

gay, happy, cheerful; level surface

magnitude;
excess,

skill,

capability, abili(pl. -t)

ties;

abundance;

State-

ment, exposition, presentation;


JL_j biaf)

<vL-> (Turk.) basturma a kind of jerked, salted meat (eg.)


jji-JI al-buajr the Bosporus

(pl.

landing (of a staircase); es(eg.)

trade, dais, platform

J-j basaqa u (3j-i busq) to be high,


absifa,
lofty, towering;
U.--;

tall,

iL_j

bisf

pl.

-t,
|

Ik-jl

to excel, surpasa

or

busuf oarpet,

mg

ii^JI

JL_j 6.

ar-rahma

>

s.o.)

winding sheet, shroud;


ti^-Jl JL_j

iJt-. (*-ij or) -.j*

J-Li bsiq high, tall, lofty, towering

J* (masalaian, bht) to raise a question, bring a question on the carpet,


also liibll JL_i

Jt.
cJX-j
O^S.j

mubaiq high,

tall, lofty,

towering

J*

(6.

-munqaSa)

for dis-

(Fr. bicyclette) biskilet, baskilet bicycle


(It. fciseoo) ftasikt

cussionjv
ter

^J to bring the matto an end, settle it once and for all


i1
Jl

biscuit

-Lj
piain,

ljjX-j baskawit
baeif
pl.

biscuit

Lk_j
;

busaf' 2

simple;

uncomplicated

slight, little,

modIL-j

basula

(ilL_>

6aadZa)

to

be brave,

est, inconsiderable, trivial, trifling; i-Jl

feariess, intrepid

to scowl, glower

to

name

of a

poetical

meter;

pl.

be reckless, defy death

JLj baala courage, intrepidity

propagate, preach

{*->

s.th.;

a religion,
to

JLc*l wtibsl death defiance


J-L hbtt
pl.

a doctrine)
feauxJ-

<~>

*j

(na/*Afl)

indulge in the

}U 6iwaW", JJ^

rej oice

(at

happy hope that ... IV to good news) X to rej oioe


(o* at s.th., eap.
(i~>

eiP brave, fearless, intrepid


mustabsil death-defying, heroio

be delighted, be happy
at

good news], welcome


to regard s.th.

s.th.);
**

to

takeasa good omen (y s.th.) \\j****Lj bisilla peas


(kairan)
as

j^r-*\

auspicious

_j 6aama
i*_j
|.L_j

(feum),

V and

VIII to smile

jJa bi&r joy


ji_ bvJtr

boma

pl. ftasanuli

smile

glad tidings

baum
mo6*m

smiling
pl. .-

^_^j

bwbr glad tidings, good


biSra pl.
-i,

newB good

*etc.)

L* TTwisim'

mouth

lj\Jj>

J\t bai'ir*

mouthpiece, holder

(for cigars, cigarettes,

news, glad tidings; annunciation, prophecy; gospel;


j-'Lij

good omens, propitious

fljl

ibtism and

(n. vic.)

ol_il

pl.

signa

*jLiJla-p 'ld al-b. the Annunciation,

f smile

the
to
il

Day

of

Our Lady

(Chr.)

J...

>

IxMmaZa

utter

the

invocation

j
glad

baixr pl. Ajli bu$ar&* bringer of


tidings,

p*.J\ j*-J\

*-J

"In the name of God,

messenger,

herald,

har-

the Benificent, the Merciful"

binger, forerunner, precursor; evangelist


(Chr.)

iLj baamaia utterance of the above


invocation; the invocation itself
ix-j buaaina kitty

jiiw

tabHr

announcement

(of

glad

tidings) ; preaching of the Gospel ; evangelization, misaionary activity

^jJj^j ^j
baSJSa

pnkolji paychologic(al)

tSs^ tabri misaionary

{bau-,

lij

feztla) to display

/U
omens,
(flg.);

tab&lr1 foretokens, prognostics,


first

friendly, cheerful,

happy mien;
s.o.),

to smile;
s.o.

signs or indications, heralds

to be friendly (J to

give

(J)

beginnings,

a smile
J.jLi_

al-fajr the first

dawn j**JI _r-^ ' shimmer of aurora, the


|

baSSy

J\>

baiSi

smiling,

first

glimpse of

dawn
pl.

friendly, cheerful

_r

tx

muba&Sir

-n announcer, mes-

Lij baSSa smile; happy mien


^ilj

senger (of glad tidings) ; evangelist {Chr.);


preacher; misaionary (Chr.)

biS smiling, happy; friendly, kind


cheerful ^ lr .- mtutabSir happy,
,

C~1j buSt (Nejd, Bahr., Ir.) a kind of claak,

mLc

'ab'a

^
woolen cloak worn by

baSara u to peel (* s.th.); to scrape

off,

shave

off,

Bcratch off (* s.th.); to grate,


s.th.)
III

cJL> bi&ta (eg.)

shred (*

to touch
(*

(*

s.th.),

Egyptian peasants
1

be in direct contact
to attend, apply

with
(

s.th.);

to

Ja balara

i,

ba&ira a to rejoice, be delighted,


(<-*

have sexual intercourse


o.s.

with
<~>

s.o. )

be happy
(as

at s.th.) II to announce
_*

(* or

to s.th.).

good news;
(.-> *

to

s.o.

s.th.);

to

take up, take in hand, pursue, practice,


carry out (*
s.th.,

bring news

to

s.o.

of s.th.) ; to spread.

a job, a taak,

etc.)

60

jti baiar

man, human being; men,

ijj&Li baSkr
iron

pl.

j*T Ltj baSHr2 poker,

fire

nd
iSjM
baSari

human

human
&jti

being
der-

j^j

fcoSfcir pl.

j*TUj AoASAr" towel

epidermal, skin (adj.)

^xX

ma tologiat
\fti
ticle;

<LLj (It.) btiia pl. -dJ bacillus

baSara outer skin, epidermis, ouskin; complexion

JLj

baiima a (ba&am) to
disgusted {j.

feel

nauseated, be

by

s.th.),

be fed
sicken,

up

(,>

~*ijii

baiariya mankind,

human

race

with)
(. s.o.)

IV to nauseate,

disgust

j-t*

mib&ara

pl. ji-

L. mabt* soraper,
jti

grater

basam

surfeit,

satiety,

Ioathing,

disgust

jJL* mubSara pursuit, practioe;


reot,

di-

phyaical

cause

(Isl.

Law)

mvb

jUJLj baSmr (tun.) lacework, trimmings


t$j*Ltj

saratan immediately, directly

ba&miri (tun.) laceworker, lace-

jjtxt

mabSr

*jj2j*

*~r

(jvbna)

maker
J*i> bahnaq lipper (worn by fuqaha

shredded cheese
j-iL. mubfir pl. -n direct,

and

immediate
i-ij

women)
ba&na (magr.) Sorghum, millet

practitioner, pursuer, Operator; director

manager

(Eg.);

court usher (Syr.)


J

(mii.)

approx.: staff sergeant (Eg. 1939)

crJUj beJana tbe ninth

month of

the Coptic

jJL* j indirect; ^L. oLU*l


direct hita

(ibt)

calendar
jLLi

baSnqa

pl.

JJUj

baSnxq 7

kerchief

^ij^Jj baSarS flamingo


*1j ba'a a

tied

under the chin

(pal.)

(UUj
to

basa'a) to be ugly, loath-

Cr~> baSnin lotus


(Jj

some

II

make

ugly, disfigure, distort

(* a.th.); to disparage,

run down (*

baspa

(bafis,

^.^j

6a^{^)

to glow,

s.th.)

sparkle, glitter, shine;

to regard aa ugly, find ugly or re(* s.th.)

(eg.)

u to look

pugnant
*j

i^u
offensive,

fro^^a

embers
glow, shine; glimpee, ray

baii"

ugly;

disgusting,

^^
(e.g.,

fta^ij

distasteful,

repugnant ; unpleasant
offensive, diBgusting,

of hope); lustrous, shining


basas lustrous, shining;
(eg.)

*-1j bau' ugly;


distasteful,
i*-Lij

^Laj

repugnant; unpleasant
;

spy, detective

bai&a ugliness
9

u^ ^ basbasa

(<~*i basbasa) to

wag

{*Jj

6t-^ana/)t'At its tail); (eg.) to ogle,

*1jI abSa'

uglier;

more repulsire

make

sheep's eyes, cast amorous glances


*i*~*i

\pL
**j
dilt

look up alphabetic&lly
(eg.;

baska see o-j


basira a (basar) to look, see; to

Turk.
lie,

baska;

invar.)

different

*j ftapura u,

Yin
iJLtj

to

prevaricate

realize,
(*_j

understand, comprehend, grasp


to

s.th.) II

make
(* or

(* s.o.)
<~>

see,

under-

baSSk bar
deoeit, trickery

stand or realize (* or
(

s.th.),

make

ilLLjjl ttitfc lie,

s.o.)

aware

*-

of s.th.); to en-

61

lighten (*

or

<->

s.o.
>

on or as to

s.th.);

perspicacious, sharp-witted;

SjwJl

ili

to

teil,

inform
(*,

(j>

or

b.o.

about)
out,
*

naf&al.-b. sharp discemment, perspicaoity

IV to see
behold,

* s.o.,

s.th.); to

make

perceive,

discern,
(*,

notice

(*,

a.o. , B.th.), Bet

eyes on

), catch aight
* s.o.

r*jl

abpar*

more discerning
enlightenment; Instruc-

of

(*, );

to recognize (*,
on),

s.th.); to

y^J

ta&psra

reflect

(<->

ponder

(<->

B.tli.)

to

tion, Information

look (a

at),

regard (*

s.th.); to reflect

y^3
ity

tabawur

reflection, consideration;

(j on

s.th.),

ponder

(j

s.th.)

to

penetration, clear-sightedneBS, perspicao-

have the faculty of visual perception,


be
able
to see; to

be endowed with
reasonable,
s.th.),

jJ^
: *

bptra pl. j**\j* bawfyir* eye

reaaon,

be

rational,

in-

telligent; to reflect

(j on

ponder

jMaJl al-bafra Basra (port in to spit (J*


(n.

S Iraq)

s.th.)

j^u bapaqa u
j~mi bofar pl. jU-l abpr vision, eye-

on

s.o.)

sight; glance, look; insight; Bight, dis-

uu;

6o^N/a

vic.)

ezpectoration

cernment, perception
sighted,

j-*Jl j-*i short|

(expectorated) spit, spittle, saliva

myopic;

j-JI

gl

lamh

al-b.

JU
_*

bvfq spit,

spittle, saliva

glance of the eye; j-Jl d?, y-*JI ~i

j,

mi&paga spittoon, ouspidor


#)

s*J\

jJ.

ji (dna), ^-Jl

gL

>
^mi

Jil

j
J-aj ba^aZ (coli.; n. un. jUJI

(aqaa) in the twinkling of an eye, in

onion(s); bulb(s)

a moment, in a

flaah, instantly;

^J<I

j~*J\ (mad) within sight;

J* he

J^u

6. al-fa*r

sea onion (Scilla venia)

knowledgeable

in,

he

is

familir with

J^
iL--

bo^oZi

bulbous
pl.
-dt,

buiaita
r

j*ill

*L-~i

tSj~*i bapart optic(al), visual,

oculax

6.

a$-8a r bulb of the hair (anot.)


print, imprint (*

oUyuu

bapriyt optica

_*j

bapama u (bapm) to
s.th.);

*jL- ba$ra perception, discemment;


perspicaoity,

to

stamp

(* B.th.);

to make, or

acuteness

of

the

mind,

leave,

an imprint
pl.

(* on)

sharp-wittedness

3j bapma
&UjWfd ,a endowed
(<->

ba^xmSX imprint, im-

jw

6ojrtr

pl. Ij^

pression
print,
lj~*i

&

<*-j 6. ai-fcaim

stamp imfingerprint

with eyesight; aeutely aware


having insight
(.->

of),

stamp;

>.LVl

**J

into) ; possesaing knowl-

ba&va embers
ba44 tender-akinned
bafa'a a (baf) to cut, alaah or
slit

edge

or

understanding

(^
in),

of),

disLft

ceming, discriminating, vereed, knowledgeable,


(_^

profioient

(.->

acquainted
**)

open

with

s.th.)
6a<i**r*

(* s.th.); to out up, carve up, disseot,


pl.
j-*L*

i>) &o0tra

(keen)

anatomize
II

?.th.); to

amputate

(surg.)

insight, penetration,

discemment, under-

to cut up, oarve up, disseot, anatoIII

standing, (power of) mental perception,

mize

to sleep

(l>

with a woman)

mental vision

Jjwl

deliberately,

IT to invest capital
commeroial enterprise
trade; to ahop,

(*) profitably in

knowingly; j- jw J* OK" to have insight into s.th., be informed about


s.th.; ijwaJ! iL discerning, clear-sighted,

pass. of II; to

make purchases X to

trade

-j ba4*
*_j

amputation
pl.

Jd

bvf

slowness,

tardiness

.Lj

bf (commonly, with genit.


*jkj

slowly, leisurely, unhurriedly


>J*j
bafi' pl. *LLj bif'

of

f.

nouns,
;

with genit.

pl.

of m.

slow, unhurried;

nouna

in classical

Arabic
(

*-j

with both

slowgoing, slow-footed, slow-paced; tar-

genders) some, a few, several


**^L)
fti^'a

dy, late; sluggish, lazy; slow, gradual,


piece
(of

pl.

<u^j

bja'

imperceptible

O "j*"
(el.)
|

,^j

b.

at-taraddud

meat); meat; see also &nf above


*_j
(

of low frequency

6ud' vulva
bid'a pl.
suLaj ba4'i' a goods,

lU
i.e.,

abfa'*

slower

CJi

v l^

j.

tL>t

(gurbi nh) tardier than Noah's raven,

Lj
which

slower than a ten years* itch (prob.o.

merchandise, wares, commodities ; that


s.o.

verbially of
LLjI

who

is

very tardy)

has to

offer,

which he haa to
is

show, with which he


attributes, qualities)
|

endowed
he

(also

ibf'

slowing down, retardation,

i*LiJI jLLi freight

deceleration, reduction of speed; tarry ing, delay; slowness


|

train;

U-L-u

*xp

r-j*-'

aaid

\L>\

Ojj without

what he had intended to say

delay

Ju
f-Lj!

mibtfa' pl. f-^L. mai^t' 1 dissect-

jLLj

tabj,u

Blowness;

slowing down,

ing knife, Bcalpel

retardation
for the
;

&#f mandate
affairs
(Ial.

manage

*jjU*j baltriya pl. -t

battery

(el.

and

mil.)

ment of
in

Law)

partnership
ILLUj

a limited Company, capital Investment

baff, Uj baffa

sweet potato,

yam

uu
(com.)

mub4i'

pl.

-n limited partner

^-i-Uoj

batia potatoea

*LL>

866 jLj

^JLX>*<

mtutabtfi'

manager, managing
J*J*j

agent

{Isl.

Law)
jJaj
)

bafbafa (LJj bafbafa) to

quaok (duck)

Sa
t

batf

(n.
|

un.

duck;

iL;

batfa

leather

bafaha a (bafh) to prostrate lay low,


feil,

flask

JUI <L
u
to

calf (of the leg)


(*,
.

throw to the ground, throw down


b.o., s.th.)

V and VII
lie

to be prosprostrate,

ti

bafu'a
baf'a)

(.Uj

bw}',

IU

bi',

*Uj

trated,

be laid low; to

be

slow ;

to

be

slowgoing,

sprawl, stretch out; to eztend, stretch;

slow-footed, slow-paced; to tarry, linger,


wait, heeitate II to retard, slow

to

lie

down,

^Ll
wadi

abfafy 9 flat, level;

(pl.

gkll ab*

delay, hold

up (^ Je
to
;

b.o. in s.th.)

IV to

fih 2 ) hasin-shaped Valley,

wide bed of a

slow down, decelerate, retard, delay, hold

up

(a

s.th.);

he slow, go or drive
to be late (je for s.th.,
(je-)

slowly, slow

down

Uio bafh'*
bafhwt

pl.

c \Ut

bifJk,

oIjULj
piain,
(tun.)

basin -shaped

in meeting s.o.), keep s.o.

waiting
level land, flatland,

valley ;

V to be

slow, tardy

open oountry;

in)

VI to be slow,
publio Square

leisurely,

unhurried; to go, drive, act or

proceed slowly, leisurely; to he slowgoing, slow-footed, slow-paced; to slow

U-Lj bafiha

pl.

lU ba'ih 2 wide bed

of a stream or wadi; a stagnant, shallow

down

to find slow (*,

* s.o.,

s.th.); to

and broad hody of water


^LkU munbafih proatrate;
level land, piain
flat,

have to wait a long time


be kept waiting
(

for s.o.),

level;

by

s.o.)

>
jj bitfik, battik (n. un.
;)

melon, watersyr.)

0^>*^'
6.

i*LLtJ

food ration card;

jLaLI SjILj

melon; bafk hub

(of

a wheel;

al-mu'yada greeting card

oJo~> mabtaku melon patch


1

JLj bafala

u (b, ^Lt
null,

bufln) to be or
faJse,

JLi

ba^ira

(bafar)

to be wild,

wanton,
dis-

become
tenable,

void,
futile,

invalid,

un-

recklesa; to

be proud, vain; to be
with
s.th.);

vain,
fall

wortbJess;
disuse,

to be

contented
{* s.th.)

(*

to disregard

abolished,

into

become

IV to make reckless

obsolete ; to cease, stop, be discontinued


to be inactive,

be oat of work II to

^Lj bafar wantonness, cockiness, arro-

thwart, fo, frustrate,

make

ineffective,

gance, hubris, pride, vanity

counteract, neutralize, nullify, invalidate

S^U
2

abfira

(pl.)

bona vivants, play-

(*

s.th.);

to

abolish,

cancel,

annul,

boys, epicures
\JtJ\ al-bafr*

suppreas (* s.th.) IV
prattle ;

II; to talk idly,

to paralyze,
{*

immobiliae,

hold

Petra (ancient city of Edomin

ites

and Nabataeans; ruins now

SW

down, pin down

the Opponent)
futility,

Jordan)
j-jL batrak
pl. j-jlia bafirik*

JLj butl nullity; uselessness,


vanity; fabity, falsenees, untruth

roe (of

fish)

LL

bitla

and

bafla

idleness,

in-

^J*i bulnts Peter


J~i_^j ba^raSil

activity; free time, time off, holidays,

vacations;

unemploymeat

and jj& &afraJinstole(CAr.)


jUa baffl pl. -an idle, inactive; un-

jtjii bifriq pl. jliu bafriqa, ,jfej^ 6afdrig a

employed, out of work


'^ki bufln nullity ; usetessneas, futHy,

patrician ;
(zool.)

Romaean

general ;

pengum

vanity; falsity, untruth; invalidity


<t\ij*i

iJjLj

bafralc,

ba}rik r ilj-_^J bapriyurk

jLLj-i

ibfl

th-warting, frnstration, in-

pl.

jLL barika Patriarch (aa an eecle-

validatiora; ruin, destruction; abolition,

siastic title, Chr.)

cancellation

-S^Lj

bafrakiya,

<Sj^*

bafriyarkiya

JtL

bfil

nugatory, vain,

futile; false,

Patriarchate (Chr.)

untrue;
attack with violence;
He,

absurd,

groundleas,

baselesB;

jAv

bafaa

worthless; invalid, null, void; deception,


(batS) to

to bear

down

falsehood;

on,
(o

fall

upon

JLUL and

*&{,

bfitan
abfil 9

s.o. (<-

or j);
(l_>

to knock out
s.th.),

falsely; futely, in vain; pl.

s.o.); to

hit, strike
(l_>

J-LU

land with a thud


6a(i

vanitres, trivialities, trifles, flimflam, idle

on)
talk, prattle

,jiJai

etrength,
valor,

power,

force,

JL-. mubfil prattler,


violence;

windbag

liar

courage,

bravery;

o-p-

pression, tyranny

JL-. mubtal nugatory, futile, vain

<tLi batSa impact


z

Jk^
bat'iq2
slip

mulabatt unemployed
(Jlk; batla,
-J_jlj

LL

bifqa pl.

-t,

jILLj

(of

JLj ba^ula u

butla) to be

paper), tag; Card, calling Card; ticket; label


|

brave, be heroic, be a hero

jijjJl

**Uaj

calling card; i__*V LLj

JLj batal

pl. Jlk)l abfl

brave, heroic;

(iJtfijKi)

and

Juj*dl

identity card;
at-gitf'iya,

hero; champion, pioneer; hero, protagonist


(of

i-j'iiW ji^il 4*U*> b.

al-mawd

a narrative,

etc.),

lead, star

Jh
(of
b,

64

a play); champion

(athlet.)

JUll JLj

<Ui

bifna

gluttony ;

overeating,

in*

al-'lam world

champion

digestion
LLj

Lj bafala heroine (of a narrative),


female lead, etar (of a play);

bifn pl. <Ui\ abfina girth (of a

woman

camel)
JILj

champion

(athlet.)

bifna pl.

JLLj

bat'in*

inside.

JLU bafla bravery, valor, heroiam

inner side; lining (of a garment); retinue,


suite,

entourage

iJlLj

j among,
bifn

amidst;

iljW

ftu/Ja

bravery, valor, heroiam;

within
j^Lj

Ieading role, starring role (theater, film);


bafin
pl.

LLj
fat,

and

0U>-*

championship

(athlet.)

J.UII

J^LJI

rnibfn

paunchy,

corpulent, stout;

fdtamya)

and

JUll

J^Wi

6.

al-'lam

gluttonous

world championship (afWef.); ^J^LJl jj^


the part or role of the hero, Ieading role

^Li bvfain
anal.)

ventricle

(of the

heart;

<J LLj

baflisa Ptolemies

oILj baftniya
{bot.)

pl.

-at,

^\U>

baffin 2

i bnfm, bufum terebinth


1

cover; hlanket; quilt


jLU

bfin

pl.

jjl[>j

bawfin*

inner,

)U> t

bafana

(bafn,

^kj

fo^Gn)

to

be

hidden, concealed, to hide;


(oILj fco/fto) to
(a a

bafuna u
II to line

interior,

inward, inmost, intrinsic ; hidden,

secret; iiUUI coastal piain of


L-UL*

E Oman;
|

be paunchy

bfinan inwardly, secretly

<_ijl

jLL
6.

garment,
(_

<_j

a s.th. with); to cover


6. al-kaff

palm of the hand;

p-JI

jLL

the inside
fill

* of s.th. with), hang, face,

al-qadam sole of the foot; j-^l jLU


at bottom, after
all,

(uj * s.th.

with) IV to hide, conceal,

really;

harbor
lining
(a

(a s.th.)

to be lined, have a
to

J*

i\

jWjj the

factors, circumstances or reasons at the

(garment) ;

penetrate,

delve

bottom of

s.th.;

^j^l

jtljj

b.

al-ard

into),

become absorbed, engrossed


to penetrate, delve (a into),
(a

(a in)

the secret depths of the earth


J\*l> bfini

become absorbed, engrossed


get to the

in);

to

internal
|

^LL ^ij* (marad)


i_JJl {/*"&&)

try to fathom (a s.th.); to fathom (a


s.th.),

internal disease;

^tUl

internal

bottom of

(a); to
s.th.),

have

medicine
*-JUl al-bfiniya

profound knowledge (* of
thoroughly,
jkj ba\n
belly,

know

name

of a school of

know
pl.

inside out (a s.th.)

thought

in

Islam,

characterized

by

j^ai

bvfn,

jU
j

abfun

divining a hidden, secret meaning in the

stomach, abdomen;

womb;

revealed texts
interior,

inside, inner portion;


b.

depth

p-UJI

al-qadam sole of the foot; <J&5\

J& jU b.
and
<jLj

jL-* Tnabfn affected with a gastric or


intestinal ailment

al-kaff

palm of the hand; J*J\


midst

iJ

aij

jli^ mvbaitan lined; fiDed (^> with)

il^LJi ,j-*ij

raq$ al-b. belly dance;

(bafni) in, within, in the

of; ojhi

j j

*>

II (tun.)

to

fll (a s.th.)

inside, within, in; l.u-lj Uk> j-j (waladat

ULi

(Span, batdn) bfn fulling mill

she gave birth only once;


zahrin) upside

j^i

LJ*>

(H1JLi

down

bfiya pl. ^\ji bawfin pitcher, jug

jLi bafni ventral, abdominal

bazza

to spout, gush out, well out

jU

bafin

paunchy

Jui bazr pl. jjai buzr clitoris (anat.)

65

mu
ii-*>

bu'bu* pl. aiUj ba'bi'* bugaboo,

bogey

ii-*Li

b&it

pl. it*\ji

baw'ip incentive,

inducement, motive, Bpur, reason, cause,


6a ato a
(Jl (Jl
f

(6a'Z)

to send, send out, dispatoh or s.th. to); to forward


(*_

ocoasion

u or a, u or a

i s.o.

B.th. to); to delegate

or

mab't

dispatohed,

delegated

Jl s.o. to) ; to

emit

(t_*

or * B.th.) ; to evoke,
(* B.th.); to

envoy, delegate; reprsentative, deputy


(in

arouse, call forth,


stir

awaken

the Ottoman Empire)

up, provoke, bring on (* s.th.); to

i-o-u

munba'ot source, point of origin


{ij***

revive, resuscitate (* s.th.); to resurreot


( s.o.,

Ojil j* from death); to inoite,

u ba'jara

ba'tara)

to scatter, strew

induce (J* to s.th.), instigate (J* s.th.); to cause (J* s.th.; e.g., aatonishment)
Jt^J-'l

around,fling about (*s.th.); to disarrange,

throw into disorder


waste, dissipate {*
jvKf

(* s.th.)

to squander,

Ja

Jl

vi-*>

(haxzai

ai-ffauf)

to

s.th.) II taba'tara pass.

Bcare the wits out of s.o.;

j ILA-I
life

^jj xLm
j

muba'tar scattered, widespread

(rha l-kayh) to breathe or


s.o.,

into s.th.

revive s.th. VII to be sent out,

ba'aja

(ba'j)

to

slit

open

(* the belly);

be emitted, be dispatohed, be delegated;


to be triggered, be oaused, be provoked; to be resurrected

to groove, dent, notch (* s.th.) VII to

have indantations or notches


brutsed, dented,

to

be

to originate (j*

(oJJ j* from death); in), come (j* from), be


proceed,

bumpy; to get battered

caused (j* by); to emanate (fragrance);


to
arise,

m^ munba'ij notched, indented


1

spring,

develop

(j-

ba'uda u (bu'd) to be distant, far away,


fax off; to

from),
s.th.

grow out of
foll.

(J*) ; to set

out to do

keep away, keep one's distance

(with

imperf.)

VIII to send,

dispatch
vio

( s.o.)

go far beyond (je-), ezceed by far ( j s.th.) to be remote, improbable,


(jp from); to
;

ba't

sending out, emission, dis-

unlikely
I

fr

*i

**!

ne

^P*

*"

a^ay
...

patching, delegation, etc.; resurrection


pl.

from;
II
|

jl .Uj

it is

not unlikely that

ij*i bu'$ delegations, deputations


<->J*-

to remove

s.o.);

to banish, exile, to
|

*i-*Jl

A*2 al-b. approz.


political

Renaissance

expatriate
aration
tfJI

( s.o.)

III

cause a Sep-

Party,
socialist

party
ti-*Jl

with

strong

(,>

between)
s.o.

^i

Jo

-i*L

tendencies ;

Day

of

Resurrection {from the dead)


iij

yj *o prevent s.th.; 4JU*-I ju J#\i


wide-eyed
take

from attaining
to stare
s.th.);

(ajfnihi)
(*

IV to remove

to

&a'to pl. ba'att delegation, deputa-

tion,

mission;

expedition;

student ez-

away (* s.th.); to eliminate (* s.th.), do away with (*); to send away, HiRmfra
(

ohange;

group of exchange Btudents;


rise
|

s.o.);

to expatriate, banish, exile

revival, rebirth, renaissance,

*i*j

b.o.);

to ezclude,

make

unlikely, improb-

*ij$L^. {'aakanya) military mission;

ii*j

able, impossible (* s.th.); to


far

go or move

1-L_Jj.s diplomatic mission; *jj\

*i*j

(ata-

away; to go very

fax (J in or with
lie

Ttya) arohaeological expedition; ii*Jt ,j-uj


ra'ls al-b. chief of mission (dipl.)

s.th.)

VI to be separated,

apart,

lie

at

some distance from one another

ij*L 6<Ta Easter

(CAr.)

to separate, part Company, become es-

tranged; to

move away, go away,

with-

j.^ mab'at sending, forwarding, dis-

patch ;

emission ;

awakening,

arousal;

draw, depart (j* from); to keep away, keep one's distance (je from); to quit,
leave, avoid (j* s.th.) ; to follow in regulr

(pl. tts-L*

mab&if) cause;

factor

intervals VIII to

move

or go

away; to
out of

consistent (j with)

Xju ,y from afar,


l* faA<2)

keep away, withdraw


leave, avoid
(,y.

(,y.

from) ; to quit,

from a distance; Xju Xj*


time ago;
ing
_r

a long

a.th.); to leave

^1 Xju

6.

al-atar of far-reach-

consideration, disregard (,y


single out, set

B.th.)

to

consequence;

^jlill

Xju

remote in

aside (* s.th.); to think


B.th.); to

time, going
jbjl
ilill
6. 6.
o_*j
6. 6.

way back

in history, ancient;

remote, farfetched (*

regard as
( s.o.)

as-Sa'w high-minded,
aS-Siqqa far apart;

bold;
Xju

unlikely (* a.th.); to diBqualify

Xju

j_>ill

Xu bu'd remoteness, farness;


ab'd)

(pl. jLjI

al-gaur deep; unfathomable; jxll Xju

distance
[

dimension

interval

al-mad long - distance, long -rnge;


^IkJI

(mus.)

Xu J* and xJI J* in the distance,

extensive, far-reaching;

Xju

6.
->

an. ;

far off;

jU

& Xu J* at a distance of 100


je.

nazar farsighted; farseeing; JL.I


6.

meters; Xu

and Xu J* from a distance,


ji three-dimensional

al-manl hardly attainable, hard to

from afar;
jUt^l
<

il*jl *j"^J

get at; Ixju _^j to go far away, go to


distant lands ; Xju Jf aJ to look off into

>'^*

giya al-a. linear

measure;

UAl

Xu

6.

al-himma high

aspirations,
6.

the distance
x^u bu'aida (prep.) shortly after, soon
after

loftiness of purpose; iJl

Xu

aS-Hqqa

wide interval,
OjS-jS

wide gap;

C-i-JI

Xu

6.

renown, fame, celebrity; Cjj-d\ Xu

Xu

ab' ad2

pl.

0* L

ab'id2

farther,

6.

ap-paut do.; ^kJl

Xu

6.

an-Tiazar farIxu

remoter, more distant; more extensive;


less

sightednesa, foresight; J

bu'dan

li

likely,

more improbable;
|

pl.

OpLI

away with

. .

ofc'ti 2

very distant relatives

Xu^l ^iJl

Xu ba'du then, thereupon; afterwards,


later, after that, in

(Axrj) the

Far East; Xu^l the absent one


s.o.

the folkrwing;

still,

(used as a polite periphrasis for


is

who

yet
I

Xu

|fj

afterwards, later; Xu Li see


is

being criticized or blamed for s.th.;

L*I;

j^jf Xu j* he
Btill

only a small boy,

also

when

referring to the Ist

and 2nd

he

young; Xu

ot

(yati)

he

persons)
4jjUjI

hasn't

come yet
(prep.) after; in addition to,
| . .

db'diya

pl.

-t

country estate

Xo ba'^

beside; aside from


nt'Ai)
iiJ]

jf*

Xu

(W
later

XjtJ tab'td banishment

jUj bi'd distance


eXt-L.

aside from the fact that he is...;

Xu

afterwards ,

after

that,

mubaada sowing

of dissension,

(on); besides,

moreover; iJ Xu besides, Xu
a'ffa

estrangement, alienation
jljul

moreover;
il

an

(conj.)

after;

ib'd removal,

Separation, Isola-

Xu

(id),

4jL-

*Xu

L Xu and L. Xu U 4jL- (aafakun)

,y (fca'di) do.; the height of

tion;

elimination; expatriation, banish-

ment, deportation
X^Lj tab'ud interdistance ;

stupidity

mutual

es-

JJxu ba'da'idin then, thereafter, there-

trangement

upon, after that, afterwards


O-aj
fco'* pl.

Xw

mub'ad deported; deportee


|

Ixu
r

bu'ad' z , Xu w'uti,
OpIju mutab' id separate
(fatart)

jlxu bu'dn, jUj &t i distant, far away,


far
(,y.

x>Uit

ol jU j

from); remote, outlying, out-offar-reaching,

in

wide

intervals;

oljt

the-way;

extensive;

far-

,^1 j- 4*Lu (zaman) at infrequent


vals,

inter-

fetehed, improbable, unlikely; strnge,

unusual,
in-

from time to time


mustab'ad improbable, unlikely

odd,

queer;

incompatible,

J~
l

j*t ba'r, ba'ar

droppings, dng (of animals)


j*LI

iu

bagta

surprising

event, surprise;
all

bagtatan, ijj
jsaj ba'lr pl. lj*i\ ab'ira, \j*i bu'rn,

Je

'al

bagtatin

of a

ab'ii2 , if jl*j ba'rin 7

sudden, suddenly, surprisingly


i.L.

oamel
mubgata Budden
arrival,
;

sur-

jj*j ba'zaqa (*ju ba'zaqa) to scatter,


sipate, equander, waste (* s.th.)

difl-

prising ineident or event, surprise

sudden

attack, raid
tiLu

Jj*^ mubaziq squanderer, spendthrifb,


wastrel

bugt
see
II

pl.

Lj bigtn small birds

jIj

oili-jj

ijiuo

II to divide into parte or portions (*

s.th.)

V to be

divided, be divisible

jJj

tabagdada to swagger, throw one's


fresh

jj
few; a

ba'd part, portion; one; some, a


little

weight around, be

(properly,

to

of,

some of

^Lll

^m

b.

behave
iljju

like

one from Baghdad)

al-'vlam' one (or some) of the echolara;

bagdd1 Baghdad
bagddi
pl. -n,

u^* jy ff**> li*ij (ra/a'n) we have exalted some of them above the others;
j*-*^
I

ijjI-Uj

.ubu bagSdida

,^JI

(^Jl some Bome, a few


j--**j

a native of
1
1

Baghdad

others;

Lm

one another, each

_J

i*j

bagaSa a: #^Jl c~j (md'u) there was

other, mutually, recrprocally ;

^^u j

uiu

a light shower
<Lit bagSa light rain
2

one

in the

other, within

one another;

^1

j4j ba'da S-Sai* to


little,

some extent,

shower

somewhat, a
(ba'qUi l-m.)

rather; Uj'Uil

^^ <LfU

<Lia

bugSa
(e^.)

iijj

he resembled him somewhat,


8

to

some extent; ^Jwtj

oy

ii* (gar)

Lu

bugSa etuffed pastry

made of

for the last

hundred years and more


)

flour, eggs

and butter
baguda u {bugd,
i^ilij

ij*j*j bcCd (n.un.

gnafcs,

mosquitoes

iJ

ii bagida a,

bagda)

j^LaJ
tioning

tab'id

division,

partition, por-

to be hated, hateful, odious II to


( s.o.)

make

hateful (Jl to s.o.) III to loathe,

detest, hate ( s.o.)

IV to

loathe, detest,

0&u

bu'kka club, Bociety

hate

( s.o.)

VI to hate each other

J*i ba'l the

god Baal; land or plante thriv;

ing
J_j*j

on natural water supply


bul,
*lj*u

u^j bugd, <^j bigda hatred, hate


(j^-ij

and

Liij bagd'*

(pl.

bu'vla) lord;

husband

bagtd hateful, odious (Jl to

s.o.),

'Am ba'la wife

loathsome, abominable
,_

^u
iLLo

ba'li

unirrigated (land, plants)

rpLj tabgud

mutual hatred
hateful, odious

fjsji?*

mabgd detested,
pl.

ba'labakk 2
in

Baalbek (ancient Heliop-

olis, village

Lebanon)
*ik>

c^r mubgid

-n hater;

mvb*

gad detested, hateful, odious


C-u bagata a (bagt r
expectedly,
bagta) to

come un(

descend unawares

upon

bogt

pl.

JUj

bigl,

JLl

abgl

mulo;
|

s.o.) III do.; to surprise ( s.o.)

VII to be

iL bagla pl. bagalt female

mule

Jbu

taten by surprise; to be taken aback,


be aghast, be nonplused

lj~\ b. al-ganfara the piers of the bridge

JUj baggl

pl.

-n mule driver, muleteer

68

bag

i (Lo

bug*) to seek, desire, covet,


s.th.),

jLi baqbq garrulous, loquacious; chatterbox, prattler


ii^JL baqbqa blister (of the skin)

seek to attain (*
(A

wiah for

s.th.

).

(bagy) to wrong, treat unjustly

oppress (J s.o.), oommit (J# s.o.); to outrage (J upon); to whore, fornicate

t+u bxtqja pl.

pi

(wgaj bndle, pack, pack-

VII jJu

it

is

desirable, necessary;
it

it is

age
,j-jj-j

proper, appropriate, seemly;


be, Bhould be;

ought to
baqdnis, baqdnas parsley

with J:

it

behooves him,

with 4_U: he muet, he should, he ought


to
(*

Ju

baqara u to split open, rip open, cut open


(a s.th.)

VUI
to
J

to seek, desire (*

s.th.),

aspire

IV do.

s.th.), strive (* for)

Jkt baqar (coli.) bovines, cattle; n. un.

bagy infringement, outrage,

injus-

Ijli

baqara

pl. -t

cow
cow(in

tice,

wrong
tfjh baqari bovine, cattle-,

Jo

bagiy

pl.

LUj bagy whore, pros-

Compounds)
jL baqqr
pl.

titute

cowhand, cowboy
(bot.)

l_i*

bugya objeot of desire; wiah, debugyata (prep.) with the aim


of,

sire;

^J baqs box, boxwood

for the

purpose of

oL-Ju buqsumt rusk, Zwieback; biscuit


Ui big' proatitution U
effort

bugS

wiah(ing), desire, endeavor,

\ h buqSa

Yemenite oopper coin


pl.

*/; baqHS
mabgan
pl.

^^ili 603J1 present of


baksheesh
s.th.)

jl

L* mabgin brothel

money;
<Ju II

tip, gratuity,

f L* mabin wishes, desires

coreted things, desiderata,

to spot, stain, smudge (*


stained,

to

become
wiah; ibtig&a (prep.)

get

smudged; to be

Uiil ibtiga* desire,

spotted, Btained
AtJu

for the

purpose of
buq*a
pl.

Ju

buqa

r
,

fli

biqa
Spot',

f L bgin
eting,

pl.

l\*t

buQh desiring, oovoutrages,

spot, blot,
aite;

smudge, stain; place,

striving;

committing

plot, patch, lot

oppressive, unjust; oppresBor, tyrant

jul abqa* 1 spotted, speckled


JZ;*

mvbiogan aspired goal; aspiration,


endeavor, effort

desire,

UiL bqVa
shrewd fellow

pl.

g\jt

bawqi'* sly dog,

ou

bafta oalioo, Indian cotton cloth

Ji
jIij bifUk beefsteak
ji

baqala

(baql) to

eprout (plant)

baqq

(n.

un.

!)

bedbug, chinoh

jJI
|

i_^

(coli.; n. un. 3) pl. J> fcwtfJ, Jj 604I JU>1 agdi herbs, potherbs, greens, her-

elm

{bot.)

baceous plante;

specif.,

legumes

<L-*JJI

jj fagga u

(tag?) to give off in

abundanoe

UUI
UuJ1

the Leguminosae ; jjUI iUJl hyaiUJl *UJl


(6of.);

cinth bean (Dolichos lablab L.);


i3Lu baqqq garrulous, loquacious ; chat-

(hamqS)
({ZoAo6ij/o)

purslane

(bot.)

terbox t prattler

i_kjl

garden

orach

jJ baqbaqa (Ju 6056040) to

gurgle, bubble,

JU^IUM
6.

celandine

(6o(.);

4JLLI

ili

splutter, purl (water); to chatter, prattle

al-malih

common

fumitory

(bot.)

&
JUj baqql
pl. -n,

Uli baqqla green-

li ibqa continuation, retention ; mainI

grocer; grocer

tenance, conservation, preservation |lii <-L oJS"


Status
L.

Uli

6*<7<iJa

the grocery business

J*

ifU-l

maintenance of the

quo
I

j^J baqlwa, \j$m a kind of Turkish delight,

U-Jk

istibqa

continuation, retention;

paatry

made

of puff paate with

maintenance, conservation, preserration

honey and almonds or pistachios j


j
Li

bqin

staying ;

remaining

left

baqqam brazilwood
baqiya a (li
baq')

remainder
to remain,
atay,

{arh.); lasting,

continuing,

permanent, unending; sorviving; living


Ji

on; everlaating, eternal (God)

il>LtUi

continue to be (J* in a State or condition); to keep up, maintain (J* a state


or condition); to be over; to
laat,
left

oU-LJI the good works


jjl*

behind, be left
foll.

mutabaqqin residue, remnant,

re-

continue, go on; (with

mainder, rest

imperf. or part.) to continue to

do

s.th.,

iL

be (Eg. pronunciation) pl. tl>j^j bakawl,

kcep doing

s.th.

to

become

Sil

j^
II

^\jr bahawt bey


ijj^j bekawtya
baki'
little,

(title

of courtesy;

cf.

{yabqa fiflan) he

is

no longer a child

to

loave, leave over, leave behind {* s.th.)

IV

to

make

rank of a bey
having or giving

a.o.)

stay;

to

retain,

leave unchanged, leave aa

it is,

preserve,

pl.

cnj

btk'

maintain, keep up (*

s.th.);

to leave,

sparing

(e.g.,

of words)
(zool.)

leave over, leave behind (* s.th.,

a.o.);

to leave untouched, save, apare (J* s.o., s.th., e.g., s.o.'s life) V to remain, stay,

j>-Kj biksin becassine, snipe


LtjjJt^j (Fr.

baccalaur&U) baJclriy baooa-

continue to be ( J* in a State or condition)


to be
left,

laureate, bachelor'a degree

be

left

over

to

make
(

stay,

^^jjjJcnj
aak to stay, hold back, detain
to spare, save, protect preserve
(* s.th.);
( s.o.,

baklSriys bachelor (aca-

s.o.);

demic degree)

* s.th.); to

to retain,

keep {*

^LS

(Turk. binbafi) bimbix, bikbii major

s.th.); to stre,
4~j

put away

(* s.th.)

{mit; formerly, Eg.)

baqiya

pl.

[Am baqy remainder,


residue
|

cSj

II

to censure, blame

( s.o.)

rest

remnant,

Jj-Ot

iJL

b.

ad-duwal the remaining countries, the


rest of the countries ;

sj tabkit blame, reproach

j^M\ remorse
i$j&l bakteri
bacterial, caused

vM'

V"-" (Jbqiya)

the last remnant


LL baq' remaining, staying, lingering,

by

bacteria

Lijc^h baktiriy bacteria

abiding; continuation, continuance, duration ;


istence
life;

j bakara u to set out early in the morning, get

survival,
after life;

continuation

of ex-

up

early; to

come
do.;

early (Jl to), be

immortality, eternal
early
|

existence;

permanence

UJI

jb

(Jl at) II
foll.

_^ and

<-

_^

with

the hereafter

verbal noun: to do s.th. early,


its

prematurely, ahead of

time

III to

be

JA abq more

lasting,

more durable,

ahead
(.

of

s.o.

(),

anticipate,

forestall
first

more permanent; better preserving; conducive to longer wear, better protecting

s.o.)

IV

I;

VIII to be the
first

to

take (*

s.th.),

be the

to erabark (*

.
on
s.th.); to

70

deflower <U a

girl);

to in-

^j

abkar 2 rising earlier

vent

(m B.tb.); to create, originate, start

joX-. mibkr precocious

(* s.th.)

jKsil
jSCj

ibtikr

pl.

-<

novelty,

inno-

bakr

pl. jSCjI

afcar, 0'lj&

fraifcr

vation; creation; invention; origination,


first

young camel
_^j WJfcrpL J&l
firstling
;

production;

initiative;

creativity,

afeifcr

fkafc-bom, eklest

originality; pl.

oljOol

specif,, creations

lmprecedented,

novel,

new

of fashion, fashion deBigns


Jf\i bkir early; premature;
I_^"Ij

virgin; virginal

b*
|

tijSsj

bikri firBt-boro,

first

kiran

in

the

morning
(jSaftA)
tili

early

(adv.)

<i_^j bilcriya primogeniture _^j fcaira


-( reel;

jfUl
fcafcar,

*-LaJl

early in the morn-

and bakara pL _^j


b.

ing; jfl Jl
jJ*Ij

tomorrow
jflj*

puBey (mecA.);
f

spool, coil; winch,

ftib'ro

pi.

bawkir3

first-

windlasB

S_^j .L*- fca#


,,-jI

thread

lioge,

first

produce, early fruits, early


pl. first

^j bakra:
Aim,
-pjl

3_^j

SjS

j*

J* 'oZ fcajfero* oSand *t*^j J* all


of them,
^-T-^" tne
all

vegetables;

indications or

Symp-

toms, heralds, harbingers

without exception,
gether; Lr'^j j

all

to-

^L* mubakkir

doing early; early; 1^^*


in the

J*W
man

erwd

mubakkiran early

morning, early

went forth

as

one

jSo-. mubtakir creator; creative; Inven-

_^j bukra

pL _^j
kt

ftutor early

morning
to-

tar;

mvbtakar newly created, novel,


(pl. -t)

bukratan

early

the

morning;

new, original;

creation, specif.,
f

morrow

on the foUowing day, next day


early; early,

fashion creation, invention


(taub) original design,

j=r*

*-*>*

j&j balir coming


mature; precocious
j_>SCj

pr-

model. dress crea-

tion

bakr and jjf^i bakr coming


early,

r_&

bofkraj pl.

rj&*

bakrij* kettle, coffee

early;

premature; preeocious
earliness,
|

pot

jjS^* bttkr

prematureneas,

premature arrival

Jj*il

tjj* fowi)
JSCj

my

early retura

II

to buckle,

buckle up, button up

jKj bakra virginity


jISsj

(* s.th.); to fold, cross (* the

arms)
-t

bakkdra puUey

(meeA.)

jS^j

iJSCj

bukla pL JCj

bukal,

buckle

*-5^-

(mwrafcfcaia)

set of pulleys, block

and

tackle

4^Ci

(It.

baceald) bakalh codfish

jjSj &jfcra

and

j_>5o ftufoirfya pri-

^JiJj^i
gree)

bakalriys bachelor (academic de-

mogeniture
jjflj fctra pl. jS"^j>
fcawJJfcw3 first-

bakima a to be dumb;

baknma u

lings; first results, first fruits;


rise,

beginnmg,
initial,

to be silent, hold one's tongne IV to


silence ( s.o.)

dawn; (with

foll.

genit.)

to

become

silent; to be-

early, first; pl. jS"\jt first signs or indi-

come dumb
5^ bakam dumbness

cations; initial

Symptoms;
TljiJl

heralds, har-

bingers
*JI>I

(fig.)

hjfk
first

early fruit;

yjTU

IT the

thing he did

fA
buibn

abkam*,

f.

li

&afcmd' a ,

pl.

dumb

71

&
JJ-j

ol^So and

j_>S

see

<il>

tabattul moistneBS,

dampness, hu-

midity

J bak
(J#

i (tj

buk',

ZwJfean)

to cry,

weep
JjL. mabll,
tau moist,
3

over);

to bemoan, lament,
( for) II

bewail

JJL* mubalial, Jx.

mvb*

{* s.o.), ( s.o.)

mourn
cry

and IV to make
( s.o.)

damp, wet
bille):

to

move

to teara,

Ji

bil

(from Fr.

make

( s.o.)

cry

^f

(harrt)

ball bearing

fo

bakk'

given

to

weeping

fre-$j

see

a i_-<

quently,

tearful,,

lachrymose
al-mabk the Wailing
t>j^j,
^t-j "ylj

A\ UUWall
(in

h'if

bltln, pltin

platinum

Jerusalem)

j7^
S-J'lj

(Fr. plage) bli

beach

bkiya pl. i^j bawkin wainghired mourner;


StSvj

woman,
i!Li

(eg.)

arch, arcade

^sr^i balagr pellagra


^j"^; balraj stork

bJcin pl.

bukah weeping, cry-

ing; weeper, waer,

mourner
tears,

dLi-"^ (Fr.
>*$j

plastiqtte) blstlk plastic

iL. mubkin, mubakkin causing


tearful; sad, lamentable, deplorable

see

Jail

j^SC bikln Peking


1

ii^j

(Engl, plug) spark plug

(ir.)

Jj bat (also

with

foll.

u>a-)

nay,

^j, il^ see jL


rather.
. .

(and) even; but, however, yet


8

_LiJ.j

balbala to gurgle
balbala to
disquiet,

Jj

balla

(ball)
*

to moisten, wet,

make wet

(*s.th.,

s.o.);

)Jj t

make uneasy

or

balla

to recover (^Zj* j*

restive, stir up, rouse, disturb, trouble,

from an

illness) II

to moisten, wet,

make

confuse

( s.o., * s.th.) II

tabalbala to feel

wet

(* s.th.,

s.o.)

IV to recover

(^Zj* j*

uneasy, be anxious; to be or become confused, get all

from an

illness)

V and

VIII to be mois-

mixed up
pl.

tened, be wetted; to become wet

1LL balbala
Jj ball moistening, wetting;
Jj
bill

Jj^j

balbil 2 anxiety,

moisture
re-

uneasiness,

concem; confusion, muddle,

recovery,

convalescence,

jumble, chaos

cuperation
IL iL
billa

JLL
moisture,

balbl anxiety, uneasiness,


balbil 2 anxieties,

concem

humidity

ilj

,>U!

zda

f-fina

billatan
. .

U what

Jj^j
J_Lj
l

apprehensions
confusion
|

tabalbul
t.

muddle,

made
JL

things even worse


balal

iiJ*^i jJji
(at

al-alsina confusion oftongues

moisture,

humidity; moist2

the tower of Babel)


pl. Jj
-

ness, dampness, wetness


JJLi

bulbul balaja

balbil 2 nightingale

JJL

balll

a moist, cool wind


,Jj

(t-jJj

bulj) to shine; to
;

dawn

ALL

ballla (eg.)

dish

made

of stewed

(morning, aurora)

balija

(balaj) to

maize and sugar

be happy, be glad
lighted
(*>

(i-j

about), be de-

J^l

ibll

recovery, convalescence, re-

at)

IV to shine (sun) V and

cuperation

VII

= balaja

rJjl

ablaf gay, serene, bright, clear,


beautiful

baisam
(j*Lj

pl.

-.^ baldsim 2 baisam, balm

fair, nice,

6abam{ balsamic, balmy

jpJiW

p^Ljl inbilj al-fajr

daybreak
Jall)
balSafa to Bolshevize II tabalSafa to

KL>Jj beljik Belgium

be Bolshevized
lllt baliafa Bolshevization
J-il;

JLjJj

tety'ifct

Belgian (adj. and n.)


un.
)

pL

balak

(coli.; n.

dates

(bot.)

buliifi

pl.

li-^i

balSifa

Bol-

oL baluda u (o"^ balda) to be stupid,


ic,

sheviat(ic); Bolshevik, Bolshevist


idiot-

duU-witted

II

to

acclimatize,

ha-

buUifiya Bolsheviam
jJLL balaSn heron (zool.)

bituate {* a.th., to a country or region)

pass. of II; to

become

stupid, besotted,

lapse into a etat of idiocy; to

show

o.s.

ij*b bala$a

(bals)

and

II to extort,

wring

from the stupid side VI to feign etupidity


-iL

forcibly (j-

from

s.o. s.th.J;

to black

balad

m. and

f.,

pl.

j:Aj

bd

mail

{ s.o.)

country; town, city; place, Community,


village; j*^j country; IjL
|

^^L

6aty

extortion,

blackmail;

for-

buidn coun3

cible imposition

of taxes
6aJ/i a (ep.) earthen-

tries utxl\ i~Jo b. al-habai Ethiopia; ^a>\ *"% b. a-sin China; -U^l *& b. al-

^^
Uj

ballp pl.

jaJ*^

hind India
jJj

ware jar

balda town, city; place,

Commu-

II

to pave (*

a.th.,

with flagstones or

nity, village; rural

Community; township
indigenous,
alien);

tes)
J"3k

^jI baladi native,


(as

home

bald}

pavement,
pl. UJjI

tiled floor;

floor
|

oppoaed to foreign,

(fellow)

tiles;

palace;

ablifa floor tiles

Citizen,

compatriot, countryman; a naJ

JLLil i^l

(maiait) the royal court; jlo.


al-b.

tive;

communal, municipal

^Uj
(

rXf

JoUl A2&Z
t'^j

court mourning
flagstone, slab-

(majlis) city Council, ]ocal Council

balda floor tile;

jL baladiya
munity,
trict (of

pl.

-t

township, Comdis-

stone; paving atone


IlJLj to/t/ paving, tile-laying

rural

Community; ward,

a city) ; municipality, municipal


JaL. mttballaf paved, tiled
2

Council, local authority

lJL balid

and

-UjI

ablad* stupid, dolt-

ijL &af oak; aoorn

ish, dull-witted, idiotic


3

<Uj balfa

pl. -t, JaL tuia/

ax
sapper,

o-^j balda stupidity, silliness

j^tij balfaji
aJ-j

pl. -tya engineer,

tabaud idiocy, dullness, obtuse-

pioneer (mil.); gangster; procurer, panderer,

ness,

apathy
mutaballid besotted, dull, Btupid

pimp; sponger, hanger-on, parasite

jJ-i.

*iLL balafa balata


ji>\ look

gum
J>-^
balti

up alpha betically

yji
l

(Fr. paletot) balf pl. -t,

rxLI

pl. i-JLI

look up alphabetically

paletot, overcoat
tree;
*
|

oLL

balasn baisam, balm;


{bot.)

baisam

_^1j butyi bolti

(Tapia nilotica), a food

fish

black eider

of the Nile

&
jJJJl
al-balflq

the
oJ-6.

Baltio

countries

^
and

attain

manhood, come of age;


fll

*4-M

iL

j-UJl 6oAr
ifcJ
Ij

the Baltio Sea

{ahtddak) to attain
of age ; to reach
its

maturity,
;

come

climax

UL ^1

iL

blza

hand

presB ; (eg.) a kind of

cream
(^jiil

j or) (mablagan) to attain a high


s.th.; iLil l*

made

of cornstarch,
like

lemon

juice

degree of

jL^Xi

c-iL
I

,>.-

honey, or the
Ai
bala'a

{kina, (JtJfcrayH,

mablaga)

when

had
work
II

and

bali'a

{hol')

to

Bwallow,

come

to thia point in
4i*

my

reminiscences

swallow up (*
B.th.); to

s.th.);

to gulp
s.th.),

down

(*

iL* JS*

iL (hdla mablagin) to
s.o.;

put up (* with
(* s.th.)
|

swallow,

havoo on
reach
its
(

L*o iL (muntahhu) to

stomach, brook
lit.
:

*jj fJL {riqah)


i.e.,

climax,
s.o.)

come to a head

to

to swallow one's saliva,

to catch

make
that

reach or attain (*

s.th.);

one's breath, take a little rest, have a

to take, bring (Jl * s.th. to


s.th.
(*)

s.o.),

see

break; to restrain

o.a.,

hold back (said

gets (Jl to); to convey,

of one in a rage) II and IV to

make

( s.o.)

transmit, impart,
(a

communicate, report
;

swallow (*
grant
s.o.

s.th.)

*juj **L

(riqah)

to

to

s.o.

s.th.)

to

inform,

notify

a short rest

VIII

(* s.o. of s.th.), teil, let

know
{je.
|

{*

s.o.

about); to report
i*L bal'a large bite, big gulp
*t~j

{je-

about), give an

aecount of

{je-);

to inform

against

ba'a,

~**jL

baU'a

pl. -t,

^J"^

s.o.),

report,

denounce

{je. s.o.)

UL-j iL

balli* 2 sink,

drain
1

to

fulfill

a mission; ^"it- -iL baifihu a-

lmi give him


**JL bl'a pl. -t, (^JIjj bawlx

my

best regards! III to

sewer,

exaggerate (j in
too

s.th.);

to overdo, do

sink, drain

long (j s.th.);

to

go to greatest
in)

jL bvX'um

pl.

f^t

bal'im?

and *jh bid*


{anat.);

lengths,

do one's utmost (j

IV to

*m

pl. **"i0

bala'im %

pharynx

make
(

(*,
;

s.o.,

s.th.)

reach or attain

*jAi gullet, esophagus {anat.)


x

Jl s.th.)

to

make

(* s.th.)

amount
s.o.

Jl to),

raise (*

an amount, a salary,

Jl to); to

iL balaga
s.th.),

(KjJLj

hdg) to reach

( s.o.,

inform, notify
teil, let

get

(*, to),

arrive (* at); to come,


(* so
{)

(u or know (^ or jeagainst
i-j
i

jn

of

s.th.),

* s.o.

about); to
s.th.)
;

amount

(* to),

be worth
s.o.'s

and so
to

announce, State, disclose


inform
{je-

(*

to

much); to come to

ears;

(je|

s.o.),

report,

denounce

attain puberty (boy); to ripen, mature


(fruit,

s.o.)

r*ij^

-iL!

to report s.th.
o.a.,

or the like); to

come of age;
s.o.);

to

to the police
(i_j

V to content
(i_j

be content

exhaust, wear out (j*

to act {j*

with); to eke out an existence; to


one's hunger
with), eat

upon
(j-

s.o.),

have
to

its effect

{j* on), ffe et

still

(^

s.th.):

s.o.);

go far
(

(j,

j* in

s.th.),

to be delivered, be transmitted

attain a high degree


Jl
*j

j, j* of s.th.)

L
|

to

make

UL V

Lr" aam'an l balganf


fulfilled, i.e.,

may

it

be

s.o.

or s.th. get to or arrive or s.th. to, get s.o. or


*j

heard but not

God

forbid!

at, lead or

take

s.o.

(used at the mention of s.th. unpleasant)


4L

s.th. to

the point where, l fji\

iL
bulga

(tarannvb) he began to reel so violently


that...;
.U-l

and

9-^Aj

balg

sufficiency,
a

iL-

^^1

iL {mablaga

l-jidd)

competency, adequaey
low)

(see also

*iX>

be-

the matter became serious;


b.

