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ALICE L. BADESCU GRAMATICA LIMBII E,NGLEZE i6fiGil---oe"fnur{ I I surtt'or lr:lrt I I v . I t'tt'ot-^ ' nhil'l /t\ u/ EDITURA 9TIINTIFIc.I.

$I ENcIcLoPEDIci BUCURE$TI, 1984

c Dv I ti T c |lTREc r'r'1'r oF lonE beensamethingof a baxlefield,. "The tettitoty of En|lisll teachin{ hd,s Ano n; tl,r mdnu i!:ut" na,ob.inp toryht oL'ti' thot b.t,\".n trts"fit||\e and d?s.. tplire Flrir udes 1o ,r.age.'r anclrcte Cu aceste curinte incepeutn d,inte numer oatele efecluate altima in treme asupra limbii englezeactudle in Anglia. Prima. atitudine,aceea,,prscriptil'n", esteautori.tail, natmotird.,ingrddird gamaticii l d,tineale secolnla; ile numeroase reguli, stibuind, tncd tn idealuriLe al XVIIIl ea, $i aparlinind azi unc; i.naifili erwl,{te rctragrade;(.ead,ea ti doud, tttit udinea ,,descr'ip1irn".etle modernd,evoluaLi, dirumici, VIE. Limba ln1ti popor e roluedtii fovtE tupid ti &ntrudictariu dacd.na este cantolatd. In Anglia nn a ed stat niciodatd o Aeademieasendndtoarc celor d.epe cantinent,"The Royal Aca.lemf" fiind fonddtd in 1f68 d,ercpeLe Gearye !11 III-lea &l At|glici caclusir p.trtu lncurujareaartelorpldsticcprin infiinlerca unei scali de,:L6enti (rearca un.i ex la:ilii anuale cu lucrdrile (ilitlilar |lestitieni in oiatd. Incurajarea scriito ritor filrrdsese, !rctinri stribcchi, seamu tn d,in sueeranilor a nobiLilorcatcg aritau in juruL ( rlii. reg(rle arlulaa "lhej,|rp^Irons". Lituba Si ri d,'st^td o d^,n:t. t;n,t,. F,od.r,'l,;rn,t :i sstlplnunpl, ,tp -r(ipgs l:nettsl,' rat|Qa, ,r's I:n4tsl"..inJ 'to ,o.ut2.o ,jun* sd tnan'rp. lintp tl" s".otc. ,,limba e Ek ;d, indusirt reguliLe naticd.lenrecte abliga.tarii". E Od,atd insd cu descoperir ea Nd,iotel.egruf ti a tcleriziunii ti eu ftspindiree ici. prin intenled,iulaces tar culturii in mose subiteti.prestiliaascmassmediA.bah.nlo, putctii s-a tn(lind t sprc an nou nume coresii a|linrleosd nai a noile et'enimente, nstfelEnglc.a II odeLa fast nnnitd "BBC Englisll''. FoI e curindinsd, $i ptsoane renite d,in lo(t te cnglezc, faplul cd ]a BBC rorbeau,in direrft d.ialecte coLlwile lumii. Limbae ngLetd d.lfu.atil la BBC d tncetatde a mai p ea fi consideratd .,madelulunic" ti s-a dd.optdttermenul de "SlandaftI EULish" pentru socatildca rodel. llcest nume lare sd aibi n1o.i saianta li )Lii en1leze nrulle .lc suprarieluirc, deaarece p reteazdIa conslrut:lii earelat reda nusnle se Sanse gtumatir& poatefi dascripli\ A muhiple. atitfaartesubtile.citFi faarte utiLe.Asttcl., snrrp rfr cri tt irar. l/on,?nla, ra r.ccivcd pronunciation f,4.P.r, un tomcn paate a(cptal0le,accepled . archaicsaa la re,l.uracft stard.rd sou subslandard. cepled. rlnrcfe rhle. pfe{ eraLlesd l,rtfcnd, |bdcscert. obsolele,anl,iquuted. sut,errnrualed.suterseded. ol d-fashioned, outwoln sduj "it r{!1es il js out cf daic";rlc. nd i,firilum. ["1'o ulhcr]4. Lx inrcputul tedului 0l Xx-lea. Dani.L Jon.:.\1.\.. hoflssol. Erncritus in Phonoticsil tha Ufivorsity ol London, r.s; incqte s.ria dNfanrirci,"i dic st udiul littlbii cngleze. lionare toneticeenlle.etti carc arcau si reroLulione.e tlntih s .1 dlia. \:i,7i Ililliogalia. p 6!6. :' lll.tl L' -{nglii,, lronul lilr ii po{i-a rveni ailt lr.trl,a!')or. .ii li J, mrilor. ln orilinea sur(trIBC, a b l"lia1 ia r unic lni r ndt udiiuz i' Dii hita n n 'e : 'D t i s h B r i d c a s t t l S . /?d,pler "Iour coat dalfs ron ili{rhin cl..l" \au simpl,: "Io(. .oor . /trr.s". ctr o n' brrl" n..drr,l",Ir"+ . \ Liilr , l.i.,ri J.r"^1",. din ili lFr p |, r - , - - . lo o i nr a Pr o.mo osr)

iic |i-.\r tt,!)\|rh. litrctrctn,:te:.tr,ti nin _. ln p{ala winului sdutii.dionat tr r3nounc;ng Dirt;onnr\-'. dtdo ti !.ri!: ..,1;doi :;rid.dar (n n a,r int .lia pra nuntiel ori tl,e ldbi lare pronuntic csrtt:ntt si carc isre de a fa.ce 4 -refltn n gtqlfi. ,\capul arcstui d.itlianar estcd...Linrel.ltra. dt trai prc.l] pa..ii: t, ,to unlio tipid. i ieb.inletil in mol ol;snuii in t:anq)rtali,(te dtr. n nnnt ir considerali.L persadtre de scoltvi:.at.dm swt t \n!ti!.i.''l "Thc booL it n r cca l of t\:rt nat ol thrcr;ts at rcBanat rrli!"n.B to ot t rt uDt i. r',od o to Ip. : , 1. 1, 4, r apv a- . ,.. tt..rt tt, ,,.., |- t . ^ p.^ ! 1 ^ u t , " . . . . I b , nurt:d t;on .L vp t.1, r y . , 1 t , , \ r , , r . t , t t ; , h. t . t . . . a. ) . t . t t . ! . 4 1 ,r -j al t.. I.L, f Il L , /1 r.a , . . . \ . , ii- r ^, , t,r, 1 .,,F .' j .,. . ,i :.,t,r,,,.t1,! t. \r:l t,,:t.h n d a t' , abr c r : or f . P ,\, | ,,i ,,. , l r, I,p r. \.-.,, i , r-. I d.....t ot,r,r:tn o. : 4, n ,i ru t.4 ,p tt)p ...,..., R . p. {H e-\,j to "r" hr r r t' .,.,r ,r. P n ,ntt n I ia . r rI pphr i -. o J i t:r .p r,,,, c L r t. ,, ( a?casti o&zie s.a canttato,t ii tinbt en:].:n nu tja. te ftl!,t, a sinlurd. limlri, ci clt c:t:isttru .Lottn cario,ntt:: tintba s,:riia larr a li, sr ;r n,: $ritte nt\glish) ti.li.mbu nrbitd (spoli{\r English). lriat dtit.bne n nt;.h .nklti t.a fun|i .t..l t. D rc .l $ t .n u: aJ . : t t ' 4jind t s .;rt,.. t p o stL t lic t . s . alt f ir n l rc l rl i 1 ti : a) ior m al s pe e ,h (s t i l L 'fat1 na t. c u m ro n i os, trn\;i ): t 1)) rrn ,ni \I,i1iIg (stiLul ftrn nl s(:tis). ; di:ir sri/'.1 t1\reic?. ,/irilllj le:at. juid,ic t-i. !t.t::tires. : c ) inl. r r r nal s a ' r c o l l 0 q u j rl s p e rh (s ti l rl infornat t\) ' tr\i ti 3 (nrti 1); ^-,tu j /J ./, J l inl" r r r , , t r . ,,r," .1 1 ,,t. .l !' i t\r... ..t1\.): rut,, ' pl ' t' ...r lni r nhnt i" ; ,n i o u s .l 1 " .t /t. t.,t r' tu ' l ,,o, t. ' ,..t.i ,r.:,: _ d,ela puncnl $), ad,iirrsin.t aitft l u stil in ptuN. .lL]i rrunatit:icnl uu iiitrorlus tn .o .r n , 0t |, ot : r td t4 ..p a ;l i ta tp ,,,,1 s ,' :.., , t,.' .," : ptn" at!! !,t. L.,o.tdt u tst, I r ar ed) . Se atrage at.elid. citilotikr c|L,irl lnnl)a u!\e.d. eduraterl ir? ^vraliDriic(tiri za i . c ult . iar uned u c a te d :re i c i l a l j z .1 t. (, i l n{j xl i on : i .c u tr. Ii rri i ful tri i : s,colarrz:rfe.ifvntnturii. cul iur.l: 1dr cdurrlie lln Lniha. ntl nn) - r\Ntlrpr! (go!d rd bad): "Ar io nnl1nef s. hc hls rorre"r a erlu{ra. a (.rette (un copit) : I l , l s ul: c dur ali o ,r tu r' -i ' . -i ,,' .,rr: L ,,,1' t.nrt:tu uf: ' " ,.,, I l a ln - , , . nt r pn r..J :t:l a . tt i n !ru ,4 tn tt,4 ,t.. Aryuhthl ddoptat in trnns.icre. fonatt:d tr ftrst $i este (d .t t*olid.liei Saftina pe cat. rni d.n &tntnat. a furt r/iof.i - ;t m.rmmoth lrlsti o cuilt spu r,n:l"'t: ^t:1d rrt^t.. t:r,.o d. ,";n."n.,tLt r..u,,tri oL r.n *.ln. \\/a..,dd u: p.t. a tt..pott " 1r rrt,. l.rtlp. fit,. .,.tqrur.. tn I Prrrr',!ia d in s , L, l, a \ nqlei x los lil. is i, n !n l e l . d e o t d e i e t . . ', . 1 . a . . i , i . i h r r l si o rll. [ ia] . r . ' Fljr r r c { f r a r Nt , it il d e s . r d e r e r t r ! u l i r . F i t i r t i t f d ! t r S rlfrfarr.n lr! .i | ., t O,' o- . -n . .' \, ,r"! !r , r r,rh_ , ,l t:,:,. ". . i,,, , i t ,i ,u r 'r . r 'u L , r i semlu l nl lll,t r:lf;nc t bs ln I ij: 3! 1. lr , , iL{ 401. n \ g b ! \ 1 i t j i l . I" a t r ; ! i t a j t \ . ( 'h t t t.rk.us. itlll .t... .afc ldmrNfri'' rp dra.ii Lri.hxti d,r si,at .nttczi si i lle Dersonatjtiti ina(rmtLr. uhirr sir._rlnLi. .\..sh r.oli ii ufivr$ii:-Lli ;ln t h liiRti si asi..1zi. turut r"oi, c,i or r iilof . |, r \ uiplia ljir . s r lo r d c l . r l n , . f *. a ! . i r g e n i r u . s i i l -slll , Ll . stil .ula ^ ial : stll .nfart..ris n . in r.onvqsrtiilor oliiNriif. tamilir|e !..)pfr. . . knU oqti.a l sp t.h/. jrL f of t r as t . l iot r \ f r s it ir t f s ir ! f i s o r i l . i i t . {t c L r ) f o r d d t c . . r.!rtl lir.er

CUIi'NT CATU CEITOR ulrfotrnelat t& 4 efa.anstd,efat nqral. dtical fu inccputltLa.est.lti. seeol (in loI uir t a notni aLi.ruluit tt (rcu.st aul 1 p r onu tclc p eNnnal ; \\ho i . l oc (1,e i a e \\h.)m ; i hf t's ne lcnlrtr it i! l. locu prcpo.ili ei d ltt n \ eth si u inaintea cwittLt lui ta l N.rc se refeft (rvlo is it for? I|'herc ure 1 1ou cani g holl!l) etc.. ctt., ctt:.)este nnsiderat core(l acum. (Yczi fipitalel e @rcs?un.ito\lc /d Indiee.) t! inrclis. tot (e(a G tste &ctlm eore(tgranntlcd . rtl conrldl4t sloppy. Gaanad,updsinplifftdre, darinla le u tittiga lintp. t:it.ma i mu.Utimp. a a(lusti ertindered. telor Nntruse. a fispunsuiior tnanatilabirc. a snnctelorinjtrnit lor IalLIe. S-a a(eptat un aLLoiteriu: ditttlt l me.selt)r th e man in lhe slreet, (fi sintboluLt:rtd!?nnului ( tlc: obitnuit). Chiar t-i d. l a &tcilrele niwftiture, ptolctotii ro aiscLtrcla.ti Lintbaj surprinzdtor. bc (? intedbd un nai\'. -Nu ttiu !ruflaticii ? - Pentu m stLtdcnlii sainu i. Itutr.e t irept 'old,faegies"( :bd, H?nt!/ Seeel, lta t&ri(i!1 u|, toia ]u sfiltlt L te.al ulai pftcetlent (in Ne\! Fl!rglislL Crammar. Logical ard Hisroriral 1392 si 1696 ), anticlptnd s rile d,c fatt utuale: " t he rul(s af |rumtu dt lolie no tal ue cftept Le state,n.nts of ftl(:I: whateaer in gen al us. in tl languafe is lor th &t et! ftdsan granl is tati@llt eotrc(t." Litnba s. sthb hn r atittl r.lpiditat( . intit striitorii dniltr '50.'60 au deja un it inte.h . Pcnffn strti.ini insai. e&re sint in matea lor tnajoritate cititari. inslt,'i. )a lintiir n!]..e tu uiut arul unti grdmatici tadilional.e llr? ncapirct nu:csdrai ei. , ?entru a li se to ntla o ha.i solitli si numai rLupdaeet:a i si.nr putetl {Ia s&nla. in pradid, da *hi.n xirile prctctie sdlt liitoare di limb& en!le.d.. ',,. tclegtwnali.ti.ilui Otto Jftl'5dz i/r "The Fis!enri.rls E!glish Gramln ,', 1 938, .l ture r?d,e en!\e.d: "as sotncthing Liti.ry antl derclopingund,er .onlina al !r.1nt.1tie& flwluaions. $omcthini that ls founrlcnon the past anrt pr$aris r hc $'atJfor the futnrc, sonethiw that is not eleags rcnsistentar perf.ct. bur ,l allessing anl, pe.fettible in onc pord,, hunlan." 7u ,\,o;;n nr\tyt.. : . j, , . p"' n, , i. , i t on P a t ! . r . 1 l d ,1,tb^tp rl"sfe neri-

( L 1'i,\ t. l), 1tt.TE Crunatiut rl.e[aln tii-ica luuare con.:eputii Ld.e tat]. ilianat.. pe ,Si t tratale apnfu ddt taatulJroblet )tt de Erumaticd,p;t ,iulu st dc(nn pa fnontenp.legrunaticalc st.Lifice liniii engtie;i deci trtai ?ulin (t:t :csib;Le (Llriarul\t nmain. f..t t ot;: o tu!, u. t,.,. tu,trti tr !orotiat ,, a tr tnyt,:d s; t,c bozr,tnr "odui,.fu,Llt, ., .tat,.rt.. "n.: tn..t u. ttr.t,tt ,.x"r,.tt"iu;,i ranate de o&menL. Irtt. u s.t urnldti t&ntfarna|&. etaluliu tinl )ii si uanld. J)e S a urmdrit.sd se dd,apuc tenninataSi.li !.tlcatti t:it ijdi b rit:i ;i. cit n;ai ya aptapiatd.dc f.nanenul s1ud,;at. rcnsi,t;;i it ,:d sint t) |.'Ltc etenlenre deosebhc tald de gtatnatica lLmbii tot drr,. (:unitt Ii: genvt; rut. ri.itorut lulti t. t!e&t, i,,olut o '[.,t l0 n J ',,,',t.1t,:.,'u p,r[. ..t ot,1,.,.4] t,t.,t,. l4 rt" 4 !t,lot i: t \ ir t $1un : n . . . - t . . p t . . , . : . . . a.., n,t, paptp. - t u, . dt . t df pn\ttlp ".J,rt, tir - : . t s d ; ' , , ' t lot - . . t t . . t n . , I 'i , . , n r , , t . , . . . . ', I , t p lt t I.n tDtnn It1 t t t n dl s lt l. . t'entru .a .agrc tnta srutli.rul nt&terirlultli. s ao i tradls. ptin un?le emnpl itirairi ti notc d,e sulJal, tit mai, trnthc d.jte ttesprccitttLtu ti driti.a.li d, englptd ti despn sTecifitul abi,ceirrilor Lrad,ili)nateenlte:rtti. Latted.are pdragrafe nu tcNn&tu t& inujt tul pind. lo stitlitut ti. p{dra d,c tt s. lutea /.r.e triniteri de la o prubio n Ia altd. ti !.ntru a se ei.ra reperdrite. id.td t.. i ot i un, i", t,,,,;, i" ,"r,r'.,., ,t.,tr..rtt'tt[0. Lrt . 'hrs,t'tt L-t .. o\tltt |n.tt , ; i, qut s l po4t d psl, d n .n , tut.. t t t t t . 1; 1 I \ [ nn. dL la tnrcpur ftnt lu iirttt. . '1" L + tt ,ntelo\pnit. ,rn n t o r t t r 'p . lt.n un,,ffi t t Toretrei I t't )o dp [ o, ; . ],. a .t'..t',..,, L.t.... p. a ,Jnft;,t, .,..,!; o 0t laat . , . ^o"o,t lr t at p . t o' . 4t .. t .,1. t. rn,iInc" t . pt r ,t lp.luln;i.n . pnlpi, d,e Sperin M wrca tlepLisn cLitrc (utoalcj (u tlsitL;Leasi d.drui& specifice .le nu t.LLun..L tarsnte, sd [ie sprc instruiru. intercsul ,\i s.lisfaclia ci.titorutui E ;)TT{ i R A

TABLA DE }IATORII Cuvlnt cAtr citito! Cuvlnt lnainto .,... 5 8 IIORTOLOGIA . .. Sul6tantivut . .. .. . .. - .. . ..,. . Adiectiwl t:t 9l ,2t !,67 229 247 457 489 5lt 520 Numeralu1 .................... hepotiiia. r.. snn{xl 8i;u*a prcpozlli"i. . . . . . . Sintara tlazei. 524 5?3 626 629 BIBLIOGRAFIA INDICE

MO RFOLOGIA lrroRPHoLocY)

SUBSTI.NTIVUi l {. tI, CONSIDDRAT]I G!]NEIIALE 1 p.9: t7 t7 ti Ii ti CLASIFICARE\ ;SUBSTANTIVELOR SubstMtfo oomue 9i suhtstrtiYo Foprii . srbstantive comune 3 I . . . ... b17 It8 918 10 t2 13 t4 15 t8 t9 20 t1 22 2X 24 t8 29 30 31 t2 33 3i 3 8 39 40 4t L2 49 8 SdDstMtiYo eoncroto ti s u b 3 t8 n i l l e b s h a c 1 e . ..... . . Sulstant ive abstractel Sulst&ntFo ttrdiYiduslc si slD$iMti{o colcctlve .. Srlstantive in iliYiduale . sulstantive coleotive Nume dc naterii ti de mise conc.e Sobltcntilo rumer8bile li ncnumerrbilo Nun iab ilitok| . . . Substantiee numtdbite . Substannve cono.ete ' C ar ac t er is t ic i. .-. -..... . . Calcgorii dc sulstaniive numcrall Substuntioe nenrmetubite Car ac t er is t ic i,.-.. .. . Categorii de substartive nc ! , m Pr ibil. , . . . . . Numcle spotu.ilor Nrmele de materii sau de mase Nnme dc mai.edi sau de na se iul .. - . . rabile ln Produselenaturare . A nim t r lele. . . ...... Plantel e comesiibile. . . . Numelc de mase :ibslraole.. Nune de masealshacte nenunerabi le Catcgoriide srbsianlive (hnel). TII, GENUL SUBSTANT]Y]ILOR. D eliniliel. . . . . . ..... .. Gnurile ln sranlatic{ englczi. . . . 19 7g 19 19 19 t0 20 20 20 2Q 20 20 tt 2t ?1 '2X 3 :r4 ,5 25 26 26 t6 26 2tj 21 27 21 3' 33 33 36 37 !7 37 37 37 llasculin ti leninnt . . Genul,subsiantivelo..are n ic{ naliomlitatea sau lroven ienla regionala G enulc om un. .,.. Exprcsid Sranaticaldd enxlui . {\.. NU]IiNUL SUtsSTANT]VIJ].Oit Col3lilorstll gon$8|e.. Ptu..lul Bulrsti irctor ' 6t 62 63 87 i ,;.ror"...''illi,;, ,i !ifl,ll"{i'i " rd-.,ji,,;"0',1-2.+h..h-rsnrur'L i";;'i; " s,rEUrdr, .;;,;;;':i; -s. -i. 90 91 92 DerxrtTlrrrr 93 95 : -::::=

t4 Lryq In tc.ninate la singular 't sau'le snbstantive in'q. . . .. . terminate Subslantile ln terminate -th .. . . .. Snbstantilc rrex n al. :: :: P lu. dl6 ,;? ;;i ;;; iiJi,i. i, ,";*i rormr 'i.t!ru"rpr"'p ,'iva ", l i ; i n l rllisu b slin ti Yleco lectile..-... ri,iiii,iir'ir*"i'd.r," Plumle strline :i n ru r " ' dr ' . t lu" dl . . ly: l. li . ;;; 33 ie .10 ;; i0 il i3 ' 'nr rnt"res ri'l^ i,ji,i:i' '" J";,i1 rormr,-ir-ar.cu aii*it ," ." , ,,.,,,1 . " r. L ,o .i ! lu. d" , Pl L rJ" r lin f r r r c lP dp r' 1 r' D o u l f or m " d" t n. r al u l s rl i l p ri l . 113 ';:, :j; l:9 :11" Ii o 1iiJ"] o'i.i;l; i I in," s .r" 'insu e "\p".r:'P . .: i' li"i"r ,i,ri,i, i'"llr rr" "r'r 'd onarir: 'au Pto!n-n'a fg'onari "a ', .. Fj'"ii"i a.."-i"it- d.i anim are . 9luralul I'luralnl tl Jra l u l Pl u mhl substaniile)or.conlnse .- . . numelo. } )roprn. . .... . . ur n. r lt " t o" . .. l u i e tr.ti .. nnm elo.dc " ,te rc . . r..t- ... ' . . . . . .. , . . . . . . . . . , , , . . . . . , , . . ill ltl i;l : ;;; ;l; . j :' ::t :'1 i: i; re 60 60 . , .

. ,1"r", i'i" '.. "t'"'par li ro rb i " P . J' Pl u i , r l llor 'ul' L Ll,J.f J ,'rt ,a nti\". ,, :.. r" r\d.. ::; 189 l ;j 198 ii 6? !; 6lt v. CAZLL SUTISTANTMLOR co ..;o 4- . , i, :, , no. , " liomiistiru l ......,._ .. ,,.,, : ::::: D . riri1 jc.... {u cl i i . . . . . \ominatirnl \ooaur' Ge n l t ' nl . . . . . . " : .... ................. " " " ' ,' :osri l r l# ;i ; 3B 64 Deii n i . .j.c . . . . . . 1 . ... . Fu n 4 i j rra d tr c pr e. . . . . . . . ,. l o rma l , . - . . . . . Cen itirul eran {t. ca.ut Pofsie . :. . ;13 3l i ti :ti t !28 rormi............... . . .:

{j5 66 66 :: .'.'',' 331 33 14 2i a !80 '12 0 i2 .......-..-........ Drl i rd ,.... . . ,' 283 !85 300 307 3n8 i3 )' 3 1t ia . ... Irefinil,,e il: l'; 'i

srrBsTAN:cl!'IJI,.SUMAR 15 _.L 4a VI. .C.LTE CHESTIUNI REFERITOARE LA SUBSTANTIV ...... Substantiwl adjeotivat Chdinear r v inte l o . . - .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. ..: . . Func$ile substantiftlui VII, FORMAREA SUBSTANTIVELOR Ds de& . r . . . . . . . ...... Alixatia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P ief k . . . . . . . . ....... S uf i: . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. Dpr iv dF a r e8r , 8 i e 6... .. . .. R E duc er ea . . . . . . ..... Atternanl lonetice Ab r ev ier ea. . . . . . ... .. Sclim Dew cslogorlei 8flm3uodo. . . . . . . . CoDpur c r m . . . . . Sui6tertive tele$ opate ....... . ..... 944 345 347 357 359 360 36t 368 373 a?4 482 383 384 399 40t 7A 7A 19 19 80 80 80 80 a2 a4 84 85 86 88 89 ...

S U B S T A N TIVUL (TIIE NOUNi 0ENnBALE I. CONSID$n-{TII p s l " p a r" H d " \ orbi r-" rrp doru' l 1F:' o[' i trl al ' u b ' l s n l i ru l P ' in . obiF cl a ' s ^ i n re l .g . p o i ' J1. fi i nl P l " pl anl cl " l u" rur' r' e\rcrFnl o pp pl .u: ir il. . . " li" ni l a ..l ' ri l a n ^ l i u n i l p . -h Fl ' i d ml rdl rP ' l r" ' h'l A, ' ,o s .l i 6l ' I" a' sr STA]['I\\-EL OR, II. CLASIFICARE,\ S1]B PROPI\II CON{UNE SUBSTANTIVE $I A. SLTBS 'IANTI\iE comulle (a a t,' tL c ' n \,,, t 1) SubstantiTele ,obiectelor' de acelali fel: dos b i .d tn !' llolFr / -er!' . l i i ndi . r-d 1' r' rrr^r I oP l e Inmrl y s3 s4 $t ptoprii (Prop'I AodnrJ num-s' un. obi.cl( Jeosbin- $ 6 2, Subsraoti\cLc proprrr Subslsalrvele dul de loale cFlelalte ,obiectc'din acceo:icategorrF. seogralr'e f iintp locuri (oumrrr. denumesn sp s.riu .u ioitiald maju."uldr 9i csrp enl ii in rcnere),nalionalil6!i (substanliva adjP.li\e). aqlrp $r.gal,a\rr (toldeduna dc gen fFmrnrnll ur,icalp'. urassre, laifun" elc. istoric", operilrter"r". sliiDlit icp.arlisli e el'.. anumilPlrlulalun ercdrlrp' 'prole.ionalFsi culluraie. lnlrppr jcd'ri m;r' i dF labrirarrc Pr' onorifi.c, lunile anuiui qi zilele sipi5mlnii et c : c ur J c r i" lno ao n iii-ii T 11 n L c h a F s l B.n N P \i s th p I L D i . ' i " L n^nub" :j l erpt T l r;l 8 i n Ro{1nia Romanian Eulole ^-inar l'lie W{ oi lhe Roses B.itish Aeroslace Airdali Group V ot d' ! 4p.l ' 1. 5pn' n l dtron' Ro lls Roxce O bs . r oalLi: p rn p ri i a u d c \" ' i l s ubsrsnl i rc romunF si ca al p sc t J nele " ub. l a n l i !F sr r iu r : r inir ir li m n u s c u l d ' F F r , t l F d i s l i ' g' dF nrrmel " propri i r" sn" l rte: d) obip. l. n u m j te d u p a Io c u l tl e o rrgi nc: cl : \11_J n' rml e of nF nl " o b pdt r nl u a/ ;l d p n .L d n : l l to p ri u : r S !' d '. u nu' \ m hr . r , ' r dt J d a l i p l r,i fl i n /rl r. J .I L o n Jl ' . A ncIT ,t,, a l: nor ieln n < C l ri n a l .," ii" , . t . i" . d. ,i " c o ri rr' / ' o i n I' l ' n u r ' l n ,:r ' i l i | d r' ro cul l gF oi r ai l J ri 4 n\;n l e i .l u l , Er" n ;;.; , , ' " " " ' . , din .\nglia) l t)imint sccuddl r' ' -5' 1r" .1' L^i, , u" rro n " ;i ,u " 1 .s L ' s l r' l i i b p s" fl ' r ^r i rri ; tu, t t , , ' lh t ur ' t' ' d rJ ' " . 5 P ,n t ni ni l ni J r' a ^r t , at ih. n -a n .:' o " . 'i ' ' ' i ' r' l 71 ," rl ,1 \y ttrJ . ' ..' r. J p " .r. i nl -l p .Ji ub...ar" rv.on n " ! ln , ! : r rrru l _ s P ,l d u J " ' ' ra nr ' LJr" I rrol ' rr' ri . ] \ s d c o o .rrd.i o n rm ' l r g l a ' th ' n t too\ p6o,' i ,i .J' n . e ic i c : " \ i: j, , " ; ,- s i " ;- i i :..-. L i , . ,-. t,,t.r.t;tai - . i s/. !ric r il, d' lJ ' dp d e rj \a re rb u l r,a ,n /.rr:P nnmele trnor unsaDc de pc coas tr Caiiiofri'i '--;lli'i..-et'".. s7 ' Dc linilic . S p l a n e r" rII cn' rr rpor: tn s ' a l i i l '

/:.il'tr, 1: olundilr < Holl|ild 1: Oiurda\ jer s . ul< J er i u u i n c rn rl n l -/.f!,y i . -( - m ar oc hinl s e r ioic .ol i ll - \Ia .o l ,r l h ,e l i !l ,,,r,.., < Il o rn ,tt nnn L- .lift\ lcatit.nal). soia. .rd,ipe.l < OLlonnx rt r.o, d,iije,rtr ai rc.hiul[i o rr./s i: prntoli de sport. rxLlii:tnrii < O\lod i orai lnivesillf di,, .\dliil) :r,/,r ( : r n' de X eps r < Xe re si l o ' ra l i i a n ,i rt ,tn ia) SD ,,r ,1..7..i ud I.'l de rfirlesil luri-.si hfrl < Ulsref iprorhiiD id nofddl l.l,rLd.ili ,/ obiec t o um i l .c d u p i i v e ta to ri i . d e scopcri tori i . fabl j canl i i , i nspi r8681 o l n o tsf u1m l- n dLr e,, r,.1 rrrc l i i < rl ,o rd l n fo fg h xml i m de sl .all ,.i i .ani c, r rr i \utbrntJ l- Ln I.l !1. sloli inpfimcabilil sfu . hanji din a.csi !rat!ri{l) < rtE ' Rubory irrdelf lal'ricdnLulLril r r ': i p l l l pl,.l r' l, ' i Io ''d . d! lL r qi , l' -"'1 - , r 'r u i. il . , "t d' l " \ 'n r n 't ,1 bi " ' nd, I " r't l lln' lri Jo",l t "lp " ' 1. : ' r d' , . ', .' ,. - tI u f.r ' i. r I I.b t lof . . . . ", r f,\., i ' . r' J , d I n r'. J o r 'r L l .'''r ' ; o1r , I l..lrd Ro@ (: atrtoinolll.lr.toneli t hvf. lfica a..idrrtall < Lltl in1:.i 0e1l ' -:.-, ., 1,., , I , r , - \ "t - \ l , l .umli.r. os, P ', n , lr o pr: n l" ." , 'u + ,,n aj. . .,. l: un l ilii sl ai, r r c l: l. . laic nnt r r l dt i . \ r nden r r ' d c C i n c m a l o a f d f i er l i r r : j u l'h . i .rir . \ ( t ! ! oul. in iulor i. , i. t i. c r , , . ) < O r i r i L 'i e r , i e l i . i L . L Q ! !.cdiu !.n trd irmP rn ,rn de Arir ii l i. , s e. I ] { i e tuni! t).rtl..d ,os d. ( ir io"t r iell. < lh. ot or e i R o . r e r l l l l 1p.:lrlinle al SU\. i.rirt nr.n , \li:jl. r f lr r l r jr c ij 1.rl d. \r. l\old . , 4' I 'r ', r . ' ' ---J . ' rllr mtr l( lo r-n{ lLr l" oli -l \ l . " i r r 'r d , r : ) r , ,ln' lr L' r ' ", ' \ '' t l ' " " 1" 1",' 1 ". r' l.' 1. i l , l: ". ' q- ' i- l" l I r ' j. ., r,l1 1: tr! voll) < lllNs a\ d. ol Volla lf iz i. id ilal i a n , 1 r 1 ; - l 8 l t ) a qdu t:in w rtll < ( J aniNi \ v at t { inginc r ii inlc D t a l o r s c o t i r n , 1 i 3 6 - l 8 1 9 i ; ' ,. ;,ll ., illt r Lrlf,j 'r, I c, lucrui fi teNoane iumite dupn creaiori de opere de arfi Bau dupd personajedin istorie, legendi. literal,urn. artn etc.: o a:desa. / un l1.in, ln di.il,a!,ori a Gdin:booush l- trn lal,lotr d. fiainsb.r oLLghrl n /udas (:xn trlLdr'tor d'r lrtteni) th. tiadn\s o/ iird,.. l: nia.ii li naiciaril a .th!ll.cl2 l-r^ riimnril rdnilo, a r-eLtt I, n stliuic a z.ilci Ycnu si o ien,fii. caccplional d-A irumoasrl: It wft a -r-dDls../r ol lio nloodhonnds .lnd .r lerlc.. s8 B, SUBST.\\TT\TE ABSTR{CTD CONCRETE SIJBSTAI.iTIVI' $I 1) Sut,staDtiyele rete (C ant:rett,VolnsJ numesc .obieote'{ mdtecl|, riale (persoane. din aninal'.. plante , lucnrri, fenomene evenimente realiprin simtotea inconjuritoareetc.) de a ciror er.istenln putem da seama ne ss t J-l4na-. (kritl,atouqr. o.lebN lrorl.rtisi si pclsagisi enqlez lltll-!7331 ' ' .// r ok.-p F. ' d ll. d \ idi ,r, .r .' t...,. i r ". , , |. . : . ,t .t r.. , . .,- .. ' T 1 .,d,... .t,{ t. t... r vP/i 5r l . I tt,un rt ds l. , r { &r l $ t c t it lul r i z e r r l t h crgieza Ldianicd l\l:) il' iil:

l0 2) Sulstantircleahsbaotef,{6slrdrt rvod r/ nunesc acliuDj,stdri. sim- S 10 lnsu; iri, relalii etc-rconsiderate no.iiuni: ca ldmintej senza_tii. l.iour rcst hcalth N otd Unele substantiv absl,racte au si scisu 6chimbat: ' , | con$ete, uneori cu in!e14 $ 1l 4 r lr ' ur . o/ il 'l . li. , i - i, . r ' , , u b r n ', i d- li. ' ! l- . br r r .. l ) , I a' " . ! Ii 1- . , . r i, r ' d61. dr n ar ' aL. lt "l ) . I J "r ' P 1 ld, . / o" r . on, r , nr l: ni' , b, . , I ) ,,,.",","" 'u , . , ' I : .ro,,,"t. ri,,, *r " i "v r _ .h i r " l r; (.,1 .,ra,,) , i n ,j In " .t..,r .on. I 1 "t C. SUBST.{NTIIEINDIVIDUALE$I SL;I]STAN'TIVE COLECTIVE S 1' pot fi: comune,atit concrete si absi,racle, clt Substantivele cindla singularnum esc singurobiect: S f3 un 1) indiridule flndiridadl Norrns) .--" {i}i'j {ffl,. ,{r'jntx:s,r "0",*.,a: {;'.:'#* {l;i:" {l*r {R'i'"" g 14 J .t,pr I to $n J lilr t odk J sl oon I l ],]' t 2) coleetire (CollectieeNouns), cind la singxlar numesc o pluralitate de ,obiect e' identice sau similare, privite ca un tot unitar: ---k {i:?J {Veziii 5 3) nume de materii li do mase conorete (Namcs of llatter dnd. Concrete S 15 ,MarsJ qi nume do maso obstra0te (Ntlnca of Abstact,Udssr, clnd numesc mat eda, substanla sau mesa unui robiect.': I col otr I mill I dir( rcv-a I sold 1\\ inI m"ir 1 sour 1 tubb. | . o. t . , I k noil, dee I t,l-\L:on | ;n.ell:L nr,l t '.",,,., 'e'Im'" 1ir'iroiojrh\ 1mur, "-",1',"" Obseraa!ii a) Unle nume de n&teri i de$mncazis,;obie.ite corleclionate din mate S l$ riile respeclive5: t D.oss al,i Dnrie. aliirnril isurnanli\' colecli\'l 1: (: otJic.t.dc alami, alAol,'{nii,,str urtrrrtp ,nL,zirale alrr,-rr dc D/a-.sds d;1Druri, l rzdic,rd: a u. lit or nl lla nn oor , f r r . et . . r . prbL,l gi,g,,: ' s , s 1 . sLnl esrldril,'i {1. alniarf. ploal. (t. gl.a41:. c n i 'L (1. p,'Lsari. 3 rtrrrl.V, (!on.r.il guoi; (abnrac| l]|{(i'ri. uosLji. iidicnri. rroNfBui 1. '\ ': ' a4 l. - " np tl:a"tu". t r r oa. tof riii. liri l ' Trrd ., 6 i\ ' n, r ' I

r ''. ': . r ' r 't l / r . i ', : "il"r r r nglezeDli resleclire. .u"'",.," {$i",i:#-iir: {ffi;ii#"'{ilit:itil: { Bill: 86) I auiien,er I ili(hl, 1 p ro l c L a ri a t sdl arv 1 r ltock 1 te,m

