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Your Name: Ulises Jose Corona

Name of the MAE2160 Materials Science


Course:
Lab Date: March 20, 2009
Report Date: March 24, 2009

LABORATORY #4: HARDENABILITY TEST

This is a report on the Jominy end


quench test. Using a prepared
quenched sample of steel, regions of
faster cooling rate in the quenching of
the sample bar showed higher
hardness numbers, as tested by the
Rockwell C hardness test machine.
Performing the Jominy test it is
possible to know the hardenability of
steel.
Lab Report

INTRODUCTION

Hardenability is the capacity of a material to be hardened by heat


treatment (quenching). Hardenability of steels can be measured using the
Jominy end test. The Jominy end test testifies the incidence of the
composition of the alloy and heat treatment procedures for manufacturing
purposes.

I E
XPERIMENT PROCEDURE

The sample is a steel cylinder of 4 inches in length and a 1 inch


diameter. Before performing the actual test it is necessary to heat
up the sample to 875 degrees Fahrenheit in a furnace, and then
cool it down in one of its ends through quenching with room
temperature water. Once done this, the sample is taken to the
hardness test machine from which the recordings are made. The
Rockwell hardness tester is used for measuring hardness. It
consists of a platform in which the sample is placed, which can be
adjusted in height so that the brale can contact the machined
surface of the cylinder without causing false readings. Proper
contact is assured with a dial indicator on the panel, prior of
executing the test. A lever is used for starting the machine, which
exerts force in the sample until the measurement is showed by the
larger panel arrow. The range of output was between 40 and ~60
Rockwell C units. Each turn of a handle wheel in the tester
correspond an axial displacement of the sample, so the test can be
repeated for completing the data in the chart.

II R
ESULT AND DISCUSSION

(i) Description of hardenability and the difference between


hardness and hardenability

Hardenability is the ability of a steel to transform from austenite to some fraction


of martensite at a given depth below the surface when it is cooled under specific
conditions. For example, a steel of a high hardenability can transform to a high
fraction of martensite to depths of several millimetres under relatively slow
cooling, such as an oil quench, whereas a steel of low hardenability may only
form a high fraction of martensite to a depth of less than a millimetre, even under
rapid cooling such as a water quench. Hardenability therefore describes the
capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a given set of conditions. High
hardenability allows slower quenches to be used (e.g. oil or air quench), which
reduces the distortion and residual stress from lack of uniformity in temperature
regions.

Hardness is a measure of the material's resistance to indentation or scratching.

(ii) Effect of carbon content and other alloying elements on


hardenability

The hardenability of ferrous alloys is a function of the carbon content and other
alloying elements, the grain size of the austenite, and the cooling rate. The
relative importance of the various alloying elements is calculated by finding the
equivalent carbon content of the material.
Maximum hardness in steels is obtained by producing a fully martensitic
structure. This can be done by austenitizing the steel and then quenching it.
During the austenitizing treatment all of the carbides dissolve and the ferrite
transforms into austenite. Quenching this structure causes the austenite to
transform via a shear mechanism into martensite. This transformation is so fast
(Martensite needles grow at close to the speed of sound.) that there is no time to
the carbon to diffuse out of the martensite grains or to form carbide phases. The
martensite, supersaturated with carbon, is very hard and also very brittle.
Carbon, being a very effective solid solution strengthening agent, essentially
determines the hardness of the martensite. Cases where a lesser degree of
hardening can be attributed to the presence of other alloying elements, but these
elements tend to also make it more difficult to obtain a fully martensitic
microstructure. So while maximum hardness in a given steel is dependent on our
ability to produce a fully martensitic microstructure, the hardness of the
martensite is largely determined by its carbon content.

(iii) Discussion on the results of the lab experiment with a


plot of the hardenability curve

Side Side Avera


Jominy Position 1 2 ge
0.0625 58 56 57
0.125 59 56 57.5
0.1875 68 57 62.5
0.25 67 55 61
0.3125 52 52 52
0.375 54 50 52
0.4375 54 52 53
0.5 55 51 53
0.5625 55 52 53.5
0.625 62 52 57
0.6875 63 52 57.5
0.75 62 52 57
0.8125 68 52 60
0.875 63 52 57.5
0.9375 62 52 57
1 63 52 57.5
1.125 62 49 55.5
1.25 61 49 55
1.375 61 56 58.5
1.5 57 56 56.5
1.625 54 55 54.5
1.75 48 48 48
1.875 49 57 53
2 48 58 53
2.25 48 58 53
2.5 50 45 47.5
2.75 51 47 49
3 50 42 46

Hardness eventually decreases as the sample is tested in sections farther from the
quenched end. Quenching thus, increases hardness of materials.

(iv) Detailed explanation for the variations in microstructure


and hardness along the length of the Jominy bar

High hardness occurs where high volume fractions of martensite develop. Lower
hardness indicates transformation to bainite or ferrite/pearlite microstructures.
Hardening of steels can be understood by considering that on cooling from high
temperature, the austenite phase of the steel can transform to either martensite or a
mixture of ferrite and pearlite. The ferrite/pearlite reaction involves diffusion, which takes
time. However, the martensite transformation does not involve diffusion and essentially
is instantaneous. These two reactions are competitive, and martensite is obtained if the
cooling rate is fast enough to avoid the slower formation of ferrite and pearlite. In alloyed
steels, the ferrite/ pearlite reaction is further slowed down, which allows
martensite to be obtained using slower cooling rates. Transformation to another
possible phase can be understood in a similar way.

(v) Comparison of the hardenability curve of the test steel


with those of the materials shown in Fig.11.14 of
Callister (page 393). In addition, you should answer the
following questions in your report:
(a) What is the hardenability of the material?
(b) Can this test material be used for fabricating a component
with a section thickness of one inch, which is to be used in
hardened and tempered condition?
The obtained data is similar to the curves given in the fig. 11.14 of Calister, as it
reveals increasing hardness as the test is performed closer to the quenched end of bar.
Fluctuations in the experiment graph are fue to experimental erros, as temperature
gradients when quenching, or general imperfections of the material.
(a) The hardenability of the material is the function that relates adquired
hardness with a prior particular heat treatment process. This is not a nice
function, so we had to incur into graphical means to represent it, as showed
in the experiment chart.
(b) Yes, because it shows the dimensional and processing requirements.

III C
ONCLUSION

The Jominy test describes the ability of the steel to be hardened in depth by
quenching. The hardenability depends on the alloy composition of the steel, and can
also be affected by processing, such as the austenitisation temperature. Knowledge of
the hardenability of steels is necessary in order to select the appropriate combination of
alloy and heat treatment for components of different size, to minimise thermal stresses
and distortion.

IV R
EFERENCES

Dissemination of IT for the Promotion of Materials Science. (2009). The Jominy


End Quench Test. University of Cambridge. Retrieved March 22, 2009 from
http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/jominy/index.php
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science. (2009).The hardenability of steel.
UC Davis. Retrieved March 22, 2009 from
http://www.matsci.ucdavis.edu/MatSciLT/Other/Files/Hardenability.pdf

Industrial Heating. (2009). Understanding The Jominy End Quench Test.


Retrieved March 22, 2009 from
http://www.industrialheating.com/CDA/Archives/22d2fcf0ddbb7010VgnVCM100000f932a
8c0