Jj)l J--JI

iL
cli-

s-aailu z-zub the matter reached

Wj

balg pl. -t communioation, In-

max,, things

came to a head;

JL-J1 iL*

iL

formation,

message, report;
;

announceState-

{mablaga

r-rijl)

to be sexually mature,

ment, proclamation

communique;

6
ment;notification(of thepolice)
|

j*-\

f-^j

(J

*iL

balgami

phlegmatic

phlegmy,

Ultimatum
i_L baiig pl.

mucous
LL bnlag' 2 eloquent;
in-

JAj balafa

i {half)

to bluff II do.
balfa bluff

tense, laeting, deep, profound (e.g.,

an
in-

impression); eerioua, grave


Jury)

(e.g.,

an

_L half,

jLl ablag
arrival

piebald

9jL bulg reaching, attainment,


(at);

maturity, legal majority


balga eloquence;
art

-iiL bilqi* (J

Muslim

narrte of the

Queen of

Sheba
**">0

ort

of good
|

style,

of composition ;
al-b. rhetoric

literature

uliUI al-balqn the Balkans

ii^l 1*

'Um

JliL balqni Balkan

LI
ing;

ablag 2 intenser, deeper,


serious, graver

more

last-

more

*L balga' and i*L balga' a


1

2 pl. -j*^ balgi'

iL^ mablag pl. JL* mablig

amount,
rnge;
i

wasteland
dl>

Bum
(ismi)

of

money; extent,
p^jII

scope,
I)
|

see t\jL

(see also

examples under iL

y\

iL*
^SsL balkn balcony
1

nominal par;

J L^Ll

(mda'a)
ii-4

the deposits (at a bank);


jX\

Jy

^-.Jj

(li-yatabayyana,
to find, out to

qauli, jidd)

in

Jj
2

balam anchovy balam


pl. *&)

Order

what extent

my

Jj

ablm

sailing

brge

(tr.)

words were meant seriously


3

mJlJ tablig pl. -t

conveyance, trans-

IV to be

silent,

hold one's tongue

mission, delivery (Jl to s.o.); information

^Aj

balln bathhouse attendant;

name

of a

(^

about); report, notification (^c of);


|

plant growing near stagnant waters


U^Aj ballna

communication, announcement, notice


i-LJI ^t\sS" credentials

female bathhouse attend-

ant; lady's

maid

UL

mublaga

pl. -t

exaggeration
--iL

balansiya 2 Valencia (region and city

*yk\ iblg conveyance, transmission


Jlj blig extensive, far-reaching
;

in

Spain)
'

conpro,j*L pl. 0*J">L

siderable

serious

wound),

deep,

k U P alphabetically
be
stupid,

found,

violent,

vehement

(feelings),

4L

baliha a

to

simple-minded
pretend to be
s.o. )

strong, intense; mature; of age, legally

VI

to-

feign foolishneaa,

major
il^ muballig bearer (of news), messenger; informer, denouncer; detective
2

stupid

to

deem

stupid

or

simple-minded
*L

balak and

**">0

balha

stupidity,
idiocy,

<ih

bulga,

balga

pl. -t,

bulag

slipper

of

foolishness,

simple -mindedness ;
2_^L. U">U (mubakkira)

yellow leather
LjliL bulgriy Bulgaria

imbecility
tia

demen-

praecox
balha let alone, not to speak of,

*L

^jliL bulgrl Bulgarian (adj. and


iL

n.)

not to mention
*L!

balga7n phlegm;

(pl.

i^

balgim 2 ) ex-

ablah2 stupid, daltish, dull-witted;

pectoration,

Sputum

idiotic

75

*ib

L-jL^Jj bilkaraiy bilharziaais, Schistosomiasis

bald' trial,

tribulation, Visitation,

{med.)
<j^]j

affliction,

distress, misfortune;

scourge,

buiahniya abundance, wealth, variety

plague; creditable Performance, bravery,


gallantry, heroic action
|

(of earthly possessions)

j^. ^

(ha*

8an) favor, Messing, grace (of God);

good

'Ol^L

Bee

l^^lf,

Performance
J^-^t balhin*

*D j+L bulhn
eg.)

pl.

(=

JjAl^.l

,4jL>

balw

trial; tribulation, Visitation,

sphinx

affliction, distress, misfortune,

calamity;
it

(jii

6aid {balw, Jj) Vj teat, try, put to the test (

and

necessity, need

^
b.q.,

j^LJI

6aJ*)

to

c^

('ammat)

has become a general necessity


1IL.

m s.th.);

to

know from long


afflict ( s.o.);

experience (* s.th.);
(Jj

mubldh
|

consideration, regard,

to
**$j

Jj baliya a
;

bilan,

heed, attention

;^L.V Id-mvbdlh in-

bald')

to

be or become
to dwindle

old,

worn,

difference, unconcein, carelessness


t~^j\ ibtild'
trial, tribulation, affliction,

ahabby

(clothes)

away, van-

ish; to deteriorate, decline,

become deVisitation
Jlj bltn old,

crepit; to diaintegrate (a corpae), decay,


rot,

spoil III to care,

be concerned (v
(i_j

worn, worn out; ahabby,


tattered;
;

or *,

about), be mindful

or

a,

threadbare,
dilapidated
;

ragged,

decrepit, obsolete,

of

s.o.,

of a.th.); to pay attention

(i_>

or

decayed, rotten

* to),

mind, heed, take into consideration,


{<_j

antiquated

take into account


notice
I
(i_j

or s.th.); to take

JL. mublin observant, heedful, mindful


(._j

of)

JU
I

don't

care

L m ubli, JL1 V don't mind it's all


!

of)

cj

JL. ji heedless of
(lesa correctly Ji-.
(i_j

right with

me! JL> V

(as

relat. clause)

J^. mubtalan
talin)
(lj

mub*

unconcerned, heedless, carelesB, recklesa

afflicted

with, by), auffering

IV to
to
s.o.

try, test,

put to the teat

{ a.o.);
(

from)
tabalwara to cryatalize; to be crys-

make
;

experienced, harden, inure


;

aaid of trials, experiences)


(*

to

work
|

jjL

II

havoc

on
Jjl

s.th.); to

wear out
brave

talized; to
(* s.th.)

be covered with cryatals


billaur pl. -t crystal; crya|

L-

*-i

(bal'an haaanan) to stand


o.s.

j^L baUr,

the test; to prove

(in

war)

tal glss, flint glasa, glaas

iSj^

Jj^>.

VIII to try, tempt, put to the teat to afflict (<j

( a.o.);

(sakri) rock crystal, transparent quartz

s.o.

with), visit

s.o. s.th.); pasB.

vbtuliya to

(^ on become or be
(i_j

j^L billaura
crystal
glass,

(n. un.)
flint

pl.

-dt

crystal;

glaas,

glass;

tube

afflicted

(i_j

with, hy),

suflFer

from)
(radio); crystal,

quartz plate (of a de-

Jj bilan decline, deterioration decay, putrefaction, decomposition ; worn con;

tector; radio); (syr,,

pronounced

ballra)

negative (phot.)
tijjL ballri, btUauri crystalline; crys-

dition; wear; shabbiness


Jj

batiy worn,
decrepit,

old,

ahabby, threaddecaying,

tal (adj.)

bare;

dilapidated,

decomposed, rotten
*Jb baliya pl. \y$j

ijj^L ballTxyu, biauTiya


baly
(Oft.)
trial, tribula-

pl. -dt lense

tion,

Visitation, affliction, distress, mis-

j_jL.
fruita

mubalwar:

jj^t*

*^*L**

candied

fortune, calamity

*
jjs, ijjl (Fr. bleust)
blouae
iljj
bdlz,

76

biua

pl. -dt

the Arabs; <Juj-< Jj Beni Suef (city in Egypt, S of Cairo)

(Turk. btUk) bulh


|

pl.
6.

-t

Company

ol

t&tia

and cJu
girl
|

fruit

pl.

ob
t.

oandt

{m.; Eg.)

0^*1

fJjl*

omi (m.)

daughter; c-w

yJI

ol

al-'amm

approi. : quartermaster Sergeant (former-

(female) cousin; periphrastically for wifet


dLfpl.

ijl

your wife; j&JI -

6. af-jSJfer

J&Vi
oi-ari^

ob

thought, idea; ,j>jVl

jL boUfin balloon
l

fr.

inseots

and worms;

^-1;
j-l

Jj

6aM

yes, yee indeed, certainly, surely

6.
fr.

6t** calamities, afflictions;

ob b ob

ad-dahr do. ; Jl cJj

fr.

aS-safa

word ;
fearo,

Jj

ftoKyn eto., aee jlj


(It. pagliaccio) jtalyati

j-UJ!

ob

6.

as-fiadr

worries,

anxieties; ijjj

j-UUj
jJjUj

ob
little

fr.

tcartZna earth-

olown, buffoon

worms, rainwonna
(It. fripltanfo)

byard

billiards

Jj frunaiya
IjLi

my

son
filiation

*Jj
1
l

billseh plisse', pleating

bunwa sonship,
Ixmawi
filial

jX

6oUln pl. oJ^J baZdZin1 pallium, liturgical

iSj^j

vestment of a bishop worn over the


ohasuble (Chr.); monk*s robe (Copt.-Chr.)

jj

fafranntn adoptlon (also

flg.,

e.g..

of ideas, principles, etc.)


j.

^L

balyn

pl.

^.^j balyln*
(U.S.)

(U.S.) billion,

frunn coffee beans, coffee

(G.B.)
billion

milliard;

trillion,

(G.B.)

^j bunni coffee- colored,

brown

b bann
**

finger

Ups

jt-i *~L*

-t^
fj*
\j\

ty***

bomm
ment

loweat string of a musical instru-

iru)
i.e.,

lit.:

he

is

pointed at with fingers,


tiijb

he

is

a famouB man;
I

an

f_Lr

bumbg,

Le 6vmM$a bow

tie

\aua bannika

am

at your disposal, I

am
jLe bomby Bombay

at your aervice
($yr.;

Jj^iL bandra

from

It.

pomodoro)

^L look up alphabetically

tomato(es)
(* s.o.);

V JJ
^1

tabann to adopt as son


(* s.th.)

^jLj

fcorwirw1

Banaras or Benares (the Holy


in

to adopt, embrace

Oty of the Hindus,


^iL see ,^L>

India)

ihn pl. LjI o&nd*, Oyj banfin son;

deacendant, scion;

offsprmg, son (of a

nation or people) | * aT

pl.

jX ji; (son of

Adam) man, human being; jjT ^.l *6n dux jackal; -J1 ^1 um al-balad local
inhabitant, native;

yjj bint napoleon, louia d'or (gold coin of

j^UI

Ljl

nativee,

20 franca)

native populatkm;
warrior,
soldier;

v^'

i>'

a^-^at*
^.1
0".'

Wj

II to dope, narcotieize (with banj;

s.o.);

warlike, belcoae;

to anesthetize

(* s.o.)

JsiJl wayfarer, wanderer;

iJL#
j<l

u^-*"

j banj henbane (Hyoscyamus


bot.);

niger;

60 years old; *.U

j.

ifrn

'a/t'M

temifr

poral, transient, passing;


puftiAi

^i

an anesthetic, a narcotic

hia

own

aon;

^^

ibn '>

v UJl

al-banjb the

Punjab

(region,

NW

weasel; ^Ji L jj

oan m' tu-wnuS*

Indian subcontinent)

^jhJj

banjar red beet


pl.

(eg.)

jjlkj banfaln (from


trousers, pants

It.

pantaloni)

pl.

-*

Xj band

*yj bund article, clause parajjl; bangzi Bengasi (city in


capital of Cyrenaica)

grapb
large
x

(of a law, contract, etc.); banner;

NE
NE

Iib}'a,

body of troops
pl.

jXj bandar

jjbj bandir* seaport; com-

JUiJI

al-bangl Bengal (region,

Indian

mercial center ; district capital (Eg.) ; jAbj


aee also under v-L below
'afefca

subcontinent)
j7ij banafsaj (coli.; n. un.
)

,^-U* j^j
|

fr.

Bandar Abbas (seaport

in

8 Iran)

violet (bot.)

(j^ banafsaji violetlike, violetisb;


a ijjXj

look

up

alphabetically
violet (adj.)
;

y-^JcJ\
{

or

^->*:.II Ijj
[J

J-L>

bunduq

(coli.

n. un. ) pl. jaIij

bandiq7

ultraviolet
^^Lij banfaS,

hazelnut(s),

filberts;

hazel,

bazel tree;

banafS amethyst (min.)

Oj hazelnut,

fiJbert; bullet
ajcj

j-L> bundttqi Venetian sequin

binaqa and Ju baniqa gre, gusset (of

a ahirt or garment)

JXj
rifle,

bunduqlya
^tj IJ-L
|

pl.
fr.

JaIij

bandiq*
1

gun

rai ahotgun

jiij

frunjfc
fr.

root, core, heart, best part

dkj

j^Jl
iJ-uJl al-bunduqiya Venice

oi-'umr the prime of fe, the best

yeare
ciliXj

bunduqnl

pl.

-fin,

Li band*
2

diqa a Venitian

diiJ

franjfc

pl. t\yj

bunk
credit
.iL
fr.

bank,

bankin g
<iij

house

t-iul-lll <^Jjj
-all

bank; jij&

JjXj bundq
#jjj^
banadra

pl. JjiL>

bandiq 2 bastard
It.

deposit bank;

ad-dam blood

(syr.;

from

_pomJoro)
3

bank;
tiii *

JjoJI ^Jb-Jt

(dauA) the World

Bank

tomatoes
(_fjj.U>

mubannah stranded
iiL*

j>l aAmar 8 banadri tomato-red


i
t

ilir.

muhannak mvbannak shrewd,

Jj^j (Fr. _pendt*Ze) bandl

pendulum

sly, astute

j-Cj (Span, bandera) bandera pl. jjLj band*

uIj^iScj

(Engl.) banibndf
jijCj

banknote

dir 2 pennon, flag, banner


jCj

and

see

1
(

jjUj frannr

(= jjL bar)

glass

jljO (Fr.
ja*>j banzahir bezoar, bezoar stone
j>>j banzin, benzln gasoline, benzine
J>i (Engl.)
x

fraijjnotre)

banwr baignoire, theater


tier

box of the lowest


Jj frans
t

(Li bind',

uLJu bunyn)

and Till
(a s.th.};

to build, erect, construct, set


IJ

up

pence
to build, establish, rest (J* * s.th. on); to consummate the marriage (L- and LJ*

t>lj benisilln penicillin

witb a woman); pass. buniya, ubtuniya


<--u (Fr. peneie) bansSh pansy
(bot.)

to be based, be built, rest


;

J* on)

'*$
|

Jj
in-

Oj-_Ju bansiyn
ing school
^-a^j frinpir
f.,

pl. -i

boardinghouse board-

J*

(JfeaZtmatan)

to give a

word an

declinable ending in (a certain vowel or a

vowelleas consonant; gram.)


pl. j-^Lj

see

fransir

ring finger

y
an

Li frin" building, construction, erection,

ju

iuni

pl.

ijO bunf point (stock market)

setting up; structure (also, e.g., of

;;

Organum),

aetup,

make-up;

(pl.
|

Jul

less ;

abniya) building, structure, edifice

(color)

bahita to be or become fade bahata a to astoniah, amaze, bepale,


;

LJI i'dat al-b. reconstruction ; ji-\ LJI

wilder, startle, stagger, flabbergast

( s.o.) ( s.o.)

Freemasonry; J* Lj binaan 'al according to, in accordance with, on the


(kurr)

(Ly buhtn) to Blander, defame


III to

come or descend unexpectedly


IV to surprise, astonish, amaze

baais of,
ii*

by

virtue of, on the atrength of

upons.o.); to startle, stagger, flabbergast


{ s.o.) (

J*

Ij accordingly,

thus
building

s.o.)

ijUj

binai

constructional,
;

VII

(used attributively)
tural
Li;

architectural; struc-

C~r buht and accusation;


lie,

uLy buhtn
untruth

slander, falsa

binya, bunya pl. Jj hinan, btman

i^- bahta perplexity,

amazement,

be-

structure, setup,

make-up; Wnya build,


J

wildennent, stupefaction
ilJkL

frame, physique, physical Constitution


iJjl

bhit pale, pallid, faded (color);

iJjl^ of delicate Constitution;

~^

perplexed, aghast

JJI

and

JJI

-L* of sound Constitution,


j_j

healthy;

JJI

qawiy

al-b.

husky,

jf- mabht
amazed,

perplexed,

astonished,

sturdy
L

startled, flabbergasted, aghast

bann'
j

pl.

-n

builder;

mason;

~f

bahija a to be glad, be

conatructive
IjLj

j>- j (Aurr)
pl.

Freemason

be dehghted (w at);

happy (^ about), bahuja u to be


VIII to be

beautiful, look wonderful IV to gladden,

binya

-(

building, structure,

delight,

make happy
(i_j

( s.o.)

edifice

glad,
jLj

be happy

ahout), be delighted

bunyn

building,

construction,

at)

erection, setting
edifice;

up; building, structure,


<*^-

physique, stature

bahja splendor, magnificence, beau|

ty, resplendence; joy, delight

jli^l

i^

J~ mabnan pl. jL. mabnin building, construction, erection, setting up; building, structure, edifice;

delight of the eyes,


Fi- bahij,

welcome sight

form; foundation,
{ra'y) con-

did, beautiful;

fundament, basis
|

ff bahtj magnificent, splenhappy, joyous; delightful

JJlj ^]j\

tent

and form
tabannin see
1
(

i>f~.

mabhaja a moment of happiness

and joy ^
builder
1 P*L+ mabhij joys, delights; pleasures, amusements, dlversions; splendid things;

,jvj

jL bnin
J-*

pl. Lj fiimA

mabniy

built,

set

up,

erected

splendor,
jr^ri'

pomp, magnificence
(wat)

founded, based, resting (J* on); fixed, established; indeclinable; ending indeclinably
2

*6fijjoy,rejoicing, delight

(J* in; gram.)

..(-.

mubhij pleasant, charming, delight-

ful

,j^

En gl-) penny
~L.
mubtahij happy, glad, dehghted
( s.o.);

jm
yl^f

(It.

bagno) bany bath, bathtub


J-if-

bdhdala to insult

to treat conto expose

bahita a, bahuta

u and

pass. buhita (bht)

temptuously, meanly
( s.o.) (*

(* s.o.);

to be astonished,

amazed, bewildered,

to ridicule,

make a laughingstock
I

startled, perpleied, flabbergasted, speech-

of

s.o.) II

tabahdala pass. of

79

r*
-L^ bahdala insult, affront, abuse, outjl*-_rt*

bahrajn

tinsel,

frippery

rage; meanness; triteness, insipidity

rjrf mubahraj showy, tawdry, gaudy,


ornate,

J-L^ mubahdal maltreated, oppressed,


miserable

ostentatious ;

trashy,

rubbishy,

cheap, inartistic

jr bahara a (bahr) and IV to glitter, shine to dazzle, overwhelm ( s.o., * s.o. 's eyes)
; |

j jx bahriz

(eg.)

a soup

jLj^I j^j ji a dazzling, overwhelming


thing;

i^f bahaza a (bahz) to oppress, weigh


( s.o.;

down
(

pass. buhira to be out of breath,


with
blindness;

a load, work), weigh heavily

to pant VII to be dazzled, blinded; to be

on

s.o.)

IV do.
bhiz heavy, oppreasive, trying;

smitten

to .be

out of
off,

.Ii*L>

breath VIII to flaunt, parade, show


present in a dazzling light
(i_j

excessive,

exorbitant,

enormous

ex-

s.th.)

pensive, costly

jt bahr jr buhr
brea thing

deception, dazzlement
difficult

(i_j

by)

j^ bahaq

a kind of liehen
tetter;

(bot.);

herpetic

respiration, labored

eruption,

vitigo alba,

mild

form of leprosy (med.)


(n. vic.)

Ijr bahra

being dazzled, dazzle-

J^ bahala a

(bohl) to curBe

( s.o.)

V and VI

ment
sr

to curse one another VIII to supplicate,

buhra middle, center

jr

pray humbly

(to

God)
(

amidst

Jf
more
brliant,

abhal

sa vin

Juniperus

sabina

^1
icent

abhar2

more magnif-

bot.)

Jlfl ibtihl supplication,


J*L>

prayer
buhhal
free,

2 jf\ abhar aorta (anat.) jLj-

bhil

pl.

J^-

buhl,

independent
bahr
pl. -t spiee
J^JLf(i_j

jlfl ibtihr dazzling display,

show

buhll, bahll pl. JJLf bahlil 2 buffoon,

of s.th.)
j*\j bhir dazzling, brliant, splendid

jeater, clown, fool

jljLf-

bahlawn

pl. -t, -lya

acrobat, tumbler,

equilibriBt, ropedancer, tightrope

walker
olTj*-

jjr* mabhr breathless, out of breath,


panting
ji_jLr

bahlawdni

acrobatic

Jl^J-f (harakt) acrobatics; antics,

capers

rjx bahraja

(~**rjx

bahraja) to adorn, deck

of a tumbler; jl^J-r o\jb (fayarn) aerial


acrobatics, stunt flying

out, dreBs up

ahowy; to give a deeeptive


( s.th.);
-f-

brightness (* to); to glamorize


to rejeet as false
(

a witness); to fake,
II

IV to make obscure, dubious, unintelligible (* s.th.)

counterfeit

(*

s.th.)
o.a.

tabakraja

to

V and X

to be obscure,
s.o.)

adorn
fake
r-_rr

o.s.,

spruce

up, dress up; to be

ambiguous, unintelligible (J* to


K^f bahma lamb, sheep

bahra] false, spurioua, fake, aham,

^ bahim
S~~f-

pl.

-,-

buhum
ri^pl.

jet-black

worthless, bad; counterfeit

money

tinsel,

bahxma

pl.

frippery, cheap finery; trash, cheap stuff

bah'im 2 beast,
vestock, cattle,

animal, quadruped;
'**rj^

bahraja

empty ahow, hollow pomp

(large)

domestic animals

c*
L5

80

*-t-

bahimi animal, beetial, brutiah

live

or stay at a place IT to provide


(* for s.o.,

*~*~r

bahimiya brutiahnesa,

bestiality,

accommodations

* at a place);
(<_>

brutolity
l>Lf-l

to settle down, reside, live

at a place)

V
ibhm obacurity; vagueness, ambiguity
l>Lf-l

to settle

down

{* at a place),

occupy

{\j?j+

markazan a
position)

place), hold (Ul*


|

ma

qman a
ibhm
pl.

UtSL.

T^J (maknan)
ac-

j>LI

abhim* thumb;

to gain ground,

become generally
('<*"')

big toe

cepted;

^^
SU1

Ij-j

to ascend the to

>L bhim
tr*

throne
big toe

IjJ

(hukm)

oome

to

power, take over power

mubham

obscure, dark,
|

cryptic,
--.

doubtful,

vague, ambiguous

ja
'- 11

&!
bai'a)

Mo
pl.

pl.

-t

(usually

pronounced

fotiad) abstraot

number
vagus

(moiA.);
(<ww<.);

^il

('a*a*) the

O ^1

-dt

residenoe, domicile, seat;

..

Situation;
,-VI

surroundings,

environment,

(um) the demonstrative pronoun (pram.)


l

milieu; home, habitat


Li

mab'a place to which

s.th.

oomes;

(jr) W; bdhS. u,
(L.

bahuwa u and jf bakiya a baW) to be beautiful lil to vie,


(lj

abode, dwelling, habitation


jj tabawvm*
:

compete
o.b. (l->
l->

with

b.o. in a.th.);

to pride

^j^

*j^

t.

al-'ari acces-

on), be

proud

(lj of), boast {lj of,

sion to the throne

to b.o. of s.th.) VI to compete with


(<^ of), pride

^jt II to divido into chapters or sections {*


s.th.)
;

one another; to be proud


o.a. (lj

to

arrange

in

groups,

arrange

on)
pl.

systematically, class, classify (* s.th.)


.L.I

jr bahw

abha

hall;

parlor,

i-jL

bb

pl.

^j*)

abiDb,

Lu bibn

drawing room, reception hall


(

door; gate; opening, gateway; entrance;


cbapter, section, column, rubric; group,
olass,

fr boAty beautiful, magnicent, Bplen-

did; brilliant, radiant, shining


flf bah'

oategory;

field,

domain
Forte;
el

(flg.)

^Ul

JUI
beauty, magnicence, splenb.

the

Sublime

~->X\

^L

tU-mandab

Bab

Mandeb

(strait

dor; brilliancy

between
(adj.); (pl.

SW

Arabia and Africa;

geogr.);

JL. boAifi Bahai

-n)

an

adherent of the Bahai sect, a Bahai


-f*l

v!>i^' J* near, imminent; 1-bJU- 1<U =i to open up a new way, a new possibility;
<_jL

abAd more splendid, more

futiha bbv

...

was (were) begun,


<^\j

bril-

...got under way;


liant

*^l

Ji5 (qafaia)

to put an

end to
i>

s.th.,

terminate, close
as a favor;

UL. mubhh and


vainglory, boaatfulneas

LT tabtSAtn pride,

s.th.; J-iiJI i-jL

(b. il-fat)

Jjl

_jLi

(au&S)

with

all

the

more
about
-L

oljf see iL
(>jj)

reason, the
this matter,

more
about
it ia

so; <_jUI IJu


this; jl

IjjjJ

^y

M*a u

to
(i~>

come
with

again, return; to
s.th.),

(b. *4-tfarfira)

necessary that
(b.

. . . ;

,^-jJ

oome back

bring back,
L or JiiJLi

-uJl

t-jLi

li*

ia-pudfa)

that'a

no

yield, bring in (.-s.th.)


(JHit6a t /ojoi)

|^-'t
II

coincidence;

.-Li

j* jlT

or .-U

J*-.>

to
(J

fail

to provide aofor s.o., * at

(with
*A>

foll.

genit.) to belong to, fall under;


l .-L

commodations
place),

and

j i>^i unique of ita kind;

J*

-iL

put up (J or

s.o.,

* at)

Lil* I_^

to

pursue one's livelihood, earn one's

(matnan) to take a place,

settle

down,

bread

81

jy.

4j

Li

bba

pl. -t

kind, Bort, olass, category


pl.

**-\>

bha
place,

pl.

-t

wide, open Space;

u^I^j

&awu&

-n doorman, gate-

open
hall

sqnare,

plaza;

courtyard;

keeper
4j\y biwba office of gatekeeper
4j\jt

**-\j\

ibha divulgenoe, disolosure (of


li-

a secret); permission, authorization;

bawtoaba
SjL^ll
*j\jt

pl. -t (large) gate,


b.

poroentiousness

tal

al-qanfara lock gate

t_-i_j-J

(a&ifr

division

into

^Ul
chaptera,

ibhi licentious, unrestrained, un-

inhibited; anarchist; freethinker


sectioning, Classification, syBtematio ar-

rangement, grouping
>-jj~*

V-ll ibhiya
in

freethinking, libertinism;

mubawwab arranged

groups,

anarohism
< Ul istibha appropriation, capture,
I

classed, classified

seizure; spoliation, confiscation

CAijt boblln poplin


*>Li

mubh permitted,

allowed, permis-

lujj (Fr. bobine) bobina spool, Cjjj bvwa aee ~u


UlJ^j, ifljjj (It.
iiJjj

reel

sible; legal, lawful, licit, legitimate;

open
free;

to

everyone,
(Ial,

permitted

for

all,

ownerless

Law)

indifferent

(said

potoMa)

frtad, fct*

potash

of actions for which neither reward nor

btaqa (usually

pronounced bautaqa)
pot
{

punishment
are

is

to be expected, but whioh


pl.

crucible,

melting

jUjll

UJ^j

permissible,

c>U-L*

indifferent,

(zamn) in the melting pot of time


*njt (Fr. bougie) bviih pl. -t spark plug

permissible actions,
(rji)
j-L

Ist.

Law)
let

bka u to abate, subaide,


(fire);

up,

decrease; to die, go out

to fade,
II

bleach; to spoil, rot


(.jj)

(e.g.,

meat)

to

j-L

6Aa u (&auA) to become known,

Bpoil (* B.th.)

be revealed, be divulged, leak out (secret)


\j)

buwk evaporation, exhalation,

to reveal, disclose, divulge (* or _ s.th.,

vapor, steam
fij^j tabwik:

a secret; Jl and J to
reveal (* or
<_j

s.o.)

IV to

diaclose,

s.th.,

J to
to

s.o.);

to release,

h&}\

y?

t.

an-nukta the

abandon, make public property, declare


ownerless
leave (*
(*
s.th.)
;

spoiling of the point of a story

permit,

allow,

D
!>jUjj

Aj byik

spoiled, bad; vapid, in-

s.th.,

J to

s.o.);

to justify, War-

sipid, stale (also, e.g., of

a joke)

rant (a

s.th.)

to reveal {* s.th.); to

regard as publio property, as ownerless,


as fair

bkrest Bucharest

game; to deem permissible, lawful


hurt
(*ij*-

jSj* (Fr.

povdre) bdra powder


pl. 3\j>

(a s.th.); to

hurmatah

s.o. 's

honor); to take possession (* of), appropriate,


saize,

iiji

bdaqa

bawdiq* crucible, melt-

take as booty (* s.th.); to


s.th.)
|

ing pot
Ijjj

oonEscate (*

<*s r^J--' {da*


s.o.

bd Buddha
iSiji

mah) to proscribe, outlaw


r-ji

b4* Buddhistic; Buddhist

bauh divnlgence, disolosure

(of

a
5j

Beeret); confession

j^j

bdiya Buddhism

rjt buh wide, open Space; courtyard;


hall

(jjt) jL; bra


lie

(baur, j\jj bawr) to perish; to

fallow, be uncultivated (land); to be

>y.

82

futile,

unauccessful,

unprofitable,

lead

*jji

bza a beerlike beverage

to nothing (work); to be unsalable, be

dead stock (merchandise)


(bint)

cJJ\

Ojb
un-

*jb bz pl. jljjl a&u-dz, ji>j bizn falcon

the
let

girl

could not get a husband


(* land);

^yji ba bus
^-Ij

II

to

He fallow

to

make

profitable, useleas (* s.th.)

IT to destroy
|

\ lj'ji)

Mm u (baut) to kiss
kiss

(* s.o.)

jjt br uncultivated, fallow

j_jj

^j\

<*y bau&a, bsa


w

(ard), pl. jji j-iljl (arfltfm) fallow land,

wasteland
j\jt

j=-yj (It. bu&to) bust corset


k-jj, ii-^j (It. jxwta) &w$a, ftusio post, mail

bawr perdition, ruin

jljJl jIj
|

hell

jj^jJ\ al-buefr the Bosporus

J\i bair unoultivated, fallow (land)


((Art) o*^. ijlj>.

^*

(baui) to

be boisterous,

brni

(eg.)

a vegetable stew
in

shout, roar (crowd) II do.

jLjc-

jji br

said Fort Said (seaport

NE
1

Jiji baiii pl.

^bjl auMJ

(for

^j\\)

Egypt)
\j* jjt br sdn Fort Sudan (seaport in

mob, rabble U^>. &


i*jt
(coli.; n.

un.

I)

reed

NE

Sudan)
Puerto Rico
t

baa

pl. ntt

inch
silk fabrio

jSoj_jjj_jj burturik

a^jt

ba
(It.

pl. (j-^'^jl

ofr^ linen or

JUjjj^ burtugl Portugal


*-*j>,

*L*jt

buasola) bosla

compass

bwsa

pl. -t

stock ezchange

"Jyjt

bfa orucible, melting pot

jlji j^j

&r /u'&i Port

Fuad

(seaport in

NE

Hiji
1

bza a beerlike beverage

Egypt, opposite Port Said)


9ji b* metatorsal
9-^Jl

bone

{anal.)

|f>l

*-Jj*i

3jji baitraq borax Ljji burm


1

Burma

,y he wouldn't know bis knee from his elbow (proverbially, of a stupid person)

iJJM (Turk. boru) brl trumpet, bgle


tjrjjji bugler
6rj5
pl.

-iya

trumpeter,

f-U b* pl. f\jt\

abwa the span of the

out-

spread arms, fathom; in Eg. today


4ir"

<Jjji bri (pl* tsJji batcri) striped mullet

Jjjt mighty, powerful; oapable, able; knowledgeable;


|

mi'mriya

= 3m

9 Ul

(Mugil cephalus;
**ijj* (Fr.)
l

zool.)

generous,
helpless,

liberal;

s-UI

j~m*

powerlese,

impotent,

we&k,

incapable;
f U L

brlh puree

niggardly, atingy; s-UI jj* impotence,

}jt II to pout, sulk, look glum, sullen


jji bz pl. j\jt\ abioz muzzle, Bnout

weakness ;
pljltj

incapability

(je-

of ) ;

with might and main

I> jS tabwiza sullen mien


j^-.
%

fjt II to surprise

mvhavmiz

sullen,

glum

bga celluloid; tortoise shell

jjt bz, J^j bza ice cream

iic-jj

bgda and

<J>\s-y.

bgda potash, lye

83

J*
Jl^-I-I istibwdl:

j\ijt

bgz pl. j* \jt

batujfiz' strait(s)

harbor

f-dl

JI^JL-I f. od-

JJ^joJI J*j* the Dardanelles


*Jj* (Fr.
bttffet)

dam uremia
9

(med.)

bfih hoffet; bar; sideboard

JIj fl state,

condition; heart, mind; notice,


j

regard, attention
3j* II to blow the trumpet
table,

Jb ji

significant, no-

conaiderable,

important, serious,

3jt bq pl.

-dt,

3\jt\

ainvq trumpet

bgle; fanfare; harn (of an automobile, of

grave; JUI f\j farQ al-b. leisure; J_>. JUI anxious, uneasy, concemed, worried;

a gramophone) ; acoustic signaling


duplicity, treachery, betrayal
b.

JUI

Jjji long-suffering, patient; ...

*JIj l*

de vice; megaphone; mouthpiece, Bpokes-

(with verb)

man

3ji

why
you
is

...T

why is it that he (it) ...? illL U how about you? what do


^U- feal bluh hia

0_^JI

ap-paut or jjii^fl 3jt loudspeaker

t hinkt *IL

mind
mind;

(radio);

,y*j j>

(rahimi)

oviduct,

at rest, he haa

no worries;
it

<fL> ^k^- it

Fallopian tube (anat.)


\jj
Uli

occurred to him,
<J) Jl
*JLj

came to

bis

bawwq trumpeter, bugler


bga

(J*. f

Jll)

J*l

(a'f, alq, ja'ala)

to turn one's
flowers,

mind

to, give one's attento,

bndle;

bunch of

tion to,

pay attention

take into ac-

nosegay, bouquet

count, be mindful of, bear in mind, heed


s.th.;

VL>

jL

o'tgapl. $\jt baw'iq3 misfortune,


ftdZan

Jj jL

jl

fam yu&p

Z-?auft

he didn't pay any attention to


I said; VIj 4^. Jju

oalamity
Jli^j
btiql,

what
I^j bqla pl. Jj'jj

(yogtu) no

bawqH1
8

less significant

than

this

vesael without handles,

mug

J>j bl postage

stamp

jjjjLJ^j

boknford patrol wagon, paddy wag-

*Jl bl whale
5

(zooj.)

on, Black Maria


*Jb

look up alphabetically

JiKv-i^j (Engl.) boki&kf


1

box calf

D
(J^j)

*Vj* bld

(= iVy)

steel

JL

bla

(baul)

and V to make water,

urinate IV to be diuretic urinate


i}jt

to cause to

L^J^j

see <-i}ji

3"iji blej*
pl. JI^jI

diatriot

of Cairo

baul
J^JI

abwl urine
|

^jij

xlji blanda

Poland
(pl. -fin)

jjj|

marod al-b. as-aukharl diabetea


jxJjj ftJandi Polish;

Pole

J^j bauli uric, urinary, urinoua


*J>Jl the urinary passages;

^Jllll

*Jj^ u^'j^^l

jiji

bl polo
(It.

diseases ofthe kidney

and urinary bladder

Li^j

Polonia) blniy Poland

J^j
*Lj

--J (lasammum) uremia (med.)


biia:

djiji blnl Polish; Pole


al1
(

buminuria;

O V=-T O Hj** *^H

<-Lj

(Aintf/a)

(dawunj/a)

hem-

rJ_>j (Ft. police) blis police *jlj^fl ^}j* vice squad; jLi-l ,^-JjJI (?tn*t) criminal
|

aturia (med.)
police; <Jji~\ (j-J^Jl
ill^j

(<z r&*)

military po-

fuwu/a public lavatory

lice;

jj-Jl

,j-J>Jl

(irrt)

secret police;

j-t

mabwala

pl.

JjL*

wuj/un/ 2 urinal
;

jj^l

^rt'^i traffio police

a diuretic ;

mibwala Chamber pot

toilet,

V-Lh
story

*i'jJ rttwyo

bviiaiya detective

water doset

J*
*"<-Aji

84

and

*-Jj>

(Fr. police) blim, btifa

(~u)

oL* 6dto

(Ca-

mabtt)

to paas or

pl.

j^-Hj-!

fcatwJ/v 1

^r-J^H
policy

^>wdf a
|

spend the night; to stay overnight; to


become; to be (j in a Situation); with
foll.

certificate of insurance,
jj-Jjl 6.

<_Jjj

aJ-&&*

bill

of Iading

imperf. : to get into a Situation, get

to the point where; to continue to

do s.th.,
to s.th.

Lul_^ bli/iyd Bolivia


JJ_jj

go on or keep doing
II to

s.th., stick

b/ Bolivian

brood (by night; a about

s.th.); to

contrive, hatch (*

an

evil plan,

J against

Ol~JjJl b daal-baulin uremia


s.o.),

plot (J against s.o.); to put


(. s.o.)
|

up

for

Pji

bm

(coU.; n. un.

')

pl. ^IjjI

abwm owl

the night
to flunk,

J*~J\

j i

(faff; eg.)

fail

promotion (pupil) IV to put


( s.o.)

j^j

baun, &n interval, distance; difference


(coli.; n.

up

for the night


pl.

jL*

un.

ben tree (Moringa;

60*.) bot.)

C-u bait

Oj-j buyt, oUj-j buytt

horse-radish tree (Moringa oleifera;

house, buding; tent (of nomads); room;

Egyptian willow (Salix aegyptiaca L.


60.)

apartment,
oase,

flat;

(garden) bed;

family;

box, covering,

sheath;

pl.

oUj-j

large, respectable houses ; respectable

fam<i~u

tj'J^oAy. B^enoe Aires

iliee;

(pl.

c*LI abyt) verse

lj^\

Jjj (Engl.) bni pl. J\ji bawni

pony

b.

al-ibra (navigator's)

compass; ^Jl Jl

ahl ai-b. family, specif., the family of the


l bh coitus; sexual potenoy; sexuaty

Prophet; ^l^Jl Ji people from good,


respectable families;

W-r*_H (Eng'-) bhimiy Bohemia


Lf

ijLf

^\Jj?>

(tij*

riy) commercial houses; fl^J-l C-*Jl (ha*

~*ji bhtmi

Bohemian

(adj.

and

n.)

rm) the Kaaba;


i_j^V1
lall

^J-1 Cjj b. al-kala

and

*T~*ji

bhimiy
life

Bohemianism,

Bo-

C~u b.al-adab toilet, water closet;

hemian
*ijji

~u origin or seat of the disease;


(ri/J)

Jjj c-w

country house;

J-^JtlS

ba*na the tenth month of the Coptio

and
the

J.-^.Jt

c-u

(the essential, principal


i.e.)

year
*iji

verse of the kasida,


gist,

the quintessence;

(Turk. boya) bya paint; shoe polish


<Jt-X* iJf^iJi
f 6?*)

the essentials, the hit of s.th.; Stands out from the rest, the

s.th. that

^yV* houae

painter,

right thing ; J- c-u baitalahm 2 Bethlehem


ilil

painter; shoeahine, bootblack


i-j

cjJI the ruling house; JLLI


fisc,

^u

treae(lal.

bayya

= *Aj

look

np alphabeticaUy

ure house;

treasury, exchequer

Law); (Tun.) administration of vacant


*iu see *j)

Muslim

eetates

oL

biyda infantry (Eg.)

domestio, private, J~j baiti

home, of the

^jLj

otyti

infantryman, foot soldior

house, house-

(in

Compounds) ; domes-

ticated (animals);

homemade

jL, UL,

_jj'Lj

bjyn, biyna, biyn pl. oLLj


~ljt buwait pl. -t small house; small

ftiy<5iW
1

piano

tent
l

_-u 6i6 pipe, tube; feed pipe, spout (of a

reservoir or tank)
i-jj

oL> bayyi

pl.

-n and UL bayyta
(pl.

boarder (student);
&iba (Western) amoking pipe

-n)

pupil

of a

boarding achool

{tun.)

Oj-> bayyt stale, old


c-i-.

jjj bir Peru


(Fr. bureau) bir pl. -( office,

mab ovemight

stop,

overnight

jjy
Cjjjsj

bureau

stay; shelter for the night


cJ\j
^JaJi

bau stale, old; (eg.) not promoted, j (^off) in school


mubayy
plotter, schemer, intri-

bairP Beirut (capital of Xjebanon)


ijjju

bairii

pl. *3j\ji

bawrita,

iyU

Cj-.

bayrifa a native or inhabitant of Beirut

gant

^IjJjjy biruqrfi bureaucratic

UUwj
1

fti/m

and
i

Im

bxj&ma pajama

<^\Jjjo biruqrfiya bureauoracy; red


tape

{-u) jIj bda

to perish, die, paas away,

beoome eztinot IV to destroy, exterminate, eztirpate (*,


jl -u baida
(esp.,
* s.o.,

UUju

bizanfiy

Byzantium
Byzantine

s.th.)
(jl*j>j bizanft

anna although, whereas;


jaj 6i*5n bison
(,j^Lj) (j-ilj fc^a

introducing a sentence:) yet, how...

ever, but,
#I-U

though
to lay eggs (also *); to stay,
(<_*

bait*

pl. -L>

bid,

CjIjI-U

bat*
settle

down, be or become resident


|

at

dwt desert, steppe, wilderness


a place)
rjij iSd

^L
up

(tM*-/arrofca) to

jU ibda

annihilation, extermination,

be

bom and grow


white,

in

a place; to
(plague) II to

eradication, extirpation
jJL b'id passing, transitory, temporal; past,

establish itself

and spread
paint

make

white,

whitewasb,

bygone
muAicZ
deBtructive,

whiten (*
annihilative
|

s.th.);

to bleach, blanch (*
rice, etc.); to tin,

X-.
(pl. -t)

s.th., textiles,

Iaundry,

means of extermination

oi.1*

tinplate (* s.th.); to

make a

fair

oopy

(*

Sj^Jj- (Ao&wiytj) inseotioides


s

of s.th.)
s.o.

u^Li (wajhah) to make appear blameless, in a favorable


|

*4-j

*jLj look

up

alphabetically

light,

to whitewash,

exculpate,

vindi-

jXj baidar

pl.

j^Lj ftoyrftf' threshing floor


JJL)
pl.

cate, justify s.o., play s.o. up,

make much
s.o.;

of s.o.; to honor

s.o.,

show honor to

Jxj

baidaq

(and

JjLj

ftoydtj*

*4*tj *>' tj*^,

ma y God make him


V
this doesn't

happyl

pawn

(in chess)

4iij*

&. ^jm

LfXj see

Ujb
bayyra

a favorable light
alphabetically
or

pass. of II;

ahow him in IX to be

become white
^jj baid
4-i-*
pl.

*D

jLrf

pl. -(

(paJ.)

irrigation

^j-j buy4 eggs


un.) pl. -t egg; testicle;
|

wheel; plantation
baida
(n.

Ijo, ;>j

(It. birra) btr,

bira beer

\jJ\ *!-*

helmet; main part, substance, essence


iLjJI 5-i-i b. ad-dik (the

fTio^na' oZ-6.

brewery

egg of a rooster
extraordinary

J_tj

bairaq

pl.

jjL bayrvf

flag,

banner,

i.e.)

an

impossible
**-)

or

Standard
jlo>j|u

thing ; oUI
bairaqdr color-bearer, Standard

b.

al-balad

a man held
<*-j

in high esteem in his


jLfJI
(6.

Community;

in-nahr)
6.

in

broad day light;


the hottest part

bearer
.Ju-Jl
5-i-i

a-fiaif

aJjJI

JU-

(Fr. Pyrin&es) jihl al-birinek

the

of the summer; f^UVl *-*^ the territory


or pale of Islam;
j-jJI

Pyrenees

<*ij j* vliJJl

; ;

<J*?.

jUjJl i--j

(6.

id-din, b. il-wafan) defense

a night spent awake;


natural death; #L*-j

,_

r*ri^l Cj
(i/(u2)

^'

(mauf)

of the faith, of the country; jj\


b.

iju

Oj

beneficent

al-kidr a

woman
a

secluded from the


chaste,

hand, benefaction

outside

world,

respectable

^-- mabxd, mibya4 ovary


*-*^j tabyida fair copy

(<mw(.)

woman
^_) baidi,
ijyjt-i

baidawi and (jjLi-j

baidwi egg-shaped, oviform, oval, ovate


<^._.u

^'~*ri' ibytdd leukemia (med.)


6*K$
pl.

buyaida and *Jb_^ buwaida

,^-ijlj

pl.

u-j'^

ftaur'^

(egg-)

small egg, ovule;

ovum

laying

^Lj
wash;

bayd white, wbiteness; white-

u-acr* mubayyj,
fair

pl.

-n whitewasher;

(in

(pl. -()

hairen, desolate, un-

bleacher; tinner; copyist, transcriber (of

cultivated land, wasteland; gap, blank

copy)

space

a manuscript); blank; leucoma


pl.

'*-**

mubayyada

fair

copy

(med.);
linens;
~}\

linen,
(ayr.)

oL#Lj
butter,

linen

goods,
J*~>
|

baifara to practice veterinary science;

milk,

and eggs
al-

^Lj
,>*jl

to shoe {* a borse)

6-

ol-baid

white of egg,

bumen;

the eye;
(acc.)

^Lj 6. al-'ain the white of ^Lj b, an-nahr daylight, by day, during the daytime; ^Lj
jL,Jl

jLkj baifr
narian; farrier
<jj*z>

pl.

*^Lj bayfira

veteri-

baifari veterinary

ji^^JI
ts^d>.

<-JJl

*JJ i'_j-j **jj


lailihi
6.

bayda yaumihx wa-sawda

{#>&)

veterinary medicine;

vi^

by day and by night; o^l


a Nile

^Lj
J*
l

veterinarian
*J*z> baifara
(*~>)
9-\j

al-wajh fine character, good reputation

^Lj ^Lj
or

veterinary science; farriery


__.
l-

Jir* jmajfc 6.

fish

(eg.);

blank, free from writing, printing


(J

b'a

i (bat',

mabi') to

seil (*

marks, uninscribed; (jAjjI or)


(labisa, iriad)
pl.

-J

s.th.,

or J to

s.o.,
(

for a price) III to


s.o.);

^LJl

to dressin white
fcuyutf, bid (egg-)

u"j* bayd
laying
,j-i^l
6t<J
2
,

^
LL

make a homage
giance
(

contract
(

with

to pay

to

s.o.);

to acknowledge as
(

sovereign or leader
to)

s.o.),

pledge

alle-

IV to

offer for sale (* s.th.)


sale, con-

abyad

f.

baid'*,

pl.

lJ

-i=j

VI to agree on the terms of a

white; bright; clean, shiny, polished;


noble,
sincere

clude a bargain VII to be sold, be for sale


VIII to buy, purchaae (&> * s.th. from
s.o.

blameleas,

(character)
pl.

empty, blank (sheet of paper);

oLi~JI
**?>)

and
Vj

from

s.o.

s.th.)

*!. 9-LjI

al-btdn the white race; ,jj*^' white of


egg,

(abt'u, abl'uh) I don't trust

^ him

alhumen

Li~>

^jl

(ard) harren,
"*jjj
_j

uncultivated land, waateland; Li-*


(taura)

bai' pl. f-j-j


|

buy', C/ie-j^ buy't

peaceful,
l^A-'l

bloodless

revolution

sale

*-Ji

for Bale; *i^*-

(oL^

or) 5-jj
sale

a^-i^ jVI (J
^^-iVl

(haif) first

light of

dawn;
^tA-JL

(jabrlya)

forced

sales,
_j

compulsory

<^MJi\

(dahab)
steel;

platinum;

by auction;
Law);

*i-l

(jumla) wholesale

with cold

Lj
is

ci-rf* (sohl*

sale; jU-'lj *?> (Jciyr) optional sale (Isl.


i_-iij

fatuk) his reputation

good; he has

j*^

*~j

(li-kiri rgtbin) sale

noble deeds to his credit, he has a noble


character; UL> <Ja^ (suhuf) noble, glorious deeds; ULj ji5~l
lie,

to the highcst bidder; i-JI j b.al-'ina


credit Operation (Isl.
*_j

Law)
arrangement
transaction,

(ukdba) white

bai'a
deal,

agree ment,

fih;

Lkj UJ

(iatla)

a sleepless night,

husiness

commercial

bargain; eale; purchase;


into the bargain
f

homage

<*_JI

J*

evident (a

s.th.);

to announoe (a s.th.);

to atate (a a.th.); to ahow, demonstrate


(a a.th.); to explain, (a s.th.),

bayy' ealesman, merchant, dealer,

expound, eluoidate

commission agent, middleman


j

throw
(

light (a on) III to part,

go away

from), leave
(*,

s.o.);

to differ,

maM'

sale,

pl. -l

Bales

(esp.

on

be different
(a);

from), be unlike s.th.


s.th.),

the stock market)

to contradict (a

be contrary

UjL>

mubya'a

pl. -(

conclusion of

(a

to);

to confliot, be at variance, be

contract; homage; pledge of allegiance;

inconaistent (a with s.th.) IV to explain,

transaction
f-Ljjl ibtiy*
mj\j

expound, elucidate (J a
purchase
i*L
b'a
seller,

s.th.

to s.o.);

to separate,

aift,

distinguish (j* a a.th.

from); to be clear, piain, evident


b'i'
pl,

to be

vendor;

or

become

clear, intelligible (J to s.o.);

dealer,

merchant; salesman

to turn out, prove in the end, appear, be-

oLi b'i'a
,-* moftt'

aaleawoman

come evident; to
oxplained
(

follow (j* from),


;

be
dis-

j* by)

to

be

clearly

and

f-L*

mub' Bold

tinguished (j* from); to seek to ascertain


(a a.th.), try to get at the facta (a of);

f-Lw mufcf' buyer, purchaser


2

i*j

6l

to eye or examine criticaliy, scrutinize


pl.
-t,
jj

ftiya'

(CAr.)

church;
(a,

synagogue
iL be
{eg.) t big,
(title

s.o., s.th.);

to look, peer (a at);


s.th.
(a),

to

see

through

see

clearly,

bek

pl.

ol_^j b&gawt
cf. iiL

(syr.)

perceive,notice,discover,find out (a s.th.);


to distinguish
differ,

bey

of courtesy);

(j* a s.th. from)

VI to be

iijSLj
jl*j bikr

bekawya rank of bey


compass, {pair
of) dividers

be

different,

be

opposed,

contrary; to vary greatly, differ widely; to vary,


differ, fluctuate

(ju between two

^iLSlj Bee ^iL5


*SLi

amounts or

limita)

to be or

become
per-

clear, piain, evident; to Bee,

know,

(Fr.) blkek

piqu6 (fabric)
ball
|

ceive, notice (a s.th.); pass. ustubina to

'J-.

(Fr.

ftttfe) &(/

J-j

^^f

follow clearly, be clearly seen (j* from)


jfcurai 6.

ball

bearing
2

difference
*Lo ta/a see
J_jj

^j bain Separation, division; interval; ^r-Jl olj enmity, disunion,


|

discord;
(bot.)

^r-JI

in the

meantime, mean-

LL
sis

batbudn black eider

while

L-jlfL billiarsiy bilharziasia, Schistosomia(med.)

^j baina

(prep.)

or ^j
j

^'t

fi-m

b-

between; among, amidst

^o either
pj\ jlf

marble

or, partly

partly,

e.g., ,>j

*-Lj (Ft. fite) bilya pl. -i little ball,

LSnJL^j c~l

(pmitin wa-mutakalli*

Ii-j^j bimriatn hospital; lunatic asylum


l

min) the crowd was divided among thoae

who were
(Lfi\)

ailent

and those who talked;

<J^

bna

(Lj bayn)

to be or beout,

*iM ?. iyadaiki) in front of him, before

come
ij^iw

piain, evident,

come

come
(<>.>

to

him, in his presence; with him, on him,


in his possession, e.g., <jJj

light; to be clear (J to s.o.);

bain,

ju

^^

(si*

bainna)

to

part,

bo

separated

lha)
is

he hasn't got a weapon on him, he


jJJi j^t ^j

(j* from) II to

make

clear, piain, visible,

unarmed;

meanwhile,

in

the

meantime;

iS

J6 ^uj

J_j

Ipi

in

ijj

Jp

as has been provod;


;

^i J jlT

my

heart, at heart, inwardly; v^'-P

in hia

Jh arme; Ji j* min bainihim from


their midst; jv
J-j

to be fully aware of to be well-informed,


well-poeted, up-to-date about

among them, from

jul abyan* clearer, more distinot, more

something between, a cross, a mixture,


a combination ; neither good nor bad,

obvious

medium,

tolerable;

ju Ju

^i something

Lu

tibyn exposition, demonstration,

between, a cross, a mixture, a combination; j-^Tj C-Jj j^-j (waqt, kar), j^>
tSj*~\j

explanation, illustration
j-^jj

tabyin

and

i'Lt

ibna exposition,

*J*

{fatra,

ukr) at times, fxom

demonstration, explanation, illustration


j-Lj tabyun difference, unlikeneas, dis-

time to time

juL m-bain
Ljj

look up alphabetically

similarity, disparity

bain,

]u

bainam

(conj.)

while;

JjLj tabyuni different, differing, oonflicting

whereas
(jy

bayym

^lj
clear,

piain, evident,

b'in

clear,

piain,

evident,

obvious,

ob(di-

vious, patent;

2 (pl. LjjI afcytn' )

eloquent
vorce;
JjLJI

patent;
Isl.
b,

final,

irrevocable
|

Law); of great length


towering,
of

^U

bayn
,

pl. -i

cleamess, plainneas,
;

af-fl

unusual

patency

obviousness

Statement,

dec-

height (person)
o'lj b'ina bride's

laration,

announcement; manifestation
iij.
j-^t

dowry

explanation, elucidation, illustration ; In-

formation, newe ;
ficial)
list ;

(official)

report,

(of-

mabyna
mubin

distance
piain,

statement;

enumeration,
the

index,
;

clear,
|

evident, ob-

eloquence

LJt
j

Koran

aee

vious, patent
j-Li*

^1\

t^bijl

the

Koran
dif-

also alphabetically
(journ.); LJl

JLiA.1

Lj correction

mutabyin dissimilar, unlike,


vaxying

je- ^i-

(ganiy) Belf-explana-

ferential, differing,
2

tory,

aelf-evident;

jLJI
*

1*

al-b.

rhetoric; jLJI JJ*

ff al-b. explicative

Lj, oLj look up alphabetically

apposition (gram.)

t^l see
JLj bayni explanatory, illustrative;
rhetorical

^LSj

y^u
pl. -t

see ji*

Cm bayyina

clear proof,
(Isl.

indis-

4-j

bih

= iL
(Engl.) biyrih puree
(Fr. pyorrhle) biyrSh

putable evidence ;

evidence

Law)
|

a document serving as evidence


iJjt
(?rfiya)

Cm
3

ojjj
4jj_j-j

ciroumstantial evidence;

pyorrhea (med.)

Cj abbreviation of ^Jj telephone to (particle introducing oaths)

Ij i*

name
fd&t

of the letter Cj
pl.

by,

Jji\S

O^jIj

CjjIjJ

tawbit 2

box,

case,
|

ta-hi

by Godt

ehest, ooffer; oasket, coffin, sarcophagus

89

-i^Jl

OjjlJ
ij

t.

al-'ahd ark of the covenant;


(.

jZ

tibr

raw metal; gold

duet,

gold

Lll

OjjU

ra/'

aX-miydh Archime-

nuggets; ore
jUj tabr ruin, destruction
j

dean screw; v'H

&jfi

'

as-sqiya

Bcoop wheel, Persian wheel

tibriya dandruff

Sj-j tbiyk tapioca

jj3
tltl

tabriz*

Tabriz (city in

NW Iran, capital

to'ta'a

to stammer (with fright)

of Azerbaijan province)

^
^t
2

aee gjS
jIj

tabi'a

a (taba, ItAj
(> s.o.,

tab'a) to follow, suc-

ceed

* s.th.),

come
(*,
);

after s.o. or

ojj see

s.th. (*, );
(froaro) to stare (* or Jl

to trau, track
or s.th.
(*,

s.o., s.th.),

IV j^Jl jtM
s.o.)

at

go after hind

s.o.

to walk be-

b.o. ();

to pursue (* B.th.); to keep,


B.th.),

adhere, stick (* to
jlj

observe (*

a.th.)

see
(za

j_jl

to follow, take (* a road), enter


(* jlL) fresh, tender,

upon

a road or course); to comply (* with


to belong, pertain (* to); to be
(

jlj

(=

new

s.th.);

iiU tha fem. of the


iili

demonstrative pronoun
tnxha, genit.,

subordinate, be attached

to

b.o.),

be

rfto (dual

nom. ii!

under
under

s.o.'b ()
s.o.
()

authority or
^jj-JI
|

command, be

^J {dursa) to
III to follow (*,

acc. tiUw tainika)

attend classes regularly


^Tjj,

fjl

tau'am,

f.

pl. r\j>

tow'tm*

s.o., s.th.;

also
e.g.,
(

= to
with

keep one's mind

twin
Ja* Uli

or eyes on,

on a development); to
s.o.,

agree, concur

at-tmlz tbe

Thames
tea
j*-\
|

J*

in s.th.),
(*,

be in agreement or conformity

Jp

jlj ty (fun. t

afgr.)

jU

black tea

with); to pursue, chase, follow


m s.th.); to

up

( b.o.,

continuo (* s.th.; j^sairah


(*

j^jjU ty&r

and

^U

tySr (Fr. tailleur) pl. -f


suit, tailleur

on one' way), go on
rank, etc.); to place

with or

in)

ladies'

taored
*

IV to cause to Bucceed or follow


(* s.o.)

(in time,
s.o.'b

under

t_J

toMa

(tabb,

^- taai,

_jLj tabb)

to

()
(
t

authority or command, subordinate


to
b.o. s.o.,

periah, be destroyed
stabilized,

to stabilize, be

* > to s.th. s.th.)


fig.
:

to

be or becomo atable; to be

follow (* B.th., esp.

a topic, a devel-

settled, established, well-ordered, regulr,

opment,

the

news,

etc.,

= to
(*,

watch,

normal; to progress well

j-VI

*J

_--!

study); to pursue,
s.th.)
;

trail,
;

track

s.o.,

eveiytbing went well with bim


*J

to trace (* B.th.)

to be subordinate
(

Uj tabban lahf

may

evil befall

bim!

(*,

to),

be attached
succession,

to

b.o.)

VI to

may

he perish

follow
I

in

be successive or

consecutive,
<_jLiIJ
istitbb

come

or

happen successively;

normalcy,
stability ;

regularity,

to form an uninterrupted sequence VIII to


follow,

orderliness,

order ;

favorable

succeed
);

oourae or development
C-dl at'tibt Tibet

after (*,

to

or followed
( s.o.),

( s.o., * s.th.), come make (* B.th.) be succeeded (l^ by s.th. eise); to proBecute (

take legal action


obey, heed,

against); to

jy tabara
s.th.)

(tabr)

to destroy, annihilate (*

follow,

obBerve,

bear

in

mind

(*

s.th.);

to pursue (* s.th.); to

c?
examine,
investigate,

study

(*

.th.);

mSJ tatabbu' foUowing (esp.

flg.,

of an
see

pass. uttubi'a to

have or find followers,


s.th., e.g., for

argument,

of

development,

adherents ( Je for
*-x
right *Jl

an idea)

above); pursuit; prosecution; succession,


course 4J4*
{

i-l~- *Jl (siyiuatan)

to pursue a polioy;

jj\d\

^-I=Jt

the course of history;


pros-

(yamtnoA) to keep (to the)


(* s.o.)

iit\jLJ3

('adlxya) legal aotion,

X to make

follow, ask ( s.o.)

ecution

to follow; to seduce
its

( s.o.);

to have as

consequence,
to

engender,

>&
entail
o.a.,

tatbu succession; relay (ailet.);

(*

s.th.);

subordinate

to

make

i Ld U

consecutively ,

Buocessively ,

in

Buccesaion; seriaUy, in serialized

form

subservient to
*-j

o.s. (* a.th.)

taba'

auccesaion; Bubordinateness,

f LJl a

ittib*

following; pursuit (e.g., of


(to),

dependency; following, followers; subordinate, Bubservient (J to a.th.);


successively, consecutively;
<uiiU

policy) ;

adherenoe

compliance

(with), observance (of); J UL-jl ittiba'an


li

J LJ

taba* an

according to, in accordance or confonn-

according

to,

in

accordance

with,
to, in

ity with,

pursuant

to, in

observance of

purauant to, in observance of; due

consequence
(pl.
f-Lj!

of,

as

the result of;

O l/V O
*=*V"'

ittib'i olassical

alba)

follower,

companion,
national,

baiya

classicism
fol-

adherent,

partisan ;

sub ject,

-jU tbi* pl. *J taba'a, flJ tvbba

Citizen; appertaining, appurtenant, per-

lowing, succeeding, subaequent; subsidiary, dependent; minor, secondary; sub-

tinent, incident

yJ
i

iaba'%

ijj

"<*y*-

uquba)

in-

ordinate (J to

s.o.),

under

s.o.