20 " ' , . 1, 1" 0, , o J n t: I p r" r' I rrP p n nt:I r1-h" ' 8 l echi , :i i ;", ", o ,r.;\ 1: bani m a ru ' rti m" { d n tri l rro J dnr| ol d e m' .ri p : " r ' i \)l ,i " ri d rl d- ( : t n ! r na., o o e rL n n l ) r/o :* s L: r , anuei os l i n z i , o l h ' l a ri l ifur l: lcrl aL i;n (: rtr\ li.r de celcal) ;n trons (: in lanlu ) (vezi ii S 30) precun 6i Denumirile pro{:luselor naturale, p relucraie sau nu' / PI ) i \ ' 1, " b lFr ' o' ' /. /:r' lnr 'o 1' .LiLk. LtrLtt/r. .h"r'sts, , l (lr1 Lh rn, dn ,k, go05e!t nr k er . por llr J , er r ' A lt din sini ea alinLent', dsimiiate, puncr'de vedersrairi'"l"i.i"te ",'l-ri"r""- num ele de matem: natical, cr.r i, ,.' : '-r.-.'r'tJ,i .dp.'oi. ,.u" ruu-. r'ip" \uod'o'k r' .(' \irl"ru" Ii". " .ln,on ;i ale s 18 51e Il. SUtsSTAr'Tl\'ll NUIIERABILII $I SUBSTANTIIII NE\UNIllrtABlLE NUItI]riABILITA TII tCOUXTABII,ITY) ln qran,atlr" moJ"rna,ir .ritFrr - .irp stau ld bazdimpdrlirii subslaomai su . ' a.ddaug"t ur' ' rrlprru,nou loJrtp^urrr .i'"lor r"r' rr.gor iiJeexpuse ln riama ri';, 'i dF'i qi In 'lru' lura lrmbrr engrFzc: ,,enltu ur;e.1la-fe ii)',,.rliiu" , d s bsh;t;IPtot (cour10b'tttsal '\atnsJ' {20 SUBST,UIIIIX NU IjRABTLE (dbrca lNl) (coulitlBrE oR cogNT NOttNS) sPr hoLJ s. ' t" + tJs foni l i es, n I 5ubs ldl li \* 1 , a a : I' ttc t, n b ' rrL ,. [t o' N " " obrF Lpl ' pa carF i c (l a ,t . j. t dpot sF l . .i n l .o r.' i ' l Prr " n d n l td \;1 " JFoJre'' *" U" - ; , uJ d e nun, es 'cP ou' f r ; n ,i 'm;ra t" '"* nump' " bi l " tu ,-i l orn' d, de p t* o ' i u b .ra n l i ! ' ' ' d ' u rtt o tL tIn l a tn t,t' n a | n { 3 du d" i nl ucuttorrLecP sl ural " qoY a s;t,3 t ' t ot lr ' *d" ot nurnP rsbrl e ca r" . t er i' . , i' i, " r P ro n ' rl u i r " rb t r J i ri n ' l i ! a r sLD ' l dnti !el or 1) oeracteristiei. s22 2) Crtegorii ilo substantivo numerabile' qi ,q.iui ini"a, rn genere' majoritaiea substantivelor comunel conorete. nunlrJ"stul dc msrPd" substantrve i,'ai"ia"af. ,.i. r" fri'lic d" 'on'lc\l u ' .rc apsrlin.elorldltF,aregorii rr-zi S i r' l:ll 'rl d. J , ; " ) .; , ti ,r -a r.,,p" . : . '

ib oF[ "". ]n ,lDj' 16 r hd k': h'. d :jJk'" d srtrt'r r r ' i- bf l | d ' " ' pi o n 'o u h ' . , . ns: j1 ,"i; 'n " 'o)ii$ ' " : , " lllg - 'o u g h ': h:rd'k ; t r* ! v r nt Fr dr a s2 3 se t SUBSII\TIIX NllllullDB"ttsIrn (UNCOVNIABLtr NOU\S] f4D4! ATl) t) Caraoteristioi. lntr-un Lilele numedc materii sau de maseoorcretcpot li rlcnu merabile(s38)' l lnlercsurui sd eu modiricarea i'""i S:ol .""#;i;;;;;il"'r'i "ii "i

!l de,r+iD,osFbirpl,linr'" d', ' p,clpgorii F - h1rl" 'ub'ilJ 1i d"'iereu oe Jutr i rrr'n1i' \^'brrnrulur sr dcp'rroP limLr jrl 2.,r,,l .orrp"o ". -rLlar/r d, r, , rt nplt d t r!: 5u b"l ln li\plr li!l,t. n. \ ' 1, ; , ' ; , , 1; n- . n ; . lnu :ht.r. l '" o ' 4dt ^t ' s . [ L r ' 1. j' z n '" J 'i n l h o n . 't o r k i o n 'L 'l 'r r r / hoLv' rru"rp_ $25 i tu ; ; ; i r ; ;;;;;;;'"i i "cr F ra r.' "i1 rp d"num'r. r" f ^ r r; n u " " r " ' r : i d e de lluril form; au. '^-' in mod obisnuit. iiu se il" au ieclt lo"m a de singular3, construiesc singularul'slnt in "" snerenume de iranimat'e dcci de gen neulru' '"i ' nu nonilmernbile au articnbl nholnrit a/alr.(: olre)' l,l Sobs turrti.,"t" etc' r ** iia"r .i'ii"i"". ,qstlelnu sc poatespune darktL':ss'[an' ^ oirel':xs ^ ncrrumrrahile 2) Categoriiale substantive d, Numelo sportwilor: , r. , ui' l o- roo b.,b o rrugg r. . :i. L . .o" nr . , r i . " ldl l"l 'o lob - - a" r ' g \ r or 54 l J n '4 rporo r ''q ' 'l i l i 'g r 'h \ s2 6 s2 7 s2 8 Acestea nu au dectt forma de silrgular fi se conslruiesccu singularul llo's $ 2 9 6/ \umclo rlc malcrii 'nrr de a.e rorrlrcl' t ll')1 1 ut ot 'an r I lnttttaLrl "oi s//r'l 'r' JU n.umrr s,noAP,t;ot btr un la ol -\'orr, )c,:.r'or,., qi stni consideratenenumcrabite deodrce obiectele pe ii'"'".'ai. ci numai rsu*Le De aseme nea'ere poi li uu-r*t". ;"";;'i";;;;; "i"n"t,i. ",i nu au nici articol nehoiirit . A intr'un contoxt ii Nume ile rnaterii son ilc m:rsecolrcrcte enumerlrbile ln nume rabile rltul (Vezi S15) INN] nunar s3. rcffe-" " f : catea boabe sru lfionraie (matc.Gl I (,n J te ' i ' ) l: ha! t ur d r = ftrnzele de ceai uscalc {m,rl.cfle) 1 -- biurura (narerie) I I !uDi( ili llidul) {nL rryi ) S 30 tNt s8. ti Pl. I sE itl , o ('.+' 1 'ur 'af.J Indi\idrrnl Ieo sor,. ./,,"r,. {:fl:l:lirX, I 'e,s, | i nl. t I ss. | I rl I I sc. I I p1I sq . | I lJl. t {' o i , . . e l , . o / l e d : i a l '1 " lin ,Flrri, ra_ i o n , {j ' t r t i L m 'r e . i 'l u) teri l / , = L o , P a r cI ' {, o n c . r t , i n d i v i i l u a l l t x i c a 'i . a t e g u d r / 'd \ : t e f i i d, "ri l,ndtqi' ] .ou , : 1,' I rrfurn ' ul strPr Icor' rct, iri,l,lidurl) soa?s: torlii de supir !l $ hiskY *f t i s / . r : l u n p i h e 1 . o , "t . i n d i \ i d u d l ) , 'l 6 i , e : ( ', a l L u P ' L l \ h b t . Y ( ,u , r r . t , i n d i l i d u n l ( m i r ' a I ci rdrio """'j;in:,':;l':;"':'ii*iLs'"1.i;']'.';u.","".rie ri raaiorereroDie. {s 38), ** 1T"i$l ca sc i**i'"':!'" 1s{!5-1e') cnre comro,,A ur str,gu,a. **"l,Tli #illjtl"l.? ""* -.*, in rrl,rnda.

deii cu torml ilc plurnl. aN"inleles de singulaf qi se 'onlro'te cr al'al'r: "\o a,,r,/,e./ i:,t:lli"i'SiJ'liffi;'"".' ir suA 'i

2? tNN] b/?t tNl 0.7/s- caresofii de cone de p1. ,.'cs: \'iie perlN;j in abaiof (indiljdual - mate lel : ca.nc .a al'm.nt (materi) dc peqte o.t aliment { :.iarne : ptine . . : piine pr'ljiin { a.ars : categorii de can. {niateri.) ss. a /nn-w tetl e {.onc.ct. indirid{al) : rreFtilconcFl, .ol'rliv) /;rn !1. /isi4 : spacii d-" Iftli lindiaiduall pl. ,re&l s: {Ielud Ct l,iirc) ss. d t asr - un toist (la un bi!! {abstract indiriiltral) pl- lrsrs : toasrurl sn. 4 cians. - o s.himba.e labsl.a.l, irdividDal) sare h cl i mi c tt sa. a rol :o n,edicin[ l.onoel] n!. rolk : Epsom saltss,snrelling sat ls. (individual) i l (mndiment) '- mtuunlii, bani nil.unli = sa.c naluau : gaze naturale (pPntru iluninat, saitit 5i lncelzil) (in SUA) : lenzind pentrtr "* (in chidie ii m.di' gi,i,!,:*., (Dasdconcrtl,indi{idu{t't) areind.i? : 6bi0ie de arcint: m;nede de arsini lcol.otir) pte.es ol siit./ = nore lc de (nrteri., nasn .onueta) pr. dsint ({zi S r lt) s8. a snod (elc.) l@": (matde,mrs, cotro..&l pl . (eonc|et.indi{idnal) qiftt {lo I : uana dc mr.1 , o n rre l ,1 .i n d i . tl . bl ane reni N (onl ..[i i r l r.: a fu. cap.( fb ioet, a fv stolectc. /rl ry: sp q rr, .i l i l rl i e]. de bl .i nurii oni r' ti or.t" : a /onrol lurs: Shatl 1 tdke n! f\tsl ; )r",ill .i:; is k t,n,,.t thp,, rn (- re'!.ia loarte ahesitos. dfv.nil'i }NNc

.fl0l.,"L sar rol)ula'rl . t l l" r ' r a- n ?i' r . . ' r ir ni r r " t D.-n "l . . lum . . F , p " r l r u ) n ,ll ,q .oltr . . r , r r J , . aniq: 1 t ^ f l 'l p r r i .ra h modi). ..fnr sat r.reciij J r 'r u l d . . " i a cu ,.r;1. icinrn,Ll dziiri in -\ng!i{. : 1t:*.111i'i"H:9) lb:i"$iii.l"1!.ii'fli:'"Xlii".*u,' -*""" ';,jil'iil

'B l \N l ai r, r|Dorlf.ar {ixtci .o.rPL:1j \ nr b1 t ^ t. 1 ,. o n t lLP. r ir . . ^ t s. .ft lLe ot - . trt\ln]l |J dif . n , , r i, , nt l !l i\ l d t . : r . . . . r s t i f l . : , a a '. o / .'nftt: . r. rc prt \ n ntt, tn E tor d \ i 1 r i F {m '\ 1 a a , l t , 'r . : jndiridLLai , e,,/i kof,.fl.; sln o ta$idi dc lrnal,l: tn I;o r rPmcrtrlr.r our JtpAs ,. lr,, ln.kf. mom al school? mtiiare /tix insJ!. rl ,ili niasit ibI ri flrig nrrli iCl," = Q(iXfr i ; ? , t r . r L i l n t r r i { i , a l e g o r i i ! : ;rr r!flin s.ump|l: ,dt,n : cosl.urul unLli joc\eu ( l n r i r ! i i P - p . a ln r r u l d l l l ' s r \ dLLlxi 1.. p!nirr cn.. alea.gr l ., ( 1 mitrs! (dasA couf,eLrl !! \.ezi 3i flann.l. li!r'r./ (S 146) pertru direrse nume d' rnaterialebtrcbuin iu (ariic'rl de) illlbrnrinlinte (,i ca sinbol n,i 1^t" I" pi;;;l "".'"*"t 'si "u-i i - ""li "f"iilliii'i1;**. . s a rr n u l L t" " . ' 9 t l to' r fot .i tn natl ' ttod ri " " r. "i' . i" i - p, " r , ' " " InrrnJ J-dl er" rrhudar/ n ;tt,, nut ni- ot l t - i n r' l e l F ^ n ' ti ..to o t-ti tl b r' r' u ri rg ' r]0 tu r' \' " l u ur' l F f crF l r s rorr' l rfa ul . pr nn -.ru i p d e ri | |ulu" li r: * \\h3l a/ d/( l !arr a c ,ta qF r at or j l, .,.d l e x n r:i d Ir p to d u s -l mor' rron ll0) ,rab. etc. ) have vou todayl" (Vezi 9i S -,tni-"i"r". '--* L r m at or r " lp a n i mc l " ru L l rp l r n u rn ' . d u bl prp rr' rrFbui ' r11' pdLpl ' ul n sau L o n r . \ lul ip r el" r l a c l ' ' i l d e l p rn p l a ' p d i n spF' i ' ' ri r rrr cror dnmpi r' ^ la carnea lor ca alimentl: nune de nateri c [\N ] nume de animal e [N] (origino fran(ezd) (odgine laxonI) de sint ,\cestpa asin'l. cu nunere materii $ 3 r ar P"nrrirob'"r'.tii g;n"r.l" - '" r'dca $ 158 162 $39 or. .oe (< Ochs,Kuh) iL/ ; , d lnu me tolPd i\r f olor jt in ' om er l, T.ntihnie ctc < ,s.tr '.tnr flcsl 1< r&,rn) tNNl n.ar lo.jgine nr c.td) I\\l .{dI

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: tAb " tro 1 ll os \" rrsrr l t . \ Lr \ ' 14 d n o \ 4 l ):to tt '' tnri ro' ^ n' .tu r' . h ts td !, 1 i t" r4 ttt1, rn n t" l ' ;t l Ltl o' aP fu. paP tt!t' o Dtl n t t . . t r . t r c Lol, ! e \rl tanattt' $s tan4' kna| t ti to i ;". . t v u' : . s " ; -n ' ,. o \. t)o ' | ' . h ' o | l h l ' a ' rui onnprc j ' . t a tttl tc t' s l ' n " n.rm' rrbi l " 'i r.. p , i" . , " or ' t , .' ' ;ttn ' l oi tr' r dp. inl u rH r.i .-.o n " l ru i F ' ,r,' i ' c u l a ru l. ,t,i tr' t " . ' " turt anti n nt . ti ri ' oroi " t ,rl ri n ra \i n !tu l P ' l g ) 1ot . i. i. in' Etr.ol0. r\sia.Engldd. Iloliand: Boslon'N'q'Tork; ['larc]i, Jtrne. e ic n sti i 6 si ' i r" umrrd J u " " rrl a ' r, L tri - t a rr " t, ) | d :' 'u " tr ' p i r,l -.t. rr rJ r" l l utal dl dr" r:rrbr rom;' ;.sp n u m o ro rs p , z u ri l p sp " ' ' . , a" ' ' " , " . i" i , r r . .i ' g u l o r i n l i mb . a n p l a ; ." " 4 ' / i l dFrt' ' Fa/; pe rrn rrndu ,l 're r r aJ ' r . 'r .;t or nea\.iznt. Pntiu a so da numai citel'a r'mple: inslltc - abuse a.Li 4 s fa tl ri alaceri - butrncs aplauze -- aPPtdure ' .'mran1| musaiiri ( o\' i. 01.b,ltl P s3 5 s3$ t - , , r , ": r ii iniormatii inloF,alii se*ctc .unoitint'" despfc stire friri ljeacuri. litust'r rrogrcle crmli(ri'"uri .hele no", ^- 1, - infotmd ti'nl - intaUilenu k:dge of -k'ot - Ptust"s bbih --sLalPitl ldughter, Iit. "" Pluralc cn irr c-templclede lrai jos, intilnitlr lrcrent in traduceri, slnt inad. rnisibilc: {b,s.s. adripi. ittl ,r,s'r, ir1,rii,{tion.. kno\rle{lg.s p.o3'ess'r. lLome\rork s.slollingJ, I} eic Nume de mase abstxlcte ucnumenbilc intr-ut contc]lt li ntr eralrilein altul S 3E tN \l nr."r,dily : nbsd.dil.rl! sg.tL Pl pl. pl. r" o l r' r.l ttl t to ti !tr .au i l i tmdti F a b .!rd dI 1,oi rcr. i ndi \l n' ,111 : d ,.aur1J o fruntr'scte (.oncrctl Rodrnian PeasantFotner olten arr : f/i'.J o comranie, o so.ictate com,rcialil (con..cL. 0ole.l.iv\ : on.nt e (cotelnill (concrei); : a miscrau! 2i..1 .l humdnnY o bialir eparl unian'i umani siice d.d fun;,t,ir : Etiinl,lc .ole, iisc lczi ! 10, l:1, 14 tNl .omld ,, : tu r dr , t ie . . r nl, ni. . 5 0rie tdtP {a |\t . dulli n, us ar r r L I hear r:ou h{d .ampan! yc.' l; !l : vezi S t 1t. r PentN subsiantrvele abst.aclc. irditidtalc

tli t NN ] Mdi, il,, lclrrilir'. lflf ionr.l lh(e lt M, bt.nd'rtst lI ntlb rl lttl iNl d {sctlr -r1rn 'rdio i.onofe1.indiridr.ll tlrrv i neF racro. (: rr) th. Tutn on (aff, io(n. HarP ,j.n sot the t'1ktt tlP.s ir r ' i. dL Ll{ r .,, . sl.rll L. r r /1 ". t uaF lat lie h' t " srr.(fd r / rt t -dp' i: l' . in J n' lli ' 'n ,\, tta .,ri r , r, J n' / , 9' N' f l . n|! l ,in rrn.'r = n 'rrn I lo, r r f l r r r pr c i' r I F labr ' 1z l11l t].t,i!ion li\it ? ' t ' I li: ! il r j isi .'h \tr., L;l ll l'ut t rn ktP"t ra, tt ('! ,'/ h ! 1- \ I n' t iniPht Jl,n ll l. L)itllal s.. ln' tenni.snuchot tPt'rEL'n aroorn-o catl e.i hon.rt. i ndi vnl ual l {; r.ieoisn,r fs.rlr : apdr.1 (1" TV i!on"ei, ili,'ll{'ll 1" ru' ,r" reresion,onisiir? ,r lel.luion o,i (oll. do$r, ull il,,r"ii*: " indiri I niilri(on'rPt, lpl ,arrl6- tnrli !39 ,CateBorii do iubstarttilc PI9!'l..n.,frl. alrslr'actE ' ,iole.t'!e nuN n. 'ndiridu.ne indiridrale .ol.cii!e I l\l t\\l : .-....1\\l

s .10 s 41 l, DpIi'li!io. 5 tII. {iB\UL SUBSTrt\TIYriLOR lG nJ rl ir' :r" r"' t," p":li'l l\TRODl-j(lliRE : "'",1 il\i','lii "1.""'"' l; :li;,ll::;'l;::ll.'.i'-ii,i j1";:i'Ll' aro patru gc.urr: grflmrtica englezd' Gramaticn eiglezit 2) {icnu le in niascutin, ferninin, romu!L qr rtelrtru ',u"'-'lc4i ,'' .':l:ji,l:i .i:i,i:,-:" ,'^::.:': ,.,,"i...:;'1"1,,:'';;, . ';;,i ,r'.1,n*;,i:.' "": i:. dprr,l r-l'. ' - tI t h lt d n :lr h to t r;l t';"lit i'l'"li:':r :iir,:l/. J",.";:: ij ,;'j;:,;il ';l;iJ;1,, I :, -; ll', ;i " j'11''"'';' ,;i.;j"i'i,,,;l ^",t:""*'i"l ""

a/ Substantiyelr de len masculin ( llasculir,r: Gnner) numelc fiinle de r.rla. lrfro Iandlord S 43 ,/ Substnntiv.le ilp !4 gi Ntrcss h. r o' n. fcminin (frni laDdhdr" in. GPNler nume"*ctiinte de ) Ia. $ J1 ,:1e ../ !.n (onun (Catnnon Gender au o singuri for n ) -<ubllnntirle trrrrlrtr n nbtlo serie: ..nsii triPd'! f l-rii. c l, ild puPr i t ! ac ! ! ef I upil $ 45 Srlrttdrti!.lc de:tn n tru ()tut$ '.1./ flinrp .'l ?t or . , I pc l" jo,r ' "\ book s!.'xg ninsu &ntlcr ) numescohiecLe oti r,r inl"rFj"a71l .s 46 "pF. ir r . ol lr de estcrdlulal. cu alie cuvinte $ 47 [oderniLsenul Eramatical lrr lirolr eneGzd p , ,r unFlP et r.trp.ru I. t.,rlir-" li: tlor1n!61-,.,trgorii l,;ulo-i, dupJ .p\ or .p1ii care. tccn.i prir {balrea lor de la regulii. atrag ateniia asupra prezelrt;i uni interprctnri sdrtilo. scmnificati!. in intenria vo.biton ui (ceea re elrcl.ri i r., r,., ur.ra\,. t. \,p. pru,FlFU :'at: 'le obi.,; ,iLitotului l" ls o r.clrl i obilnuitn np.,\i/J. '.,tr rl r un i'l"r', J .rn,pld .\"1,i" 0'""it;snl *'ill ",t*t se e{p,imnprin nijloacel,ri.dl saulranaticale. FJ\PRESI.{ GE\ULUI s4 8 A. tr\PRgSL\ LNIIC,ILA.{ GENULII ,\rcsl capitol Inprinzind titluri de politele, profesionale. ororilice. nobi ! 49 Ii'|- .,u di.tir.i|l a,"rdrt" p"r',,r rFrir. .t.'p;i ,11c. in 'en.r. supu'P unor u/.r,le i r-!Lli J. "rlolr3li- lrnro ol.rp.p -.rfl'..rlrlur,r d \or rplFrl rru cdluril. r'"nrioi,e . i,i i trP:i ur ii '' r;i lurr:i Pdirori.onla { .l U" '" .implili'At. 0minli'e 7r roela indi'51rrle .l'i"r . ;-".' r-'p,. cl ii - "'l ',u ii i. .. rc"o,i,r".l" . r'inilor:a l. "'n""r",Ji ' ' l" 'pli - -rn l" o b" "rtc side . ln co trast cu limba romnnd. u de cele nla i 1l llasoulill si fomirlin. multe'subsl,antn'; au lonne diferite pcnlru a marcn

dcosebifea de gen. tn limba rElezd majoriiatea substantivelor au o singuli formi atit pentrr.r g"n rl r'..i"ulir'. . il :i ppnltu ,.1 h-init ? u rpndinls,jlr^'o I i!Fl'r" in ld\odI'un r i"a t"rrn.l"r d" me. ulin, prphrulF."lor le ,inine Tol uir. rr ' zul Lrnui reiat;\' ;c de substan|ivi, Iemininul se dcosebe;tde nasculin p n: a, uo sulil adiugat la lorma de nasculin ru sau liri altl modilicare l) in trebunrlarea a doui cuvinte diferite; .t .onlnon"i"o cu un cuvint care indicn se rul; d, aite'nodali$fi de a se indica genul (gramaticale,prir contert etc)' L Prin ,,hnba erglezi nrodcmiL" inlcltge linla enlrlzade la anul 1500pitri azr' s e : genrlui .onnm. -\pa.iiD dcLi

$ 50 $ 61 &) Ge aL marc&tPrin s lirc: .Safirul -ess: mascuLin fcni'nin atb., a.lol adlenl!r.. imt' d sa '1.. i' rlhor t)aro' bpnpi{rt.r r,nd!.tn r t,oml, d. rt r .luke t ml t?r Pn.har tf,r Iound.. siart god leir lannd er./ lion nrLlagt. J nrarquB , masculin msl4r m,'trn' millionaif. ncgr ldtron ! o. t ldcst prince prior Droolet irciriet "" i'.oi""tsheptreFl sonAster steNard femtnt'n - misi.ess - malotes litroin's - lorrPis.-lrtewAs - Prtn@ss -- Proptrcrdss -lrop riekess* -Protrcclr6's' shelhdills son8stess albas arl\ent r r r Ar Jmb 6s ar t $' L rut nor es r - , laronas b 'rieiat Ps s - , d oc l( o) r Ar " duchas rmlr'?er - gtallesr -g oo u4s rrr - l*"':' lioD"s nunagerdss m"r.hioness -sllward.ss ticresr .i.-"r waiier ivar(lfr - tFeount"-; - rart.css -sddrtrs li.tiii:'*-,[]"l,lll;iHm:. -undergriiod4,e,' - Nlarin(r srltan Jo,' - dond It l hrr sfdi ol F.: dornn, l a rnrnal srgroru sir no/ rliuui itrlicne) ncro P anl -P aul l ue undergrndue/. (glur!rJl Doui substantrve au mascun ul fofmal' de ]a fcminin: fhi.le) sroo bride widowa $'doir S 52 b) Gennl in(licdr prin cuei e diferite: lasculirr 1 dai,r l sn,ql e rl j l l * ,a ,," l:liii:i.lii' 'iardloa.' 'e"ilu'jc'e i":;iil[;:: #,1:.,l]'t..::l;' liTi:i ll'irli :1, !9 c 4 n qlc z at lc l r J a S ,ro l a s u b s o l' ' l ) 1 o rn ' a d !

'"'j'i.r,l',:;:l',J,ll"H'J:'!r!lr f?,tiltjt-::,:l",l,,1li,t ijjllllll...,ii;',jl f;l.jJ",i,lillilli ..rt|.,nr,.,rr,/,ro.r.. .;'i'i'l:j1,,,1"1";:i::::"i; r'.j;':"r'-",' L" " t 1",'t,, rnP ",.l;;':; arrL'!I . lorrn nLav a t r - d t , , , r o, / i4- J ni sa,,.a\,.a,in'1 :""::1"1xT'J i'li' ;.Ji,i;1111i;il'"'.ril"l"ii-" tns'mnara o'isi ne '"il"Li- ".rlut*ij"lotu'iroare* J,

x9 Iria.. I Iinga lad llrs \liss. lI$ 5, l\ladad{e) Lord + nune Proprn,3 Stu+ nune !.o!ril3 Lady + rume Poprn,s Dame + nume Proprnrs j",; ;l l;l' i:t.ll".l ;"i;,# ,,,.,,i';t"0,,,1*L J:9,T,,,i""'i"1 l l ?:, i;#. il iil' ". o'":::i,Yir:':":"*)T'3iX "' ;i;2";}:^-i,::' ,1.'Lii,;':;";:::. ",,,","u,qi#;o;;:"t; i:[1";i";)':; 0brd\ia" , Lur.d" 'd'J;i.iiil"'{i;is'l"l:r"). ,, .",is" n'u'j '',r. do l.ebuieuimd '"ln |o'd ;ad n' ' ' 1"J nnI m "! t oPt i' ' ^m i5un. nd. ' ' | l ] , r soLialA in l"|io ar1 a\o .bi| or U|' |' ' I n. onlr 4' ' ' U||m ba. om . na rrl':l'' s6 3 )i,",:ii";r;::,iii:,!rrt;:l;jr;i[:iri'Tl'u.{'i'"";r on;i::,' "in, ry L":r :1i,"nob pnr'"/rl. o,r, . ,-a n,n,,r rmh p ,n r,u ''iill"'i.i.,i"l "il"l;; :x,l;I'^x.: "iili'"g;"9::'1,"1".";i"': '1 li,'i"b"l,?;' Lli i[';ii3":j-I'?{iI;,il:l'iTiTi'i:':"""f;""i.ri"3,,,'i;;iii"';'llli " er". M,' . Choi^i, -" ; CriA-;i;t;,"," prorrrii. accstesubstaniivaLriniliale majlscule: Pdpd, Mnnmd' : i i: *t-[i"1{"',r: !ii" :'i;t::', ,)l;?;,':.i.'-1ii;,1?,i'ii "'r"r:' ";:'t ::f '; ",:,# ;n'; ';:i"j:1"'#,1'1,, lll:iF':i.f;:,?;" lij#i"Tl,l,1l;"i;" s6 - b:t rit;. i, r ".;r ,l?t,*[l'1"ili,:y:r ;,',*.,,; ;;,1,]"r ^:,i"il 4 i.""11 ,S bF ilU md'.inn ,'1p dp ldm 1|ip( naiobi' n' ||nn: |d! nr |' ' |' n' . indicet r e aDa rd.|n |im|ld|. ] ' 1lioda|i, ns J d.(nLn"pd. |J m ' |t s n n 9 . . j p ir O li\ i"' . So l i i l u l. t/dy Olr' rkr. ma i d -s 5;" Lo upt u", n' . iodr lr I edv dlivie !. L dlu $ rp or "liiJ r ' ld p r im e- e ( ' r 5 d u r r l n 'r F " 7n ;4i" , . \ ' . / i li Lo' d 1 1t jn urui raror,r "o u deordlc cu o .h.I to td, ' o[ t h' B' it t h Lr pi ) \ n r "t m a r l n 'r ] r a d ro14,ntoodla ' - ' ' , " ! :';") :;" ol'"i,i.l';"""",.,i ",i d.oori, " , p , r' r, / d , r' n s o , i, b n d n , n r +#',ij:it;ii;.ii", ]':.';*ik"'r" il;#dfli'["flflH,i r::i:"",'ri,.r

30 $56 Mdsculin Gen comun I illJ {5 6 .) G.nut m.,rc.lt pri.ntr)tn cdfint cdfe Lnd;cd se$ul FcmLnin rnd.groorr bo)'' ls a u n'anl run gifl siud.ni shopgirl iil;i;; ;: ",-';* :rr,x;1"i:,-ilr-"r r;;,. i,;{.1i, .,,,l'i'ii'l: ii''i#Ii['i'1'i'* iifri;i"",r iti ," i,';',":i, ,f i, 1i; " 0 i lin lr\it IrrLFrl.r' r i, i i ''l :; 1',: illt,:;;;;, 1, ,11;'1,,;1,', ,,:l- ":;: ,'l; lr l u ,n ,,ir

3! llasc lin Fcminin Gen comun rilisleornc/pl ) shopkce!$l ai rarl nsiro.rut. splce i.lrveller An i m a l e bull calf d.c buUdog ]re bi.d billy-goat Inll biich d.) Alte nodalttdli d,e ind.icarea genalui t(mtunr Odat5 cu emancipareafemeilor qi cu lncadrarea lor pe scari lot nrai largd ln diferitele sectoareale vietii con onioe ti socialerezeryatepiri relatir recent bdrbatilor. nxmeroasenume de profes ii. funclii sau demnitdli, precum ti mulie substaniile care 6ratd apartenenla ]a o orgflnizalie politicn, sociald, sportivE etc.. au inceput, sA fie folosiie !i la fminin. de cele mai multe o tntr o formi identicd cu aceeaa masculinului. ali ,eori cu anumite modiliciri. ca, de pilda, adeugareauDui sufi! sau a unui culint (fcmale, girl,ladE, naiLl. aoman) care se indice sexul: player, Aicountant. cle rk.d.octor, (bus .)drieer.engiteer.farmer. mechanic, sritet, authorl paet, lead. er, secretar!,teacher, M.P. (Llenber af Parlianent), prime Minister, captain. La jor, sergean\ comnunist, socialis!, acc. .hantian elc. sint denumiri adoptate fl tlt de bdrbati, cit !i de femei. ltuthores\ atialrh sau arialr?ss. cond)tctress, Ambassadrcss, d,octrest, ed;tress,inspectorcss, mayorcssjpoctess,girl studefi, girl tgp4t, Iadll cashier, laiLA san teoman doctar, Ladg report$, Lady tApist-se ffetarA, femaLeeditor, female san watnan naaeList,eaman artist. aoman aeiator, w om&n cLerk, eoman councillar. wonan ruslonler, waman jodrnalisl, eaman Membcr of Parliament, aoman eriter etc. slnt substantive de genul femjnin, dar rar intrbui nlate ln engleza actualis5 7 s5 8 s 61)