(J); be-

cidental punishment (;r.)

longing (J to); subject to

s.o.'s (J)

au-

thority or competence; adherent (J to),

4aJ tabi'a
sibility,

pl. -t

consequence; respon|

following (J s.o. or s.th.);


alba
1

(pl.

ftjl

responsihleness
s.o.

Je

l*-di Jll (alq)

adherent, follower, partisan; eub-

to

make

or s.th. responsible
r

ject, Citizen, national; subordinate, serv-

f LJ tib following attached, attending, adjunct; (pl. JlJ ta*


pl.

jJ tob?
r%
)

ant;

faototum;

(pl.

*j)y)

appositive

(gram.) ;

appendix,

addendum, Supple|

b'i

follower, adherent, partisan; aide,

ment;

function [math.)

<*jUI

JjjJI

help, assistant, attendant, servant


1jJ

{duwal) the satellite countries


**jU
tbi'a
pl.
-jijj

taba'iya

pl.

-t

Subordination,

tawabi'*

female

subjection; subordinateness, dependenoy;


citizenship,

attendant,

woman

servant; a female de-

nationality ;

l^i U

subse-

mon who accompanies women;


result; encies,
{pol.},

appurte-

quently, afterwards; oonsequently, hence,


therefore, accordingly

nance, dependency; consequence, effect,


responsibility;
pl.

*j}y

depend-

ULJ by one
i*jL.

tib'an in succeBsion, successively,

dependent

territories;

O satellites

consecutively, one after the other, one

^1>JI JjJl {duwal) the satellite

countries

mutba'a following, pursuing, purcontinuation


intensification
its

4-juU tbi'iya nationality, citizenship

suit, prosecution;

f LjI itba repeating a

{gram.)

by
con-

by)

fj~* matbu foUowed, succeeded (<_> one to whom service or obedience is


;

word with

initial

rendered, a leader, a principal (as distal-

sonant changed, such as katir

ba\\r

guished from aU subordinate)

91

il=u muiaibi* auocessive, oonsecutive

jtf tajara

u and Till
(

to trade,

do

business;
(

^ju muttaba' observed, adhered


complied with
(e.g.,

to,

to deal
s.o.)

or

in s.th.) III do.

with

regulation, custom);

followed, traveled (road, course)

jlf Hjra

commerce;

traffio,

trade;

merohandise

*J

ttbg pl.

9jS tvbQ tobacco


tfjtf
tijri

oommercial,

meroantilo,

Jj

tabala i to oonsume, waste,


(.

make

siok

trade, trading, business (used attributively);

s.o.;

said of love)

II,

III

and JjjJ

oommeroialized

jjL*:' c-u

(6a)

taubala to spiee, season (* s.th.)


JjL" tbai,

commeroial house, business house; ^i-I


cori-

tb

pl. JiljJ

tawbiP

4jjUJI (Aarofa) trade,


(Sirka)
(ittifq)

traffio; jjtf
;

Sf^i
JLL'I

ander

(bot.); spiee,

condiment, aeasoning
leb.)

trading

Company

^jU"

trade agreement
pl.

*JjJ tabbfa (ayr.,

a kind of salad
jc matjar

made
lemon

of bulgur, parsley, mint, onion,


juice, apices,

^U

moAS/tr* business,

and

oil

transaction, dealing; merohandise; Btore,

shop J>~- matbl


(love-)sick,

weak, ravaged,
tj*i*

consumed
J-i* muia&ooZspicedjBeasoned^avored;
{ayr.,

matjari commeroial, trade, trad-

ing, business (used attributively)

b.)

stuffed

with a mixture of
spices,

j\jc\ ittijr

trade, business

(<->

in s.th.)

rice,
e.g.,

chopped meat and various

_^- tjir pl. jU: tujjr, tijr merohant,


trader, businessman, dealer, tradesman
iUi-l
jij-l;
f.
|

Ji.

OL: iL

(b4injn)

stuffed

eggplant
jlJ (Fr. tableau) tablOh pl. -&t a painting

al-jumJa wholesale dealer;


at-tajn'a

jjpdl j.\j

t.

and ^ILiJl _^-

(.

oZ-gt^Ti retailer

^u

tibn

straw
tibni straw<colored, flaxen

_^-U 4*L*>

Mf&Ta &2;ira Balable, market-

JJ

able merohandise

oLt tabbn straw vendor


UJI ^jj^ darb at-tabbna the Milky

tujba (prep.) in front of, opposite, face to face with, facing

Way
^z* matban
Btack
iT^-w tabiyk
J

il^ tahta (prep.) nnder; below,


pl.

beneath,

^b.

matbin* straw-

underneath
probation;
j%*j*=N <L^-

^dl

-*

(tajriba)

on
i^

in

an ezperimental

State;

in preparation;

JiiJ-l

tapioca
(At/z) in oustody,

under guard; jliJI i^


c-*=

>l

<rf-tatar

and jHI

(rf-ta#r
;

the Tatars

(mdd),

OjJ_I)I

due,
(com.)
;

outstanding,
j-^LJI

unsettled,

unpaid

^ Ju
fl

totori

Tatarian Tatar
_r"j)

c^
in

under

arms;

^ef c-^

(Azm'tAim)

if-rj

talr (from

one after the other,

their hearing, for them to hear ; *iJ^J}\

^J.

successively, in succeBsion
ii-UJ (t'jfc

(taswiya) outstanding, unpaid, unsettled


(com.);

J\ji\

^J

(itrfi)

under the
of;

trigger

patronage or superintendence
j jaAJI
rufihi)

c^
r )

Ju

tulun tobacco

suboonscious ;

*j-*J

c^

(ta$ar*

at bis disposal; JJl z~* (fab

in

,^>J3 teians tetanus (mJ.)

press;

[y#

cJi-

(unwni) under the

title

Q2

of;

LJLfrl

* (a'ywnin) before our eyes;


in

takm, tukm

pl.

fj

tuhm bound-

^j^\.cJtJj

traming;

oJI

c^
tahti

(yad)

ary, border, borderline, limit


ji-\t

in hand, at hand, avaable, in


hifl

handy; * from

mutkim neighboring, adjacent


tadruja pheasant

power;

c*- ,>

min

linder,

from beneath; under


tahiu
(adv.)

r-j^j iadruj*, **-j4j

cJ-

below,

beneath,

j*X)

tadmur 1 , usually pronounced tudmur*


city of Syria,

underneath

Palmyra (ancient
(in

now a

JU^
pounds)
J*.

tahtni lower, under|

Com-

small village)
iSj*

<J^ lH^

underwear
# s.o.

tadmuri,
j

usually

pronounced

IT to preaent (^
'*}J-

or #

with

s.th.)

tudmuri anyone

j^-tf V nobody, not

a living bouI
luhfa pl. i_4* fuAa/ gift, preaent;
(fig.),

gern

curiosity,

rarity,

article
|

of

j\J
\*j*-\j

{eg.\ tarbtza) pl. -t

table

virtu, objet d'art;

work of art

Ji *i-

fjannlya) unique
Jt!*

work of art
jil.

trkm trachoma (med.)


terrasse) ters terrace

mathaf

J*-U*

maiahif1 mu-

^J (Fr.
f'/

seum

m^JI ijt^i* m. ai-Sam* waxworks

iS^J

tr&m, tramwy

tramway

f
1

takka

to become sour, ferment (dough)


<>J tariba a to be or
pl.

become dusty, covered

j takt

Ojic

tulft

bed, couch; benoh;

with dust

II

and IT to cover with dust


* s.th.) III to be s.o.'b

Beat; sofa; ehest, oase, box, coffer, cabinet;

or earth (
()

s.o.,

wardrobe; platform, dais; band,


j

mate or comrade, be of the same age


as
s.o.)

orohestra
royal

ilUI

cJ*

t.

al-mulk throne;
SXJLl

to be dusty, be oovered with

residence,

capital;

cJe

(.

dust
<~>j tirb pl. <-*lyl atrb person of the

al-mamlaka capital (of a oountry)


ljj cJc, o\jjJ taktaruwn, taktara*

wn mule-borae
cit

litter

same age, contemporary, mate, companion, comrade


<>J tarib dusty, dust-covered

biMa board; deak; blaokboard


to rot, deoay

aiJ tnrba
iric tafctafca
1

pl.^ w_r

turab dust;

earth,

dirt;

ground

(also fig.); soil; grave,

tomb;

Je tajcima a to Buffer

from

Indigestion, feel

graveyard, cemetery, burial ground

siok from overeating IT to surfeit, satiate


( s.o.);

ijj turabi
<~*\j

pl.

-iya (eg.) gravedigger

to give
a.o.);

( s.o.)

indigestion,

make

turb pl. *ij\ atriba, \*J tirbn

siok

to overstuff, cloy (* the

stomaoh)

TIB

duat, earth, dirt ; ground, soil

*Je tttffama, tuhna


indigestion, dyspepsia
/_>*

J>\J turbi duaty; dustlike, powdery;


pl.

J txtkam, -t

earthlike, earthy; dust-colored, gray

matjpm Buffering from indigestion,

**\J turba

cement
thorax
desti-

dyspeptio
1

1*jjT tariba pl. t-Jl,/ tar'ib* ehest,

J iafcama i to fix the limits of (*), delimit,


limit,

hj+ matraba

poverty, misery,

oonfine,

bound

(*

s.th.)

Ol

to

tution; (pl. -oU* matrib*) dirt quarry

border (* on), be adjacent (* to

s%th.)

i^J mtUrib dusty, dust-covered

93

AJ
^s*
motroa, mitras
pl. pl.

^J larbaaa
^\*J

(== ^-jjj) to bolt (*


iJ

a door)

^jU*

matris*

tirba pl.

mu\j

tarbia 2 ,

^-Aj

and ^1^* mitrs

tarbia2 bolt, latch (of a door or

window)

Lr>j\^> matria* bolt, door latch; rampart, bulwark, barricade;


esp. pl. Lrij\i* barricades

Cr^.J

tarbantln turpentine
<iL-y tarana, outf/" tarakna arsenal; ahip-

juj

(eg.)

tarabeza table

yard, dockyard

l/.ij turbin pl. -t turbine

J-*y (Fr.
3ja-j-* (It.

tricycle) tricycle

tt*\j

see <Zjjj
tirtir

terrazzino) tarasina

baloony
fll

jj
frJ

gold and silver spangles

(eg.)

fj

tari'a

a to be or become

(vessel)

IV to
tarjama to translate
(* s.tb.

11 (a s.th., esp.

a vessel)
tura',
-dt
t,

je from

**/
feeder,

tur'a

pl.

one language

Jl to another); to Interpret
artificial

fj
|

canal;
<-trd
~**J

waterway
irrigation

i\j*^\

**j

(* s.th.); to treat (* of s.th.)

by way of

canal;

^JtJj^\
ic-jXJl

ezplanation, expound (* s.th.); to write a

drainage canal (Eg.);

ii^l

the

biograpby (J of
<*lj tarjama
lation;
LA-I

s.o., also )

Kesidence of the Sultan of Morocco

pl.

2 j~\J tarjim trans-

Interpretation;

biography

(also

J*v,

AU/
tarifa

turgul, turgua turtledove

a*;J); introduction, preface, fore(of

tjy

a to live in opulence, in lurury


( s.o.);

word

a book) S.i.^JI
|

*jh J)\

(aab'inlya)

IV to effeminate
opulent

to provide with

the Septuagint
l*;

means,

Surround with luzury

turjumn

pl.

***\J

tarjima,

(. s.o.)

**-\j tarjim 2 tranelator, Interpreter

Jt j

taraf

and

*ij

turfa

luxury,

frJ* mutarjim
biographer

translator, interpreter;

opulence, affluence; effemination

J>j
rious
j

tarif

opulent, sumptuous, luxu-

frJ* mutarjam translated


LUI {film)

J* frJ^*

synchronized (film)

Jy* mutraf living in ease and luzury;


sumptuous, luxurious; luxuriously adorned, ornate, overdecorated
(<-

rj

tariha a (tarah)
II

and V to

grieve, be sad
(* s.o.)

and IV

to grieve, distress
pl.

with)

rj

tarah

~\J\ atrk grief, distress,

^-Uy
Jiy

tirfa (magr.) truffle (bot.)

Badness

tarfala to strut

j jj

tarzl pl.

*jjj iarziya

(eg.) tailor

tarquwa

pl.

Jly

tarqin

collarbone,

<ijj iarziya tailoring


l

clavicle (anat.)
!

W^J

^odk up alphabetically
II to

iiy taraka

(tark)

to let be, leave, renquish,


s.th.);

renounce, give up, forswear (*


t(Jj

to

provide with a ehield or armor


iura pl. ^IjTl

desist,

refrain,

abstain

(*

from

s.th.);

tfj

atra,

shield; disk of the sun;

^yjj tura
tira pl.

to leave, quit
out,

{* s.o.,

* a place); to leave

tura
at-t.

omit,

drop,

neglect,

pass

over,

cogwheel, gear

j\ 3jX~*> aundq

skip (m s.th.); to leave (J or Jl * s.th. to);


to leave behind, leave, bequeath,

gearbox, transmiasion ; ^yil dlf aamak


at-tura turbot (zool.)

make
j

over (*

s.th.,

J to

s.o.;

as a legacy)

4;
J*i
(/i

94

&j

to let s.o.

do

s.th.; Jl

IjK* iiy

tarika a to concern o.a. with trifles

to leave one place for (another) ; u i

*f/

*y
farce;

turraha
lie,

pl.

-t

sham, mockery,

dimma(tAt) to leave

s.th. in s.o.'s care,

humbug, hoaz

leave s.th. to s.o.; *JU. Jp


s.th.

*Sj

to leave
or

or s.o. unchanged, leave s.th.

alj/ (Fr. Troade) tirwda Troy


<->jS (Engl, troop) squad, platoon
Lfj'j-*
;

s.o.

alono; *jtij
s.o.

*Sj

(wa-sa'nah) to

leave

alone, leave s.o. to his


( s.o.);

own

squadron

devices III to leave


{ s.o.);

to leave alone
(

*-?JJ

iawrl)

cavalry

squadron

to leave off hostilities

against

s.o.)

jkij-j/

= ^L *y
[

see

under ^~J abovo

i\J tark Omission, neglect; relinquish-

jLy* tiryq theriaca; antidote


_>/ (Fr.) tricot

ment, abandonment; leaving, leaving be-

hind
5*jT

tarika pl. -t (also Urica) heritage,


i*_J (w'o
(f.

*-J

tfw

nine
f.

legacy, bequest
jts.

UJ

tis'ata 'a&ara,

iS/
spinster

tarika pl. <*&\j> tar'ik2 old maid,

_,

*J

'aSrata nineteen

*-J (im* pl.

9-1

Ji

ate'

one ninth, the

5jU mutraka truce


t\jj* matrk pl. -t heritage, legacy

ninth part
j_>*_j

(w'n ninety

X to *J become a Turk, become Turkified, adopt


II to Turkify, Turkicize ( s.o.)

^>UI a(-(' the ninth


JjVl

Turkish manners and customs


iJjjl

J/^
i.

trin 1 al-awwal October,

{j

(JU)I

aj-fnt

November

(Syr., Jr.,

Le&.,

at-turk

and i\\j^\

al-atrk the

Jord.)

Turks

SJ

turki Turkish;

Turk; ISJA

LS'jJL-jS^ tfoko&lovkiy Czechoslovakia


at-tur*
JJL;" til Chile

klya theTurkish language

\Sj

turkiy Turkey

ljU ftftwn2 Tetuan


*j

(city in

N Morocco)

viL jo tatrxk Turkification

abbreviation of JLw, see


ta'i&a

^U
toil,

ls-SV turkistn 2 Turkistan


L5j3l at-turkumn the Turkmen
\t
-

^jJ

((a'oi)

to

work hard,
s.th.)
;

slave,

drudge, wear
tired,

o.a.

out; to be or become

weary (j* of
{

IV to trouble,
irk,

r:

-J turumbfy

(syr.) pl. -t

(Western) drum;
do.; specif.,

inconvenience

s.o.)

to

bother,

&~*j
bass

turumbefa

(eg.) pl. -t

weary,

tire,

fatigue

( s.o.)

drum
i_m ta'abpl.i-jUJl at'b trouble, exertion,

j.k-.y

turumbafgl
(mil.)
"

{eg.)

drummer

labor, toil, drudgery; brden, nuisance,

bandsman
,jj lurmus.

inconvenience,

discomfort,

difficulty,

turms lupine

(bot.)

hardship; tiredness, weariness, fatigue;


pl. <~>\j\ fees,

honorarium
tired,

j*j*J termmitr thermometer

i_-*J

ta'ib

and LJ ta'bn

weary,

turunj see ry'

j\

exhausted

;,

95

&
<J

t_-cli-

mat'ib 2 troubles, pains, efforts;

ta/o

and

*jjJ

tu/A

paltriness,

discomforts, inconveniences, difficulties,


troubles; complaints, ailments,
ille

triviality, insignificance

(at-

*>Uj

tafha paltriness,

triviality,

in-

tending
t-j!*

diflease)

hardships, strains

significance; flatness, vapidity, insipidity,

mvt'ib troublesome, inconvenient,


laborioua ;
;

tastelessness
*Ju

inanity, stupidity, silliness


**U
&/iA
little,

tosome,

burdensome,

irk-

tafih

and

paltry,

some,

annoying

wearisome,

tiresome,

trivial,

trifling,

insignificant ; worthless;
flat,

tiring; tedioua, dull, boring


t^-jd.

commonplace, common, mediocre;


tasteless, vapid, insipid; trite, banal
i^jlj
(

mut'ab tired, weary


to stammer; to shake
s.o.);

ij

ta'ta'a
i*j1

tfiha pl.

**ljj
trifle

fawil/iA*

worthless

itta'iaa to

move,

stir

thing; triviality,
jjliJ see j_j

j*J ta'izz*

Taizz (city in S

Yemen,

seat of

govemment)

3-U7 see

Li

^m

taaaa

a,

ia'isa

a to

fall,

perish; to
ta'asa

IV to

perfect, bring to perfection (* s.th.)

become wretched, miserable;

and

to master,
language),

know
s.th.)

well

{* s.th.,

e.g.,

IV to make unhappy or miserable, ruin


(. s.o.)

be proficient,

skillful,

well-

versed (* in
ta'a

^m
misery

and i-L

ta'sa wretchedness,

jJ tiqn skillful, adroit


ijLU

taqna

firmness,

solidity;

per-

^m
3

la'is

and
(

rjjJ

ia'la

pl.

l_*J

fection
jSjI alqan*

tu'as* wretched, miserable, unfortunate,

unhappy
LjI
yj-j^-*

more perfect, more thorough


perfection
precision;
;

itqn

mat's

pl. (j-i^li*

mat'is* wretch-

thoroughness,
skill,

ed, miserable, unfortunate, tJ tajfa to spit


tJu
dll

unhappy

exactitude,

thorough

proficiency; mastery,
II

command

(e.g.,
|

of

to say

"phew"
fingernails;

a special

field,

of a language)

U-

tuff

dirt

under the
fie

UT^/I to greatest perfection; of excellent

Uj tuffan laka phew!

on you!

workmanship

O *lij

tafffa spittoon, cuspidor

jij mutqan
Jj
taq
i

perfect; exact, precise

Ilj tafett, *liiJ

taffeta

to fear (esp. God) VIII see


pl.

Jj

*-LiJ

tujfh (coli.; n. un.


<lXi

apple(s)

JJ taqiy

Uul atqiy* 1 God-fearing,

godly, devout, pious


~&J tufka pl.

tufak

(ir.)

gun,

rifle

Jjl atq

more pious and ,^y taqw godliness

tajala

(ta) to spit

Jj
Jij
Jjj"
tufi

(u^oti

and JUJ

tu/Z spit, spittle, saliva

devoutness, piety
1
l

ta/i/

ill-smelling,

malodorous

iJj

tahka u to trample down, trample underfoot, crush (* s.th.); to intoxicate ( 0.0.;

iliu mitfala spittoon, cuspidor

wine)

ta/iAa o (tafak, *>LiJ tafha,

*y tufh) to
2

be

little,

paltry, insignificant; to be flat,

ij tikka

pl.

ilio

(tjfcafc

waistband

(in

the

tasteless, vapid, insipid

upper seam of the trousers)

dl-

"il

takka to tick (dock)


5SJ (iiia pl. -dt ticking, ticktock (of a

spoiled,

be ruined, break, get broken,


II

go to pieces
out, "finish"

to

min

(* s.th.); to

wear

clock), ticking noise


*'<SS

( s.o.)

IY to destroy, anmin, damage, spo,


{* s.th.)

nihilate (* s.th.); to

look

up

alphabetically

break

(* s.th.); to

waste

Oj5o
1

(ufci pl.

of Engl.
to

(tcJtei

iJJJ taiaf ruin, destruction; ruination,

damage, injury, hrm;


il=Sj

loss;

waste

taktaka

trample down, trample


lilj talfn spoiled; useless, worthless,

underfoot (*

s.th.)

good- for - nothing

*iHJ

taktaka to bubble,

simmer

(boiling
,JiLu

matlaf,

ii*

matlafa

pl.

.JiJU.

mass)

matlif deBert
B

J^J

tofctaia to tick (clock)

Ji^j
^jt

mitif wastrel; ruinous, harmful,

4&$o

taktaka ticking, ticktock (of a

injurious
itlf

clock), ticking noise


'iJli& taktik tactics

pl.

-t

annihilation,

de-

struction;
Jt} \j

damage, injury, hrm


ruined,

tlif

damaged, broken

<j takiya

pl.

L&J taky monastery


needy)
atU,
f.

(of a

spoiled,
tjijltt

bad
matlf and
._'[:,

Muslim order); hospice; home, asylum


(for the invalided or
1

mutlaf ruined,

damaged, broken;
j;
toll

spoiled,

bad
destroyer

pl.

J*

till,
|

Jtfl
JJ

Jjl:

tull
!_>!--

hill,

elevation

<_-*jJ

a6*6 Tel

Aviv
injurer;

mutlif

annihilator,

(city in

W Israel)
hardahipa, troubles, adversities

damaging,

ruinous,

harmful,

injurious, noxious
jiij talfaza

t^tull Jj^C

tulle

to televise, transmit by televiaion

toJdttf3

jiij talfaza televiaion


ijjiij

jjj talld,

jJI* fltd,

j^I (Zd inherited, time-

ie i I
I

t^'a

talfaziya

tele vision

honored, old (possession, property)


<^jSLJj tiliskb telescope

broadcast, telecast

O
(*

Jl-ij tilfz

televiaion set

Ju IV to Stretch one's neck; to crane neck)

the

jijiij (Fr. t^Wuwion)

Kvwyn

televiaion

^ilj taljana to telephone

iJj

tal'a

pl.
;

9~ti

t'

hill,

hillside,

UjLj tilifn

and O^LlJ

talifn pl. -dt

mountainside

(torrential)

stream
telephone
.Lit see JJ

*Jj talf long, outstretched, extended;

high, tall

ljiij

tiligrj,

taligrf

pl.
|

-t

telegraph;

Ji; tifia fem. of the demonstrative

pronoun

telegram, wire, cable

Jl l_/ilj J^jl to

send a wire to
jljilJ tiligrfi, taligrfi telegraphio

Jj talam pl.
J*L*

a^AjI

atlm (plow) furrow


as,
{*

talmafa to take on
pupil

or have
s.o.);

for,

JA)

talifa

(ialaj)

to be annihilated, be

or apprentice

to be or
(J of s.o.,

destroyed; to be or become damaged or

become a pupil or apprentice

also

J*),

receive

one's

schooling

or

jJU

taU, UUis

pl.

^-J^

totalis*

sack

training (J*, J from) II tatalmada to be or become a pupil or apprentice (J or


Oj

ji}iAj (Fr. (&wton) (Jfowy3n television

J* of

s.o.),

work
s.o.)

os

an apprentice

jjUJ

pl. -t tallfn

telephone

(J or ij

J* under
talmada

djjS talifni telephonic, telephonedays,


College
(in

IxJJ

sohool

Compounds)
t

years; apprenticeship; (time bf) probation

f tamma

to be or

become complete, combe performed,


s.o.); to

pleted, finished, done; to

jUj tmd leaming,

erudition

be aocomplished (J by

come to
be

JUi; tilmid pl. JL.^ talmid*, lX*-& tal*

an end, be or become terminated; to

mida

pupil, atudent, apprentice; proba|

come
off,

about,

be

brought

about,

tioner; trainee; disoiple

tfj* .LJj (bahri)

effected,

be achieved, come to pass, come

approx.: chief -Warrant


Eff-)l

W-3

(naval rank;
chief

happen, take place, be or become a

tSj** **s*^ (*/<""*)

ftpprox.:

faot; to be
itself;

on hand, be there, present

Warrant W-4 (naval rank; Eg.)


i-Jj tmlda
jl

pl. -t girl

student

continue (J* in); to IV to (J* s.th. or to do s.th.) II and complete, finish, wind up, conclude,
to persist

''

(tWnwn Tlemcen (city in

NW Algeria)

terminate

(*

B.th.);

to

make
fill

complete,
(* s.th.);

Supplement, round out,


SjJl lalmd

up

Talmud

to carry out, execute, perform, accomplish, achieve (* B.th.)

to be oomplete,

* taliha a (talah) to be astonished, amazed,


perplexed, at a loss

completed, finished
j-Lc*

tamm completeness, wholeness,

Jlj

tlih

and

*U*

mutaah at a
|

loss,

entirety, perfeotion; fll, whole, entire,

bewildered, perplexed

JUI

Jli

f.

al-'aql

complete, perfect; separate, independent;


L*Le

absent-minded, distracted
(^JJ)

tamman completely,
perfectly,
|

entirely, wholpreciely,

tal

(jjj (uZu;)

to follow, succeed;

ly,

fully,

quite ;

to ensue;

(*j*&

tilwa) to read,

read

exactly
fll

Afj-b

(badr)

and * le" jJ (qamar)

out loud
(*
s.th.)

(* B.th., J* to s.o.); to recite VI to follow one another, be

moon; oUl **UI


5J&I
fll

AS j

at 6 o'clock

sharp;
in

J A&
sense

(ma'n

hkalima)

successive
jjj

the

of the

word;

>-pL

entirely, completely

twa

(prep.)

after,

upon

J-yl <^~ tamima pl. fix" tam'im* amulet

^>bS" jjj Llifto send letter after letter


j^i

tilwa reading;

publio

reading;

* atarnm2 more complete, more perfect


I

recital, recitation

i* iatimma completion; aupplementasucceeding, subthen, later,


tion
;

Jlj

tlin

following,

Supplement
tatmim
completion;
perfection;

sequent, next; JUiL

bi-t-tli

j.:7

subsequently; consequently, honce, therefore, accordingly

consummation, execution,
alization, effectuation,
a\jc'\

fulfillment, re-

accomplishment
ter-

Jln. mutatlin successive, consecutive


tai (tun.) tulle
tilibtl

itmm completion; perfection;

mination, conclusion; consummation, ex-

J;

ecution, fulfillment, realization, effectuation,

jLJj

telepathy; telepathio

accomplishment

08

fl^l-1

istitmm

termination,

conclu-

xJ

(It.

tena) tanda
pl.

awning rooQng, sun roof


;

sion

jj tannr

j^U; tannir2
pit,

kind

of

tmm complete, perfect, entire; consummate of fll value, Sterling, genuine


jU
;

baking oven, a
for

usuajly clay-lined,

baking bread
(eyr., leb.) (lady')

i!Le"

tumbk Fersian tobacco

(esp. for

the

ljj tannra

skirt

narghile)

^JJ tenni
Ix'

tamtama to stammer, mumble, mutter; to


recite

iUj tanak tin plate

under one's breath


(coli.;

(<_j

s.th.)

j^&J
je"

tanakji tinsmith, whitesmith


pl. -( tin

tamr

n. un.

#,

pl. lamart,
|

jjt

tu

&j tanaka
pot; Jerry can
VIj'U
(finiJfca

mr) dates, esp. dried ones


(hindi) ta marin d (bot.)

Container, can,

<jx jt

^y
pl.

see

lilJ

alphabetically

{tg.

tamargi),

^jj*,

^rjU^',

jr^>
Ju tennis t>r
,>jj

-ya male nuree, hospital attendant;

"<*-jt pl. -t

female nurse

fannin tannin, tannic acid


to stammer, stutter
pl. J-

jji look up alphabetically

nf tahtaha
1

^L-x timsh
aJu

pl. ~-lc"

tamsih 2 crocodile
lks
J

<^

iuhma

tuham accusation, Charge;

tamga stamp; stamp mark waraq


t.

3jj

suspicion; insinuation

stamped paper
rice
Ir., Leb., Jord.)

KAf

tihma*

Tihama, coastal piain along

je tumman

the southwestern and

southem shores of

the Arabian Peninsula

jjx tammz* July (Syr. t


l

ij5

taxvwan right away, at once, immediately;


just (now), this

tunn tuna

(zool.)

very minute

_>dJ

li-t-

*jcJ tinnin pl. jwtJ taJinin* sea monter;

tawwi at once, right away, also with


Suffixes:
(I

pers.

Draco (adron.); waterapout


also alphabetically
*(jU

(metecr.); see

gjd

li-tawwi,

U^J

li-tairwih

have, she has) just...; at once, pres-

ently, immediately

Wnt'

pl. bJ

tunn' resident

C~\\y (Fr. toiiee) tuwl toilette


iiL tunbk (pronounced tumbk)

and
for

jl.i"

tumbak Fersian tobacco


narghile)

(esp.

the

JLo

tinbl pl. J-jLo tanoff* short, of small

matb) to repent, be penitent, do penance;

stature

with

je-:

to turn from

(sin),

be

converted
jCl
(Fr. tfmore)

from,

renounoe,

forawear

tambar

pl.

^J

tanotr*

s.th.;

(said

of God) to restore to His

Btamp
jCi*

(nw^r.)

grace,

forgive

(J*

s.o.)

*ul

Jl

*_jL"

to

mutambar stamped (magr.)


pl.

turn to

God

in repentance II to induce

to repentance or penitence,

make repent

J-U (Turk. tem&el) tambal


lazy

<LLo fcznd&tfa

( s.o.)

to

call

on

s.o. (*)

to repent

*jjj

tauba repentance, penitence, con-

jc-*Cj

{Fr. tungstene) tongdsten

tungsten

trition;

penance

J?
<->l_J

tawwb doing penance; repentant,


contrite;

J\jj

tawwq longing, yearning, eager


craving
(Jl s.th.)

penitent,

forgiving,

merciful

(Jl for),

(God)

Jj
v-JLj t'ib

t'iq longing,

yearning, eager (Jl

repentant, penitent, contrite

for),

craving

(Jl s.th.)

'^l*\tfy(tkaaTnmit/a;eg.)be]t buckle, (mtl.)

^j*jij>
l

tcbojjrfiy

topography
|

Jj

tl tulle

*l>y tut

mulberry tree; mulberry

^J oJ
jj
tun and
<J_J

(ardi) and ^fj' jj (/ro/) strawbeny; ir <^> (Ant) and j-LJI oJ


*.

tna tuna

(zool.)

ai-'u&ng raapberry

y
^yjji

(Turk. tun?) tunj bronze


tnus*, tnia* Tunis

oy tf the firat month of the Coptio calendar


tttyd,

IJJ

LSJ Kty', 1JJ ttiya zinc


(* s.o.; also fig.
_>

^JJ
Tunisian

fnt
(adj.

pl. -fin,

<-Jl_J

tatvnisa

pjj II to crown
with)

* s.th.

and

n.)

to be crowned

*J_J tniya pl. jl_J iauni alb of priests

and

g\5 tj pl.

JUwj

ff/dn
f.

crown; miter {of


al-'amvd capital

deacons (CAr.)
(_J)

a bishop)
{of a

j^JI -U

column or

U tAa u and II

(*J)

.U fAa

pilaster);

ij&\ g\5

and

II

t.

cd-

iura oalotte

*J tuAa daughter
little

_J

tuwaij

crown, Coronet

jJ\Z

(It. teoiro) tiyir

theater

j
jrj*

tatunj crowning, coronation

J^ tooi

pl.

J;lj Bee Jiu

ie0 ftn(i

^jrj*

tgland (Eg. spelling)

Togo
<>')
j\j

(region in
Bee

W Africa)
sometimes, at times
;jlJ(/oron),
|

^^bJ
(^>)

fitn? tetanus (med.)

c^

&
once;

^Ij

*Ao

to be destined, be forcor-

dained (by

fate,

by God; J to
s.o.)

s.o.);

to be

tratan

JjU

SjU, lj_U

granted, be given ( J to
foreordain (i J to
afford, offer (*

IV to destine,
to grant,

(ukr) sometimes

jy sometimes, at times

Ujl;

b.o. s.th.);

s.o. B.th.);

pass. utiha

at
"

other times

to

be

destined,

be

foreordained,
|

be

L>> taurh Torah, Pentateuch ; Old Testament

granted, be given { J to s.o.)


(utiha)

J-iyJI

J -Jl

he met with success, he was

^-ij*'

^.JjJ torpid, turbid torpedo (Bubmissile)


pl. -t

marine

J Jl (furpa) he was given the opportunity, he had the chance


successful; ~<*jib\

iJ> turbin

turbine
tart

jLj tayyr pl.


flood;
fall

-t flow,

stream, course, current,

*Jjj> torta pl. -t pie,

(of a stream);

movement, tend(el.)

enoy, trend; draft (of air);

(Jy) JlS <go (taug, jU_J tawaqn) to long,


yearn, wish (Jl for}, hanker (Jl after),
desire,

current
|

j-iU-

jLj (mub&ir)

and _r^_

jU
jLj

(mustamirr) direct current;

crave,

covet

t-^jLi*

(Jl

s.th.),

atrive

(mutanwib)

and

(Jl for), aspire (Jl to)

>t- jL; (mwto-

gayyir) alternating current;

O v^-k* J ^
1

3J taug, o\JjJ tawaqn longing, yearning, craving, desire

(mutodafc#6)

oscillating

current

(eJ.)

O o^M

jLj (ndAt^) pulsating current;

Ji
Jti gs* j\? (*' at-taraddud) jI ,jS^ j^j high-frequency current;

(bat? at-taraddud) low-frequency current;

^3

(in (coli.; n. un. !) fig


fruit

$jZ u?

(Saulci)

O M^
sion

->y

C*

current;

1-jaM)
*JLi

high-ten-

of the Indian

fig

(Opuntia

ficua-

jW

("**"

indica Haw.)

al-jahd) low-tension current;


{dti) Belf-induoed

O J^ jV

iLJ
{<J)

tainiha see fJU alphabetically

current

jtu matr

(syr.)

dynamo, generator

Lj

iha

to get

lost,

wander about,

lose

one's way, go astray; to stray,

wander
elip (,>.

>" (Turk. teyze) *&a m&teroal aunt

(thoughts); to escape
s.o.'s

(,>. s.o.),

memory); to
to be
(

perish, be destroyed,

law
l

pl.

^iJl oty,

^jJ tuy* billy goat

be lost; to be perplexed, Btartled, astonished;

\ atycu? foolish, crazy _r


I

haughty; to swagger,
|

boast, brag

J* to b.o.)

LJJ
II

44- j

J*

4-U

lijd\ ,yX oi-Awmmd t-ttfdlya typhoid fever ^ji-J iL;


'

a smile

flits

over bis face


(

to mislead,

(t/fi*

typhus

lead astray
(

s.o.);

to distract, divert

s.o.);
s.o.)

to confuse, confound, bewilder

itfca
iJii

fem. of the demonstrative pronoun

IV

=n
desert,

(Uta
<J
tih

trackless

wilderness;

*J^

II (from

Turk.

Je!)

to cable, wire, tele-

maze, labyrinth; haughtiness, pride


LJ

graph

{syr.)

tayyh Btraying, stray, wnde ring;

*JJ
3

f*Z

hemp; Unen
fiber, staple

haughty
jLpJ taihn* Btraying, stray, wandering;

<U

to

perplexed, at a loss, be wildered; proud,


J

(*J) flJ

Mmo

(tatm) to

become enslaved,
to enslave,
(

haughty
Lpj taih''

enthraJled
blindly

by

love;

make
and i*U* matha a
trackless,

Bubervient

s.o.

through

love) II to enslave, enthral (love; * s.o.);

desolate region; i*U* maze, labyrinth


4jLj

to

make

blindly eubservient, drive out


( s.o.;

t'ih straying,

stray,

wandering,

of bis mind, infatuate


-i.

love)

roving, errant;lostinthought, distracted,

mutayyam

enslaved, enthralled (by

abBent-minded;

lost,

forlorn;

infinite;

love), infatuated
'Lj

haughty
(oasis in

taim' 1

Taima

NW

Arabia)

^J^J

(Engl.) tulip

i
f\j

abbreviation of

*JIj

seoond (time unit)

Lj}

tu'aba* yawning, yawn; fatigue,

weariness
fd'

name of

the letter

^
Ji
ta'ara a {tar) to
(

avenge the blood of

^Ju ta'iba a

(^M ta'b) and

VI to yawn

or

i_j),

take blood revenge

(oru

for

101

s.o. killed),
(t-

take vengeance, avenge o.s.

e.g.,

a qualification, a quality, J in
s.th.

s.o.),

on

s.o. for, also

^ or J

for)

IV and

concede (J *

to

s.o.)

to prove guilty,

VIII

jl)l

ta'ara to get one's revenge,

convict (Je a defendant); to enter, record, register,


list
j

be avenged

* s.th. in a book, in

jU

ta'r pl. -l, jTjI

afr, Jj\

tr rerei*^l

a roster,

etc.)

Jj^il

j oJI

(waraq) to

venge,

vengeanoe,
|

blood revenge;
jU
Jj-\

put

s.th.

down

in writing, get s.th.


ilaJI

on

taliation, reprisal

or juJL
jlill

paper;
s.o. 's

u^i^\

(Jiakpa)

to determine

to take revenge, avenge

o.s.;

SljL*

identity, identify s.o.; <:?**& C-u!

mubrt

at-t.

return match (sports)

(&ak#iyatah) to identify o.s., prove one's

identity
J\j t'ir
JjJjj
tu' ll

avenger

J*

if),

V to make

ascertain, verify (j s.th.,

sure (j of s.th., J*
s.th.),

if);

and

jJJj tu'lla pl.

JJt

taliP

to consider carefully (j

proceed
stead-

wart
j/j fo'd scars

with caution (j
fast,
s.th.),

in)

to

show

o.s.

persevering; to seek to verify (*


try to
of

make
or

sure (* of), seek con-

^Uo taAata
firm,

u (oLJ

taif,

OjJ

|u2)/)

to stand

firmation

reassurance

with

re-

be fixed, stationary, immovable,

gard to

(a);

to ascertain, verify (*

s.th.),

unshakable, firm, Btrong, stable; to hold


out, hold one's ground {J against s.o. or
s.th.),

make

sure (*

of s.th.); to find right,


(* s.th.);

proven or true, Bee oonfirmed


to regard as authentic {* s.th.)

be firm, remain firm (J toward


withstand,
resiet,

s.o. s.o.

or

s.th.),

defy (J

C-y tobt firm, fixed, established; steadfast, unflinching;

or s.th.); to be established, be proven


(fact); to

brave

remain, stay

(->

at a place);
C-jj tabat reliable, trustworthy, credible

to maintain (J* s.th.), keep, stick, adhere (J* to s.th.), abide or stand by s.th. (J#;
e.g.,
|

C-y tabat

pl.

oLJl atbt

list,

index, roster

by an agreement); to
(/

insist

<4*-j J C^J (J* on) hold one's own against

wajhihi)

to

oLj

tabt

firmness; steadiness,

con-

stancy, permanence, stability; certainty,


s.o.,

assert o.s.

against s.o. II to fasten,


(a s.th.); to

make

sureness; perseverance, persistence, enfast, fix

durance; continuance, maintenance, ieconsolidate, strengthen


(*
s.th.); to stabilize {> s.th.); to

confirm,
;

tention (J* of

s.th.),

adherence (J* to)


immutability,

corroborate,

substantiate

(*

s.th.)

to

jj
tainty,

tubt

constancy,

appoint permanently
to prove, establish {*

( s.o.;

to an office);

steadiness; permanence, durability; cer-

s.th.),

demonstrate,
guilty,

sureness

^+Jl
|

OjJ

t.

aS-Sahr

show

{uti

that); to prove

con|

the

official

determination

of the

be-

vict (J* a defendant); to confirm (Chr.) <i j**i ~u (baparah) to fix one's eyes on,

ginning of a lunar
C-iji

month
reliable, firmer, stead-

atbat 2

more

gaze at;

4_.o

C-y

(qadamaiki) to gain
establish,

ier, eto.

a foothold IV to

determine

(* s.th.); to assert as valid or authentic,

Cj- tatbit consolidation, strengthening


Btabilization ;

affirm {* s.th.); to confirm, corroborate,

confirmation ;
|

corrobora-

substantiate {> s.th.); to prove (J* * s.th. to s.o.; J to s.o., ul that); to demonstrate,

tion, substantiation

C-^iJI

_^

sirr at-t.

the Sacrament of Confirmation (Chr.)

show

(> s.th.); to furnish

compe-

oLIl

itbt

establishment;
affirmation,
;

aSBertion;

tent evidence (* for); to bear witness,


attest (* to); to acknowledge (* s.th.,

confirmation ;

attestation
regia-

demonstration

proof,

evidence;

102

tration, entering, listing, recording; doc-

Jlu look up alphabetically

umentation, authentication, verification


CjLJI

oaU witness
r

for

the prosecution;

tajja

u to flow copiously
Streaming

oLJVl
jLjI

--fr

ib' al-i.

brden of proof (jur.)


confinnatory,
jfi-

r\jt tajjj copiously flowing,

itbti

affirmative,

takuna u to be or become thick, thicken


to be firm, solid,

corroborative, positive
C-Ju
tatabbut

compact IT to wear out,


*Jfil

ascertainment;

verifi-

exhaust, weaken (s.o.) J 1>jJ


,

(darban)

cation, examination, oheck; careful, cautious

to wallop s.o. give s.o. a sound thrashing


j^all

procedura,
(of the

circumspection ;

inter-

jfi-

adw)

to

massacre the
s.o.

ment

remains of a saint; Chr.)

enemy;
inflicting

^t^^L-lj

4^\ to weaken

by

wounds
iJt

CjLj tbit firm, fixed, established; sta-

tionary, immovable; steady, invariable,

jfi-

tikan,

takna,

ijyt

tukna

const&nt, stable; permanent, lasting, durable,

thickness, density; consistency; compact-

enduring;
|

confirmed,
t.

proven; a
undisC-jU

ness
,>jc

constant

^iU-1 CjIj

al-jcCa

takln

pl.

LJc tukan* 3

thick;

mayed,
aJ*JI
t.

fearless, staunch, steadfast;

dense
^0j tady

al-'azm

firmiy

resolved,

deter-

mined;

o
c-jIj
(el.)

iJ^Ul

and
real

otf

Jlj*l

im-

and tadan m. and

f.,

pl. lall o&i'

movable property,

female breast; udder


estate,

realty;
_r

1*1/1

t.al-ittijh unidirectional,

(arr

abounding

in

water

-oJl

^ / (dam')

rectified

tear-wet,

tear-blurred
(tarb)
s.o.)

(eye)

ijU

tabita pl. C-ijy tawbit 1 fixed star

w>y taraba
(

and

II to

blame, censure

0>-i

matbt established,

confirmed

and Jp

certain, sure, positive,

assured; proven

~lj3 tatrib blame, censure, reproof

ji tabara u to destroy, ruin (s.o.); (jjj tu*


br) to perish III to apply o.a. with zeal

jj

tartara

(lj j

tartara)

to

chatter,

prattle

persist

and perseverance (J* to J* in) (

fl.th.),

persevere,

j\jj tartr prattler, chatterbox; jliy


tartara do. (fem.)
|

jjJ tubr
Jjr^J
wa-t-t.

ruin,

destruction

^j

Jo^

(^ J or )

t*^

(do') &t-J-u>atl

jj

tartara chatter, prattle


(* bread)

to wail, burat into loud laments

j tarada u to crumble and sop

Syli.

mutbara

persistence, persever-

Jjj tarid a dish of sopped bread,

meat

ance, endurance; diligence, assiduity

and broth
jjw mrad bowl

iiJ taba}a

u and

II

to hold back, keep, pre-

vent

(^

s.o.

from doing

s.th.);

to

hinder,
set

handicap, impede, slow down,


(*,

fj tarama
out;

{tarm) to

knock

s.o.'s ()

tooth

tarima a (taram)
rieh,

to

have a gap

back

s.o., s.th.);

to bring about

between two teeth


{jj and <jj) <j tariya a to become wealthy

the failure (* of

s.th.), frustrate (a s.th.)

iu tvbna pl. ,>' fwia lap, fold of a

gannent

IV to become or be
,y,

wealthy

(<-

or

(used as a receptacle)

through

s.th.);

to

make

rieh, enrich

L> tibn

io

tvbna

(. B.O.)

103

^j
Lj^Jl

taran moist earth; ground, soil


isJ\ {j\

pU
is

tgin bieating

Le-Ij

Vj

i-i-U

*l

U
he he
a

Ja

aina

t-t.

min

at-turayy

(rgiya) he has abeolutely nothing,

(proverbially of things of disproportionate

deprived of

all

resources, prop.

value)

what has the ground to do with


\j
iil

has neither a
braying (camel)
jju

bieating

(sheep)

nor

the

Pleiadea?
:

._-!

(jayyaba)

approx.

may God
pl.

rest

him

in peace 1

fafar

pl.

j\Ju\

aifr

crupper (of the

&j
rieh
|

tariy
<-?j}-\

Ijj'l

atriy' 2

wealthy,
profiteer,

saddle)
Jju

iiJ t.al-harb

war

nouveau riche
Cj\jJ tariyt plantations

tv.fl

dregs, lees, Bediment; residues

jju III to associate


s.o. 's
()

with

a.o.),

frequent

tjj tarwa and *\j tar* forturie, wealth,


riches
|

Company; to pursue, practice

ijjtll

Jl ahl

at-t.

the rieh, the


national

(* s.th.)

wealthy;

"*-

Ijj

(qaumlya)

ij

tafina

pl.

-t,

jii

tifan

callus,

wealth; Jl. *jj (m'iya) abundance of


water, abundant supply of water (of a
region)
\jj furayy Pleiadea;
(also

callosity
*Ju\ look

up alphabetioally

hj)

pl.

<cj

see jJj

oLy

turayyt ohandelier
i__i)

taqaba u (iaqb) to bore, or

drill,

a hole

j mutrin wealthy, rieh

(* in s.th.), pierce, puneture, perforate {* s.th.) II do. II

and IT to

light, kindle

jLu tubn
(.

pl.

1 Ool*? t&'bin snake

Hl

jLw
(* s.th.)

V and

VII to be pierced, be

al-ma eel

punetured, be perforated
snaky, snakelike, Serpen-

JLu tubni
tine; eely
^jkL>

^Jutaqb piercing, boring, puneture, Perforation; (also tuqb pl. v-^j tuqb, ^LJI

mafab

pl. _-*li

mai'ib* drain

aiqb)

hole,

puneture,

borehole,

drill

hole
<IL*j

tu'ala foz
ta'lab pl.

U*S

JU

Ju tuqba pl. <_Ju tvqab hole


ia'lib*

fox

^JLsIl

1j

alopecia (med,), loas of hair

w'Uj and
stick;

i_jUi)l j_j*

'Cd at-tiqb match-

matches
|t*fifi

Xi
i

fa'labi foxy, foxlike

V>^J

keenness, acuteness (of the

LLJ

ta'laba vixen ;

tetter (med.)

mind)
t_ 3*.

_^J ioff r pl-

jy* tvQ*

front tooth;

mouth;

mtfgoo

pl. i_JL*

matqib* borer,

port, harbor, inlet, bay; seaport


jii

drill,

gimlet, auger, brace

and bit, wimble,

tugra pl.
rift,

ji

titgar

breach, crevasse,

perforator; drilling machine

crack,

crevice; opening, gap; cavity,

Uj'I

ijgb kindling, lighting fgt penetrating, piercing,


|

hollow; narrow mountain trail


(lii

_Jlj

Bharp

tagm white, whitenesa


>lj

(mind, eyes)

JicM

t_itf

(.

an-nazar per*_-Lj
f.

spicacity; sharp-eyed; _^ill

aZ-

tgim white

(adj.)
jiJfcr

sagacity,

acumen, mental acuteness;

(jw) Im tag
lju

(tu

tuga) to bleat (heep)

shrewd, Bagacious, eharp-witted

tuga bieating, bleat

oUij

tgtbdt borers (zool.)

JmJu taqifa
taqifa

(taqf) to find,

meet

( s.o.);

a and taqufa u to be
to

skiful, smart,

(J* to s.o.), trouble, oppress (J* s.o.); to be sluggish, doltish, slow; to be in a

clever II

make

straight,

straighten

(* s.th.); to correct, set right, straighten

bad mood, be sullen, grumpy; to find burdensome and turn away (jp from
s.th.);

out
cate

(* s.th.); to train,

form, teach, edu-

not to bother (jp about); to be


s.th., to

(
V

s.o.);

to arrest

s.o.);

to Beize,
(

too dull, too sluggish (jp for


s.th.)

do

confiscate (* s.th.) III to fence


s.o.)

with

to find heavy, hard, burdensome,


s.th.), find
|

to be trained, be educated
taqfa culture, refinement; edu;

troublesome (*

annoying
(fitfa)

{*,

Laj

s.o.,

s.th.)

4i

J5L-1

to

oation
jLj

(pl. -t)

culture, civilization
intellectual;

find s.o. unbearable, dislike s.o. Jij {iql pl. JLjM atql weight; brden,

taqfl
|

educational;

cultural

jl J*L (miUhaq)

cultural

load; gravity; heaviness


al-a.

JUJVf

**j

taf

attach
iJtJd>
tatqif cultivation

weight

lifting

{athlet.);

,y>Jl JJl

(nau'i) specifio gravity

of the mind;
J5j tiqal heaviness; aluggishness, dull-

training, education; Instruction


JL.

ness

mutdqafa fencing, art or sport of

fencing, swordplay,

Bwordsmanship

J
Juan

taqal pl. JliJi atql load, baggage at-taqaln the

iJiS tataqquf culturedness, oulture, re-

6">iJl

humans and the

finement, education
iji< mutaqqaf educated; trained; oul-

Uj Ja^Za trouble, inconvenience, dis-

tured

comfort

faqvla

(tiql,

*JUj taqdla) to

be heavy;

il

Uj

faqla

heaviness ;

sluggishness

with
B.th.
s.o.),

t->:

to load or hurden s.th.,

make

doltishness; dullness

heavy; to be hard to bear (J* for weigh heavily (J* on), be burden-

JJJ

taqil

pl. ,-tfu

tuqat*,

JU'

fi^t

heavy; weighty, momentous, grave,


rious, important;

se-

aome, cumbersome, oppressive( J* to s.o.) to be heavy-handed, sluggish, doltish,


dull-witted; to be too dull, too sluggish

burdensome, trouble-

some, cumbersome, oppressive; unpleaaant, disagreeable, distasteful (person)


p-dl
|

(jp for s.th., to

do

s.th.),

not to bother

J-ij

(.

od - dam

insufferable,

an-

(jp about) II to

make heavy, weight


encumber (J*
s.o.,

pleasant, disagreeable (person) ; rjj\ J-i


t.

(* s.th.); to brden,

ar-rh doltish, dull (person) ; a bore


1

* with

s.th.),

tax

s.o.'s

overburden (J* s.o.), over(J*) strength, ask too much

Jiill

J-i

|.

aj-jl

disagreeable,
|.

in-

Bufferable (person); ^ill J^il

al-fakm

(J* of s.o.); to trouble, inconvenience, bother (J* s.o., t-> with s.th.), pester, molest ( J s.o.) Ulf Ji* and <US' JUI
|

slow of understanding, alow-witted; J-j r *-Jl |. o-Aim hard of hearing; wli^


1L2J
(fltn'a)

heavy
(phya.)
;

industry ;

JJsJ

(kAah) to brden s.o. or


ul>il
to

s.th.

J*tf JJu

heavy water

brden the

budget

IV

to
3 Jijl ogaZ heavier

brden

more oppressive
moigiP weight

(*, * s.o., s.th.);

to oppress, dis(
|

tress (* s.o.),

weigh heavily
(

on); to be

Ji. mttgZ

pl.

J-li*

hard to bear

for s.o.)

<US'

JJul

(also s.th. placed as

an equipoise on the
Iji jUi.

(khilah) see II;

VI to become or be

scales of a balance) ; miskal, a weight (in

heavy; to be troublesome, burdensome

Egypt

= 24 Uj* =* 4.68 g)

m.

; ;

e*
arra the weight of a dust speck,
tiny amount; a
little bit;
i.e.,

iiiJ

tu

pl. i^JbM aili

one third; fuZu*

^* JL* a

little

a sprawling, decorative calligraphic style

oft a

little bit

of
weighting, burdening;

NJ mo-

fa/ta

(f.

i*

toi)

three;

INJ

JJ&
JiL

tatqll

tolfon three times, thrice


J*)tf

lestation
/oZft
L.

tertiary; Tertiary (?eoi.)

tatqttl sluggishneas,

dulJness

j:AiJI

JJ

pre-Tertiary
f.

JJ* mutaqqai

and mutqal burdened,


weigbted
(

jU. j^S taltaia 'aSara,


ta&Ka 'a&rata thirteen
iJlill

i^t*

i^

encumbered
with
s.th.);

overloaded ;
(o*

oppreaeed

by); heavy

aWZif
liltf
l

the

third;

liili

(lifan,

JiLbu mutaiqil sluggish, duU; sullen,

thirdly;

/eo

of a aecond

grumpy
j^J

taltn thirty
at-iali*

J&

JaMIa a

(tateZ) to lose

a cbild

(),

also:

.U^ill
a/-|.
-

and

.U^ill

pj yaum-

to be bereaved of

a loved one
JfcJI
o/ifeaJa

deatb IV U-j

^\

by l-umma
()

Tuesday
a

waladah to bereave a motber of her son

i ^ fuJ|
time

and ^ii.

matlat* three at

J&

taiaZ state of

one who has

lost

a
J*jC (uJ** tripartite, consisting of three,

friend or relative;

mourning over the

loss

(gram.)

triliteral,

consisting
|

of

three
J*>tf $
(.

of a loved one
radicals; tri-; trio (mus.)

WjjJl

*&5

faJWdn{*) bereaved of a child

z-zawy triangulr; olijjJl


ro^i trifoliate
>L>j}\5 JfcW

J^

J-uw

J&
<S*tf

taJU bereaved of a child (mother)

tka

pl. JTIjJ jawfct'Z"

bereaved

Trinity (CAr.); trinity, triad


yj

of a child (mother)
iiSo fufcna pl. jjSd tukan, -t barracks (mtl.)

triplet
{bot.)

ijJlill

zoArat

af-|.

pansy

!*"

tatllt

doctrine

of the Trinity;

J}

toKa

(JL* toloZ) to tear

down, deatroy,
esp.
LJ_/>

Trinity {Chr.)

overthrow,
'orion
to

subvert

(*

s.th.,

JJiS

tatlity

trigonometric(al)

topple a throne)

VII to be

subverted, overthrown (throne)

nl*-

mtttaat tripled, triple, threefold;

having
J fua
pl.

three

diacritical
-t)

dota

(letter);

JU /utoJ

troop, band, party,

triangulr;
iljIVI Hill

(pl.

triangle

(geom.)

group
l^L* talaba

(of people); military

detachment

*A

(rdya) t dJiLI

^1
*iii-

{'(dam)

(ta) to criticize, ran

down

and
(

Lt-Lill

the tricolor; ilU iiiil (A&W)


LljjJI

s.o.); to Blander,
<_Jj talb
i-ii.

defame

acute-angled triangle;
( s.o.)

m. az-

zauy triangulr;
slander, defamation
pl.

^Ul

jjlIM iiiit
triangle

(muiasuj

-ajutn)

isoscelea

mailaba

,_Jli.

moiZft 9 short-

9-^U-iV' tfjlii.1 iiill equilateral triangle;

coming, defect, blemish, stain, diagrace

/Uli iilll right-angled triangle

^J \j

tlib

slanderous,

defamatory

ilil al-mutaatt and


Awft ol-m. trigonometry

oliiiil

v -^
1

Bianderer

dJ5 II to

triple,

make

threefold {* s.th.); to

talaja u: *\Jh c->*1j (17710*)

it

snowed,

do three times

(* s.th.)

was snowing;

JaZijo

a to be delighted,

e*
be gladdened
(aoul, heart; lj by)
II

to

C^*JI

itL.

muntalim

o^-^it

of

ill

repute,

cool with ice (* s.th.); to freeze,


ice {* s.th.)

tum into
|

of dubious reputation

IV *^Jl

Cj*L*I it

snowed, was
Jjl

snowing; to cool, moiaten

(* 8,th.)

< famma there < j* min famma hence,


|

there-

*jX* {fadrah) to delight, pleaae, gratify


s.o.

fore, for that

reason
;

to

become

icy,

tum

into

ice,

< tumma then, thereupon


more, moreover;

further-

oongeal; to freeze
^1j talj pl. rjtitulj ice
|

and again, and once


|

snow;

more (emphatically in repetition) *& < *&


ice; artificial

JiJI *>4j nudfat a\-t.

snowflake

(kaU) no and a hundred times no! r ^

min tumma then, thereupon


ix

^Ji falji snowy, snow- (in Compounds)


icy, glacial, ice- (in

[ammata

(c~c

there; there

is

Compounds)
<t there ian't

,^-J

pU" talij icy

^U tumm
ice
-t

a grass

>l^l

jL

Jp

(Ja-

r^ tadj pl. -n
h~^
taja pl
refrigerator, icebox

vendor
iceberg, ice floe;

ra/i

i-|.)

within easy reach, handy; J**-

^1
-Lei

tjjl

J*

li

made

it
it

readily under-

atandable, he presented
matlij* icebox,

plausibly for

all

lJju matlaja pl. li*

look

up

alphabetically
fruit

refrigerator; oold-Btorage plant


jjc

famara u to bear

IV do.

to profit,

rjk" ma^lj snow-covered iced, o^ii* frozen food; ioed beverages


;

ioy;

benefit (*from);toexploit,utilize(*8.th.);

to invest profitable (* money) jx


fruits,

Jli-

muiaaj iced
i

icy, ice-cold

tamar
fruit

pl.

jU

/wir,

jlc

atmr

(coli.);

reault, effect, fruit,

1J

talama
s.th.),

(foim) to blunt,

break the edge of

make jagged (* (*); to make a


;

fruitage; yield, profit, benefit, gain

breach, gap or opening (* in a wall); to


denle, sully (* reputation, honor)

iy
gain

tamara

(n.

im. of

tamar)

pl. -t

Ja*

fruit; reault, effect; yield, profit, benefit,

lima a to be or become jagged, dull, blunt


II

to blunt (* s.th.)

to become blunt

j^L.1 iatifmr exploitation (also pol.~


econ.), utilization, profitable uae

VII to be defiled, be discredited (reputation)

jJu mufmir
rift

fruitful,

productive, prof-

p
gap;
ap-pit

talm nick, notch; breach, opening,


crack, fissure,
|

itable, lucrative

c*~*Jl

1)

t.

jJZ~* mustatmir
econ.); beneficiary

pl.

-n exploiter

(pol.-

defamation
tulma
pl. ]j

Uu

fulam
fiU

talm

<Jj -u
*L*

(Ko tulmatan to
(tusaddu) a

a gap; o T V

Jx tamila a (|amaZ) to become drunk IV to

gap that cannot be


loes

closed,

make drunk,

intoxicate

{ s.o.)

an irreparable
}\j

Jx tamai intoxication, drunkenness


iLc

tiim dull, blunt

tamala drunken

fit,

drunkenness

Ajli*

maflm

defiled, sullied (reputation,

Jx tamil intoxicated, drunk(en)


*JU twnla residue, reninant, dregs (of

honor)
liL.

mutafaUim blunted, blunt; craok-

a liquid), heeltap (of wine); scum, foam,


froth

ing (voice)

107

yc

II

to appraise, aasen, estimate (*

s.th.),

<-y

{'in&na

fartuiki)

he

galloped
{* B.th.); to

off

determine the prioe or value


to price (* s.th.)
|

(* of s.th.);

II to double,

mako double
form tho dual

do

jJ V

yutammanu

twioe, rcpoat (* s.th.); to pleat, plait


(* s.th.); to (* of

invaluable, ineetimablo, priceleaa

a word);

jx iaman

pl.