,2 Pentru desemnareagenutui len1irii Ia numele dc profsii etc., subsian_ ca din t ivele de gen feminin com-pus doud cuvinte scriseseparat.. ln-paragrafrrl preceden t, fdrd cratine, sint inlocuite in mod cureni prin substantivele de ren ma"tulin corFsDUnrbrosra mri preris spus d" gen .omun taF rdiugar"r cuvint,rlui.Jrc in.l i"a epnul hmirin ,^c*la est" adiugsl, num&i aiunci cind nu se inlelega din conte \t .; esie vorba dspre o lemere: Gemrl teminin indicat prin pronume: ir P | : . , - , i _ll. ' \ eJ n , ir..S n r Ctnit gennl feninh a D :.t, ' 1 " r -. t r--i \' . 1 ..' -i 1 ,. m\ d' { \ \" .i bl uP )5 60 reies.. din c.)ntext. cneintul carc indicd genul este dactar'a gil tllpist, elc TlcY wrnted to halo a @oDaD \ t tt s ;' l [' i P4 J r" \ rJ n j ' " I n A nE lja ex i s ti o b i c e i u l c a p ri rn a s c .i sorre tri rni sa de o f" mei c une unosn u . ." a i b n m ;n l i o n 0 j n prrsnl eze. dupi sFmndtu16. I'r'n . , r p n- bi 5 61 rurss sau llrr"s,spre e\ernplL: ,.7.G. Patker (Miss)' Ilditar", o practicx foart e utila Dcntru FIiiara- -r^;ilnr u cdrp.rrpa 1..punsului,rn "pe iel rn rozurile 1n "siF 1'n1r.i', re ind,'"rd prinrF,,' .ub.l;nrir J^ "n .run "' d''ol. cd.itu, la$!.r, Iibrarian elc. csrc iBalici nalionalitotea sRu provcnienla regio2) Gcnul substantiYelor nali. - Substantivele compuse cu termina,tia - man! lorlneazii f emininul prin adnugareacuvintului wrman sau girl.' lll ascnlin an Dngiish''a'/4 isatr snt.) a D u i c h (,ord' (satr s,rl ./ Toate clelalte substantive care indici nalionalitatoa sau provenienta regionald a unei persoaneau o singur{ forme penhr ambele genufi ,siapa4in aladar gcuurur co mun: lias)0 Eriton Dritisher Bulgar cantahigians Uneori. pntru a se e)tprima in rnod special genul feminin. dacl aceste nu reiesed rn contert, se adaugi tromdn sa\rgil 18.adjectivul corespunziiior: r P o m i a r l /rronr" san gtrl r .l i p a i e s e /@ ,r,i san gtfl l I a Spani sh faDmaD sau 1 a T d rk i s h fs,ona, sau sif, st.l , I G.P.: Cctoat Ptactiti.ner I ntrdni care p.aotioil medicina geteralil. sin t ac r lpat i c d ld S i0b 'n\L fpliil, I Esn, ar t ! J lm ent e t u\ r nt ' r lr i I i, r i lFlp a D,",oDtazrat din Der.nsnife. : r r r , r b; ": o i1 t..|in\,. "f a a@tr;e;o n - dp la Lan, l, r , t gr 6 Or.nio r -. d " t j n\ h", 1 od, r "4. r . 11 t. , L J I

B:I 3) Ccnul comu . - liriemple de substantivc de gen cornun: , 'l'rll etistr, artistel rilerk .odrnunGi. .odsh , ook (Iclist orphan pcsidcni eDemy gucst pupil lcotuler render .clalivc mol.orisl ( Vez i f i $ a: - 19. 6ll lrnjrr socialisl, slcakr. traleller lypisl: ris'lo. S 62 Notd Unele subslaDlive de gen masoulin sau feminin pot fi intrebuirlate ea sJL.l anlived" gcn,nrnun da"5 din .onLe\r .p In'"lFgF,l1r.r ". p rorbr dp h-,ini'r. Di n r"ar. i un -ubqtrntr\ .1"gen, nn,unSi nu dc unul '.lo ulin -r,r catrgoh fac par te: pis lor duck goose, etc, B. XXITiXSIA GRAIIATIC-ILi A GXNTIUI l) E{presia grarnaticali a genului consti d in: p' ,./ to.i brli.sl-d ir'l^ ,ri'ii .ubstantivulLi1'rirr onurr"l l.-,nr'dl co r"..i drldr. rrds ulrr .du lFt]rnir: l, r' -1.r. lr nFr.osrs " :: d TIrc do.rof Las come. but s/,e is ht.. is out : , . iii u, hour r so . ]Iy.o , it / ss3 s$4 ,) acoldul substantirului cu adjectivul posesiv respectiv sau posibili tnlocuiri i lui prin pronumele possiv corcspuiziior. la le|Soara a :l a t.ti :irqular. masc ulin sau feminin: u'$ :r'onr.rtld w.dins ,ts red tie? 'Uie s/;rel had done l./ iesL lo. thc w.ll Enzetle. 'fh. @.&cr took hoDN lhc pap .N l,hat $c.D niJ. (li!. r.rd.tuf l,hes. notes: Uify re l4-s. The.d, is caling o ui or that boirl n-"canseit is rts own. !6; c.) acordul cu pronumelerellexiv sau cu pronumelc dc irtiirirc respectiv, h pers oiinaa 3 a sirgular, masculin sau femrmn: vpr, u .ou, l , , h: n+ lf | , l i: | - r . I r J is ,d b y . h , o . ' ' : . r' a.;.0 hq' . . ". b . . , jor ing n, ; 4/ nn "p$as '; so..o lan pmb a Thf led,f. / 1: l$ionai d. lolrall ntns.Jf and .nplaincd the collesc tcam. I was lokl the l aael had d.signcd l,Lc.osl,rmcs narll. s66 2) Crtzuri specitLlc infort $i .7/ird,,;nJ r'-.J Jrn un,.i rn."1rx:r.i ,/ :uh. d nri\Fle baL,J. .. t.rl n r.-J sr-L dF obi.Fi n-u r". mi al-s ir li'rbr \orbil..: t t' , .h brb! .romis i i5 ,rJ:r3. ts Calltlul, clitd and sive it'or: hrnch. "lhis liflte c,t4, lad tited ni Dr arms a gaod Irfft ol trs sdrall lilc; oltcn I could sel i, io lausli Nlien ttu rnothoi couldn't. "x{v mother dandlcd ae and s ms, 'll;w roung i, is, how young'."' s6 7 r dttisl a:\ artiste slnt sulstantive de gn comnn, dcci antlele lnlrcbuinlnte {ti l . , " . , mei,"r,,: p.D ru iJ r b. f : o{ ; . ' I o: t J p. I . r gd In l . . t . . u r 9.. r.t dF..ffrrsf., ' r. ,-, di.,.,o1 ldlFrlal', , . r "m r ahDldl- s , "r , u gusl u l i . . l , '. , , " r , " p a r , . t : i . d- . h[ o: l' I o. ,,,pi lo rira. u np ori..r Llp' oi. . . ". ulpo"ir J .",. ' I . i , ,,,i .r tr.I _. ..d n rpald' . . . d , n" . 1 , ". ' F o"i" a l ', 4 r r o ' lor *, unlsr uLr e dr r.!rcz4 t djii o, t , , bl, ". rll T\rain. ,1 caiLe.ticut Iont.c ,t tintg L flhut's L.ttt. I \\:.ts. r*cats. Th. Pldy.r Qtt.:.t. j - Granatis limul engreze

34 ir insn r.este subsl.antil sirt considcrate e mascutine tcmnrine. sau In funclic de serul copiilor r.spectivi: ^dseori I gar c hly h .r n j l l l : ..n . \6 i rn g rv . '1hat d'ild lL{sr'L ral.n /.ts loridgci fu Nill he &,oldrd aglin. s 68 $69 D_/PronurnLtr: ne;; s/rc indicii in general diferenla de Fex. Une.rri inlo(uieso tns d nc ulr ul, r a i n c a z u l p ro n u m e l o r n e h o tdri l e: Il ]on aslt a,rrdy iD lhrt sti! t. ne Njll shoiy Iou $h.rc st,etiv.s. rftt. S 114d1 . J S , 11, . , r ti \p l p .r' . a ri m u l c ti n, tu.r, p-.rri . pnc i ci i n.p. rr) ' 1 , -rn p -. ri nl ' - r p . l, s p n p rr" r.a /r' ..l ,r,r,t' rn ' i , r;.n..1i \:' .r-.un,ff' r' : ' ,Js" \ul Thc rrll hid liurl t/s lis. ;\.,//' Nas scnrlnrqout ts r.nrnrthatri coclia doodle,doo. Se atrihuic inBir adeseori aresto r subsi,antivo gcnul mascutin, indiferent \\ .. .t -t n t /." a J t,fl r' ,r,r. t," ous t. | ,.. h L Ud ".:u ,t,,... on,.ri \..Lr ..1' Th. r.ii.l. d rhr storl N as "The Cat lhar I'alks br ]tnn!.tf'.|lool I i i t, \ \ i , . , e l 1 i , , i , l i i r ,,""in , \ nior iiele. i n s p F c i a l{ i c h d o m e s e ti pri l ] t)roD ul nc d e g. nl c , ) r esp u n n a i a l cs atul r.i ci nd ti sc n,er;ri t,D rnzd \,i c o n .q i d c rrn tcd e ordi n ai ecti r: Th. l trail. ' ilf . ! \ ir . l o o l i h g a i a i c 'l l r: , , ., tj c e .s z n to rs n u niele ,.d. lrld r i n l l i nt i nsI desemrar o ru l u j l o r. r s au c ind i n l ff /r. cnlJs la,l leit ,./ c h i dons.

t . l \" . I l, ir nii s c ri i n rI d .! l o r !o n i f l i d i $ l rr i s l i e Ii ,l i i g? ,c .l rrrl . i.' r, In F" ^:.ra.r ' ,n, S . . r if " , r , t s s t x rJ , u rrl i l r,u ;: l a lL 'r, r at l, . . . " l) o ro n tL i n k n /..1 s ," C|i1d. " \ \ . 1 1 . I l i i p i o l l ,i D k r. n o ,i ..s " -,r ',r. u:1. r' ,l . rr Cind ur arinlal ire pl'rsorilicat. pronumclc corcsprnu itor vr li i. sau sia. dup S ser. in cazul pirsonificdliloi tn ca"t, nu irtereseazn r:onsirleratiite d e s ex . s ubs t a n ri v e l c c a i e d e s e m n e a z n a n;nal e narj sau puter ni ce /rri dr. .]|?hant. Lion, nnk.g. tigcr, do!, donket|, horse. pig etc.), [i citova in af;r, de a|csLea (cdnortl, flu etc.), sint de obicei rnasculine, pe ci nd ce.lecare desennc{zii animale ])iici sau slabe (rlrari.sr. rut, hdre. 'N]:'.] e pisii . tarr"rl erc., ins.cte 1c,.) sint, feminine. Fa terja hotirnlte lnsii in najoritatea cazuiilor: T lic dr nli. " , o N trl l i rfd to l i r n a s te r o l th. trfal cnt rrc had recei * d. T lif , n r r e l i rrg l d l i l a .l n r s l a mc . ''Ilrt the ,{rr.D sii,Linslonelr otr l|ai rlacid busl,sooke orlr Tli.l o,,e wonl, as il l,ts soul n, ih{t ore s.rd /E did ouipdur.,'? s7 0 $?1 m' d nhi. nlr il / ,,h i :, p 1 r' ,r/a { n u l na:" 4n " a,r /,r?;,;, di n l i -bi cn c lr / a \ p, hp , ,tu n " : , rrr.l rrn l i u n i l - rF s p p .ti \p .r

nt tor.ori l i " d Sint. in genere, masculire substantivele care denumesc: ?ariu nile intense : ,:i acliunile oiolenLc anger ,r ul, l c a r. te rro r,1 o \.. ,l i ro rl . d e s l ai r;.rj mc, rnddc., $ar. ct.: 'll. Iii|li.g. Jr."r v .l;or;,.i. z l.:.\. I'or. t he l|at.h. perso li(iri. - In stilul poetic sau retorio,un numir mare de /l -q.lto substant ive nrrrnede objecieDeanimate de abstraclii.considerate -sall in

denente (ale naturii)j fenancnele naturalc .\i a.spectele aLin naturii imPrestni lnte, pnturnlcc eLc.: storo, thund.r. wirdr snn, mounlain. ocenn, river. sfreimi summer, anhrmnj *n,tcr, iime. drl, sleet, ileaUr.tl,c grave (- moa.l.cal,etc.: tr !,11111 3i: d{nger, las'. etc. !73 ru,r.le dc flnlii, rirri: i i.te de mrnti : ]ltn lr,c Danubc,thc Thanrcs, Iihirc, cl, the Neris, the Cheviots, Scai!]l, Skiddas,, cl..; s 7r $7 Sint fcmininc substantirele care sugereazi o &raLtnittit:ai frmini. d s^n ,,r rn racter m|n. bLind,dr ce, a/er,arsr prcrum ti cclc care .ntlicn fertiLitate.L: il li'ite sentitnente insusiri: ei ', io". r'\o .on. I r' I |o l, n, ,nl |, . .1,.' Lrt| Lum'l.tr o.l" . . mp t.u,.u h .Jrh . up. , ju5r h. . r . . . . . "i . t . ; , . i , ", ,, .t,,, "... s7 5 s? 6 r.:(1e triLedluridc cdructer \atire $. consecinlele lor: urlition, ir.rice, enrX .lolly. j'ialous"1', ranilr, !ice, el..i lfidc, r\.0ngc. Lr.ason. Atftft obiecte L, d.in fenome elefi aspectel.e naturil.: ' ' "| | ' ' noo n'n '|dI''5 "'.\\o ||d: ' ' |. . p|: ' g' s7 8 n....5i v. p' a-.. f."1r\. rit.r:r nume de abstraclii: I b, { ' J . " , . \ er. r\. eto rn ry. er |p"i"r ' . r ^m 4. . nr ' u- . p,n" p,.i y, lrulh . vi, o". \ . . n . "ir n. , . s7 9 nunlc comune4i proprli terinrial-ad.ministratioe (numelede tnri. provincii. tiiu turi. localiti,ti etc.); .otrDtry. 1and. fathe and. nor.herland.etc. llre SocialjstRepublic ol Rotnania, G.eaLtsrildn. the Soviet Lrnion, !'raice, 4to. Scotlind. Delon, Lanci6hire, cte. Rooliarest,London, Mosoow,etc. s 8{) O situatieaDarte uu numclcilc tiri: o geografic, d'-l p ;ite iin punct de vedere ' sinl ace"qtca de gen n.xiru: Crer r'iratn is an island. capital London. 1!61,i, liad51,40t.023 th is lD inhab itants. poliiici, d'l privitc din punctul de vedere al wielii care le animn ermo nic{, literari, muzicali etc. mai ales inpliclnd Ei lcgrituri rfective, nunele d e.tnri sint adesea l'e,,tntz: 71" . S a:.li t n "p tbl( al F nnn: n hd ' r ' d"\ / d, . ar,{.- n -5 ;o t o ,lv m oult n: n. : s L?. l,iJ' . r b\ 11.-,. { : , Ione $as ihn in the days ot ler 8

lory. oppl /,.Indp. $8r d'"_./ limbaj spo.tir', eohipelecare iau parte lfl o competirie internalioin nal i poarti numele ldrii pe care o reprezinti, nume care, tn gramatici. este consid erai ca substantiv peffonal colectiv, acordal c\\ thelj, their |i eho: nopon:o \n 'l /n,i" lrJ J l $innins lr p D, d: , Cr p. t ; ] at Btitr.^ ,' .rorp lo $inning hd 4\ \ or ld ChJ n p i o r :p . d"") numele tlrii este dat, ti sul'eranului ei, in special in literatura mai \ f fl)e (vezi Shakespea.e, picseleisto ce, 'King Lear", etc.), precum ;i nurnele de regiuni legate de titlurile nobiliare puri,ale de personajelerespectiv: .t n o, -t . o\.rr-., A '. a . ".sl, - e- el" ll, nr ' ". , 1 . - r "t.o"\toll, , .r .t tttonJ e .. t-iI.. 1." l'.t1,.,. t -'.". i. , . . 11. 1, L, r al llt r J n , , ' . \ n.t' . l.r' sOnslc"irt"Iilnsl-c{f". dar . a' s r { f Dilif , , lLLi ii\ or ilit ir o|j s . j n i r .

86M N, r m ^1. ilF /r;/,r" r,/,,/; .i n l to l tp m i n i n p: Cambittge ULi'ers itlJ, Ox[ad] (jLire.sitlt, late UaieqsitlJ, .t s83 $ 8r Numele dr.l.lrJ" qi ale tti;rlelor art, thiloso|hY. scicn.c, el0. etc. Denurnirile de pare a Ii lnzesirat noloare, st1niui, rrolrlont. toI ce I o ' o , n o L i v c ,! f f Neutre pentm majoritatea vorbitorilor, denumirile acestor obiecte sint ad.spahrn ininF. spF, pcrtrJ p.rsosnclc.ar.l. manipulaz; sint ata-are tn isl :i I a \p r. "o r o o. m v . . ' dn | | r 1k , . / . , our " ! " r v d J v . qn, t t a r j a , i n t h " n s l " s o D l ] d . \{J p.";" .,a t hp t t ot b. "h?, ot t , " \1r.r i- h r I nalr ir $i . o. r , o/ o,ah"a t l. r : s r - s o . . s r o n r ? I s"j.d lh g, , . : . n. ia. n ou. . \ ' ^ nnJ p l . srl nd;d{i l. I r \l'ijn nrnnpls e". Bi4. dtuk". a-d !a 'i.1 Ssr: Distinctia intre obiectclemasculineii celefeminine. a5acum a fo:t erpusi _ lr a. acl pLnir. nI ,51. LAdpir,rtr..pp'lat6 ,Jp Loli auror;irtip..rp dintr. ri l.\in. t Inu libcr ;msginrlrel. ln rezumst, tot ce at'esau pare a avea o personalitate{io un alinal. o plJnl ."u .hi.r u l,i.ru ,dr" dpcimnatprln pronumel.ppf"^r"l n .., utin ' ..,r hr.;',in, dupr crz. Dir pu rir ,, fiinl4" lip.itn de nersonaLtai e c"oiii m i' i. arrimalcle ,tiarp"r."in"t"rr,a,ur.. si-r dpspmnare prin pr,num" l. 1i personalneutnl it. cu iormele corcspunzitoarc ir fi ;rsef, sar disprcluii, orltuit. o . _pJSul'btali\olo oolp.lire. .drp dcsFmnpd?d plur0litaltd" .obi," o. pri\rlF.a Jn rol si .urp ..,or',truip...u Jot tla gpnul n-Ltru: "ij.;ularLl3. 'lhe .feQ nds obeyed nr olliceN. The fdnil!/ is praud ol tr membeF. The arltr. w hich rns trlt ot ts usurl e,rthusiasm, .rlrsscd ii unrcsorcdly(Pe^tn lturnl yezi S tt!) IY. NU.}IANL'L SUBSIAI-TIWL OR CONSIDERATIIGENERALE Substantivclc pot, avea doui numere:singularqi plural. 1) LInsnbstaniivest la sirgnlal ( Singula;N n ;be; ar unci cind deseme ) bool w:rlcli )abl leaf neaza un "qrngur oDreci: _", tJru,'i pt tat ( Plarat Nunbet atunci desenneazd cind ) TJ,::?l'r "stera loots Falcles babies l.ares Nu au plural decltsubstantircIe numeiabile. 1a etu r,lon ? aipl n" 2(1 . tin o, tBt n. )L, lt C; on, nt . t An ) . ,\3. En"t \ '), New-York. 19ri1. r($ -orld Jo u liLc to ; auJ , U, / . , , r . I ; r ' ) , t'eing o\rnrd bj dr. FancJ se.jng i/ pvfl 3 \'e 7i !' 11 2a.

NUMANUL SUBST^NTI\TELOR 87 ln )imba cnglezd,in mult mai mare misuri decit in limba rolnini. nu erisi:1intot deauna un acord intre lorina substantilului si numdrul tui: cuvi te cr: iormn de singular pot avea inleles dc plufnl invers, cuvirte cu lorme de plural pot avea intelos dc singular. S 89 PI,URALUL SUBSTANTIV]'I,OR 1) Ileguli gcncra)i. - Pluralul substantivclor sc for meaznaddugindu se .l"J dupi con.oanala surdpr.i [z] dupi .Flc la ring,rl ar.\.cs r \ sp Irron,,nl -s sau rlupAvocalele cre sc i,r{l: Eonorpr ch e q ue .|.q ucs S 90 $ 9l tsl tsl Is tsl bead chrir rir.jle nccl --heads -.hairs .iril|s hecls lzl lzl lzl l,l cinola cn'enm tarcc -payees lzl l21 tL1 tri S 9S 2) Substantivetelcrminate in c mut preoedat de litcrclc c' (d)9, s sau z' pro,,u nlar.rFspari\ l.r. l r.. ldrl. ., vu fzl ptim,. "'H tlural l.,minrlid -.s llltr lrlonrLnlofu lrzl: 8das. - garagcs rillagc jnds - o -village.s - juds . r terni atil la singutar in lii.crete -s' -x' -z' -sh: -ch LtJl $ 93 3) Substanl,i vele primesc ternjnalja -rs la plural: bn*r claser -- Io\.r - lillLzes lez.zta \nizz.s fliintr iish I'cach mrtoh s.nd\i .| pincc{cz -.hinl,z.s lrshc bea(,hA .. Datch,s -saDdNichesa pi!.c+26 A se observa pluralele plasses(sg. plus) Fi rareori,llJscs Gg. bus) (i'eDit din SU,\). Obscre&t,ie Substantive.letumiDate in -ch pronunlat [k] sau hl6 urmeazn r egu)a generah erpusi la inccpuLul acestui caprtol: , ',',,r' 'r- ri..t' r/ah. tk l [].1 ',nufl'i t-t.l i ' n i h l.Ll p a r r idn , L h l ." ,i d r.l ' . ' k . r aDoch - t'd t-tl -cloflis L-ksl loc\? " on l xl -lochs l'.sl 4) Substantii'ele t erminatc in -y lrecedat de co'rsoani lomeazn pluralul !n -ics3 astiel: s9 4 s9 6

Ad i . r , p) 6. n l. ' . U , l h l , L l . t . L l i i 0 . . J,i ,, ' , i, , 1 s nnir . h b l tJ L E .L I-. In l .J n .' u l . a .r\-.i [,]' . i Su b sldn' : v ' ll l@ds " h ru s l -l e u ! sprfi ' l i I' pl " ' r. t i h d u /.4 d " o I ' r^nrnl i cT ! l i ".r'., / r . " nl \ i i t.ar' \r' Il pr on ,n ra l .d :i o r' rn^ri r' " a rs td .t. l " ro rd n ' . 1 ,,' .1 ul r . n" l " ' . " o' rl I u1 . l ' l i n '-i mb ,' l' il lt r i ? Dronuntat flr-\'. 3 i crminilia: i. . - f ons le d i n s tu i l (s e mn Lp l d ra l u l tri ), L l ror.ni l di n i r.nsf.rf,a .ca v ocd 0 i Ii .i l e : ? s i ' e I t oc rl { { l c l .g i i l !rl 1 l .

B8 !... | !; i: rrrm^1.r'n.trir :i t.,rril.,1" rorl'ira .ub.rrnrirarc. in mod .L cu rnrur r\ce ronrr: ou. l,$o L .1s rll il,r llcnf-{s thc l,vlvs llif Tlr.fs slitrid D\-s $hr-s 96 (ln irsn -)' e,{teprourlat de 1.ocalii.l.r t,lural se adaugi nunai un -s pl|,oun !it lzl: iroy r)o]s (liv d{Jrkft lic.lJ 117 Substa l.ir(le teurin.ric ir -qu} nu (msliluie o e\.eptie. dar tiind cX .'r'rul rrt F/.r'r J ,'l , a ".re o:,',,; ro.rl; ' fri 1ir,r. / "r t,r,,,l. n' iI Pr P: cu l\\ l, o e.r ,.Ir ' r r . ' t '.r colloqtrI - - ( olloqui/:!ol lrtrr pt I . llit i: - solLloqfiis r)1,r1i...1 si substa ri\': -{ !e oLrscry.r fornrrlr rlf lhr.nl rll] rrrtrr:LtLirutui is ! r lk , li s ir n lrl 5) lI i(,ritatre slbslfrti\clor t.nrir.rte jn singularirr "f sau -f0 primesc .t ]a t)lural: . lr ' linr . ll. n lr i , l it r ic r r r LLlf glr ll iLr Q f l , : l i, a! lr indk f r lr il f s g. . i\ nnr it r gr lls dnr r t itfu.i ijtfl srn, Ii ! sirilc - Irroofs ililr, silcs ijl,,s *s t r i i e s 99 tlnclo substalrl.ivcld.ninatc in -t sau -Ie formorrar nir.i pluralui in -/es Prc nuntat lrzl: i, . . I lPaL s lr eNt Lh' f i loaf . r LI lru bf ( ?s 3 len'.r s r r er r is lh igr s - lo{ r . r - - r ! l. r - lulr'.s clt sr,[ slltl lroli krile tilt, wil, . L,ps s!tr?.s .hcl,.s \ol.cs kni|cr tn.er \rir"s 100 un eazspecial: srill,iilr, nat,,ri n,,,artn). .ri/i/-t'tr. (: pt. Citevasuhstant ire anrbele au folmt de pluial: s.rrrf slafl s.rd.ls. srinr(.:: si{flJ. star.rr llDf N'll{l - Ioris lioorPi; $li itrls. lthures. l0l 6) r, Substnnt.ircl. termirato in -o preccdairle consonnjt iornreaziDluralrl in fs cind sint cuvint obisnuites:r, inrroduse mai nutrn vremi tr de Iimba englezi: r go _ r (,ho.r lr.sl olr lrcroA inos qr ilo/ j rdio lres, o lr.ro m os qI ilo n fgro l{l.llf o loriilo lornado iofll d0 rfto negro.s polalo..s t o m a l {r c r - t o r n {i l o ? r L.fpedos - rrlo.r t "on n r , , jp. + . . . Ft i\ |. r r t lr . t , , , ,, 2 "1.,.. i.,r \ t / . . / . , r . 'r r , ii lu, , / . , . , . . / , . ., I: n uma i. ci!{t niseadr ii, . v it r ir f ir t r r ibii. r , , s n a , . i r l .''l . \ n^r ' ' . ,, r ve zi

l. 14; 5 U,rrli,l / . r . , ?J . s lr . r , i . L rl!,a.. r s t r nnj t r , Ff i, ' r f lr f it , , r dr A ( dii.Iil.'r calii,',tide rarne de racl)

oa 89 S 102 ,J Cind nrsn.o final este precrdflt de vocali, plura)ul ste rcgulat (adicn trminat in -s): porioiolro .nbrro iolio nnnoio Iamboo cx(ntoo edbrJos lolios lunoios -} amboo.. - 0L,clioos lorlololios radio -rrdios secnario - s.en.rios shtdio sl,rdios Hindoo Hindoos Lang&oo ltanga roor g 103 c, Dintre substantivele terminate in -o provnile relaliv recent din limbile sirni ne (tn special din linba italiann). unlc capii,i -s la plural dacd stnt mai pulin frecvente sau daci au o sonoriLal,c prea sirdin6: albino cnsino .h.ono dJnanio rugnfto allinos -.asinor .hrodos dXrrno.s - magnetos photo prrno q ra rl o lhoio s p'{nos -rN nrtos d) ,\ll.e substantil.e strnine iefminfltc in -r) au ambele forme de plural, fapi car dovedeDte sjnt pe ealc (lo a li asjmilate limba eurenti: e; de b.njo iJra\d: .alico (ontralto orino3 i. a . n;o 1. . . " o ,,h" ' o grolro halo banjoer -barjor, }|a\or, hraroes .alioos. 0llico.s - r orl.ralLo.(, *n|ralLt do !,nh8 -dminos. I nin eo lr , . r ' s o. " - fr"., o " Ir ". o, _ jh.||,,.. t "|l o. . gtullo.r -grottds. lralo.s -halor, l.s$ Danilcno daronto nrollo torli.d ! r o\ i. o olo . , , t r LU stiletto lola.ro -l.sso.", lrssoes manireslos, minires lo,s ncmcnhs. mencnlocs - xiottos. nroLtods torti0os, portico.s t ! . \ " 'r . t r o v r 'o , s .op"dt - . . opr . , n o . - stjlcttos, stilcttoes lo!a(os, Lobi r(,oc.{ ! 104 ln timba contemporani. substantivelesirnire terminalc i -o la s;ngular tind s,, iib., li pl,r'.'l rmb.lp r"rmindrii. e) ,\brcl ialiilc terminate tn -o primesc l a plural sufixui s sau 's (vezi s 184). ! 105 S 106 7) Suhsiantivele terninate in -th primsc -.t la plural. Tcrminntia {}s se pronun, tn[0s]: de indusir.r: d, Ctnd esteprecedatd o rorale scurti sau de o consoanii, breruri, deatni, nout, sn,iLhr, births, he.rthi, hcnlths,siaurr, nroDtlrs ,, in cuvintele: lcaLhs, faii}s, !+owths, sloths c, In celelalte cazuri bath j',uil' Orlograliat li tyfo. ./on,m '/tus (trrsoaDi. I'aina l,ls se pronunld Idz]: tborol ai',.0I Iatl,s nouths ti{lhs Io u l .Is lbo,dzl t atrb4 fpo:ozl l j r:0zl l: nwtit,or. rovi(l

40 Unel. substantive au insd ambl pronunleri: lrrutl'.lrJ0sl . I tl -81 I Ilrrc:01 broll,s Ibrrdzl,tbrr:osl mdle.iale) I tkl.Ol olollN [kl.0t (: Ie]uride slola, I rlluil sau alLe 1 .,, [ lrlh L "d Jre dh " . ll . 1/ l bu il, J " J n i J pln/r s ru rl -, r,.0r lo :01 o ..oi ,f.:o i ] uLh, r LLlu' , i4 ( : ll' int s l s - dr ll' " [.u ldll ' s r lo: G , o, 0"oJ ' l' lf li: 0. 1, - . l, i mJtpridh) | 107 rn, 0.. r J/] [ir,.oj \tr J lF r'i:0-. "i:n/ \rPdrl' iri 0r Urmdtoarele subslant ive fornreaze pluralul 8) Plurdle rcregulirte. prin s"himbarea vo";lci t tlutotr cn PI.rrttk): lo,l -let 1, , 1, h - it h g,0se - gest morac: lozse - mnie -troe lJ/l lo:1/l l ', J t i . ') / l s r08 s 109 Trei subslantive primcso termrltdlin 'n: brothe.- btthr,n- {! 14s) child- childre , (Penl.rD cotrluse ctr acfsle iuvniic, !zi S 16! 1tt) substnrlivclc 9) I'lurals cu acecrfi lormi tn li sirguhrelo respettire: Unele substantive di limba ntglezi au aceeali lorma utiL la singular, cit ti la plural. Din aceasl.i Lategonc iac lartc: o, ' rl,\d d, un.rrr !1. drr,/r' \d l6l); l/ sub.lbnliv.l" o/r'l \ - 0'u :'r 1 ',i 1or"7 t"; i s c ''a s sLlp [ ,./ |a , I s:s,./ iLhs ld' I iv "r n l. t ,l . mJsurS. ca dr ur,pl, .ub.rarrir" '1'- J.nu,er. urilrii patthl.cton.,rrrr"o ri r:r,r',i/or.;-r,dr". I'plufal aldturi J" lorma fothon,taot, it ia -s. aL,si i "rm dn plurJl , nl,' it rJ'',.i., (u ",, pa u siagularului. spp,ial ' " tn limba i'orbitn, cilrd sint umatc de un nuneral ce ildice subdiviziunile sau de un adje ciiv: The wil.e. sas tci f.t, ls{n faat) ttitt\er' 'fhe n..p. rikc Nas LPti latlon(s) 'fh d.ptll ol l.Ie $atu wrs lour /nr','ns Itc is si ' Io, l t dll r \'''i I ' l l l l 'r / l\ Poaot ll'r ol t \ o t . , "d' .' p J v ldr - i ; r rr' DJ,u, "iJ \ h " lu inl ..l . : lr ' J F, , . t / ) ". n" , (rl l 'r o l \ ' l" l or ' . . ' J '.o ' / t li ' (\i,i i,i 5 l.lB9i oI l " r ': itt. unitatca de nisuri' Subsiantivul rl.Jn.s.cind desmlreazd sl,c weisl's !tr'?: s[o hasrrt on wcight. tcn Tric! b;rlghl l.*o r/dre oi ilour lot lhc .anteen. esle invadabil! n '" l " r l a 5lo' ioue \ 'F d f i ',/ ,, ld. , / " r\ca d o. : - i' r " s ir r c u ' 'r l , 'r i ' Srnsrltr lruoa. , "' , ' lo' . d L l' r 'r r " l , / r 'r ' r,m.' fo rtu.rl .",r;..j . ui"u' D r . t a n d i r i J 'r " " ' L l 'u ! l . r 'l u l iI t in , r' na, nd rar.p lrd'lL - 1. ' r . l t d.rn&usa. trl. dtnLkt n / I t o^t . . I lii 'P 'r.,lctaL r , a _rt,". i . i 'u \ rlul r, . . r , \ r , ; i" , nr . 1, . ' u, "n' r ' u p l r " ' l u i '. : 'o '', l r ''n L " l r ' I il ' r r ' ' a r '- o r ' Ptu."t.? "a a.l |.',,]la -1,,,,l.l "l, s r ; l r l 'l a r ' i '1 l"nii l l i d' r r ' : r ' unr ' ' L', 1' 'r' rt: L; l i l r 'r P . oJr' | - / 4.' 'tn L ' P r , lar oo, l'r

4l ?,, Substantivln foat, lrcrse, sail au la plural forma de singular cjnrt in seamn n ,,infanteri,sti''J rspcotiv ,cavalcrjrsti:!,,,na.i,c,i, sens (otectiv: cu Two llionsand /oot n?z o. thc ru. T h. cc hurd .ed /me .on . 10 t h| r . s . i. Twcnt.j- sdil /,ar., ,ro, lhc bai.Ue. S 110 f) Cruft, aicraft, sedcraft.space-taft etc. au plural cotet;v cu aceeasi q l1l fo rmd ca aceeaa siDgularului,dar ou verbul lft plurat: ,l, o -.,- . t i' t r r al ! r. , lIJr, ' lha,rrlk w1 , i. a, o'o l. i. , \ r r lr \ ' liant r ' or $1.I p r , j \ . pt ) al. t l 1i, : dr . t0) Pluralul ti substantirele eolectirc. o l s'rbs ' r nt ir elp . ol ..ri !a s I tn g F n .' e (v e z i $ t,1, o .i neLr ra torrrru d ..i r'-u l- r si t,r:\i rp,.0 un ' lpq" n ,..a /d u p l u rc ti rH te d e .h i p .rF r d.n' i ., -F c - I 1 ot "-i l o lr F F e\ . m ol rp o r' i n r," .t-r ..,t.A o ri r. ,,r n,utt m;i ,,umcroasd lD lim b a e ns lez d dc c it in l i ' o b a rn h i n i : $ r12 n.my a$ emlh ,1.:r j,,mily , rot r d ot ls pr inAr .onmittce .omlany g' n F rn mF rtrtrn\o . juri iesinrDl pu ic Loop l*ri)l llignt6 i s u s a rj tn ta l p s d .,i n g u t,r s" rr J" pt,rr" tdup.i ,r2,0. ^ . ,Su b sta nr r r ele. , lp.\rrf "a l p a .o .rd p rJ l i Lr n4 r u n i n tr,E . si nt ,ubi tsnti f" i ndi 'rFn u m pc . . olp. 'd riduale qi se construjsc cu singalar al: Tl e .l d s s oar lak en n v a v frr a u e te ro n f. Thc enmittee ..nstrrs oI lwelva ncoolc. llis /n,ri1, s,as sma1l. , " n^$ b i , . rd r. d .1 .' l .o " . \,,., .o t l r,\p f.,n,,. l l " ,,' - : r 'I h c l ru f ( J nD{ dlst o d l i r s e ,!r;i .. Tr( tra,hing s r a/ / , , as ta g i . l p F hr J lnq, l" m" m b ri r ..n fo n -n 1 i . Ci n ,l c ole .l r\a sp . ons t r , r ic s , L u p /rfa l rl : N.,rl J , ll r r " . / , . r , ' p " " !i \" 1 ro o l r" r' t... 1 i " o tF" i !i t" l i i . sub.r ,r.ti Ji t h ovP ' . F o dn . nd"bl. ' . liI . . Hi" lann lt ,krc all dsl. c l, n lhr r lc ds . T l,rsr rn,lrl, n .! !rrv lin. . th r qr r . - t , l t ok , r , , ii lJ r r r 1 . s _ t ; bt"a " rs.r.,,/ ' Il' 4 ril hin ' -,.,// u.' it t , \ ! , , ' J t o I r ' r u l. y , r u, t , ti , , . I russ : poDoll. _.- "1::i,l:.-" n erj t.i,,," . a tort lJ n 't-l"!! . _H. , od n -,P ot J p atrt . .

"lh"ht iln;l dr -i i|l,s,i..n{.t,r 'Ja , gt , t Fr wi t t Lt alt , pt , r " nd;r,.rJ -rip$.,s,r. oi f"4e dpJrio"ni. . l, tr,n d p st /. LUnp l".,r . r , , t " is - r , . 't,l;d" r"' I (rl tup r , c iini c t , ) on rrn... , . , ht r p$J dr t d n J a- J loul"\ t o, s d . , t, r,r.r rru t i , nr s " \ r i . i. r . ' r i|r J ol . r : . i r r . . d u . L d \ i . t v r . ! . o . . 1-L. ; " 3 Lal b an . d. tr"r i, d"lf , n: , I . J lpl e) , r k r t : dpm . , r/,/ trerchdiP r0 Numnrul unui sxlstaniiv .otctiv csre ind icat de verbul sau dc dterminantii !:sprclivi (arliool nehol{.jt, adjectiv dmoruir aiiy etc.). -

!19 eolective.cu verbul intotdeauna la Plural fcon."dD/ Linelc snb-clanl,ive buldr!. i fantry, mili.turtj. palirc to.).pot fi preceddtoii de un jrumeral cars le dn s ensde plurat individxal: al,ih. ,\.\.ral con!Iab\rrrlt u/c licepirlt ofrler al, l,fc d,e/? iacins thc lit rglisl,. tit. tlu'1stt,l. l.Nroh t,ftnt, ,r.ne nilitatll /d,. slopt)ed l,o Natch thc pflio{fls in lhc prtk. (: noli,len,c,rl di..d thts t.i!rli,i. ?i,o ,,lnr Numrroascsubstantirerok{ti\c au ti tormn (le plur individual in -s d{i cu ingele sul .,mai m,,lte grupe de; divizi din categodarespcctivn": rrngressii r onnf ils . . o{ ds lLf m s I lef ls il).lis g. odps he s hor s e h o l l s iur ns t uinis t r n , s pr'rks pout lr i c s ptrl)li.s sPnat.s soNietic s sqtradrons 1.rnrs irt,cs irros. et,i. 113 calllr:,rc o situatieaparte tril a!'c:rin trecut -sisensde r) SubsLantivul est. conltruii in dcsemnincl singurarril1lal. limba englr:zi:lcLuali un singuiar. num ai ru pluralul: \\'hcD{ia i,rih e . alt l. anr t \ t f r l / ) r ir h, Lr , r / , e , r i d l t h f i l o l i n 1 [ c an3.r. cc,rlsideti fiin,l roleciile ,sisubsl{oiivelemenra dj tinii granruticicnit la S 108 109 d, l), d. e. i47 r, b, r, tiil. 16r. cu alte ruYinlc orice tionat; subst artive cu formn de sinsLtlarfi tu-telesde plural 11) Snqulflro ftrrl plural. - L nele subst&ntivo din limba englezi au 115 trumri singular. in vrme ce. ir limb.r rominn. substa tirclc corespunz;toare au alit si gular, 0il li Plrral: 114 infornariof inlclii{.nof" k ro \r! d s e ldsjrge melrlrtr,dis. rNnel lNdrrair lf osrss strerql h \roda precurn ql: hail. lightning. slftt. lhundcr, 0lc. 116 nuneLe dc nLatcriil !i nxmeLc.rrno. ln generat. sdslanlitcLc alistrdcreB, produs 'Tatuati { .r.alc cr..l. uneori.hiar prFlu.'dlP UU n'rnrrr 'incular Si dci sirt I enumrabrle: b,rdey busvness' hrppiness nlnnr -1;r Iea.e lnil.ion saDd 1H.W. r'owie., l Dictiotut! o[ Mod.m Dngtish a dse. G. Curme, op. cii. etc. ] in reIte .n"" . int or m dlii s "c r plp. { \ rll's".on "L ndd , u bins la"Dl indiv , J , r il l a d @ r , p t - u o d \ t , " ) L . r tnsFrmA , , pro,lu s ix 8 .n ral lnllr r f J i . au indnql"; il' _ PA r \ t tl P N d u . ' r 'd n u m J i u n 'i n g a l d r u I nlple r cn lcL tiv (: t ' r odus e nat ur alF. agf luo le) . . Vezi ii $ 10. ? V ez i s i $ 15 . 3 Ve2i si $ 31. t A nn sc ra.e conluzio lntf e subsl,anl,ivele ,ur?Fss t l,rzrnlsl (: hph,l dc a li p.in o.lo' o.utrati actit itate intcns{) si 6us,acss t'btznrsl i: {laceri), ca.e $e deosebese sralni, rron unlic ii Inteles.

{l Her adrt d a@ alfa* excelleDt. lsfatutile ci enu Intotdeanna e]cetente.) The fnn rute in this mom,rtoDss ro vado s peiods oI sr\ne. (tlabikk nin acpaste came.{ d r stiluri dirdite.) rlr.4-\ llurb lp ;Flun ot;aa hr . I olt o$ed r hp t r un. t , ins n t m l l ) n a d s t ! . , . r . I , -* . ^_ into n '.,r":n l^ .m t : ; pv t io. t \ r i ur n, . , lans lr ii n a L . t . r - t , d r i a t " . , u , " t , i p a j _rG n ._| 4r4tspal,ur r1 r,nt'rsLr o. ) In , ; rtt Hi\ Anontpdeeof hisrorv ir apr\. sticht. t( "t,ein \I lui d" is , or i. . / ir i t ojr t , . t , , b. . ) ' rn n: " lra 1. al lu \Bro" ; . t o b" , ht . uqr - t in r ' , , \ an. toa tp b oEar t " t t obu^ dpp' s " L v . , r onu t 4 p b . , c a j p . ) Li x+ st jrn lh.', b mgs ar ' r J t ha, l . , , 5 . ur pf l- Ls . \" -" . "." i' 41 l' d1"nql , "" IIi. . L r" .J ' . s g t t s 1t r . t , , , , r \ . , I . . : -. . c t. " tr' tJ .rmb d . . gt ! ; J . . r , . r o. , r t . : 1t r . t u, otn i r . , Hrr ,r.Dcrl {,&e taihrq idsr. t P\teile . pdftseeu cn r epczi.ri!nc.) ,o \\-' 1 1., 1 u". 1, . r . n, t t t h t p- n, d t ; - r r r . s : r , l h . "Lr. \ . r r . , t Ld, . ' . l rJ I I'i.: p pr,. r . . d 'r'r.' :{,-rrn:,rrarpinljmhaenglezA'hr"ratulci,jndsint plurnlFinlinbaro,rdnai ./ susmcn lionot.{j lli,. a\rnd , |rtetes ' lA lr.'lnprpdrnrr..Ibstantrvplpn. s"u rJcptura l .i a.ri ru pot ,ala idma dp.ingrtar r,"r a,;;;l;i ", L-r!"l lnFhotdrjl d .aU d r. al caruj Inrpt.sFst; dp (ineul6r.DF A..Fs.or; de .:'- oll r,F rofpflm In unul singur dintr. plcmentch .;mpon"ntc al" t^rali, ';tL rF.,rrspmla un.u\lnt ajutdr or {i/pn. /n-. et..) ca;c sli redcanuania -\stfel: ' n ! l' l o m obillr o Prostrc ' n- or m ilP o pnne r n r ult er o a ,;a / n t + l \rc c - d p ,,a o t w rrt., lnn @ticle ot iurniturc) (rornall : a pta? ol no nsensc . O b s . r ralii a / T r p b u i.r e{ln u r laptul.x sub.ranrivptc ma is u s(S de il . rj, r . o n b i_ $ t 1 7 i P ' 4 ' o t i n to rm,rti o n (ar s t o r l rg h tn i n F 'r .drl oI ae. !l_ }aitrronss Tltis gouet js a _singulara. ln aceostl caLegorie se plu rd l { m c j o ri ru t" r t.rj - los i in tp b s . S u b s ra n ti ,/i ^r t,ur.cr nrrr,,* " : 'l .. :1L{ lt8 " n mohil,i: o pi.s.r din nrobilifr ,9, i' 1, ; i" . r .n i at . !1l al or.i de " a t,.;,...,,.\.r' .t .o , i .. \,.m p j .rr.d t I s a: . , t t , ,,., i .. i " . a;.* ;.,;,..;l. at 1, r ^t t t , , . . . rt,-' ,tn \.1 !..,. 4 . i . .t.,| ,_.. ,r:r r..rnt.,,l c rrn.tr.. r lu ",' . r i fo r n r jd ,-,,' t...t tn. r,. l i o_r-r: ,t".n..1 t r: : s.rs 1 g151- 1, 14) . ..:L.r. tnt.DndtLah. k.trs. :.l l, r' \ . 1 h , a 4 t . 4 , \i. ii.i,' ,, t t " t t L n dp , a [ " fh f,",* . p r i n 5 - : r s L b s,a !ti\p .", '\ , : . : nl d rr rem ot inlorrnatioD): : a ioat ol b.ead d /d r]'und,rr grindine {piatrl): haitt a haitsro beauiifur ptac oi \rorl. :, l2).Plurale ldri al]i substa tivele care nu l .,i l lat na dF n i n a l . i n .sr tara un .i ncul ar , u d ! F l " .u p , i n sp 1" ace" r, f - . p r,l

. n...t.,.. i ntrebur,t

44 MONFO!OGI^ - SUBSAANTIVUL SIl9 oIt'\ti ol tt"t)'lu; loifs. iLfws. Litrls. elc i bowcls, cDtnils, genitals, gill.ls, S 120 b) bali.ti stdri dc sqiritl m p. ( , , n' . . nn . 1 J . pr n' r . d u rt,irisnlei, sullts, elc.; d pr 4' .r i ..b F. m l JrLul i " !' i ri d g l ll uo n l ,rsr-l rai tnultc pdrli: l ' ,' l " j ' l ruds 5 r2r c) imhtiicdminte .onpusd din daud sau r.. t.r.. kar l .rh. l nr" kpF ll Lt ooT . r . . lf r - - , u " ..i L F s .,l o n .5 . boc |pr ' |/ jn: . , o \" r| | | .,' .,,rd " ' p ' U | .l .n n ' ' !' ' ' ' ' l ' ..l our' ' ' .hU r l i n rl nJ onq. bbP B ' r ' r ' ; , lir.. 1 F . l i l h l .l " ' n l rn o l ro r r' l ' r' 1 ' r d\ . " r \ - , 1. , ; ;r4 r' . L b l r.. 1 r\ l l rr . $ h i "l' d,) unclte ti instrumente conpuse din daud pdrlil rl ' ' { so" nl ' nprdF l bllo$" , lin^. 1 " . ' ' l i p r' " n ' l - Irl -r p b' rr ' /n r' f' l ' l a' . l ^ ks nn" ' . , pli_ : l .n c " l " .p - f.. .. a" r ^ | | , s 122 ' a' kpB . frmpot 5193 lorl8its, bil)iftds, .afis, cl,cqucN (sau Sr',{ oheckeNl, darts, doninoes' draug lLts. marue1 nirretins, quoits, shrl,il's, ulo.I ! 124 f) tti.inlc $i obieLtedc studiu (substantive lcrminate in -i.s3r: i Fl rondur s i l ri " . b' l i ' l : J . t r oDlv s c ' . i_ o l . i -, 1 " r' l r* . d l rl .c ' i \hs. A . d p l o m l i .. ' l vnbrrrcr- on^mr s, el q' r0n,' r..l hr,tr, dd( . : : . . 0. ^on , .l t,q .,ru r' ' , r\drn' r ! Frnl ml ni s' g ' r..l r, r rm n , h )dro' Larrs. " \ or pn. - A p n t \s ' .. l h ra ri rn l r 1ol ' rr onp | G, k inr i, " . li ,n -.m p r" ..Il v n d.' .i -'r'Ji rrpr l pLLr^. rc: l' r' Ll " l " L 1r r s " . 1oit . " , . !o l ri . r' f l i ...' j e) n me leagnltt I tlie thl] ths. lrif CurtaLl,ians. IIrl,fidcs, tle llighlands. lhe lDdirs, th. Ne ll.dands' tho Ilnil,ed States ol ]\ntrrca. .lu.i h) stlbstantir. r.tbaLe i 'in| t s. $ 125 $ 1!0 dissnrgs. doiigs, lcclinltsr, eiriings, sonrgson, leav;ngs, iodsnlgs6,Frings. li ckingsl pioio"iLine., roting", scranting$ shalhgs, sctthrgs, sltoricomings'su..o

undn'gs, slippings, sweepings, trilings, iakings, ltinniDgs, etc.i 5 12? i) tuljective d.utenite substanti'te pri'n atldullarctl terminaliei -s, eommons' d.inla|lcs' ediblee {nli(E, bctters, litte$, cmoni.als, chemi.rls. comesr.iblcs' em!ii.s. n..csdics, nervs, nulli{ls, odds. Ohmlics, perishables,rcgimentals,ric he* shorls, sla.ks. Urcatric{ls, 1ighls, ralurbles, cic; I Sinquldul or.ralt alc hlelesul de "halal." ipentu personal sanitar. muncito.i elc.l: o ,cf;lrs lDl. l 1: s alopFt i) ,c,l a ' ''n r s u b 5 l d n . ubs l. bnl lv ul) i biLlir , d . t n" n d d p s i n 6 ', l d r r l t u 1 ' -r,"i ir l t r P , Llr ; " , : " s c , o , u l I F S P A r \ : o 'd t d I o ' 4 t F rite d s"mn" d; d und d, n r p pip' l. de jo c), d nin ept , ( : o I , ^Pi' i) et t ' l J '1 n r 1 r , l o r i u l r r o r t i i l r p o r i i f,\ o o! . r ' . ' , u J ; o, . b, F r ' - m i1J L:' - i s nclF/ o r dp .r ' diu in t . r p r ", "' "r ' lr no ' o bq ' a l:\i l1 , l. L . . j 'J . o i " " m J p n n l r r o"t' r n l " / b J '1 - i o f or , . r . i m . , i "dr ' ' la te Jn liln zo li I t he . ot unLni. I Pt hic 5 f../inf.. : qh t t iLillt ilF, . r r nplt ir ' oi r.,. , \ i. . li, ' .r-,r',rr. I.r:;.; l, l , 'J -rt a, el;! lade,1i. 'l r ''i r and todEins rtc. b. d

NUMARUi SUBSTNTTVtrTOE 15 rr" nd .., a nn als. ,'r l, , v ps . a"n5r . . 6. i2 . 1- s pi. . .. ! n , ) . b . T . ' r s . . l n 'h . . ,- (- \dr. ul) . , or n j r r 'j con :n". , c onlpnl s ( " , . '^ !.'\ i .n.d op sirAJb"i, J 6, , dr eg6. "ut . . ' olli p. . ' h r . , - p r q . . 'o b r ' :."s g , l l o {- . e " i l r . g r o . d r . o t"r.. . .a p iri 1r ' J , t ir F$nr r ( . 1= o dr dlit h: i) , lu n d . ' jdh : , p1 "iu l '. pi . lr diir ' . s r oals . c - o. s hJ J o u b r p =. inton. . . 1. . ,ro h,.igi. l p 1 n r . I 'n l i \ q . j . I n u n r r r o n c . I : bt 4). ior,in, r.,rpd s, (L'o lil li1k q, l. l. r ar r , nr 'r '. i '! 'u : l . p r o d s q u d r l e r ' o. lpnPa 1, . pFa\ d. : I.iA , ou lsq ur s, ltin .o u i n Ll , , -- i r' l ,, .o m i 1 , , r ds . c r a. { l' . I . c ' , ur ' ) . h d , ', 1 1 . " l o ! s . s p i f l s [ - '1 i . . _. ' '/'" " a - , ". r , . ' r ' 1r . . , , r n_r on. . 1. r 15 l a n l i . L d n c . \ s p " t s , v i d n J s . rL' , r'd d i :r.st. whe.calrouts. worlrsj erc. . .8 198 latinl li) sltbstantiw cn pLural latin sau cu dspect .:ndoiaj, ta.eliae, imtedim etli, imlondoabilia, litt'rati. n:rrsimli\ memoralilia, ,\(jordul cn vcrbul fi c u detorminan,tii, - Sulostantivclc nenlionate la ..rit purct (12) se construiesc tn generecu determinanlii Si verbul la plural. :..! rceplre: arl numele oe Jodaf r: jyin'riB r.'"@s sreat skill. Dtu;shb is" a lciy entc.t ning game. b) d.o.iL n ame d.e boli: - measles9i mnrnps'. . o n " lid " . @dJ ps, r s s e v .| P.o m!l i " d l i o n .ltants ts.ontagrous. .) nunele .rliinlelrr ti ale obiectelarde studi termindl, i4 -ics (cybernetics, .L,.trbnics, mchanics, physics, etc.) construiie cu verbul la singular: ,l.oas,t s s,zdtes sound. ,,nt.s ts concerned\rilh the nrinciples ol norals. 6l Hrr)nslaL ics.ledls$itj! ihe Dressnre liquids ai (5t. M;ftenatics is indispensaua|o ihD si udy ol the exacl scierccs. arp,t.s r.cd,s ol li8ht,. Na td r\ se observa ci unel e dintre aoeste subsLanLive ca: a.oasl;ds. etlict, mech' r'..,p .)ttl i" s l/ d, / i. s el( . . . l n d n a d o s e m n o a z r)ti i n !a re .l Fcl rr' ,.,uubi atul :, rd i u, s " . unc r r uies c .u v e rb u l l a p l u ra l : The dduti.s ol ou. new auditorium lcute noihitg to be desired. llis ethicsda above reproach. \t\e Mhanics ol plRy witing d.s unknown io lim. 't]trci phnneti.see benealh .on temlt. Substantivele atlLLetics(: atletism) ;i glmnastica se conslruiesc: cu yer bul la ring ldr cind au inleles abstract, adicn atunci cind se refed t,rrctid la arta sau la practica sporturilor sau a exercil,iilor fiTice; eu 1.rbul la pldrdl cind au inieles concrel, adici atunci ctnd se refer[ la -ererciliile lnseti. sp orturile sflu ]a I Aici slnt cup.inse si subslantivele cnle au ta m'4 obitnuit tot'rl ile llurat, lormr ,i. sinsdlar (ttril -s) fiind rdeo.i intrebninl.ald: antic, d.chiee, bdta .h, contine. cu.I, . - . b pjuy. . io nd .'ilr,rl "r u r \ : nd o dm . or n d. ' r li ( o t . p i " N d 4 ', . u s t n h u +. ' : e A art - din . s \ m t un, qo t hl p( lp dp obur i J n r , lr . d '. q i n ; , r l , r r l d . m , s r " r d r r i : , rbrd.ti\u t e4 . i ,rf /.4!,nl! r,.clcririir Inloeuil .u sllstantiyll l nlFl"5 o fli4 Dd bl ll J p s r nr r lar , s r . ; ' . r u 4 l i r-\\r' ; . r '1 . , , . m 'i 1 a 1 , r m : r r c d l u f i : r ii o'o rm, i r.l"lr d" - iogr ld, r 6' p ln Fbu, P ro e-.o t t r t ne 44BP\ d 1t ! 4 wr g. I n n l n u 4 :.: o " 't r . E " at.It s 1re $ 130

16 d/ Numele Un;ted, Statesof Ametica se consirui$te cu singularul cind lst conside raica numele unei naliuni, cu pluralul cind se referi la lnrile care al(ituiesc naliunea: Tlre Lizi&li [ta,.r of Atuetk:a has ll'ashington as i.he capital'l:he Unnd Slat s of Amii.a l@rc roied thcjf rcprescntaiiresir (lonsrPss.) I)ir.rsc. - Substanti l'ul n?es fiind un singular, de;i are formi de plural, se construieste numai cu singllarul: \i'hat is the D.,e.s., ,.aB is good narslio \oNadaF n.,rs,fd'ah {iln lghtning spced. ,Ue,rs qi snarnDlessint construite intotdeauna in limla eD-qlez i rontenIorAnir cu singdarul. .lxmrrons, singular. are plLtralul s r?r?ons.s;i s e acordiL cu lcrbui la num inr l c or c s pu n z i l o r: 'i here d'd! a,,.rs al . the li.k oi l.he sqnar.. ,\ st,,,&nr ,rds sdred on u,c grilly pdll. Tnc iailil l is$r,d s..a! lfunaae\. -\ltcr the colonirlisi rtiaclr, tl,e ]\lrlcrn villrge n as a s/dnrlcs. Sulrstantivele umritonre cu formi de phirfll ul.ns. arnnds. barra cl;*. .arq'!. gallatrs3. headquartcrs, littlts. mcans. adds, thatiisa. lidi trs, li rtollsd (: atelicr, uzinn. fabdcii) - sc consl,ruisc atlt cu singularul, cit lri irr.rpluralul tn lunclje de intcnl;a \orbitorului, fo.ma dc plural a substan lil.ului insi rimtnlnd rceeasi pentru ambele numere: TIic arDI ,d.'o./a ra t,san o-e) empt-{ {l llte rnonient. Th. l,h.air. l)ad a .ar?J dc hallci, wllich (ds l amons. The tx'o amy .o?s /d'e lecn advisedoi Ure ohnngein La.l.ics. \:liere is l ne an\r h.dokatt.:rsl _l$o T\e heddrra e^ or llc i.ade-unions oe. in uic saDreshe et. The.e ,ar u (salt )linksl not lr lrom the niotel. 'rtft (saU-)ti1hs slthir e {sy reacli rr,., ferv. IL sar oDlv d Dedzs io ar e!d. tsJ dts e;rs produ.tiliiy ts culain to rcgjster a nurked incleasc. T)'e meansoi locomoiion {rrc ample. \Yh al's the ,lds: ID ihc clanpionship .onrcsl.-ihc oddspcre asainst ih. Driiish mid dleseiSht. flI"nls/ l- ThaDk Iou) Thants lerJ lruchl I owc mony /naz,ls. -vou .l '. r,lorts .rc reeded. The glad rlltn(s (c (siu oa") b.oadcasi lasi Dighl. ,\ Iu ge nouoD.,tsir .oming inl.o being in otrr town. ao'ns /dre r.cn occtcd all ore. the country. -\..trnerons Cjtera numc de unolte fi de instrumcnte (S122) sint un eori cotstruite cu Trr tn's.w;r'so.s.1, i." ar old,'r or nrin.. Shc has lolglrt and tr is r\rllP.l. lth .t n - t n- t . ;. n bd rtt I .f t t I r ' . t r r ' u, . ! :!,r bstrntirnl ,,rt!. nrfarialil n , , . l '- ! 'l ca lornl orj.n.c ar li inlelesul, pluilr.rl L- 1): sc disI3l of snrgularul. subinlelegindu cuvintul a ?a;r' o/: a pab of scissors, pliersetc. se linl. (le snrgrihr ss lrnr rNruntnrr lkrri rrl.lkx:rl rsdll4(r, conslldl.,l! o]r nr,l{i si,isnlan,l, ii tlualul sdlro(! inr SU\. a.e li tl. 'to...t r. Lt."lt') r cslc liloa. tltd tidi\s " ( o r i s r V e r i F i \ 1 i5 . .i \' t, s.r ,' . g],,ntrl. tt. 1 uneori lxiin t-" n,. trofic. tt..[,t,"... ]. 'Aslizi esle irni oniinuiir r a,ll ,,zae.

0bser0oti,e Cileva substaniive de la S 118-128, piiDtre care numele de jrcari, ( : spectucles ochelari). tiarlrr1, lroxsdrs,rrpers rrecum fi cuvintele scissors, p ierd sufi\ul 's. conlorm formele compuse, ii... cind au funclie adjectival5 fEsu lii de la S 166: b,lli.,rd a li" ,lrJuq hr b odr d nineph player skitue allev bdddr r oom bow. l r om pl! i|l scisso. ca5e speoiacle irame .usppnd f Lpll r o l . 'r b u l o n th rnk oilering resper bell ll&joritatea celorlalte substantive de mai sus pistreaz{ lDsi sufixul -s tr .omp unere, in generepentru cn singularul dilerii ca sens de plural: paft l,..cches l lonoursList. Eood!l.r,rin coaL $ofks r ornlLittee customs examinalion sporL! (\r eziti 5 166tent'! con'tleinF) 13) Pluralo striinc, - ln dccursut anilorj numcfoa sc cuvinte strnine au 5 132 prooes intFun :: rat in limba nglezlJcare le a asimil aL- li confirui aOest, ': :, ai mi. s.,.rm0i m1'p dupd vp"hi-r"J in.'..14/d .i d ut.j "\rir l"rFJ lor . .r uldt;,. mxi mul l -au nai pulin.ir.rm.crisi. .ii ln 1' reranr. cbidr la .Li ]11ai muli asimilater paLternul dupn care au lost consiruit e ln limba lor r: ifiqine rnmine, cu pufine exceplii, vidil sl,riin dc speoificu llimbii engleze. Substantivele diD aceasti categorie,de fapt "outsiders' foarie ulili, fac S 133 ::rfte din marclc numir de cuvinte savante aflate in sectorul q liinlific, tehnic, ::-."dicaletc., provenilc in spccial dir limbile latinl (unco ri prin iniermediui :r;lnlrezei) grcaoe (unele difccb. altel prin lal,ini). llult e -si acestesubsiantire (spre clcmplu $ 134-137) pestreazi pludin :]rl lor origi nar, dar un Ioarte mar0 nunrdr dintre ele (de exemplu S 138ll,rlr. pc lingi plur alul lor de origine, azi rezervat mai cu seami speciaiiqtilor, : L;i un plural e nglezesc -s, seinnul rodirii Fi asimildrii lof prin popularizare. in ,r n treiac &tegorie(vezi exemplclc S 144),ceamai numeroasii,cuprinde curin.l! complt asimila te de limba englezi atiL la si.gular, cit Di la plural. a provenienld strdind, i n mrjoritate savante, Urmltoarele substanti{e de jji plstreazh pluralul originar sau au o formd de plural loarte apropiatd de a) {sc. $ 134 139): opzs, {masna)olerar coder, cod;d,s, vo.trr, outos, custoder,eic.; r Sub+alri\ul rnaah pJ5bnaz; lDsI tormd dF lluml ln cuvlnr'tl lhanksEiu;as. : S inc ula r,l .larlm rslr r { . t nlr ebuint ll. Plr r . alr l da & e s l e r n e o . i t n l o q i l , l n l o . u l d" c ph hai m r lt o or i. h a z r s e r o D 5 L r u i e t l e j a p l u r c l . t i t T h:sJo lo F \"ry u sp iul, . ' laf p d n ru ,r sp e\ita .iog ula r r l dol, n. ' t r p s ut r J pr . a p"danl.

48M S !35 b) pltt.lle se,:etti (v. li S 140): , oll oiir " :L -ic p -n!p l ') I ' n. . ' . 1, . . , . , oj tJrurtr... . " -j.. "| | ' ' ."|''|'.mp ||np 6'''h \ ! olha. : ! ' } ' \ po, - ' , . ' m ' |a. or l ' h. . r s . r no p l | , r'tralslr'lplrJr . l" rr''r lnol _ p ''n pi. . r n"t , t d: Dlr ' 'r 'l r i r ' . "t ma r/ : In ' f l" dr'.ri' d _Dlrp rn.r Lam J ' o: 1l rJrn pr' li' " I _ ilA._ 'n l lr i apq '^ 4 4 i t 'd r " I iin rpnP' r r r o '' 13li l ro rau i!l p ,""i.i:t,; n. , , ., U$dirn'es ctc. () plural. france.e qi 141) (v "s b' l"dr r and " " - lr liu! . ' l: 1"o, ' . b"' ' "n", . no, , ' : , ' i. \i r i f '0 i ^ t t r '. t ''r i _ orJ" \lalarn I 5 " r r ' \ l r '. \ l a . F 13i d) pturuh itoti.ne (t'. s.i i 142): ' - c - u. I l. -i . IU n | ' rr " . ' o r ' l ' : I d ,r r i I an. or a!1oil.ad a, ru[o:rtrad. el.chrzi.on., lazzrroni; condoll.icre. conbamlino, lambini; p|hzr o, lalazz,,' ObserrolLe e uor-di. r,nLFiJFI'nnun:i- 'li t" rprrnin'i, !inS" rlr,s^ r',nli' . .r -Jlr f- r'. ksr.l si 0 eea a plurrlulur -s's r sl.a rr\ )'s ;,rl ,rrrl'ri s,s p/r S | :tl l- i:i, t"i:rl h roalp sulrrln ;rplF lpr'rinr'F in - ,s a . trc r\ slrc eriemplu: pl. sg. *bavs - eritrr i .l ,c!es I dsi:z] I bc^i :z: I kra,si:zl l 0i :si :zl iheJts t 0i:sEl (p) \ur , r"Jsp ' .In a J, nri in' ,rin, m 'l' rrln buinl r" arr "ipJ "l' 'i 7 'rlpl 1,"rrr"l ru l luralul l"' ori!';rar. :r u , plur-l errgl' s' r' ruldl iir|.r' p rcrL ,r doun lnrm" Je pl,rtll u'nr dihreoliel".a s-r,s:n I0rmu uncorr 'rr z-. ., mli ol,i.a,rir; sa', . nilrara. .F"ldlld slrrinr' Inlo'ilj in-strlul lrlprir. i n siiintjiic sau t;hnic. Numnrul acestor srbstantil'e cu pluralul englezesc ls c relte neincetat, pe misurd ce ele se tnceti,tcnescin 1imb5: n) IrlLtr\tc lali t

(v. $ 134 a): S 1Bs 'qi arcnrr: a'cnde; d,l: ldl.nna anl,ennas.rnlcnDddr rre'd l l \ Isc, -a: ol. -i ierralizl. n,unla - inim',1 { a it,, 1e), Inrnruld,; la.uno -la| unar' vertebrae, ctc lc.tebro -vtrtelrar, rftir@. l e I h7l ' il: l,s.-x. r|-.s ' J ' r - . . 'c 'l r ""r r la'rlnad, retr'a -rcirr's, u l r 's " a l " l '' '1 1 'u 'v l p D o l o r r 'r c a . r 'r " ''' n l 1 F q / r - n , r '. - ( r '? ' .n -r' q . ' li ll rune u,t. - i d l: olus a l' lddr o ir h i l l o p n 'r m / ' is lT 'j s l h m r h' . DotJmir:a mL,.s. i' m bus , |' m bl ' j' r. .;'"r.nn '} ,,r'|n |..5. ' |' L; ' n' l' 1' , ' _' ' ] ' U! s ' nUi|! lr sJnr0 r rrnnr_ .id rj q '.op s \ 'l l J b 's ,'rs . : ir ' op . s J r n b r 'P s "J rt"olndgt i s . 'r) r " 'r " um u lp lnin u nu! . i " 1n , ' "r m rd rl p rn r_ lrul"irrnb i1 J r la l-; {'n r r'1. ' cln|'"lrrn '..''rl]||'".'o ln|- ' ' di, al' ' oa! - r d|u m . orru; m cnr i.u lrrns. .d ni0 dd, dc c ennnr r ? - d . , nr ' i m s . d , c P n F d r c t u a - d r c r npordj dllnrirn -cllh,\'iu n, r . c lr J nr io, - c r nr or l! n- . r t lor i' r m r , r 'z s 'i r 6 ; n ''r 'n c orm 1r1 1 e. - n i , s |' . n"' I \ t r o; ni. lus ole u D- d a u s 'l e n m s m a u s o r c a , a i ' int.mg d lu \rrrn- lr \ hx m . . ' f r r , a", . r r ", "t u c r t t no. t \ - a r u t s / 't u ' ,,"';., lnd "";.ii.,i""r-., 'lgallr .l t !d ir p sl. 6 4 ' lb d ' 1 . .,r1.rI"on n, -ii d,ra,r, o ,-e p-rdrur/ds- t1.,,r4

NTMARI-I! SUBSTANTIV]jIOR 40 r '' di r r I I o r n l r 'm - r I m o _ n' J ; n m'\i o r qi' a r r i. f ill" r ' r o r n r m '4 n' l' I n i'.rni "", mofatorid, rclirr.dlt -rellrendums, r'leF rda, sara ."..1-nrtns, , .r."i"ii"p ^ r . , r i . - o r t r '. : r,r.,.a . ' a"i ' : s - , - . . r . n. . b"dr . p. .,', rml . .Jrd"n'.. '| ' n. ' i, 4 ' v n' ii i' r m j ,iirnr. ullimat t p '" _ o i \ '' r li ' r ' i o ' 4 al 'l p | n d r r ' ; r'r. -iri r". -nB r"n . r ' ' i, " i i ' r in , "r ' 0 " " t " 'd a r 'i '. . " . -, ^ r- r ' i. ". ,;.ii,i.. '" " 'rr' ,.;,..i o-o., r : '. . , , , r p\ r , ".,i";...,.r..s',,-"'l,.statrix.s, , i.statri.u' fto. ' n, rr:e,irLfl.es,' tes tatrlr J 3: "ot r ' , - ' or t 'r : 1 . n "r :l' , . ' r . 1. q ippr l' s l' r ' 1 5 . I ip p-* 1 lnar "l "/ 'r ','.. b) pllvale 1recetLi: -trttl: ||aumo- lranmt, traumtn, tss.-ii pl. -s (engl.), * (engl -rl aniomat,n -attoDatons, atrtomrlai"il'cri'a - 'fite ), i,,s. -onr lt. ' | * 5: m "- ''n l ; ' dn ald"r ' . dr onlr mdJapolia r ni ro 1. . -h.t.-.s . " ^po , lrcio iv : ne "^pol: s ^' r opol' 'r' ' irtz'c'", chrisalises chrisalddr; irls -irjss' lss. -isi !1. -eF (L'ng!ezl..idesl: chrysitis sphinaes. slhinfs{. x; !1. -cs (eDgle']. -gesl: lnlJnr - lrrXnx.s' larv.ges; sphint slTrn \i, sr r r n! ds . er . : : ] rinr r , . . 'o D . C J ' n l / s l r " u loD, . a\ . ' opr 0 , ' npue u ,rnp ".. "l' : D r\ r h F: S llo : rJ;,, b" ad h" u l r' r' l -, - . r . r ur r ' . { r ' n g l " /l : ' c (' )rl l : :o F , _ .d i " /' h; , f J ' 1. .Lr r . o" r' p !' " o r - p l r Pa d sI.I' l P^ ' ' r p' " l n n' r - poa n' l n " d i "" r, lrou$.aa - tronsscaN.troussc4, ., et'c: ':lrtrraniedu cic' lss. -Ni tl. { (e.glezl -el: auloitf{da -autost.adas, autosftad', io " an: . / 1, - i : bd dir r , b' nd: | . b J n d i , . , i tsc. -e. o : Dl. -q '" o n ; r glplt g | '" l l o s lrbfFro-lrbrFro ilr lplilnlji c l' pllo (l lrr. ' al" l dil'i'1 n i, lod _r0n. sol' !^p"J_n r_ d r ij s ' n. . / o ., " 1r1 pr"-ro - h r / o s hpt / l. m por . lPm pi: ! r r uo' o i.mm ^r' "d o. .o prin r c) pluruIe francezc'. S l'll (1. plurale italicne: ) s 142 c) pl rale ebai(.e: .icNl chcNl.(, .|crnt'rn , s 143 pturale asimilatcln limbr, s r{4 tVarialtn amer.: sanitarirh sanita.iutu, sanitarid !{m J t ar alr ' : J iir r b l d rP' o re J i r.' l o T p n ,;; : ; a \ ' o- . ,., rr' f.rt . n r In ' r' bLi al 1L. nin r \l J i obi: t s e .. \ L l o l ta ' o tu s . - p In . I 6 Orasclei norne ale riitonnri " 6lo;ni dc sitAurN "sfe clJdoP san c!.laps o ?t,.tu." pcd;n fi-(F T. w;od, the Crcuntaorhol EdstisL Gtamtuat' ' L o n d n-i:"i"; ) "ir." ; z

i' po n l .ex n s n o l ,i s m n ,lt 5; nr t e "t. " t ub - r oot t f d n o ri . n v :n o \n l i : Im tb i n h" " n! at tal.a. nl, adeseaIn bioloqip a..dp. :0 \re r i pt . 6" u; i n ,h ri , i r. l " r" s r S l 4 <