U
|

atmdn,

i-c

o|mina
ooet

to provide with two diacritical dots {*

price, oost; value

J^VI >JI
(tudri)

a
(oaft)

letter)

IV to commend,
s.o.),

praise, laud,

price;

^-UVI

J-il'

par, nominal

extol (J* s.th.,


|

peak appreciatively

value

<-U JJI ('fim t-fan') (J* of) .bl to speak in the most laudatory terms of
s.o.

>U

j^I famin costly, precious, valuable


j*l

to double,

beoome doublo; to be

olman1

coatlier,

more

preoioua,

doublod; to be ropeated; to bend, fold;


to be bont, be folded, be folded

moro valuable
j^J3 taumln estimation, appraisal, asBeBsment, valuation, rating
j~i*

up or

under; to walk

with a swinging gait

VII to bend, bcnd up,


incline,

down

or over, lean,

bow; to

fold,

be foldable, be

matmn

object of value
estimator, appraiser

folded back; to turn

away
o.a.,

(j* from),

give up, renounce (j* B.th.); toturn, face

^L, mu|ammtn

(Jl

toward); to apply

turn

(Jl to

s.th.); (with foll. imperf.) to set out, pre-

^L, mtifamman
able, preoioua
j^i.

prized, valued, valu-

paro (to do s.th.)


(j

to except, exclude

or * s.tb. or s.o. from),

make an

mujmtn

exception (* of s.th.)
costly,

preoioua,

valuJj

able
j*t*

fany

bending

folding ;

turning

mufman
(f.

away, dissuasion, koeping, prevention


objeot of value
tj?
I in

pl*

*U'

?*'

fold, pleat, plait,


|

wie tamniya

uLc tam&nin) eight


f.

crease (in cloth); bend, twiat

o*

Li?

ji* *Jlc famtuyata *aara,

yJ^ jLc

Jl tinyan ba'da fmyin


time
bjl

from time to

famniya

'a&rata eighteen
pl.

j fumn

lx

ajman one-eighth
a dry measure (Eg. =

atn'a

(prep.)
U>t

during;
/
<j,

in
do.;
in

the

course

of

ex tumna
i/,

pl. -dl
1;

= c
u;

.258

Poi.

= ca. 2.25

1)

UV -i* <j, UVI meantime, during


while

j dt
all

atn'i
*ili .USI

j
the

this time,

mean-

j^Jlc famnfin eighty


j^bll a|-tmin

the eighth
eightfold;

Lu tanya pl. tanaydl fold, pleat, plait,

j*L>

mu|amman
pl.

octagonal

crease (in cloth)


Li?

fanfya

pl.

LL> tandy middle in-

<i

junna

ju {unan fetlock
pl. iU>

cisor;

narrow
in,

paas;

mountain

trail

!j-Cj

JunaVa, {undutua

{anddtn breast

LU>

inside,

among, between,

fre-

(of the male)

quently only a

fuller, rhetorically
o.g.,

more
LU>

elegant expression for "in", Ji fafid


t

j
in

(tony) to double, double up, fold,

c)

in bis heart, inwardly, ^-iSI

LU>

fold up, fold


(* s.th.); to

under

(* B.th.); to bend, flex

the books ; l

^j

in, inside,

among, beone with

tum

away, dissuade, keop,

tween;

IjUI

p^

foUtT

of-f.

prevent, divert (j*

s.o.

from)

b* J5

high-flung oapirations

tantt

commendation,

praise,

eu-

Uix-l
bil^L.

istitn*

ezception,

excluaion
of,

logy; appreciation

with the exception


without ezception
ta*i(n't

except;

b
tizne

tuntf*

and Ji. makn two

*\^L-\ j-

at

JbixJ

ezceptional;
|

UUil-l

wfn'Iyan as an ezception iJbJiJ J^*-l


,jjS tanawi dualist

emergencies; i-JUil
*j

i*JU-

0oii) emer-

yi janawiyo dualiam
tami'i laudatory, eulogistio
bi-

gency Session
Ji.

Jb

ma}niy folded;

plaited, pleated;

JLj ttm'i twofold, double, dual,

doubled
Ji>

nary, bi-; biradical {gram.); duet, duo

mujannan double, twofold; in tbe

(mu.)

jljlll

b* iij* (mufcami

f.

I-

dual (gram.)
JM.-

mihor) two-cyole engine

mustatnan

excepted,

excluded

3-Jb jund'Iya dualism;

duet,

duo
IjJ

(,>.

from)

(miM.)

twa see

jb*i tfndn,

f.

jliu! ifnatdni

two
1

^ _y
u
to return

b*l

gnd

'oioro,

f.

ly^

IimI

noW

(v>)

V^ #**
with

come back
Jl or

(also, e.g.,
s.o.);

a state or condition,

J to
-)
I

'airata twelve

v
<JI

** rturn 8 t - (J' to 8 '

^Vl Monday

fji

yaum

aZ-inatn

and

joJ'iM

4-i Jl i-j to regain consciousness,


to;

come

*Xij

v^

(ruiduA)

to

recover
said of

Jlill at-tni

tha second; the neit; Uli


tniyatan secondly; for

one's senses II to reward

( s.o.;

yiniyan and

v^

God) IV to repay, requite


to reward
(

(* m s.th. with);

the seoond time, once


JCjI

more, again

J*

s.o. for)

to aeek reward

j. fnatn the seoond of a pair, pen-

<~>j}

jauA

pl. <LJ

tiyb, <'>'
;

atwb
garb,

dant, companion pieoe, matoh

garment, dress; cloth, material


seoond

(fig.)

3J fdniya
(time unit)

pl.

j^*

|au*!nin

outward appearance, guise, cloak, maak;


pl.

^Lj
{.

olothes, clothing, apparel

<->Lj

j+-1\

as-sahra
<->Ji

formal dress, evening

<Sy^ tnav* seoondary; minor


minor matters;
sohool; iSjJ\j

j_^-l

clothes ; .Uj
t-*LiJI

j in piain, homely form


character,
irre-

*j_^U matters of seoondary importance,

jIV

of

flawless

<ty

*-jJ*

secondary

proachable
xj\y tatob requital, recompense, re-

o-j

subletting

L tatniya
seoond seqnel
short

repetition; plaiting, pleat-

ward

(for

good deeds);

(Ial.

Law) merit,

ing; doubling, gemination; (gram.) dual;


(o.g.,

credit (arising

from a pious deed)

of a collection of
praise,
<>jZ* matwaba requital, reoompense, reward (bestowed by God for good deeds)

stories);
|

commendation,

eulogy

9-lJwVl

V"
|

Beutoronomy
flexibil-

LjuI i-niin*

bending, flection;
Uii^J
Jitt

ity,

foldability

foldable,

^ll* mafb and <t\t maiba place to whioh one returns meeting place rendez; ;

folding
;.Liil

vous resort, refuge


;

iniin'a

pl. -dt

(n. Tic.)

bend,

li-

maiba (with
s.th.

foll. genit.)

place or

flexure, curve

time at which

appears or recurs;

109

manner, mode, fashion


ceding entry
j

see

also

pre-

jli*

mair incentive, Stimulus, motive,


|

lAtx (with

foll. genit.) like,

spur, ocoasion, cause jadal

JuJ-l

jli*

m.

ai-

as ; tantamount to, equivalent to, having

and

fl j*Jl jli object of controversy,

the same function as


jlil =

point of contention

^Uj
tra

(i_

VI) to

yawn

j\j\

tfra excitation, stirring up, kin-

dling; agitation, incitement; provocation,


(j_jj)

jU

u to

stir,
;

be Btirred up, be a-

(a)rousing, awakening;

irritation, Stim-

roused, be excited to swirl up, rise (dust)


to arise (question, problem; a difficulty,

ulation
J\j i'ir excited, agitated, raving, furious,

<p-j

j wajhihi

before

s.o.)

to be trig-

mad;

rebellious; fury, rage (in the


*/!j jIj see

gered, be unleashed, break out; to revolt,


rebel, rise (Jp against); to rage,

idiomatic phrase
jljj

above);

(pl.

storm
|

tvwwr) inBurgent, rebel, revolution-

yU jU

(t'iruh) to fly into a rage, beflare

ary
J\j tifira pl.

come
excite
s.o.,

furious,
(

up IV to
( s.o.,

agitate,
(

s.o.,

* s.th.); to stimulate

J\y

taw'ir* tumult; ex-

* s.th.); to irritate

* B.th.);
s.th.,

citement, agitation; fury, rage


jJL-

to arouse, stir up, kindle, excite (*


e.g.,

mvtir exciting; provooative; stimu-

feelings),

cause, provoke,

awaken

lative, irritative; excitant, irritant, stimu-

(* s.th.); to raise, pose, bring

up

(*JL_*
jtfl
|

lant; instigator;

germ, agent;

pl. ol_^i-

masaiatan a question, a problem)


*jj\j
s.o.

stimulants

(t'iratah) to infuriate s.o., excite

to excite, Btir up, kindle (* s.th.,

rjtjy triym thorium {ehem.)


Jji VII to
s.o.);

esp. passions);

to
(* (*

rouse
s.th.,

(*

s.th.);

to

swarm, orowd, throng ( J* around

arouse,

awaken
evoke
;

esp. feelings);
outcries,
* s.o.

to

come over

s.o.

(J#)
f.

to

elicit,
s.o.)

wails,

j*
Jji taul
]

from
,

to incite, set ( J*

against)

and J*J1 6y

an-nahl swarm

*r-

jLil-l
s.o.

{qafabah) to infuriate

s.o.,

of bees

make

angry

*y {um
JjJ *>jj* Srabat
tfji

(coli.; n.

un.

garlio

jy

taur pl. lyj ttrn bull, steer; ox;

taw

{*\y taw*,

Taurus

j> tuwiy, j_^i. matwan)


at a place); to Bettle

(astron.)

jjill

to stay, live

dail aUt. oxtail

soup

(v

down
up

(l-j

at a place); pass.tuwtj/a to
live; to lodge,

*jy taura excitement, agitation; outbreak, outburst,


etc.)
;

be buried IV to Btay,
as a guest
( s.o.)

put

fit

(of fury, of despair,


(pl. -t)

eruption (of a volcano) ;

up-

,jy tawty guestroom

heaval, uprising, insurrection, riot, rebellion, revolt,

revolution

3-UI

Ijy (aMiya)

i twa
sign

pl. fjjj

tuwan signpost, road-

internal strife, civil

war and
n.)

^jy

tauri revolutionary (adj.

jji.

matwan

pl. jli*

matwin abode,

habitation, dwelling; place of rest

iSJjy taurawi revolutionary


n.)

(adj.

and
L-.U

tayyib

pl. ~dt

a deflowered but un-

married woman, widow, divorcee

\jy
flare-up,

tawarn
eruption,

agitation,

excitation,

outbreak, outburst;

dust whirl

J^j iaiial pl. JILj taytiP a variety of wild goat (Capra jaela)

>iW

J-UU-

jtaliq

= jii*ja'ji**

jU- jtoa

Java
(pl.

JrJr jVjV pl. '^-"t*bow (of a ship)


jU- ja'ara a
{ja'r,

breast; prow,

ifjU ;dwi Javanese; benzoin;


a Javanese

-n)

Jfc- fu'r) to low,


(Jl

moo;

jlijU- jwadr rye

to supplicate, pray fervently

to God)

^jU
1

lw*4 aergeant

^jLt,

j -1
1

jU-

ja'r

and

jl$*-

jVdr lowing, mooing

(of cattle)
l

r*- jvbb pl. t-W'


ciatern; pit

jM6,

uU

jibb

-well,

jU- gz

pl. -(

(Eg. Bpelling) gaa

**-*. j'uAfro pl. ^-j-- juofc,

yU

jibb, --jL*-

^JU- jx jazz

;aid't& 1 jubbah,

a long outer garment,

open in front, with wide sleeves


<JjjV
(

Fr ?azon> Eg.
-

spelling) gzn

lawn
j*-

jaiA

pl.

-I

ajbuh, ^L*.

jA,

j-L*-l

^iU

pa'oso a (;'o7) to

be agitated, be con-

o;7A

beehive

vulsed (with pain or fright)


**>- jabjcna, jabakna

powder magazine;
depot

^iU- ja'i emotional agitation;


bou]
|

heart,

ammunition;

artillery

*iU- J*jj rabafa ja'Sah to remain

calm, compoeed, self-posaeesed; ^i-l Jolj


or i^U-l CjI* calm, compoeed, cool, selfpossessed, undiamayed; iotj

/a&ara u (jabr, jj^ jubr) to set (* broken


bones); to restore, bring back to normal
(* s.th.); to help
11p (* s.o.; e.g.,

^Ic

with

back on hi

feet,

help

unswerving courage, unflinchingly

one

fallen into poverty);


|

*=TU,

TU

and o-TU jafcOa

jacket, coat

to force, compel (J* s.o. to do s.th.) j*- (Jffirah) to oonsole, comfort,

_^U

jJU- yaZn gallon


cf j*!W

gratify, oblige s.o.; to treat (s.o.) in a

conciliatory or kindhy
(Eg. spelling) galbrl gallery (fAeaf.)
pl. -dt

manner
s.o.),

II

to set

(*

broken bones)

III to treat
(*

with kindbe nice


b.o.

ness,

jU

jom

with friendliness
s.o.)

cup; drinking vessel; bowl


(*

to

IV to

force,

compel (J*

*a.W jmakiya pay

pl. -(,

ilJLIj-

jawmi&

to do s.th.); to

hold sway

(Je over)

V
, tri*'jr ?tIm^* buffalo

to

show

o.b.

proud, haughty; to act

streng,

throw one's weight around; to


streng or powerful, demon-

tr^V

jm*

pl-

show

o.b.

*">*V jmsa buffalo oow


^-r'V (pronounced imreg, from Turk. eaneriffi; coli.; n.

strate one's strength or power; to

be

set

(broken bones)
un. &nrglyt) a variety

iijL

41 1

j^f (bi-bnika)

God has demonstrated His power on


your son,
i.e.,

He

has takon him unto

of small green plum with saveral stones


(yr.)

Himself VII to be
restored

mended, repaired,

#U- jh rank, standing, dignity, honor, glory,

je- jabr setting (of broken bones) ; force,

fame

compulsion ;

coercion,

duress ;

power,

Ofr
might; (predestined, inescapable) decree
of fate; \j~- jabran forcibly,
j\i-\
j.

(J

-r jibs gypsum; plaster of Paris

by force
|

i-L*- jabbaa

gypsum quarry;

plaster

1*

'Um al-j. algebra


in

^^-Jl j^- *jj

yaum

kiln

al-bahr a local holiday of Cairo (the

day on wbich,
of the Nile

former times, the water

*(j~jr
1

***

(coli.; n.

un.;yr.) watermelon(s) .>

was channeled into the now-

abandoned kalxj, or City Canal, thus marking the beginning of the irrigation season)
tjj-*-

jabala u i {jabl) to mold, form, ahape, J-*fashion (* s.th.); to knead (* s.th.); to

jabri

algebraic ;

compulsory,

forced;

jabari an adherent of the docand the inescapan Iatamic

create {J* s.o. with a natural dispoai osition or propensity for) ; pass. Je (jxtb\ uTa) J-*-

to be born for, be naturaUy disposed

trine of predestination
ability of fate; fatalist

have a propeneity
iL*jibla,

for

jibia pl. -t

natural dia-

jabariya

school

of
a

position, nature,

temper

thought teaching the inescapability of


fate; fatalism

J-*-

jabal pl. JL*- jibl, <JL*-l ajbl mountain


|

mountains, mountain rnge


j.

_J^I JU*-

jL*- jabbr pl. -n, _rL- jabbir*, yL-

aZ-o> the Alpe;


(in

^'jj^'

<J*-r

tne Aures

jabbira
pressor;
gigantic,
(aatron.)
\

giant

colossus;

tyrant,

op-

Mountains

E
;.

almighty,
giant,

omnipotent
huge;

(God);

berg; Lx- J-*-

Algeria); -*- J-*- icerfn Mount Sinai; J-*J-*-

colossal,
j,

Orion

JjU Gibraltar; jU
J-*jabali

voloano
hilly;

*jLi^\ jL*-

al-kufwa striding
tain (adj.);

mountainous,
(pl.

moun-

powerfully, taking huge trides


JjL*- jibra (art of) bonesetting

montane;

-an) highJander,

mountain eer

jwh jabira and


jab'ir* Splint (surg.)
->jjv~

*jL*- jibra pl. J\-~-

tSj^r gabalwi
taineer

(eg.)

highlander,

moun-

jabart

omnipotence

power,
,>*-

*AT*-

gabalya

pl. -t {eg.)

grotto, oave

might; tyranny
jabvna u (jvbn,
jL-

jabna) to be

Lju~ jibriy** pride, haughtineas

coward, be fearful; to be too

a much of

j$4

tajblr,

|LL*II

j^jf orthopedics

a coward (j* to do
s.th.) II to

s.th.),

shrink (j* from

cause to curdle (* milk); to

jL-\ ijbr compulsion, coercion

make
com-

into cheese (* s.th.); to curdle; to


call

(jjL^t

ijbri

forced,
|

forcible,

aecuse of cowardice,

a coward

{ s.o.)

pulsory, obligatory

^jL^Vl -^r^' oona -

V to

curdle (milk),

tum

into cheese

pulsory recruitment; military conscrip,>*-

jvbn and L*- jabna cowardice jvbn and <~*- jvbna cheese
pl. L-*-

tion

j U-

jbir

and jjt mujabbir bonesetter

,>*-

jjjt majbr and jwf mujbar forced,


compelled

jL*- jabn

jvban' 1 coward;

cowardly
jL*- jabbn cheese merchant

JJju;. jabra'iP, Jjj- jifcnP


1
1

Gabriel ^-*- jabin


,> r
l

pl. Cr-*r

j^bun, i--l ajbina,


fac. ade,

ro*-

to plaster, coat, patch, or fix with

a/bun forehead, brow;


I

front;

plaster {* s.th.); to put in a cast, set in


plaster (* s.th.)

face

tirrT

IrJI

,>..

J^** I alone; J* in the sky


0*
*

mn

112

J^

jabini frontal

J*-

jatama u
sit,

(7'atoi,

>ji-

jutm) to alight,

^-l ajban*

more cowardly
cemetery

perch (bird); to crouch, cower; to


or
lie

fall

prone,

lie

face

down;

to beset,

<>L*- jabbTia pl. -

oppreas (J*
<*i*-

B.th.)

,>-jf

ta/btn cheese

making, processing

;'a|ma (n. vic.) motionless sitting

into cheese
1

or lying
( b.o.) ( b.o.,

4?r

jabaha a to meet, face, confront


oppose, defy
front
(* to);

*b*-

juim and

f>V
pl
.

jtm nightmare,

III to face, confront,

incubus

a s.th.),
(*

show a bold

to face

|^-

jutmn

body

mortal

a problem, a

difficulty)

frame

ifo- jahha pl. L*- 7*&A,

oL^

jabaht

Jl^
poreal

jutmn*

bodily,

physical,

cor-

forehead, brow; front, face, facade; frontline, battle

front

jrU
<f\jt.

;d/m

pl.

JU juttam

squatting,

mujbaha

facing,

confront ation,

crouching; perching; prostrate, prone

Opposition

(jV)

b*- /ald

(ju/w) to kneel, reat

on the

knees; to bend the knee, genufiect; to


^y-

jaW
(in

(*jL*-

jftya)

to
II

collect,

raise,

fall

on one's knees
jutw kneeling position

levy (* tazes, duties)


prayer)

to prostrate o.b.

ji*-

VIII to pick, choose, elect


>>- j'W "** rock pile,

mound

sepulchral

(* s.th.,

s.o.)

mound, tumulua

L*- jibya raising, levying (of taxes)


{pl. -t)

tax, duty, impost


(in

j
^U-

maftan hassock
jtin

kneeling;

Jli-I

Hercules

JL*. jib'% tax-

Compounds);

fiscal

(astron.)

^ majban
i_*L-

pl. <^lf Tnajbin tax,

impost

j& jahada a
con-

{jahd,

*j* juhd) to negate


disavow, disown,

jbin pl. t*- jubh tax collector,


officer, collector; (bus, etc.)

(* s.th.); to disclaim,

revenue
duotor

deny

(* s.th.); to refuse, reject, repudiate

(ir.)

(* s.th.); to

renounce, forswear, adjure

i_jU- jbiya pl.

vljr

jutwloin pool, basin

(* a belief); to

deny

(*

s.o.

his right)

<L/7
U*-

j&

(jamilah) to be ungrateful to

s.o.

j'aW

(abbreviation of *$1 v=^)

cosine

(mo*A.)

A&jahd

denial; repudiation, disavowal,

rejection, disclaimer; unbelief (rei.)

jatta
(*

(jag)

and VIII to tear out, uproot

a
*^r

j_^ juhd

denial;

evasion, dodging,

tree, also fig.)

Bhirking (of a moral Obligation); ingrat*li-l ajfj

JvU& pl- <^r y*%*

body

itude; repudiation, disavowal, rejection,

corpse, cadaver; oarcass

disclaimer; unbelief
fig.)

(rei.)

ii^f mujtatt uprooted (also


Ji. ?o*J

-U-l-

jhid denier; infidel, unbeliever

thick, dense (esp. haii)


pl.

j*

VII to hide in

its

hole or den (an i mal}

J-li-

;'tjZt7

JLv

jatliqa catholioos, pri-

j*
den,

juhr pl. jL*l ajhr, jj*_ juhr hole,


lair,

mate of the Armenian Church

burrow

(of animals)

113

J&

jahi

pl.

^l*

jih&y

jLl*;

jikSn,

Bignificant,

important; to take (j

s.th.)

^L*;l ajJuii young


jvhS) trestle, horee

donkey;

(pl.

^j*

serioualy; to trive earneatly (j for),

go

out of one's

way

(j to do

s.th.),

make
to

<tf

jah&a young female donkey


jvhx) to bulge, pro-

every

effort

(j in); to be Berious, be in

earnest (j about),

mean
II

busineas;

.U* jahaza a (i>*


trude (eyeball)
0**11

hurry (j one's step)


to

to renew (* s.th.);
(a
s.th.)
;

make anew, remake


refit,

to

Jj* juA? ol-'atn exophthalmio

modernize
remodel,
s.th.);

(* s.th.); to restore, renovate,

goiter,
ball

abnormal Protrusion of the eye-

recondition, refurbish (*
reforraer;

to be

an innova for, a

to feature s.th.
<_jf

new
up
(*

or novel, produce

jdhafa a {jdh}) to peel

off,

scrape off

s.th.

new

to

rejuvenate,
s.th.);

regenerate,
to renew,

(* s.th.); to

sweep away

( s.th.); to

have
IV to
s -->

revive, freshen

a bias

for), aide (**

with

s.o.)

eztend

(*

a per mit) ; to begin anew, repeat

hrm, hurt,
s.th.);

injure,

prejudice

(v

(a s.th.),

make a new
(*ii*-

start (* in s.th.); to

to ruin, destroy (o*


(i_>

s.o.,

s.th.);

try again
strive,
o.s.

hazzah one's luck) IV to

to

wrong

6.0.)

endeavor, take pains; to apply


assiduously (j to),

Jl*H ijhf injustice, wrong; bias, prej-

eamestly and

udioe

be bent, be intent (j on s.th.); to hurry (j one's step); to renew,

make new

(*

mujhif unjust,
prejudiced

unfair;

biased,
s.th.)

to

become new, be renewed; to


added or enter as
existence;

revive
jahfil
2

to be new, be

Ji*

jahfal pl. Jil*;

multitude,

le-

gion,
{Syr.);

host,

large

army;

army corps

new factor, come newly into to make new, renew (* s.th.)


a
-U-

eminent
f.

man

jadd

pl. jj-U-

judd good luck, good

fortune

~& jahim
l

(also m.) fire, hellfire, hell


.u-

jidd seriousness, earnestness; dill-u-

c^fr JoAS**
.

hellish, infernal

igence, assiduity, eagerness;

jiddan

- jakka

(eg.)

to lord

it,

give

o.s. airs;

to

very,

much
*ii* a*.

Jj

and

-U-

j- earneatly,
very great;

boast, brag; (syr.) to dress


ironical)
j-l*'

up

(alightly

aeriously; Ji*l> .u- jiddu bkizin very high


(price);
.uj.

'azimin

Ji-^-Vl
jakkk boaster, braggart
judd,
ilojfl

y&*
J

{jidda l-iktilf) they

differ
l-j.)

widely;

-iA-1

Jl Jp i_j {gi
effort to

i-u-

j'add pl. jj-u-

ojdd grand|

to apply o.s. with diligence to, take


in,

father; ancestor, forefather

J*Vl

Ji-I

pains

make every
jiddi

(al) ancestor
3.U-

<_; J_-

serious ;

earnest ;

Lj J_-

jadda

pl. -t

grandmother
;

jiddiyan in earnest, eamestly, seriously


-U-

jiddiya earnestness;

seriousness,

.u-

ja^Wa

to be

new

to be a recent devellately,

gravity (of a Situation)


-U-

opment,
recently

have

happened
fact; to

have
jidda newness, recency, novelty;

become a

be added, crop

up or
time

enter aa a

new

factor {circumfirst

modemness, modernity;
aissance
*.u-

rebirth, ren-

stanoes, costs);
(also, e.g.,

to appear for the

on the

stage); to be or

judda 2 Jidda (seaport in

Saudi

become

serious, grave;

to be weighty,

Arabia, on

Red Sea)

-.u-

jadid pl. j.u- judud, judad new,

L^ojt

mujdib barren,

sterile; desolate,

reoent;

renewed;
|

modern; novel, uh-

arid; unproductive, unprofitable

precedented

uU_Ji-l al-jadldn

day and
Jj>.u-

night; .b.u- ja anew, again;

i.u- jadaf
.u-u-

pl.

.u-1 ajddf grave, tomb


pl.

(ff.)

gj podi
4*;-l

lanff

brand-new
serioua,

judjuJ

0--I.U.

jadjid*

cricket

ajadd*

more

more intent;

(100L)

newer, more recent


AiOjC

b^r /odura u
(also,
e.g.,

(jU- jaddra) to

be

fit,

suit-

to)dki renewal

of a

able, proper, appropriate

(^

for s.o., for

permit); creation of s.th. new, origination;

s.th.);to befit,

behoove
of),

(i~>

s.o., s.th.);

to
|

new

preeentation,

new production

be worthy (^
_^*j j4*:

deserve

(^

s.th.)
it is

(theat.);
;

innovation; reOrganization, re;

(gikruh)

and

j5"xJIj

jAf

form modernization renovation, restoration,

worth mentioning
jX- yodr wall
_r<u-

remodeling, refitting, recondition-

ing, refurbisbing ; rejuvenation, regenera-

tion ; pl. -dt innovationa ;


iJjf

new aohievementa
regeneration,

jodlr

pl.

-an,

IjX-

jvdartf*

tajaddvd

renewal,

worthy, deserving (y of s.th.) ; becoming,


befitting
{<_>

s.th.);

proper, suited, suit-

revival
able,
fit

(v

for),

appropriate

(v

to)

./X-

jL- jdd in earaest, earnest; aerioua


(as

jTJLj (tfr)
jX-l

worth mentioning
worthier;

opposed to comic, funny)


pl.
-<K, itj-

ojior1

more approsuitable

oU- jdda
street; street

jautdd*

main

priate; better suited,


Jjla*-

more

jadra worthiness; fitness, suitaptitude,


qualification ;

jjJitf

majdd fortunate, luoky

abity,

appro-

jajt

mu jaddid

renewer; innovator; re-

priateness
jix. jidr pl. jX>- jtufur, uljX*.

former
idjc

judrn

mujaddad renewed, extended;

rere%

wall
^j1<u- ;id>f mural, wall (ad].)
jj*. judira (paas.)

modeled, reoonditioned, renovated,

stored; rejuvenated, regenerated; new,


reoent,
4<t

young
diligent, as-

and

II

to have smallpoz

mujidd painstaking,

iSj-^r jvdarl, jadari

smapox
jOjt

siduous

jjJdt

majdr and

mujaddar

in-

>*'- mxistajidd new, recent; incipient


w>o>-

fected witb smallpox; pock-marked


jJjf

jaduba

(*>jJ*-

judfo)

to

be

mujaddara dish mada of

rice or

or
(in

become dry, arid


sterile;

(soil)

IV to Buffer from

Syr.) of bulgur with lentils, onions


oil (eg. t syr.)
t )

and
x

drought, poverty or dearth; to be barren,


to
fall

oome to nothing, go up
fiat,

in

0*. ?ada'o a (jad


(* B.th., esp.

to cut

off,

amputate

amoke,

fizzle

out;

(ayr.)

to

some part of the body)


bi-jad'i l-anf (prop., at the

explode in the barrel

(Bhell; mtl.)

J^l

fX*

w><u- jodb drought, barrenness,sterility;


sterile,

cost of having the nose cut off) at

any

barren

price, regardlesa of the sacrifice involved

L-j-u- jadib

and v^r'

ajdab*,

f.

L.u-

X-I ajda'*

mutilated (by having the

jadb'* barren, sterile

nose, or the like, cut off)

*-

gada'
(eg.)

(=

f-Ju-

jada')

pl.

U-u-

Jjlf mujdil disputant, Opponent in


dispute
*(Jj-U-

gid'n

young man, young

fellow; he-

man
jadwal
pl. Jjl-U-

jadwiP creek, brook,


list,

Jio- II to curse,

blaspheme (J*

s.o.,

esp.

little

stream; column;

roster; index;

God)
JujJtajdxj imprecation,

chart, table, schedule

^j*
Jj^*-

Jj-V

(d*rd*
list,

blasphemy
a boat)

*)

curriculum;

***j_>Jl

stock

oO.

jadafa

and

II

to

row

(*

l^jjJl Jj<U- p jU- (ri;a) not quoted (stock ezchange); Jl>^/I Jju- agenda;

working plan
Jljjt mijdf pl. Ju^Lf

majdif1 oar
(jJ*-) io*- jadfi

M-U- jadala u

i [jadl)

to twisttight,tighten,

u to give a present (J* to

s.o.)

stretoh (* a rope); to braid, plait (* s.th.,

the hair, etc.)


III

II

to braid, plait, {* s.th.)


{*

IV to give as a present (^ J* s.o. s.th.), present (^ J* s.o. with); to be of


use,

be

useful,

profitable
iilj-f

LiJ

j.u-1

to quarrel, wrangle, bicker

with
to

(nafan) to be useful;

l.u

that

s.o.);

to argue, debate

with

s.o.);

won't help you, that


(to you);
(/aiiJan)

will

be of no use

dispute, contest (j s.th.)

VI to quarrel,

U*

<Lke j-i*
^yjo
^/
,

do.; ^Ui

have an argument; to carry on a dispute


J.U- jadal quarrel,

ja* V
to beg
s.o.

^Ui

see J*j

argument; debate,
|

for alms; to implore,


s.th.),

beg

(*

for

dispute, discussion, controversy


1/-U-

^j

plead {* for

s.th.)

farada jadalan to asBume for the

Lu- jad* advantage, gain (j* for s.o.)


iSj**r

sake of argument, propow as a basis for


discussion
J.U- jadall cntroversial; disputatious;

jadw
|

gift,

present; advantage,

benefit, gain

jj-uno

(bi-l)

and

j-*

J*

jji*- (airi) of

avail, useless, futile, in

a disputant
JLu- jaddl and Jlo* mijdl disputatious,

vain
ji*-l a/<&5

more

useful,

more advanta-

argumentative;

mijdl

see

also

geous
i;.u-

below
jody
pl. I.U;tt',
;

jUu- jidyn

kid,

ilj-i*-

jadUa

pl.

JjI-i?-

jad'iP braid,

young

billy

goat

Caprioorn (twtron.)

plait; tresa
Jljjt

jxU
pl.

the North Star


off, clip (* s.th.)

mijdl
ashlar;

Jjjlf
also

majdiP
above

flag-

stone,

see

under

i*-

jadda u {jadd) to cut


jll>-

jaddl
JI.U- jtdi

judda

pl. -t slip

of paper;

pl.

and iblf mujdala


JJu

pl.

-f

i^ljl-u-

small pieces, shreds, scraps, clip-

quarrel,

argument; disputo, discussion,


JI-U-l
>/

pings
i_ji*-

debate

(j/a^aJu) incontest^/

jadaba

(jadb) to pull,

draw

(* s.th.);

able, indiBputable; JI.UJI.U- ^b 6-&x


j.

Z ;2fa

and

to attract (* s.th.); to pull out,

draw out,

incontestably, indispu-

whip out
the
like);

(* s.th.),

draw

(* a

weapon, or

tably
Jj4jt majdl tightly twisted; braided,

to

appeal,

prove attractive
captivate,
s.o.)
(

to

s.o.),

attract,

charm,
(<Jl

plaited;

interwoven, intertwined (tress


(e.g.,

allure

s.o.),

win

over

to
at

of hair); slender and trim, shapely


leg)

one's side) III to contend

with
|

s.o.)

pulling, tugging, etc. (* s.th.)

JJ-I

*jjl*-

(habla) to vie

with
s.o.,

s.o.; (to

be able) to
s.o.,

maniac, lunatic, madman, idiot


<--jil*M

compete with

measure up to
jt3*SJI

mustaif l-m. mental hospital

be a match for
lij-U-

s.o.;

-o iL*-

or <iJU<~l2*

mutajdib mutually attractive;

or

^i-jjJ-l

Jljirl 4jiU-

(afrfa l-h.)

belonging together, inseparable

he engaged him in oonveraation, involved

him

in a discussion; *jU*J-l J*\J*\ <jiU-

V^-
tending
jij- jadara

munjadib attracted
(Jl to)

inclined,

(afrdfa l-hadra) to vie with s.o. in cul-

ture VI to pull baok

and

forth

( s.o.);

to

contend

(,

* for); to attract each other

(jadr) to uproot,

tearout by the

kljoi-S Jljil |_>ji1j (afrfa l-h.)

they were

roots (* s.th.) II do.; to extract the root


(* of

deep in oonveraation, they were talking


together

a number; math.); to take root


judr root (also
(pl. jtJu-l

VII

to

be
(Jl

attracted ;

to

be

jJu- jidr t jadr pl. jj-U-

drawn, gravitate
attract
( s.o.,

toward, to) VIII to


to o.a.; also to win

math.); stem, base, lower end;


aj4r) stub
like)
|
f

s.th., *Jl

(of

a receipt book, or the


(iarbi'i)

magn.); to allure, entice


( s.o.)

{* s.o.);

j^j

j-i-r

squaro root

over

(*Jl

to one's side); to draw,

(math.)
jjij^- jidri radical,

inhale (* puffs from a cigarette, etc.)


<^Ju-

root (adj.)

jadb

attraction ;

gravitation
|

jJjf tajdlr evolution, root extraction


(math.)
-U- jada' pl.

appeal, Iure, enticement, captivation


IJu- i^l to wrest

away, take away by


O***) b61 appeal

force; iS
L_jto*-

r\

v^-'

jUJ- jvd'n young man, young

fellow

(cf.
I

jaddb attractive ; magnetic (fig.)

ieJU-

^j^.

Q f--U- gada'); new, incipient co (karbu, jada'atan) the war


all

suction, suotorial; winning, fetching, en-

broke out again, started


LX*- j*>j\

over again;

gaging; charming, entioing, oaptivating,


gripping

jUl

(Z-a77im)

he reopened the

whole
ajdab*

affair,

he roverted to the earlier

-V

more

attractive,

more

Status
f-JU-

captivating
ylo:!

jid'

pl. f'-U-l

ajgd',

f\ji*r jud*

injidb attraction, inolination,

stem, trunk; stump, tree stump; torso

proneness, tendency
v'-k*-' ijtidb attraction; entioement,
JJ>-

^JuII

jid'i

truncal

to row (* a boat)

Iure

ijlif
i-jjU- jtfib attractive;

m\j4df

pl.

*-J"Jljf

majdip

magnetic

(fig.);

oar
JJU;o<t2a

winning, fetohing, engaging; charming,


enticing, captivating, gripping

a (jadal) to be

happy,

gay,

ezuberant, rejoice IV to
LjjU- j4ibiya gravitation; attraction;
attractiveness; charm, fascination;

make happy,

gladden, oheer
J.Ujidl

( s.o.)

magpl.

netism
Jiill
;'.

(fig.); Iure,

enticement

JlJ*-l

a/jiJ,

V.^W-

JjV

;u^l

at-tiql

gravitational force; i-U-

stump
JjJU-

(of

a tree)

4--.iL.--;.

{magnati&iya) magnetism; ^jiUal-jina sex

judail

wooden post on which

UJX

j.

appeal
attracted;
(pl. i_o jljf

cameis rub themselves


possessed,
majtfib*)
JJu-

L_jji*

majb

^al

gaiety, hilarity, exuberance,

maniacal, insane;

happiness

J.U-

ja4

pl.

o^V

jv4ln gay, hilar-

,-

jarr pull{ing), drawing, draft; trac-

ious, cheerful, in high spirita, exuberant,

tion; drag(ging), tugging, towage, hauling;

happy
^i*- jadln* gay, hilarious, oheerful,
in high spirits, exuberant,

bringing

on,

causing;

genitive

jl\
I

Jjj*. harf al~j. {gram.)

preposition; so forth

happy
off,

jj.

Uj wa-kalumma jarran and

,-

jarra pl. jl^*- jirr (earthenwaie)

(.i*.

jadama
(*
B.th.,

(;am) to cut

chop

off jar

esp.

a part of the body); to


{>
e.g.,
;

remove, take out, exciae


tonss,

the

j-

jarra, jurra trail, track; rut (left


|

the

appendix

surg.)

paaa.

by a wagon)

*j*

bi-j.

qalam with

judima to be afflicted with leprosy


j-JU-

one stroke of the pen

jidm

pl. fji*-

jum,

flA-'

ajim

j*. jirra

cud

(of

a ruminant)
|

root
(IJb<*I-L-

,,-

j-

min

jarr because of

i^j*r Cr

judm leprosy

because of you, on your account, for

judma stubble
ajdam 3
pl.

your sake
7'adm mutilated
etc.,
,1^-

fJu-l

t/V

j*

min

jarr'i

because

of,

due to

{from having an arm, a hand,


off); leproua; leper

cut

b\ *\j~- j- because
j\ j. jarrr

huge, tremendous (army);


tractor; tugboat,

AjXt-

majdm

leprous; leper

potter;

(pl.

-t)

steam

tug, towing launch


jj**-

judmr stump
ja^wa, jidwa, ju4wa
*\J*-

jjjU
pl.

jrr pl.

jJsr
eto.)

jawrir*

(syr.)

*jV
j-

^V

?^an '

drawer (of a desk,


ljjj\r jrra

judan,
jarra

jid' firebrand;

burning log

[leb.)

rake

(tool)

(jarr)

to draw, pull (* s.th.); to

JSr faira
offense,
jarlrati

pl-

J^sr
|

joriPir*

guilt;

drag, tug, haul (* s.th.); to tow (* s.th.); to trail (a s.th.); to drag along
*
s.th.);
{.

outrage, crime

*jst *

* rt

s.o.,
s.o.),

because

of,

on account of
-**
ft

to draw (J*
s.th.)

* s.th.

on

bring (* lead

down
some

(J*

upon

s.o.);

to

jl/r

jam

P1

variety of BCOr '

pion; tractor
(Jl s.th.);

(Jl to),

bring on, cauBe


evil,

to

enta

J* for s.o.); (gram.) to pronounce the final consonant


{* e.g.,

yt
ij-

mijarr trace, tug (of a harness)

majarra galaxy
(eg.)

with

t,

put

(a

word) into the genitive

Ljlyil ingirriya
for watercraft

towage chargea

~*j j*- j*-

(jartratan) to

commit an outrage,
{q*yv*

a crime (J* against s.o.); \ijJ jr dan) to be in shackles, go shackled;

i^

Jl

jUl jr (qvrihi) to secure advano.s.,

etc.;

drawn, dragged, towed, jjjf. majrr word governed by a preposition,


in

tagea for

feather one's nest;

word
eis,

the genitive

form;

(pl.

_rj^
Bew-

<j> *JLJ (lisnah bi-kalima) he won't let a word escape his lips IV to ruminate
Vll passive of I to be driven
;

magrir*) drain, sewer {eg.);

j^M

sewage System

(eg.)

to be swept

Jje.

mujtarr ruminant (adj. and n.)

along, drift, float

Ijjll

Jl >?l (war'i)

to withdraw,

fall

back, give

way

VIII to

j^- jaru'a

(:t/r jur'a,

S1^

jar'a) to dare,

ruminate

*-VT J^-\ (lmah) to mull

over one's grief

venture, risk, hazard (Jp s.th.), take the risk (J* of, jl of doing s.th.), have the

118

courage (Jp for


(J*
risk,

B.th.)

II

to encourage

practice; proof sheet, galley proof, also

a.o.

to s.th.)

to dare, venture,

V-i**

~**j-

(matba'iya)

hazard (J* B.th.) VIII to be venturesome, be daring; to become bold, make


bold (J# with s.o.); to venture (Jp s.tb. or upon s.th.), have the audacity (J* to

<~ij- tajrib trial, test(ing); trial, trib-

ulation; temptation
isijf
tajribi
trial,

test

(adj.);

ex-

do

B.th.)
Jar

perimental ;
pirical
|

based on
^^iJl

experience,

am-

^^1

*iSj*r

pl-

k>r'

ajriycT 1

film, an-nafs)

bold,

experi mental psychology

(<_*, J* in B.th.); forward, immodest, insolent; daring, reckless, fool-

courageous

+&.jf- tajrVnya empiricism (phos.)

bardy
T>r

<~ij*

mujarrib

experimental ;

tester;

examiner; tempter

jw'a and

!>-

jar'a courage,
i^t^t

boldness, daring; forwardness, insolence

mujarrab

tried, tested;

proven or

establisbed

by experience, time- tested,


experienced,
practiced,
Bea-

jjif mujtari' bold, forward


^l^rt- (Fr.)

time-tried;

gari

pl. -X

garage

(eg.)

sonod;

man
up

of experience
alphabetically

r f Lrt- 9

m gram

{eg.)

'<-?jjr look

^-^j*r

gran granite

(eg.)

*i>r jarba4a

= ijj*pl.

JJl_/- graniti granitic (eg.)

jj*r

jvrbuz

j\Jr

jarbiza

impoetor,

confidence man, swindler


'-VT j&riba o (jarab) to be

mangy;

(eg.)

to

*jj*r j&rbaza (also


s windle
iarb'

Jjj*-)

deception,

fade (color)

II

to test (> s.th.); to try, try

out, eBsay ( s.th.); to

sample
;

(* s.th.);

to rebearse, practica (* s.th.)


(* B.th.); to

to attempt

>-

(^ tx-0 pl c^j*
(and
*jXj\j-)

iarbv%

put to the

test, try,

tempt

jerboa

(zool.)

fUVI

( s.o.) j v>r
|

4-ij

v>!" * ty one'fl hand at; (ayyma) to gather experience

*jXjj*- jarabandlya

knapsack,

ruckaack

V>r

jarab

mange

itch, Scabies

*->jr j&rib

mangy; acabby
f.

{Sj-r J*rjwn, <*>^-r jwima pl. jIj-jarHm* root ; origin ; germ ; microbe,

V>r'
jurfc

ajrab*!

l(>-

jarb'*, pl.

^^

bacillus,

bacterium

ryjL C~
I

tahi al-j.

and oO/-

j'ar&dn 1

mangy; scabby

inframicrobe

v'>r
sack,

jirb pl. *j_^-I a;r&a, o^. jurub

^j*- look up alphabetically

bag,

traveling

bag;

knapsack;

Bcrotum; covering, case; sheath, scab-

Srj?

jarjara (>->-

jarjara) to gargle; to
trail,

jerk or pull
(* s.th.);

baok and forth; to


drag one's

drag

bard

(for

the sword)
pl. -t

totowaway
and

(* s.th.) |*IL> jjfeet, shuffle

vlrt" JUfb
*_-i>r
7 or**

stocking, sock

(JpufAu) to

along

a patch of arable land


pl.

II tajarjara pasa.

refl.

of I

**. t&jriba

vJ

ij

tajrib^ trial, test;

j*-jr

farjw

gargling; rumbling noise;

tryout;
scientific

attempt;
test,

rumble, clatter (of a wagon)


rehearsal;

practica,

experiment;

probation;

>r>r
-

jirjir (large, thick)

beans

trial, tribulation;

temptation; experience,

jirjlr watercreafl (eg., syr.)

rj*r jaraha

<*

(Jar $)

to

wound
fig.,

s.o.);

to

against

s.o.)

to

send,

dispatch

injure, hurt
II

(* s.o.;

alao

the feeUnga)

military detachment, troops, -L> or

Ja
or

to invalidste (* testimony), challenge, unreliable


(*,

agatnst s.o.); to free (<> * or


s.th.

b.o.

declare

(*

a witness), take

from) ; to isolate {*

s.th.)
s.o.

to abatract

formal exception
(*

* to) VIII to
|

commit

(* s.th.); to divest (j-

of hia citizen|

an outrage, a crime)

oL-Jl r-j^i

ship, of a rank, of a vested right, etc.)


t-^LJI ja o^*- to

(sayyi't) to

do

evil things
j* rfy*

diaarm

s.o.

j* **j ij*-

to free o.s. from, rid o.s. of, give

r/r

fwfy pl r}/r

r_j/r

JwA,

up

a.th.

d\*-jj*z- jurht,

t^j*-\

ajrh wound, in-

pass. of II; to strip o.s., rid o.s., get


je.

jury, lesion

rid (j* or

of ), free o.a. (j* or y. from)


jt.

to be free (j* or

from, J for a task);

r}/r jarrh pl. -n surgeon uL-^l dental surgeon


**"l/r jifha Burgery

t^jT

to devote

o.s.

exclusively (J to s.th.); to
(ja or

give up, renounce


isolate o.b.
;

jp

a.th.);

to

to be absolute

t^l/r

?* r

^'
pl.

surgical

v-L*-

*J*

('amallya) surgical Operation

*/r ? af<* bare, threadbare, shabby, worn; (com.) inventory; atocktaking


ij*-

j*-

jarih

^f/r jarh wounded,

jarid without Vegetation, barren,

injured, hurt

bleak, Btark (landscape)


*Jr ajrad1 , f. la^*- jardit*, pl. i^jurd desolate, bleak, without Vegetation;
\

j*

tajrih surgery;

defamation, dis-

paragement

hairless, bald; threadbare,

shabby, worn

jU

jrih injuring;

wounding, sting-

(garment); open, unprotected (border)


i\j-

ing, painful, hurting; rapacious (beaat),

predatory
4^-jU- jriha pl. r-j[>*- jawrih* pred-

jard

(ooll.;

n. un.

I)

locust(s)

Jl*-j
^**Jl

il^-

(rahh&l)
;'.

migratory locust(s);

jl^

al-bahr langouste, sea oray-

atory animal or bird


af-fair

j*LII
|

rjj*-

j.

fish; UjIj*: bi-jardih in its entirety

predatory birds
Juj*- jarid

palm branches Btripped of


used

rJ>yr jawrih limbs, extremitiee (of the body) **-j\yr JC with might and
|

their leaves; jereed, a blunt javelin


in equestrian

games
pl. JJl^*-

main, with

all hia

Btrength
bj>r jarida

jarffid* (n. un.


list,
|

rjj*

majrh

pl.

fcM-

majrih*

of

J>ij*r)

palm-leaf Btalk;
;

register,
~*Hj*r
JjI_ht

wounded, injured, hurt


Sj*-

roster,
s.th.); to

index

newspaper

S-_.jd

jarada u (jard) to peel, paxe (*

{yaumiya) daily newspaper;


;'.

#111

remove the

shell, peel, rind or

husk

al-mas'

the evening papera;

-b^L-l

(*

of a.th.); to denude, divest, strip, bare


{* s.th.); {com.) to take stock; to

UI

and

i-JLjxJl -b^-l tho newareel

make

ti^jyr' ajrvdi (*yr.) beardless, hairless

an inventory
II to peel,
shell, peel,

(aJLJ! of

goods on hand)
to remove the
s.th.);

pare (*

s.th.);

ijf mijrad
Juyf
tajrid

pl.

ijljf

majrid2 scraper
paring ;
dia-

rind or husk (* of

to

peeng,

denude, divest,
(j* {j*

strip, diapossess,

deprive

robement, Stripping; denudation; deprivation ;

ior
*

s.o.

or s.th. of); to withhold to draw, unsheathe

divestment

disarmament

dis-

from

s.o. s.th.);

patching (of troops); freeing; isolation;


abstraction
j-^LJI
|

(Jt-Jl

the sword); to unleash (J* * s.th.

j JL/f disarmament

J*
*Jjjj

120

tajrida

pl.

-i,

.bjljf

tajnd*

^^
in

jaritfa

(joro^):

^iy ^j-^

(6i-

military detachment, expeditionary force


ijjf

ri^tAi)

he choked on

bis saliva, could not

tajarrud

froedom

(>

or

je

awallow hi saliva (beoause of excitement,


alarm,
a or grief),
State

from); isolatedness, Isolation; independence,

he was very upset,


deeply

impartiality;

abaoluteneaa;

ab-

of great agitation,

stractness, abstraction
*j-

moved;
suffocate

{.

jarada u
s.o.)
fill

(jard)

to choke,
(cf.
I)

IV *j.
s.o.

4-^1

mujarrad denuded, bare, naked;

to alarm

s.o.,

with apprehension

freed, free (j* or

je from); pure, mere,


^iij- jaridi ^itjft Ojj

nothing more than; sole; very, absolute;


abstract; selfless, disinterested; Ist stem

,>i>l JUlit.: i.e.)

hla

l-j.

dna

l-qari4

(proverb;
in

of the verb [gram.)


genitivo

(with

foll,

noun

in

choking prevented poetry,


face

the

mere, sheer, nothing but:)

of death one does not

think of

ji

jj.it

mujarradu lahwin mere play, just


i>*^k

rhyming {among other interpretations)

fun; *ij\
l*

tn

the naked eye;


as soon as, at

fyr

jara

'

a a

(iar

')

ftQ d

jari'a

(jara

to

^jj^-c

bi-mujarradi

swallow, gulp, devour (* s.th.); to pour

the very

moment when

down,
( s.o.)

toss

down

(*

a drink)
s.th.); to

II to

3 lI^St jardal pl. 6^j*r jardil bcket, pail

swallow (*

gulp

make down

*sr

jurad

pl-

>J'J>r

jir^n,

jurdn large

V to drink {* s.th.) down {* s.th.)


,

VIII to swallow, gulp

rat

jjij*rat

j&iaun

pl.

jl>r jarjliP

large

jr 'i 7<" 'o pl fjT Jura \ & gulp. **>r r mouthful, draught; potion, dose (med.) Jij*- jarafa

{jarf)

and VIII to sweep away


(*
s.th.);

1
(J

-J*-

jaraaa

(jare)

to

ring,

toll,

knell,

(*

s.th.);

to

wash away

to

(re)sound II to

make

experienced, inure
( s.o.;

shovel

away

(* s.th.); to

remove

(* s.th.);

by severe
events) ;

trials,

Borely try

time,
dis-

to tear away, carry off (* s.th.); to carry

to

compromise, disgrace,

along (* or

s.o.

or

s.th.)

VII to be swept

credit, expoae, bring into disrepute


s.o.)

(w

away, be carried away


Jj*- jurf, juruf pl. Jjj*? jurf, Jlj*-I

^j*r J ars

>

Prs

sound, tone
,_--lj*-l

ajrf

underout

bank or shore;
*J>r
pl.
-t,

cliff,

^j^

jaras pl.

ajrs bell

steep slope, precipice; bluff {along ariver

i-^*- jursa

defamation, public expo-

or coast)
lj*-

^*^1*-

(jalldi)

avalanche
jariif2

sure ; scandal, disgrace


'L'j*- jiraya,

jarrfa

^Juj'j*-

rake; harrow

vvr
(jarS)

jiraiya pl. -dt Jersey,

woolen sweater; ^-^r Jersey cloth

Jj^f majraf pl. Jjtf majrif* torrent,

strong current

^j*. jaraSa u

to crush

(*

s.th.);

to
*>j-

mijrafa shovel, scoop;

(*yr.)

mat-

grate, bruise, grind (* s.th.)

tock; trowel
<Art- Jar&
cri-/t"
ft

grating, scraping noise

Ji>f mijrf scoop

pl.

Jujlf majrlp shovel,

7 ar ** crushed, bruised, coarsely

ground; crushed grain;

grits

JjU- jdrif torrential (stream, mounjawriS*


tain creek); stormy, violent (emotions,

jjU- jSrki quem, hand mill

pl.

^jlj-

(for grinding grain)

passions)

; ;

121

tfj*
U^-1 al-jarmn the Gennanic
tribea, the

^ri^i-l al-jarkas

the Circassians

S^r tS
{ST jo-rama

jarkasi pl. i-S"l_^- jarkisa Cir-

Teutons
ijlv*r jarmni

cassian (adj.

and

n.)

Germanic, Teutonio

(jarm) to bone

JH

al-lahma
offense,

1<

Jj*T

?'

t*

rn

Pl-

the meat);

^-Hr'

a?n

(stone)
floor,

basin;

to commit

an

mortar;
4jJj-jJ.I

{eg.)

threshing

barn

crime, an outrage (Jp or Jl againat a.o.), or Jl against s.o.), injure, hrm, sin

j*-

j.

al-ma'mdiya baptiamal

(Jp

fnt
2

wrong (Je or

Jl s.o.) II to incriminate,
( s.o.; ayr.)

Charge with a crime

IV to

\jr jirn the front part of


<>\jj

a camel's neck

commit a crime, to s.o.), do wrong (Je


wrong (Jp or
aj*-

sin (Jp or Ji against

or Jl to

s.o.),

hrm

J! s.o.)
pl.

VIII

'Sj* ^ become established, take root o lj*- -U JJI (oiff, jtrnaA) to apply o.a. to s.th. and adjust to it, aecustom
;

IV
o.s.

to s.th.
(eg.

garm

^jj? gurm

{eg.)

long,
JIj'j*-

flat-bottomed brge, lighter


(j-

(naitt.)

iurnl
[eg.,

also gurnl) pl. J-jlj*- itor"

nil 7

garml2 ) Journal, newspaper,

jirm

pl. jlj*-l

ajrm,

jj*-

jurum
|

periodical
~u\j>r granlt granite

body; mass, bulk, rolume


<Slei\

(of

a body)

c[^-Vl

(falalnya)

the

celestial

bodies
>_^- j'urm pl.
|I_htI

jj lj*? fm,
|j_^**-

graniti granitic
pl. _^-l a/rin, 1^- j'ir',

jurm
j_^-

jarw (jirw, jurw)

offense, crime, sin


*'j*r'

a 7**

*i_rt"'

ajriya puppy, whelp,

f^
course

Ja

jarama surely, certainly, of

cub (of a dog or beast of prey)


**JjT Wtea gross

(=

12 dozen)

fj*- jarim hulking, bulky, huge, vo-

luminoua, of great size


*f.j*r

fjjt^

jar

(jary) to flow,

stream (water) to
;

/orima
|

pl*

jar'im 3 crime; f Lnr


fljJ-1 jj\j

run; to huny, ruah; to blow (wind); to take place, come to pass, happen, oeeur
to be under way, be in progresa, be going

offense; sin

(^^Ji* or) ^^rS" ._*- (fcufir,

'uzm) capital offense;

penal

on (work);
to);

to befall (J s.o.),

happen

(J

code
to be in circulation,
circulate,
|"Lht'

bo
to),

*7m

crime; eulpability, delin-

current;

to

wend

one's

way

(Jl

quency
ij\ J r
\

ijrmi criminal
X'<*

to proeeed (J* in aecordance with); to follow (*. s.th.), yield,

head

(Jl for);

give

way
(^

{,**

to,

e.g.,

to

a desire);to
to run or
|

?jj
i.jjf

lahm majrm

fillet

(meat)
entail
s.th.);

(with Ijj)

Sana mujarrama an

entire

be after

s.th.,

seek to get s.th.

*J

^j*.

year
(jjf

mujrim criminal;
(pl.

^a*. he had a talk with;

*\jjt ,jj*-

-n) a crim|

(majrhu) to take the same course

as,

inal;

evildoer, eulprit, delinquent

be analogous
>jj*

to, follow

jJU reeidivous criminal


}* j*~
]

proeeed or act in
f-dl

same way as, the same manner as;


the
iSjr

t*>?

^1

(minhu

-$ai'u

joramxz*
|

and

jarmlz 3

limbs,
it,

majr d-dam)
natuie to him;
to circulate,

it

had become second


l*i'l

legs

*'j^\j*r

*> (damma) he beat

he

Je

ijj*r

(alaun)

made

off

make

the rounds (rumor)

JJ*

122

JT Jp ^jt to be on everyone's (,- (galamtAi) to come to 8.o/s pen (o.g., a poem); <U^ J* ^_^(&#a) to follow a plan; J*JI <ic ^jt L
Ups; <Ji Je

jJj*-

jir&ya

pl. -<K
|

daily (food) ra-

tions; pay, aalary


(eg.)

t^-

Jb* 'U girya

coarse bread

ljj*-

jarayn flow, fluz; course; stream

famolu) the

way

things
;

are
J**JI

handled,

what

is

oustomary practice

o
t

iSj*
(jj*-

majran

pl. j\jt

majrin

water-

to be in foroe, be valid, be

oommonly
:

course, stream, rivulet, gully; torrent or


flood of water; pipeline; canal, ohannel;

observed (law, custom);


to be customary, be

*WI

&jr

common

practice

drain, sewer, pl. sewers, Bewag System;

be a

common phenomenon, bave

gained

power

line

(et.);

ourrent

(ei.);

current (of

vogue; J* ^j*. to do s.th. customarily, be in the babit of doing s.th.;


^r-sl*

UL

a stream); guido

rail (lechn.);
|

course (of

events), progress, passage


l-batd Urethra (anat.);
(

JjJl &jZ- m.

diJd

>j*-

that was
|

their habit (rigoA) to

ri^JI

&{

m.

t~

II to

cause to run
s.o.'s

make

jj tf^ mouth water III to concur,


(

tanaffvs respiratory
*\ji\

traot (anat.);

^jt

m. l-haw*
*\jA

air stream,
X>-\

current of
its

agree, be in agreement
in s.th.); to

with

air, draft;
s.o.,
(.

to take

oourse;

keep paoe, keep up

with

Bee also ^j*. I

and IV

s.o.; also intelleotually);

to be able to

follow

(. s.o.);

to go (along) (* with); to
(*
to),

iSj*r

oL^L mjarayt, mjariy&t (pl. of M (course of) events, happenings


\j\jL

adapt

o.s.,

adjust, conform

be

mujrh keeping up (with


with) ; with)
j

foll. foll.
li

guided (* by) IV to cause to flow, make


flow (* s.th.); to oanse to run, set lunning
(*,
s.o.,

genitive :
genitive:

conformity (with

ljl

mujrtan

s.th.);

to

make

(* s.th.) take

in conformity with, in acoordance with,

place or happen, bring about (a s.th.);

aooording to
!j-l

to oarry out, exeoute, enforce, put into


ijra*
pl. -t

effect,

apply

Performance (of an
enforcement
J ;

(* s.th., e.g., rulea, regu-

action) ;
lations);

exeoution ;

pl.
Jj\

to oarry out, perform (* an

measures, Steps, proceedings


(itta$a4a) to

cUj-l

action); to set going, set in


projeot), launch (*

motion

(*

an undertaking) ; to
s.th.

take measures; SJ^iliC'Ulj-!