50 S 145 14) OouI formo de plurnl cu irleles diterit: t,'t^ ,. btathtre i: irJtil i^nIi,i. tup t ht pnt r * r . dli dps , ngp \ p, nl , n . p '. I \ '1 1 , . n 'r m l f , d i aceleiali comDniGti, societili clD.l .o {r i: vacil .\!',, A;d ' ( $hJ , c . lr i"r a| I / . m J k ilp penr r u r ur n a r e a o p d . . l i i . u r . m o n d d o r l 14 i.. I d 1.e { : z ar un, c Fn: i. od$Pni d. g. n i u , | :.r.r . es s 1, i"ir . . , 1"1, , . \ "a,i It ex es I indc \ ur i ln. dr ii) l ino, nat . n; t i" l id "" i , " '': . i ' '" " t ,,.d ilns f- medii (rersoanill aass i.- .ndjroacC, (d _cu]llrarizare a nasclor ctc.) ! ezi: I ndtia metllt $r tuunrtudLa" I I t en, ;3 moreLle d clte trn Dcnnvl4 \ . ' t u' df , in pdn \ \ r... nrll.:lal.e ajo.cr cadre, !.rsonal al unor, irstitnlii elr.) sbfir i | t l t f 1 . 8 "1 "'m.lit m -'"J -''tt t t .r. ^ t "t 1l I , o. r \ d Lm u/ ll" O bse r a a lie a,lorh(: natrial. stoln, pinzn)are plrralul clrtlsa (: ieluri sau bucili (: de stofe sau pinzi). Pluralul clath.s? hain) nu are singularin engleza contemporana: The satesnansloFcd rs fario''s .lrrts l.o chooscr.omThc shc Nore \\'cre vc.I sma rt. 'nlodcr $ 116 15) Dord,plumle cu acce$qi formi, r'hr cu irrteles diterit.s rnei urmel, rl. ,f.c.l.r lss.) l: (,hiulas'r (pl.l l= rari.alodi pn!'i h sru slb golxn,ihi) (ss.) (: c!lo.rre), pl..onrzre (pl.) i: dratell {sg.l (: r'usola), p l. .on7d$s (tl.l {: comPts) ( s s ) (:o b i &i l , p l . .z r,o n s (!1.) t: rmrL ) (ss.) [: a!dic), p]. da'dss ddtuse damaEes lpl ) (: deslilCubni) ( s qI ( .L r' n d " a " r l f.l . D l . d" dr' sl .,s dt o" eht ' ,o ,s n i c d p l F rn i n .,,rl i r" l ul pt d4t ih^t ' -i nl " l ' r ..dnmel breech brc{:lk\ cot ut cotau re catnpdss .onrsser ' j o D l dp I Pt\ra1e1e Lr.lhr.n ii ll,r, lnrL iorme lilerarc, dcntelc. .u exccplia $tbstant

ivului ,.arl'.n cn scn$rl dc .o,/4i. rs"a.,rs g .niu . on dr g, r ' r . : lood e r t l B, L; ,s 4r.1.r t),L\a: q"n;; .:^r.-b po\ Fdlr ' nd nr J b" J F r i pl j/n ta.. ar' ) i sg . s,rr.. i ' t 'r' Nd to '_ r . m iJ L' d. " inr or ndr r . i '. Iul , u r d j i / r ' a m 1 +l o r ( p r p s i . r d 'l i o . 'a r...il'.nla roj r ir pt . ) ' hnut ' t npdt n . , r iJ loa ^ n m u l r 'p l . r r r m F n l p l i a r , r i n \ i lplpviziuo'r ti iimlnl el,c. cn accla$irinlel{s. .'Ih / I l.\ .lqllr , t , - 4t s , 1 m " hop"t . " lor In e s t J m p '. . C . n J o , r s i v ' m . t $ , , . . tot rop J r ' r . o Ino;.dJ-d- i p' n1.. rL^ r n, , pe + . J ' t er - e. \ J J " p a ; p 1llF r " a r '$ ''. 1a1" d; d ; un u d. i r . 'n . ' 1 .../t ". ' ' 5Cd accast{ acceolic, rluralul s,ueas arc si sinsulrrul star,. r \',. J p; s "o"" t n, ' pr o- ur , u l o i : , , o f u l h l " 0 r . , l o t t s I k l J 0 s l . r l l " . 0 'l tlJr,l", (s r06,) . i, , t u" t k r r,,rD z l . 3 scnsu.ilc aralalc aici sht nunai cacrnD liliciri: e1enu .eDrezirfi l,ak intelesul'lulrlel la orc singul.fll ru esie m;rli onat nu au si;guh.. .iLc substantivclor meDtiorate. t V ez i $ r lt 8, trn , 1 r l o a .

NUMARUL SUASIA Tl\'EiOB i: 1P l {: ) (: 1sc.J 1! r ) L: (se.) {: (p1) r : l: sertnl), Dl. didr.r indispersabiti,iznenc, chilol.i) nr.ct), rl. "//d/s 'f"c]p, brrnuri molile. imbrirtnrirne) s.nljmcDt), pl. /eeli,as s r n s ,b i l ,trrtFu s c e p t,b ,l i ta ls i mpi l i P ) s. ,P, panr ,ton; J" flan"t.1. tlarell), Il- f?dnEls ,o , , r r hir n4 d" f lan"l. , . ln . p , i b l ' 1. I rr tn li la L ic lel s du lJ alt c joc u r i r ) (: m ot iv ) , nl s m ! , dr (pl ) {: ,i1i l. ' r a , n jur ul unr i Lladir i) iss) (: soisoare: liierll. !1. Llr. ,s t pr . l l Lpr 1: dodl. pl. nau na nia'r'er., t)! are r I rLiqr niil p1. _n/ s . i, , ldan, r l (- ir Pr anc or F.lr Elet el ls8.l {- nr iluLl. r l. m r z t 16 (- pro.,is-!0ra l al unei |edhieJ r!1.r L: (: nnmnrl. pt. dnrar lprJ 1: verslrr, loezrei murltmel duerel. 11. tan?s 1== issl 1lpl. ) is g. ) 1: tprr l: lsc.)l= parl.ci rolJ. !1. ralrs r r p mi s \r, r/1 . r,.u i r' s io r.n . j m o l L l . i n (i n ta ) Dunct e1c). Dl. r,,i",s (rr) i: imu4 lss.l{: tprr (: Gs.)(( pl. ) ( : (ss.)(: ( pr l (: dulc,ati de irurrel, !J]. rr.s.rrls o.helan Je }roleclic) sl.rt), !1. ru,/rc.s l o c n i n fi ,,c a n to n o me n l ) chitani-r), pl. /adt",s lnapoierel,pl. rerz .u s (ss.) sami lmuz.)i solzl, pl. r.ai"s l= t: baranla) lsc) (: bucelicr. lracment), pl. s..dps {rl.) I Lss.l I r m n n . D .fi o J d i . d u rrl l i ' f.m p .l r.l , rn. k,,' (pl.) L: t ,r,n " n ,,i F tu ti i , ri n o rl u ri : L o n di l j i l (pl.) {- . oslrn din tweed) 1: a!ii), tl. rdra,s (: un Il de stoli dc lini), pl. ,rcdrs ( pl. ) l- rcsturi (de mlncare),deFu.i {de mclal et .)l (: srrrtmol), !1. sp..rd.

t"s 16) Doui plur:rle, rrllul colectir, colilalt individual. Cilera subslantive au d oud forme de plural: o formi este identic[ cu aceea a singularului ;i are obiect elor pe carc ]c dcnumettei intalcs colectiv, adirn se referi la lold1ila1.o caal alLi, eu terninrtia reguhtn in s. este ur plural irdividu.rl li descmneMir '\'i r$ - ir I o | ' n " l -..\1 ,' .. ^lln tu t \ . z o t u l L i mao. t r i. ) { v e/ i: i S l i 2 b ). , /dF?ls: Icluri dc ttrccd. r' ' ' i l .^.l ..r,Ji -' 1 .^lr7

5! !r sau /cllrt d! rDt.lrt,l. Ilit forlna cu illrlcs coleciil-, cii $i cea dif.rile . )bieclL plu|al in s se conslruiesccu verbul la plLtral (cu c\c{,l!ir substantivu lui dri ltuit')\ ' . h4t ./,o , r f ' ,r:l " i .. l .1,ri ,,ni i , traats l ' 1.' i : h , p; road " rru .te , r, ,./r r lr r l t,ri t I .o b J Z . b o mo" Ln n I "l " ol , l , t . b o mb , -.r' 1 1 'b r' s /.o ,t- g l o ,1 . . / @ , s onL , e ri " " ; a l i i J pior c r , " . Ji Fl . g h i u l " l " . ( n ' ,rn -d " .n a n The ereny .(rn.u (.'r abandoncdin tlie lield. {Nil ) - t h t ds . ; " - d ,@ n d a p ti r-n o u " a p -. (rri ) T t o, onio" . .,r' u . d i o m h tp n .n ,y d ,p \l ' ,ol " l :n I. n,L' r, \l\e t.it ucrc' ri!e. ll"na ts rvhal I like nesr. E,tl l.esh tL# anil kep lill Thc srll siN iee sl.or. l,as tuirs oI nll sorts rat zre corrjng nr drill ' I , r . , . or ,l y .r." .-t.1 " o r rt,e r,ta t,. 1 l' iuN. ! r nlei a n l l td n s c ri ,,e s P tz n s : l. - l u" " nl; J . /,,rs o . h " ' f :. o r h o r' . ni o " _: The shi r rlied lhc corst sth her ./,erls ' r n" v : l, ir n" l 1 J /." /r. C o ..l i ) a u s i h ./e _ll^ i, i . r " a/o ,p rrp ,rid l rk i r ' o rd ,n.rj .t ' r' ' ' l l " 116 Tvo siotu were ii.cd tuon the irigate. l /" d J d rl h ' ' -l S oa- u " lJtr i. d .. o i"j. .' ,. d to r r .. i , ' r" .j ' ,"r ,n ' | s r+8 rr 5uLdr',r.iL^lplrlt_t.ol',1:\,1.i/r//,\lp'.in-. inr Llorr,lorn.eJelrL,' limb l tanr' - t,pr,orr.-- o"m"ni ..tdI.ilid .rul".1 rr .celrrinr'1. tiar sau couun) Fi ou vcrbul la plurLrl: ''L i- n, lalt.l Do g, ' . r - A. ullJ l . od@ , b n : : s r '' r ' The r sftu s tu r { lv ( ounir v / o/ , t / s ) . . Eh l d t h " n '' l a t i hp n T " rn Mnl o tr , : * bu"y ' ' ir o 1: lcmeilei birbatii) ,, t',.1 n .. f m i' a , t P n ' r P, , l i r ' : i '. I . J . an t[. .,i : .t ] . h- , " , , at , / in lr ti I' j I tl) F.ri-. .i .n 'i"eul 'r .1"" /r1A t ropur ' n'1. "7 n "h lin i\'l' muii /,//' ,un pu.,: lJr 'u lui.5 I 'r. rnpi. / rr' l:'n ,', tott t't lt sa.r sineir, t l/' son gs, foLhstarLtst [aLltflIesrer' c) subs|anlil'ul t.oplc (: popor,nalnr e) steLrns ingular;i ore llulriul regulat pcolrlcr (: popoarl], nnltunt: .1 ,.orl .s maslero i ts own dPslinl In afard de aceste form' r.isid ,si un substantiv ctt formd de si nguhr qi sens de plural, colcti\': Itc Zrolle (: poporul, cebe,icnii)sau individu al (: oaneni lume, PersoaDe, famiLie): r 1 1d , n fl.r"r r ial. i, ' - e: r dr l .'n o rn,. m . r : t 1" l ""t , k A . olll"i. .\r _' . ' r l 'J r . d r '. . " 1 '. ( . l h l h p l r i l r i l I ' ut ur L i r i l - , . '. ! F r o r l J . The ,;opl.f, ol lhc rvorld dzr lishling r or pcaoe l lnlcks u rrm dl, f ol 1\ ! ,sun nrn tr\ut(u t ,rnddFspmn.dz,,olp.ti. ( , i\ : , ", . / s , , "ons t r , : p. t ", , r . ir g . t 1 - . r t se riial.ca ln tola lilaten ci si e;ie asimilat .d nunete de natcric sun ru lluralul cn tJ "t"m"n p t" , om r jon"n, " it , t u, t i. or i' . v a/ S I I : d . b ) . . S 1 5 0 . r.. r rPl r,rlu Ln l^ li\ : r anaa p l 'r _ ' d a n a r r ' l . " n r L l pr ldr " f mid" \ nlt . l la. ^ r ii . r, . PU 1- .r vojt c" uJ drn l."r' rL ,., n 4 ( l' r 1, . \ 1 . /: "' o l-pr' a oorb' or drn li \ "t lir ", r . r "r ' lu": lr' \.:. n tatu ,. 'u "t , tNL$ c (S 15 ll ! S.n cri c d. t r odus t r al, 1r alas im ilr t t u n u ! n r 'l ! : d B ! \ a l o i c 1i0 sr lrio). $ ' rlA .RrDL LnL. tf lo nl( 1. _ p or" ir .- r , , . , a/ . . p l .;"' tulor ' t o\ . - r ir i " " '

NUMANLTL SUBSTANTNELOB T \ t d ^ --. ..,,u the \o u'- /,o rL I $il lJ\' r.{ Ju 1, r , . ' l \ \ ' or r d f ^ ' t oDl" "r . li r ' ! i n ! r 5u' n l lr r r r ' nr r ' i | a l"' lt o p ' \ "\ r 1 l^l e p o _ l 'b 'r I '': n tlnele substantive au Ia t7) Pluralul ln tul](tio dc s(lrsr' -stngdar .1" unul J p .,;irrn rt 'hl;'dL'at' lt':,'t rrr plural ' rr n rh:i Intr'1 "."- ';i, nlr\ Le j,i llul dp sub.ra rit Si neavind plurali S 150 l,uir*s I'c l r - a b \.i l i o L n d tN N .l l u /i l\Nl i: .e No n l'1 1. o.l rr' ' crl\ i: i,n;r' {.o1, I iNNl .!,u I'rl ) (: : : i: I i: (.i: i: 1: lir de Di.), !1. /ui.s t\l pir lfolecti!ll l\Nl i N l rrtd ti . 0 i n ,, f\l q h i a i ; { n tri n F In d t' ri F l ltN\l r,o 1 rr) r ' rr ' l l ' n ' .r. | .0 4/ 5 !l n o ,L a t: tn b .tra c I t\N l t Ii ic: zird; .oinunicrr, L.zr-i). Pdlel s ll hirlii. acte. do.umenl.c; zia.ei Iczc, comuiclril llrLic Prrne de natoi',)l l\Nl s fu rl l , l l s ? o //sN l l i' l trr 1[\\ .o tr,.. ri .a o l ", 18) Piuralc dileritc (u inlclos de sirrgulnrelcrtrspectire:r' a) Nutn:le dc tfro l.fii si de pralnse nuttule {cer' e. zarzavaturi eic ), care. ;rin insnsi natura lor. arr ir mrid obi'lnuit fofrli dc singuLar',pot avea si to"';a de Dlli"al. d at cu o srhini.rare de inleles, irl"' 'Lnind in acesLcaz, oa produsclor rospectr ve : ;i tn l;mba rolrrenn. ,.speiriiale nl.rlefiilor salr fol lons linos rfools oil( \ s ifrs lsolll Noolls lul s . i,. " ste'is, ot'' $ 1;1 S l;2 (cl. s tL"/ adescaobiectc confeolioDatesau forb) N tueled. ndle,'ii desenln{)azn respective: u eori sint lipsiie de singular. in gene'e lnsi mate'tlin materiite au alit sin u rl , n l . d r, A [\] ri i- i n q ,l te l ro l e , v rl L \\l t : !.x c . i n trp n fi n d { F l , p ]. D,si nA Y s l N l . t - - ;tu u a ,, r i tc o l c !r1 1J I' " tta.tl l i N N l i: J d a c te r i a L s tt ;rr] d r ' . l i on " i . i " o i ,. r ..' -, i. n trfr..,/r,/s )l I\l l- c u td t l rl ' \i r.n t I t\N l 1- ilcli.alcsii. lnldd.r), !l d./i.o{,ist\l dricatelc labs|rnrL.).1 r : i o c- rl . . rn s l \l li in lo n o \".i,p r e r l. i ;rff' l r''l i t-d'l T"r\l

gular, cit li Plural: desret; pantaloni /ld,ael l-- Iianeli) Ilannets l.pl \ \ ' tlanele lle .o.p -lcn nen 6 i ' , Losru m J. luin p d in llJ n' lel' r u"' pr d r ' ' r ' " n t J t . t 4. l: ,,.ulo n ';i;L:. | ;;:;i;' -i'',tt'i. : , ' r"i . : rp '.. 9'ro. ,, r',d r'1 pr ' '4bP"" sqro," dn nr s l! lr iJd ' du niil ronn - d nl' r l, l I clc nu rel)rezinfi rod'eInlelesurile sub_ 'scnsurile ailtate sn,t numai eremplii iclri; stanlildor menlionate. '3 Vez is j S 146. . Xa;;Diie 'strbsrantiaul,d,s. Liu..stc an llufal 6 vi ' i ii P ag. 51, l ^ola Vezi li $ t3 ti lr3g 24, nota t'

6lM . ri4 (: /.,".d r .,"..d. cositor , lablli, t ir ic heal- a rt! {sg ) (- o.u l.ie de cons.ne; nn bjddn), (pt.li l,..t,ri .r,, r,f f , l dn , . or . r r ' . r , , ads t t . .o5t,.," trn .$..J). t ntt a r.,J L, l o |. id. r f r , . t t ,,a,J. !:d.r. lyezi si S 16) s r 53 c) .Nunt.:lr dc culati a| la phral in.tleFul ..nuanl, tonu de ,\1o . .n . ..t , j i. / . , r . ar t , . r li_r ic / pr . . . I1e lorfs 10 pair t r|c rcds ind ,tu,i;oi -.\utlmn tcares. ,a. ale culorilor Lnele plulale alo numelordo culori au inlclcsurispeciale: . ,'.:: ,r /rr s i...ns ,,trt..r i.rerJ 1:rr pr r r ' I . r I ' nlanir llr : r f . o. t lol l: liainc alltri l0idoni .]c ltan.lii rtbirl han'e g.i, panhloni ih llaDetil grir lxi i | . ,, F ,, J. ..,, o... | , ,t.,. ilmsiil ir 15't .l/ Nurn"roase subsl.antive absl.ra.to oare,prin nntura 1or.si t nerrne r bi ,;i J' ilip-i'ed" pl,,r,l,\",r S llr..rap rrrrr.n, iir,r.l,.ut .t,...ner" .i.. .rn,. 2J...'.trlr.l,,\,d:uI,i.ir,lural;i ,l-,-rr: ,l orrhl , n, t-'l'r I La !1 ilil. l).auh:s) t- n lrumtrs tr. o leDpie tu{qroasil a tdlh ipt. t|un6) t: nn aderr"irl uh nnr i.tue .lpt. int.ttige,/.:) (. . intelig.nlirl d ,r.,nrJr | o mescnlrrr.l t!r. nEonn4!\) so manr* Itdzesr.s 1 'n , , , :o n. . q, i. nl J um "n , bn r p r J l , 4. r "i. . i 1,'t.r hrm ltr c / |, r r . i, ' I ' \ t r r . t . r pnum "r dt t r r I iol,l him a ifw ,!d5. inuncmlill r" r.,brt) c) Alte plva.le d,iftrite ca inlclar rle sing\hrelc Ns!./!i.rt,,. Ir,l.l (: jntormatii, ftiri, coDuni.'i11, nNliintirj, avtci

(r,1. f: a!rc (lisLfai)l lss.l I sfium dii tigarn; .ctrliri in, rtin,l,i. lomerl ll general; .cnusa xnri onr Dorl, n unei f6e. Ltrl i:.r:nuir-1 ircendiatc); 1: r uine ris. ,r oJn.s .f a la en enpte) {- .cnnia din soli, .iuin) 1 ,lildift marc ii linplii on o lrzurmirl pl.l i - (,azarme,cazimil rl L . c o n d n i l i , p u rl ff. l i nnl .-Li al i l ,, asp(ci 1rl uri cl N i:i:),' LeahnSs Lta.t:' Lrac.:i: j 1,.c l k J n i c n l l i : c a p a c i i al c) l ipr.l I l trt.n s ].l k a nd ' ts l 1: conl i ndLl iss. ir)'l l :0 1 L c l l .,,j .l i d u frh i i ial i ., j du.ul i r .t.l l l ' ,.1 \,,r' r-r,.L l .,i . . .r L U .; .. r.r rn,l I t:.,...l .,,. rr:--t-i . ' ' .!.r 1!1.) i : d i ..r!i i : !o z i l i u rd al i !l l lsq.) t- p o e c h e l d e !o L i .n i .hj . de .i i n1 .1.l l LIt.l L: brclcl. Iientru pant{lonil .' : J I r\'rri ij S 11 8 .1 1 t, l l l 1 . 4 sll,riantirul 6/d., are ,,hundnrds Dz.e o r oI llLrrxllt ,/d..: ta.l.idgc', lS t 2!i) ti .r I

NUMARUI, SUBSTANTIVIOR 5EI i, t , 1sir I ", q ' ' rsg ntddtp aq p Lhe VL dd k AsPs (Pl I , ro' :." ,"r I prort r ? {pl ,c tp t -r' r" p "L ! IPI rotk 1sg) : -. it" * g.,i 1 : s o l , r: rrr " n. i . !c i 1 i . .ur5 p r' 1 m i n i , tP re n ) i ' l \Ji ri I i i rc j d ' ,.s " d i n rrr t ' r' ' l L -t. L : o n o a r, .i n s t.l , ." " i r.:; .l i s rn 1 rr I' ^r' rm' rtl r t-1rrJ ob' i ' r,r.:' .n L i ti tl u i c d d "'m sp.' J /' r! f.nrrr un

Lil.h icadetnic.)3 \ FliL m llor i". m r r ir ' 'l 1: et ul m ed' ir 4 \ e r '! r d : l {' r i ' 1 l . lPnr ' i n' ' r . m ' di | - " poor t r i r I m l' , nalr r ' p. d' r r ' m i ' ons i' Fr J : ns lF' . i I om J gr ' r '. P"' r "r 'tl l. r nun' / 'n n r '1 a r l 'l ) , z inb r p l - " " b n 'r ' pr ls g. . ' o; . i. r l un r r I n F i n 'r ' l J - ur ur ii$ r I J ni' r ' .r briky'orLs. n gaswork s, an ironworls. a steelworks. the lrorks fonncil Toate pluralele de mai sus se construiesccri vrbul la plural cu cdceptia *ribstan rivJlor larraclr li itorAs, care se poi construi !i cu singuiarul ci d au sens d e singular. 19) Pluralul substnntiYelor care trati nationalitatca sllu prolcnien tr regionali. - Substantiveletrmidate in -s. ,r [i,J]'-s, ti +rc au acee'rtiIormi i la singular ;i la plutala: the lrognois l,lLcS*iss thc Fren.h th," Scolctr l're Iinglish $ ll')6 S 1;7 Celelalte substantive formeazi pluralul regulat in -s: the Czcchs6 the Danes Sobstanti{cle thc RomrnidB lhc Slaniards tre _q\t'des thc Turks compuse cu -man sa\l 4raman formeaze pluralul conform Dulchwomen Welshwomcn regulii de la | 168: aDui. hs oda n an Englishman -lirglishm{il r \\tlshNoman a Scotchman - Scoich!'c n d Cliinanan -Chinamn (Yc z i l i S ti t-t5 !) 20) Plur&lul de tmirilor alc anin&le. forma pluralului difcrili de a-) Danumiril ede animale au. in genere. aceea a siDgularului: lic riuckoo kippcr -!i g i - kiplP8 onlf gooss - cahcs - gf6e s 168 s 159 rl e zi s i s r 18. 12 8 e Bd oa'Hoturt\ t\' \@t Hatutrs, lJa@tuB ,tsr: lista de iitlu.i, decoralii de S u1. r u n \i ) l n l l Brrt. c u ooazia zilci Sale de n a.ile.c,.espcctiv h {t , co D ief lt e ,'ii,[if]r{,;i --*,*ttl;llt$usltllg**l',:'',"

50 l6n Mo /,/ l 1.lr .,rl.rr ti\" ,tir, i.... '..l srn:,. -i :r t. rrL .'1. .nrj,t.r.u r.. .. .1,", , r,r.l ..It i". l,-:\rt. ,j, atin.ntr. or., i' a nIDLrfr ol Fjlil ,4a I I rt . lr ' , . b, r , l r [r., i rp. .ou 1,,.,,,ai: ra.iors Jnnsl or i, t in ;. 161 ({...J rtrs. 109 a): Citela nrlxrnnti'e Au o sjfguri lorni srlrcr grrnrs l)entm singular si plurat_ satnron tu.boi, ptc. dcc. 162 r.jndeer d/ .\lt r(artile u o tormi rle pturat cu inrele! cotecti, idenrici cu n FF - r in r ' , -s utu i . n ,p " u .i tu r., d L " p t,,r .tng.ta d ir 1i ^ _,1p" n:, ,;; " " , 4 . r . nur Lr / r s . I,tri F ,, ,,," ,ri i ,l p i n d :\i .i ,ti n .t,a, i ., drnuni tH 6. " . " ,l.c hcre nnv /tsn in this rirer? J h 1. l?' . , n )q n t n i t! l t, rh : j L o a r.x I f tt.L | | 1t t d..a lit. r rl ?/ . . t r . h. 'lh@ 4 .." t." ,1 I ''." ^ ..,, r.. 'tU Ltluts' at lhe CaqraUjirn brools a,, r..r rin f. '.idr@z ruD ulr lron |rc sen aDd Uifrc o., atsol)l!n!n tt.\t, a ke pike &d..r s.,, " , /tsral on thc truc. ,, b e, ..,1 163 2l) Plualul substaDtivelor compuse. Substantil.ul comtrus csieformat, i ' , : r "r ,li', r 'rn Ll'rtir i\ nri "if,Jt .i u, , u t. " r c c i , n u lr" ' " u , in : ", ^ . . r, 'rF -l slalri\-ulprincipalPturahrlp .u t substinr,iletor,,,nnpi," ";n n,ni s" t&",eor; a""rt pu,,indu semrulpluraiului se numajta subsrani.irut ri put: p .,,,r,- marllal .oegn.\ gPrmar ,r/s arr)u.enl. ,c/-! s!:nel.l ra\y4ls r.rrrs plte nl ,ftdes to.bc e?rs oI mail /ddcr.s in taw ,i.s,at-ta{, ldlns-jn-lyaitins maids ot all-work r. n

. . m pl .tp o r:i r,, .:.. r, , u r rn ,i a Jr a,ti a.ti v I,n ti ng., :.b_ 164 Cind printre elemcntele unui substanl;vcompus nu fiqureazdun sut) stanti\-?rinci lal, se adaugir s la utrimut cur-int:' :::' :""", jil,':l -ii:'i t, l :;1i {"1 :,,"i :;;i-' ""1","r'i,1 i';Ll', i,'"i', ;i; i,, ;1r;;',i',-;r.;".;;r,t;; j.'"il :,:;l ;i.-:iil,l.:,fl 6< : t . 14r . 1 1 1 n ,f.ti t. , E, : 5 cAp.iori, ciutir. 3 ftr1s : slecii dc pilsirdy'. ',oi;r.:,, . *;J-,1':,':i:..il;.I,i"', ::i,i ll ",-li:il l"jil;:,:;:,.b:iJ:",.,' r r. l:,1d"11; ",i:; ',,1,4.me ;1;::';:;'i1LT,:,1,.ii ,',",i1 )1,1 ;r:r: l

trp m "b an . tFnn"li dredlals pl'6-/o"fs H - , ',a Jp ., p Jr."l ol Itpr "did \ud np a.r. - lhp $ df b ts4 r,, . ' , , LL. oI A $rrat-noh young maDt,L{ pu", iD' y , r , , r d. . ' r ' I or l oi. l r u. / r . , . t , ^, pJ t L, . i/ u"r , f r , i , t , , I . dt . r ood . n F r . , , / , ; , . j s merry so-raaali strJ d /,o'Es or I n . , r . , / o - . . . m . 'n r ^ . , - . . @t , Substantivele terminate in -ful qi -laadl tormeazi pluralut in,s: , up/,rrol o'o a nhr /,/. ni ton,l buLU"dJs rriDocs of ha.d/,r.oi n1r ot ,a,/odls lkra r,ot&/s r, ot m.,lh/"1 .^ o _r 'ar'd y $nY,/s or /rod?h r r , . s poor ' / , / s ^t r . , d, i ii1, , . .o.rti.odj .i touri!tj .a, Ud.ds oI rillagos i.ainloods ot NeeLcndc.s t nckloads of coul S 166 Substantivul secundar al unui substantiv cotllpus DasLreazitn serere S 166 {orma de singa/or, chiar stun, i , inJ are spn"d. rlur;t s0; cind .sre pr;.cd0L tuncr ia de idrcrir. - un num"ralcu.ens dF rlursl, deuarp.F.ti',J.nlinFstc ',r-.,iind i nvariobil,S r;tlj. r.]n,,ne',.{himbi tr'pturet:' a @o,n}.ush lhe glore departmcnt ,",\? - b! r ld ns sr? .lir t ins a D,oLkecl)or .t ./,s slro\i d /to a rr s l o D a i l ' h rl .s i r,l ,.n a thrcc'r.ac .oslun e a ttn mt&r, liclure . Fac_exceptiemajodlatea subsrantivclor secundarecare au numai forrna S l0? de p lural (S 118-129).,subsiantilole rare. inr,rcbuinlare numai ta sinsLrlar, .,r I, U Fa pro.lucn, ..,r fr Ii n".t1rp , I r,, ., a.iFSFori suberar te li\, ^'rtuzir '' ^,t,u.F,rir m.i,nulrccu\i,,,. i,, sfairt d, .Lmi,it" uti,irt". Fi.,tir ,- in '' nr0i ha.\ent. ,bior';i .r,h:ran rrele obi_.r,uirts r\ind .err" J" piur.l: 'lhe ko,ds a .\s.,s r.ndor Aiants , p I n Ld . \ , , r r a . . , , i o n -\e l)Ibti. n ,/,r,i. I \ . r , . , r t ndn l' n frJr . r n|' , , , t . r nir , t . i,k s , o n j r b 5 a umulicdtian ndian /rrt,.s airDlaDc rhe Cl,,rcs and Jn.s bishibuting Centrcs n! 1qr s f , r bt . t , inj i t ' r L 1!e Lo rlor , ar i Th. i " ,lpdrds Drhibition ol P O r j r i n i , . .n ,'r' jl'^ 4"" s saL.ltiLe an I t\ | | r-p tr lt 'Ar.hii.eiitL,r-

ivezi ri S ,t5 :t61) Substantirole compusecu elmentul ..nan" sau .(tvomat',. - Cu l.intul nt.1t san '&omanprimefte semnul pluralului &tunci cind ste elemntul prnr c ipal al unui substantiv compu,!. Iiind detrninat dc u adjectiv sau de o altn part e de yorbire adjctivati: bnsnrcssromdr t'hliqatuln .ongress@ndl -bdsinessdorua charvomt congless0ond4 g 168 l Cuvintelc substantiecle ln compune.ea -/,1 si ,oad au devcnil. de lapt suli{e, i l i r rora intfi sinL .dNid .ute r r d. r iv al. (5 Ji9)- Subslantirete aslle l lormate erpridl : Recura nu se aprici fn c;v,,i s,rbsianlivelorca: Getndn. Mlsstitun. \'annan, . Att na\ notuen, Tu.cainan,.at!nh, ra?iwn e1.,.. ,iare.deii ternin{ic ln -mon. nu sini llnrlirsc in Imna englezllmodonri .r $rnisnii{l rn(n.

n rer.la nt,n nr Indidr@z: ,{n rt arnrs ,{n o i NrrJ : hant t , n -!rfi - lnilirri.z rt rrns -rrn 2. , of \ r llngljsh,,,rdr louuadan lr is hdo, r d , r nilk d! , f r n rc.dlcrr.,ra, toli..n rnal sto sfom(r lhglishdlnn lotet ,?rr --lrislorttD -rtj]ktranen. necdleito,'.r Policesatnn slorl .vro,zu tGS Denlnr a arnta disiincl.ia do Ci d s bstantilul t .att san Qamatrser\'esl.c din, tian (sau .fo,ra;) -. substt$tif, ambii teimeni sexr ln formelcompuse primesc sem nul plurfllutui: \ronr0r.ou'rilloB rncndrilncn npniolk l, s l men nrilliNrs $cnscfrarls nr c D s ir gor s Iirtmen nnLsnriars aratn (lislinclia de se\, Cind sribstantilul secLxrdar t/li/r : .slc ltiNit n..r rlsi dc substtrrtivulprincipal semnrl ph1lalului ,dn ,rt,r erleN lix d cN d,-killcs 1?0 Sllirstantircl{]comluse tn ck\ncltul 'ifoot'J. 'rtootrh" sau "ntouse", ca su} su u'rr/r.: stanti\e l)rincitale,foimenzri !lJhhn ir !J. res|ccliv 11.1// la*t..l hnli /,,r lor/i?l 'I\\n\I l.,t l.vt)ur. lielrl ,,0r1.", tti! trt ,lilli /.,'r, nrrntu. Di, -licli tttJsleth nrilli /rr,r $ 1?1 (lc lir. Cind lrsi a(esl. substarl;\e au 1'alor're .,11j., lelinrin invariabile s ensdo plurtl: chiar dacir au tn'!h^.hrs /oorriltrc t,ltrfr rr'ri|flLsl! '?.,i/rl)fuslrfs l,orD, .s l.,,r,!nrl 's thnrtir\ - /oorst, ps ,,,{sr Jroles /,rrP hole , r or r r s ' I r r n r i s , r or . w, s ( l! { ak , r , , J . lr a! - - , r or : , lr a" s s 172 \ 1:3 Titulaturilc (omt usc. (nrora irtrn un sulslBntil'determirrat' d) Lr tituldlurile in con,punerea pirii Je !'o$ilc adjettivale.substantirulprim$te de ur d'lic,tir.r|Ic.,ltF semD l plur alului: nla, l' ..'mtr . t," ' ttu"t .t" "1 (.noa1 sau ,orraris cirrt{i,, ;r;naals .ltf!& d'alairesd r,r.rild Dhd a 2 Ind nrrn n: I otrrd. a ',n, rn l.d. Srtrr 0r ^ o, ,:l iirre,r.rs senerul zortries lnbli. llurorl,c .Jroeis ' o n n ..:L t o n P .' 1 1 ' ' ! ' r't ) r I s.rsD7.s arlrs tl sd,seanb_nl_la$' strgeart_mdJ,.s

Ia h l {'\\ P\ '0 | .rct r"' = ={ s . onr f r c ial. \as . ar c l&0r t onr el! ur I ndi i l e . \a dt, rirzbo i. ., , , r ! . I nllel t l1. rt o4t."t-. l j q : r , ) +r I '.