Channel (J or J *
settle

(qnnxya) legal steps, proceedings at law


to),

bestow,

(J* or J * s.th. upon s.o.); to impose, infliot (J fl.th., a penalty, on s.o.) 4tj (j-j.! (tajribatan) to carry
|

jU- jrin flowing, Streaming, running;


ciroulating; current, present
(Sahr) the ourrent
|

tfjU-1 _^iJI

month
-t,

out an ezperiment; LL5^ duct an in veetigation


natan) to grant
(majrd, with
in
s.o.
;

<,/-'
<l

*o con "
(*'fi*

4jU- jriya pl.

j\jt-

jawrin

girl;

U1

^^j-l

slave girl; maid, servant; ship, veasel


-

a subsidy; ^jt
as,

*lj*-l

foll.

genitive) to treat s.th.

jazza

(jan) to cut

off, olip (* s.th.);

to

the

same manner

put

s.th.

on

Bhear, shear off (* s.th.; esp. the wool of

equal footing with


iSjT Jar V course J* L_^- jaryan 'ai in accordance with, according to
|

sheep)
jt~

jizza pl. jj- jixaz, J\j*fleece, olip


pl. -t slip

jaz'iz*

shora wool,
jlj-

iSSj*Jm min jarka and il>l_^- ,> min jar&ika because of you, on your

juxza

of paper; label,

tag
jlj. jazzz pl.

account, for your sake


Ijj-

-n shearer, woolshearer

jarr* runner, racer

jjf

mijazz woolshears

123

L*
jj-

lj-

jaza'a a
o.a.
(i_*

and Till to be content, oontent


cut
up,
partition

/ozr

alaughter; butchering;

ebb

with) II to divido, part, separate,


(*
s.th.)

(of the eea)

break up,

jjr jazra blood aacrifice

to divide, break up, be or beoome di-

vided; to be aeparated, be detaohed, be


partitioned off; to be divisible, separable
(je.

jjJt camel
jlj*-

fa&r

pl*

jyr ;uzur alaughter

from)
pl. |>^l

;audr

pl. I, -fin

butcher

*>r /uz*

ajz* part,

portion;

constituent, oomponent; fraction; divilion; seotion; the 30th part of the

*jjfr jazira pl- y'j- jaziFir*, jj- ju* zur island | Syj*- *r* &At* 7- peninsula;

Koran

y^Ll AI Jazira,

(Northwest) Mesopo-

(= 2

hizb)
/*'*

tamia; J"I>LI Algeria; Algiers; ^yJli^ypartial; minor, trivial, in/.

Ojr
petty ;

al-arab Arabia, the Arabian Peninaula;

aignificant,

unimportant;
juz'iyan

(jur.)

minor,

olJU-M yM>i(I<W) the Canary Islands;


1^-iA^
I

LJj*-.

partly ;

oLJj-

'*j_}L\ (Jca4r')

Algeciraa (aeaport in

juz'iyl details, particulara; trivialitiea;

SW

Spain)
(pl.

aubordinate
(o.g.,

parte;

divisiona,
|

aections
*Jj*- a|>

<$js? jaxari insular;


,sJ\jr
jaz'iri pl-

-n) islander

of a court of justice)
(jur.);

{mawdd) petty casea


(junah)

SJjr

-* Algerian (adj.

ryr

aummary deliota (ju-r.); v>r f^ oourta of aummary justice; *Jj*- LJ (niydoa) p&rquet of a aummary court;

and

n.); islander

jjfi-

majzir

pl. jjlrf.

majzir* alaughter-

house, abattoir; butohery


jj* majzara
pl. jjlrf-

Vjr

k^- minor incident;

*-I/r

*i>-J

majzir* butoh-

(fcutPtya)
(fcuttiydf)

part payment; oUSJIj oLi^jLl

ery; masaaore, oarnage


*jj-

the particular and general as-

pecta, the

minor and the major

isauea

/aar

(coli.

n. un. I) carrot(a)

*&j? juxai* pl. -t molecule


Jlj*-1 ajz'l pl. -fin

fj. jazi'a

(jaza",

pharmaoist, drug-

oome

anxious,

j>- jtu") to be or bewonied, coneerned; to


to
feel

gist

be aad, unhappy (j* about);


regret (J* for
a.o.),

^1^1 ajzji pl. -lya phannacist, druggiat

mourn (J* for break, snap


9 j+- jaz*
f-j.

s.o.)

pity (J* a.o.); to V to break apart,

V'j*-' ajz'iya
pl. -dt

and

U-lj-! ajzJpna

pharmacy, drugatore
tajzi'a

onyz

juz' axle; ahaft (Uchn.)

jjjf

division;

partition;

Sep(into
f

aration;

dissociation;

breakdown

uneasineaa, apprefj*- jaza' anxiety,

claaaea, oategoriea, etc.);


*J/iU

fragmentation

henaion, ooncern; anguiah, fear; aadneas


f-j*-

bility;

Jj divisible; 4jJj*JI J^jIS divisi'j^l retaUer, rotail merchant

^U

jazi* restless,

impatient; anxious,

wonied, uneasy, apprehensive

Uj- juzdn, jixdn


purae
'jj*-

pl. -f

wallet; change

fjjr Z* 8 **
prehensive

an<1 PJ^T /**' r08 ^88 ;

"

patient; anxious, worried,

uneasy, ap-

jazara

(;'aw)

to alaughter;

to

kill,

butcher (* an animal);
Bink,
fall,

tu

(jazr)

to

9j mujazza* marbled, veined;


gated, dappled

varie-

drop, ebb (water)

; ;

*-J*-

124

t_j>- III to act at

random,

blindly, indis-

>-j*-

jazm cutting

off,

clipping; deeision;

oriminately, take a ohance; to speculate


(fin.);

resolution, resolve; apodiotio

judgment;
'almat

to speak vaguely, in general terms;

(gram.) apocopate form


al-j.

rjA-l <*"iU

to

riflk,

Btake

(v

a.th.)
<>

**j

<JijU- to
s.o.

= jazma
jazma
diacritical

riak one's life;

<JjU- to

plunge

<*j*-

mark

()

indi-

into (some adventure)


<Jlj*-

cating vowellessness of a final consonant


fjU- jzim decisive; peremptory, def-

yuaS/ purcbase of a certain athings- (Isl.

mount of

Law);

Ulj*-

jtu*

mite, definitive, final; firmly convinced,

/an at random, haph&zardly


absolutely certain

(^ of

s.th.); (pl. fjlj-

jtf mujzafa raanness, recklessness,


foolhardiness;
riak,

jawzim?) governing the apocopate form


(gram.)
ajj-

hazard; adventure,

venture

majzm cut off, cut Bhort,

clipped
(final

Jjljf

mujzif rash, reckless, foolhardy

decided, Bettled; (gram.) voweess

adventurous; venturesome
1

consonant)

in the apocopate form

J^>>-

javula

to

be considerable, abun*j

rj>y+ munjazim (gram.) in the apoco-

dant, plentiful IV .IUI

J>1

('a^J'a)

pate form
3

to

give

generously, openhandedly, libs.o.

erally to

VIII to write shorthand


Jjjjazii
pl.

<uJ*-

jazma

pl. -t, *j*j

jizam (pair of) shoes,


<*j- (6-ri6f)

(pair of) boote

J>Ly

laced

J*- jad and


zl

Jl^
^tjl

/-

boote; i*U

<*j-

(Jamm*a) patent-leather

abundant, plentiful, ample, mnch;


|

Bhoes

pure, lucid, eloquent (style)

<Jj*-

of sound, unerring judgment;


^jj*- fafcaroA Sukran jazllan

IjSli

ji

a^J*(eg.),

gazmaQx

(eg.)

and

JLJ*- gizamti

he thanked
thanks!

jazmti (syr.)
(lj*-

pl.

-iya

shoemaker
recompenee

him

profusely; *^jJ- lji


pieoe, slioe

many

^j*. 7'az
(

joz*) torequite,

*Jj*- jizlo

SJIj*.

jaztUa

profusion,

abundance

(rhet.)

purity (of style)


mujtazil atenographer

or J* for), repay ( to s.o., or J* s.th.); to reward (* s.o., *-. or or J* for); J* for); to punish ( s.o.,
s.o.,

to aatisfy

( s.o.),

give satisfaction

to

J>
'Jjj^- look
B

b.o.);

to compensate,

make up
iJlj*-

(<~>

* for

up

alphabetically
lj>J*-

a.th.

with or by); to compensate, offset


|

(je s.th.)

\j^-

iil

(kairan)

may

Vj*- juzln

~
i

God
off,

bless

you for

*j.j*-

jazama

(jazm) to cut

cut Bhort,

ainimmra) he

[^ (jaz'a returned to him good


it!
lj*(i_>

jUi-

olip (* s.th.);
(* s.th.);

to judge; to decide, Bettle

for evil III to repay, requite

* a.th.

to be positive (u> about), be


(.->

with,

<~>

s.o. for),

reoompenae

(<->

s.o.

absolutely certain
authoritatively
one's mind,
a.th.);

of s.th.); to assert to

(^

s.th.);

make up
(J* to do *

reward (J* or punish ( J* oru s.o. for)


for); to

u
|

* s.o. for);
\_y~-

to

>jjU-

(Icoi*

decide,

resolve

ran) he invoked God's reward

upon them

to impose,
s.o.);

make incumbent (J*

IV to

auffice ( s.o.),

do

for a.o. (*); to

a.th. final

on

(gram.) to pronounce the

take the place, serve instead (je of), replace


lj*(je. s.th.)

consonant (of a word) without a

vowel; to put (* a verb) into the apocopate form or the imperative

jaz*

requital,

repayment;

rec-

ompense, return; compensation,

setoff;

125

amends, reparation; punishment, penalty


|

II to

make

corporeal, invest with a


(* s.th.), give

j-J l>- {naqdi) fine


Jaz*i

body, embody, incamate

J'yr
j-

penal
pl. j_^7'tzan,
l_^-

concreto form (* to s.th.); to render or represent in corporeal form {* s.th.)


jix*

V to

jzya

become
to

corporeal,

assume concrete form,


(Chr.);

tax ;

tribute ;

head tax on

free

non-

materialize; to

become incamate

Muslims under Muslim rule


jjf tajziya reward
Ijl*

become three-dimensional
4- jasad pl. jL_*-I

ajsd body

J-*

mujzh

requital,

repayment;

A_i-1 'xd al-j.

and A_i-t LrJ- Corpus

Christi

puniahment
^_ r
j'aara
feal,

Day
<_* majaMa) to touch,

(Chr.)

{jas8,

ja-

jasadi bodily, fleshly, carnal

handle

(* s.th.); to palpate,

examine
probe

jloi-. jusdnl bodily

by touch
(* s.th.);

{* s.th.); to test, sound,

to

try

to

gain

Information
(* s.th.); to

jjf

taja&sud

materialization ;

incar-

nation (Chr.)
(a about), try to find

out
l

spy out (*

s.th.)

*-iJ

feel s.o.'s pulse,

(fig.)

rr (nabdah) to ^1 ^^J ^r*- to


_

4 mujassad embodied, oorporined

j^ mutajaarid corporeal; incamate


(Chr.),

probe, sound out, try to find out s.th.

to try to gain Information { * about), try


.*-

to find out (* s.th.); to reconnoiter, scout,

josara

u to span,

cross, traverse (* s.th.)

explore (* s.th.); to be a spy, engage in

(JjL^
risk
(

jasra, jj~*s.th.),

jusr) to venture,

espionage to spy, pry, Bnoop ( J* on


;

a.o.)

J*

have the courage ( J* to do

IjU^-l

*J

,^jtf

(akbran) to gather Ins.o.,

s.th.) II

to build a

dam

or dike; to em-

formation for
touch,
feel,

spy for

s.o.

VIII to

bolden, encourage

( s.o.,

J* to do
s.th.),

s.th.)

handle

(* s.th.); to

spy out

VI to dare, venture, risk ( J*

have

(* s.th.)

u~*r jasax u r 4J* forty al-j. delicate to the touch, having a tender surface, fresh
\

the audacity (J* to do s.th.); to be bold, forward, insolent, impudent (J* with
s.o.)

VIII to span, oross, traverse (* s.th.)

orj"W

jte* pl-

a-f^jr jawb? py

_,-* jiar pl.

r*r

ajaur,

j>-*- juar
levee;

bridge;

dam,

dike,

embankment,

i-j^l*- j&&a
(j-^-l*-

woman spy
of espionage, spy(in

(pl. ~vj-*r
|

juara) beam, girder; axle,


j~*- (mutaharrik)

jssi

axletree

'Sj**i*

Compounds)
L^-l*- j&&iya spying, espionage
*

bridge;

jL*

bridge; f'U

^ ^

movable

(muaaq) Suspension

pontoon bridge, floating

bridge
*j*.

jausaaa spying, espionage

jj*ljr^-

jasr bold, daring; forward, in-

majass spot which one touches or


sense of touch
|
l

solent,

impudent

feels;

rA\

jl*- ka&in
ljl~*r jas&ra boldnees, recklessness, in-

al-m. coarse to the touch, having a rough

trepidity; forwardneas, insolence

surface

u^- mijasB probe


(__

jjj- tajsur boldness, recklesaness,


(med.)

in-

trepidity; forwardneas, insolence

rjf

tajaasua spying, espionage

^-l*. mutajtir bold, daring; forward,


hard, rough, rugged
insolent,

^U

jsi'

impudent

J^sjL-*. seo jU--

126

vl<-*- jaamniya*

Gethsemane

*-

jaeuma u

(<!*- jo*i7na)

to be great, big,
II

(j*-)

L-*-

jaa u to

become hard,

solid

large, bulky, huge,

immense

to

make
u
-

ja$$a

corporeal, invest with a

body

u (ja) to grind, crush,

bruise,

{* s.th.),

give (* B.th.) shape or form; to materialize


{* B.th.); to cause to
(*
s.th.);

grate (* s.th.)
i*- juiia hoarseness, huskiness, raucity

stand out, bring out

to enlarge, magnify (* s.th.;

(of the voice)


^ifrlq-

e.g.,

microecope) ; to
(*
s.th.);

make

big,

bulky,

jaUS ground, grated, cnuhed

huge

to play up, exaggerate


im

(* s.th.)

to become corporeal, become

*r ajaiP, f. .Li- jaSS'* hoarse, husky,


\

embodied; to materialize; to assume a


form, take shape, become tangible or concrete; to be materialized; to

raucous (voice)
Uj-. II

and T to
juS*

belch,

burp

become

big,
Li-

large, huge, increase in volume, grow in size

and

ll*-

jufa

belch(ing),

burp(ing)

_*- jism

pl. j*L-*-l

body

(also

ajsm, {j-t jusm of an automobile); sub-

jLl- juir livestock

st&nce, matter; masa; form, shape

*/ ja&i'a a
Li*tiaJ,
*-

ijaSa*)

and V to be covetous,

jitmi bodily, phyBioal; substan-

greedy
-*-

material
jaSa'

greed,

avidity,

inordinate

*_- jasim pl. jL*- jism great, big,


large;

desire

voluminous, bulky, huge; vast,


;

immense

stout, oorpulent; weighty,

most

*- yoii' greedy, covetous


_!*- jaJSima

signicant, momentous, prodigious

a (ja&m,
(*

<*LL> j'oima)
II

to take
to

^_-

jusaim
(biol.)

pl.

-t

particle

(phys.);

upon
(

o.s.

some hardship)

make
to

corpuscle

s.o.)

suffer or
(*

undergo (*

s.th.);

_*-! ajaam*
stouter,

more voluminous,

larger;

impose
(*

on

s.o. s.th. difficult),

brden
o.s.,

more corpulent
size,

* s.o.

with

s.th.)

V to take upon

suffer,

undergo

(* s.th., e.g., hardships)

i*L*- jasma

volume; stoutness,
J^j- (eg., of. sampling

corpulence
olj-*-

iiHl) sample, specimen;

jusmn body, masa


jusmnl bodily, physical, corJlr-J-I w-Jitdl

J^-*poral
|

II

to plaster, whitewash (* s.th.)

corporal punishment
-*T
,jL-*-

TW

gypeum;

plaster of Paria

-jf tajtm embodiment; lief; enlargement,


magnification,

magnifying

tajaffana to lounge, Stretch lazily,

loU

power
_jt
(math.)

mujassam bodily, corporeal; body three-dimensional ; tangible,


;

- jt'a

beer

_^u>.

II to

corrugate (* s.th.)

material,

concreto;

raised,

relieflike,

standing out in relief (e.g., 3*-j* <!>relief

L- ;a'6a pl.

v^r

?*'<*&

quiver; tube,

map);
1*

relief;

enlarged, magnified

pipe;
|

gun
|

barrel;

O
j.

oartridge

pouch

(film) three-dimenaional (stereo-

(8yr.)

jLj^I i-r

ffbr

town gosaip

scopic) film,

3-D motion picture

(person)

127

mm>-

ja'ja'a (*>- ja'ja'a) to clamor, roar,

think, deem, believe

(<_>

or

s.o.

to

shout; to clatter, clap; to bluster, ex-

be

...,

* * a.th. to be

...),

take

(<_>

or

plode in anger
**>>**- ja'ja'a

s.o.

for,

* * s.th. for); to represent (*

hubbub, rumpus, olamor,

s.th., _)>*

ae, or in

the form

of, s.th.

roar;

creak,

clapping noiae (of a mill

eise);
s.o.,

to appoint, settle (J
in
s.o. 's

* s.th.
give,

for

wheel) ; bluster
PImu*.
ja' ja"

favor)

to

grant,
s.o.),

concede (J *
clamorous,
boiBteroua,

s.th.,

an advantage, to

put

s.o.

(J) in

the

way
s.o.

of s.th. (*); to

noisy; bawler, loud-mouthed person

attribute (* J to s.o. s.th.), maintain that

Xu- ja'uda

(~*}j>*r

jv'da, iL*, ja'da)

and

s.th.
(Jl

(>)

belongs to

(J); to entrust
{

T to become
(hair); to be

curly, frizzed, kinky, ourl

* s.th. to s.o.); to put, get

s.o.,

wavy; to be creased;
curl, (* frizz {m s.th.;

to be

* s.th., into a specific State or condition);

wrinkled
hair); to

II to

s.th.;

the

(with

foll.

imperf.) to begin to, aet out to|

wave

the hair); to

Jaj *L. to induce b.o. to do; to


s.o.

make
*Lu>-

crease, pleat, plait (* cloth); to wrinkle


{* the skin)
u- ja'd (or oJl 0*j. j.

do

s.th. (in

a narrative); Hy^t
place
s.o.

(bi-manzilati)

to
.u

on
(/

equal

footing with ;
al-yad,
>JSJl .u-

Jjbi.

*L*.

mutend*
within

wali yadihi) to bring or put


s.o.'s

s.th.

al-kqff) stingy, niggardly, tightfiated


0*- ja' da curl, lock, ringlet

reach III to seek to bribe, try to


s.o.

win

(<_>

with

B.th.)

tjXu- ja'dl

and

0**-l

aj'ad* curly
loafer,

J**-

ju'l

pl.

JUij-I

afl pay, wages;

ti-Lj*- pa'fi

(ey.)

bum,

good-

piece wages; reward, prize


Jj-

for-nothing
4-*l* taj'id* wrinkles, lines (of the face)
klilxwf taja"udt wrinkles

ju'U:

^-

Jltfl

{iUifq)

piece

work contract
J**- jv'al pl. ">U- ji'ln

dng

beetle;

scarabaeus

Uf

muja"ad

curled,

frizzed;

wavy;
ll
ji'la,

furrowed, creased; wrinkled

ja'ala,

ju'la

pl.

JJU*.

Uo muiaja"id
J-u-

ja''iP pay, wages; allowance; reward,

curled, frizzed;

wavy;

prize; bribe
Ll>>>-

furrowed, creased; wrinkled

jugry and vi/** jufirfiya geog|

ja'dana idle talk, goeaip (b.)

raphy

S..J

vL^

(/oM'iya) physical

/**- ja'ara

{ja'r)

to drop

its

manure (animal)

geography
jl>*- jugrfi geographica!; geographer
i_i-

l_^u-.

_y)

ab

ji'rn* Bcarabaeus;

dng

beetle

Jaffa

(Ist pers. perf. jafaftu)

(JU.

jim^ ja'jar
J*- ja'ala

little river,

creek
(* B.th.); to put,

jaff, >i- juff) to dry,

become dry;
(* B.tb.)

to dry out

II

to dry,

make dry

(ja'l)

to

make

JiU*- jaff dryness; desiccation; dry-

place, lay (* s.th.); to create (* s.th.);

ing up; dullnesa


JiLijf tijff pl.

to effect, bring about (* s.th.); to


(* * s.th. a rule,

make
like,

a principle, or the

Juil* tajfif* protective

s.o., e.g.,
s.o.

leader, king, etc.), appoint


office,

to an

rank, or the like);


price, at); to

tajftf

drying; desiccation; de-

to fix, set (* * a

Bum, a

hydration; drainage

128

<-Jl*- J Jf

dfJ

*-J^r^*- J* {qalam hibr)

*^i*-

jafwa roughneas;

estrangement,
dissension,

ball-point
<Jii

pen
desiccated, de-

alienation ;

disagreement,

mujaffaf dried,

quarrel
Li*- jaf'

hydro ted; oljt dehydrated foods


Li*-

roughness, harshneae; stern-

neas; antipathy, aversion, distaate, loath/u/d* useless,

vain,

futile

Li*-

_^i

ing; estrangement, alienation

dahaha juf'an to be in voin, be of no


avail, pass useleaaly
C-i*c*i*x

yr

ajf

refraining

even

more

(J

from),
jt/J,
(5t/f

more averse

(J to s.th.)

(pronounced

/(;
|

ep.)

pincers, tweezers;

metal clamp

cu*-

jU- jfin

pl. Li*-

jufh harsh, rough,

coarse; brutiah, uncouth, rde


Lj-i
j.

Saryn arterial olamps


iiTU- look up alphabetically
eg.) filigree

jj*; (pronounced SiftiH;


ilbu-.
jt/titfc

farm, country estate; govero{Pal.)


i&

jS^*- III (syr.)

to tease

( s.o.)

ment land

jaa *J*al-j.

(J^*-

jall)

to be great, lofty,

ji*- jafr, jl\

'

divination, for-

exalted, illustrious, sublime; to be too

tunetelling
ijj*- jufra pl. jji- jujar pit, hole

great (j* for), be beyond s.th. (jt), be


far

above

s.th. (je)

j~J-l
|

J* Jr
II

('an

il-hofir)

to be innumerable
{ s.o.);

to honor,

Ji*- jafala i
start,
II

(jafi,

J>**- jw/0 an<l


fright; to

IV to

dignify, exalt

to cover (* s.th.,

jump with
( s.o.)

shy (horse)
to scare

esp. the ground, as snow, plante, etc.);

to start, rouse (*s.th.,

s.o.);

to envelop, wrap, drape, clothe ; to border,

away
Ji*-

edge
J>*- jw/* fright, alarm;
(
1

{* s.th.,

^ with)

IV to honor, digni-

jafl

and

fy, revere, venerate,


s.o.)
;

esteem highly, exalt

to

shying
tiiLU-

deem too high, too exalted ( j*


beyond
B.th.
s.th. {je-)
(

for s.th.), consider far

(pronounoed

Siflik; eg.)

VI to deem

o.s. far

above

je)

X to

be great, exalted, sublime


ja*- jafn pl. >i*- jufn, OLL*-! aj/dn eyelid

iU*- ;'a/na pl.

6 Li*-

;/n,

iLi*- jafant

J*J*-

jatt great,

outstanding; bolky
bulle,

bowl; graps vine


(^i*-) Li*- jaf

ju major portion,
|

majority,
t*V'
J*-

main part

*!*-

jvuh most of it;

{jafw, Li*- jaf') to be rough,

;.

al-umma the majority of the people;

coaree; to treat

s.o.)

roughly, harshly;
flee

4-i

J-

ite

main Contents;
muoh,

*jl

to turn
(

away
III

from), shun, avoid,


treat
(
s.o.)
(

(jvu) that

at least,

JUL U J-j can be said

s.o.)

to

roughly,
to s.o.);
flee

that...

rudely, harshly; to be oruel

to be crosa
(

with

s.o.);

to elude,

JL-

jalal

important, significant, mo-

s.o.;

slumber); to offend (* against

mentous, weighty
J*jvlid pl. Jl*-

good
like)

taste, one's sense of honor,

or the

jvkd matter of great


undortaking,

VI to withdraw (j* from), shun,


(

importanos,

momentous

avoid

b.o.);

to loathe
to)
;

{je- s.o., s.th.),

great feat, exploit

have an aversion (je

to display rde

<U
ball;

jvUa,

jitta

droppings,
Jl*-

dng

(of

manners, aot the ruffian


ji+- jafw roughneas, harshness

animals);

Jutta

pl.

julal

(oannon)

bomb

129

<-
goods)

<U- jna attire, elothing

<ijjX\ 1U-1
epis-

to import (a goods); to fetch,


call in ( s.o.); to attract,

(1J^5I)

(habrawiya,

kahntiya)

summon,
(a, (a,
a

draw

copal (sacerdotal) vestments (Chr.)

s.o., s.th.); s.o., s.th.);

to seek to attract or win


to get, procure (a s.th.)
fetching; procure

JJ*-

jtdtl

pl.

oU-l

a;tH<S' 8 , *-l

ajta,
!_Jj>-

JJlU- jal'* great, important, significant,

jalb bringing,

weighty,

momentous;

lofty,

exalted,

ment; acquisition; importation, import;


causation, bringing on, bringing about
!_Jj>-

sublime; reverod, honorable, venerable;


glorioua, splendid

jalab imported; foreign jalab

J-^U jall loftiness, sublimxty, augustness; splendor, glory


"*}>-

i_-i*-

and

<JU-

jalaba

clamor;

uproar, tumult, turmoil

jalla loftiness,
|

subUmity, august(i--U*) !_^-L*


7.

<JU- julba scar


i_--L- jalib

ness; majesty

tl'^i-l

His
imported, foreign;
(pl. ^1*-

(Her) Majesty,

illil

iJ-^U-

al-malik His

jaJb, -LU- julab' 2 ) foreign slave

Majesty, the King

^^U2 J-l ajall groater;

jallb

attractive,

captivatmg
J

more sublime; more


importer, trador; see also alphabetically
iJI

splendid
iLfi

v^T

a ' av 6

trader
[eg.) pl. -t,

majalla
|

pl.

-( periodical;

review,
J-j-^U-

gallbiya

^"^U-

gal

magazine

v^*-' *l (iwfc'iya) weekly

b 1 galabia, a loose, shirtlike garment,


the

magazine; s_+publication;
fessional
_;

^f

(JoAriya)

monthly
proin
iL*.

i^U
for
.

common

dress of the male population

iL*
.

(Aflsa)

Egypt
<_jLU- see

Journal

. ;

*&+-*$

lawbook, code; jol^l iLf do.


<U"
tajifa

below under

i_--U-

and

JlU-i

jiZ

honor,

i_Jj^-1

ajlab 2

more

attractive,

more

distinction;

esteem, deference, respect;

captivating
d_Lf majlaba pl. i_JLf majlib* causa-

reverence
a

tive
J*-

factor,

motive, reason, cause, oc-

ju rose
jub rose water; julep

casion
urJ'^u-l istijlb

t-}U- jwZafc,

procurement, acquisi-

tion;
i>;:>U- (Fr. gtlatine) ieltin jelly

importation, import; supply; at|

traction

j>^LJI ^"iUiJ promotion of

V
1

^*- (Fr. glaci) glaseh (eg.)

kid leather

tourist traffic

i_L- jalaba

(jalb)

to attract (a s.th.); to

JU-

jlib

causative factor,

motive,

fetch, get, bring

(a s.th.,

J to s.o.); toim2
^

reason, cause, occasion

port (a goods); to bring about (a a state,


condition) to bring (a hrm, shame,etc,
;

r>'iU- julb, jullb rose water; julep


(bot.)

Jp upon s.o.) to gain, win, obtain


;

(* s.th.)

LL- jalaba jalap

to earn (a s.th.); (vj^r fuliib) to scar


over, heal (wound) II to shout, clamor;
1-U- II tajalbaba to clothe o.s.
(l->

with), be

to be noisy, boisterous IV to earn, gain,

clothed, be clad
fig.)

(l_>

in a

garment, also

acquire (a s.th.);
VIII

=
on

II;

VII pass. of I
fetch,

to

procure,

bring,

get

(*

<_jLU- jilbb pl.

_-xj">U-

jalblb*

garment,

s.th.); to

draw

(a

s.th.); to

import (*

dress,

gown; woman's dress

^Lr
LU- jidvbbn ohickling vetoh, grass pea
(Lathyrus Bativus)
1

130

0-1*-

julaida pl. -dt


film (phot.)

membrane,

pel-

liole;
oi*.

JmJU> jaljala to re verberate; to resound, ring

j'afcwi

endurance; suffering; pa-

out; to rattle; to shake

(* s.th.)

tience;
Hol,

firmament

J**U

jvljul pl.

Jr^r

jaljiP (little)

joo

lash, Btroke
IxL-

with a whip

bell, Bleigh bell;

cowbell; jingle

O-l*-

jolJ pl.

julad*' staunoh,

iUJj- jaljala sound of a bell; lond,


shrill

steadfast; strong, sturdy


0-1*-

sound
mujaljil shrill,
pieroing;
ring-

jalid iee

0-1*-

J-*-

jafai

7.

iceberg;

J^Lf

O-ill

j- 4*Li

(<#'<*) ice floe

ing, resoimding, rererberant


i$0-l*-

jaZidtioy, ice-oovered, glacial, iee


|

'iUJ- juljula, ILnJU-I J-*- jabalal-j. Golgotha

(adj.);

snow-oovered

^-lU;I j~JI {'ap)

the Ice

Age
7o2tZ<f

^UJ-

jidjtdn, jjiln

Besame
j^Llong-suffering, patient

;aZAa a O'aJaA) to be or

become bald

^Ul

a/ZoA",

f.

-l^L- jalh'*, pl.

^U jui

j'iU jalld pl. -fin leather merohant;

executioner,

hangman
and *^>U- julvda endurance,

bald-headed, bald
j^U- jalda

L-

jalafca

a and II to sharpen
{*

(* s.th.); to

patience
loLf mijlada whip, lash, scourge
oJLf tajlid freezing; bookbinding

whet, hone

a knife), strop (* a razor);

to stretch, extend, roll out (> metal)


*J*j'aZfc

grindstone, whetstone, hone

ai*.

jalada

{jald)

to whip,

flog, lash ( s.o.);

i'iU

jtfcjrf

fight, battle (against)

jalida a to be frozen, freeze; jaluda


u to be tough, hardy, undismayed, steadfast, patient II to

oLf tajavd endurance, patience


-drf.

mujaid;

<

bind

(*

a book);

r&\ oU m.

a/-ih**u&

(to

bookbinder
oi* mujaUad frozen, ioy, ice-covered; bound (book); (pl. -t) volume (book)
oJlf mujlid pl. -an gladiator
olu* mvlajaid patient

oaase) to freeze (* s.th.) III to fight

(# s.o.)

IV to freeze; to be frozen, be oovered with


ice

to take heart; to

show
o.s.

o.s.

tough, hardy, robust; to resign

to

patience; to bear, Buffer VI to engage in

a sword fight
oi.

jald flogging;

(pl.

:oU-l ajld)

J^UfJ

jitiauz (ooll.; n. un. ) hazelnut; hazel

staunch, steadfast; strong, sturdy


oi*- jild pl. jl*-

Ajr jalaaa

(,j->U- ?&**) to Bit

down

(Jl

jvld, J'iU-l ajldskin,

with

s.o.,

at a table,
s.o.,

etc.,

J on a

chair);

hide;

leather

oUic

oi*.

(suktiyn)

to sit (Jl with


chair)
|

morocoo; fli
.U*-

oi*-

(lamm') patent leather

*Upl

Jl ^^JL- (rasam)

at a table, J* on a to Bit for

jUda akin, hide; pieee of leather;


LixL^>\

a painter
s.o.,

III to Bit (*

with

s.o.,

next to
()

race

Um

jildatin

our country-

in b.o.'r Company); to keep s.o. to sit down,

man, our
ban
j.

fellow tribesman, pl. bJ-*- j->

Company IV to ask
down, seat
( s.o.)

make

sit

t^oi*.

jildi

dermal,

outaneous,
diseases

skin

*~L- jal&a pl. -t seat (in an auditorium)


seseion (of parliament, of a committee,

(adj.)
f

3j-*- <j*'j*' 8'"11

131

^
Ja ^pLf
r (

of a court,
ing
|

eto.)

party, gathering, meet-

tuUi)

court, tribunal (3yr.);

5-JU- J*

*aqada jalsaian to convene

{^jSLc

or)

jjfr

^r-U

('r/i f

'fawJ)

a Session ;
Session

i*U

JL-

('dmma)

plenary

court-martial; /VI *--* ^rif m. 'u^fraf

a-umam
Nations
;

Council
aj**II ,jJje.

of

the

League

of

JL- jtba manner of sitting


)>r

the

House of Comdraft

mons; tVI ^r-U m. al-a'yn Senate


JUjaZi pl. Ul*- julas'* participant

(/r M

in a social gathering; table

oompanion;

Jon*.); Jj^Vl

^r-U

board,
^Sfi^^JLf
i_

recruiting commission (mil.);

one with
the

whom

one

sits

together; *-*!*-

(qarawi)
(tgtis&it)

local

man who was

oouno;

&jj ^aL^
t/y
;

at the party with

him

economic

oouncil;

rSjt

<-xU- jaltsa lady oompanion; fem. of

(qaumi) national
jjiJ!

assembly

L
j^fli

^pJLf

ta.

qiydat af-taura

Supreme Rev-

^j^r

ftds

sitting;

sitting

down;

olutionr Tribunal

(Eg.);

accession to the throne; pl.


jlis sitting

of

^U-

and jjTVl
Counoil
(==

^1
le

,^1
Grand
Tun.);

(akbar)

the

Qrand Conse;

^jjjt

majlis pl.

^Lf

majlif seat;

Cr^jjW or^f tbe House of Lords; ^ySjt <-*'>" m. an-nuuwdft lower house, Chamber of deputies; (jLJ ^S*. (niybi) parliament;
<#i-l

Session

room, oonferenoe room; party,


meeting;
sooial

gathering,

gathering

^rJLf

m. al-jiha approx.:
de rigion;

Session, sitting;

counc meeting; counoil;


College ;

provincial counoil

(= conse

ooncilium ;

collegium,

board,

Tun.); *\jjj\ ^ySjt m. al-uwzar" cabinet,


Council of ministen

oommittee, commission; administrative


board; court, tribunal
presence, in s.o.'s
|

*Jjt

in a.o.'s

Company;

LJLf mujlaM
(

social interoourse

*__j^Lji ^^JLf

and

^jk

ijJjL disciplinary

board;
jliT

rJLf
-\*

(jJU-

7'fifw pl.

tj-i-tj

conatituent assembly;

sitting; pl.

t^l*- 7*W*, u^^*- 7'uZZd ^"^U- partioipants in a sooial

regional court {tribunal regional; Tun.);


1*VI
iJ

gathering
.LU- jalafa
i

SA

m. al-umma parliament m.
al-amn
,jjjc.

(Ir.);

(jalf)

^Vl
i^jJj

to ohafe, gall, abrade (*

^ySjt

the

Seourity

the

flkin);

to shave

Counoil; oiJI
(

m. al-baladtya and

(^J\

ar-ra'aa the

head)
iUL7'uZ/a

rJLf

(baZtuft)
<~>^J-I

local Council, ,jA*-

munic-

ipal

counoil;
t_

m. al-harb war
probate court
(mubtalif)

lump, clot
olot,

Council;
(for

^^-Lf {Aa*oi)

maunya) blood
t_iijilf pl.

<u* 1ULthrombus
|

(da*

Muslims; %.); -Us*


(eg.);
fli-dl

^M

-^U-l

07*20/

boorish, rde, un-

mized court
oouncil;

^Sfi-

defense

civil

\j\>*j\

^^-U

m.

oZ-Zra

ad-

ministrative board, committee of managernent, directorate; board of directors (of

lU

^zZ/a/a (<l*iU jalfaja) to calk {*


(eg.)

a ship)

jiL- galjana

to galvanize

a oorporation or bank); i^-ili

rJLf m.

olU- galjana galvanization


Jljf

al-mudiriya provincial Council, provincial

parliament (Eg.);

iijj}\

S*. m. ad-daula

mugalfan galvanized

Supreme

Administrative

Court

(Eg.) ;

"^- jalqa:

<uj

i*-^.

(garowtyo) yokel,

(A) religious court, clerical tf-jj t^Jjf court (of the Coptio Church); jj^i ^IjL
iJjjJI

bumpkin
j]*-

m. fr d-daula counc of stete;

jalama
j]*-

(jalm) to clip, shear off {* s.th.)


pl. p-^-! a7'Idm

>" cr-^f oouncil of eiders; Senate (9.);

jaZom

shears

; ;

rW
r _^l ab galamb
.ui- II
(eg.)

a variety of orab

olarify,
(*

clear

up

{* s.th.),

throw

light

on); to uncover, unearth, bring to

tajalmada to be petrified

light, find out, discover, detect (* s.th.)


*>U- 'j

-ui-

jalmad

pl. pl.

-u^0-.^U-

jaJmW and
jalmld
1

ij*U-

jtdmd

rook,

ihn jal a famous, well-known

bolder

man, a

celebrity

jUL- juUanr pomegranate blossom


(^U- and J-) ^U- 70W s.th.) ;to olear (* the

J*r jally clear, piain, evident, patent, manifest, obvious, conspicuous; LL- ja*

to olean, polish (*
clear,

l\yan obviously, evidently


SJ*- jaltya pl. L^U- jaly sure thing,

view);tomake

make
throw

piain* clarify, olear


light

up

(* s.th.),

piain fact

y J j\ LL-

jallyat al-amr the

on

(*);

to reveal, unveil,

true State of the affair


J-l

didoae (*

s.th.);
*

to dislodge, oust, res.o.

move

(je * or

or s.th. from); to
(

ajl clearer,

more obvious, more

shine, be briiant, distinguish o.a.


s.th.); to

distinot

in IjL- jilwa unveiling (of the bride)


|

be or become

clear, evident,

manifest; to pull out,


place),

move out
(j*

(j* of a

jLU

lailat al-j.

wedding night
clarification,

go away, depart

from

*iU-

jal*

eluoidation

place), leave, quit,

evacuate (j* a place);

clarity, clearness, plainness, distinctness

J-

jal i to polish, burnish (* s.th.)


(

departure, (e)migration

(je-

from); evacmtl.);
*sU

II to reveal, disclose, bring to light

jp or
*

uation

(j*

of

an

area;

* s.th.);
s.th..)
;

to show, represent

s.o.,

clearly, plainly

IT to

remove,

dislodge,
;

oust,

drive

away

(*,

s.o., s.th.)

to evacuate

jLL- jalayn
alypse {Chr.)

vision, revelation, apoc-

( s.o.,

,j* from); to

move away, go away


leave
(je-

(j* from a place),

a place)

Jlf

majdlin

(pl.

of

Jjf

majlan)

to

become
itself,

olear, evident, manifest; to

manifestations
5JL* tajtiya: i-*^l SJjf (hiya) divine

reveal

be revealed;
light,

to

appear,

show, come to
itself;

come

out, manifest

revelation; theophany (Chr.)


Jjf tajain revelation, manifestation;

to be manifested, be expressed,

find expression VII to be clean or cleaned,

Transfiguration (of Christ)

be polished, be bumished to be removed,


;

J^ifl

X*

'id

be dislodged, be ousted; to move away


(j* from a place), vacate, evacuate (j*

at-t.

Transfiguration
ijtil*

Day

(Chr.)

ob-l

oontemplation
clarification, eluoidation

a place) to be dispelled, vanish, go away,


;

IUj^I

istijla

pass

(crisis,

difficulty,
itself,

etc.);

to

dis-

appear; to reveal
disclosed;

be revealed, be
(bride)
;

<JU- jliya

pl. -t, Jlj-

jawlin colony

to

be unveiled
manifest

to

(of foreigners) ; colony of emigrants


J*il al-mujai the

become

manifest,

itself;

to

winner

(in

a race)

become
end (je
j)j\

clear or piain; to clear

up and

Jm> mutajain obvious, evident, manifest,

reveal (j* s.th.); to lead,


in)
;

come (& to), ** Jj^JJ L the outcome of the matter, what


to result
(jt- in)
j

patent

jjL-. galn pl. ~t gallon (eg.)

will (*
(*)

come of

it

VIII to reveal, disolose


(*
s.th.),

j^Lf mugalwan galvanized

(eg.)

s.th.);

to regard

look at to

to seek to olarify (*

s.th.);

juU see J-

J-

133

O^rk* gilyotin guillotine


*lr

(eg.)

pjh

jamaha a (jamk, mh) to bolt


unruly, recalcitrant

*-L>a

jimh,

r-j**

ju

abbreviation

of tj*A

a^

(horee); to be refractory,
;

Egyptian

to be defiant; to be

pound

capricious, whimsical; to
i

run out on her


(wife)

** jamma

u (jamm) to gather; to
luxuriantly

collect

huaband, run away from home

one's thoughta, concentrate ; to rest II and

^L^ jimah
fulness

recalcitrance, defiance; will-

V to grow

(plante)

to

gather; to colleot one's thoughts, concentrate; to rest, relax, seek recreation


(j>-

r^> jumh
wifulness

recalcitrance,

defiance

from); to be covered with luxuriant


rj*:
ruly,
plentiful;
7

Vegetation (ground)
*-

am h

headatrong,

defiant, un-

jamm abundant,
of;

ungovemable
jmik
headstrong, defiant,

much,
*L*-

a great deal

many, numerous; manicrowd, group of people


|

un-

fold, multiple;

ruly; indomitable, untamable


*-l>

_rVi
L*-_

yr

j-

al-atar effective, efficacious;

jamada

u,

L*-

-u-l

(akabbah kubban) to be more


of;

jamuda u (jamd, jj> jw


to
congeal,

md)
stnTen,
ify;

to

freeze ;

than

fond

i*

harden,

Jjlji

numerous ad-

vantages, ample benefits; jJ

be or become hard or
coagulate, clot
(in

solid, solid-

large

to

(blood); to

be

crowd, throng
rigid,
>l>;

inflexible

one's thinking); to

jamm

rest, relaxation, recreation,

stagnate; to be apathetic, indolent, dull,


indifferent
|

gathering of new strength

*-iJ

o>i> to be indifferent

^t

majamm

place where s.th. gathers


|

toward, put up with, aoquiesce in; OJj^


Jj

or flows together

u**^_*j J\j\ li*


this

(yaduk) to be niggardly, tightfisted


to freeze, frost, congeal (*s.th.); tosocoagulate, harden, stiffen (* s.th.);

jt
II

(muatajma'uh)

what

opinion

alidify,

mounts to
jf tagmim
(eg.)

to curdle (* s.th.); to freeze (* assets)

bobbed hairdo

(of

T to

freeze,

become

frozen, turn into ice,

women)
fit*-I

freeze up,

become icebound; to
cement)
to

freeze to

istijmm

colleotednesa ;

con-

death; to congeal; to solidify; to harden,


set
(o.g.,
;

centration; attentiveness, attentive rev-

coagulate,

clot

erence; rest, relaxation, reoreation

(blood)

VII to freeze up, become icefreeze,

bound; to

beoome

frozen, turn to

M.
iSjf'.

iSJ^*\

'

ice
Xf-_

(from

It.

gambero) gambari,
(zool.)

^^> gam-

jamd

freezing; congelation, solidi|

ma
1

(eg.)

shrimp

fication,
al-j.

coagulation

jJA

~**-j*

darajat

freezing point

"*>

jamjama

(*~*++i

jamjama),

f^iftl

j*j-_

Jj^

jamad jamd

ice
pl. -t

(kalma) and II tajamjama to articulate


indistinctly,

stammer

to

express

.iL*;

o.a.

solid;

inorganio

poorly, speak incoherently; to


*i**>;

mumble
skull, cra-

body; mineral; inanimate body, inani-

mate being;

neuter {gram.)
state;
solid,

jumjuma

pl. yr-L*;

jamjim 2

nium
jumjumi cranial

^>

jumvd frozen

com-

pact state, compactness, solidity; rigor,


rigidity, stTness ; inorganio state ;

harden-

; ;

134

ing,

induration; hardnesB, infiexibility;


standstill ;
inertia,

mijmara
zier; censer

pl.

j-Lf majmir* bra-

deadlock,
inactivity;
indifference
**j*~.

inaotion,

lethargy, apathy, paasivity,


*iSj*:

aoe

j^*;

jumda

solidity,

hardness
hardening;

i!j> (eg.)

gumruh

pl. iijLr;
|

gamrik* customs;
**j

cuBtomhouse

j*}-)

raam

al-g. oub-

if

tajmid solidification,

toms duty,
Sj*:

tariff

consolidation ; reinforcement (of a foundation)


|

Ji>/Sll u*9^

' al-amwl freezing

gumruH
|

customs, tariff (used at*l*'

tributively)

of assete

Sy.

{tihd)

customs

union
A*jC

tajammud

freezing; frost; conge-

ii^Hf
lation; solidification; coagulation
j \j I

mugamrak duty paid


(coli.; n.
bot.)

injimd

freezing

up

or

ov er,

>>

jummaiz

un.

5)

sycamore

(Fi-

icing up; ice formation

cus syoomorus;
atiff;

.uU jmid hard,

solid;

rigid;

ifjA*- look

up
i

alphabetically

motionless; inanimate, inorganic; (gram.)


defective; dry, dull (book,

and the

Jjh jamaSa
II to

(jami)

to unhair (* s.th.)

like);

make

love, caress, pet (jam') to gather (* s.th.); to

impervious to progress or Innovation,


ossified,

ultraconservative;

pl.

^j>-

ja*

> jama'a a

wmid* inanimate things, inorganio matter, mineral


.Uj*i*

collect (* e.g.,

money); to unite, combine,


to set,

bring together (parts into a whole); to


frozen, icy;

mvtajammid

put together, join


BtifF,

(*

things);

congealed; coagulated
Uj^i.
arctic
|

compose

(*

type; typ.); to compile (*

a book) ; to summarize,

sum up
;

(> s.th.)

munjamid

frozen, icy, ice (adj.);

to rally, round

up

> people)

to pile up,

Ju*^l\ U-\

(muAit) the Arctio

amass, accumulate (*

s.th.); to

assemble

Ocean
VpLr; jumd name of the
fifth

(>
and sixth

several

persona); to oonvoke, con-

vene, call (* a meeting); to add (*


bers),

num-

months of the Muslim year (JjVI j^Lf: j. l-l Jumada I and ljl\ ^L*: j. l-kira

add up
plural,

(*

a column); (gram.) to a word); to


(jw several
(j

make

pluralize (*

Jumada
\j*l II

unite, link, bring together


II)

things or persona) ; to combine


e.g.,

Ju
s.th.

to roast (* meat) VIII to burn incense


jX-

both strength and courage); to conoomprise


(* s.th.)
|

jamr embers,

live

coal

Jp lT

tain, hold,

*Jit^Wl

ji^l

^1

{aharra)

to b on tenter-

*^}\ (afrAfa) to summarize,

sum up

hooka; to be in greatest suspenso, be

to give a survey of s.th.; -

1*1 jJl

dying with curiosity


j> jamra
(n.

llitjH {barfTata) to be very efficient,

^ ^ do

an excellent
un. of j>) live coal;
firebrand, smoldering embers;

Job,

do superlatively good
round
<->\&\

work; ajUI Jt*


(tafahtih) the
Cjj-j

*#; (Sartda l-q.) to

rankling
(med.)
|

up the herd; VU^L ju

resentment;

(pl. -t)

carbunole

book contains,

lists...;

SSsJ-'I.SjJ;!

anthrax
pith,

jl*-

jummr palm

(edible

palm core tuber growing at the Upper end

of bait

plural J* - * (yujma'u) the is buyt U to pile up, amass, accus.th.) ;to rally,

mulate (*

round up

(s.th.,

of the palm trunk)

>

s.o.);

to assemble (* the parts of a

ma-

f*
chine) III to

have sexual intercourse (U


s.th.,

sembly

/^/l

L-j*;

j.

al-umam League
(kairiya) charij.

with a woman) IV to agree ( Jp on

to

of Nations;
table
al-ia'f ice;

*j_r*-

*r*-*r

do

be agreed (J on); to decide unanimously <Jp on), reaolvo (J* to do


B.th.); to
s.th.)
|

Organization ;

<Ji

U-V

L^>

approx.

civil

ambulance
('ummiya)

Serv-

j>j*\

\j**~)

(amrahum)

they

4?*ij

*>

(ta&ri'iya)
-v**;

legislative

came to terms, they made a


cision

Joint de-

assembly;
L.I*.

"^j^

and

to gather; to assemble, congre-

a~*j-

('mma) general assembly; gen-

gate; to rally,

band together,

flock to-

eral

meeting; plenum, plenary Session;

gether (people); to pile up; to accumulate; to gather into a masB,

SJjljJ -*> (ta'wuniya) cooperative

agglomerate
->

jamV
all

(with
all;

foll.

genitive)

total;
_--;

to Cluster; to coagulate VIII to be close

together; to

como

whole, entire;
together, meet, join;
all
(t_>

entirety; e.g., ^-LJl

men,

to unite, combine

mankind;

with); to assemble,

gM

all

people,
[*~*-

mcet, convene (an Organization, a committee, etc.); to be or get together, have

everybody; the public at large;

ja*
all,

mV an
all

in a body, altogether,

one and

of them; entirely, wholly, totally


*r\ ajma' 2 pl. -n,
f.

a meeting, interview or Conference, hold


talks
(i-j,

with

s.o.),

meet

(>->,

- s.o.);

Li*;

jam'' 2 , pl.
all
|

(Jp in), agree, be agreed (Jp on s.th.) X to gather, collect (* s.th.;


also
\jt

to coneur

**;
*)

juma' 9
l/V--^/1
Li-;

entire,

whole,

JUll

(ajma'a) the entire Islamic

quwhu
s.th.);

one's

strength, j-Kil

world;

jUI

(jam''a)

the
ita

whole

afkrah one's thoughts); to summarize,

house;

j^Ij

bi-ajmaihi in

entirety,

sum up
(* s.th.)

(*

to possess, combine

to its fll extent, completely, altogether;


-jjL--;

j jU-

all

of

them came
total,

A-T

jam' gathering;

collection;

com-

Li*;

jumma

aggregate ;

total

bination; connection, coupling, joining;

amount

aecumulation;

(arith.)

addition;

union,

O tJ^.jif p
battery

**:

jamma

kahrab'i storage

merger, aggregation, integration (jo of); holding together


arate things);
(pl. (j>j

of divergent, sep-

fjt-

jumu)

gathering,

**U; jam'a

pl. -t

group (of people);

crowd, throng; gang, troop; (gram.) plural


|

band, gang, party, troop; Community;

J*.iJi
_t*

j-;

j.

as-Saml union, integra(

aquad (military unit; Eg. 1939)

oUU-;

tion;

SoJI
*>l

*> the broken


*^\ the regulr

internal)

bly lj jam'tin iva-afrdan in groups and


individually

plural,

JUI

(=

external)

plural;

I ism
j-; j.

al-j.

collective
fist

noun

^l*: jam'i

collective (as

opposed to

(gram.); oJl
*-*;

al-yad

fjiji jardi individual)

jum',
fist,

eJaSOl

j.

al-kaff,
|

-dl

-j^

j.

**

majma

pl.

-bf

majmi' 2 place

al-yad

clenched hand

*jOj

** with

where two or more things meet, place or


point of union, junetion; meeting, congregation,

clenched
lo*;

fists

Convention,
m.'ilmi)

assembly;

(also

jum'a
4*-M *y_

pl.

-> juma'
al-j.

-t

week; Fri1

-J*

*-

academy

(scientific);

day

yaum

Friday
4-M

f^/*!

**>
College (e.g., of ecclesiostical dignitaries);
r>-

Pasaion Week;
ojj-i

-...U-Jl

and

4-M

synod
|

jjJj
;

l*j

(baladi) provincial

synod

Good Friday

{Chr.) (Chr.)

J jJS"l

(ikllriki)

clerical

L-^ jam'iya
society;

pl. -t

club,

association,
as-

synod
<>jiJ}\

(of the Coptic

Church);

j**L*-", -U--1

Corporation,

Organization ;

to win or captivate the hearta;

c*
_L* ^U^c, &-m. 'ainatAt (to look at a.o.)

jmi' comprehensive,

extensive,

with complete concentration, intently


j*jf

broad, general, universal; coector; oompiler (of a book); compositor, typesetter;


(pl. p*\j>r

majma'i academy member, aca-

demician
*-, tajmV assembly, assemblage (of

jawmi' 1 ) mosque

**L-

0*

(masjid) great, central

mosque where the

public prayer

is

performed on Fridays
league, union, asso-

the parts of machinery)

LuU- jmi'a
f-

pl. -t

Lf;

jim'

sexual

intercourae ;

s.th.

ciation;

Community;

federation;

reli-

comprising
or a

or involving another thing


of thinga
|

gious community,
nesB,

communion; commonal-kahrab'
/"ill

number
j.

^\

f-L^

_^\

al-

Community
|

of interests or purpose;
j.

kamr
is

al-itm

wine involves

sin,

wine

university

^_rt&' ***L-

the vessel of sin


f-lr^l

storage battery, accumulator;


j.

<<mU4**Li-i i*\i.\

ijma Agreement, unanimity (also

al-umam League of Nationa;


{islmxya) Pan-Islamiam;
('arabiya)

Jj]l

f-Lr^l);

do

s.th.);

{Ist

unanimous resolution (J* to Law) consensus {of the

VlL/l/l
5-*j*JI

and

i-jjJI
;

JjJi

<<mU-

authorities in a legal question; one of

(duwal)

the

Arab League

i_*i

<<mU-

the four ufl of iBlamic Law)

f-U^Vl

(a'biya) university extension, adult edu-

unanimously
,jX*-}

cation courses, evening courses

ijm'i based

on general agree-

JL.U-

jmt'i academic, collegiate, uni-

ment, unanimous; collective, universal


>*jf

versity (adj.); university graduate


f-j^jf

tajammu'

pl. -t

Coming together,

majm'
matter
l-qufr

collected, gathered; to-

meeting; gathcring; troop concentration;

tality,

whole; total,

sum

(arith.)

j^i-l
fj*^"

crowd,

throng,

mob;

agglomeration;

*^*jM

{typ.);

JLJd\

j-iljl

O
s.o.

agglutination (chem..-med.)

m. ar4i
country
;

the

total

area

of

the
total

tij^

j**
(

m
e

/#A

its

f\*r
;

ijtima"

pl. -t

meeting

(<-

with

of a corporate body ; of parliament)


gathering,

length; ^~*JI f>*?^

a$abi) the nervous

System
**>*j

get-together,

assembly;

re-

union;

rally;

Convention;
(a&tron.)
;

conjunction,
(of

majm* a

pl. -t,

*~*ljf

majmi**

constellation
rivers)
life,
;

confluence

collection (e.g., of
etc.,

works of art, of stamps,


List;

Iife

in a social group,

Community
society
J

also of stories); compilation,


(also,
e.g.,

social life;

flr*-*^

human
J*

group

of trees, of islands,
of articles in a news(el.);

J^Lil

9 \&-\

ijtima'

af-turuq

crossroads,
r

etc.); series (e.g.,

intersection, junction;
ijt.

H^-Vl

al-

paper);
bloc

battery

alliance, league,

Bociology; f-l^^l ^ sociologista

(e.g.,

of states); collective, collecti-

vistio Organization; aggregate;

complex,

^lrt-1 ijtima' %

Community, group (used


;

block

(of
|

buildings);

System; bulletin,

attributively) ; social; socialist(ic)


logical
j

socio-

periodical

*-*i)l **_j*jM (Sameiya) the


;

l^l^^l
i-tl^ *V
social

jLSJI

jljj
3JLA1

ministry
solar

System

*-pLi^

for social affairs; i-^I^Vl

personal

**j+*r

(pin'iya)

syndicate

status ;
service,

<.j

kidma )
-^^-Vl

social
iljLJl!
<1-A1

work;

i^l^-V'

*jf

mujammi' collector (lechn.)

Q storwhich

(muswh)
(hai'a)

social equality;

age battery, accumulator


4~L *j mujma' 'alaihi
is)

human
1

society

(that

-*1^-

ijtima \ya socialism

agreed upon, unanimous

137

b*
JU- ILr (hllya) circumstantial clause;
*^*j^>
*Lr~
t

*af mujtama*

pl. -dt

gatbering place,

place of assembly; meeting place, rendez-

(Sarfiya)

conditional

clause

vous; assembly, gathering, meeting; Society;

<JjU

*Lr4

(mu'tarida) parenthetical clause


(or jumal)

human

society;

Community, com-

J^l uL*- kisb al-jummal

mune,
i;S^
J

collective

use of the letters of the aiphabet ac-

= **W

look

up

alphabetically

cording to their numerical value

JL> jaml beauty

J^' 1* *Um

J>

jamala u (jaml) to suin up, summarize

(a s.th.);

jamula u

al-j.

aesthetics

(JL> jaml) to be

beautiful ; to be handsome, pretty, comely,

J_> jamll beautiful, graceful, lovely,


comely, pretty, handsome; friendly act,
favor,
service,

graceful; to be proper, suitable, appro-

good turn;

courteay
|

priate

(^
(*,

for s.o.), befit

(i_j

s.o.)

II to

make
dorn

J-i;L Jilj^l, J_i;L


s.o.,

J-W

ijA* ma'rifat al-j.

and

beautiful, beautify, embelliah, as.th.)


{

li^p ('irfn) gratitude; J-J^l jljj


al-j.

III to

be polite,

nukrn
fond

courteous, amiable
total,

to s.o.) IV to sum,
grateful; "^L^

ingratitude; J-^-J _^~U un-

Jii*- (hafiza) to

keep

s.o. s.o.

add

(* s.th.); to treat as

a whole,
in

remembrance,

remember

mention

collectively (* s.th.); to
(> s.th.}; to act well,

sum up,
o.s.

with gratitude

summarize
be nice

decently,

to

make

o.a. pretty,

adom

J>l ajmal 2 more beautiful


J_*j

VI to be courteous, be friendly to one


another
Ur; jumla
pl.

tajmil beautification, embeDish-

ment; cosmetics

J>

jumal totality, sum,

ILLt mujmala
civility,

pl. -t (act of)

courtesy;

whole; group, troop, body; crowd; wholesale; (gram.) Bentence,

amiabity; flattery;

iLljf

muj*
j

clause;

iL*;

jum-

malatan amicably, in a friendly way

latan completely, wholly,

on the whole,
j

iHjf jLj ziyrat m. courtesy

call; *e\Ji

altogether, in general, at all

30*- lj *Lr~
t

oiUUi

etiquette

jumlatan wahidatan

all

at once, at one
in

JW

ijml summation,

summing up;

swoop; oLjK]1
istence; h\j*\
"*Lt-_

*J-7

everything

ex-

summarization;Vl>l ijmlan on thewhole,


in general, generally speaking, as a general

^ jlT he was one of his


belonged to his com-

companions, he
panions; *JU
other
jl jl

principle

Jyl
...;

.ill-

VW
j

to

sum

up, I

iL*-

Jlj (jumlati)
J^Jl

among
IL^j

(would) say
as a

*JL>1

in its entirety,

things,

he

said ...;

whole; Jl>1/L and

wa-jumlatu
j-^l
in

l-qauli
...,

antia

or

^j
...,

general,

JlXlM J* in on the whole, altogether; **-j>


l-i.

short
...;

to

sum up
J*
in

JL>VI

bi-wajhi

VW
|

briefly
in

stated
iiJ^L

iiJ^l

short,
al-

JL>I ijmli comprehensive, summary,


general, over-all, total, collective

a word;

whoUy, on the whole,

jjJ

together, in general, at all;


(com.)
;

by wholeaale

Jl>l over-all report; JL>1


collective penalty;
eral

<*\ji-

(garma)

xi-JJ sr^

j.

al-ujra al-mus'

iahiqqa gross wages; ii>l j*-\2 wholesaler,

yW

jJii

(nazra) gen-

view

wholesale dealer; J;I _^aale

ai'r al-j.

wholeJ*jC

price;

i-fl

*Lt-_

(ismiya)

nominal
*Lrt

mujmil

pl.