NUMARUL SUBSTANT1VELOE 69 ultimul ouvint se pune D./ La tilulaLurite compuserlin doun subs[an1,i1'e. in ge nere la plural: b.isadier s?a,fnlsl | ,ld. o t.a.o t. tt' 1i'2 .."n t licuienant .olor.lr li- . _. Loti\ Chnnallors T.ord lI /-" l. l\ lI a - " .\ l7t deli cuvhtul cnre a primit somnul dar d/fdlorugeneral sau dircctor g'cn.J'llls, c slc rdjecrir. ?luralului 'rn .l Ciler-a titulal,uli conrlnrsnu amindoi rermenii l a llurnl: ct!. Iinlshtr Tenrplab Lordisj Justioe.{I-ordi!) LicnlcDarts. I l7:t umelor pmprii, l'hrraln numelol de fanrilic urneazn i 17C l2) Plurahl rcgulile p luralului substanrivel.rr conure (:\ 92. 93. fB. 106). cLr c\ceplil trnninnliilo r -o ti ,. care se menlin la pLural chiar atu fi chd siDt prcodnt.e ll. ll(N $ t|c lla lit r r lh. \ \ ' nllis . s is a ! t lc Co\ c r ll! I . r lI s t [ c ut r r r or tl!' \\nllirl the ]irrli.J (lind numelede tanlilie estef!ctedal de un l,itlu se p ne sennul plufalulLri lia la nunele profriLr (in ]nrbtr vorbitn). lie la de unlirea titluhi (jn timbu ofi cialn): Cortrade Jones f I I | 1 t ll,. Qrruade "/,u.sd (iidtba rorbiti) doadd.r JoDcs i limb{ olicirli) Ca,nrad.s 0. Jones nrd S. Ilurphy | e \ I r . 11, . r t i n , l , 1 \ o r l ' t : . ) 1t ". . - . I t i. t . ,. , h J o . i d r r llr 11r . . / , ' . o- ' . | | n r l J r o r b i i S f77 \ 1. , .dr \ r.,n , lrali lrirte :i sora . , r " o, : Colon.l Crosbl |.rr".a,,",. r:","n ii ,,l,.'o,|': I tl' lli,. .t,,.//, lli nbr \urlil:1 1rt, v: ," -mi,r, r,nb' ',ii .l' , , ,., { ,6 . i ,,,, ,r ,. v_, { rtttt .neus 1 lhc H{leI ,m/r/:': t tho i,/,lr^ llrl.I - l l , H " l .L r' - Llrc two llolonel C'orrtls ^ \l ' sti I t/.,u"". L ,r .J r -i P.oi- llcc{l { n.- ir r,"..,,,rr. t.,/.b..r,! , ,r ^ ,\" 7 ;../r r. . nn , , ltccd and Conpton (s r7e): Prenumcle are la piurat s (sau s torrtc rnr in pri{lezarontemporonrl $ l?8 our Uar.fs. our llll's t he l$o Denier s i! s a u llades t h. t No D e n i s 'r

ln acelagimod se srrie pluralol conform regulii la prenumele masculine ,li lenin ine: Jefircls, Jerri6, Johnnids eic.: Ivics, Jennics, Judics etc, dar ,numele de luni au: Februarlcs sau Februar-Ys; Januari$ sou JanuarJs; Juucs sau JulJs. 'Ii I r" r , "' l I i ar ' ir' ri ' :.\.ti.oiu rrns.inrrc r , r inr r az ir in( , 7Lnn, , . li, i nt:i liiat:: "IIah! B t o t h o i '.

80u Numele compuse din mai null.c substarrti'e proprii sau dintr'un nume pr.triu + alt cufinle p nesc semnulpluraluluila ultimul cufiiti r - l' - "t H / . 1 { r ' n' r ' l' .r ll \ lr\l l HL- u o '- $ , r J - 7"n. l' L "| Tl,.I ue like Ja.k irlhc-ro&j s r79 I r,ii rdopl" s..ru -s,r ., rr "l I,l,rr'l'rlri p"nrru jos F '"iirorin', .itr .u Lqra,,l,\p, nr' un", da i .i in .azul numelnr lirrile d rurbir' , I,oprii "rp fr nilie salr al prenunelor: Tne d.isq's havo askcnthe J',s's io dniterItc o.dciad t hree 7'0n and J.t.u;\. $ reo Numclc protrii striinc au in genere,h limba enslczn.pluraiul numelor proprii eng leie;tli (vezi S 176 1791cu uuclc exreplii in cAzul terminaL,ici'y: ure llnlenss lhe Cnesia tlrc \ie.us.r ilre l)uDotrh ihc Borsirs t\e lloi',.or the Sifili.s thc LorenzoJ the I'i.olerii.r tle \cros i1i. (uri.s t l,. Julios the tiol,ti.fllis ure Apollos lhe nl Grturos Ex( e p li{: th l,ro C.{..li, the rlt./l/.i, l}. lnrt c1,.. s 181 Numeralele snbsLantivate 23) Plulalul rumeralchr subst nti\at. scrise.u liter urmo azirreEulile subltartivelor in pli'inla lo nnrii pluralului: lrYc.strr,s Ifu lli ilht:' nr t le lt r . , r i. J ol Lhc llt h 4 , . t u r v .. t/,.|l. . , . . r, /' Thc gif ls \ r f r P Fr ilnis iu , r . J i n d ^eo (i.N rre il :rr.r and s/r/rrss . Tlt roNing lll! . 1: J j 1liri I146) 1\ : er i ii i s r39 | 183 Sorisecu cilre, princsc s sau 's la plur.rl: Yox . 6' r and 7C' i ir i s m r ids f , l l s i r , r a D d 1 0 s J ior). ln l, lie J o' r oJ l, liis ir ' t r r r v lsau lhc l16r ' s ls { u t he 7r 60 J l 24) llurahl la plural: 's rumelor dc litcrc. lJont roll ronr /'s.r Sh. I on ne!.r \ r r ile \urnclc de liter. prinlesc in gnere (,mssPs hef /'s. lt as s " \ it li l\ v o s . r . Unii scriitori ornit insii apostroful: \\'ril. "l.all' Niur 1,\ro,s. la Numele d e litcrc pot li scris plural;i in intregime,astfel: "Ll,c lNo e.s. e/s, .11s. .."s.s. eL. "r s 18{ Plurahrl cbrcf iatiil.,r se formeaze ad6ugtn25) tlurahl abreri:rliilor. du-se in genere un -s la singular: (ss.lC.l' Pra(tili.ner) (plI C.P.s i: Gener.l \1" l'. \l P. r , \' l "r P: liar'rn I c | ., l .r (pt. l.jr'r,g [, .,. ' " lssI p ,,. 1: losicafd) hl ) p.r s 1r " Tatu a\ti. J.'rl: lm l.l 1 m.1". 1. , , , , ' r - . , r ' i. J i. l\'/.: ol i. lo io \ , nor . I '1,., ,r' ' .\ ". t \ "t at a, at dc Utlttr.:i ^r , : b"r

i. ' i D. . , o1 ancric.tnii. , i 'tl...:. , '\ r 'r l . l v . I 'i r '. \ ll i . t 1.1, It. 1it I r '' d ' " 1 , ' d,i l

NUII.{RUIj SUBSTANTIVELOR 61 . I .' r'. .: lL. .!.r U t iq.l rol. , si -. s! I lb. -t 1 \ 1r _! I L, R'. ,.o : \l L r ''' . r. \ '.O 1 -. .ap itJl) r - ( r , 1. ) c aps = l,on r) - { Pl. ) hs {: Nou nta , n) - ( pl) M t s (: volume) - (Pl ) lols l: ao rFte ) - ( PI ) im ls i: l,u nd .edlv eis ht ) - ( pl. ) c s t r r: nound < libra) - {Pl.) l}s (: rArd) - hl. ) v Ll\ {: c.mtd, , ll - ll, r . ) ' , os : t)ro lhF r ) - ( nl. l br o5 c" e r. l c al O r r : c 4) i { plr C. S{) . O l ?r ' \ lon I nt d"r , - ( p l ) \ I O s -\l"Li ' \ fl O s \.r.r:o m m n. i. n"d O il6r - / ol. l r pl I P r r 's . Io 5l U i p. l' o! : 1 ' \ ' lpr . lnsi pluralul abreviatiilor alcituite din ilriliale Lrii scriitori formeazd (l18 8); s) ii:r1ind's (apo6trof la sinsutar ,,f.\ \ LP \ N .C .O .' S P.G.' s sau ini!,ialn: aile1-n abrvialii dubleaze la pl ural litera linali .r l u s. s au m s . ( : m i tr,s fu j p t) { Pl) } { s S L= t , aqr ) h ' l ) rrp . /o ' \ i t r ol os r i I P d s ' s ' \lte doun alref ial ii au un plural special: : \ li. t r r r 3 L l l \ l l " s s rs ' .: \1 . \ li l r " ' o l \L ' r ,m " ' .. . $ 185 \l p l " rLi LIP!orl ,i rr , Ptu r x lul c llnr i p.l r!i d r v o rb i ro s u b .l a n l i \a l c ' f or n paz , d " .b i " .i p l u r0 l L l c o n to rm rpgul ri ganp' el o , sub. s lE6 :' . - : i . d o r ( $ {11 1 0 6 ): \rrs iem pf . . d t r Puhops * a. il pot s / r l {s t {A d ! ) il.ir. nslfcr ({d !.) i ,,,i ri..a voltr i/s'arrl ,rri (-conj.),oI you ilirs a;d ,'rl,/,m. (^dv) l l,s iil, I'{s"t till oi ar." and lr,'zs fh. dsiris .1 l,istorv. (Ad!.) -ir,c ad's anil z,es tin Pa.li{dentl. {-\dv.) Pr pr . ) a nd .oa " s,r ' \ r ' , gl' p, l ' d. . nr lr ar -:c r:o ( \ u m F r 'l 9 ', \ nt o,L 1 ".,\:n j l. - r r oom ot . ' : r " _|" t l ' r a' lvPrb ' i- d , ', / . id, / jr' s n ad la an inl"r m r nat l. " o_v oi "h ''Ihe llower is oDe ol the \rhal loi onllrnsn! -a Eorrgy, " N lai-crP. thev aE " t rele cuvinte primesc 's: i l r $ a s leit ur oll t P rrj l i r " f,l l rro r" i -'. r p i\ ' - us " olr p n d t.l l s .n u s tl , l fd r- r 1n p..hd1got I' o s d o .fo ' r d " .. s 187 P " ;a _ d P n ," ssa. mo.l npl " a' 1nl L nii -.criitori tntrebuinleazd 's ca semn al pluralului la orice cuvint ca.e '.tc u n s ubs t ant iY c o mu n : 't. l tt- : " fd i r rro : l l r J o . r: Ll . ll" p ro ' i n u " o a ' ,Io u r rs r oJ,os ''. .ri; r J ', l P . J nd oi l l i s s o rl J " ies | l pul up { ilI r' r .v r' r' tn ,l ,h -&.a r .b i t" a s a tl th t* i o r 'e $: r ' l; ' , 1in6 o " r nrrial : naiuscxlti. !u ; s r u r lr . f s r s l a l . :,:u d anr ( ' ! . ' dum l r. ;,lfl.lraria cnliitlot.arc nu sti l, dc lapl sxlrst{ntivenu s. conlordoazi regulilor _ i.rri. sftst{ltirfrof: rort

,rlrr';i nu ro..riLli.:; .arefulu:. li n (reft.Ui:s ', :;i l,rorrli S i: 61. s 188

62 s lil9 ll,rl l9l \T. CAZUI, SUI]S'TANTIYNLOR OHN (ASE OF NOUNI) unui l,l'rrr.itlrrrlii grtrrrslo,-(:," ra n,rm-sl- Irm" . r p ^'ili .d,r j' . prirr ,:1 " '" rr'14 ,rn'rr0 i'jru:r',LrLLd.lr! !!ln . "i\,lF',r ul-i I ' a , J r n n , n u pp li ln limbr cngtezne\isti loarte puline pnrli dc l orbifc care rlr aslezr pentru diflrfcrlierei cazurilor, si Ace:t('a smi: pron&'i tu' forne (Leosebil.c o?'-.in l.l;ril J lr^nrlr'l r,ro .i ''rb nli l ,.t.'.t"t . p-.'tr"l" i n rpn-r' Irrn hl r14' u\-r' rprrl '. . ' t t l t nl . ll! l i i l F .r/-J l a . ' r:ri " ' rr$ r , rr" ' , .r l, r . ln7; ! r " . p ' n l r' r n o ^ In , ;.. l - l r' r rr' pu?r.rr I' e1 '1 tru _S nr il' s i d rti v )j c er it e |1 )'l r bos c b i re d e l rra rn a ti c r rrrn ra n l . c| IIc 6rc .rnr' ) fazrrri - l romrni rl l \" r . , . , ,,j r. l i \.r \^ ,d :,\ ftl _a I, ir , i. I ' .' ,n.pr " .r," r f i J rr i r" ' fi i r" ' r ' ri . ' rn r i .. I i t " r, i r' ' " 'l m , r ior it ! 1{ ] a qr a m a ti (i c n i l o l c a o Io ti rn i rr n i:n| i nal i vul oi l i oumi l i n ci rnsl ! tnl i i noninal.irul Toc.ttil') ,\,rtri/ttlt irt) .)l Ad(Lr.ss ( nl r' 4 I ct l tti 1 .,.t . , 1 ;,r" l l llll , ,, d a " ,.r : f tn .: ta,.t l l tr" i ' pd' ' l l ,o .r' i \' ,,..' r , , , - r e, ' , 1. l r' -.r' r" ,rrr' l ' r.' rl ' -l ' rr.l "F ( ldru l n l e D L rz rti o l d l u e s te . p ri n url nare. rLn al ci rrri l ca crz carc::c n , , , ' ! oz t t ] , r . l ' 1,i r' ' 1" l r I ,. " i r' n ," /i ; , , ; - r | . . . , r' i ' iL , t , lil i r , ' l' . rrz u l p rr:p o z i l i Lunl si nl ades.ori re:ui i l c sun un lr \ d. .' rL r7 -i rn l u . i l rr -ri sirNur nunre cdeNrir: t:o.;t abiccli; (Oli.x:tire (:.ts.) Ca ,sicnzul prepoziliolll1l' r i. i , r ( f s la nu e s t u n (a z d i s ti n c t d e c e l e patru cnunerdto nl ai sus. cr ost' t (liroft. indirect sau piepozilionaldupi cum o arat'a (rrzul fotrr|hmentllui numclo s:'t c ulnrtul a/rjeciire. vcnind de la 0rj.d. eare tnseamnn inru,.i (Dic,:t Objai)' in d:trecr (Indit\1 Otae.r/ sau pfepozilio ii\\,r .,"'pt""1".t ( PrtposittonaL 0bic a ). tJ pcntrD tn.te Lfl urj l e i rr afrfi ,l e S Lr bs L. an ti v e la ' i d o s i n g u ; fn fl f e s(1 ,.1 ; r ' , ' r' u n " h J e " o : " on," t' (( onn' n .o: I ru" nFr n" l r' , r " , r ul r r nr f \iorare intrebuinlate, cr sau fnr d prcpozilic. si$ de,tumirea (le. nominatil (\' ezi !i 197) (l azul co un nu ! , LLir i! Df eD. ,ti o n a t..l a tn -.a u a r:u z a i i r .. :l i unIU r ,' l " s zrr IF rr si nl ni l i " i F' u' ,rz rrrp r r..,i I' l ,r.z i ' I lt)1; 2) Dccliuarea srlsttntir[lui (oi rl,.l lirs (to ' l h .) roy I tl.h itdt nhn : |L: t l t n i r t r t r x $ n t i t . r n g. r on d i , o ldirriunr. r..c!'! s ll lit . r\i 7i S 2 r 4^t ilnli. s lli Di loaio or i, iD . u\ i r l i l t r e s h f t i v ll: r rr l,mn uri.. u adic c t iv s nls t an r . u n s u 'n i t i n l i t t r r b d n n i i n i l i t si o lroporilie, o t)nrtr din {oeaslr sau o nfuti :vfzj l3! . ! \'t,xi s :r s .

{l Obsetralie \.easti formi unici pentru lui Forn): :.\nn - se nume.ste fatma cam ' l h r" ' / \ . 4.) $"i '"9. " (Ddt.) I il,c ga..lcn. G.) 6an. ta .:.) Bo !,6 n S 197

toate cazurile - cr.r cnccplia ge jtivu nd (Comtnon garc ilrc l,o! a p.n. Na.y seesa Drs in e l re re l

Cu prepozitie: He is a lriend of tLc bor ne\t doo!. 1 sa\e a pe1 tu nF boy. E x ( e p li e : ge n i L i v u l s a x o n : TIc Dos'slci is in I'is pencil-hor /C.D.) (Dat.) NOMINATIVUL 1TUD \OIIIN,\TM CASril) s r9s 1) Defilli,tie.- Nominativul este cazul subicctuluil, al numelui predi- S ltt ,t i\' .,are deterninn "qubictul (rlunc prcdicativ mbiectir' -. Suliulitl ,,,,tl.n1. nt)$alapoziliiloracostora.Elrist)undelaintrebnrileutro.2(:cjnel'l .:iifr2 (: car el) sau (,ldt? (: cel). 'I' Iu nr lii. \. . i n " ti ru l h r i .r' ri d J p ' \ 200 \ 2(ll r) subicctsau partc din subiectul unui rcrb la un rlod personal: 7 . , r ". Tl. ' "Il o I I ' a' l\ ' m , ' h' J,1 , " .r t 11,"I1or nr ! join d I ool.r r \ p . ' \ll ihlt n.rl ol .drl, {$ i,heirs. ii\ ,, nurrlo prodicatir. care detcrnini SulJjutit,e CanpLcnent)| Shc is nr otl,. subiectul (numc prcdicaliv suL;er .s 2ll2 Thc nc\L ii,ctu is l,lrc iDLc.laLional radio nriir. Tlose Fho died jn the cause ol ihc p.otle ale l...es. ,:, apozilie sau parte din apozilia unui substantir (sau a unui echiralenl. il a cestuia)care srn h nominativ': likcs my novcl. -{da, l,is dazgnr,/, _ This is }cn's trtcl\Pr, Ired Pork.. Dr. U.,. Aaad oi Ure English Dptblnent jA urc Lnife$il) _ ol Ohann, is now in S 203 d) subicct al unui ljnitiv care frce part din prcdicat in eonstruclia n\n\iti\ no nirltit, cu infini.tia3 : o o o d .r."n.. . r / t r i s l p o ..J o D c " rl r I " r , , l. ," d " .r.. / En'3rr h ," ,a .i ,r,, t v. e, subiect al unui parLicipiu prezcni, care face pad e din prdicat tn con slr'uc,tia numiti noninatie ctl larticipiua c/. \d n o tn p ,t /d q n g , L o .- . a r d:$n. 1he .pacc roci.:t \ras s:rtched sodring jnto th. sl<J. \ 20I 5 205

l lacc cxccptic sulic.trt h razul ncnzittiv al unui rob la o lorrnir in,t*sonrlr linli n?ti vzi n laf t ic ipiu) lS !5 0 rr). i \e sa { : 1t 39 b. I Y.zi 1ljt 5 . ' a Yczi S 51i11.

04 $ 20(i lorneazi subiect al unui verb la un nrod irnpersonal cu catc ttl1 | nom;nativ ab sal r\\tr1ilrd. pl' r r 'd . 'r 'I o r 'l r " fur fons 207 -" *i" \ t . d' p ' i m o r ar io' $: -ih" , o,' tron,rr'i nr' rr 'rr' ;;;: ; . r J ," ' "* T'i;";ii on the $irerss. don'c" on tonisht ",1, I 'aizs &tirul-locattv 3) N ominetivul Yoeativ ( oninatire of A.dbess) - Noni sau un rucrlr r ura nir denunqt e o liin,n ci ^;;Jl"bstantivului Is lhat You,rdnd': An". < ' ; P. . 4: ld" n Nominativd 'rocatir'nu are rcl sinLactic' ii {Vozi S 1e2l' ri,.y,i*nT r,o"o. ::, ");;t,i f",; ",X.H",,' :r " ;,,,iro s l Ft " r P {o u '208 ::Us 210 i1l GENTTIVUI' (THll GIiNIT{VE C'\Sn) Ic'rib'rlul'ri -\prirnJ in ori"'ur rirrdr'0''1r llclitrir ie. CeriiIul."z l'irrl ' /'n'" pr;rIip'llri' pnprira i"a 3r"F 'r r L .f '"'pund" ;rr 'pbxl't h 'ltot t rrrr' t"'uil's"r i,-i t "l ur.',.i e\prirrln dile2) fi c.t ii.-- Genitivul are {le obicei tunclic de illrlx'rrEl rite r,rpL'rtur'i,dintre c :rre cele rllai curentet sinL urrndioarela: possesstue arata pos'rsrunea: GenitL te.'l a) lt)nitirul pos.sie ('the .lr.h's t..is iliis ,rr""r""', rol."" ihe s'/@'l'lillrcr1s rcd ties ilie d4ts ki tlcns erprclsi(e of dc|cnlloLr '/'ar r ,l'l \ ll3 b) ! titittl aparlonrL.a i UrP \lrtt alrartenenlci (fhe G'nitit'c ) attiii , / lhe .drr tltc k'J of mI t) lenilir L i raditii (fhc Genitite lJ2rcssingf&nil! irrudirea: NLr's Urc tr"0' s' .U5'r sor the sldo{ o/ grcat ^ 'rir'.

ftlutianritip ) rtt\ "- *i,ljlil:li:{if"i'J,i,1X1"il;,,[,',H,;1ll#:i'::' s,'DeLo.lv's adni.n[ion rha .lJrirg af the bdbll fi'r#l#,"::il;:l: "' ,'","1;1.fi:i':"11s'i'f:ill?:,1{li,",;1'H"" r r r0r ho*e 3'[i:i;"r*'"'ifi:i,"," f:J};i']'ij"'t?''!dffi rr''- r;:l r' i': ii ;#l;r' :ir"iiri'""'i'i'i i:l; r,, r ;'yl ;+l;:il:'l;,' i.:" iii"i;" r ni |,,,,irl "i"t,..., :,:.iljlli,i,;,i.i/1li;:

CAZUBI 'N CARE ANTICOLI'] LIPSE;T! 115 J,OCUI, ,\RTICOLUI,UI 1) \mbele aflicolelre.edd substantivulsau al,ribululacestu ia: $ ;6e s 570 S i7l tnainteacurintului whole, dar dnpd all, bothl, 2) lmbcle articole Eta.u rrire. i ust: The |hile galden wils in bloon. I sdrked at )t lot a @hDl. eeek, .1ll rtu siuden ts were pPsent,l Ballt (the ) ptetts weft Eeated at ttte table.r T h" sl .dy o r 0 r'ilp. , ur p r s qd; t p t h" \ bps t lhin g l o f X o r . U " saN o d're n ,,um ldr or ShaL"DedF Dlr \ s . s Thjs is t;s, ,n, house I $as lookini ior. {: io cmai) li. is jlsi aa ordjnaly bcd'sittjrg'room. (: nirnail 3) Cufintelehall rsidoutule urmdlcde articol cind reprezintl mnsuri: S 572 slnt holf a doze eggs ftaf d pint ol bc4 ldto rmnute's silence toit rie bottle was em ply. dolble the srn daubte the d.ubb the ^nmbet si,ze lYo paid dourk ,n, vatue. . Sjnl Insa lr...ddr. de .rrticol atunci clnd lormeazd un sdrstdntie comlus u rd " cu "ub.lrn'i\ ul urmSlor: 'npwA ' ltu hLtt-ho ) a.l lturl ' \\. sp n t d t l"L an| 4' t t / D, f r F1oing. We heard ,}l d,&rr4 iecl. ol the postman. The word hns d d.Lblc nca\ing. S 573 ,\ se compara: sdu \Jcdnrl) toll a 1 , , l, daaj r , m . 1ld' "d ' oo' r ibc dm il/ 1 "diu / i . a ialf-la lt diu i o J '' l,!r:piJ ni. r ' d |ber r . r , h;]J hoLda! 'h P rve "v \, par hp d lor i l huLl a hat t uo! I n l ' s p d " t r s . / ' dl/ I " / oi r &y in s "or ld n d . Th ,t.p,D Thuadav is a ldl noltdd iii' ii'i i" ir"et;';i"-td" . rhehalthotiday VII. CAZURI IN CANE ARTICOLULIIPSU$TE Rcguld ge erali Nu prjmcsc articol: lt s.rbstenriu"l.ir''rab"inl-lc .u inlFIF t rpfalf\\l 2) subFtantivelecare au url caracir de dn;cna,t [NN] s s?i gonoralnu primescarticol; au S 5?ti 1) S[bstantircll]numcr[l,ilecu in.tsles ,alego riF i.'rc u rme t o a rP le . u b . . -q rrro Jrr a r t i .o lu lzpr o .- ln arp u.ta " ind sint lnirebuintate cu sensqeneric: dl substantivele care denunesc dDslld.itt [NN] (S 35)l -B.tu tlJ s t r ut h. nut h h bpout ! . ' s ill er r c r i / . . la,sd,r'u' r 5 s 5?7

l ldj{,0tirele d,l ii Dod nu se const.ni.sc co aru$]ul nehofi.it.

t!; p \n ri nrr ' n1l ' l pm^nrul t n ttiLr Lt ob: t ir I th O b i t' " G n i ti J " t F n ' r -rbr' r: L ,l ' a l 1 ' s u l" ,,';',i .,' 1, : ' ; ; ' ii '" ^ , i !-i n " /O' e 216 x;,:t:i,t{,ir:'i " 0f I ri*IHll:jl ,,",, i" n{ f ! hlY ;1"*Ji",i";li;3:fii l)ur is hm f it f) D60iptit'! Genittu') (les$ie sr$Ftrnlivut linlti.rnl rltsrriptic('Ihe "' S 917 uneisinrple \ tls roLni Genitit't)ayil1rl ':) lnitirrl alra:itt'('llt( t ppositi t"' substantivuL detrrr"nar: proprii .p,,;il. l.,ri'i,r,,ilz"aznprin rririne c{r:' l+'|rP' In l'r'rr'li' l' p'ttti!:r t lh'Pnrt;t't. .1;r;ttr l,) - rilt '11 ' rl i'r/rnrr" l"r ri: it Jp|iri\ ia l; rn'l ir'r'purrliH'r\i nr i"',-r'1.'.1,.. "'i'l'l ""' ll'i,;lr':'ri",,i"'" 1,,'liljlii":lJ:i,1,i,,,,, "f,iirJ' i;l'iii,ll"l'jiij," "-,,.rr,"';?1fi lii: !i:'iiljil,ll"lj,lilJu'*,r illi,,il,i'";::ll;t llf' i'i''iil,'l",ilil'i:f''* lll",'':i'i["li'Jl""li (Tht: {;t/titir' i) y itiral itl]lttunll]tnal. sul'trlutbtllui! dP suferlatl\ : crprimn rroliunea of Gt1tLalkn) S 22u se tratlr(e iI gc ere in ;l) l'r.rdu{10re. (}lrnitivul dio linba erqlezi liniba r orlAld pu'l: -" ",1 et!): i (ge itivul posesival apurteneDf at inrurtifii *'it " "" '' ' |i, r"".. ''.,1 t t',':,;;,1'' ' . n '' ' " ' " '.', '"i l t . ' ^t',"';,-' ' rlf S s2l q 22t i'l:'i,l,",il{"i''"'""1'ilfi l1''i.ii"":i'o-r i "l,i.'f,ili'i\i.,.,,r l!i"i.'il" ll^{.ii'lj1;ir iti\. des$iftiY): .?f ,, (|(n,struc1,iR + substantrv(sc I !13 o'0""'''"' n,",r i:'ii;1"!Y,"il""i1{ il'l;l',J"iii," i ll*rl.-;:',;i,,t,, I'j,l) ilii.1'";.T1".,"l' ;l"ilt", l),;il"tiili:i'5,",,.,l'rliiii,i f1"i1,i",li",ll',,, ')il'J,#ii'lii,)':"lii,,'!" lariiliv): ..1 fulintele ilinir', din (parliti{) (selrili.|\ 22{

'''',,1'"'" ;';,--"",, '' li i]"i;' "'," , '',' 5 cranratica ltmbli e'gteze 'l ': 1,,:: 'i "-" 'l' 'i"1 "' i 1i'-'" ;,,s,niri*,ui i)l ,ij:*::pjf:,,:i?1i::r ,i'lli:,',i,{','3:1ti"l;,,'' r:1rirn,i "' ,.."

6 0M S 225 dJ o apoziti (Fenitiv apoziriv): the dt.v of RuctL at l= ol\ut Duclresi.i) 5i.. "rdlr4's Park (.- rJarcut Sr. Ja cs) cJ un adjectiv (geniti.!' dcscripr,iv): .,. r : , " . - l o , ,l tt,. | t :a .t. I , . . i rd e i r J.ir 1 to , tr,i _. thc Isle o/ Md? (: hs'na ltanl thc monUi o/ Jondf, i:lnDa innudic) S 228 S 9P7 4) trolllll. Genirivul are in linba erglezn d.a d fart .l ,\. !.nitiral s.oor (sau ft\ior.f)i B. gti;iti eul p-epa:i1ionut. s,rrxor\${rJ c,tZUL pos}istr -{. ctrrtlrtul (?riti stxos on\rfilu 0n posstrssr!}j (,tsE) S 298 S 229 Forlrlli. - Cenirivul saxon. nrrnjjt. ,\i cozul posasi!. ceniri\ui flc\ioxrr F"L ,gpni iirl .i'r" i . . . r, , rn : : r rr| ,.2 ,1 ..t.r.,iri,-t.r dir t:mL1 r0rm :1r fln ll-1,In,. - Fi. n r;mJ.itr r \,,hirlrii ,,F iri! .,.0 . -r:t,./a Ll , 1) $ingutar. La s;rgutar. r:azul posesiwsc tormeazn adilldndu se s $ SeO I"porllul \), la lormHuH nu'nirI ir .i,,:,u11' .,r1. , t,'jr,"" ;rd.l.t ,,. t, ,.1 , subs lant[rulrespecti! s.: tontind sdn nn Ln -s.. tn.r .d ,p's m.mllN Si. ?r"Das'.c f{osriiel C/d,,rd.-. r Lr(rltoir.dia ,i.ldrs's atrd It'.rr's riol.cls ,ll.! s fransisto. radio r,' .r's hools rlr .trn"nr.s herd otr. s,',se,seAss Btan he';' .t)i1\j th. Jel8. 'r lerd4t .tu]/fr,,.r iim.latrlc tli. huEe/i.n s lail s 231 s 2I! 23e Er cep lii Primescn r, 6i ,rtu!trntul : linaln nrripc se teniinn .u suretul tti . _ ! iu substrrtilplp.r ,aror srlabn 't) trj tz t: C..esls' lreasu.s ,J cjtel'a substantiye curintul s.lA.: lsir' tfrnjrl a ;n s,'netut [s] ti sake comunc tornlinate urnnte .Ie I'r .ozfdrt.r..' ior ,", ornC salc,erc231 ln nczr,l.lp t,;. ctro.r'ot.l ru , .,a. bl,:. tori,r: tAa^.lJ.i ,,rtir,t. tc.. -, eulor un,n-; il in,r.oJi',{' d/J rlt, ori nu. ln itr i . ,.i: tor g,od,.srsake tor ..ns.i.,.. sake

ror.on'dn,4.. sak-A ior tL.lt Dffite sake, ell. ,f J " n ri \ l i -n , , d" J:r-: 1\ ' " . t rn , l. , 1T r r , et nt a o .d l c j ., d rs !.ru rr rn tfe l rm D r : T p" m r n, r ia r.r .t.i ' . .t,.1 -n \ 1 ,." ,,rt.i ._ d,rt . , l11' , r / p s . t,ru ,n n ri f!to n rl l . ., ..b.tJrt:...r | ,,... ,.,r.o,n t" s r,J. t. ,,Jt ,

.i E 235 in 'ibilJn l .ulrrJt' da si// -..--,,- reguLu -,h\un,-1. proprit ' se s upun dF sd'rr 'm in0lp rn nnrFrminaro sibilnnrali urm .' .',Li*i;;;;,;; "P s)]: 's (apostror irL,i.n" ladicd primclc O b s e re a lie srkc Ior ?/dnas's Iot Ar;''s sake l:""i#lf,'J3* 6n1i36 lcrminate-ro $ 236 nrmclor proprii striinc - moilcroesauenJl'z"rlir$ 2{r' zJrr: GonitlYul secon'porra ii 'alF .",ir.Jti.l- i"".i" i,r,"rariti" 'a C'ilnDlst cgg house Il'rdtl'J's l'asks iii r.l;i"i'";t" art lor o"s sake fn cu nql6za {ormala sorisi . oral -s. "--,- s( omiie arit tn scris. cit ti \tluJ mente ins6! pantru P'nonr-? (c roru ' r n s 'r F : ci s *t \e iiruarie,"lir":l': cr \fpsati l^.-':ir:li,T;.,TliJ,T.t:If!i^r".lii"l,'"' ""1 hr/' ) si estolncntionLiarcrlAnlru i tlii i'ii i " r ' ii i ''l 'otulmanri nrnJ u Pn4ebrs'iame fler'L1's' flub i:x*f*;s" i'*;*'"*::l'" t-,'t;;;;;'r"1" -Eaaz'sr iltf'[a:i:"HTi4'l d;ii:""qlilll!4:"-" kingdom p;no;tnces'6 oratioN 'r;;r's' i"'"'?"'iir'ii"*Pt'Y l, . t d' s' c o u ra g e L''nk' blrth _ A/u rr1 J 'atti l Lrde IJn i i a ULor i' P . ^f f s n d a l n L fe b u l n l a rF -l g F n ;l i \x l u i ' pfA pozi Li onal l nspeci Jl s2:| 3 r, ","lli. pr "p ;' an r i'c lungi.'ila celprprnindt"in " : z l: 'h " $or lq o/ ?4 e7 L' , ' nr P"in r t ' ' Lt Ht PPa"' t " 239 dp cFniriv sa\orrepini'a Pi11 S L, ulrimplpdF.cnii s-a In.rrat'nrr iorFa dpo ' s ; c s r d .r" ti zap ri ni n rrp b u '|n' ar ' 1 r r or ur ' r itii' i.,","Y1""' rd " , " 1 if i; ; i i ; r".;i""'" la'insulit ia \' r's"r : Pronu.trriIrn qrurlrrnLLZI .,,i.i.,"1i"'r. insdi nrn!inirdu-se thc ac'r'st' | ktrsrzl fa'r' t'he rzi'rss' :, J a" il otd se formeaze h do'rd moduli: 2) Plursl. - La ptural, cazur poscsiv se adaugi apos troful firi sr a) ta pluralul terminaf in litera 's na " her ft;r/ ; h i ,;j ' tuit' ' .i r" ' ii'* l) la pluralul care nu se termin

i tp h ' P 'e l -' Brnelr'- rouse il''' |"1i:ri'o'r"r"'*''"lriil'" -" u [ $ertr$tz] I 'rmrc JIL d 'rm/r/ S 2{0 S 911 s): in lilera -s se atlaugd 's (apostroful $ 2{2 run'! hais cliildTeD'! Eanes gff::i i:iy* ltr aceirst;lsrttra I In lrre'a pmnnnlat;l ca i mnnne$ sc rornl'rt'i -F&uztlrenl sl' '' lj.. c:r ti sibilantr :.