-n wholesaler, whole-

clause;

i_l*i *Lt(fi'liya) t

verbal clause;
iLr;

sale dealer

ijjL^I (ikbriya) or <ij^declarative

(kabariya)
*Lt^

J*jt
opsis,

sentence

(or

clause);

mujmal summary, rsum, ayncompendium general concept sum,


; ;

5JLI

(inSaiya)

exclamatory sentence;

total
|

J**^ by wholesale

>
g

138

J>

Jamal

pl.
;.

Jl> jimdJ,

JW

a;m{ camel

inhabitant of paradise, deceased person,

}jri\

J>

oZ-yaAi chameleon
pl.

one of blessed memory


*lc~

Jl> jamml
l> jumn

-n camel driver
un.
3)

junaina

pl. -t,

Jb*- jan'in'

little

garden; garden
(coli.; n.

pearlB

J+* jamhara to gather,


s.o.);

JJb*- jan'ini gardener


colleot
s.o.)
{*,

B.th.,
**-

to aasemble {

II

tajamhara

jinna possession, Obsession; mania,

to gather, flock together (orowd)


*_/4>

madness, insanity
i^-

jamhara multitude, crowd, throng;

junna

pl.

junan

protection,

the great mass, the populaoe


jj^r\

shelter, shield

jumhr
crowd,

pl.

jj\+ jamhir* multigeneral


public,

b*- jann

pl. b*-l

a/nn heart, soul

tude;

throng;

public; j&l)~\ the masses, the people


iSJ.HT

b*- jannn gardener


,>;>.

7mri republican

(adj.

and

n.)

;antn

pl. L*-l

ajinna,
(in

Ji>-\

ajnun

embryo, fetus; germ


*iJj*r jwnkrlya pl. -t republio | .wdl OjJt *jj_>^:I (*ara&ya, mu/taAia)
~.

a seed,

etc.)

jX*-

junn possession, Obsession; ma-

nia,

madness, insanity, dementia; foolish,

the

United

Arab

Republio ;

*ijj^)

ness, folly ; frenzy rage, fury ; ecstasy, rap-

oll^l i-jU'^l

(tihdiya)

the Fderal

ture

ji

jjU

al-j.

junn madness has

Republio of Germany; i-kly^-UI *jj_h^;I

many
ways

varietiea, manifests itself in

many

oll^l (dimgrdjiya) the German Demooratio Republio


j4*j tajamkur gathering (of people);

dj^- junni crazy, insane, mad;


tic,

fran-

frenzied

crowd
j^f j- ;anna

mijann

pl. uljf

majnn 2

shield

u (jann, ^*- ;unn) to cover, hide,


hjt

oonceal, veil
fall,

(*, J* s.th.); to descend, be or become dark (night); pass.

majanna madness, insanity

uU- jnn jinn, demons uyjf majnn


pl. ,>iljf

junna: to be or become possessed, insane,

majnin* pos-

mad, crazy

j^:*- j*-

(junnuh) to get
frantic
II

madly
oraze,

sessed, obsessed; insane,

excited,

become

mad; madman,

to

make

maniac, lunatic; crazy, cracked; crackpot; foolish; fool

crazy, drive insane,


(

madden,

enrage, infuriate
veil, hide,

s.o.)

IT to cover,

conceal (* s.th.);

=
(

II;

to

i-.

janaba u to avert, ward off (*


II

from

s.o.

go mad, become crazy


veiled, concealed;

to be covered,
s.o.)

B.th.)

to keep away, avert, ward off


s.o. s.th.),
(*),

to regard

as

(a

from

keep

s.o. ()

out of
III to

crazy, think

( s.o.)

mad
demons
(invisible

the

way

of

spare (*
s.o.'s

s.o. s.th.)

j*- jinn (coli.) jinn,

be or walk by
alongside of
(*),

(*)

side;

to run

beings, either harmful or helpful, that


interfere

run parallel to

(*), Bkirt,

with the

lives of mortale)

flank (* s.th.); to avoid (* s.th.)

to

^~

jinni demonio; jinni,

demon

avoid

(m s.th.,

s.o.);

to keep

away

(*,

from), steer clear, get out of the

way
(*),

Lj- jinniya female demon


L*-

(*,

of)

VI and VIII
{*),

V; VIII to be at

janna
|

pl. -t,

b*- jinn garden;

the side of

run Bide by aide with


{*), skirt,

paradise

*<dl

ob*- paradise; OU-J jTL-

run alongside of

flank (* B.th.)

139

.Jj

janb

pl.

-">*- junb,

v^r' a?na&
to, near,

put

fl.th.

aside;

UU- jj

to leave s.th.
in oompariaon
re-

aide; jonAa (prep.) beeide,

next

aside,

omit

s.th.; t^JU-

at
|

^Jr

Jl Lj>-

(also yijU

L^-) aide by
(it),

with, as

oompared with, as against;


with regard to;
Jl

aide; 4-f*4-^*- ,jo

jo

(;antaA) inaide

within;
it

garding,

^j*.

jo U
a oon-

(aina janbaihi)

what

con-

their hearta;

UU-

jnib l-fam the

tains, compriaes, its aside, apart; oJi-l


4jj

Contents;

_-J-

Jp

comers of the mouth;


aiderable

oJU

olj pleurisy
janabt
it

aiderable, or certain, degree of; a con-

jonAa

pl.

area

^L*- J i

aide; region, within, inside; *'

amount

of,

a good deal
of,

of;

j* jiS <-JU- a great deal


tion of; j* j^Xt-JUf
Ji _>

a large poris

4?Lj>- ,jo

(ffcwnmoAfl)

to oomprise, hold,
*- j.

he

very

...;

oontain s.th.; jill

Ol

ai-gurfa the

jI

(>. *li* <-Jl*"

J* OK" (fcaram) to be very

whole room;
of)

ii^Jl

ol~*- jo in (the middle

the

room;

oLjLI

j-lj

crammed,

generous; S^^i j* Ji <_JU- J (aAammlya) of great importance; <_-j'U- Ji*l Je


j^LJ-'l

ohock-full, brimful, filled to overflowing

'aZd

a'zamt jm'bin

al-

or bursting
i

kufra of utmoat importance, of greatest signicance; -JL-

Jj everywhere, on

f*r janbi

lateral, aide (adj.)

all

aides; *JU-

*J

^a^- (kafatja, jnibaJi)

_-j--

jtmui in a atate of major ritual

to

show

o.b.

condeacending, affable or

impurity; not belonging to the tribe, not

gracious to s.o.; to

meet

s.o.

on

fair

a kinaman

*~dL\ jU-l the neighbor

not

terms; aJU- j-1


safe

amtna

jnibaJi
1

to be

belonging to the family


-jU^-

from

s.o.; |l^l

-JU- *j*1

(u'trAu)

janb

(title

of reapect) approz.:

I paid not the leaat attention to

bim;

Eight

Honorable;
form)

f^r

Your Honor;

*JUs.o.,

(i_*U,

<_-j>j)

J*U- (?nt&aAa) to fear


s.o.;
*_-Jli-l

you

be afraid of

ill,

milk

al-j.

(polite

crownlandfl; j^il
iiL-

^U- j.al-miri (ep.Jfiso,


jj layyin
al-j.

janba major ritual impurity

(Ial.

treasury;

*_-Jli-l

gentle;
'*

Law)
<-jL>-

docile, tractable, compliant; <-Jli-l i>J

junb
j'onfii

(=

t^-jjUi

olj) pleuriay

al-j.

gentlenesa; <-J\j}-)

*-**"->

"^
-JU-1

fl

^"?'

uj>-

aouth; L

;an&an aouth-

roomy; spaoioua, unconfined;


friendly, amiable,

jJj

ward, to the Bouth

gentle;
^-JU-.I

*_U-J

v,>j*

feared,

dreaded;
;

>jt powerful,

Oj^t janbt aouthern


South Africa
<_-jU-

L Jl V*j^*>

J>r

mighty, Btrong
-JU-.1 i^-j^

<_J U-J
aZ-j.

jp 'izzot oZ-j. power

maAift

dreaded, reapected;
all

jn*6 pl. <-J|j-

jatttSnift 1

aide; lat-

jloJi <_-J]^-

about the house,

over the

eral portion; sidepiece; flank; wing; face

house; often

vi" j

=V
(in

(geom.); part, portion, paxtial

amount;

,JU- jn*6t lateral, aide, by-

oom-

partial view, seotion ($* of a acene, pio-

pounda)
^jjj-I

ture or panorama); quantity,

amount;
a^noAi foreign, alien ; (pl.-n,
|

a certain number (^*


aJU> jj
j^-T <_JU-

of)

* few, aome

-Jl*-I

on

bis

part;

<_JL-

on the one hand


Jl

on the other
(it);

j*

ajnib*) foreigner, alien

vV'Vl

->'3l

the

foreign oountriea, the outaide world; 'j


^j[tr 'y\ firqat al-ajnib the Foreign Legion

hand; aJUat his


(its)

to bim, to his address;

aide,
(it),

next to bim

JLf
Jl

V.^

ffonn&iya

pl. -t (eg.)

curb; em-

beeide

bim

next to bim

(it);

^JU-

bankment, levee;

aide

ohannel, lateral

and -Jl^ aide by aide with; in addition


to; apart from, aside from; LjU- **^j to

(following a road or railroad traoka); by<

paaa (of a lock or aluice)

140

<_jjf

iajannvb avoidance

>*- janh inclined


r-j^r
(of an

(Jl

to s.th.)

^b^-l ijtinb avoidance


<Jj

junh inclination, leaning, bent,


(Jl to)

mujanniba

flank,

wing

army)

tendenoy

U
jL>- junbz,
athletics

jnih side, flank, wing


pl.

4^U- jniha

|>r
j

jatttni' rib; pl.

jL^

calisthenics; gymnastics;

also bosom, heart, soul

^^jt

Cr 1

m m7
Bhe

bosom, at heart; L^'j*- ^>

(Jafarat)

jjLjf junb& (^jL;) califlthenic(al), gymnastic jjL^l -^Vl gymnastic ex|

beoame happily
with joy

ezcited,

she trembled

ercises, physical exercisea

P^
-U*-

mu/anna winged

j- janaha a (r->*- ;unA) to incline, be inclined,

II to draft, conscript, enlist, recruit (


s.o.; mil,);

tend (J or

Jl to); to lean (J or Jl
(

to mobilize {* an army,

J*

to or toward) ; to

tum, go over

Jl to), join

against)

to be drafted, be conscripted,
(for military Service)
f.,

( Jl s.th.)i associate 0.8. ( Jl with) ; to Strand

be enlisted

(J* or Jf on a coast; ahip); to diverge, deviate, depart (jp frora}; to tum away
(jp from), break (jp with) II to provide
(* s.th.)

X*- jund m. and

pl.
|

^1*- jund, ibj-l

a;add soldiers; army


aZ0 Salvation

^^1

.u*-

;.

aJ-

with wings, lend wings (* to

Army
a^*- jund soldier, pri-

e.th.) Jl
i$-u*-

IV to

incline,
(

be inclinod, tend (J or
Jl to or

/und
Jjl

pl.

to) ; to lean

J or

toward) ; to tum

vate

(j-U*-

(auwoJ) private

first

(J or Jl to s.th.); to Strand (ship)


m>-

class {Ir., Syr.); o*c_. jxj. (miutajidd)

reoruit (/r., 5yr.);

jinh aide

Jh^I

tf-1

^' the Un-

known
>- junk, jinh darkness, gloom
JJJl
(;'.
|

Soldier

* j

!o -U*-

jundiya military affairs the army,


;

il-lail)

in the

dark of night, under

cover of night;
il-kar) lit.:

^^SCll

^*-

the military; military Service


Julie,

Cr

1
,

(junhay
tajnid
draft,

between the two halves of


at night

enlistment

(m.)

slumber,
asleep
5*j-.

i.e.,

when everyone's

recruitment; mobization | (jL-VI


(ijbri)

-^aK

military consoription

junha

pl.

junah misdemeanor
*iU*-,

XjC tajannud military Service XjC mujannad recruit


(jjl-U*-

(jvr., less

than a felony,

and more

than an infraction, JIJi)


gindri standard-bearer, cornet (Eg.)
pl.

t*-

janah

pl.

Wj-

ajniha, j- ajnuh
1

wing

(of a bird, of

an

airplane, of
j

a
U!

U*-

jundub
pandara
j-U*-

-obr jandib* grasshopper


to mangle (* laundry)

building, of
4>-l>. I

an army);

aide; flank

^-U*-

{eg.)

am

under bis protection;

-L-.

J* J*
press;

j*$y\

over the ether, by radio;


(;.

*-L>-

pondara mangling (of laundry);


rotary press (typ.)

ip^Jl

w-*r'a) with winged haste


(7'ur.);

^Lj- jiunA misdemeanor

sin

\$j'-u*- look
]

up

alphabetioally

4-1*

^b*.

*5/

(;u7iAa) it

won't be held won't do any

ij-^ iandarma gendarmery


uO-^r iandarmi gendarme
J*-U*- gandufii (eg.) oysters

against

him
he

if

he

...;

it

hrm

if

...

-l

ajnah* more inclined (Jl to)

141

*Jai*- jandala to

throw to the ground, bring

tf^-ijJI

(baSari) the

human

race;

1'
,

LjI

down,
Jai*pl.

feil { s.o.)

abn* jinsin our fellow tribesmen; j*


JjL*. jandiP stone;
(ep.)
iJ

jandal

pl.

~*i-) iS_r**

he

ia

Egyptian by natiopality
fair sex;

JjL*- cataract, waterfall

ouUll ^--l the


strong sex

jX\

^\ the

'JjJl-

gundl

(eg.) pl.

JoU*- pandU gondola


(j-i*- jinsi

generic; sexual; racial

Jl_r*-

jendrl, ginrl {eg.)

general (military
(j-**-V

Jd-jinsi asexual, sexless

rank)

^
s*- II to say the burial prayera, conduot the

V jinsiya pl. -t nationality, Citizen*


tajnls naturalization ;

ship
,j-jf-

funeral Service

for the deceased; Chr.)

paronoma-

IjL*- jinza, jandza pl. -St >'L*. jan'iz*

aia (rhet.)

bier; funeral procession

^Uj- jins (rhet.) assonance, pun, paroJb- junnz


pl.

>JU*- ?andntz a requiem,

nomasia
5-JLf

funeral rites, ob&equies; funeral procession

mujnasa relatedneas, kinship,


resemblanoe

affinity; similarity, likeness,

Jr>>V janzabil (= j-^J) ginger


^JUjanzara {= _^j) to be or become covered with verdigris
jlJN-- jtnar

^^-Ltf

tajannus acquisitum cf citizen-

ship, naturalization

^Ijf tajnus homogeneity, homogeneousness; Hkeness, similarity, resemblance

{=

jl^j) verdigris

VjV

;nztr

(= j^-j)

pl.j-jbf janzir 2 chain;

^Lf
,_j-iw

mujnis

similar,

like,

related;

track (of a caterpillar, of a tank, etc.);


a linear measure
also

homogeneous
mutajannis naturalized
muiajnis akin, related, of the

(=
\

5 qapaba

= 17.75 m;
j.

= 20 m

Eg.)

j >-

SjlU fra*

track

^Ui.
jLIw-.

sprocket, sprocket wheel

same kind or nature, homogeneous


(vehicle)

jj^f

mujanzar track-laying

(Lat. Oentiana) gentian (eg.)

uJj~

II

to

make

alike,

make aimar
( s.o.);

(* s.th.);

to assimilate, naturalize
classify, sort,

to class,

'.Je*-

VI to deviate (je from); to incline, be

categorize (* s.th.) III to


(*,
(

inclined (Jl or J to s.th.)


l

be akin, be related, similar

to),

be

^-*~r 'k

up alphabetically
,j^J^~
junfai?

of the same kind or nature


* as s.th.),

as s.o.,
(*,

be
s.o.,

like

s.o.

or s.th.

_r*Ui),

junf$,

sackcloth,

resemble

* s.th.)

to

have

o.a.
(<_j);

sacking
iL-

naturalized, acquire the citizenship

junk

pl. i]j^-

junk harp

to be naturalized VI to be akin, related,

of the same kind or nature, homogeneous


^jJ^- jins pl.

Jj*-

janow Genoa (seaport in


i

NW

Italy)

^L*-! ajna kind,

sort, va-

^- jan
reap {*

(jany) to pick, gather, harvest,

riety, species, class,

genus; category; sex

s.th,, also

the fruitsof one's work);

(male, female); gender (gram.); race; nation


(j-ii-l
|

to pocket, rake in, collect (* s.th.); to

.1

ism

al-j.

(gram.) generic

derive (* profit, j* from); to secure, realize {* profits,


(* evil,

noun,

colleotive

noun of nonpersonal

an advantage); to ineur

things (which form a n. un. in );

u-ii-\

hrm, punishment); to cause, pro-

; ;

142

voke, bring about (*


yd) to

s.th.);

^*(<> m

jinfa

*.

jahada a (jahd) to endeavor, strive,


labor, take pains, put o.a. out; to over-

commit a crime, an outrage { J# on)

to offend, sin (J* against); to commit, perpetrate (5jIi*-, Lii danban a crime, an
offense;

work, overtax, fatigue, ezbaust


III

s.o.)

to endeavor, strive; to fight


for s.th.);to

(J-*-*

J*,

less

frequently

Jf,

on or
J* on
to in-

*^lll

wage holy war against


give trouble

ag&int); to inflict (*
a.o.)
;

some

evil,

the infidels IV to strain, exert (* s.th.) ; to


tire,

to

hrm (J*
lay the
s.o.);

s.o.,

s.th.)

wear out, fatigue


|

( s.o.),

criminate, aecuse, charge with a crime

to)

*-* *' (nafsah) to go to

(J*

s.o.),

blame (J*

to act

blame (J* on s.o.), meanly VIII to

great lengths, go out of one's


or in s.th.);

way ( j
to,

for

j tj

A|*-l

{fikrah)

to

gather, harvest (* s.th.)

concentrate on, put one's


(fig.);

mind

apply
s.th.),

^
janan
sense,

jany harvest;
(coli.) firuits

reaping

o.s.

to VIII to put
(Isl.

o.s.

out (J for

work hard;

Law) to formulate an
on the applica-

independent judgment in a legal or theperpetration of a


ological question (based

ob*- jinya

pl. -t

crime; felony (jwr.; in the strictly legal

tion of the 4 ufl; as opposed to taqltd,


q.v.)
Xftm

more than a misdemeanor, <m^,


infraction, <Jt), capital offense
|

and an
oLlii-J

jahd

pl. Ajtf-

juhd atrain; exer-

** mahkamat al-j. criminal court


|

tion; endeavor, attempt, effort; trouble,

JL*- jin'l criminal

v^r

*^* (mak*

pains
s.th.);

on behalf or

for

the sake of
\

leama) criminal court; JLjL jyUJl criminal law, penal

voltage, tension

{el.)

X^

X^

law Lf ynajnin that which

jahada jakdah, also


(try) one's

J^*- (Jjl*-)
all

J^

to do

utmost, do (try)

in one's

Jjf
is

majnan

pl.

power,
0-4-

make every
bi'jahdin

conceivable effort;
jahldin

picked or harvested, a crop; source

x&
J^-

with great
efforts;

of profit or advantage
difficulty,

by dint of strenuous
lot of trouble
[el.)

yf

tajannin incrimination, aecuaation


s.o.);

x^-

Xv after a

*+-

(J* of

mean way

of acting, low,

Jl* {'lin) high tension


Xt*-

underhand dealings
U- janin
pl. iL*-

juhd strain, exertion; juhda (used


...
|

junk perpetrator (of

prepositionally) to the limit of


liJl

J^*-

a delict); delinquent, criminal 4_L


;

juhda $-fqa as far as possible, as


possible; ijU
x^*j.

Jjf

majniy

'ahxihi

harmed,

in-

jured aggrieved party ; victim of a crime


^Jnj
r-

much as as much
abilities;
L.

tqaiiki

as he can, to the limit of his

tj

X^*-

juhda imknihi do.


as, to the limits

(Fr. Qeneve) idnSf

Geneva
pl. -(

Xf*-

juhda
. . .

as

much

of what

^Xt*- juhdi as far as I can


-i^*-

(Engl, guinea) ginek, also gunaik


(c^.)
|

pound
tian

Bterling,

<ht pound English pound; ^j- ^^r Egyp(J-Ijwl) tfjJjf


I

x^-

jahid see

jahd

jl#*- jihd fight, battle; jihad, holy

war

pound (abbreviation

*r)

(against the infidels, as a religious duty)


^jlt*- jihdi fighting, military
1jj>\j~

JL^j-

jahbad

pl. 1*1+-

jahbida

man endowed
scholar

mujhada

fight, battle

with

critical

mind;

great

jL**-I

ijhd exertion; overexertion, over-

brigbt, brilliant, intelligent

etrain(ing)

) ;

143

^lf!*-l

ijtihd effort, exertion, endeavor,

jtf-

mijhar loud-voiced mijhar pl. j*\jL majkir* micro-

pains, trouble ; application, industry, dili-

gence;
in

(Isl.

Law) independent judgment


based

j&
soope
iSstf-

legal or theological question,

on the Interpretation and application of


the 4 u$l t as opposed to taqlid,
individual judgment
q.v.

mijhari microscopic(al)

jl^jf

mijhar

loud-voiced ;

loud-

Bpeaker
endeavor, effort,
jh\jt

Jj+ f majhd
3

pl. -t

mujhara frankness, candor

(of

exertion, pains, trouble, work;

O voltage,

one's words)
*-

tension
effort,

(el.)

4Jl^j Ji; to make every


jahaza a to finish off ( J* a wounded man),
ready, prepare {* s.th.)
deliver the ooup de grce to (J*) II to

go to gTeatest lengths

i*Lf

mujhid

pl.

-n fighter, freedom

make
(*

to arrange

fighter; warrior; sergeant (Eg. 1030)


a^jf

s.th.);

to provide, Hupply (* a.th.);


fit

mujhid Btrenuous, exacting, try-

to equip,

out, furnish, supply, proa.o.

ing, grueling;

mujhad overworked, exdiligent,

vide
finish

(v

or * s.th. or

with) IV to
deliver

hausted
J^f
(pl.

off (J* a

wounded man),

mujtahid

industrious

-n) mujtahid, a legist formulating

the coup de grce to (J*); to finish, ruin (J* s.o.) V to be equipped, furnished,
supplied,

independent decieions in legal or theological

provided

to

equip

o.a.

to

matters, based on the Interpre-

prepare

o.a.,

get ready; to be ready, be

tation and application of the four uph


as opposed to muqaUid, q.v.

prepared
jlf- jahz (also
t,

pronounced

jihz) pl.

J4*-I

ajhiza equipment, appliances,

,*-

jahara a (jhr, jL+- jihr) to be brought

tolight, comeout, show, appear;


clare publicly,

todes.th.)
;
;

outfit, gear, rig; trousseau; contrivance,

gadget

implement, appliance, Utensil


apparatus
|

announce

(a or

i_

to

Installation,

(teehn.);
Jl**-

System,
(l-ailln)

avow in public, proclaim (i_ a.th.) k the voice) jahura u Sj Wr


(
;

to raise

apparatus (anat.)

jX-V

jahra

to be loud, be
III to declare or

clearly

audible (voice)

wireless set, radio; ji^j jL^- radio (re-

ceiving set);

say openiy, voice, utter,


(cj s.th.)

express frankly
_^4*-

O Jr*1 JUr (mustoqb), O JUe^Vl jl+r, O Jrlidyl jl^- receiver, O


(Jt-jVl

receiving set (radio); *j.L jl^- (mudV),

jhr

and

jl^*- jihr publicness,


1_^*-

PubIjl^*-

jLp-

j.

al-irsl

transmitter

licity,

notoriety;

jahran and

(radio); (jjjiJj JL^*- television set; jl^*jjU-I j.al-hafr drillingrig;

jihran publicly, in public


_^4*-

oderrick;

jl^*-

jahratan openJy, overtly, frankly,

publicly
<SjVr
j'aAri

^jjj (dauri) circulatory System i^jVI oljl>VI JL^ or

(anat.);

J^
T (

^U Jl^sound

<~*j^\ ol^Jl (hazzt,ardiya) Seismograph;


notorioua, well-known, public
,jj^ JL^*- (sirri) seoret Organization, Under-

_r-p- jahir
#>-l

loud (voice, shout)


2

ground Organization; H^-*lM


locator;
iS
~ajiI\

jL^*-

jL^i-l

apabi) the nervous

_r

ajhar

day-blind

System;
ajhar 2 (elative) louder,

-*ill

JL^-

/.

al-hadm digestive

_^4*-l

more au-

apparatus
y+4tajhiz

dible

equipment, furnishment;
j\y+- equipment, gear

<jjji- jahwari loud (voice)

preparation;

pl.

jV
iSs+f- tajhizi preparatory ; (of

144

& Bohool)

J*LJI4-

preparing for College

jhil pl. iLp- jahala, J^*- jzthhal, juhhl, "^*- juhala' 2 not knowing

jaU-

jahiz

ready,
|

prepared;

readyor)
5

(<_j

s.th.,

how

to do s.th.); ignorant, un-

made; equipped
(albisa)

SJaL-

(oLji.

Jl

educated, literate; foolish; fool

ready-made clothes

JaL-

j'AtZi

pagan, of or pertaining to

j+jt

mujahhaz equipped, provided, fur(t-

pre-Islamic times

nished, supplied

with);
etc.)

armed (^ with

LUU-

jhiliya state of ignorance; pre-

guns; of a ship, tank,


4-

Islamic paganism, pre-Islamio timea


ljtj ^r^r^
iSjtf-

IT to sob, break into sobe


to

majhl

unknown;
things

(buka)

be

on the verge of tears,

(also ~-V! jhil 2

J>ff m.

al-ism); pl.
|

anonymous J;*^ wa*


jJi<ja(

struggle with teara; to break into tears


<4*-

unknown

J^^l ii^

aj-m. passive (jrom.)

jahia (n. vic.)

pl. -dt

sob; out-

burst of tears
^1^>-I ijhi outburst of teara
-4#-

<J_^f majhliya being unknown, un-

known nature
jahuma u
to
(l*-

jahma, 0^4*- juAma)

i^*-

IV to hear youog ones,


miscarriage

litter;
J

to have

frown,

glower

to

frown,

scowl,
(a,

(woman)

I4iJ C-J^-I

glower; to regard with displeasure

(nafsah) ehe induced an abortion


(j-ivr jihd

or J s.o. or s.th.), frown (a or J on); to

miscarried fetus
miscarried fetus

eye gloomily, coolly, grimly


s.o., s.th.)
;

(a,

or J
(face)

to

become

sullen,

gloomy

u*-v?
^l^-l

jahitf

^4*-

jahm

sullen,

glum, morose, gloomy

ijhd miscarriage, abortion; in-

(face)

duced abortion
l*lt-

jahm clouds

J4-

jahila

(jahl, Jl*- jahla)

to be Igno-

0L4*-

jahma and

<*_}+>

juhma grim

rant; not to

know

(<->

or *

s.th.,

how to

look, sullen expression ; gloominoss ; brood-

do

s.th.);

to be irrational, foolish; to

ing silence

behave foolishly ( J* toward) VI to ignore


{* B.th.)
;

to refuse to

have anything to do
to),

L^~ jahannam 2

(f.)

hell hellish, infernal

{> with), shut one's

eyes (a

disregard

jahannami
y- jaunv
pl.
'_>*1

(* a fact); to affect ignorance,

pretend to
ajto',
l_>*-

know nothing X
stupid
J^(* s.o.)

to consider ignorant or

jiw* (pl. fre-

quently with Singular meaning) air; at-

mosphere (alsofig.);sky; weather;sphere,


jahl

and

4JI4-

jcila
|

ignorance;
J**-

milieu, environment;

\j-

jaunvan by
|

air;

folly, foolishnees, stupidity

j* out

by telegraph, telegraphically
air mail;

ji-\ Jjj

of ignorance

^loU-i

tabaqt al-j. airlayers;

<-Wr fahl ignorant;


J^jt

foolish, stupid

JkU j>tfj*.

(muTnfir) in rainy

weather
(in
;

majhal

pl. J*Ij

majhil 2
territory
|

unJ*Ljf

jawwi

air, aerial, aero-

Com-

known region, unexplored Lj_^I unknown Africa

pounds); airy, atmospheric(al)


(used
attributively),
{fagt)

weather
j

meteorologic(al)

^jji-l JoJLJI

atmospheric pressure;

J^

tajhll stultification
<lj>r

Olli

(tabaqt) air layers;

^j*-

J^l*-!

J*L* tajhul ignoring, disregard(ing)

(ustl) air fleet; o^.

SjU

air raid; ol_>DI

; ;

145

vyr
to reaound, reverberate, re-eoho; to res-

Sj^I (qwt)

air foroe; *j>LI -'^ll aviaj_j*-

tion; *jj*- b_ (mind*) airport;

jL#_>I

onate (J or
with

Jl

to

s.th.),

meteorological observationa ;
jar) meteorite
l^>-

^_*-

(ha*

(phya.) ;

be in reaonance
istajwaba
(* s.o.);

<_^*u*'l

to

interrogate, examine, question

to

(ecUoq.)
it,

jaww (pronounoed gtoa

hear

the defendant or witness); to


( s.o.;

interpellate in Eg.) in

in parliament) touring,

within; inaide
<-j^>-

<j'jr jawuwnt, jfuunwni inner, inaide,


interior

javb

traversing,

ex-

ploration (of foreign oountriea) ; piercing,

penetration
4J\j~

gvwfa

(eg.)

guava
pl. -t

(fruit);

guava Bhrub

*iyr j^vba

pl

-#

Vjr

juwab opening,

Jlj*. (eg.)

guwl

sack

gap; hole, pit


<_j1j*-

jawb

-pl.

<j_jt' ajtoiba

answer, re-

Jlj-

(It.

guanti; eg.) gloves

ply;
(eg.
;

ootave

(to

a given tone; mus.);


pl. -t)
j.

*ujj*- (Ft. jupe) skirt

pronounced gawb
|

letter,

message
(.-jj*-)

^^Jjt

<_j'j*-

aS-Sarf

main

^L(*

jba

(javb) to travel,

wander

clause (concluaion) of a conditional sentenoe, apodoBis


j'jr
tively)

(*

through), traverse, roam, tour, exe.th.,


e.g.,

plore

foreign landa); to

pierce, penetrate (* s.th.),


(*); to III

cut through

jawbi anawering (used attribu-

wander, cruise (* about a place)


(

respond
(* Jl

s.o., Je s.th.), reply, Je to s.th.); to comply with), accede (* to) IV to answer ( or


(

to answer to

vVr jawwb traverser (of foreign oountriea), traveler,

s.o.,

explorer

<jU-I ijba answer(ing), reply(ing), re-

s.o.,

j* or
(

Je a question), reply,
s.o.,

aponse, reapondence; compliance;

fulfill

respond

or Jl to

J* to

s.th.);

to

ment, granting (of a request); accession;


consent, assent
|

comply
(a to);

(*

with a requeat), accede, defer


( s.o.),

&i

<jU-1

ijbatan U-

to hear

accede to the reto


fulfill,

falabikztm in compliance with your re-

quest or wiahee of
(*

(*);

grant

quest; in answer to your request


<->j\4

a wiah); to consent, asaent, agree


to oonour (Jl in)
|

(Jl to);

*it
a.o.'s

Jl

uUI

tajumb agreement, oonformiby;

(falabihi)

to comply with

requeet

harmony
il>l istijba

from) ; to ring out (voices)


aUy)
corresponding,

VI to reply to one another; to echo (*, v to be (mutu;

hearing, anawering (of a

prayer); granting, fulnllment (of a request); resonanoe, oonaonance (phys.)


\

harmonize; to be

favorable, propitious (** to s.o.; Situation)

J
in

<jIj*-1

istijbatan

li

in compliance with,

VII to soatter, break up, paaa over (clouda)


to be dispelled, disappear, vanish (worries); to

answer

to, in deference
pl. -t

to
interrogation,
Inter-

lylj^LJ istijwb
questioning;

fade (darknesB)

X ^U^u-I to hear,
(*

hearing;

interview;

answer
to

(*

a prayer), grant

a requesb);
(J), ac-

pellation (in parliament)

comply with the request of

cede or defer to the wiahee of (J); to


react (J to); to respond (J to,
listen,

lyjlwL* mutajwib harmonious


(

with),

_-c^r_*

muetajib hearing,
reverberant,

anawering,
reso-

pay attention
J to
s.o.

(<J

to),
(<->

ahow
J

interest

granting ;

resonant,

(J in); to

meet, answer

s.o.

with),
s.th.)

nating; responsive, susceptible, impresaible

reply

(<->

with or by doing

oyr
Oj- (Engl.)
jt jute

146

*yr fd openhandedness,

liberality,

(rjr) rW* /**


destroy,

w An&

generosity

* annihilate,
jy--

min; to flood, inundate (* the Und) VIII do.; to carry away, sweep away (* s.o., * B.th.; storm); to put down,
subdue, quell
4-U-l

javd heavy rains


'.u-

iL- see linder

(* B.th., o.g.,

a not)

*>* jda goodness, excellence


J^r jayyid
faultless;
pl.

ijha deBtruction, annihilation;

jU- jiySd good,

perfect,
firstlo>-

crop damage; crop failure, bad harvest

outstanding,

ezcellent,

rate;

good (as an examination grade) ;


(jiddan) very

^U*-l ijtiyh destmotion, annihilation;


Bubdual, suppression

jayyidan well, excellently; thoroughly


j

la-

0->-

good

(also

as

an

f Uastroua

j'ih

orushing, devaatating; dis-

examination grade)
jj*-l

ajwad1 better
jawd
pl. j|_>*-I

i*L- j'iha

pl. ^I_j-

jaw'Vf calamity,
i\jj~

disaster, ruin; epidemio; crop

damage

ajwd, jjL-1 aj&*

tnd2

bjU-l ajtmd*, jj. jd

openhanded,

r>*- jvJf pl. rl>f' ajtok broadcloth


(i>*-)

liberal,
pl.

generous,

magnanimous; jawd

jU-

jiyd, jU-I ajyd, .jL-l ajwtd*


|

jU- jda

u {*j*r

jvda) to be or become

good, become better, improve;


to grant generously
(i_*

race horse, racer; charger

jI^h-IM j/i

(jd)

noble

man
aoeordance with estab-

s.th.),

be so gen-

erouB

to

do

e.th.

<lj

with verbal

Jj^f tajwid art of reciting the Koran-

noun); to be
s.th., (lj

liberal,

openhanded (^ with

Koran reading
nation)

(in

J* toward s.o.), bestow liberally s.th., J* upon s.o.), grant, give lav-

lished rules of pronunciation

and

Into-

(^ of s.th., J* to s.o.), shower J* s.o. with); to donate (4* a sum of money, etc.) aii aU- to Bacrifice o.s.;
ishly
(<-
j

-L

mujid adept,

efficient,

proficient

j\ijr jaudr see jIjjL- (alphabetically)

to give

up the ghoBt; ^-L


tears

L-*

coU-

fa*.

Gj*0

jl*- jra

nAu &-d-dam*)
eyes;
it
#1,
II

welled from his


rain)

from); to

u (jaur) to deviate, atray (j^. commit an outrage (J* on),


persecute,

OjU- (heavens granted


s.th.);

bear

down (J# upon), wrong,

rained II to do well {*

to

make
{*

better,
s.th.);

improve,
to recite
well,
(*

better,

ameliorate
cf.

oppress, tyrannize (J* s.o.); to oncroach, make inroads (J* on another's territory)
III

(the

Koran;

>u>f)

to be the neighbor of
();

s.o.

(),

live

IV to do
master

do excellently

(* s.th.); to

next door to

to be adjacent, be next

s.th.),

be skilled, proficient
(* at),

{* to s.th.), adjoin {* s.th.); to be in the

(* in), be (*

an ezpert

be conversant

jmmediate vicinity of
(,

(,

*),

be close to

with an art or

field

of knowledge); to

*};

to

border (* on) IV to grant


(

accomplish or say good, ezcellent things;


to achieve ezcellent results; to be ezcellent, outstanding, diatinguish o.s. (e.g.,

asylum or a aanetuary
protect
(

to

s.o.)
(

to

,> from), take under one's wing; to stand by


s.o.,

s.o.)
{),

b.o.

as a poet)

ii)

aL-l (lugatan) to
r

master a

aid

s.o.)

VI to be neighbors; to be

language; jJUJl J* >Jl jU-I ( azfa) to play the piano well X to think {* s.th.) good
or ezcellent, approve of (*); to consider
(*a.th.) suitable for or appropriate to{J)

adjacent ;

to

ha ve

common

border
(*->

to seek protection, seek refuge

with
(

s.o.,
s.o.,

j- from

s.th.),

appeal for aid

to

against B.th.)

jyr
jj*-

jaur

in justice j

oppression,

tyr-

(a s.th.);

to approve (* of), sanation,


s.th.) 111

anny; outrage
jU- jr
pl.

Warrant, authorize (*
s.th.
(*);

to pass (*
s.th.

ljw- jlrn neighbor; refu-

or

by

s.th.),

go or walk past
(*),

gee; protege", oharge

to go beyond s.th.

overstep,
also, e.g.,
is

cross, leave

behind

(* s.th.),

jU-

jra pl. -i neighboress

j**S\

j*

j-u^Aill

JjU- fumr) he

past

jw- jira neighborhood


j_yr jra pl. jj- fuwar pit, hole
if

thirty; to ezceed, surpass (* s.th.); to

pass over s.th. (ja), disregard (jp

s.th.),

pay no attention (ja

to); to let (jp s.th.)


re-

jjr

see alphabetically

go unpunished; to give up, forgo,

linquish (ja s.th.) IT to traverse, cross

Jj*- jiwr neighborhood, prozimity; j\yc in the neighborhood of, in the vicinity of, near, oloae to

(a s.th., Jl

on the way
s.o.

to); to permit,

allow (* J to
(a
(a (a

s.th.);

to authorize
);

s.o.

to do

s.th., also

to lioense

jjlf mujtoara neighborhood, proximity


_/Uj'ir
pl. j_>-

s.th.);

to approve, oonfirm, endorse

a decision, a judgment); to approve

jawara, IjU- jra

(a of s.th.), sanotion (a B.th.)

to toler-

unjuat, unfair; tyrannioal, despotia; tyrant, oppressor, deapot

ate,

suffer,
s.th.),

bear VI to pass (a s.th. or


s.th.
(*); to

by

go or walk past

go beyond

s.th. (*), overstep, cross,

leave

jjU mujwir
near, close by;

neighboring, adjacent;
(pl.

behind
s.th.,
all

(a s.th.); to exoeed, surpass (*

-n) Student (esp. of

also

J*); to go too far, overstep

AI Aznar Univeraity; living in the vicinity

bounds, encroach, make inroads; to


s.th.),

of the Mosque)
mujir proteotor
mutajwir having a

pass over s.th. (ja), disregard (ja

jdt.

pay no attention (ja

to); to give up,

jjUi*

common

forgo, relinquish (* s.th.); to refrain (ja

border; adjoining, adjacent, contiguous


-jjj-

from) VIII to pass, run, go (* through),


cut aoross
(*);

to cross (a a border, a

jawab

pl. -olj'r jotorib 1

stocking;

street,
(a a

a mountain rnge); to traverse


dis-

sock

country or sea); to oover (* a

tance); to pass {* through the mind;

WrJ^r

orJ*y

Georgia

(republic

of the

said of ideas, thoughts)

to go (a through to surmount, to

U.S.S.R.)
x

hard times or a

crisis);

x$jjr jri damask rose (Rosa damascena,


bot.);

overcome

(a

crisis)

deem

per-

crimson

miasible (a s.th.); to ask permission

jj*- jauz pl. jlj-l ajwz heart, center


"if Jj*r

(Engl.) jri jury

(of a desert, of a large area, etc.)


jatot,

jl^-l
j\ji~\

(Jjr) JW-

za u

!>r

jL* majz) to

amid, in the middle


(fa4a) in spaoe

of, in;

Lull

j j

pass, come, travel (* through); to pass


(*

an examination, a

test); to

be allowed,

jij- jatoz permissibility, admissibility

permitted, permiasible ; to be possible,


conceivable; to work, succeed (<S* with
s.o.;

lawfulness, legality; permission, (official)

permit, Ucense, authorization;


ity, conoeivability
;

possibil-

deceit,

artifice)

<LJ-I

<\*

OjU-

passing (of an examj.

(AUa)
feil

the trick worked with him, he


II

ination)
|

jiJ\

jl_^-

as-aafar

(pl. -dt)

for the trick

to perznit, allow

(traveling) passport

->*
jlf majz croasing; passage; corridor
(pol.-geogr.);

148

^-U* (Aiu) coconut;

_*i)l

j^*-

;'.

0/40

metaphor, figurative expres-

cocoon, ehrysalis of the ailkworm


Ij^jr- jjteo (eg.)

sion

(rhei.)

IjU maj&zan, jUI J-y J

narghile

figuratively, metaphorically
tSjj*r iavxi
tfjljf

nut (used attributively and

majzl figurative, metaphorical


6

in

Compounds); nut-brown, hazel

jU-l ijza pl. -t permission, authori-

zation; approval; license;

= Fr.
1

jU- look up alphabetically


;'aai pl.

Ucenct

as an academio degree; permit; vacation, leave (of absenoe)


|

Jj>r
(^^-)

Jjljr jawdtiP young pigeon

_^J-

SjU-l

i.

cd-

^U-

jsa

u to peer around, pry


(J"iU.

hafr grant of patent,

isaue

of letters

around, look around

killa

in);

patent; patent; <-L*j SjU-l (guniuZiya)

to search, investigate, explore (* s.th.) VIII to search, investigate, explore (*

ezequatux of a consul

(dipl.)\

-v*

*jl*-'

(maro^tya) siok leave;

v*--*-*'

oljL-Vl

(madrasiya) sohool vacation;

jL-'i/lj

Jli

s.th.)

on

leave, on vacation
jjljf

J-_>*-

jausaq

pl.

jJ^r jawavf

palace;

man-

mujwaza and

Jjljf

tajwuz

or, villa

crossing; ezceeding; overdraft, overdraw-

U*j_>*-

gawtfa

pl. Julj*- pauxJ'tf

(ejj.)

dowel,

ing (of an account) ; disregard

(je-

for)

relinquihment (j* of

s.th.)
(*>_j-)

s-L- ;*a

u to be hungry;
( s.o.)

to starve

j>-i i;Vtydz traversing, orossing; passage; transit; oovering (of

II to

cause
(
?*'

to starre, starve out,

distance);

famish
fj*r

s.o.)

IV do.
|

passing (of an examination)


(of diffioulties)
j-*U-

surmounting
hunger, starvation

Uy-

oU
-er-

to starve to death

jaiz permitted, lawful, legal; con-

ceivable, thinkable
7''ta V^'J^yr jautfiz* prize, re*j {dirya) ward, premium V*'--* -/**?
|

jUjjiyfl"

/au'tJn*,

f.

^jr

0U ''>

P*- f

hungry, starved, famished


pl. -t

U majS'a
JU-

famine
;y*.

stipend, scholarship
Jljf

jV

pl. _L-

jr juww-'

mujz licensed;
title,

licentiate (as

an
jlif

hungry, starved,

famished

academio
j-^LJ!

Fr. Ikencii; e.g.,

i^f tojufT starving out


.U-l ja'a starving

licencii As aetences)

out

jj*.

-yj

II to give in

marriage

tj^r- II to

make

hollow, hollow out (* B.th.>

O Jj*r
j^jrt

iavz pl*

j\yr

7*wSi5

= rJ J couple

(yr.;

pronounced maiwez,

<

*jj*r 7 avf pl* *J'j*r' 7 **/ ity; depression; interior, inside, center,

a u

hollow, cav-

-jj- muzwaj) wind instrument with a

heart; belly,
Jj-

abdomen; north

(magr.)

double pipe, correaponding to the Egyptian

inside, in the interior of, in the


J-Ui

zummra)
(astron.)

middle of ;

jr J
inner,

(/

*Wo) or

JiJl (jaufa) in

the middle of the night


interior,

Mjji.1 al-jauz* Gemini


*J**-

J_>**"

Z*4/*

inside;

;auz

(coli.;
j.

n. un.

pl. -t)
>JJl

walnut
j_y?
j.

subterranean,
|

Underground,

subsurface
\

_^LJI

jj*-

af-fib

nutmeg;
-lAI J_>*-

cd-

(of geological strata); northern (magr.)


*Jj~- L

qa%

nux vomica;

j. aZ-Atntf, j_>-

ground water

oyr
(Jij-1

ajwaj 2 ,

f.

\iy- jauf**, pl. jr


futile,

~*^j*r

j&wwla one given to roaming

;u/ hollow;

empty; vain,

inane,

or traveling; wanderer, wayfarer;


torcycle; cruiser

Om

<>~

pointless, senseless

<Jajj tajwif

pl.

Ju jLf tajwif* hollow,

Jl^
ing,

tajwl migration, wandering, rov-

cavity
iji^f

traveling;

nomadic

life,

nomadism

mujawwaf hollowed
pl. jl_^-l

out, hollow

V>-

jawaln migration, wandering,


life,

3j*r

jauq

ajwq and

_j-

;auga

roving, traveling; nomadic


ull

nomadism)

pl. -i

troop,

group; theatrical troupe,

oVj*-

j.

al-yad embezzlement, defal-

operatic

Company ; choir {mus.) ; orchestra,


]

cation

band
dir

(also '-lJu^ja **yr)

Jj^-.l

j^*

mu"
choir

jLf majl
s.th.); field,

pl. -t

room, Space (J for

al-j.

conductor,
j.

bandleader,

domain, ephere; scope, ez-

leader; J>^ll\ j*-

aS-Saraf Legion of

tent ; reach; rnge; elbowroom, free scope;


play, clearance; field (magn.)
tiJLiJI
f

Honor
'(Jj*-)
twiJ,

VLf i\J

L.

(Sakk) to

admit of no doubt; V
fa'n)
(it is)

JU- jla u

(jaul, _j- jaula,

Jj_^

toj*

dJ

^*UJ jLf

(majla,
Jljtl

in-

Vj- jawaln) to roam, rove, wander

contestable;

ti*

in

this

con-

about; to

move

freely,

be at

home (j

in

nection; L~J
to give
b.o.

field of learning),

occupy

o.e.

(j with);

oUI JljM fj (ammah) a free hand, wide scope of


r

to be circulated, go the rounds; to pasa


(j,
<-

action; is^*- J^f (hayawx) lebensraum;


J**Jl

through the mind)


s.o.,

<-l_r

JL-

jLf m.

al-

amal

field

of activity;
field;

to preoccupy
(*_^ljc)

engross

s.o.'s

attention;
is

^.tk'J;,*

s_^,U

J^
what

jLf (magnafisi) magnetic


field intensity

U what he
is

pre-

JLjM tJj-Siddatal-m.
Jjjf

(mogn.)

occupied with,
*JL

on

his

mind;
his

ujJI

JL-

(dam',

'ainaihi)

tajawvml roaming, roving, wanmigration ;


going
out,

eyes

swam

in tears;

>b

cJU- (yaduh)

dering,

moving
ourfew

he laid his hands on, he committed defalcations

about; patrol, round; (round)


traveling
j

trip, tour;
at-t.

of IV to
s.th.)
|

circulate,

pasa a(ra'ya)

Jj*dl

V-*
pl.

man"
j^UL-

round

(*

j ^J\

JL-I

JJU- jL b'i'j'il

peddler,

to weigh e.th. thoroughly, ponder s.th.


kJI JU-I (nazara) to let one's eyes _/

hawker
J>*i* mutajawwil wandering, migrant,

wander
roaming,
patrol,

about; to look around V to roam, rove,

wander about, move around; to


go the rounds; to from place to place, travel about
3J_j-

roving,

itinerant;
|

ambulant;

cruise; to tour, travel

traveling; traveler

J>i* J-5j traveling


(6ai/y')
(?*****)

salesman;

J>*i*

pb
u-*-*

peddler,
itinerant

hawker ;
jaula
pl. -t circuit,

Jj

round; patrol;
(round)
trip
a

preacher
JJ_>-

excursion,

outing ;

tour ;

voyage, run {of a steamer); (round-trip)


flight (of

look up alphabetically
poj/ golf (ep.)

an airplane)

round

(in sports)

JJpJj_>*-

jawwl wandering, migrant,

itiner-

ant, roving; cruising; traveling;


lant;
traveler,
|

ambupl.

I*U-

look up alphabetically

tourist;

see also alpha^ifr

betically
~*^j*r

Jl_j- *lj

rmin jawwl

fn P* ^Ivr' <7n
*Ljjt
(It.

gulfi ialet,

bay
pl. -(

*Lj
;

Tumh

jawwla

rieman

(mit.

Ujj*-, *^j*-,

gonnea) gonea

Syr.)

(woman's) skirt

(eg.)

*yr
U- look

up

alphabetically

V=f

jaib

pl.

vj^r juyb

breaat,

bosom,

j*j*r II tajauhara to

become subatance

heart; Bine (matA..); hole, hollow, cavity,

excavation; pocket; purse


(fc*?)

,j*ll t_-J-l
}

j*\yr jawhir* intrinsic, essential natura, essence; content, Bubpl.

j*yr jauhar
(as

the privy purse; u-J-J


*_--*-

*lc*

tamm

ai-j., *|^ll

cosine (math.); ,_M

uU

atance matter,
pl.

opposed

to

form; philos,);

pocket watch;
V**"^' V_fc4-'
(arnoi.);

~>~i-)

>j_-^ pocket money;

subatance;
|

atom; jewel, gern;

{anflya) the nasal sinusea

jewelry

^>A-lj i-juj\ (zoi/) the spuri-

i.jLl

vj^r ? al-invq wama pook-

ous and the genuine


j*y? /ottAara jewel, gern
ij*j*r

ets of resistance (mtl.)

^jintrinsio,

jatW pocket
i

(adj.)
^_-j-

jauhari

substantial;

'y-- jlp,
j.

r^r

jib

and

JjL- myyrat

essential,

inhereut; fundamental, main,

jeep
(ir.) <?t(

chief, principal; material; jeweler

-*
jrjtsr jauharji jeweler
1

colorful ootton fabric, ohintz

^->Lr*>?

mugauhart

(eg.)

jewelry, trin-

-L- j'id pl. jL*-I

ajyd,
ij.

^*- juyd neck

kets; jewela,
l

gems
(jatvan) to

"4^-

jayyid see

iSj*r joiufiya

be paasionately

jL*-, jL*-I see il_^-

jawd

stirred
iSj*r
2
iSj\*r

by love or

grief
1 <j

jw-n ardent love, pasaion

J r

jairi surely, truly, verily

look

up

alphabetically
-

jWjt j'^jW

1^ U P alphabetically

ii>*-

ir* calcareous,

lime (adj.)

jL*- jayyT unslaked lime


(\yr) *^r ?*' J*, y**?'*' (*j? maji) to come (, * to); to get (* to), reach (* a place);

jLr jayyra limekiln

to arrive; to bring
a.th.); to

(<^>

s.th.;

<_>

to b.o.

bring forth, produce


(*_>

V*-

II to

endorse {^n.)
(It. giro)

(v

s.th.);

to set forth

a.th.); to

do, perform;

j>*-

endorsement

{fin.)

to commit, perpetrate (* s.th.); to occur,

be mentioned, be said (j in an

**j*-, o\jvr see


jj- ffiax

jy-

article,

document

or book);

(with

foll.

imperf.)
|

Giza (city in NEgypt); abrand of

to be about or set out to do s.th.


jl fljVl Jj^*-

L.

Egyptian cotton
(^ji**-)
tjil*-

thenewspaper "AlAhram"

reporta that

...; o\ ,^-jjIj

^ U
...;

a report

j3A

(^^-^ir

joyain) to be ei-

from Paria
with

says that

4fli3

C^U

cited,
boil,

be agitated; to rage, storm; to


II to

J jlk> (mufbiqatan)
...

simmer

levy troops, mobilize

ita results

coincided

an army
jl'a,

to raise, mobilize (* an army,

also, e.g., IjLaJl

an^ran followers) juyS army, troops,


^/a*-

iL*-

jai'a

Coming, arrival

iL*^^Ju*-

V^*ij (dakb) coming and going, <_~S lUjj iL*- to pace the floor, walk up and

jaiS pl. (jJj-*-

armed
^i)j

forces

J-ib^VI
,_**-

occupation
^ji**-

down

forces; J^L^-I

army

reserve;

(murbif)

territorial

army;

maji' coming, arrival, advent

,JjL

iliVl j.al-inq$ Salvation

Army;

^-

oLJljLi al-j'iyt the things to

come

Lil al-masa dusk, evening twilight

,jiL-

jayyS agitated, impassioned; ex-

<J"^r

(It. gelati)

jelti ice

cream
r-

cited, boiling

up; ebullient; pleasurably

excited, happily stimulated


Ujj-

** jlm name of the


,>-

letter

jayaan excitement, agitation;

(Fr. jatne)

corselet,

sheath corset
|

(e^.)

raging
(Ja--)

^j*j?r
i,

jiyogrfiy

geography

\J\

Ji.J Jr

jU jfa
jlja

II

and V

to be putrid, stink
Ij

<j-iJl

(baSariya) anthropogeography

(decaying cadaver)
ii-*pl.

jv*>--

jiyojlziy geophysics
|

jiyaj,

JL*-!

ajyf

ijL^j^-- jiyofiziyai geophysical

LJI

corpse, cadaver

JLj/j^J-l (ana) the geophysical year

JL- *H Czech
?'/

jis*js*- jiyofiziqt geophysical

J-*-

pl. JL-I

ajyl people, nation, tribe;

Ljt-jIj^ jiyoljiy geology

generation; Century; epoch, era

^yrJjir

jiyolji geologic(al)

*U

h* nanie of the letter

>

uhibbu an

should like to
s.o.

.;
<l

J
I

,_-*-!

j-UU foSm rabbi


rabbi
JjJ*- see Jj*t/L*-

to like about
j

that he

jf*i\ -U-U-l the chief

j<

l^

V
to

(kaira) he doesn't

want him to be haphim everythig V


one'a
o.s.

py,

he grudges
love,

show
to

reveal

affections
(

(Jl

hmx Hamitic
j>*pl. t_J[j- auxSntfi 2

s.o.);
o.s.

to

endear

Jl

to

s.o.),
(Jl

make
with

populr,
to court,

ingratiate

o.s.

U- and llU- see

s.o.);

woo

(Jl a

woman)

VI to love one another


JU- (pronounced 7wma)
to

to like (* s.th.);

deem

(* s.th.) desirable,

recommend-

(formerly 2Vn.) hamba, palace gendarme


of the
OjJL*- see
*._--

Bey
j^~
i

of Tunis

able; to prefer (J* * s.th. to s.th. eise)


._--

hubb love; affection, attachment

olJJl ._--&. a<f-rf/seIf-love,amour-propre;

habba

(hubb) to love, like II to evoke

^^Uai-Vl
jjLf^II

._--

curiosity,

inquisitiveness;

(Jl in s.o.)

love or a liking
(

(<.,

m for s.th. or
like

._--

h. al-waian

patriotism; J L.
for,

or
(,

s.o.),

make

Jl

s.o.

love

(hubban) out of love or affection of friendship for ;


<j-

out
. .

* s.th. or s.o.); to endear (Jl * s.th.


s.o.),

L*- in the desire to

to

make
(Jl

(*

s.th.)

dear, lovable,

hubbi friendly, amicable, loving;


in
fair

attractive

for h.o.),

make

(*

s.th.)

Lj- hubbiyan amicably; by


._--

an amicable manner,

palatable, acceptable (Jl to s.o.); to urge


(Jl *

means

(jur.)

s.th.

on
(._--

s.o.),

suggest

(Jl *

s.th.

to

s.o.)

IV

hubb,

La mahabba)
to
(jl)
wish,
|

to love,

Hibb pl,

u->L*-l

ahbb darling, dear,

like

(*,
like,

s.o.,

s.th.);
s.th.

want,
,_--l

dearest (one)

or

to

do

i!

V^*- habb aim,

goal,

end

152

,_^
lover;

habib

pl.

U-i

ahibb'*,

l^\
dear

*>

II to

produce seed, go to seed (plant) to


;

ahilba, v^*"' ahbb beloved, sweetheart,


darling;

bear seed (grain); to granulate, become


granulated; to granulate (*
s.th.)

dear one,

friend;

IV to

(Jl to s.o.);

populr; <_j^*"^' the beloved

produoe seed
i_^>

onea, the dear ones


ijij*-

habb

{coli.; n.

un.

grains; seed;
cereals, oorn;

habiba

pl.

sweet^j^t*" tob'ib*

pl.

<--L^*~

hubb grain,

heart, darling, beloved

woman
more
desirable,

seed(s); grains, kerneis; granules; pellets;


puls,

pastles;

berries;
._--

acne, pustules,

,_^l

ahabb 2

dearer,
s.o.)

pimples

>jJI
|

chufa (Cyperus es-ll

preferable (Jl to
li*-

culentus L.;

bot.);

,_->

h. al-faqad

habbad (with folL nominative)

chaste tree (Vitex agnus castus L.; bot.);


i}j\l\

how
nice

nice,

how

lovely
is
,

i
.

.!

how
Ix*-

good,

,_->-

croton seeds (seeds of Croton


JL4JI
-

excellent, perfect
it

.!
|

how
l-lj*-

tiglium; bot.); (magr.) ehernes;


h.

^-

would be

if

.;

J*i_^ JW-'

al-hl

and (jl*^)

lJl

^*- h al-hn

h. l-hlu lau fa'ala it

would be
it;

nice, or
Ij

he would do

well, if

he did

JU-1 li-

cardamom (Amomum cardamomum L.; bot.); ^LjJI ._->- h. al-gamm hail, hailstones

{hlu) that's just wonderfnl!


1^*.

mahabba love;
|

affection,

attach-

i--

habba

(n. un.; see

also >_^- habb)


pill,

ment

JL>J\

i-rf-

m. al-wafan patriotism

pl. -t grain,

granule; seed; kernel;

pastille; berry; puBtule,

pimple;

trivial-

i_^ tahdbbub courtship, wooing

ity,

trifle;

a square measure {Eg.;


pl.

=
|

^U;
harmony

tahbub

mutual

love, concord,

58.345 m) ;
_^*i <*- h.

oUi-*-

beads

(of the rosary)


;

Salr a linear measure {Eg.


*>1#-

V^t* mahbb beloved; dear; lovable,


desirable; populr; favorite; beloved one,

0.205 cm);
1*^-

(AwJuw) aniseed; l+-

(^aud* 3 ) black

caraway (Nigella

lover;

(pl.

<-*ul

mahaW) 1 gold
)

piece,

aativaL. ;&<>(.); JU^I >U- grains ofsand;


Juli 5-*- A. al-'ain eyeball; pupil (of the

sequin (in Ottoman times;


*ijT*-

eg.)

eye);

*_-Jl

L#-

h. al-qalb

dearest

one,

mahbba

Bweetheart,

darling,

beloved, darling
L[

beloved
i_
/!;

woman
,,r Aa&aft blister

muhabbab

agreeable,

pleaaant,

desirable, lovable, dear (Jl to s.o.); nice, likable


,_-*

i^
lSr^-

Au&zta

pl. -* little grain,

small

kernel; small pimple or pustule

mvhibb

pl.

-n

hubaibi

granulr,

granulated

loving;
|

lover;

fancier,

amateur, fan; friend

^U
U^

<_^

^J.1

x,J\

{ramad) traohoma {med.)


(ooll.)

philanthropic(al), affable; JrjJl

oar

^
II

habhab
^_--L-

watermelon
firefly,

(hij.)

dear friend; jtf^i j>4- friends of archeology;


*j"iJJ

hubOhib

glowworm
s.th.),

^J-

(li-dtihi) egoiflt

uUa. mutahdbb
conoordant
u_.r,-:

loving one another,

to approve, think well (* of


(* s.th.); to

oommend
oheer

applaud, acelaim,

(. s.o.,

* s.th.)