213 "s {lox{tuzie Cazulpov j! se fonifazn: 1t l,t Jdrx,,ii rlu ie ,s (apostrof iir io.rte subsianl i\fle colllunt, s) "in:.rt.ltr. . u r'-oprrr..l,rJr1,,,"1, 'rmir ' - |r s. 244 E rctiplii "s lll substanl.ilale terminHto inrr o sihhn cnre in(,cpo ti se termini flr ,; ,./ cttcva substantilcteminare in sunFtuts, ulndte rle sirl.: 2) 1.0 ptu tdl: d/ adiugtrdu,sc atostrolul fir:i s 1a pturatcleiel\rrinritI iI r: ,, a,liuq illdu-sc.- (aposrrof h pturiikte rerft'lntrrat{, .". r) ir s 2Jt $ 246 ia217 S !i8 : lt . nlie ! S pr e r le o s e b i l ' erl o l i mb a ro m6 rri , substa l ;\ul i n cazut r)oseri 1,!/.a,/n n,l ,rl .,r,. l , rrr:brr ,1, .,t-. l ,.s -,l J ' . ," F ,.rtc p rn ,,,i . t.tJ ' , , . ' . laof i, , l' r r,i lr nl, r c pr F l r ' ' | | | i urti rrLl ,.,,\,,,r (.ub ' ,..J ..\.' l J ,F d .,i i r,-p :n d u-.,,' r stantivul determirat) Ei co tjnuindu-se cu cel sau cele {are il preccdi. in o rrlidra apr ut , i" r ii l^' d - c l . SF \a ti r,F . b i n ^ i rrFl FS .." j L, a J" t,,r]tul ,.H cuL. .r,ri v" t,. J F l. ' m ; nA nr F s l , i l u i ... ru j ' l ri b u r.l e l ur un ;rr,p si .i ;rJi ,.d ;ndr,.,rh ,i . i se aplion in {ces t .,az u subslanri\-ului deramjn;ni izotar. ci intregului grrp: nr"r clder sisre /'sl.lio trer lalc n,.\rnd,s D-d,..'s hoNf, r " " i. . ..f,,' b r' ro ri r.' l . ,!l i r/r' i -d.b ?,r' .i (p.rrr,l ui ri .o ' h / , r r ," , ri .l o ' . 4 ,..,, ...r' r,-r,h.r' I j' r ' ir i i h ro i a l !,l fi i l o rl ( nerdut nt\.sri ,i l i i ,t,,i tl i R ol ,) f4r.'s !d..nh' risilr (: fizit.a trirnrlild tui rinte) S ubslanl.i|ul determinat nr esl. pr.1:.:dar tt.i articol: the tost,na,is ,ln,rn ( nd fostmn\ ,nc knook,) thc flrildr.ns h.q t ls lt\t .hitdNr's ,t. .e* io-rs:i Subsrantilulin.nzul pose.iv poate Ii hsn prcedatsa nLrde.rrtiroll in lun,lip rnr. l.s d,,r n; arun,i,ind i,"m" pror,rirr srnq,rl.r,: ta 'lp ".rn "n ( Puttlr inltc bui lafta a ircLuLuit:n nnmcle proprii, r,r.:t,si g 463). s :Il $ 9.',0 (l:rzuri speci:rle . 1) Glltpurile de ruvirrte li titirlaturil conrtmscau semnut cazului poscsiv adn uqat Ia ultimul eu\-inj,: Ih. ttd! Llforc\ pat'pt tt. lais and a hatf': ntlar in a n ilul e at e, s ii t : tt1. i.:tt Lraan Ankticatt ireokt nr, r&ri.r-t ldq,.r irords t.li rdnr Cltel Jr .-rnr,s {ddnss nRs i t I i d n t t ; t h M n e t u , . r o t h e f ua,{ tirehani : t)jrt \\orli .,lfg! (ta,LL.l lrrl |,s. dc .Tot astfelnumele (de pcrsoane, tirnre erc.) :rloiilujtedin nl^i rjrrtre i^ nt:nr! I III': L"jgn th,, td;roz Co.'.r r,$rds

09 .t) Cnrd 1.'.r,!'dl \\'lh 1.t., l.s l' r ^ S 2l'I

doui subsiixtile lcgokr llrin 'axal" rprezinti pos$orii aceluiatj 1,. crz,,l\rip.sp'i\ 'F a'l'rre" la ul imul 'u\rnr: ri- arl 1 1 .. R.t' o to v ro i/o " . . " t t ! t , ",.d ,o tn l n t ",r i . " n'dbor'l

Cind insi obiclul nu aparlinn ami (lurora.se spLrne: \1ith llltrv's rnd Jn"r's ,!mlliments. and lrihor\-$o|lts t-^';rr. J;ri'" iluriL ri indiridual'i ' Ii i P l u 7 'r r r Par F inlr . b' r r nLor at t t ht t ' ,,/ ' ' lJ,u :en ili\ul I' rr1ljnlul ei cuvint: ,t; l' n\ " l r'r rl TJ,.a ,r h' F l - d ' / "r / e m ll H ,,\'1n u rs'r I {lid t|is lo. JuPs ,z? amll,r. s salic |:n!lan'1': munr'' \ilfs llII l/k nins Il.r.I "f 'r ttlori!ia priip.l. s'rr'rrl *rv I t 'zului pu "' hl: de obicei s 25r predi.tatio. sclnnul losc"qifitluj S i)i'3 bJ dacn genil,i{ulste inlrbuirr!,al det ermjnar: s,rude s,tbstantivul e.rc frhit rlc apozifie ln ,'/.rs. san 'Ihcsc iro15 a.e Prt{ lhe .nrtft Trif$ bovs dre /.r.f'r sa u 'l he aPro; is mv sister ,mirsr's 'fhc almn is nrl sisl.t'J Emil.r* cj Rareori, scrnnul posesivului se giseDtela ambele substallive: Tlcsc hovs de P.t.t's the carter's She \vas goi,,A 1o Libbu's thc st t.t's "s 2l'1 ln Iimba nncl'r" ' "nt'm aposlrollhrila razul po'c.il. 4r suDrimaren c.nili \ulr ri 'axu' '" tiF 'uprinrrl' .rn.' s r' i'.,or',r.nir obic"rul,a aposlrotul n '\.-13 FslF in.pc.ial ,dzul 'ubslor,li!Flor,rr lnrni J" nlural.dr"n'r 'rnl n! rulri mare d lrpo'1"'l rlrrr'- inlll"rr.ra i,h".' de f^.e.iunts,,1.si "r-mIl J" In'i: r,. in , rnd .ur"r'r si l'.ir'g,rlar. lil-rd ' ''lerr!rrrind,'P 1sg) St. '1lro,'r (town) 1s(.) Sl- ,1rdld s (to$n) is a. l . / ' r s - ho u s es p i ,i i 1tl.l ih. ln'o lca.." Plat 1!l.l a ieN n,r's rest lil.) a 1w. miles dis laroc $ !;1 ,\nrbele lonno. cu snu iird aposl.rof.se intjlneso adseoriilr -acrlqi eon- S t50 iert. Urmiloarcle \emple sinl nume consacralede t'eRt'o li snli de concerL c .p;;r," din p asina'specl,a olelor ziArului "?/l, Iirnrs". noienrbrie 18' "i".. 197 8: Sl Cnar]|s, llaftnr'rirr Sl l{tttins Lanel Ilukr of lorras,Printr. \lJnd l n,ir Q u. eir , f lc . Raoa nin Lt'l; ll u 'uhurhi' I' rrnrl'rl Lurr'lrei' Tol .'.li'l c/ Jau'' q.r'1. 5, /,,,, r /lnal irr_-'r,rl .i j, ., .\/ Jrr', . Roodnt.. !o? ^ .,rburli, I' 'i, L, r',lFi. DF ta!1. :l .l,rn". .'p 'r' 'l^ "in.,-nr-/" uri d r,rrtnir' 'punrnrr

'. .l r.. 1.,',dr' bi d- ii. arp | ,l , u urlni'r.Irr ,.r l,' 'rnl'J rl'' rlr'F 14 rrrur" la aposlrofului cazril poseriYd JLt. ln rll rriiuttd \(ripri'H :257 Su Driuiarea .,rb.r"r, ir"t":,',,ti\,,r sF,,rr;'-l . | -,' n.r,fului. ,iiv,l .i tol erlra d rrci .r,rir.i L', iri\.1 il s,lrrr"lului ' ,li\u' l,l'rr''lulurnhi"nui' rr r"n' li- d' J liaii\' ,prn'1,,. niurii 'u urn'd "4.1" "rFr'irrr- irr en4'/a f . cr" -uti\r in ',,' --'-.r1"* i:"""t *tr"t infertiturtine in p ririrlla locului apostroiului in inl'enfia i '58 qi rorbiforului. do.i amLisuiLate coniuzieln lc ritul (omunicdrii: r lczi ii idrirn \i.ol.sl. 7."dirjc in olgletn hrikrnin cant'ntPo nti'

i0M 2i9 6i J :i r,,,r',"1l'rot,riid i',"riruli,. tirn,",t,br; i. m.!a ; . r..r ,u-'n -. pilrluri , .) sirt d" rceul" , onsid.rateplurale tralatc ca atdre i privinla ii rcordrihri l,rr cu verbul rqi(,u pronumle eLc.r{xpcctire, rimine iotusi incerti t u.iin!,1 |rrnti ln pririnf,a nunirului - singular sau plural al.numelui propriu ti afensta in domenii tn care coa rnai mici eroaie poalc atca conse cinle dezait rooa3e. donrniul afacerilor: in 1- t .,,l,,Jyllr I , l. i: r r . , d, . . di i r t t r ld, u L r . t-,rj, r - i, , . . . ,. r,t, t , it . ( lds , ll3l Ad, .' . |r or s lt ! .out . ta 1 r . N d l . t i o n n f J . L..1,rl :lll0 .l tr.zerla unor subii,antive aparnt plurale .,u rol de adjeotiv in forJrLrftn su lJstantirelor rornpuse a prLrdusezitnri la plirdr.a regu)ii roDlorm ,."i',l.n,nu l r'r r.,lnan Fd-.,r\il , n'r-.r, a,rl,.,; ti\ , trFLui^mru. nu ..:'1," iur" ,1, nl,[dl r::.1. 1f6,. S-, rd rn "pbuir.t ,rp.,din.air " ',jui " di|l"1 .ie rnri l rc(rcni,i a pluralulLri elcme telor secundlre ln substantiveleoompuse. uneori pa rtr)el cu trceleaconstnrite dupn priicipiilc gramat;fale: tllr iltr.. d,./,!- old rihild ih. th. t!tcnl,.\'.3/.ah'olds fhf.{r ,'?.}'6kl .l ijld 261 d) a,lcsoorinr se mai lroatc deosebidacn un detrminant,ast,e considerat din pLr r t de .r-edere glamatical un simplu ptural cu rol de arliectir..un genitiv saxon silEular sau unul plural. -{cesta est,ccazul substantivelor ca: tfn sli/lingr rrin Dione! llr. d'fe( Loute ol Wo.l}Ltth-. Thc lnii|!d .l'aro,s OrgarizatioD a! oltl rU(sl.'s srle i.h! ont /a;rrr dela.irn e!l cnt.ai.r !, mri nlult lnrl accasti ercesir.nsirnplilicare a lost cauz.r int!buinldrji nejL tsiificate a unor substanLive cu h,ieles de singular.onsacfste nr englzr (ontempo rani sub formir dc plrrall I're qot to so to n), ran,t.rs. IIJ,l&r.fs ,rc Uli l(i. tlacc lof r0,, lo go 10. l \r j rs l h n d m X g l o ts scrl l o Lhc.l ,a/N . iar lirrDtl acst.i categorii dc niagaziue poarl,i nrrme|: B . Smith. dlr:azr:rs. :r) Sulrrimarca substaDtirului d.'tcrllrillal. - ln uncle c azuri, sLrbstlntilul dc l?r m in a t n u " q em a i e \p ri m i . d e oarcce cl sa i rl dago di r oonto\tt: \l ' ! s L a l l n c c i a l n r r( nr,s (hous.t. Lc l's go 1o LotLi. ,rrd'.1 hnaoet. 1 r,a l l T o .r' .' . l .! . , I Io " , r1 - o ' r ,r .\.r..,-. Ile weDt iolo Jinps,/'s l.cstan.ant,t. Iler ial|.f is il, J, ? ,toz,as'r ltk3pit{t} "\1hov, roice $as that?,, ,.r_4'is'siroir,l ,' sirall re al sit I/ 1,orl':r lCatherlf!tl loriir? a'rr.idr.'s lEorelt .tr J,t,J tcotr.slt ltu dnor 1lt\l,iLition) L,ri' "!!..rar,l's icri.k!t. chb). o"..,,s (Hrt|. 2(i2 s ,63 s 265 de u I gril Intrcbridtarer caznitri !o!$1r li Ro3 li Spupralt.. C. zLl tu-^i, s"ir'tr"l..i d /- ir'.,:. r't^,'rfl,: d/ uL nrr\":" pr. I'a i ,, i Jl : ^

r CnrniLel{' s r|njl,lrsc 1D e\.Drtrl. tfu!j!ie nrsi .\tj.irrrre it r.,ri rjinil s:nt Ifec14^1e rd jr'.li\. los es ir : "L. ls m er l. _r t &r nr r s .l , , . . S t i a l l $ e g o t , , y , t p l r . i , ,

zl ,l substa irele colciive ca: tlalian, .auhtrlJ, loJi l'ttion gaacrnn'] , Parli anent, mdiorrtl!' campanU' J ll erc: .,b1,it:is1ra1ian. the thc the rhe @znt!'s slog'aPhY za,i,n'r relrfs.ntairlcs ,,oll's roi,cs lzrt's rc.dict \ z&li P, ,r,ic !ofl,ind. J"rori'. rc Jinrpi de ii" tlifi" n ,si de nivelare din uL.ter ' :' ' hirr ' l" nrnunFpot rYeala gen!hv 1- ||' rr, rprosl'uri' .: care numesc s au sngereazit itdli de .l substantivelc ji::llti. greutat., raloare etc ): cUmen siune. a three lo,ru' iaik \\" '''|:": )" l,.,f a r n, )i , rrr.- jo f l \ ' t .."o ,.k . t\ . . - q, il a 7ro,:.nas rro1i.r. a s/dn,'r thol' the ,drl.'s ltrrglh $a]h d irl ' ' l' . . / ' / | "r f . I.n4h \l .,/,,d I Pt,'rNorui three slill,ngtl \rol th \torth .nc's ,,n'r's I l.ro ,.il.s' nsurl (tjnrp, S 26? lvlzi ii S :99) sarion ale sul-'siantivclor care dcnunls(ruitnli de lor rele da E eniti$ r,;r.rii p"t li lrilocuitc uneoti 9i prin forme edj'ctivale compu:' ale c nror flenrntc sini unite Prir cratinA: a l,.ehab t l1tr a t4, r,tle NalL $ 2ii8 de r.initilt-ilor tinp intrd qj:1ado4'lnt ottor'' l/ts'/'/n4 ""/i ln catceorie , t""r. t|ntt n. olt n'or '\ n tt r'-n' Dn ur'r sr rru ' le ir' rrlo rJnl t, h \. ;i ario',inpuri: (cciis ,lays n .ws _ natr . !.tlnttl!.t S 9{;9 rtcotnts IusI fte\! /anlr'.- liolnlrY -\ lli&r,mn,d ,\lsnts Dr.id The Ift'r./'r Trle .u'r.ddy's tiptl ltif s,n lrislit lalc le.n S?rrnD.r'sthe ,ar./ ac&.e's Pape r. She wis r{ding urrate d/ cit1'a substantirc ,-'ornd710 tor i n Ior lof de cuviotul saA': S S7o s{lte lor l4d.tr4 sa:ke obe.li.encc' ,r td lof !"d r caalla. "Jk' ti ii. . . , , 1 / a . a k . . ior,.der's sake .o's.t;.., sako lor l'lY's sakc tr..!'s sako (V ezi ii ! 23il' !3{l .J substantivele.nurnc d obicie jnaninate' care pot r\'ea gerui nlasculir, sau ter ninin t{ 70)l ;) i",li" insuect'i.,ni, abstfaclii.sentimente, l--'.*" ""d'i."i!i .,."" ani l\ 7l ) ctc : '',/i' S 2;l S 2?2 $ 97:l ,-"J unele obieete $i aspertc rLtnnaturi, sau clemente!i fiomene natu' etc i$72)l raie. unpo,i prsoniticdt. '1o . 1 R- u' !

iL t' /a' L"boui Lo' rslitlliDs-nl, noncdd lerinatri. toll\i menlioDati oa ralod. nu nunni h tecul'

tl t hc r ooln' s s iAil' hr 'nrr,'Js .nld ,l..fin,ss ?iz ' r nt h|s s n. s s {rr gn mrenl -1rr,,r'r . \ ' at , r . . - r iair \ o. d] s $iiil l h '{t 1 \ /-or,r-s l iftl ,/.s ior tlrt sr,f,fs lilnrncf rt./.o/i\- door i 27{ riuri etc. /'"./un',lcrrrne grogmii.e (de c{ntinente. !iri. regiuni,ora'sei ( )s 7:j, rti ): a.,,l,r's lrmous parks l/.nrrs lro|lf.rs /a rl i as l .rn r o l !o r.H rrl l t i l !' l rr,,r. s i otrN c g l ,' .i l d tL ' ' _ , o Ira PL i .l o s i i L o x ( ,/r,' al l s l ei rrl l ng i l .osl )hrr' S 2 7 'i , r ' " . ) iine l e l u b s l a n ti \o c (rl l frc l e . n u me de,)bi rcl e i r z r s r , nle f u o i a l d p ro p ri e (S 8 4 ): D ' r.a f r \fh i rl s l l l r.,3 i ,a s s ta n m fr tl ' e .,rs.r' r .r' w l l e si i /' s nrart i n l i mnte far. pi r s 27ri ca: t/ unele e,tpresiiconsacrat. en'ls tLr o' s /r,s4' or l ol / . , r , t s $a) hrf /r,rr's dcsir! ,'C ihr J,u,ry 'r .( 9?7 l-u ,'l .u ?ither.trcith.r, one ett..lolnrele comprrsr-' satne.anu, o, caery etrc.Ft a(i verDul d/o/rds iitirr tun" Lad\'s tr.l))':r d,r,,c r olnrioD . , / n. f r oln. ,orody'r l dli r.irrcr'r nrni t {. r 4 , , . . " $ i s h lr ier ds ' , es bc s t \ \ ho r r . s I r r oir os il s ) 1a l l\ t f ( , o r s n l e r r o r ? , lp LF ; r i\ . h. ' , ' J ' r r i Ln. l F pfonulnc nehoiiiriie, ca.i o,notit.t, 27tt 2) htrrhuintnrs gcnitivuhi saxol ir loct gclitivdni prepozi,lionsl prIra genitnul s arongeniti\uluiprePoziliona ziarel l']rirt,uconcizie, rnai ltles1l tilturi: ? , r ,r iL 5 :o !' r r "xr lll 2i9 s,r roniempora!ig inlihre$cin mod curent Llerapt. in lirnbuca ;i in "nriL'dle ro n, iziei tolna dc genitit s.{rioli tpebuinldli ii ponGu irlnim.,to dir Lrutzn ri

. pro(nru.ondunat insn de prrilsti: 1|f ,,a J. "_ ir o n L lo o l ln !,h. vtrrd s .litf,,lnrn ffllt,.iion s slr iPf llif zl./,r'.s in tlif till,( 0rc oi tl," ,zt s jrrks t80 :i) (;c itir'nl srron irlofnit (u Nulstrnti\'1' ( omtlusc. Sub;ixntitul ir (,u r ':rzulpo:resi!. cirrl fosesoml rtrl{'slc o liiot:t. se irloruiette adesori un sub sl rlil . ompus: rilfr '(ritri ratrlt sn',bP.!, t:n!ti!h, tn l.ti/,rr!it: trn,nttt [o, FtftigL St rden|s, nr \ lr. (rh.li. st,i/a

7A B, GXNTTIT PRXPOZITIONIL Ul, Ir[I' PRI'JPOSIT'IOX,r.r, GENITTYD} s 28r $ 282 l) l'onni. -- Genil,ivul prepozjlional. nulnit dc unii aulori fi ..qcritivul {ta nfez"sau..normand"(Nornan Getitiat), ori genili\ut analilic.estefo rat dirtr'un aruzatjr-preredarde prepozi{iaol: tl,c lnlure ol ,,d,li,l lht lpa! o/ tlie a.!s 2) irtrcbnin,tflro. - Gerilirui prepozilionsl osle prin er( ekjnl:i geDitivul su bstadlj\'elor neutre ,sisc jntrabuinleaz'i a;adar (le prefe nle in cazul substan tire.lor .,are nu numesc iii 1,c: urc rool o/ ihe /F/r. 1lt " \ i t lir ! "f 1 ' t " n l L r , n . t S 983 -\ se obseN'ah special intr{,l,unr1a'ca genitivului prepozi{iona1la,?41.. S 98+ (conin,ert, precun ti dut)nu,,{,1. den ,riri geogralice dupn culnrtul ',onll,r 1tu rrj\t.ti .[ D.t tir lhc \ illagc , / al.rllh i r , c . on1ir d, t , / l s ta Irel,llb!i. .l h.rrt.1i lie So,,i{risr. L r,. O U U , / .r/.,?i , tt\p ts)e al tlal thl rj {er \l ' rs.1 i ' l si \ 28l i E r. ( c ! ! i. i. : nu,nele de duri th t fi \.r T h rmc s l ne r iv e. Danuj r. an,ploare srilului: l'o.fi.,a] \\'o.ks a[ Itahal l] arnirg t'li1.lt1l Tl,f \rnts ,I lrd, iTill,,r 'Ihel ioiled lh. \c]lxrf,/lh. rc11.. iSrillivrrs.l lor Pentru a.rlRti rnoti\'. irrtr-o (onslrLtctie sorrtn este prelFrut gfn;1ivul i\ 247 ir s arionlsltllcr's Pa(tical I1'atks (titlu). l'].d r si:l.t. Kin! -I/.nra-.s(r,1ia. $1. h,ng cere.pertru echilibru.gonitirul Prfloziltunal deterrnjnanl, ( the sisl. r of Frctl and J ill. th. six n'ircs of Xint Hcnrt thc Eirhth.). ,/ .,hrd un adj ectiv rste inhcbuirriai substtrnt-irill: S 9ES esteinsolit de un atuibutlunq s:r Lde o profJ rind nunclc posesorului pozilie {tributiri: lhe li.arrlr 4f t|f qirl in th. hau::. arF,slt lh. dothilr o/ th-" lhiltl 1 om ! oi4 ta n. bnor\al ili. da rin: r , / t he 9, ! , 3 th. ?a?,.v/ th" esl^ic '/ t h t nlol l r / l l L . r , . r llie i nrlrrse .[ t\. J:t':tir, \8\on. l l ) i n lr ebuint ar c a g e n i ti ru h ; p re p o z i ti o n a l i n l ocnl !rIi ti \l | l Ii j ,L r' ,' .r.l ' rr' ,,ri L'inlir L ,',,i ,i ', , 1 nn lnT : liln1 l p :i I' p,, ,r ' ,, " i r& , , aren u n e sf liini. c . inloo ri r l d g e n i ti ru l s a \o r i l l s Pcri i .rl rt ur rrtntoarFl e zuri : i " rm a l . g e n i ti rul p* ,l ri zi ti onal .l i i ai /r/ l .r t it lur r r g" r r , ra l . ' r l' F r-r -s i ,n ',,il ul lp r" r i n ' ri .1 ti .rr ' ' l :l ' ru .i rrr i rr' t" - , rl l .' ;n t lr r s nr o i\ 2lr9 saton f, li iortnli l/ tn qenerealun.ii cind inl,rebunrlarea senitivulLri (la pa rantete. shilimele etc.) 5i trebuie deci eritaln: T lrc l.sson s,/ U'. l,,t / , id' . s oNt ir n. t ' aolr t s r r\ r t fr r f r l i n l , l . s l r r r i r . olltt obsliitu' '!o lh! lrJdi,rN Tlr. lrngurg. o/ I hf "-c!orts nllrlh" rrl,"r1.. 's ! :1110

n,fniionati S 991 in gt'nitivutui subiectiv'(in afarnde situaiiile ,:) uneori ca zut la $ 285-290,293 294): T lrc nflrls,/ tlrc Io nngf r 3er . . dr i. , Nep r r r Ls at d l h r n t r o h t r i l | i - , r l \ a s introd,,cid in o nr sch ools . Tlie aeln,veDients o/ l hc socjalist resnr. sruk ror themselrts. o -J ' ln llmb .l \o rL,r.l :. . J - ,t rlt popr al t. 'lh "n "b t. n " . m oth ' V czi 5:1 1, 18 5-2 !0. i \ ii s o\ ' ' ' t h"t tt l 71"DP. /d 1 4 E t '. ) t anPJ"" lrnifnrg t Niic."

in r.,zul g.nilivuhi obieoiirr: I I ' ai "I ' r 'h ' i' ' llrc .t oit'llion af tl't: a pr sc o/ s@r'D'dv lor 1or 1: of Atn na'tt: lrJ '1" un adjecLiv Ini u: l ol'ir'rul ri .nosdir ''lp l-'"Jdr / ll r-lrr ' rLr ,1. 'r' 'rli oldl nFhot; "r'. ol itu si'/s \cF n!'rnl lor lh! sporl'scodllsi 'Ilose i /ri'rd He i! 'l'tn''s a[ m! uhcL Darr) ' \nn und' l ,' 1 " n;/i r' ' l ol o' i l ^ rn ' : , / p' nr r l r^ u n a ' u s " o j i " l i oi l dr" " ' Lri ' rl P n !i o1 ' t \' * l , . . ' . i c r nupos o (!' 0 rp ' ' " " ' i " " ' ' -p t' ' ' d -' rrJ u ' I ri d rri ululr' ' \ o t u rt r' ' u rrrd l' ti {: j l }! ' i,'r ,i " r.u,i" r'r-'Jrr '1F "l ti- un FIic"rit n 'J'iv . - l ,;' ,i" "i i i '" ',,1".-t. t coLFL" ui llis wiie's ' t rv E 20; " pentrLrinlitursrcaForrra do dublu gcoi!i\- esto in spelrialtntrebuinlati ,'numit ol onfuzii '\sttel: r n l 'I : '" n l \ I t] /" ' L J _ "il' iun P d i ' u^h nrL I ln "' J d . J ' ' , o, r nr 1, , . k , , j , . . t r u r , _ - a i kF' i l 'D ff (-o J ": a"t r"n itiL jr Pot ii o 5' ' e ' ' n' l l u p i i l d ' c : d n L u" por ' - ' l in" ' ' r d ' I d ! o"r r , r 4/ S/ "g" ' jd c b l 'r s " n i '\ l r nl u f or lr "l P r ldr Ll" I dlr llirY oi Ilrnrard shLss b r lurii r ber ", D- " , " \ uo ' i 1t I t h 1 s s 2$6 ''"" do dublLr'genitiv Po0refi Precedatl de un adjeoti!- demonstretiv' forma l.t""tr, i'rtutl ui fdri a aveasensutdeunexemplardinmaimulta 'Irrnn-nrrmal Iaud cere' i t ic )' ',ili"'.""lJii?i"J;,i r idispr'l ncpro i' "i,pai"a,, """"-ti "oti' tntocmai ca l n limba ronene: l'ut on drd' red 'aat al r'\-r natket s' 6 29; ]lllrJone Prnis'dt'o' I tiind fiinta lr'inrrrl Cirrd un goni'iv d"'p'minb.un alr ul amLii po '"ori i'" 'i aol'" ia'rre 'zr forms de g"t'itiv s'F Iorrd pr^po/rLr" n"'" -.ni'if r qr I ir o' _"h { : t ut ogr ' ' lr i al t'1s " , '. " h " l'fi"i'l'";lY;:' :,,i:"ill:ii :!.i!.h;' r:,, E: ",,;;, " d destul de frecvente' de q 998 Dul,lul geniti! estc reconlandat in locul formei' ' la $ 21rli. S 299 pot c're nuDesc ulritili de misurd (S 267) Unelc dintre subs Lalrttvele ut"u qi tn"*" de geniliY prcpozilional: a Nalk o/ D;l's '''o ir delrY ol diY" 'ia r,,,.rnr,r,t, I ;.;, : , . : . f " ; " , b * ; l" r rrrrt (- zi'r, r'Ntra onrr

'ul N o|n I "vezi S 116. lo! m a lilr . l) ! i41at n dc o b i o 'i 's t e d u b l L t lg e n i t i ! 1 5 t ! r a ) r " H e i s I

in i\ l, l, e0it ir ul t roporiliotrdl l'nsl. ir'hrui gonii ul 'x \( r' iu r'r'n lt!ilr' !tii: ',ii.r"iri'"t"' 'rt';t tn'hr' )iotht tnt drort'' ,-,:","rrt -t tl profrii cird lru !ir'L pretc1\'ru,(q4651.asimilarc cr nuntel .. trtril. Cor'h. ?. i! dr ui adlectr{ posert;: C,,l'r li!fIrtirLr sirr.Li s 300 s 301 D./ in razul numelor proprji .lD L'calilili, s Sl. -'llbans 1- St ^'lrran loTLri '.rt ' . 14.t t : , , . " i' , t , , i '. piele. clndiri. institu'tii. rl]alra' Ilotrs' ' S 302 Dr' 'r'l'otr\_ t lu in s 3{r3 r) in cazul substantivclor gcnitil' l]rnale de un gerundir'l: ,o"r's | . lt,,./ F." I' lionrr' | " inermrnb"r'Ir '' s 30{ precum ,siln cazuile ncrlioDa le la S 276. 'tJ utt $ 30; ti,rt.luzip. ln r--rnoce;eririr'r1 .,'on "r' " "r''r; rl d'.ti.r'i' n^d l" -\iil nL' utr nr';\Ll nr.p"/iri, n. la"'-l,rp'l,;'lFF1. ''" irr'rrll lflrIaIr''d . r"r\,rl J.;rmin,nl .0u,la " hrlrbfrr',mDloHrp.i" aH| 'rF i\ului '1\"rir'l^"1 i . \.e.t tff FxDli', r"r,l inL-r'1s 'plrr l'FDo7r',i I r' " arrrn i rn'l ,nal chi.r 4",; 16.".nrul rrrr ". n n lii l' . r ,. ,r" g;ii ;. ." 'r'l; , S r;o. .l;r. 2qir ri ini"r. ir tr brri n lri' l'ri .e rr'rrrrr !r-rs ra :.,n,?i{io-11 lnli ul ."lui .1\un. t,rlru r 'lH Pnpl ',r' 'rr r-r irr ' '/Lrl i rrr ' i r .c"i,irer reremonio"sr.ru lo itluril' '1. I'r'rJri !. ;,' ii. D"n ru u d1 ,tor;rrr"-'i , hilibrrrhal"i ($285 2rJ) s 306 P; llnc ar'asls. g"nilar.l .F\' np n rrn:"rritit 'uh'' ir'i'r\r'rr" e r"ni i'rrl piepozitional , Lngenirit ^hial i\ ii nu"r''i ln m^l'\'rprrun: l' dp ir: denu'rririt"r liit ^ podr. li ;i ''rhir it "rzul se compara: -q. ri \ r' t i 1 iv cubi' l ' " r' r ' r 1 " 4n i\6 r' r '"J ol A des,iriDtjon mv s'll. lgetriliv olie.iivl (: o ,leacriPr. in ca.c .si.c inlaliiai'1 ncraslr rn.!l .ada 'srear at sea (gcniliv slbicctirr (: icana Idei Pe dare) O ut t " dt a l t to E n i r\ u l ' i ,' i ) l= t c om r r' .a ' tri d ts l J a l .' G . t r ili\ ul pr oUo z i l i o n a li 0 l o (u i t (u !u L rl c rrl i \e coD rl ' u' e ' pr' i r i ' ul .i ' nprJ: ,,n sul ' r:,rri \ r , -r-zi l i o n s l ps r c odp" o 6 ri j n l n ,,,i r .u n to rm ,i r' ri ri r' L' p" -l i l l \i l o re l ' i i p ,,* .: n' ar os ub. t anli ru l l n g c n i ri \.' n " l u "ljdterminai: substantivul '. .adir \ lr , ' , / . t\e t)o\ct ol th. baok 1ne .quipment ,/ u iarn tl,e /d'" .qu'ptncrl s 30? DAf tYUI, {THI DATIVE CASE) lr Dcfidilie. Dfllivul, d. obi.pi .azul "omll' mFnlul i indir' ' l 'r-l; a,tiun"a p\primal; J' !prb 'o,r d"numir; 'l' Lbslarlrtul ,.i i se a.lr e"nrza ro de 'rminar. El ri-punlle la inircbarcato th'n: lar tlanl "f tl't"):"'t (itr/ (: cuj?), ro;iricli? (: csrui?). rPe nt n t F r n, pnul p n ,n ' l i r. !P z i S r:2 i . S s 308 s 309

r {M S 310 S Bli 2) I'or r[. ln limba enqlezd dativul este expdmat tn douri nrod uri: al printr un substautiv (sau prin echivalentul acestria) neinsotjt de prepo zitie, cazul fiind indicat, in aceastd situatie, de locul substantivului a;ezat imediat dupl verb: {iivc Jzue nl" bcst rcga.ds. Tell llie a6srngd to ooDc inl i 31, t) printr-un acuzativ precdatde prepoziiia,{,. rareo /ofr. ol sau ff{rmt: (ii!c m.y L.sl, rcganls lD ,/dne'Illel wf-" tallting h lit: secrert.!/. (n,1 lhP brll tor the waiting Doyr. I ioqdir.d ./ ;1,c $hnt tl,c bjroi lo. dfbalc al lod ar's s.minnr wrs. I snrichcd his handL.driel IDD ,tn to w.rve {t th. *inDing l.. am. S 31t Cod-itru.iliafiri prepozilie este cea n]ai obiinuitn. Co struclia prepozilionali . ci d nu esteneapirat ceruLi in unolosiiualii (S 323).se intrbuinleaza pP||tru3r renturr!r. J) Ir'rtir Si aruzatir'. ln Innba englezn modernd.daiivul este insoli t .qBl+ 1n gnerede Lrnacuzativ. De pozilja dairirului fr,tn dc acLrzativdepinde i ntre, nuxlrarca sau suprnnafea prepoztler. Datirul ptepoxiti d pre.cdarAcuzativu l: S 315 fdtd S Jl 6 Lat ii, uI l i i rc rn J s i i t4 . (d { l l I s d l ac.l l s|ow mI rrirn ds ld'rt) Xou sinnp (ou*tiD la..)l cu p rc p o z i ti e s - ri dupn acuzri i l . : rii\1 l.lje r.or (iu ) io mr ijctfr ldat )l !Io* Jou. stanif itt ctuh t,\: \ t o mv ldords ldrt ). ( i .l l h e r.a (rc .) to r t.th e r l d a t.)l cer S 317 Pulinele verbe cu care dativul se poate tntrebuir,ta fdrir acuzatir dativul prep ozilional: "lht trtur. Del,/,sJto socirlisrl' is the slosan. Tali to 1'onr nudio tr(endwl Didd't t;e 4fne to John? I wanlld ro .ed,, to crlnnie, $ sllJ Spunenlnsn ca nrai sus(S 3i5 316): D i &, t s l c w ri tc J o i D l d a t.l a ,rr.r l i c.l ? Didn'|. sle Frite a l arle. {ae.)to Joh! (dal.l? I wanicd t0 rerd Gtann;e (da|.) th,A z.ps iac.). I \r untcd lo rcad lhe n.a,s (ic.) to cBnnie {dat.). $ 319 4) intrebuirtar0a dntirului prpozitioMl.- Dativul prepozitionaleste lntrebuinlat: a/ cind daii.rul s1,a precedatde un acuzativ: $ 320 (a..1 to lhe sfcet dotesrto (drt.)l Serd ',.d \ \,. b o ...' ,r ...p . ,. tn r' rp rrbFr (.1,r.. ..." d 1 Trj j fr.o t. t ] o t tr .nul hor rl d.i . !| 321 l) c ind o p ro p o z i l i e i n c c fe c u d a ti vul : ?, h.r lasrdd {dat.l shei iriles r lettr ev,)rXdtry,btrt nevcr ro n rl & ' l d a t.l r',. llabv (d{t ) she {l$'ays btr"yst|. lDst tr,c.c is.