M ' mustahabb (re)com mendable, do-

sirable (said of acta

whose negleot

is

not

punished by God, but whose performanoo


is

JL*

tahbty approval; aoclamation, ao-

rewarded ; Id. Law) ;

well-liked,

populr

elaim, applause, chearing

153

p-

habara u (habr) to gladden,


delight
{ s.o.);

make happy,
(jj-*-

habira a

catch
;

his

breath

take

s.o.'s

breath

hvbr)

away Jll

j*.

A6wa nu'a S-Sugl he


under hard
inaiienably (* funds,

to be glad,

happy
in

II to embellish, refine,

was committed to prison


Iabor II to tie

make workmanlike
{

(s.th.); to

compose
write,

up

s.th.

elegant

style ;

to

J*

for, esp. for

a pious purpose), make


(*, for

compose

(* s.th.)

a religious bequest
*\

the benent of

j- hibr ink
cuttlefish; 3jj

jX\

umm

al-h. squid,

J*)

TU

to be held back, be held up,

on paper, of no
a treaty)

J s*- (waraq) mere ink effeot (e.g., an agreement,

stop, be interrupted, intermit ; to restrain


o.s.,

hold back Till to block, obstruct,


s.o.,

bar, confine (*,

s.th.); to detain,

hold in custody
j- habr, hibr
pl. jL*-!

(*, * s.o., s.tb.); (*, * s.o.,

to hold
s.th.);

ahbr a non-

back, retain, suppress

Muslim
jL-Vl

religious authority, learned


{

man,

to be detained, held up; to be impeded,

scribe ; bishop ; rabbi


rf

Ji* V jJI

the Pope

held back; to falter, break,


stop (breath)

fail (voice),

-i- t/r al-a.

Leviticus (Old Test.)


,jj-*~

jj* habn
Sjjj.

pontifical

^l-tf

u-y- habs
back,
blocking
off,

(act of) holding or keeping

(qudds) pontifical moss (Chr.)

obstruction,

check,

repreasion

habnya

office

or dignity of

barring, confinement;
off;

dam-

bishop, bishoprio, pontificate


j- habara, hibara pl. -8t silken

ming up, staving


Bhawl

safekeeping, ousto-

dy, retention; imprisonment, arrest, detention, jailing; (pl.


jail
|

^j^- hubs)
(ihtiyfi)

prison,

or

wrap (worn

in publie
pl.

by
-dt

lodies)

JU-l

is-t*-

detention
l

jL

hab&r, hibr

mark, trace

(pending investigation) ; ^pl^Ul


firdi)

r^-

(in-

(esp. of blows), weit,

wale

solitary

confinement;

-b-li

u~u-

penal servitude
jjt*-

hvbr joy

u-jj- hibs
tfjL*-

pl. ifl?-!

ahbs dam, weir,

hubr
(zool.)

pl.

CjLjLp- hvbrayt

barrage
.j-jj-

bustard
jj~'j*

hubs, hubus

pl. ijJ-*-!

ahba (Tun.,
property

yahbr bustard chick


mihbara,

{zool.)

Alg. t Mor.

toaqf) inalienable
is

mahbara

pl.

yL* ma

the yield of which purposes,


religious
|

devoted to pious
{Fr.
jur.)

hbir* inkwell
jj-

bequest,

"habous"
habaaa
i

j-U

r*- ('mm)

publio habouB,
L-**-

(habs) to obstruct, shut off,

,_^L-

j^*- (k$s) private habous;


Liij

OK*

confine

(*,

s.o., s.th.),

block, bar, hold

back, check (* s.th. j* from; also tears,


laughter, etc.); to withhold (* j* from
b.o.
(

J* (= J* ent on
. .

S*) to be entirely depend-

i_i*-

hvbsa speech defect, impediment

s.th.);
s.o.
) ;

to hold in custody, detain to

of speech
ij-t*-

apprehend,

arrest,

jail,

imprison

s.o.);

to keep, keep back,


s.th. for);

habis blocked-off, shut-off, barred,

put aside, put away (J* *


tie

to
|

confined,

locked-up

secluded ;

bated

up, invest inaiienably (* capital)


*_jI)
(J-jj.
. .

(breath); choking (voice); (pl. L-**baa**) hermit


jj-*.*

hw
ma

J*

(nafsah) to
;

devote

o.s.

entirely to

j*

Oj

,_,-**-

(yatZaA) to
s.o.'s

mahbas,

mahbia

pl.
is

^L*

take

(s.th.)

out from under

power;
s.o.

hbis* place where s.th.

confined or

4-Ll cLs

u-jj- (anfsah) to make

locked up;

jail,

prison; (prison) cell

<jr~T

154

ri*

mihbaa device

for shutting off or

twist, twine, ttghten


(* s.th.);

(* s.th.);

to knit

blocking off

to devise, contrive (* a p]an,

<_a

mo.hha.aa.

hermitage

a plot)

II

to twist, twine, tighten {*

s.th.)

to fasten (* s.th.)

^L^l

inhiba seclusion, confinement;

etoppage > interruption; cessation

<_>

habka

fabric,

tissue;

texture,

structure

^L^-l
bition,

ihtibs retention.restraint; Inhi-

impediment,
JjJI
(

obstruction,

stop-

page

_r'-r>

-'

ihtibs al-baul sup-

tiL*- hubuk: dL*- h. an-nujm fj>^\ the orbits of the celestial bodies

pression of urine, ischuria


ifjT*-

<5~Lj-

hibka weaver's trade, weaving

mahbs

shut-off (from the out-

Jj^

mahbk

tightly

wo ven

tight,

side world), isolated, secluded, confined,

taut; sturdy, strong, robuBt, husky


tlLzt muhtabik interwoven, intersecting
1

locked'Up; imprisoned, captive; tied-up


(funds);
(pl.

u-^\*^

Tnahbis 2 ) prisoner,

prison inmate, oonvict

VIII to ensnare, catch in a snare J*s.o., s.th.)

{*,

rj^ muhabbia donor of a habous (see -a*- hbe) )J


(

J-*-

hbl

pl.

JL*-

hibl, J--l

ahbul,
cable,

*_L cro^l al-muhabbaa 'alaihi beneficiary of a habous (see -a*- hubs) )J


,j-j^* munhabia secluded, shut-off
^^lii-l

J^>-

hubl,

JL-1

ahbl

rope,
(pl.

hawser; cord, string, thread;


hibl)

JL*-

beam, ray

(e.g.,

of the

sun, of

Light) jet (e.g.,

of water); vein; sinew,


jugular vein; jy-Jl

al-habai

Abyssinia,

Ethiopia;

(pl.

tendon

JjjJI

J?*-

J^l

^Lj-VI al-ahb) the Abyssinians, Ethiopia ns


LiU-l al-habasa (and
sinia,
JLjJ-l

(aurri) umbilical cord; j^iJl J-J-l

(SauH)

spine; i^-* JL*-

(sautiya) vocal cords;


,111

j^j) Abys-

jSLA\
water;

J^

ivy {bot);

JL^

jets of
J|

Ethiopia
kaba&i pl. ^iL-' ahbi Abyssin-

VJ Wi

>

Jr 1

<i*W)

J
let

a h*
things

(aflaqa) l-habla 'al l-grib


,^1**-

to

go, slacken the reins, give a free hand,

ian,

Ethiopian
hiibt)
fail,

impose no restraint; JJ-I

li^jl

slackening

V*. habata i (i^*come to nothing,

and habipi a to

miscarry, go wrong;

of the reins, yielding; relenting; Vj^-*' *L- idtaraba habluh to get into a state of disorder, of disOrganization, of disintegration, get out of control;
(la'iba, hablain)

to be futile, be of no avail, be loat IV to


frustrate, thwart,
foil,

defeat

(> s.th.,
efforts,

,>0 J*
I

<_-j

J* * in s.th. s.o.; negotiations, an attempt, etc.)

to play a double game,

work both
iJ**-l

sidea of the etreet


pl. J;jl-1

V*. habat scar of a wound,


S*^-

wale, weit

uhbla

ahdbil 2 snare,

hubt

futility, failure

net; rope with a noose; pl.


wiles,
artificea,

Jj^
(in

tricks,

stratagems

Order to

JL*-t t'Aif frustration,

thwarting,

foil-

get s.th.)

ing

^
iL-

UL*- hibla

pl.

2 J!t*- hab'il snare, net

habaq

basil

(bot.);

(egr.)

variety

of J,,U hbil:

speedwell (Veronica anagallis aquatica L.)

JjUL

JjU-i

+\

(iktalafa)

everything became

confused,

got into

habaka

u {habk) to weave well and tight


to
braid, plait
{*
s.th.);

a state of utter confusion; p+LLij *ijUall

{*

s.th.);

to

together,

all

in a

modley

165

'J^- habila a (habal) to be or become pregnant, conceive and IV to make preg-

.Jo- hatf

pl.

J*>=*-

hutf death

j* *wj
il)

<J\L> 4-o- (Jl ,^-j)

yabhatu r an (yas'

n&nt (U a woman)

hat/ihi bi-zfihi

he brings about his

own

J^

Aa&aJ conception; pregnancy

destruction, digs his


<ij\

own

grave; <Jt>-

mala

J^- AuA&J pl. JL*. habkt and ^Ljhablna pregnant


,>*-

hatfa anfihl he died a natural

death
-U-

Aa&an dropsy
Aa&6 aJ-Mn)

hatama
sary,

{hatm)

to decree,

make
for

necess.o.),

prescribe
(* s.th.) a

(J*

>

s.th.

Lf^- (l^JI ^_-*-

cardamom

(Arno-

make
s.o.); s.o.);

mum cardamomum
(j-*-) L*-

L.; bot.)

duty, a necessity (J* for to impose, enjoin (J* * s.th. upon


to
decide,

AaM

determine

definitely

(Aa6u>) to crawl, crep; to


{i_j

present (*
(*
*

b.o.

with

B.th.) II to
(

decree,
s.th.

s.th.), give,

award

make
for

necessary,
),

to

b.o. s.th.)

III to

be obliging

( to
s.o.),

prescribe
(* s.th.) a

J* *

s.o.
(

make

s.o.),

show one's good


(

will

(toward s.o.);
(

duty, a necessity
necessary;
to

J*

for s.o.)

to favor

to

be

s.o.);

to side

be

s.o.'s
s.o.)

with

(J)

bepartial (tos.o.);to show respect, deference


(

duty, be incumbent (J* upon


^*-

to

s.o.)

VIII to

sit

with one's legs

hatm

pl.

*js-

hutm imposition,

drawn up and wrapped


~*y*-

in one's

garment
present

injunction; final decision, resolution, de-

hibwa, hubwa, habwa

gifb,

termination; - hatman decidedly, definitely, necessarily, inevitably

L*- hib' gift, present

LL
sance,

muhbh
courtesy;

(_j*^*-

hatmi

decided,

definite,

final,

obligingness,
favor(ing),

complai-

conclusive, definitive, unalterable, irrevocable, inevitable

favoritism,

partiality
L*iC-*- hatta

hatmtya

decidedness,

definite

u {hau) to rub

off,

scrape

off,

scratcb

neas, definitiveness, determinateneas, un-

off (* s.th.)

alterableness

necessity

omorsel

hitta pl. c^*- hitat (eg.) piece, bit,

i-*i*-V l-hatmlya
lo*.)

indeterminism (phi-

J- hatt (prep.) until, tili, up to, as far as; (conj.; with perf.) until, so that; (with
subj.) until, that, so tbat, in order that
(particle)
;

*y-

mahtm imposed,
determined,

enjoined, obdeter-

ligatory;

definitive,

minate, unalterable, inevitable; destined,


predestined, ordained (fate)

even,
J-

eventually
if;

even;

and

even; ji

even

(with preceding
it

negation) not even, and be

only

lA muhattam imposed, enjoined,


atory;

oblig-

determined,
unalterable,

oli*- hutdt scraps; morseis, crumbs nate,

definitive,

determidestined,

inevitable;

l*: tahtt corrosion


-U*-

predestined, ordained (fate)


I*i.

hatida a (hatad) to be of pure origin m- mahtid descent, origin, lineage

mutahattim absolutely necessary;

imperative (duty)

j^- hutra small piece, bit, trifle

j>- hitr

pl. j%*~

hutur border, edge,

U- hatta

(hatt) to urge, incite,

prompt,

fringe, surroundings, vicinity

goad, spur on, egg on, prod, provoke,

156

impel

( s.o.,

J* to do

s.th.)

*U^

*i-*-

'***

mahajja pl.

A* mahjj

destination

(JptiOhu)

to quicken one's pace, hurry


place);

of a pilgrimage, object of pilgrimage,


Bhrine; destination (of a journey); goal;

(Jl to

Si^
ii-*-

<^~

itoniqq) to

hurry, hasten;

<u..tf

(gwiamotAi) to

road;

quicken one's pace, break into a run

*** way; procedure, method ^I^JI m. a^-^awOb the Right Way, the
|

VHI and X
d>-

Str&ight Fath;

Jj-J-I

*j* railroad

hatit fast, rapid, quick

r\? htf&j argument, dispute, debate


>+
tahajjuj

O
'JJli-

*JU- ht&a

hormone

argumentation,

plead-

ing, offering of
Ai/i Hittite (n.

a pretezt, pretenae, ex-

and
lees,

adj.)

cuse

Autfia

dregs,

Sediment;
./.jJ-l
|

scum
Li*.

~l*=-l

ihtijj pl. -i

argumentation;

(flg.); offal,

discard, scrapa

pretezt, excuse, plea, pretenae; proteat,

ak eombings
(ji.)
li*.

remonstrance
(Aafw) to strew, scatter,

Ao3

(J* exception (J* to)

against),

objection,

spread, diaperse (* a.th.)


**- hajja

^u.
defeat

htijj

pl.

^ijp

hujjaj,

gje hajij

pilgrim; hadji,

Mecca

pilgrim, honorific
pil-

to

overcome,

s.o.,

title

of one

who

has performed the

with argumenta, with evidence), confute


( s.o.);

to convince

{ s.o.);

grimage to Mecca
je

(hajj) to

make

the pilgrimage (to Mecca), perform

hajaba

t*

(hajb) to veil, cover, screen,

the hadj

to dispute, debate, argue,


s.o.)

shelter, aeclude (J*a.th. from); to hide,

reason

with

YI to argue against

obscure (j* * a.th. from s.th.

elae, e.g.,

eaoh other, carry on a dispute, to debate;


to take counsel

from sight); to

eclipee, outshine, over-

Vm to advance
Bupport
or

(<->

s.th.)

shadow
s.th.

( s.o.);

to

make make

impercepttble,

as-an argument, plea, excuae, or pretezt;

invisible (j* * a.th. to); to conceal (j* *

to

allege

in

vindication,

from

s.o.);

to

or form a Sepa-

plead
a.th.)
;

(w

s.th.); to vindioate, juatify (J

ration

(,>jj
veil,

mask

,>>

between

and)

to protest, remonstrate ( J* against),

to

hide, conceal; to hide


in aeclusion
(_>

from

object, raise objectionB (J* to)

aight,

koep

(U a vornan);

to disguiae,

* s.th. with)
flee

to

hajj

and

'de

hijja

pl.

-4t,

mT

conceal
Bight,

o.s.,

hide (j* from),


VII to veil

from

hijaj pilgrimage; hadj, the officio!

Muslim

veil o.a.

o.b.,

conceal

pilgrimage to Mecca
Zu'lhijjah, the last

i*i-l jj {Zu l-hijja

o.a.; to

be oovered up, become hidden,

month

of the Ialamio

be obsoured
invisible,

Y1H to

vanish,

become

calendar

disappear from eight; to veil


o.a.,

de hujja

pl.

Aujo;

argument;

o.b.,

conceal

hide; to

become hidden,

pretenae, pretezt, plea; proof, evidence;

document, writ, deed, reoord; authoritative souroe, competent authority


ul
|

be conoealed (j* from); to withdraw; to elude perception; to cease orinterrupt


publioation (newspaper, periodical)
<_jp hajb seclusion ; Bcreening off;

***

under the pretenae that


.

on the

keep-

plea

. . ,

on the pretext of

. .

ing away, keeping off


<~>ljp

r-Lp hajj pl. ~de\ ahijja circumorbital

hijb

pl.

^Jt hujvb,

*J?\ ah'

ring (anat.)
p-

jiba cover, wrap, drape; curtain;


(of

wom-

mdhajj destination

a jonrney)

an's

veil ;

screen ,

partition ,

folding

157

screen;

barrier,

bar;

diaphragm

(also

j+-

mahjir, mihjar, mahjar

pl.

j~\-

j-U-l L-UJ-i; anat.);


<>\je

amulet

mahjtr*

,>JI j*4-

m.

al-'ain)

eye

hijba office of gatekeeper


ihtijb

socket; see also below

ju*^
(_jU^j-I

tahjir interdiotion,

prohibition,

conoealment, hidden-

ban; see also below


jj*>^-'

ness,

seclusion; veiledness, veiling, pur-

dah
^

mahjr

pl.

j**-l*

mahjlr* (and

4-U jjj*) one placed

under guardian-

r*-U-

hjib

concealing,

Screening,

protecting;

(pl. <~>\>**-fyujjb,

Im- ha jaba)
*JE
2
)

ship; minor; ward, oharge

doorman, gatekeeper; chamberlain; orderly (Syr., m.); (pl. -*-]>*- hawjib

n
to

to petrify, turn into stone (* s.th.);

eye-

make hard

as stone (* s.th.)

V to turn
jLf

brow

*\ji\

<-*-U- h,

al-hawd' airtight,

to stone, petrify, become petrified

hermetio

je hajar
mahjb
concealed,

pl. j\jc\ ahjr, j\je hijra,

Vj**
veiled
X

hidden,

hijr stone ; weight (placed as

an equipoise
^L-^/l
_/J-l

on the scale of a balance)


|

(aasi)

the foundation stone, cornerBtone,


*J>j {wa$') laying

JE

hajara

(hajr, hijr, hujr,

\je hijrn,
s.o.); b.o.);

^UVI_^J-I

of the cor-

hujr&n) to deny access (J* to stop, detain, hinder (J* or


forbid, interdict
{

to
to

nerstone; ^^Jl

JE

h. al-ball flagstone,

paring stone;

J*

* s.th. to s.o.), pros.th. {*); to

^-

Je

h.

jahannam lunar

hibit

(J*

s.o.)

from doing
incompetent

caustic, eilver nitrate ; j*jU JE h. al-jir lime-

place

(J*

s.o.)

under guardianship, declare

stone; JlfJI

j*l-\

or JlfJI

JE (summqi) JE hemastum-

porphyry; j^-VI >^J-i {aswad) the Black


Stone (of the Kaaba);
tite
-slilt

J* (

s.o.) legally

JE hajr restriction, curb(ing), check(ing),


obatruction,
tailing

(min.);
block;

^wJl

je

h.

al-'atra

impeding, limitation, cur-

bling

<i-->UJI

JE

philosopher's
eelenite;

(J* of s.th.); barring, ciosing, de barmen t, preclusion; detention; blocking, confinement, Containment, suppres-

stone;

j*5JI

f.^J* and
jJ-\

,>j

J? JE

h. al-qamar

preciouB stone, gern

J*

J* (tob'}

thograph;_^J-i **U

sion (as a protective measure); interdiction,


pixihibition,

lithography
tjJE
hajarl
^a*J!

ban ; revocation, or
competence
|

Btony

Btone

adj .

limitation, of s.o.'s J*) legal (

<Sj*+i-\
^i-j.U-1

('(ty)

the Stone Age;

j-*JI
_

if* j?

($*#**)

quarantine
j^^J-1 the Neolithio period;

r*Jl

JE
jjjt

hijr

forbidden,
(pl.

interdicted,

pro-

/.Uli tj^nJ-l

the Paleolithic period

hibited; lap;

jLtl ahjr,

jJe

hnjr,

_^t hajir stony, petrified


jljt

hujra) mare
pl.

JE hujra
cell;

hujart,

je

hajjr stone mason, stone cutter


ma/ijir pl. _^-l* mahjir* (stone)

hujar room;
_^*tf.
|

(railroad)

aompartment; Chamber
*_yi\

jlkVl J? waiting room;

Ije h.

quarry

an-navm bedroom;
hiya)
>nl*.

*--^UJl

/^i-l (fall*

jj*
rying
^rf.

tahjir

petrification; stone

quar

Chamber of agriculture
mahjar
pl. j~-\-

mahjir* military

tahajjur petrification

hospital, infirmary; prison, jail,

dungeon

y"*
(

j*+-

(fihhi)

quarantine,

quaran-

jp**m mutahajjir petrified

tine Station

jy*^

mtutahjir petrified

158

'j: hajaza

(hajz) to
(

hold back, restrain,


s.th.

Jjt hajl, hijl pl.


jl anklet

i}j?

hujl,

Jlfl ah*

hinder,

prevent

jp *
s.th.

from); to

keep away (je


(off), close,

from); to block

J*
hijln,

hajal

(coli.;

n.

un.

I)

pl.

^f

bar; to isolate, insulate, conto

fine,

seclude;

make
to
*

inaccessible;

to

partridge; Jj hijl partridge, mountain quail

mountain

set apart; to separate

(jo two things);


iLt
hajala
pl.

to

arrest,

detain;
or

seize, s.th.,

Sequester,
e.g.,

Jl*

hijl

curtained
|

impound (J*
property,

canopy, or alcove, for the bride


b.o.'s

obj

salary);

to

confiscate,

safe-

JUi-l ra^bt al-h. the ladies

guard (* s.th.); to reserve (*

s.th.); to

IUJ-1 i-J labat al-hajla hopscotch

make a
retain
ist

reservation (* for a theater aeat,


ticket, etc.) VIII to
o.s. {*

a steamer cabin, a
for
o.s.,

J* white-footed
radiant;

mw/wj;a/wearinganklets(woman);
(horse);

bright,

brilliant, in

reserve to

s.th.) re-

unique,

singular,

esp.

the

hajz
;

curbing,

prevention,

phraae

J^y-'
recoil,

(agarr 2 )

straint

seclusion,
isolation,

confinement,

Con-

Jt hajama
IV to
to

u (hajm) to

cup

s.o.;

med.)

tainment,

insulation, Separa-

shrink, flinch
,

(je
(

from);

tion; arrest, detention, seizure, confiscation, Sequestration

desist,

abstain
;

refrain

j* from )

(Je of s.th.); reserhji-\

vation (of seats)

forbear (je s.th.)

to withdraw, retreat

h.

t-hurriya

deprivation of liberty, unlawful detention,


duress (jur.); Je ^^J-l
cate a.th.
Jil

**
**A-I

Jiajm pl. (*^t hujm,

A^\ ahjam
|

{alq) to confis-

bulk, size, volume; caliber (of a cannon)

jS

bulky, sizable,

massive

jUJ-l

al-hijz

Hejaz,

region
coast

in

a\JP
<*\je

hajjm cupper
hijma cupping,
scarification, art

Arabia, on the

Red Sea

jjljp hijzi of or pertaining to Hejaz.;


(pl.

of cupping

-an) an inhabitant of Hejaz


pl.

-j^ mihjam,

1***^-

mihjama

pl.

*r^-

j*-U hjiz and j^-U


jiz
2

obstacle,

hindrance,

jr]y~ haw* impediment,


dividing

mahjim 2 cupping
(1^1

glass
re-

ihjm desistance, abstention;

obstruction;

partition,

screen,

straint, aloofness, reserve

wall; block, blockade, gate,


railing,

road block; fence,


;

jz hajana

(hajn)

to bend, curve, crook

balustrade
|

hurdle

bar,
(*s.th.) VIII to snatch up, grab (*s.th.),

barrier;

barricade
(anat.);

phragm

^V >rU1

^r^'

v^' ^~
break
(qumruqiya,

take hold

of a.th.)

wate.r; (-f^J-l)

ii^ jr^

j*l ahjan 2 curved, crooked, bent

gumrukiya) customs barriers;


JaJj-JI lightning rod

J^-^*-

j^ mihjan

pl.

2 Jr ^ mahjin
1

staff or

stick with a crooked end, crosier;

hook

O
1

approx.: sr^~ <^o* muwazzaf hjiz

(j)

\jj-

-o

baUiff
*-l*

well of s.o.,
III to

lf haj hihi kairan to think have a good opinion of s.o.


(

muhjafa singlestick fencing

propose a riddle
riddles,

to

s.o.);

to

speak in
1

be enigmatic
pl.

JUtl ihjf
hajala

= l*
u
i

\je,

je

hijan

1*1

ahj*

intellect,

Jf

{hajl,

0"** hajaln) to hop,

brains, understanding, discernment, acu-

leap; to skip,

gambol

men, sagacity,

wit, intelligence

; ;

159

J~ hajiy appropriate, suitable, proper

(v

for
J~\

aaperated (J* with); to be agitated, be upset, be in a atate of commotion


A>-

ahj

more

appropriate,

more
correct,

hadd

pl.

ijA- hudd (cutting) edge


;

suitable,

more

proper;

more

(of a knife, of a sword)

edge, border,

better
Jtl
ithjiya
pl.
,j*-l*-i

brink, brira, verge; border (of a country),


ahjiy,
^l*-l

boundary,
utmost,
terminal

borderline;

limit

(flg.),

the
end,

ahjin riddle, puzzle, enigma


l^

extremity,
point,

termination,
;

terminua
or
(of

(certain)

hakm
cally)

U-U-

(look

up

alphabeti-

measure, extent,
(math.)

degree

(attained)

member

an equation), term

J*.

Jiadda

u (hadd) to sharpen, hone

(*

(of a fraction, of a proportion); divine

knife); to delimit, dclineate, demarcate,

ordinance, divine atatute; legal punish-

mark
set

off,

stake off
(*

(* land,

j* from); to
restrict,

ment
until,
jS'I

(Isl.
tili,

Law) up

Ai-

li-haddi or a>- Jl
of,

to, to

the extent

A-

Jl

bounda
{*

to s.th.), to

limit,

ai,

jS'I li-h.l-na

up to now, sofar;

confine

a.th.);

irapede,
a.th.);

hinder,
L.
t

eurb, check (j* or a

A*-

Jl

(haddin) to a certain degree,


_-_5

(lx>-

hidda) to becorae furioua, angry (J* at): t u {s\>- hidd) to wear mourning,

to a certain extent; to

A>-

Jl,

-L*j A>~

Jl

considerable

extent
;

or

degree,
^1

mourn
hone
to
aet

considerably,

extensively

A-

Jl

deceased) (J* the

II

to sharpen,

{ayyi haddin)
(*
a.th.);

how

far, to

what degree or
infinite,

(* a knife); to forge (* a.th.; syr.);

delimit,

demarcate
(* to
s.th.),

to

extent;

*J

x>-

V (JwtWa)boundlo33,
A*-

unbounded, unlimited; bounda


off,

"^ bi-l haddin,

circumscribe,
A>- j-i-

mark

delincate

aharply

Ji il gairi

haddin boundlesa, unA>-

to

liinit,

reatrict, confine (j- or * s.th.); to dcter-

limited, without limita; 1^

mine, appoint, aasign, achedule, lay down,


set
e.g.,
fl^^aj

haddin snw'in,
in the

^f

A*-

J*

'al h.

J* 'al siwan

aame manner; equally,

likewiae;

down, establiah
pricea);

(* s.th.);

to

fix
|

(*

to define

(*

s.th.)

jJ*-

(baqarah)

to dart aharp

glances;

A- J* (haddi) according to, commensurate with; 4jI i -i*- j fi haddi dtihi and .oli a
in
itaelf,

to acrutinize (j s.th.), look sharply (j at


s.th.)
III

aa auch; J*Vi

Al~\

{a'l),

aL\
Ai-\

to

oppose
(

^jVI
(*,
*

{aq-?)

the

raaximum; ja^l

s.o.,

a.th.),

{adn) the
act

contrary

to

a.o.,

to

s.th.

),

contravene, counteract, violate (*

limit;
s.th.)
ijA*-

minimum; <jf- A>- ('umri) age {jA*- ji du haddain two-edged;


ijA*ita

IV to harpen, make sharp


Jl

(* s.th.)

(hu/ldi) within, within the frameof;

^kJI atare

Ar-\

(nazar)
;

to

look
(

sharply
to

work
to

^^jI

iJL

(aq$ huddihi)

at,

at

j-oi

A-

basarah )
acrutinize

attain

higheat

degree;

il

.jj-U-

the bounds or restrictions tbat

God has

dart
s.th.),

aharp
look

glances;

to

(j
i

sharply

(j

at

man's freedom of action

a.th.);

a*-\

j^i

^ [bagarihi)

to glance sharply;

to
be

Ix*-

hidda sharpness, keenneas; pitch

put on garmenta of mourning V to be delimited, be delineated, be bounded, be


circumacribed;
to

(of

a tone); djatinctivcnesa, raarkedness

vehemence, violcnce, impetuoaity; fury,


rage,

be

dctermincd,

wrath,

ire,

anger;

excitability,

eatablishcd, be aet

down, be scheduled,
defined,

irascibility,
lAf-

passionateness

be

fixed ;

to

be

be

definable
to

VIII to be or
infuriated,

become angry;
furioua

become
be exsAr-

hida aee a>-j

be

(J*

at),

hadad forbidden

160

s\a*jloJ-l

hidd (act of) mourning { J* over)

delimited,
definitive
|

determinate,
J*il iji

fixed,

definite,
T

uji taui al-A. garmenteof mourning;


mourning
Atu&l'tf1

m. al-ma na unwi.

i-^Jl jIju- A. al-balf court


ijO-

ambiguous

j^iJl

jj^

a^-^famdn

Aodid

iron;

pl.

OjIju-

of limited Uability; (*JjLA\)


{Urica) limited

UjlA T^i

iron parts (of a structure) ; forgings, hard-

Company, oorporation

ware, ironware
iron, iron ore;

* U-

-b-i*-

crude iron, pig


-4^*-

jo muhaddad sharpened, aharp ; determined, fixed, appointed, deatined (J


strictly delimited, clearly defined
for);

Pj^*
JjA*-

(mut&wi")

wrought iron; Jap


_^ii\

(fa) unprooessed

iron, pig iron; .uJ-l _^J aAr aZ-A., ij.u-

is*
caat
iron;
OjOJ-1

muhtadd angry,

furious, exaaper-

SL-

eikkat
i_j_p>

al-fr.

railroad; ajL -b.u-u-u-

ated
<-./*

see

hadid
Ij*-\

pl.

aI.w Aidrf, l.wl ahid*

iljj-

ATa,

pl.

I.U.

Afa', l.u- Aidd*, jT-u-

da1 *,

ahidda

sharp

(knife,

eye,

hid'n kite
I.U-

(zool.)

tongue,
a*- I

etc.).

keen (mind)
aharper,

Aada'a

pl. l-u- Aidd*

double-bladed

dfyadd 1

keener

more

axe
<_*u-

vehement, more violent


Aodta a (Aadai) to be oonvex, domeOjO-

hadida

pl. o^to*.

had&id* pieoe of

shaped, cambered, bent outward; to be

iron;

object

or

tool

made

of iron
1

hunchbacked; to be
(J*-

nice, kind, friendly

ijj-l iJj.u- A. al-hart plowshare; ij Ji(ep.)

J*

or
i_j

to

s.o.),

be solicitous
or
o>

(J*
for

in financiai straita, pinohed for

money
*-

or

about

b.o.),

care (J*

j-b-U(riifcifea)

Aadidi iron (adj.)

*j-Aj>w

s.o.),

railroad

make

take care (J* or oonvex, emboaa,

of

b.o.) II

to

camber, vault,

JOjOJ-I

al-hudaida Hodeida (seaport in

curve, crook,
~Oj-*"-'

bend

(* B.th.)

V and

XII

Yemen)
jl.u-

ihdaudaba to be crooked, vaulted,

oambered, embossed, convex

haddd ironsmith, blacksmith


_>.u-

hadab affection, fondneaa, love;


Bolicitude,

ol-u- Atdia amithcraft, artofsmithing

kindlineas;

care;

(pl.

l^Iju-

0j4^ tahdld
tation ;

pl. -0J

Umitation, delimi-

hidb,

t^lov-l
|

ahdb)

elevation

of the

delineation,

demarcation

re-

ground
V-l*-j

ojj~<j <-*u- JS"j> (wa-^aubin) or

striction, curb,

oonfinement ; determina-

tion, fixation,

appointment; definition

Vj- J^ * fr m aU sidea, fxom all directiona, from everywhere; vj** J^* J

-udl
*-*.}

J* and -b.udl a^j J* (wa?'A Btrictly speaking to be exact


. .

V^j everywhere, in every quarter,


idea
<_*u-

on

all

. ,

jU- Addd sharp (also,

flg.,

of a glance),

hadib curved, cambered, vaulted,

keen (mind); high-pitched (tone); vehement,


acute
fiery,

convex; hunchbacked; kindly, friendly


ij.u-

impetuous;
^Ijli
|

fierce;

vivid;

hadaba hunchback, hump; camber,

(illness)

jU- h.

al-mizj,

vaulting, curvature

UJI iU-

A.

a$-fa&*

hot-blooded,
;

hot*j jij

headed, hot-tempered, irascible


<zdiya) acute angle; jU-1
jjj*

jU-

v a^l
Aw

oAdab 9

f.L-u- hadba' 1 ,

c^

aubacute

hunchbacked, humped;

pl-v^
(elative)

kindlier, friandlier

moArfd bounded, bordered (^


circumscribed,
confined;
limited

by);

i^o^

muAoAiai embossed; cambered,

(=

small, e.g., number, knowledge, etc.);

oonvex

161

Jj-U-

hadafa u

(*j-U-

hudt) to happen, occur,

j-JI u-j-U- h. aa-sinn

young;

-i^Jl li-j-U- h.

take place, come to pass;


(<}l.u.

haduta

al-'ahd of recent date, recent, new, young;


i_j

hadta) to be new, recent; to be


II

o^JI

j-u-,

l-j

A+e j.u-

(A.

'aAitn)

young

to

teil,

relate, report (* to s.o.,

having adopted or acquired


ly;

(s.th.) recent(s.th.),

u
4_Lj

or i s.th., j,
(

talk

to

b.o.,

^ about); to speak, ^ or j about, of


)
|

not long accus tomed to


(s.th.),

inex-

perienced at
e.g.,

new

at (s.th.), newly,

*jj*.

haddatah galbuk and cJa*nafsuh


feeling
l

jVjJI; J^JI j4- (hi-l-wilda)


r-lj^JL Xfi\
-*+J'

now-

<_ij

haddatathu

his

heart,

born,

^^*-

(bi-z-zawdj)

new\y

his

innermost

told

him
to

(^
talk

wed; Ijjjk

j-u- ulf

he had not

s.th.);
o.s.

**

-jJ*"

{nafwk)

known Europe
ijj*- hadit
pl.

until recently

into

(s.th.),

try to believe s.th. or

ijjUl

hlt 1 , -u- AkJ*

see s.th. (as factual); to resolve,

make up
hi>J*. .

Mji speech; chat, chitchat, amall talk;


conversation, talk, discussion; interview;
prattle, gossip ; report, aecount, tale, nar-

one's

mind

to

do

s.th.;

Ol

<-jJ

he said to himself, told himself that


III

to speak, talk
s.th.);

(^
(^

or

j j
(

to s.o.

rative ; Prophetic tradition, Hadith, narrative relating deeda

about

to discuss (j* or or

with
s.o.

and utterances of bhe

s.o. s.th.),

converse

with

Prophet and
**\j*-

his

Companions

j.U-

about); to negotiate, confer


to address, accost
s.o.,
( s.o.);

with
call

s.o.);

h. hurfa fabulous story, silly talk;

to

up

{*

yj-oi

j.u- {qudsi)

Muslim tradition

in

by telephone) IV to bring

forth,

which God Himself speaks, as opposed to

produce, create, originate (*

s.th.);

to

jjj ij J*. (nabawi) an ordinary Prophetic


tradition;
(J

found, establih (*e.th.); to bring about,

Jd\ j.U-

h. an-nafs s.th.

one

cause

occasion
to

provoke

effect
|

(*

talks o.s. into; premonition


il>jO*-

B.th.);

drop excrement

tf-U;

i.u-1

(hadatan) to bring about s.th.

to

cauw
misje,
-_j

hudt setting

in (of

a State or
(of

or

do

s.th.,

esp.,

s.th.

evil,

do

condition),

oecurrence, ineidence

chief

to speak, talk (Jl to


s.th.),

s.o.,

phenomenon); oecurrence, ineident, happening


*jl-u-

or
(Jl

j
or

about or of

converse, chat

u with s.o.,

jp,

uor j

about

s.th.)

hadta newness, recency, novelty;

VI to talk with one another, converse,

youth, youthfulness
il*a-l

have a conversation X to renew


to

{* s.th.);

ahdaf newer, more recent

buy new

(* s.th.); to introduce, start,

invent,
find or
djJ*-

originate,

create to be

(*

s.th.);

to

jAjJl

j-U- hidtn (or hadat&n) ad-dakr

deem
hadat

( s.o.)

young

misfortune, adversities, reverses


4jj.u-l

pl. i!>l-U-t

ahdt a new, un-

uhdta

pl. J-jjU-1

ahdit3 speech;
chatter;

precedented thing, a novelty, innovation;


event, ineident, oecurrence, happening;

discussion, talk,

conversation;

fabling, fibbing; topic, subjeet of a con-

phenomenon;

evil

Symptom; misdeed;

versation ; gossip,

rumor (about a person)


|

misfortune; ritual impurity {Id. Law)*,

excrement, feces; (p\.<L>\i*-\,\5i*-hudtn)

oj-U-Vl J-*al-u. praise (of s.o.); y;.u-VI *y ** al-u. slander, defamation

hum

young man, youth;

il-U-i juveniles
hidt, U.U. hu*

ojl muhdata

pl.

-t discourse,

con-

<o-u- hadit pl. il-U-

versation, discussion, talk, parley


il-u-l

daUS % new, novel, recent, late; modern;


Ijja*-

ihdt produetion, creation, in-

haditan recently, lately

*LJl j.U-

vention, origination; causation, effectuation

h.

al-tn'

new - built,

recently

built

162

oLJI^-l
(math.)
|

ihdwiy&t

(pl.)

co-ordinatee

to cause
(a
s.th.);

(* s.th.)

to descend;

to drop
IjJb-

AiiyF oLlli^l {'amdiya) ordi-

to

ahed (* teara);
rattle
a.

ji*-

natea;
(math.)

S-l

iLSI.u-1

(ufqlya)

abscisaas

{hadran)

to

off,

expreaa quickly

(an
istihdt

utterance,

thought);

(hadr)

ti.IJb.iJ

invention,

creation,

to

production, origination

come down, step down, deacend; to glide down, swoop II to drop (* s.th.); to lower, incline, dip (* s.th.) V to
deacend gradually; to glide down; to

ioU hd occurring, happening, taking


place; new, recent; freh;

(pl. >*])*-

come down, descend;


(tears);

to

flow

down
(,j*

hawdit2

also -&t) occurrence, incident,

to derive,

atem,

originate

event, happening; episode; case (jur.);


accident, mishap
|

from)

VII

to

jj'J

ioU

a cose of
of

acend; to glide
in

come or go down, dedown, Bink down; to be


on the downgrade, to
(tears); to
(ter-

forgery; ioliJ tL.

makn

al-h. Bite

decline,

be

action, ecene of the crime, locus delicti


i\iU- hdita pl.

decline,

wane; to flow down

tj^y haudit 1 occurplot


(of

slope
rain)
;

down, alant down, be inclined


to

rence,
;

event,

happening;
;

a
[

come

Jl to

a place), arrive

Jl at)

play) incident, epieode accident, mishap jjjii

jj*.
(a

hadr rapid recitation of the Koran

ojU

h.

al-murr
pl.

traffic accident

terminus technicua of tajwxd)


jjj+-

iirf.

mnhaddit

-n apeaker, talker;
inter-

hadr slope, downgrade, declivity,

Bpokesman; conversation partner,


;

declivitoua terrain
jjj.

locutor ; relator, narrator a tranamitter of

tahaddur

deacent,

slant,

Blope,

Prophetic traditions, traditionary, representativeof the science or study of Hadith


(eee above);
iOrf-

inclination, incline, declivity


j\jJ-\

O phonograph, gramophone
recent, late;
riche;

inhidr slant, dip, pitch, inclina;

tion, descent, slope

declivity; fall (of a

muhdat new, novel,

modern; upstart, nouveau


the Moderne
J>j*-i.

oy^\

river); decline,

waning; ruin, decay, de-

cadence
jiU- hdir thick
j.Uju mutahaddir descending, slanting,
(pl.

mutahaddit apokeaman, Speaker

wu*^. mustahdat new, novel;


-i)

loping
novelty, innovation; recent invention,

downward
deBcending; lowered,
aloping,

modern produet; neologism


r a*- hadaja
(*,
*
i

j.Uw munhadir
dipped;
alanting,
(terrain);

declivitous

and

II

to stare, look sharply


a^--*

declining,

waning,

being

on

at

s.o.,

at a.th., often with

the downgrade, in a State of decadence or


decline;
heela,

bi-baearihi or Jj bi-nazarihl)
r-i*-

run-down, aeedy, down-at-the-

hidj pl. gj-b- hwlj, ^1-u-t ahdj

down-and-out
;

load, brden,

enoumbranoe

j .Uw munhadar pl. -l depression slope,


talus,
incline,

jb- y\ ab hudaij stork


1 4fl4p- hid&ja pl. -t*- ^adN'?

descent,

declivity ;

fall

camel

(of

a river)
i

saddle

^j*- hadaea
Ij\j*i

(hada) to surmise, guess,

jj^ hadara, hadura u (hadr, hadara u to be thick;

hadra)

conjeeture (* a.th.)
,-1*-

{hadr, jjJb-

hada aurmiae, guess, conjeeture;

hudr) to bring down, lower (* s.th.);

intuition

163

jj-

D Ji'i- haddf (< Jli~), iijTLil


Shuttle (weaving)
li*1

Jil-U- (yr.)

j-u-

AWuw
^.u-)

horseshoe
I.U-

'(jiJjLi

and

had u (Aadw,

Ij.

AiWd',
{*

pra haddfa (syr.) flywheel

hid*)

to

urge forward

by singing

Jo- Aa<2aga

(hadq) to Surround, encircle,


(<_j

cameis) ; to urge, spur on, egg on, prompt,


instigate,

encompass

s.o.,

s.th.)

(with

*i-k>

induce,

more
s.th.);

(<^i

or

s.o.,

bt-'ainihi) to look, glanoe (. at s.o.) II to

Jl to s.th., to

do

lj l-U- to instiroll
(rider,

look, also

glance,
<_j)
|

gaze, stare (Jl or


jLJl
Ja*-

at,
fix

gate

B.th.;

to

sway, rock,

(naazra) to

camel); to Bwing along, rock along (in


riding)
J

one'

glance

on

...

IV to Surround,
enclose
,

Jl

li-j-U.

*^j -U- their oonrersation


1

encircle,

encompass,

(lj
_^

s.o.,

led

them to

.;

.JK^Jl

4-fl

s.th.); to look,

glance (j, Jl or

at)
|

{garadun
after or
rie

tuhd)

a goal

^J. ^jk much Bought

j
on

jLJl J.u-1 (nazara) to fix one'B glance


. .

worth striving for V to oompete,


with

s.o.);

to challenge, pro-

roke
.u-

(*,

b.o.,

s.th.);

to defy, oppose,

hadaqa

pl.

-dl, Ja*- hadaq, JI.U-

hidq, jl.u-1
pl.

aW<^

resiat,

withstand

(*, s.o., s.th.),


s.o.,

stand
s.th.);

pupil (of the eye);

up
to

(,

against

against

jlil glances
incite,
(*

stimulate,
s.th.;

arouse,

animate,
s.o.'s

iia*- hadiqa pl. jlli*- had'iq* garden


|

sharpen

*ITj

dak'ah

oLjl^-J-l j.u- A. aJ-AayauiflfaJ/ zoological

intellect); to intend (* s.th., to

do

s.th.),

garden, zoo
jl.u-1

be bent (* on doing

s.th.)

tTwta^ encircle ment,

encompass-

l-u-

hud' animating singsong, chanting

ment (^
j-i*
11

of)

of the cararan leader


l-i*-

J-U-

_^ fcatar muAd/imminent danger II = JJ*-) to make acid, sour, tart,


{

hadd' camel driver, cameleer

ji*-l

uhdwa,

<j-U-I

uhdiya song of the

or sharp (* s.th.)

camel drivers
JiU-) sour. tart, acid,
jj.

J-U- hiq
(taste)

(=

tahaddin

pl.

o L A*t

tahaddiyt

sharp

challenge,

provocation
pl. li*-

Ja*- hadala
(a

jU- hdin
i

hud&h Caravan leader


cameis

to

flatten,
Jji*-

lerel,

eren,

roll

s.th.);

(Aa<M,
s.o.)

hudl)

(who
to treat

urges

the

forward

by

unjustly (Je
*J-i*4

singing); camel driver, cameleer; leader

nttTufa/a pl.

JjU

mahdil*

.u^* mutahaddin challenger,


roller,
1
m

provoker

steamroller
*a*-

iS-^

hadiya a to remain, stay

(i_>

at a place),

stick

VIII to burn, glow, blaze; to burn up,

(utoa

place)

be consumed by
out
(fight);

fire;

to flare up, break

to
at,

be

furious,

burn with
3

wrath
{gaizan)
j-Ioj-1

(J*

orer),

also

LLi-

<jI-U-

hidya, hiddya

il-b-

hid'a

jj*- hadira

a (hidr, hadar) to be cautious,


*,

ihliddm paroxysm
mu/i&ufiin
furious,

wary, to beware (j* or


B.th.),

of

s.o.,

of

be

*oit

on
II

one's
to

infuriated.

enraged
o*-

against)
s.o.

guard (j* or *, warn, caution (,>


(

of or about), put
(jr*

s.o.)

on

his

Au&i see

i*-j

guard

against) III to

watch out, be

; ,

164

J^
careful;
fco

be on one's guard
of
8.0.)
I

against),

J.U- hadiqa a>

hadaqa

(hidg, li-

hadqa)

be wory

to beware, be

wary

to be skilled, skillful, well- versed, proficient

(,> of) VIII


j-u-

(*or jins.th.), maater (s.th.);


watch-

hadaqa
(milk)

hidr and hadar caution,

(<3j-i*-

hudq)

to

turn

sour

fulness, alertneBS, wariness,

circumspec-

to feign sklfulness, proficiency, clever-

tion; precaution

ji*. -U-l

(hadarah) to

ness or smartnesa
ja*, hidg

be on one's guard; j-U- J 'al hadarin cautiously, warily; on one's guard {^*
against)
jl. Aajftr cautious,
jl-U- Aatlri

and

l-w-

hadqa

skill,

dexter-

ity, proficiency;

smartnesa, cleverness, in-

telligence; perspicacity, sagacity,

acumen
skillful,

wary
(Ol

jiL- hdiq
skilled,
.

pl.

j!*-

huddq

proficient;

well-vereed,

clever,

beware
watch

of doing
for)!

.,

smart, intelligent; sour


jJ-U-

y>

of s.th.)!

out (j-

be
II tahadlaqa to pretend

careful (^- of)!

to be clever
;

jjJ- tahdir warning, cautioning (jagainst)


*jiL*

of,

or skillfull, feign skill or knowledge

to be

pedantio

mt^kl^ara

caution,

precaution,

J-U- hadlaqa skillfulneas, dexterity

precautionary meaaure

(jJV)

l-U-

had u:
s.o.,

} \*-

IJu-

(hadwah) to
s.o.,

jj mahdr that of which one should


beware, against which one should guard
object of caution ;

imitate
s.o.'s

take
III

after

follow

example
face,

to be opposite s.th. (*
s.th.),

(pl. -t)

danger, peril

(*),

parallel

run

trouble, difficulty, misfortune

parallel

(* to)

VI to be opposite each

other, be parallel VIII to imitate, copy


(Ji*-

hadafa
or

(hadf) to shorten, clip, curtail


a.th.);
off,

(i~>

or J*

s.o.,
(i^.

s.th.,

also s.th.), take

{*

y>

to

take

s.th.

away,

or follow
s.th.)

cut

s.th.

clip

s.th.

off

y> from or cross

J* s.o., s.th., also * as an example or model; to be


s.th.) aa

or

s.th.),

reduce (j-

B.th.), strike

shod; to wear (

footgear
face to

s.th. (j- off s.th.); to cancel, strike out,

delete,
(*

drop, leave out, omit, suppress


;

jJV hadwa
face with
|

(prep.)

opposite,

s.th.)

(gram.)

to elide, apocopate,

J-JIj J*Jl iiji*-

hadwaka n-na'la

drop by aphaereais; to deduct, subtract


(a
s.th.);
(i~>

bi-n-na'l in

a completely identical manner,

to throw

(<^>

at s.o. s.th.),

to a T, like
J-U-

two peas
pl.

in a

pod
ahdiya
shoe;

pelt

s.o.

with

s.th.); to cast
(<~>

away,

hid'
|

<jJu-t

throw away, discard

s.th.) II to clip,
a.th.)

sandal
la*.

j V' *jL# shoemaker

trim (* s.th.); to give (

shape,

hid'a

(prep.)

and

AX*-

bi-

to trim, clip, or cut (* a.th.) into proper

hid'i opposite, face to face with


*IjV hadd' shoemaker, cobbler

Bhape
tjj-

hadf
off,

shortening ,
etc.;

curtail ing
;ljl* (j)

cutting

trimming,
striking

canceling,
off,
li^*-l

>

al&

(/i)

muhd&ti along,

alongside of, parallel to


croasing

cancellation,

off,

deletion;

Omission,

dropping,

supprea-

ihtid' imitation,

copying

sion; (gram.) elision, elpsia, apocopation


^sili^ ha^iir 1 : jJl* aVI

iL*
j+-

muhdin opposite, facing


i

he took

all

of

it,

harra u
II

(Aarr,

_,!;*-

harra) to be hot
to free, set free,

he took

it

lock, stock

and

barrel

to liberate

( s.o.);

165

releose

(*

s.o.);
(

to

emancipate

( s.o.);

zeal;

vehemence,

violence,

intensity;

to consecrate

s.o.)

to the Service of

burning (of the skin)


*jj>- huraira pl. -t calorie
tfj'j""

God;

to

clarify,

clear

up,

make

clear

(* s.th.);

to formulate precisely, phrase


define

aecurately,
s.th.)
;

exactly, pinpoint (*

harri thermal, thermic, thermo-,


;

to revise {> a book) ; to edit, redact

heat (used attributiv ely)


Lji^- (wahda) calorie

calorie

.u-j

(* a

book, a periodical); to write, pen,

indite,

compose, oompile
free;

(*

s.th.)

to

O <Lj[r
\j*-

harriya
f-

pl.

-t calorie

become
(,3-

to be freed, be liberated

Jjj*- harr

pl-

from); to be emancipated Till to be

j lj^j*.

har'ir 2 hot

wind
jt^*-

kindled, be heated, flare


j- harr heat, j-

up

harrn 2

f.

harr,

pl.

hirr, jjlj*- harr thirsty;

passionate,
(zafra) a

warmth
jl^-l ahrr, pl.
f.

fervent, hot
J\j.

(fig.)

(jj~

Ijj

hurr

pl.

m.

fervent sigh; jyj*-\

9j*s hot tears

har'ir* noble, free-born; genuine (jewels,


etc.),

aharr2 hotter,
(>

warmer

pure, unadulterated;

free;

living
free,

_^i-l

()'<"')

on

pins

j-\ Je and needles, on


|

in

freedom; freeman; independent;


liberal
(pol.;

tenterhooks,

in

greatest

suspense

or

unreatrained;

jl^Vl the

excitement

Liberais); frank, candid,


s.o.); free,
ji-\

open (J* toward available, uninvested (money)


|

O j*j j

rniharr heating System, heating

^U^-Vl

installation
tahrir liberation; release; emanei-

{ihtiy) free reserves, un<IL* >-

encumberedreaerves;
mlihi with his
his disposal
lj*-

.>

min

hurri

own

cash, with funds at

pation; record(ing), writing; editing, redaction; editorship (of a newspaper, a

harra

pl. -t

stony area; volcanic

periodical);

(pl.

-Ol,

j j\J-

tahrir*) piece

country, lava field

of writing,

record,

brief,

document
_r

j j*d\

ur-jJj editor-in-chief;

j**\

Ijlil

i/poetic)

hurriya

pl. -t

freedom, liberty;
(e.g.,

board of editors, editorial staff


k$jj-

independence, unrestraint, license


|

^LJI *jj h. al-'ibda freedom

tahriri liberational;
liberal ;

emaneipawriting,

of worship ; _iJI hj. h. al-fikr freedom of thought; f^xJI


*tj*-

tional ;

recorded

in

h.al-kalm freedom
^J^ll
*j_,-

written, in writing

of speech; <l^JI or)

h.

an-

jU- harr hot; warm; ardent, glowing,


fervent, passionate

nah

(a$-$ihfa) liberty of the press


silk; pl. J\j*. har'ir 2 (j\j*~)

jj>- harir
silken

jjjfiery,

mahrr hot-tempered, hot-headed,

wares,

silks

,$J*e j_^-

($akri)

passionate, furious

asbestos;
iSj^j*-

^L-* j j- rayon

jj- mvharrir pl. -n liberator,

eman-

hariri silken, silky, of silk


har'iri
silken,
silk(in

cipator; writer, clerk; editor (of a news-

paper, of a periodical)
ijj\j*-

Comjj-

pounds), of

silk; silk

weaver

muharrar oonsecrated to God; set


in writing,

down
j\j harrr silk
*jLf*~

recorded in writing,
pl.

weaver

written;
entriea

booked;

oljyt bookrogs,

harra heat; warmth; fever heat,

fever;

temperature;

ardor,

fervor

(of

j/c*

mvtaharrir

emancipated;

an

emotion), pasaion; eagemen, enthosiasm,

advooate of emanoipation

166

j*-

hariba a (harab) to be furious, enraged,


III

>j*-

hart

plowing,

tilling,

tillage,

angry
battle,

to

fight,
(

combat
agaiBt

s.o.),

cultivation of the soil; arable land, tilth;

wage war
VI

s.o.)

VI to
in

plantation, culture
4jj- harp. (n. un.) arable land, tilth
IIj.

fight (one anothor), be

engaged

war

VIII

hirta

cultivation

of the

soil,

^Senemies

harb

f.,

warfare; fight,

vJj*- hurb war, combat, battle; enemy,


pl.

farming, agriculture
>\j*-

(J* or

of

s.o.)
1

LUI

harrt

plowman
pl.
2 i-jjL* mahrit plow

._>/*-

(ahliya) civil

war; Lil** ^j*- (sihfiya)

il^rf.

mihrt

pres3 feud; LlJ-JI ^jjl~\ (qallbiya) the

Crusades

;
l

r li*Jl

^>l (uzm) UUl ^>


,

ijU-

hrit pl. ilj- Aurri

plowman

ijU-l jjI

ab
a

l-h. lion

('/amlt/a),

<.Ul

^i-l

('mma)

World
tl-

War

1;

L^L- j*

^>l

j.i.tf toAx/a*

r-^

jai-t?a
;

{/wm?)

to

be

close,

tight,

Aar&u 'an aqih and

JU

Jt

"-r*>^'

^
up,

narrow

to be straitencd, be confined,

gmaf

t7-A.

a/ a^in

war

flared

get into a strait, be cornered, be hard

fierce fighting

broke out
warlike,
bellicose,
bellig-

pre83ed; to be oppressed, be anguished


(heart);
II

to

be forbidden

Oj-

harbi

(J*

to s.o.)
(

crent, martial,

war

(adj.), military; (pl.

to narrow, tighten, straiten


(* s.th.),

s.th.);

n) wanior,
iJji-\

soldier, military

man

j-^jJl
|

to complicate
difficult;

make
IV to

(* s.th.)

(blts) military police

to forbid (Ja * s.th. to s.o.);

to
*jj>-

pereist

(j in

s.th.)

narrow,

harba

pl.

^j^

hirb lance, spear;

straiten,

confine,
(*

cramp,
s.th.);

hamper, imto

spearhead; bayonet, sidearm


#Li_^-

pede,

restrict
difficult,

complicate,

hirba

pl. <j\j*-

harbiy chameleon

make
(

aggravate, jeopardiz (*
;

(200/.)
lij*-

a Situation,
s.o.)

s.o.'s position)

to embarrasa

to

coerce,

constrain,

press

\j

iv harabhf

(exclamation of

lament) alas! goodness no! oh


s~>\j-

my!
re-

(Ji
s.o.)

to forbid (J* * s.th. to V to refrain from sin or evildoing;


s.o. to);

mihrab

pl. <

jj^

mahTib 2 a

to

abstain,
s.th.); to

refrain

(j-

from),

avoid

moaque indicating the direction of prayer, prayer niche, mihrab


cesB in a
i, jlrf.

(^
the

be eomered, be forced to wall; to become or be oppressed,

muhraba

struggle, combat, fight,

anguished, distressed; to beeome critical,

battle; warfare

become
mutual struggle
(s.o.'s

complicated
(Situation),
|

or

difficult,

be

aggravated
^\J*.\
^jLt
ihtirb

be

jeopardized
,

position)
to
at;

mukrib

warring,

belligerent;

($adruh)

feel

(v) * - L"* depressed by,


*

TL-J^

warrior,

combatant,

fighter;

corporal

annoyed

U,-UI

*>

feel

this

made

(Eg. 1930)

things difficult for people the


belliger-

j^jjU^il al-mutahribn
ents, tho warring parties

r jj- haraj closenesa, tightneas, narrowness;


tion,

confinement,

atraitness,

constric-

~*^.jij*-

harb$a
pill

pl.

harbiSr

(tun.)

crampedness; restriction, impediment; oppresaion, distress, anguish;


difficulty; critical Situation; prohibition,

pastille,

*. harata

{hart) to
tili (*

plow

the

soil);

interdiction; s.th. forbidden, s.th. interdicted, sin


|

to cultivate,

the ground)

(haraja) there

is

no

167

u*S~
the day, score a great success

objection; ^LLc rj-

V nothing Stands

in

to be
(^

your way, you are at liberty


Tj*- haraj (coli.; n. un.
S) pl. -dt, r\j-

wary

(^ of),

be

on one's guard

against) VIII to be

wary

{,>. of),

guard.

hirj, ^l^-l ahrj thicket;

denae forest;

be on one's guard (j* against), be careful,


take heed, take precautions
jj- hirz pl.
jl^*-l

woodland, timberland
rj*- harij narrow, close, tight, confined,

ahrz fortified place;

straitened ;

oppressed,

hard

pressed,

refuge, sanctuary, retreat; custody; (pl.

harassed; critical (Situation, position)


kj*-\

J !/*-' JJj*- fyurz) amulet

ahraf narrower,

closer, tighter,

j j*. hariz strongly

fortified,

guarded;

more straitened; more


g\j-

critical

inaccessible, impregnable
jl^p-l

harg

(eg.)

auction
diffi-

ihrz

acquisition,

acquirement,

'jbtainment,

attain ment,

achievement,

-l^- harja seriouenesa, gravity,

winning, g&ining
culty, complicatedness (of a Situation)

tj
rj

j\j+-\ ihtirz pl. -t caution, wariness,

tahrij forestation,

afforestation

prudenoe,
taharruj restraint, reserve, aloofreserve
|

circumspection ;

reservation,

jlJ^-V'

J-& with all

reservation

ness; timidity, diffidence, faint-heartedness; critical complication, gravity,


diffi-

jjl*-

hriza fuae (d.)

culty (of a Situation)

jj muhriz obtainer, aoquirer, winner,


gainer; possessor, holder (J*

oU^
oaths
r-j*-

of s.th.)

muharrijt: Lc V' Olyjfi m. alor solemn,

aimn binding, committing,

^j>- harasa u [hara,

a*\j(,

hirOsa) to guard,
s.th.,
s.o.);
(,

watch,

control

to

muhrij disconcerting, embarrass-

overaee, superviae, superintend


s.o.);

* s.th.,

ing
r-jj>LU

to secure, protect, safeguard, pre-

serve,

keep (, *

s.th., s.o.);

to

watch

mutaharrij:

jJuail

r-j*^*

m.aop|

sadr

annoyed,

vexed,

anguished,

J* over) V and VIII to beware, be wary

pressed

{,y of), guard, be

on one's guard

(j*

against)

j^

harida a

(harad) to be annoyed, dia-

^j. haraa watch; guard, escort; body-

gruntled, angry, furious (J# at, with)


^jU-

guard

jLJI j-^-l (sayyr)


|

mitia,

hrid,

Zj-

harid

and

o\*j*-

har*

"garde mobile" (8yr.)

JyiJI

j-,-

h.

dn annoyed, disgruntled, angry, furious


2 JjV" hirdaun pl. ,>J!/- hardin lizard

aS-Saraf honor guard; JII

^^ (malaki)
Ir.,

the royal guard (formerly

Eg.);
(

_r

^-l

$Ji\ (mulki) (formerly) bodyguard of


the

jj>- haraza

(harz) to keep, guard, protect,


s.th.),

Bey

{Tun.);

jyi j->1

(watanl) the

preserve (*

take care (* of);


to

National Guard
~*~>\j*-

haruza

(j|^-

harza)

be

strong

hirsa guarding, wabching, con-

be

strongly

fortified,

be

impregnable
(* s.th.); to

trol;

watch, guard, guard duty; super-

IV to keep, preserve, guard


obtain,
(jjL^i)

vision, auperintendence ; guardianship, tu-

attain,
\_

achieve,

win

(* s.th.)

telage,
|

oustody, care,

protection ;

safe

rMj

jj*-\

(naaran)

to

win a

conduct, escort; administration ; administration of


J*-lj_Jl ~kJj*-

victory;

jrrJ\

,_^f jj~\

(qaqaba s-sabq)

an estate

(jur.)

Sequester

to

oome through with

flying colors, carry

coast guard

u*su*\J*-\

168

ihtirs

caution, wariness, pru-

hariaf pl.
fish)

harSif* acales (of

dence;

(pl. -t)

precaution, precautionary

meosure

j Ul^-I for protection from


,j-^*-

or against

harasa

and harifa a

{hire) to deaire,

want,

covet

^jUAurrfl

hris
vigilant,

pl.

L-^-

harasa,

watchful ;

^1^watchman

be bent

(J* s.th.); to be intent, (J on) ; to strive ( J* for),

Bentry, sentinel, guard; overseer, Supervisor,

aspire (J* to)


tjfj*-

Superintendent ;

Administrator

hirs

greed,

avidity,

cupidity,

guardian,
tutelary
h.

custodian, keeper, protector,


(in

covetouanesa ; desire; aspiration, endeavor,

compounda)

TJvJl

^jU^jU(?a
*

wish (J*

for);
. .

avarice
|

Jp

L*,- in
.
.

at-tirka

Administrator of an estate;
aeal; j-^l

the desire for

in the

endeavor to
!

fljA-'l

^jU- keeper of the

r}jj^
aigns)

'

J*

\~fj*~

danger

(on

warning

h.

al-marm goal keeper; jl* ^^*"&>

4'%) aequeatrator, receiver (in

bankrupt-

^iij- harty
Aura^fl' 8

pl.

^[f-

hirOs,

Uyeager

cy, in equity);

,j-jl*-

(maVak) guard-

covetous,

greedy, avid,

ian angel (CAr.JjJJJl

,j-;L*-

a '-&*'

night

watchman

(J* for); bent (J* on), desirous (J* of)


^j^-!

^^
as
j*>jj\

ahme2 more

covetous, greedier

mahrs guarded, safeguarded,


used
,jZj*-

secured; protected (by God; esp.

II

to goad,

prod, spur on, egg on,

an epithet

after the

names of

cities)

incite, rouae,

provoke (J*

s.o.

to s.th.

the children, the family

or to

do

s.th.); to
a.o.

inatigate,

abet, stir
;

u*j4- muhtaria cautious, wary, careful

up, agitate ( J*

to or against)

O to

induce

(d.)

^j

hara&a
II

(karS) to Scratch (*,

s.o.,

^^ij^

tahrld incitement, provocation;

s.th.)

to

inatigate,
(

prod,
to

incite,

instigation, abetment, agitation (J* to);

provoke, incense

b.o.);

set

(^j

innammatory Propaganda (J*


a.o.);

against

people against each other), sow discord,


dissension
quarrel,

induction
{ei.)

(ei.)

J'J

o+ij*

(jo

among) a brawl

to

pick

Belf-induction
tS*tj

atart
(*-

(v with

s.o.),

provoke

tahrigi inciting, instigative, agi-

a.o.)

tative, inflammatory; provocative

phuri

hirS,
forest,

hurS

pl. ^il^

ahri, ,Jijj-

^jIj- hrid bad, wicked, evil

wood(a)

^j*- muharrig
^j- kariS

pl.

-n

inciter, baiter;

and

,Jj-\

ahraJP

rough,

instigator,

abettor;

demagogue, rabble

coarse, Bcabrous

rouaer; agitator, provocator;

,Jj-

harai,

hur3a,
,

<Z\j+.

har&a

induotor

roughnesa,
tahri

acabrousneas

i. mutakarritf,

induced

(d.)

,J-ij^

instigation,

prodding,
j-

II to slant,
;

incline,
off,

incitement,

provocation,

agitation,

ins.th.)

to

censement
J,j taharrui provooation, importunity, obtruaion, meddling, uncalled-for
interference

bend
or

up,

make oblique (* down or back, turn


deflect
{*
a.th.)

up,

down

back,

to distort, corrupt, twist, pervert, mis-

construe, falaify (* a.th.)

**-i^*

j*

*ij*-

fan mavdi'ihi) to

distort the aense of

160

dj"Awr/

3.th.,

rob s.th. of
off,

its

true meaning

to

t_jj-

common garden pepper Cresa


bot.)

turn
to to

branch

off,

take a tuming;
{je-

(Lepidium sativum L.;


ii^-

deviate,

depart, digress
a.th.);

from)

hirfa

pl.

<Jj-

Aira/

profession,
craft,

avoid
off,

(je-

to

be or become

occupation,

vocation,

businesB,

bent

distorted, corrupted, perverted

trade
i_ju
2 j- ari/ pl. Li^- htiraf'

VII to

tum off, branch off, take

a tuming;

to deviate, depart, digress, turn

away

customer,

(jp from); to slope down, slant, be inclined (terrain); to

patron, client (tun.)


t_ju j*-

tum

(Jl to,

toward);

hirrif

pungent, acrid (taste)

to be twisted, be distorted; to be oblique,


slanting; to be cocked, rakish (headgear);

oLijj*- spicy food, delicacies


il^-

with

<_>:

to

make
jp
*j

harfa pungency, acridity (taste)


-flt

s.th.

appear oblique,
ijtlj* tahrif pl.
distortion ;
alteration, change;

alanted, or distorted; to be corrupted,

perverted

cj^l

to dissuado s.o.

perveraion,

corruption,

esp.

from; *^[> <-J^l (mixjuh) to be indisposed, be ill VIII to do (* s.th.) profeasionally, practice (* s.th.) aa a profession;

phonetic corruption of a word

Jil^l
gression ;

inhirf

pl.

-<K

deviation,

di-

obhqueness,

obliquity ,

incliail-

to etrive for aucceas


t_jj-

nation, slant; declination (astron.);


hiraf
;

harf

pl.

<Jj-

(cutting)

ment, indisposition, also


t_jt>-l

^Ijil

cjj^l

edge (of a knife, of a aword) sharp edge


border,
(pl.

edge,

rim,

brink,

verge ;

ihtir&f professional pursuit (of


etc.)

a trade,
^ij-

J>jj*-

hurf,

Jy-1

ahruf) letter;

consonant; particle (gram.); type {typ.)


tjj*L^ij

muharraf corrupted (word)


;

J* irresolute, wavering, on the fence *tLl alfzuh bi-hurfiJi his worde


J^J-Ij

oyM munharif oblique


trapezium (geom.)

slanted, slant-

ing, sloping, inclined ; distorted, perverted,

literally;

or

j*-\J\

_J/I-Ij

hterally,

corrupted, twisted; deviating, divergent;

verbatim, to the letter; ,_J^


bi-harn
literally,

Li,-

harfan
*jj

word
a

for

word;

JJ& muhtarif one


(<->

gainfully
s.th.
(._-<)

employed
profession;

Jj^I
0*U.

>-Jr-Vlj

(waqqa'a, l) to initial
treaty);

(e.g.,

in),
;

person doing

mu'kadatan

Jj^J-l

ally

professional, a pro (sports)

profes-

h^^\
i_-ijl
(i.e.,
/

{abjadiya) the alphabetic letters,


<Jjj-

sional (adj.), e.g.,

jU

jU*

(oihfi) pro-

the aiphabet; *Hf


_Jj^i-l

matter {typ.);

fessional Journalist; climber, careerist

(Samsiya) the sun letters


r, l,

sibilants, dentals,

n to which
jj*JJl

the
jj*.

O
burn,

-Jj^ muhtaraf
i

pl. -t

studio, ateher
s.th.);

of the artiole asaimilatea),

"-j^'

haraqa

(harq) to
sting,

burn

(*
|

to

(qamariya) the
l

moon

letters (to

which the

hurt,

smart
3j-

Ji

Jyrub

of the
J<tj*-

article
h.

does

not assimilate);

(qalbah), pl.

^J-l

al-jarr

prepoaition {gram.);

f^J*

(qulbahum) to
(harq) to

vei, exasperate

s.o.;

u
to

(J-'I

j- h. al-kafd do.;

iju^l cjy<Jj-

together (* s.th.) II to burn (* s.th.);


*jL-l
3j*-

article {gram.); JtL*l\ .J^- h. al-'atf co-

(aannah)

gnash one 's

ordinating
* l+ii-^
.
I

conjunction

gram.) ;

teeth IV to burn (* s.th.); to destroy


fire

by

interrogative

particle

(gram.) ;
(* (-

s.th.);

to

singe,

scorch,

pareh

Sil

-Jj*- A.

al-qasam particle introducing

s.th.); to

scald (* s.th.); to kindle,


fire (* s.th.)
|

oaths (gram.)
jy*- harfi hteral

ignite, Bet

on

*1J

**i Jy-I

(fahmata

lailihi) to

spend the night doing

Jj*(s.th.),

bum

the midnight
aflame,

oil

over

3jj-

mahrq burned, oharred, scorched,


;

to

bum, be

bum

up, take

fire,

parched

reddish,
fuel

bronze-colored ;
|

pl.

be conaumed

by

fire,

be burned; to be

olij^ makrqt
fired clay

3jj* j^i (fat&r)

consumed (by an emotion), pine away


(*

with),

be pained
j

(*

by),

eat

one'B

3j muhriq:
diary

jf-

iLJ {qunbuia) incen-

heart out

^i j_^ {iauqan)

to

be

bomb
crematory
sacrifice

overcome with longing or nostalgia VIII to bum, be aflame, bum up, take fire, be

O j mvhraq
~jt-

oonaumed by

fire,

be burned
eijj-

muhraqa burnt
pl.

j j- harq burning, incineration, combustion; kindling, igniting, setting afire;


arson,

harqada

Jij^ harqid*

Adam's apple

incendiarism ;
{med.)

pl.

3jj*-

hurq

<j^- harqa fa pl. Jil_^- harqif* protruding

bums
3j*-

part of the hipbone


fire,

haraq

conflagration

i^-

II

to move, set in motion, drive, propel,


(m
s.th.)
stir
;

*i*- hurqa,

harqa burning, incineration,

operate

to

march, move

combustion; stinging, smarting, burning


(as

troops); to
started,
agitate,
incite,

(* s.th.); to
(*

start, get
s.th.)
;

get

a phyaical Sensation); torture,

tor-

underway
Btimulate

to to

ezcite,
instigate,

ment, agony, pain, ordeal

{*

s.th.);

goad,

prod,

provoke,
s.th.); to

jUjl^

hurq, hurrq tinder

actuate, urge (J#


afire;

s.o. to

do

harrq burning, aflame,

hot

awaken, arouse, foment,

stir

up

(* s.th.);
|

to vowel, vowelize (gram,, * a consonant)


jj^- hariq
fire;

and j^-

pl.

jt\r

har'iq*

jplJL.

'J^-

(mai'irah) to grip, excite,


i\^-

conflagration
'**\r

thrill s.o.; kJttJ^JI

to affect the feel-

harrqa torpedo

ings,

be touching, moving, pathetic; V he


li^-

b5"U ii^ (sdJWnan) he doesn't budge,


jlj^*-

haraqn burning, stinging, smart-

he

doesn't

bend

his

little

finger,

ing (as a painful Sensation; e.g., of the


feet)

remains immobile, apathetic; *SV~


(skinak)
to

rouse

s.o.,

put

s.o.

in

O 3j*- mahraq
{phys.)

pl.

j jl* mahriq* foouB

a State of excitement,
agitation

commotion or
stir,

to move, be in motion,

jijUi tahartq*
of the year
3\j*-\

(Eg.)

season

of the

budge; to start moving,


to start out, get

get

moving;

Nile 's lowest water level, hottest season

underway

(traveler);

to de part, leave (train); to put out, to


sail (fleet);

to be set in motion, be driven,

ihrq burning, incineration, com-

be operated; to be agitated, be excited, be stimulated; to be awakened, be roused,

bustion
Jiy taharruq burning, combuBtion ; burn-

be fomented, be provoked, be caused


ii_^-

ing desire (Jl for)


jljw-l ihtirq burning,

harik lively, active, brisk, agile,

combustion;

fire,

nimble
'Sj haraka
pl. -i

conflagration

JL^-Vl *> 9^ rfat


(tecAn.); jlj*-"SM

'-*-

movement, motion;
stirring,

combuBtion Chamber

J^

commotion; physical exercise;

qbil al-i. combustible

impulse; proceeding, procedure, policy;


action, undertaking, enterprise; military

JjU- hriq

areorust, incendiary

171

f
* j* or j
(*

Operation; continuation, progress; traffic

from

b.o. s.th.),

deny, refuse

(ra, Stripping, street);

movement
in
all

(as
\

or * ja or

to b.o. B.th.); to

a social phenomeuon); vowel (gram.)


*S\&*>j

exclude, debar, preclude, cut off (*

or

tfj*-

(sakantihl)

his

ja
(

s.o.
;

from
Chr. )

s.th.); to
11

excommunicate
(

doings; in every Situation; jjjL\ (through) traffic; -i'lA'


traffio; JUJI

*5"y-

s.o.

to

declare

B.th.)

*0"

shipping

sacred, saorosanct, inviolable, or taboo,

*5^-

exchange of goods;

to taboo (* s.th.); to declare (* s.th.)

tumover (com.); *jjl iS^-' (nwunya) feminiat movement; ^i-I *-'


JJ^Vl
'*S"y

unlawful, not permissible, forbid, interdiot,

nimble,
y^i1

lithe, light, quick, agile, adroit;

render

proscribe (* B.th., J to s.o.); to proof (ja ( s.o.) immune or

JJu slow in motion, heavy-handed,


inert, indo-

against),
<_iJ
Jft

clumsy, sluggish, lumbering,


lent

<j*-

immunize (> to deny o.b.


s.th.

s.o.

againai)

s.th., abstain,

refrain

from

IV to excommunicate

O
ilj*

Sj*- harahi kinetio (phys.)

b.o.;

Chr.);

to enter into the State

of ritual oonsecration (esp., of a Mecoa


pilgrim; see Aj^~\ ihrm)
(of

!}\j*-

hardk movement, motion

V to be
to

for-

mahrak

path,

trajectory

bidden,

interdicted,

prohibited ;

be

projectile)
iil>tf

holy, sacred, sacrosanct, inviolable VIII to

honor, revere, venerate, esteem, respect

mihr&k poker,
tahrild

fire

iron

(*,

s.o.,

B.th.)

pj^-l to be self(*
B.th.)

&jj&

dynamio

respecting

to

deem

Baoro-

ilj taharruk pl. -t

movement, motion;

sanot, sacred, holy, inviolable; to


(* B.th.)
ajp-

deem

forward motion
(of

unlawful or unpermiesible
(Chr.)

start ; departure ; sailing

fleet)

hirm excommunication

i\)\-

hrik withers

jp-

haram

pl. Aj*-\

ahrm

forbidden,
holy,

ij^rf

muharrik mover,

stirrer;

rouser,
insti-

prohibited,

interdicted;

taboo;

inoiter,

fomenter, awakener, agent;

sacred, sacrosanct; s.th.

sacred, sacred

gator;

(pl. -dt)

motive, Springs, incen-

object; sacred poesession; wife; sanctum,

tive, Bpur,

motivating circumstance, oau-

sanctuary, sacred

precinct;

OL^i-l

the
|

sative factor; motor, engine (techn.)


l^i*
;

two Holy Places, Mecca and Medina


J^ji-'i

<Uti
Place,

tlit
i.e.,

al-haramain the third

mutaharrik

moving,

inovable,

Holy

Jerusalem
-t,

mobile pronounoed with following vowel,


voweled, vowelized (oonsonant; gram.)
<*j*\

hurma

pl.

hurumt, huramt
sanctity,
sacro-

iT^i* jj~> (fuwar) movies, motion.


tures
iSj*- harkapi (and

pic-

holiness,

sacredness,

Banctity, inviolability ; reverence, veneration,

esteem,
is

deference,

respect;

that

u^'j*- harlcaia) to stir up,

which

holy, sacred, sacrosanct, invio-

agitate, excite, thrill

lable, or

taboo;

pl.

(pl.

^y huram) woman,
hurum
forbidden,
s.th.

haruma rs-

u,

harima a to be forbidden,
interdlcted,

lady; wife
Aj*-

prohibited,

unlawful,

un-

harm

(__/-

harama i (hirm, permitted (J* to s.o.); jl^*- hirmn) to deprive, bereave, dispossess, divest (*
*

interdicted,

prohibited, unlawful;

forbidden, offense, sin; inviolable, taboo;


sacred, sacrosanct; cursed, acoursed
|

or j*

s.o.

of

s.th.),
*

j\

take away, withdraw, withhold (*

or

Ay

ibn

h.

illegitimate

son,

bastard;

f
f!A' fl>l
tf*bVI
*I^J-i

no man's land;
c-Jl
(bait)

neutral

^lji-1

ihtirm pl. -t deference, respect,


(e.g. t

territory;

the

Kaaba;

regard, esteem, reverence; honoring

j^Ail
f

(AiAr)
1^-1

the

Holy

Month

of a

privilege);

pl.

honors,

respeots,

Muharram;
Mosque
do
lawfully
in

-w.il (majuf) the Holy

tributea

Mecca;

dLU

([^-

you mustn't
fj^maArmdeprived,bereaved,bereft
(,>.

(say) thatl * l^-L illicitly, illegally, unof);

excluded, precluded, debarred

(j* from); suffering


elf*-

privatum

(as

oppoeed

A*rtJm

pl-

-***

*v*-'

aArima a
a

to <3jj_r)

exoommunicated

(Chr.)

woolen

blanket

(worn

as

garment
fj*
sacred,

around head and body)


fj*- harim pl. *j*.
inviolable
place,

muharram forbidden,

interdicted;

hurum a

Muharram, name of the first lalamic month; *1^A-I *j- m. al-hara\m honorific

sanctum,

sanctuary,

name
*j-

of this

month
pilgrim

sacred precinot; harem; female


of the family,

membera

women

muhrim Mecca
ihrm)

wife
(in

who

has

entered the state of ritual conseoration


ij*

j*- fyariml

women's

Compounds),

(see a\j*-\

for

women
(j^

muhtaram honored, revered, vener-

fjj*(Chr.)
<j\j*-

hurm

pl. -t

exoommunication

ated, esbeemed, respeoted; (in the salu-

tation of letters:)

my dear

vennrable,

fyarmi

pl.

-iya

thief,

robber,

reverend; notable, remarkable, considerable

bandit

U^-

hirmn

deprivation,
s.o.,

bereave-

^*j*~

harmal African rue (Feganum harmala

ment, dispossession (of

j* of a.th.);

L.; bot.)
Lj*.

debarment,

exclusion,

preclusion

(^

from); excommunication (Chr.);

priva-

looee

harmala pl. J[^- harmiP a wrap worn over the Shoulders

tum

iylM

U^-

h.

al-ir$

exclusion

(garment of the dervishes)


bp- harana, haruna u ([^- hirn, hurdn)

from inheritance, disinheritance (Jal. Lato)


*j*-

mahram

pl. * jl*

mahrim 1

s.th.

to be obstinate, etubbom, headstrong


l*Jj*-

forbidden, inviolable, taboo, Baorosanct,


holy, or sacred; unmarriageable, being
in

harn

pl. j*-

hurun obstinate,

a degree of oonsanguinity preoluding


(Jal.

stubborn, refraotory, reluctant, reaistant

marriage
l*j*

Lato)

OjjU harn
pL
* jlrf

brazier

mahrama

mahrim

hj>- harua burning; wrath, rage; acridity,

handkerohief
j**_^

pungency
able odor

(of taste); pungent, disagree-

tahrim forbiddance, interdiction,

prohibition,
Aj*-\

ban
ifj*-

to seek, pursue (* s.th.), strive (*


;

ihrm atate of

ritual oonseoration

for) aspire (* to)

to examine, investigate

Mecca pilgrim (during which the pilgrim, wearin& two eeamless woolen or
of the
linen sheets, nsually white, neither

(* s.th.); to inquire (j* or * into),

make
s.th.),

inquiries (j or * about); to be intent


(#

oombs

on

s.th.),

take

care

(*

of

nor shares, and observea sexual oontinenoe); garmenta of the

attend (* to
s.th.,

s.th., also j),

look (* after
it

Mecca pilgrim

also

j);

to see to

(jl

that)

173

fJ"
5-j>- hizbiya party aotivities; partisan-

cSji-lj

bi-l-har hardly, barely

j^- hariy pl.

l^l
f\j

ahriy
{*_>

adequate,

ship, partiality; factionalism


jt'jv-

appropriate,

auitable
|

for),
{frier)

worthy
worth
jj.

haizabn old nag

(v

of s.th.)

jj.

i-^
wjU-

mentioning, considerable;
credible, believable;
<Jj1-\j

tahazzttb factiousness; factionalism

Jj-ucJLi
j\

or to be

hzib: <yjU-

*J-

hazabah

h.

he

exact, or rather
ijj-\ ahr more adequate, more proper, more appropriate tf^VL jl or to toll the truth, or more explicitly, or put more
j

met with a mishap

V>^*
tisan.

miUahazzib partial, biased; par-

b>- hazara
mate,

(azr, jj*

maAzara) to

esti-

exactly, or rather

asseas, appraise (* s.th.); to


(*

make

j
at-t.

taharrin

pl.

>\jj| i

taharrxyi
iurfat

a rough estimate
s.th.)

of s.th.), guess (*

inquiry; investigation

sJ*d\ U^i
at-t.

or jj^i\ AtJu** maqlakat

secret

jj*- hazr estimation,

assessment, ap-

police

praisal; conjecture, guess, sunnise

hazza u {hazz) to notch, nick, incise, indent

hjj*- hazzra riddle, puzzle


\jjf-

(J

s.th.),

make an

incision, cut (j into


I

s.th.) II

and VIII

mahzara estimation, assessment,

appraisal; conjecture, guess, surmise


2

j- hazz pl, jjj*-

huzz incision, notch,

\j y- hazirn'
m

June

nick; the right time, the nick of time


*>- hazza incision, notch, nick; time;

(Syr., Leb., It., Jord.)

(jli^-

huzuqgni choleric
**J_>-

the right time, the nick of time; predica-

hazqa,
i

iijjl*-

hxqa hiooups
up, bndle,

ment, plight
j |j*- hazz head scurf, ringworm ; tetter,

f>-

hazama

{hazm) to

tie

wrap

up, pack, do
(*
s.th.);

up

in a

package or bndle

eruption (med.)
jlj*-

to

girth {*

an animal); to
|

hazza rancor, hatred, hate


|

make
to

fast, fasten, tie (* s.th.)

>^\ *j*-

j-

mahazz notch, nick

j\

t_-*L*l

find the right Solution, hit the nail

on

the head, hit the mark, strike


;*-

home
happen,

kazuma u {hazm, <.lj*- hazma, ~<*jyhuzma) to be resolute, firm, stouthearted,


intrepid II to gird
(

(amrah) to take matters firmly in hand

s.o.)

V and

VIII
belt

hazaba u (hazb) to befall


(.

{. s.o.),

to be girded;

to-

gird o.s.,

put on a

occur

to s.o.)

_^VI

v>"
rally

tne matter
(

became
sides

hazm packing, packaging, wrapC>ping; determination, resoluteness, firmness,

Berious il to

s.o.);

to

form or found a party


(

111 to side,
(

take
s.o.)

energy;

judiciousness,

discretion,

with), be an adherent
sides; to

of

prudence
i-j*-

V to take

form a party, make

common
<-?j*-

huzma

pl. *j*-

huzam s.th. wrapped

cause, join forces

up or

tied up;

bndle, fagot, fascine;

hizb pl- v[r**' a hzb group, troop,


{pol.);

beam
bunch
parcel
Aj*-

of rayB, radiation

beam

(phyt.);

band, gang; party


the Koran
bis clique,
|

the 60th part of

(of herbs, etc.); Bheaf; package,

*j[>-l
is

j*

_j*

he belonga to

he

of the

same breed

hizm

pl.

-t,

i*^-l

ahzima, *y-

fjj*- hizbi

party

(adj.), factional

huzum

belt, girth; gjrdle;

oummerbund,

; ;

fjwaistband
fasten
it);

(worn

over
belt

the
|

oaftan
||>-

to
A.

sense (* B.th.);
haaastu)
,

Amm
sympathy

(Ist pers. perf.

Bword

j.1/1

(Ist pers. perf. haaistu)

a to

al-amn safety belt


aJ-!

feel sorry, feel

or compassion

ahzam* more resolute; more judi-

(J for), sympathize (J with). II to grope,


feel

IV to parceive, sense, experience (*


<-

or
I>JU-

s.th.);

to
-

feel

(*

or

B.th.);

hxim
pl. Uj*-

pl.

i*^3

Aazama and
prudent

rj*-

to notice (* or

B.th.);

to hear (* a

Aarim

Auzamd*

resolute, energet-

sound, a noise,
(

etc.);

to

take notice

ic; judicious, disoreet,

of s.o.)

V to
over

grope, probe (* for s.th.),


s.th.),

flnger,
jj*-

Aazana u to make Bad, sadden, grieve


( s.o.);

handle, touch (*
(*
s.th.);

run the

Aazina a
(J

hand
feel

to

grope about,

(Auzn, hazan) to be

around; to seek Information,

make

Bad, grieved
of); to grieve,

or

at

or because
II
(

moum
pl.

J* over) (

and IV
s.o.)

inquiries (j* about) ; to sense, experience,

perceive

to

make
uj-

(*,

Bad, sadden, grieve


jtj*-l

s.th.); to feel {_ B.th.);


(_*

to be affected, be deeply touched


sadness,
s.th.)
-*-

by

hvxn

aAzdn

grief,

sorrow, affliction
(J

hau Sensation,

perception, feeling,

Oj-

Aazn

pl. jjj-

Auzn rough, rugged,

sentiment
(J

hard ground
-*-

At sensory

perception, senBation

oj*-

Aaztn sad, mournful, grieved


pl. Uj-

feeling, sentiment; sense; voiee;

sound;

^j. Aarin

Auzand'*,

noise
jlj-

Atzdn, (J^*- hazAn sad;

mourning

(for

j-.- hissi sensory; sensuous; pereeptible;

deceased person); sorrowig, mournful,


grieved
(CAr.)
|

palpable

<^'

<_jU (madhab)

ojJ-l

inJ-.l (jitm'a)

Good Friday

senBationalism, sonsualism

oUsad, very grieved,

hissiyt sensations

jU>- Aaznn* very


worried; in mourning

ri-- ha*is faint noise

D
(in

^lj- haass sensitive; sensible; readily


JiLi*-

AazflyinJ

(,>!>

Aai'inJ)
affected, susceptible;

sensual (pleasure)

sad, mournful,

melancholic;

mouraingfunereal
j

Compounds),

mortuary,
for

i^L_j- hasasa sensory organ

Ji|>- ^ili (qum) cloth

mourning

^L_j-

hass&ai allergio

garments

V"**"
(mrf.)

er*!/*'

aUergic diseases, allergiea

j^

foAaxzvn sadness; behavior of a


L-L-*- haaaAaiya sensitivity (alsotecAn.)
sensibity ; faculty of sensory perception

mourner
jj* mahxn
grieved,
grief-stricken,

susceptibility ; sensuality

**L_i-l ^ij

pained, sad, saddened


j-

mara4

<d-h. allergy (med.)

mvhzin grievous, saddening; sad;


<-#

<-* mihassa ourrycomb

melartcholic ; tragio ; <l>\jja mufysinQt griev-

ous things

~*jj-

<Jui*

(^

fcim/ttf j/a)

^L
feeling;

ihsOs pl.

-Ot,

^-i-Ul ahais*

feel

and
(J

*ij-

<Ajj (riie&ya) tragedy (theat.)

Sensation, sense

(^ of

s.th.);
pl.
-'

perception (_ of s.th.); sensitivity;


-*-

Aawa

(Ist pera. perf. haaastu)

u (hau)
;

oUL-^t
jjL

feelings,

sentiments

O ,^-1

to carry, currycomb (*

an animal) to

feel,

sensitivity to light;

L/

-l~-1/l -U-t*

highJy sensitive; *\JJu ^L--! (rnuitarak)


feeling of

take into consideration


to reckon
(<_j

(<_j

or

m s.th.);

harmony, concord, unanimity;


al~i. insensitivity, dull-

or * with); {to antieipate

^L^-Vl

* qiat

a reward in the hereafter by adding a


pious deed to one's aecount with

nesa, obtusenesa

God
,_

V-L_^VI uIlUI

af-ta'ifa

al-ihsdHya

such as resigning in God's will at the

the impressionists i-U- hssa


aense
|

death of a relative; hence:)


hawas* Bensation;

loJj

M ^I

(tvaladan) to give a son, be bereaved of


pl.

^]y

a son;

^tJi

Zi\

x*

*.

Z*.l

to sacrifloe

^r-J-'l

^J^l

the five senses

s.th. in antieipation

of God's reward in

,j^>* wiaA** feit; senaed; perceptible,

noticeable,

palpable, tangible; appreci1

the hereafter; to charge (J* * s.th. foi); to think, beliere, suppose; to take ( *
s.o.

able, considerable (e.g,,loss); ^-j...^ that

for

or to be
o.s.
(<_j

.);

to be content, to

wbich

is

perceptible through the senses;

content

with);

disapprove

appearance,

evidence;

oL-j^l

thinga

perceptible through the senses


_*- Aawfca

(J* * of s.th. in s.o.), take ezoeption (J* * to B.th. in s.o.), rejeot (J* * s.th.
in
s.o.);

to

call

(Aa*6, i^l

p-

hisOb,

L* Am

(J#

s.o.)

to

aeoount,

ask (J*

s.o.) for

an aoeounting

ln, Auibdn) to compute, reckon, caloulate; to count; tocharge, debit

to

s.o.,

(J* * s.th. to s.o.'a aecount); to credit (J * to


s.o.'s

,_*- Aa*6 reckoning, Computing, oalculation; thinking, opinion, view; suffl-

B.th. to b.o.,

aecount)

ciency
|

*jL_s.o.

!_ ,r-

f/iwaiaA)

to takc s.th.
into

hasbifea)

or

into
for

p*p (^l .* or) >l\_ w htubuka (bidirhamun one dirham is enough


t

aecount or
with

oonsideration,

reckon

you

<jl

J-L_*- it suffices to

say that

. . .

s.th. or s.o.,
|_

oount on

s.th. or s.o.;

J LL*-

p.

(hitdban)
s.o.

do.;

to attach
i_Vll

you know enough when you hear that you need only \ \*Ju ,j\ tf {muqni'an
. . . . . . ; t

importance to
J >_iL*(alfa)

it

or s.th.;

will be

L i-

enough to convinoe you

if

to have a thousand appre. ,

i^i JS* li+i

dL_~j (b%.h04 IcuUiMiarran)


all

hensions about .
bdn,

hatiba a

but enough of
%

(OL-*- his*
<
(*

theee negative aspeots!

1_^

mahaaba, mafyriba) to regard

fa-had*

and that 's all, and no more,

s.o. a*) f consider,

deem(*a.o. tobe.

only (interchangeable with


.

Lm)
pl.

.);

to think,

believe,

suppose, assume; to
* s.o.

tf-*-

hubt:

f^-

ijU. (majlis)

^Lf

consider, regard {jto),

as belonging

*;*- guardianship oourt, probate oourt


{Eg.)

oount

{ja

s.o.

among); to see

in s.o. s.th.);

haevba

ihatab,

_ *- hatab

pl.

i_jI

p-1

dfytSb measure,

jU-*- Aa32>a)

to be of noble origin, be

extent, degree, quantity,

amount; value;
s.o.;
bi-

highborn;

to

be highly esteemed,
to call

be

esteem, high regard


'

enjoyed by

valued
(

III to settle
s.o.);

an aeoount, get even


(* s.o.)

noble desoent; ha*aba (prep.),


hasabi and <*to,
ti*

^*

with
(

to aoeount,

^ ly^tabi acoording

ask
(

s.o.)

for

an aeeounting; to hold

in

aoeordanoe with, commensurate

s. o.)

responsable,
|
<

make

b.o.)

an-

with, depending

on
(conj.)

swerable

ij J* r^<U- to be oareful, be on one's guard V to be oareful, be

L*- hasabamd
what
jJ\
l

on one's guard; to take precautions; to


seek to know, try to find out (* s.th.)

acoording
. . .

to
|

as,

depending on how
as

Ljit

(ttafaqa)

chanoe

will

VI to Bettle a mutual aecount VIII to


debit or credit; to take into aecount,

have

<*-

hisba arithmetical problem,

um

176

wj - hasib

pl. .L-*-

huMba'* reapeoted,

L^Lpt

muhAsaba

pl.

- accounting;

esteemed; noble, of noble birth, highborn


oL*- husbn oaloulation, reckoning, lJ-l j 05"
|

Clearing (com.); bookkeeping; request for

accounting; examination of consoience


(theol.)
|

aooounting; computation

i--lpl

*i gwt al-m. accounting


office ; Clearing

to be taten into account, be taken into


oonsideration; to be expected, be anticipated; Ol uL_i-l

department, comptroller's
house
i.

j&"

it

waa expected
.
.

A .J^l

t'AJiadb

computation; calcula-

that

.;

jl

JL_*- I expect that

tion, oonsideration, refloction; debiting;

i_jL*- hirtb arithmetic, reckoning, oal-

orediting; valuation; contentedness, satisfaction

culus; computation; calculation, estimation, appraisal;

aooounting, settlement;

,_

hasib counter,

reckoner, arith-

oonsideration, consideratenesa ; caution ;


(pl. -AI) bl,

metician, calculator, Computer

invoice; Statement of oosts;


pl.

(bank) account;

oLl- bookkeeping

Vj-* mahsb
1

pl.

-an,

-.j-l**-

maAdJ 1
sub-

protege

pet,
(

favorite;
s.o.)

obedient,

JJLI ujL>-

h,

al-jumrnal (al-jumal) use of

serviert

J* to

the alphabetio lettera aocording to their

numerical value;
arithmetio;

i^LJ-1
.-.L*-

1*

'Um

al-h.

ij >*t maJu>iya esteem enjoyed


s.o.,

by

J->LuJl

h.

at-tajdxd

position of distinction; patronage,

differential caloulus;

J.&JI

-^L*- h. at-

favored position, favoritism


,_

tak&mul integral calculus; *iL#he reckoned with


it,
<d

5"

muAds.6,

i/^r-l**-

mu/t&n&^i

(<y.)

he expected

it,

he

accountant, bookkeeper; comptroller, auditor


i_

was piepared
s.o.

for it;

IL*- J^ to take

or B.th. into oonsideration; to reckon

1M "Z

fnuAJaa that

for

which one
(e.g.,

with s.o. or B.th.; ^bAM ^.LJ-I (fntmi) and

can expect reward in the hereafter


suJFering, loss, etc.)
.#-

JL^

._>L#-

(nrtd't)

final

Statement of

account, final aooounting; i_<LJ-l Jl Ui


(da'Ohu)

he called bim to account;

*ji

Kitada u (hasad) to envy, grudge


s.th.),

( s.o.,

t^LJ-1

yaum a/-. the Day of Reckoning, Judgment Day; J LI- ftfl to render
s.o.; -*L,p-

J* or *
other

be envioiu

of

s.o.,

J*>

or a because of s.th.) VI to envy each

account to

^u without limit

or bounds, to exoess, to

an unlimited ex-

x~ hasad envy
ij-*-

tent; -*L,p- j* ,y blindly, without fore-

thought, at random; j^i t^li- toa.o.'s


credit, to s.o. 's

heud

pl. a_*-

Au*w2 envious

advantage;

^Ai

^L*- J*
(-A.

A-Ui tah&sud mutual envy

to

s.o. 's debit,

at s.o. 's expense, to s.o. 's


*^> JJ

J-U

h&tid

pl.

iL-*-

AuMdd,

iJ_*-

disadvantage^L-J!

/agtya'a
for it;

Aasoda envious; envier, grudger


i^_*t

he got a raw deal, he was in


jU(jflnn)

ujL#-

current
.

account;

ol>L*-

mahsd envied; smitten by the

^iji'l jj-c, .y

umff aM. savings-bank

evil eye
.

aocounta;
4_jjj

<-!>>>

^L*-

blocked account;

Aa*ira

(Aar) to pull

away or
(j*-

off,

oLjL-- double-entry bookkeeping;

remove (j*

* s.th., a oover, a veil, from)


s.th.);
;

j^Jl

^LJ-1
1

(saryi) the

Julian oalendar;

to unoover, lay bare, unveil

J jift

_*LJ- {garbi)

the Qregorian oalendar

<

j>-*- Auwr) to
{haaar,

beoome dim
,_- hatra)

(sight)

jL-p- hitAH arithmetical, mathematioal,

hasira a

to regret
(

computationaJ

J*

s.th.),

be grieTed, be pained

J* by

e.th.); to sigh

(Jpovers.th.);

haaara

i,

(*

s.th.);

to

decide

(*

a question); to
dis-

hasira a (kaaar) to
II

become

tired, fatigued

settle (*

an argument); to deduct,

to fatigue, tire, weaken, sap


( s.o.),

s.o.);

count {* an amount from a


VII to be severed, be cut

sum

of

money)
to

to grieve, sadden
grief
{

cause pain or
(* a cover,
a.th.)

off;

to be finished

to s.o.); to

remove

be

completed,

be

terminatcd;

be

j* from), lay bare, unveil (j*

V to

settled (argument)

be diatressed, be pained, be grieved (Jp by); to sigh (Jp over) VII to be pulled
ftway or
off,

f~

haam

finishing, completion, termi-

nation; decision; settling, settlement (of

be removed

(je-

from); to
je-

be rolled up, be tu med back (sleeve,

an argument); discontinuance, shutdown,


closing
(of

down;

deduction,

discounting

from the arm); to disappear suddenly


(j* from)

an amount)

(!*-

hua&m sword, sword edge huam


fatal, trying, grueling (pl.;

j~*- hasar fatigue, dcbiiity, weakness


|

j*aJ>\ j- myopia

h.

al-basar

nearsightedness,

fj

*-

days, nights, also years)


--U-

j-*~ hasir grieved, sad; fatigued, lan-

h&aim

decisive;

final,

peremp-

guid, weary, tired

tory, conclusive, definite, definitive

*j- haara

pl.

hasart grief, sorrow,


j

j - haauna u (huan) to be handsome,


beautiful, lovely, nice, fine, good; to be

pain, distress, affliction; sigh

!_/

-*J

L.
L.

la-l-haarati alaal unfortunately! j,-.


alj^-\j

expedient,

advtsablo,

suitable,

proper,

yhasrati and

haarath what

fitting; to be in a

proper State, be in a
|

a pityl too bad!


_r*-

desirable

condition

dL_j}

j-*- jl

in

h.

haair

pl. j|aP -

ladaika

if
;

you

like

it, if it

seems

all

right

haar tired, weary,

to

you

jl

fatigued,

exhausted;
|

dim,

dull

(eye),

that

you

ne&rsighted
"ighted,

y-*Jl _r- h. al-baaar near-

-il-UiJ

myopio
beautify,

iL j-*: it is to your advantage you ought to .; j~*. .; be was all willing to II to


.

embellish (* s.th.); to adorn,


s.th.); to

jj~*- huar
<j\j--

nearsightedness,
regretful,

myopia
sad,

decorate (*

improve, put into

haar&n

sorry,

better form, ameliorate, better (* s.th.);

distressed, grieved

to

make

better

presentation

(*

of

s.th.); to

present in a favorable light,

j-- tahasaur sighing; regret

depict as nice or desirable (J * s.th. to


bared,
nears.o.); to

^U

hOair
|

pl.

j*)y hawair 2
al-baaar

sugar-coat,

make more
s.th.

palatable

denuded

^-aJl y-l*- h.

(*

s.th.

unpleasant,

disadvanta-

sighted, myopic; ^\j\

^U
)

h. ar-ra'a bare-

geous) III to treat

( s.o.)

with kindliness

headed, hatless
_*-

IV to do
un.

right, act well; to

do

(* s.th.)

well, expertly, nicely; to

know
do

(*

how

to to

haaak

(coli.; n.

thorns, spines;

do

s.th.),

be

able (* to

s.th.);

spikes,
(bot.);

pricks;

fishHbnes;

awns, beard

master
s.th.),

(* s.th.),

have command
a
handicraft,
s.th.); to

(* of

name

of several prickly herbs, esp.

be proficient (* in s.th.; a lan-

of the genus Tribulus


Jl-**-

guage,
prickly, spiny

an

ort, (*

etc.),

be

haaaH thorny,
t

oonversant

with

oharitable; to do favors,

do good, be do good (Jl or


a good turn,

hasama

(haam) to cut, sever, out off


nniah, complete, terminate

to

b.o.),

do

(Jl

or L

s.o.)

(a s.th.); to

be nice, friendly (Jl or

to s.o.); to give

alms, give charity (Jl to

s.o.)
is!

4i_*-l

j_*-l ahaan* pl. ,^-U-l ahrin 1 better;


nicer,
lovelier,

m ahaanah how
some he
ifl!

good he

how hand-

more
he

beautiful ;

more
|

wJu^-l ahsanta well done!

excellent,

more splendid, more admirable


_>
i

bravo! iJli^i J-*-' (almniya) to master the German language, knowQerman well;
bJUl jr-*-! to
jjjJL* Jr-*-'

t*

II

U- j-*-1

better off than


(bi-Uati)

they are;

j_-l

j>

JJl>

in

aim well or accurately;

friendly manner, amicably, with kindness


b_*-

(ma^rataA) to give good


I

Aamd' 1

pl.

l-*- Ai*2n (of a

wom-

advice ;

^ jli

j-*- (ztitw ) to have a good


1

an) beautiful, a beauty, a belle


J-A-l

opinion of ..., judge


4iL*L&*

s.th.

favorably;

j-*-l (mu'dmaZaJa^) to treat s.o.


nicer,

al-hum

pl.

-d*

(f.

of ,>-p.^I

well

V to become

more handsome,

al-ahsan) the best outcome, the


ing; fair means, amicable

happy end*
|

more

beautiful; to improve, ameliorate,

manner

J-J-Lj

get better

to

deem

(* s.th.) nice, etc.,

amicably,

by

fair

means, in a friendly
(aamd') the 99 at-

or good; to regard (* e.th.) as right, ad-

manner; ^-A-i
tributes of
4i_*-

Lr*Vl

visable or appropriate; to approve {* of


s.th.),

God
pl. -<W

sanction, condone {* s.th.); to

como

Aaozna

good deed, bene-

to like, to appreciate (* s.th.), find pleas-

faction; charity, alms; pl.


tages, merita

ob-- advan-

uro

(*

in

s.th.);

also

IV:

j-*u-l

j>LtVl (ingiziya) to

know

English well;

j_*- Ao4ffn pl. ^-U-*- hassin 3 goldfinch

pass. ustuhsina to be good,

commendable,

advisable
j-*- husn beauty, handsomeness, prettiness, lovelineas; ezcellence, Buperiority,

i_#t ma/uan

e.th.

nice, a.th.

good;

advantage;

pl.

^yU- mahsin* beauties,

charms, attractions, merita, advant&ges,

perfection

AJ-I

j-L

li-h.

il-hazz

fortu-

good qualities
,>* tahain beautification, embellish-

nately;

IJ^i-JI

j_*- good manners, good

behavior; good conduct; i^LJIj ^-Jl j_*(A.

ment; improvement, amelioration, betterment; processing,


refining, finishing; (pl.
|

aa-aair)

an irreproachable

life;

j-*-

hj^^ill A. at-ta$arruf discretion, individual

judgment;

jliJI

j_-

%.

a?-fann

good

opinion, favorable judgment; j^i\ j-*-

jwl* toh&ain 3 ) ornament, decoration O JJl t>^ '* an-mwJ eugenics


ii-L*

euphemism;

(S-Jl)

x-*iJI

j-*- h. al-qafd

muAdjana

friendly

treatment,

(an-niya) good intention, good will, good


faith; *_a->j j-*h.

kindlineas, amicability
jU-*-l

ysuf beauty spot,


al-husn a kind of
cairicus L.
;

Aln beneficence, charity, alms-

patch; j-L\

ritt

giving, Performance of

good deeds

bindweed (Convolvulus

bot.);

y^
|

tahaaaun
,>-dl

improvement, ameliothe

deadly nightshade, belladonna


j-*- hasan pl. jl_*- AiJn beautiful,

ration

J on

way

to recovery consent;

jL-w.J
cretion in
j,
-^

iatika&n

approval,

handsome, lovely; pretty,


hasanan

nice;

good,

acclaim; discretion; application of dis-

agreeable; excellent, superior, exquisite;


l-..i-

legal decision (Isl.

Law)

well, sptendidly, excellently,

beautifully;

LJ-I

the

ladies;

high

muhassin embellisher,

beautifior,

improver; pl.ob^ muhaaaint cosmetics

sandhill
j^JL-A-l

al-hasaniyn

the Hasanides,

j-^ muhain
ji.i-i*
-

beneficent, charitable

the descendants of Hasan, son of 'Ali

muatahaan approved, commend-

and Fatim a

able; pleasant, agreeable

(*'
(s-*.) 1_*- has sip (* s.th.)
_>-.*-

(hasw),

V and

VIII to drink,

throng; concentration, massing (esp. of


troops); mobilization, calling

up

(of

an

hasw and

1_*- {taad*

soup, broth

army)
xL- tahai&ud pl. -t ooncentration (of

*^.*- Aoiuxi pl.

fcuauxU a sip
husuwOt, husawtU, L-*-l

troops)

^-*- Auswa ahsiya a


sip,

pl.

jLlI*-i ihti&Od pl. -i

emall quantity of liquid;

gathering, crowd;

concentration (of troops)

soup, broth; bouillon

xiU- hSid numerous (of an assembly),


^i*-

AaJ&i u (haiS) to

mow, out

(* s.th.) II to

orowded

(of

a public demonstration)
(eJ.)

smoke hashish
Jtt*. haiU
(coli.)

O
pl.

IJ-IU
i

h&da battery
u

J&i+. hat'iP

herbB, grassee; weeds; hay;

hemp

i*-

haSara
(

(Canrally

(ha&r) to gather, assemble,

nabis sativa L.;


Btillborn child
|

bot.),

hashish, oannabia;

people); to cram, crowd, pack,

jbjill ,J+l*- h.

ad-dindr

j'am (together); to Bqueeze, press, force,


stuff,

hops
*Jui^(jiLt*-

tuck
rji

(.jo

or

* s.th. into)

haHia
haiSi

j-^'
(n. un.)
pl.

youm

al-haSr the

herb

day of con-

gregation (of the dead), the

Day

of Ren-

-n Bmoker or chewer

urrection
yi*-

of hashish, hashish addict ^LL*- AuAW, UUL*last Bpark of life


^jijj-i*-

ha&ara
|

pl.

-t insect; pl.

vermin,

AuAUa

last breath,

inject pesta

ol^^J-l

'Um

al-h. ento-

arfi

(eg.)

sap-green,

reseda-

<jj+-

haart insectile, insectival, inseot-

colored

(in

Compounds) ; entomologic(al)

J&
hiP
<t-

mihaSi, \t mihai&a

pl.

jXt. ma*

_ri*- ha&raja

and

II

tahahaja to rattle in

aickle, scythe; fire iron,

poker
tool
for

the throat

mihaiia

pl.

-i

(eg.)

i^i*- hairaja
throat

rattling, rattle

in the

weeding, weeder
lt

r^t- mahSaS, U-

^^-

m.-kna hash-

_-

V to be dressed shabbily,
>Ja+-

dress slovenly

ish

den
haaf dates of inferior quality
pi-

mahOP
viLl*-

JL*- haSafa glans (penis; anat.)

hashish den

haSaka

(hak) to cram, jam, squeeze,

L haSada

{ha&d) to gather, concentrate,


troops), call up, mobilize
pile up, Btore up, accn-

stuff (j m s.th. into)


-i.

masa
(>

esp.

an army); to
{ s.th., Jl

haiama

(haim) to shame, put to shame

mulate

at a place) II to amass,

(. s.o.)

II

and IV

do.

V and

VIII to be

accumulate
esp. troops)

(* B.th.), masa, concentrate (

ashamed to face

a.o.

(^

or j^j; to be

V and VIII

to rally,

come

to-

reticent, modeat, shy, baahful, diffident

gether, assemble, gather, crowd together,

Buite

aJawi servants, retinue, entourage,

throng together; to be concentrated, be

massed

(troops); to fall into line (troops)


pl. ijj-

LJj- hiSma shame, basbfulness, timidity,

U*. haid
rallying
;

huid assembling,
assembly,

diffidence;

modesty; decency, de-

gathering,

crowd,

corum

r*
-J>- fei&in pl.
|cl*-

huSam' 2 modest,

'

..<

iahSiya Insertion; interpolation

timid, basbiul, shy, diffident

JAJ. iah&Hn avoidance


<J\~
i/itt&Sm

-51*

maAdm 1
tahaMum

pubes, genitals

hya

pl.

^V" Aaw&n

border;

J&

and

aLU

seam, hem; edge; margin (of a book);


marginal gloss;

ehame, shyness, modesty, reticenee, decency, decorum


-il* muAta&'m shy, bashful; modest,
reticent, decent, decorous

marginal notes;

oom-

mentary on certain words and passages of a book, supercommentary footnote;


;

postscript;

retinue,

entourage,
pl.

suite,
critical

servants; dependents;

^J^

^^) (w
in

iL*-

KaS u (ha&w) to

atuff,

fill,

dress
fill

apparatus

i-iU-l

jJj and
S-iU-l

^JjA-l

JJj
al-h.

* B.th. with; esp. fowl, eto.); to


(a s.th.);

nice, polite, courteous, gracious, amiable,

to
o.g.,

load

[m a firearm;
fill

mm
(m

kindly,

friendly;

riqqat

s.th.

with,

a oamera); to

niceness, amiability, graciousness

a tooth); to
provide (*
(m

insert (* s.th.) II to inter-

jiJ.

mahfrw

filled,

dressed; stuffed;

polate (* s.th.); to insert (* s.th.); to


s.th.)

with a margin; to

hem

loaded
filled,

(firearm);

pl.

Cj]^*-

mahiwdt

or stuffed, diahes

dress); to supply (* a book) with


III to

marginal notes or glosses


oxclude (j*

exoept,

^iit

mahHy

filled,

stuffed (esp. food);

s.o.

from)

to keep away,

s.th. filled or stuffed

stand aloof, abstain (j* from), avoid,

Bhun (j*

B.th.),

beware (j*

of),

be on

_^- frawa

u to

fall

as a share

to s.o.)

III to share ( * s.th.

with

s.o.)

IV to

one's guard (j* against) VI to keep away,

allot s.o. () hie share


ljs-

abstain (j* or j* from), beware (* or

je or j*
s.th.)

of), avoid,

shun

(m or

je or j*

hu$f saffron
pl. (j^-*- At<KZf sharo,
(/In.)
;

c*. hiffa

portion,

jl*. hoho that with


stuffed

which

s.th.

is

allotment; share

contingent, quota;
class

or filled;

dressing,

stuffing

(of

apan of time ; lesson,

period
(fin.);

-*-

fowl, etc.); filling (of teeth);

insertion;

fj\ j
(

A.

/i

r-ra6A dividend

{gram.) parentheais; interpolation


jl*.

ri^ldl founders' share;

O -*~ O j-*J-l f^
.*<j

quota System,

apportionment ;

haMea

pl.

-Ol

filling,
;

stuffing
j^-j in

a short time
tah$i$

(oushion,
cartridge),

oookery,

eto.)

load

(of

a
tJ

charge (of a mine); panel,

A~+

quota System, apportion-

inlay, inserted piece (in paneling, in


\1p~

a door)
bowels,

ment
i^L*.
s.o.),

Julian

pl.

li*-l

aAW
|

muAOwa

allotment; sharing (with

intestines; interior, inside

Li-I

in

partaking, participation
-

the interior of, within, in

^
<JL^.

JUL**- see
u
^^.

lyiian

if

Lipl.

haian
hofoba
%

to oover or strew with

ha&lya

-t,

\A*-

JiaMy

pebbles or gravel (* ground); to macad-

cushion, pillow; mattress

amize
or J)

UU-,

^U-

hO&a (with
|

genit., aco.

hafiba a and
measles
II

(*

ground),

metal

(*

road);

pass. hvfiba to

have the

except, save
jt
Ji

4i

^U-,

4)

UU- God
LftU,

foibid!
. . .

to cover or strew with pebbles


(*

iU

LiU- far be it

from you that you

or gravel

ground); to macadamize

jiU, i J\~ (Mio)

=4

UU

(* ground), metal (> a road)

181

i_*> hoQdb

road metal, crushed rock,

involve (* s.th.);

ha^ira
{*, (*,
*

a (ha^ar) to
III

baUast
Lrfw- Aa$6fl* 8 (coli.) pebblea; gravel
4

be in a
cirole,

fix,

be in a dilemma
s.o.,
s.o.,

to ento
to

Surround
off,

s.th.); s.th.);

shut
rra-

seclude
s.th.);

hafba measles (med.)

block

(a

to

beleaguer,

besiege

i-^lj- Adftba storm, hurricane

{*, s.o., s.th.); to

blockade

(a,

s.o.,

s.th.); to detain,

deter, restrain

s.o.)

^owm. ^wp^wpa
manifest; to

to be or

become

clear, piain,

VII to be straitened, confined, narrowed


in; to
(<-<

come
(ha$d,

to light (truth)

be or become
;

restricted, limited

4 ha$ada

jU*- ha$d hi$d) to


t

or

j to)

to limit
to),

o.s. (._j

or

j to)
(

to be
in);

harvest, reap (* s.th.); to m'ow {* s.th.)

Condensed (j
to be or

be concentrated
(e.g.,

IV, VIII

and

to be ripe

become united

<*5^-

under
x*v- fyaQd and iL*- A#hZ harvesting,
reaping, harvest;

s.o. 's rule);

to be reducible (j to),
of), oonsist (

be expressible (j in terms
in)

jU*- harvest time

X-*- ha?id, !-L^- ha^ida pl. aJL**- Aa*


'i'ti
2

crop,

harvest

yield

-t-a-j

o- ha$r encirclement, encompass_r ment, enclosure, oorralling; parenthesiz

everything without exception

ing; blocking, blockading, beleaguering,


siege ;

jLm- ha$$d
x*- mijifad

reaper; harvester
pl.

detention, determent ;

restraint,

retention, Containment,
o^Lfi maA&pwi' sickle
tion, restriction,

check;

limita-

connnement; narrowing

!jU-

ka$$da and

-U* mih*
|

gathering, coDecting (of s.th. scattered),

$ada mowing machine,


i-ljj (tiarrtlsa)

mower

O ->Lm-

compilation ; enumeration,
ing,

combine

listing, count Computing; centralization, concen^

-U*U- A^tti reaper

tration; (tobaeco)
ly speaking;
_

monopoly
|

^^A-Ij striot

rmL\ J^w Jp

exhaustively

*-U*L-

h&$ida

mowing machine,

ltj+d\ j**- h. at-tamwin rationing; I**^p


_

mower
j^o maAptf harvested, reaped,
-L* mu/uZ and
-i

ri-

'almat al-h. parantheses, brackets


_

mown

(typ.);
*J

r*L\ C^s

Jftaj

1/

(yadkulu) or

j-m*-

(ha$ra) boundless, infinite, im_

.w mu*taA?d ripe
.

measurable, innumerable; -*i-l 3j* /

y<**

*>
(a

Aafara

u
to

(ha$r) to Surround, encircle,

fqu l-hap-a do.;


al-h.

j*-\

jLj-l

ijzat
jljl

encompass,
s.th.);

ring

(*

s.th.);

to

enctose

patent on an invention; j**-

parenthesize (* a word);
s.o.,

iiLUlj ^sJI idrat A. at-tibg wa-t-tumbk

to blockade (*,

s.th.); to besiege,
s.th.);

Government Tobacco Monopoly


j-m-

(Syr.)

beleaguer

(*,

s.o.,

to

detain,
{* s.o.);

hup- retention (of urine)

consti-

deter, restrain, contain, hold to limit, restrict (j * or


_j

back

pation
j-m-

s.th. to); to
s.th.);

condense, reduce in scope (*

to

ha$ar dyslogia, inability to express

narrow down, confine (j *


a suspicion to
s.o.);

s.th.

to, also

o.s. effectively

to bring together,
*
s.th.

.>-*- ha$ir pl. r^- hitgur _


_-**-

mat

compile, arrange

(j

under

a
hafira
pl.

rubric); to enter {J * s.th. in a list); to

JL**. ha$a'ir* mat

put together, set up,


(* s.th.); to

list,

enumerate

jL**- hifr block, blockage, barrier;

comprise, contain, include,

blockade; siege

182

I^U- muh^ara

block, blockage, bar-

her; blockade; siege

obtain (J* s.th.); to auquire (J* s.th.); to collect (J* fees) X to procure for o.a.,
get (J* s.th.); to attain, receive, obtain s.th.) (J* s.th.); to acquire (J*

jL**i inhif&r reatrictednese, limitation,


confinement; (tobacco) monopoly

jy*-

malifr

blocked,

blockaded;

J^a hufl
cess);
s.th.);

setting in, occurrence, in-

beleaguered, besieged; limited, reBtricted,


confined (j to); narrow

cidence, happening (of

an event or pro(J*
of
s.th.); aoqui-

obtain ment,

attainment

achievement (Jp of
(

r.

hifrim

(coli.; n.

un.

*)

unripe and sour

aition

J* of

s.th.)

grapes
i

(ayr.)

_^ r ^ hafufa

(iL*- haf&fa) to

have sound

1U.W- hafUa

pl.

JJL*- haf'iP rest, recollected,

mainder ;

amount

proceeds,

judgment, be judicious, discriminating


i

returns; revenue, receipts, yield, income,

_'^

r ^ hafif

endowed with sound judg-

takings
J-y*-, betically
*J

ment, judiciouB, discriminating

Ly and iL*i_p- look up alphabox

-~-

ha?if

endowed

with Bound

judgment, judicious, discriminating


iL*httffa

L*- hagfla collection box, alms

sound judgment, judiJ^rf.

ciousness

mah$al

result,

outcome, upshot,

issue

\&

haQala u {J>-*- hufl) to set in; to be

there, be existent, ertant; to arise,

come
take

X-**- tahfil

pl. -t

attainment, obtain-

about; to result,
occur,
tranapire,

come out; to happen,

ment, gain; aoquisition {also of knowledge)


iea;
;

come

learning, studying, scientific studraising,

to

pass,

place; to happen, occui* (J to s.o.),


(J

come
to

collection,

levy(ing), call-

upon

s.o.), befall,

overtake (J

ing in (of funds, taxes) ; income, revenue,


receipts, returns, proceeds; resume,

s.o.);

sum-

originate,

emanate, derive, stera (j- from),

be caused, be produced

mary,
(j- by) ; to attain,

gist (of

a speech or opinion) ; j*

obtain, get, receive, acbieve (J* s.th.), s.o. or s.th.); to come int win

Jli

jl J-*U-I
. . .

Jr^ m Bummary,

it

may

be said

(J*

possession
permit),
collect,

seek (J* a (J* of B.th.); to

jJ>~**

ta