'J cu yerbele insolit de dativ lnrn acuzativ (i 317): 'lhev sDokc ,, Ule .road 1dat.). {l irlfi ocorrred ro d,? klat.). Il "i-r i flr']'' Jpfq ' r ' l / ' I r r ir ' lJ l"pr ( , 1, t ) boonl ' r \lrit e ro v ou , 4/ ' / c \\'e read ,; G'a;dt;,r{"f ldai.) cv.ry rlcnirs .ir 329 datirui prepoziliod ) dupir anumitewerbe( $ 2614)carecer intobdeauna !rnl. .ihia r atunci cind acsta precedd acuzattvul: I drsc.ibed b l.he .l4s (d{l.r the llow.r show ({ti.l I t'rd visite(1. io i d i l 'i " w r 'l i ^ ''l H rlun'.d r' |i".a l|"oA" r ld l ar r ' , 1r a l[ r' l^..^ l 1orr Irlot]. \ \ ' , n' "ilion d to t|a no"o' , p' \ dd t / a, ' l"r ' J - \ ' , IIe ir ./!l to lnn|'!lq. Be tirl io Lu. r ! Is h.r opinion nrrrtl so Intrch to l'rrtrci$? rFndit," t : n J y n t " . 'a t l lia r iv "l", 1- ' / / in .p ".i-l' lL ,t" ^n, 0dr ar : " Ftr.: . "t t " r . n t. su',;lL t t . 1' t nht t n' , n1. ; nlt ; a" t , r h t a 't l o n o ! . ' 1 u ' 1-,,1t ; J at ,, a ri. \url:. qnat lll o |o "t L. d/ . , r t o I -t \1 -1 ,11 ' t a" io ' ll r ' t nim r l3. Tht r e$rlt Nas LoL rtutottiondte to l,he erlorl. s r2r s 31{ s 32; .l dupe adjective 1n genete: S, dupd substnrtive fi pro une: to ny chtlilrn. I uannot lo|gft mI l,t/ Yotr havc bdrn like a.llrughla to th| poo r somd.. $'liat is he. axnude to [rt? Trll ne, afc A.v fo Iont )roth.r? 'vh.l lv c z i i 5 t 61t - t 6lr "l s 826 5) l'u (,lii. " Lln substanliv (sau un echivalent al lui) io cazul dativ a.) complemcnt.indirect pe lingn un verb: l.nd lou. motltor a ltscnii Gir Ghily$ mr n.ssagcl bJ complemeni indirect prepozi lional pc llngn un verb: I spoi. my mild to T,ohe. We se", an {rtid-" to Lho prp en. $ 3r7 s 3P8 s 3s9 s 330 rr"complement indirect prepozilional'z pe linsi un slrbstantiv sau o iIlterjec-i ie: 1r " ' , " t L ..i n ..,, g i l .i n ti l u a .l n rl r oni ,13,\6 1,I" , " ll" \ v d a. -r ,' h ' , i o I' i . n o -w o rk c .r. llc kcpt hia pronn; to his pnpils. darut lo. lhe holidsXs! d) complcment indireot pe tingl un adjectiv: Yo tr de ltfr, you. mourer. Unllne lntl.cn-, he sts neve. shY. e) complement indire ct prepozilionai pe lingi un adjectivi l{is house wis olporik to the echool. who helpedme n, my wo.h I cnnrol.bullecls.,k/al to the eomredm /) apozilia unui sub stantiv in cazul dativ (! 2589 b): I Srre m-{ ftt?n.l I}Nil Jou l.Lio 1o lerd. I lave Jou rPoft.a ,o fi,gr, onr .'"s room-mttc? 'r _ ' di ..cl . i {S i l r:). ',1 . 4 n n rh 1 r 'l nL dnl,iv .tr fLrtr.lil '-: l 'i . D .11., dcurt' ti . {!i /., l r . \ .. r B

$ 331 s 332 s 333 tx,t,L po -inru ,l li" r ir i' " ! lr . o, r lr ' ' .L 1.n i , . ^ r,m'. i4 d umt F r;. r in ir". I t4 r r o l . II; pp .8!,9 0).

i sn s 33{ | 335 ACUZATIVT]L (T U E -{ C C U SA T l \l ' l C A S Ij ) l rr\.d1pr\,' r7 1 i \u l . p ' j z u ' ul ' ' -n i rxl ui { -' r :l ' lr O c li||ilic . dF ur) j ' ri rr' ' ' o r' ' rri l o Ji re' ' r' 1run" " r-\par:ra H .,rl rrJ tLr l. i |p. l' r ' . J /r l F l ,- p l ri n F \c -l -" i \p r h r . ' / ir it l l ' mp l ' r' ur 4rr4 r' ' ' r71 1 ' on \ul risDunde in Drilcipal lA irl.rbirilc: 5q33{i s 337 .( 33t s 339 s 3r0 s 341 ('= cel) ,rlnml l:De ci;,ei')ri ''. ''iar? i"rl'toi,U'n'r siri echi"ali:ntul lui , cind ste precedai de o prepozi,iie' su rrld in cazul acuzal,iv. 2i }'rlllclii. - Acuzarivul indeplirefle lunclia dt: l'inzitiv: direct al u ui a/ cornilemcnL 'r b in lhe sire'l He saw n."* stsref D, conlplentcnt !rePozjlionalr: At the m..tnig. lr. lu .d orer 1hcllo0' ro Smi$' \ho js loo\iis al'l Brian? .) nume preclicsliv care deternrin:run eoflplement direct (mlme pledi cariv ;bie ctiy l- ODlrcIift Canplcnent): s 342 s 3{3 ThP nana{er aDpoinicd /1,n 8.oet$t' She erlls rva.s;.,r "consi " .l/ apozili{i a unui substantiv (sau a unui trihivalcnt al ace-rtuia) in cazu! a c uz at ir i$ 2; 8 l i ): I .alled nr t /rn\d fldJton. N. senl, lo. r. 11i'ls the ]ofil ssgco! ' tl .l Jl, ro l/ rL r " Ioremn . e-,i complencnt diroct al adjactirutui "o,'lft '9: is qort a fo.tune, llis 'oi.c / / , o, , ple mc n i .rr.u r" ' r" n L i d l . o ' i l !r l e di nr' -urr ' o' r I' l " rn" nr ' .i " um ..r , ii. t . , t in " r \.rb . i n -a ' 7 r i \p a ' r c i r rl subrranl i \ul ' ' l F ' l ' l ' rmr nar de l o' ' rl r.i o ri o d .rb o . F \r,r;, 1 nd .a:i -e' t\crhel ' ,,; ; ; ; , i; . . ;;","i" ' pul ' o t' ottt' -t)1r ruot Ji. : . r , ls . \ " lu" r ' n . i rp l l l c . n o d u l . g radul ' l " l runtt (4' l rttt' 1t \' uttJl (. 1J , . ; biot t t ,s tti t" t " u u s ' tb ' ' .tn ttr a tl r' rLi oL lvnt lone. (Lo tl Thcv l \- \q o { ,' ' .r /,. rrth . ' l ;_P l h e c .r' b rP l ro l o l I p s :" n ' r' 3 al l ' l " l " r a' d /o r' I' odra' I ml riic ohildtn go lo a pift trrc a,./v nI' lTiml) 11. nn the nhale 1tir. iDistantill ' l L " j J ro r!,r.,,v m i l ... ' n i r' '. r\aroJr! r /rc s um f or lq n i 'o l f s l i r ' : l 14 ' r ' 4d t h ^b n' . r m q" r . ' ; i, a, l &, . p o u t r r l 3 . r i r ' l o r r io T " nur ' s q' n / / l/ b! r . d ( \ I o , l I u _ | I 'p a r P Thc t , m r ' ' , ' " t t , ' nt r lllolooln{ 'r' . , ' . "a/ s br dr F r o o J r t G rddr 4. , J "" TI. ALTE CEESTTIJII IIE}'ENITOTRE LA SUBST.{NTIY A 314 l, Subslanliruladir(tirAt. ln l;n'br "ndl'zi 'ubs'anr.i!ulpoal' 3\pa l ur' , lic dF adjF. if. cdi.a poJle cara'l"rila Lrn rl' 'uDFlanr\ lF nnsd '1rp std: nylo, stocknrgs /ar .oat !Ve zi !a g. t t . ttarll.ng let\ Jrr,,s llsmons r ot a I l n r \

?!t ilu'intele nrlon. fur, morning. spri s, pdrttl, penn!, d.e1\substa tille. - :.t intrebuinlate aici ca adjective. (|rdincn curintclor. - Partea de vorbire care c acl,erizeazisubstani,irul .: raL,eare, prin ull]lare. valoare de adjectiv se pu De, ci:rii acesba, inainten . rL,rtAniil'|rlui.Se atrage in mod sPecialatenlia a supra acestuiiu u, deoarece :ielesuise modificddupd ordine:rcuvintolor..lstlell n . { n ,\ fd., ftors, insamn! "un cal dc curse" irae .d.d iDscamDir squoro mar.e : I mi (o lf.rfrfn pirtrat;i N lalrua de 1 rrc^ oi 4 iqdfc ruh.s = o srtrllnl,li de 4 m: square nn coror dc 16 nl (axl) (un lirirrr larpet 4 rut; l cn latun dc r !!l s 3{5 Cind un subsiantiv are mai muite atribute. celc mai apropiate de el ca irrs se p un imcdiai tnaintca lui. In limba rominn ordinea cuyintelor liind lilrita. doarece substaniivul prccde adjectivul, traducerea din limba 'rogleznva incepe cu ultimu l atribut, din grupul de curintc do tradus rsiva .rtge tnapoi spre tncepuiul gru pului, lutnd['se atdbutele pe drd in ordinea :propirTii lor dc s{rbstanLivul det erminat: a qii.Lst.p lolk'danc,, nNic i:o rnuziol pentru xi joc lrotul$ cn lat rclezi) ., lho r. n f,,'rr,r go u, 1 J FI nw I , r n". ' , 1! ' J r pl\ " rl"op .ur ' n o. .r ' i ,l a n m, djn bf o, dt ( d "u. nr . . ) g' r b l - J , - F . . , r " J a o r t J t o n i (vezi ri S 2aI) cdj"rli\ul nesvinJ plural. FUb anrivul sdje.rivrr nu rrc in prin "iria lorn de plural nr.i , hiar-"tun"i logica o d. .x.mplu dupa irn num. "ind " .r.. rrri cD sens de plural etc.: a si{ noaD a ninc-r1du committre o1d cliild s 3{6 (Vczi ti g 131 Obsdaati.,166-16i,26r-26r) 2) Funcliile srbstantiyului. Substantivulpoate indeplini funclia de: s 347 l', s ubiectlau parte din subiect,al unui verb la un mod personal sau s 348 impersonal : Caoperatiar l,he sec.el,ol srccess. is I cane homc carly, i"a,n.. bcins out toni ght.r A completeItsr ol candirhtesrv,rssubmitted to the dean. D) nume predicativ sau parte dint.-un nume predioaiiv: a nicc a@ur\. He $6 Sl^ F b.'im P 1n , a s s o' PPul". Hir F\p rl ons nlhp. J Uq po lht popl"m r dF 'r : m a p o p . l 'f rp.o, s 319 s 350 s 351 s 352 cJ complement direct: the Hnre you Ben ne{ plastts? {t) complement indirect: On'e DdDy diDnc.' ils I told the ,oy a storI. e,,l complement indireot, prepozifiona l: Ure pnrel tr yort nith.t ! -qe.d l,ani is a g.cat asscl ,o tlc larsity /,orralrl r_ The rcleree was lair /a both ,eams. I Numit ii nominilliv absol,'t (! l72l).

$ 353 s 354 /) atfibut: \ D.Jr;. lldrr lriLs disrjorcNd und{r Ihf delris' D.'n's rrpli.ution wls r1$cpna l jr her lainlings rarbe $is mtiniicsi ll,r loli'ol rr l '+'s r " r '. r ''i n e ''r l i '' I hr : t t t "a"! ". L r - 1 ' . l"li "..r: or-n 'in. ,;, o n 'r r ' r '\ d d r " r '' a ndt t t r nr . r + . r i I :;, \,, ' 'r' i .,.1,.i ,,,.-, r o. . h t y r li, hi. . il\ r ' ', 'l " p ' . u"! l ; | , \ 1 rn'rrr i.il""i',i.,1:; r"r"":.ir, s 355 ! 35ti il ',"ir':iir',tr,conplenent Tnepozilional: ',"iplFr\r ' r'1r'r'irivrr"rir ilLP l. ngPn i' , r c oo, l " r, |iln' \ ] r , is t o au jn "'.r/r r 'nir , . . . / cnutnstanlial (S 2633) rl c(trnpleme,,l $e stavftl al. lh. rcst_hous. liorl a foLtritl)t p' r ' r ' \ ''n d ot t ' ll \ ' ' l o" l"t t t s L. : l:r'ii t tt' \'bt \ ^ \'titrpl s 457 s 3;8 1'!t. l'0RllIAnnA sljllsraNTrYill,0n {}0rd[lrlo\ of ]{olrNsi t r nu ,:'r lu, lF 'ul" anlrl pr^\ir tat Ita' lin l;r"bil" r' r'uo'-l"r (hrF ,.r rr',i' li r' rurr-" r',l:-nii 'r':l /F "i''"';"'' -,,, ir ',nr" l. Ii"rr 'rl .r l"rrr\-l 'r sru Iurrrhl r' 'r"l'rrl lcd ln"^nrorn] cel.,r trei procerlo uurunie, adi('I prin: gramatjcal' B. schimbarea(,a1eg.rici C. totttpunere s d5l) s 360 ,L. Dltrur ,ttrDA iDElil\"\'rIo\l r" ' Jurr'or It iub''rnli\-r' )r' l, .ttiratia ( lll",r;'n) 'r d F \ntbirr' nnr' "liucc''' . i'- dr.p-rli .1e.,.'ut rr'r"'rrrr"r,lin "l 'rb'"n r' rr urrr(ur r.: ur' rr\ '-.r i ur",i uli\ l , u ra l ' rrra P'-li\' lp i' 'rrIrr \-l' elP ,,ir 4! irr,'rrrurrrrJr'' Ll'/i' at,1r{ir,'rn ^rdin"d trr'\"r'r"r .;re ir I'11lrleaei' linrbi: a1 gcrrnini(e: r, rornalifci rnlrntoarc.lor './ (l;nrre Prtixele;i sufirielc llnn mai ios cjl;1i 'urerilc' Prcfir'' (Preli\cs) aJ Gernrai lle: r lilnr ' rrild l Lr r ir ' r ll! l n i.J:' u d' J - i n 'r " '\ '' lnint"rt.L t r' i i l r'4 't 'lr ' rllL r r i' / lr r d"i /,,,/sh rt,,' k ' n, dlr r r r rnrj pj,. ot r . : r . \ . aa l l r s f . o t l l a \ L - l r l l o o k 'r q r a l i c n r ' on t-3:,//r!rsl. s 36r s 36' rorr: /,,.r,nhe,. /n,.nrr. ir',o.r, r,,,ilill,ilLj;,1'iililii,li;ri.i,,oon i,!.r nistrl. r'r' I' \'

! na r r ; ir idn L d. , l , a abt.! : " eoc G r , s inr , (;i l fdt' l l r' l (l n ' .n u d rP n ri i i n l : 1 a l )r! ntonEndtLcl i (1 . l a D l .rrv i rl P d c s i rrP l rl t i l tonrcrnr' !rri rtrL' ca l [' l i i c s d('

81 or$J : rr..all. ...froar! ,r)./sho.si or./sighl,; ,r'l.ha.g., or./doso. ,tz{ullih nenl, . , , . i rp, ' r r'1 . ,nl'groNti, ud..8round, und.rorrrcnt. ,n&resliD.le, rndrJ I rnd.r,lolh.s. r n ) ? r 'l u ' u \ d ,-pl^t , t L otL ',rr, "\'. , , , , r ' . Er Fd' r al' . ", , / "' . 1 lr : a r d - 'l s l o o n P t t t r ra rrr\ n' crt.,n.1 .6trtFmPnr . r t u] P. or P. ' I r pfro\lr' /ll,"p / I l r J f 'l ir lr s "miprti" : ,,r,"inr r n/ . , p ur r nl"] . r ' r ' r l r l' , / l ' 1,1. "r rr. ,/''i.,n c. "1 o, r . r p. h. l. , i5l 'rl Subslanliec dn sens negatial el..: nlssi!in!r. \ :lli;| zrdr.ss. {ncmnlorme.l,. L,laxlul!e'cs. urrcst. ,rlrrlh. nn- : /,liclifl nislit. ,,,scondu+, n,so{riagc, ',ir.oiceriio,i, 'nisj: el. ',t.(lcmeanoLt. , n i J hap, , r/ . s lo.lrin c, mislrin i, m t s t it c . , r is ir us t , lJ Roma ire: arcrre: dddress,dllusj r-. sil-, sl-. on-! a!'. *$: rdiirs'ln{nl.l,slfoi. ! , Pr ' 1. dr nda cP. rl b' r ". o ' Aior ' , b . l 'n l i o ' { | ts. n- . nb * : n r '|.' : or ' ar s r r " r' : .r'l nrlr' . rrrrdli"n ,r,,J r r l. ' , , " b t rt,' )" irf . -. dn li-: ,, prodtrct' l,rr bI-: relalt. t.liPl. b.qtrfsir rtl elc.lio D, i,y hN Dypts, ,,lal,l, b , \ n\. , 4r\ orJ, Fh .: " 4rlli r '. { . lr n1l o i ornl,.ol-, "/ l' r ' , r ' l u n . , r 'n '" 'i o r ' - di-- de-. dis-: .liEre s sion. , llnPr s ion. d i s n i i s s {I . e t c : dim iNt ir e, , ir is ior . 2 . l . r m . n t , eionq.lion: ,rrcss .,aspc.alioni cr lr|sid.nti rv-, el. -eq c: .zriision. .rttsion: 4 r L r sLon,. s0lie , .vasron . eI r . ; It rp rior' .: t - b' pt t ia r,lol'r. ini. r: of i r L u r r t u t ! t n n \ 6 ' , i. i 1a\ t \ . 1. |\' t' .ii-: p /d l. to:! \ . . . . .I p.i\ ., t p -l. r r , : . t .p \. ,tt. t l r , lr ' ' ' pt un^' p4 r 'o o l l r i| i, ru-. r'trF : , " l a , ' r . / ^lo ' r ' o" l' : ' ' ' '' , -"' r'i,rrrr. / , a / , 11' " lr ' po' 'l , r' \ . lo r . , "pl_J or ' , l' ' v?calrdctd.. ; surch{tge! r?c.ioiily srper-; su.:: .{lrii0irlitr, lrsns-: /.o,sl,il,i01. lrdn.rter, ,ortitio!, ,az.nali0n, .Liir 'r '' S 361 Substuntir( . .Ir senr negatir: S:165 dh-: di.-abilitr. lisl)rli,l. di.{,otrlcnt, Itslike, d;lasle, dijtfust, . i l- , iB-, iF": , ' . 1- r J r ' d l, , p-.'r-iu rr, a .'.on 1 br r iN -t : mirad \!ntu re,,r is c hanc c , , nhc hic l. ni. { r eur l. e t r o?f on i ! a l a n t , f L e . ron- : ron ad lresloi. r,"ndr er t er onaNi eto: irF ll ". rn r i : l. . c , ,

.l Crece$i: amPhit iac)\, dtahit hcanc dnrrora, .cic ; snpl(i)- | dnpltbio. ,n-. d;'ir-: arc horite, dre,risnr; analogj. onolJs's, dzutomJ, elr' !nt-, snli : anraltorisni, . lndrcli!r dtribioiic, d,,iolini.\, dztnacassar. anl,seplro, ,tc.t i. rtot h' ' " t r ' 1t ot 1' o . dPl' ^r inr ' : ap(or.: 1 orrit 'l . / r p l 'r o . ,^ l"r Fn , t . 1, . r . d, r ' r \ l. nrrl' -: o rll,.(., "-d, t u. hr o rr ! uto- : , ,/ ub iocr.t. r, , , / hi . . '! , . lu! ' r . , d r h 'l d . ;ta lrar,. 'r l o n ! 'di!- : /lanetes. di,dcd. diagnosis. laagon.rl. dtdl)Buc, cte i slr-, 'sl-: p r r onj l; n \ ' L. "l rti-: d,""r ,'''.rrl-Irt a . d .. nr ' l. r ". r , ll' . ' - r -si, .,.l "5r J s m ; r ' , r r \ . r ' liF". , . 1. ' . . . . , l : , , \ -, m. : ",--"-F, l .. hdt 4t P - lr u l _ , ) hlt at n"! r ' blpeF : rgp ,l - t it r . / 4 P d n a '' : hup' ' t \ " l! lo' t t \ ' tvpo-: /"rrpo ,i,li r. l/ / o' lun4ad 'r ' mcttr-.mrr-.md !.:,r'ab uli. ' . p. , 4r nor r r hu. - . 44r p, n . r "r ' r n p - l " h o . r : . @ 4 o d . S Ifit "" I \' czi a 36 -. n oL L I. 2' t i,,,h'a r,uro n: 3Db' (lf.) lFlix . , , , "plo- r ' - Li . p : : n r ' n . , l i t s p , b u l n p g d 'i ' "l - u b. al lubsi{riivelori acclaii (ens rr" ln nol. , . pr ' ii.

8! !!rsa !tu- : ld.d|l ci laldsrapli, ld, alJsis i Po.dsitt i P/en ! h.sis. lid'oLi Xi ldlo tl smi P, ' pr if i. I'cri- r -, me . . - o n Ft ^p ! aa r \ l' Paar ' lrro iu-: l!r'o l .la"t .!n -,sttrF,.ll-..1- : i, o. 1 . . ' , l 9' , 1' i : , 1 ' t. frlc_:e .. ..rr - . t , . t 1. 1, o. , . t t . 36? h ol; t : Jttb.ta tt;r ?sligLodlisdi a4a llihabclisnr. a4arch-{, dnfudoi.' d-, rn-: oblssi .ic s 368 369 dan. Suti\e (Srftirrs) a) 0ornlaxice: { r ar r : handj(" -/ t., . -" t - t" .rl ' . - J ur : r " . a" r .. \ts r,,..r;&r' " .n .!i ' -. t |$\'s-otJ.4 - ta d .a r' n t\d 4 s ,,1 . ./r..r, h. i n/.r' . l r' r' r' o- o a -b' 11 u i -rF. orl l ' P \' 1;' :l " ' i rl i l ^ o o -. l r' i + r.,._ ,:r -o o t " , , . Lur , r , " : i, - .! "{ it . i4' j $ r' lennP.r nd rd? '. ,.: ,/. til.ti/..d/. i; t , r . "Di, -ho on : Lo \t,od . ; . : o/ - o, . "t . ./ i \rr a r ''J r 'o s r nuk , a s ollr - r ' r e 'i r l ; r -in s:'r'"'.r4p ''g i ' J aw' i r' : a -L"gs b" dd,, s,-4 u r,"a . ,iu , , a, I Lr , gr r t r , n?_ . oio r , . r L t b k ; s ddl . | ;1 , b 1 " '1 . : ri: L ao l;r b i, ll' , Lund &, lind/ , F a' r "n t : 4E s r nt : 4s lou -1itr8 : d Jrl.,g . 1/ r nj ,: 't \ " / r 6 ' o '1 ' " / 1 6 c -p hppr ' ' l"Pr ' r ooJ 45r ' . r J / -trc\s:.Jrd li !s,. . ! 't '"'.l";'ii. ,ry...,p,.sd tu ,p . ,r..: ,..,,.. , i v.../,, r,rJ. o/,", rs.op" . ibti: ,u uf"lir. :r-,l.lir. Litulir. o{lnriiIr h.'rdsr,'. oa, hrP: hotunmtn' sn,p. l,"JJ"n;, p"ol "s u$/ "r p lour / 1lpr / , , t . ' "oldrF-strr: L -iv.e ", h. r r j. , p", "o' gr / ". , s pin' r ""r b '1 . " . r . l o u g '/ P . c a n t o r o _ """'' l.li;,",u, .rronsl", hcisht, e!0. weal/r,,. nft{dri, srow,n,heatD,rrdrn,warmd}, S 370 D] nomauioc: oo' 49 I ns , 6 " t o u L d s " m r l " n g ' p o u n 4 n " '" 1 ^ i -rq c: J\ r d s.r r dnia8"r pc , s " Fr... -al: dn ,m,/, p"ono, , / r m . lol, r p' ] u5. l. r . m o. . r . l d / . I i r 'r D u d l j a 4 \ l J n . r n r o r '''r o n t r i Bon lnr da, lus i, niCi_l -la n.-s: ' bt idgr dr ' r p P r r r 'd ,i {n r n 'd n r t , i. o r;',. m rs,.i4 n, \ \ ' as n "r / n, J pFn5pr ' , , r b1_bd " i 'r . F q F r r r o . rclnblicru, etc.; ' u r f P n '. p r -u ! -.n r: 'u m m t nJ r a' . D"d4r . ly r d4r i r ofr r ' ' ''d 'n r . " l ': gm nd/ r . s r ld/ r t : -.ry: ad vrb ,r r , di"liold. y 'r ' ! r r lJ nk r J pl y . ' af ain. r . oLst i n a . V ' l . : -.ri : ad \o! , ; u p . " e l " E e i l 1 d o " '" P l F r ''r 4 . -"i : atrs"n -. addr "s " , bir c * , d- biu"F. | . . . ,,o Jy,F'vpn J.:.o m m i||"Pj. oJ 4r ( qlU|n' ' ll|Lpb|oL" J p h l f r he lr ugh' i ar 'd l h ' l J u g h a P + r r ': Lr-. 'd urio r" a nd hp PJ ' r . a"* auoiionet , engincd., m ountajnc./, mnskptPPf. ptolrtPcr' -ee.: h.l lorlenra@c, dilig,u.., !roildnae, aPl

ea@Dce, assisiar?. nujs"'; ridddz.?, etc.; grocc', Nher; chllncello.. docLo., cl ect'/; accumulator, ele-e"i. -or,'-ier : bultl.. \ar o .. r.,", rp,f ,. , "i. hFf , f indt r , i"- . lur r i - _ "o u r , . . P c . : -' p :n.Ia l"* , Lo il. r ' ", Chin"r ' , Po"u s u . P r \ l r l n a P \ ''" r n " " r : i l J l '" ' ';st: l ': r "l"gr , p_' ". lr L " J d l i o F n ,1,1 1 6n ..", 1 6u ;nr f s r . o. ; iilq, . d. Fr s , Aond, s , hun' I Ps c. m d 1 J P p r " s s . u ' 'r I Sdlirul a din limbr saxon{ provine ditr limba laLine f'al,d.r. : Dlblll srLi\ .../ bsttrriivlle dtuughttli,hcight,din suliaul 'r,1 a .inus numii litt"r _r' 'l n a S uLir l. r t ir .i !r(r. rr' ' n" v. I -1 ll- r J . , - r;n d rI F , n " l ' 1 ' . C rri ' ' n livol lormal cu oci d.-al doilen o lndcrlin.ilc I StrIi{ ooe lo.tncazl su}slantiv! de gfDnl lcmhiD ($ !1). 0 Sur'\pl !" lJ i : p a r ' .l ' r i dr.d ob:di I i "Ll nrt "^ 'd" *rrl dn_

-li. r: llisfjllir., u .di.t,. j n. t ur l. ( ; r Flir . , ! jjlor i/ . . gtsolh.. ni..Lt-, qnintn., 'ioD. -{inn. +ion. -\io.. -rti{}n. -itiotr, -son: t.girrr i$jri,,. va(l/t,n,. cr t.nrior. 11 .?n, i r 1f |' r i. r / , ni . f lf l, r i, r ; r L r . r o nc l , . .i . -: ! r. ' ill: .o " b rl /. , . u. lr..rl: ,o ,.,rd...,..1 r, ' .. rr , . , o. . r r . bt '. : L rlken. slr.r,r.,, s|1,,,, adornr,.rlj lasor,nr, m $n.,1, i, . . t.- t : t . t t - i, , a' 9. 1 u i, , ! , . -onny : J. 'rr)" rr : d b. ta J. lo 1 . r. Ln. _"rr. :n .-,. ,o ,,r. , , t . t , J .. t 1, t , r j h. . .". . , , . / h. -rr : . " ' rr: l r, "liu Jr. -ilr. -lr:1".'ur,.t,,: a..'tit ' 1.. , r . r . . , -1 : assembly. d.li\ery. t..e. la.,-r. t!t..1 -, . . r ' . . , . : . , , "i. . . , , .: , t r : , " : . 'L j, . . r . lJ : a -- J., l 1 lr llo , ' : " ,lcUuty, dii!!, 1r0xly, clt. " ._./0recefti: . {'.rcr,: { f , -c f . : . o l3 7 r |hrtoorr r/r {uolloqI (cttono./c.r, srobo.rn.r. IF ..i\,8 ...r .u d ltr Lt.. t.,t. 1 ,, ,' .r ' . luto..d.g/, lr!.rau.m.t; ./, n ,l 1 r.zi S ; lt lr ) l ,... r,n :o .... n .." u , r.,,1.ti rt,tr,.. -i .rn : t a- i r , . " . . , oa .r .. r. or l 'Fr.,, m , r han. u. r r , _ . -irt! : ]Iaxis,, so.ialirr; plilorogts r.fllsicnr. r,lani.d;dtis/, ],n 0risr,. antlEoDisr. \' p r' c ,' . P ' t p ' l . k r l ' . . .\r' .r' /,. -:l _ : l , lar " . l ob " r Drrr,. L ch ir r r hl, ' r l. . . l r,h i r .rr.r -iiis : rpperdi'itii, nloi'.1ri.". !oln^, sinrlstrtr, lo rsiutir, cre.: ' l u,,r dJ Sufixe dimhrutiynl0sru dopre0iativc (.Lit'..rs(. or*i,ni). -ard! -o.t /g.rn.l : b$tzfd, coM/d, drunkar. hgsa.d, stuSga/1, wjzdfda, b.asgdrr , -a1ter (lal.tr crilicd.de., mcdi.as,c., Dusicds,c/. !octds,c,,. ol!asr".. elc. : n lulln q . il' aa i-',' . . , / . . , or jr . . t ut lc . ' nt . . t a, l".p o . i \ t " \,\it,:tti"tpt, tA" i tu)tpl, t|fun ,tp4 , mo l.ir t p{ , . r c . . i,n lijern.): ohjokcn, Lilten, nraiden, etc.i . -et il..): rorone,, isle,, lerer

.4 nidsd,, osl,,; bill.r{,. bull./!, fitl,4, haich?/a, pultc4, 4. d | -onn,{j i .i 379 I _ widotr?,&j eonducrord,rar. drunn lr -ctt (rr.): ciga.cre. Iil.heMr,, maisonlnler, f. mijofer,. undqrrdure!, ustrdcrF.i uanncle'e, learho.rc, rlush.r&. erc.: _ . . -i er lo.igir-aobscui): Antrtr, ,\rohie, Jralie, Johnrl.. \!ttlc,- cool;,. deariz, doggt,, -kinG) {olatrde,amediel: oailt,, la,nbntn. maniitn, Pet.trtur sonnihns. Moui}ar, -1 e 1-rl r { S e. m I I br am u d . k n d c k l c rk e ri .l . e to .; , vnre,, start 4 woodt,,. . ..ret iff ): trnkt.t, etel.t, llauer, lNiu.r, hafl.4 tigr.t b r{ceierr, chnp?e,{, i,aole/i, w.islj,r{. en,.: o ' r:L /r,s . e o J i 6 . n .h b ,rk l r,j . -u.t/rrs. tord/,rg.l ri n" -l i n s s r ' . . : 1?r lr s tt ng. rn e rn \, ! ndc f lr na,wr a L rra j e t..i -ock (germ.l: bitt.ft {dialectal).bull o./r, hiuo./r, etc.; '(e).r.I (lr.): cock'rcI, Don8r.r. w$tru/. etc.; -st8 lgerm ): dah,e., do!c!rc.! gaDerr.f, gangs,e.. !usra., rh,vmesl..,lipsr,., trick, -r u ri /i n ob. . ur : E : |r , . fa l l /. J o n L . P, s j J . \\' h r rpJj Lobb y..dbby. .ookv. , tu. r , . I,'3 ry / $r r gd. p t { . o n n y . u n m| h J n k y . n rd t '{ , F . r Suiix cde formcazl ii subnaniile de Ernul leminin. :I'ri n i n lef m t s diI liDbrl o rl d l i r' l l -i frU \rz .r I| . u $, r i\ ul d/ . . 'D l rl .Itrlelesul diminxlilal sau delr!(i.rlir {l snlirului s. tierdut cn vr emea. 5vzi Fi sliirul .v mai ios.

84 J ;t Mo . d,l P rr2) Dc r iv r r c n ftc rc .i rn I B 4 i tt.F o rn a ti on ). _ | o" tp j uhFtdnt i !c l o r m ar I r i1 dr r ita rr rp g r" i i ' u . ,L p ri n s upri n,arc,, ur ,Fi P i rLt.ronrl "di vitc ca un sufiri: plp - ptrply trilia < triri.rlr g.eed< greed, tat < Pelty typewrile < typcwriter dooste < donaiion ! 3?4 Acesl procedeu, 3) Iied ceroa (Redurtion, Shortcning. Clipping). , l o a r t e p r oduc t i! i n l i n b a o n g te z r), o n q ti i D sul r;nrdrcd urr-i Ii !!i (i l r.P put. . ul. . r," d i p r d i n rr-' r' r ' ,rtD rl . drn .sp .^ ob i nn.' l pl o Iurn' i d l ir iil " H, r " noud. Uneori aceasti creaiie nu este d fa pt decit o simph presrulLar .1 cuanrtului irtiiial, alleori inse capite un inlele s oarecun dcosebit sau o intre buin!,areproprie: S 37; a) suprinarea 'engl r "t''l -ri'r: inceputuLui < ioDd... < m o ld . .a f < mol,of cod./l < bLlt:le -:: C,efence tn(intului lhone pranc slori squtre sror"r larsiry $.fl .- telrphnr!. -. A.\iPume < dtslo/t .-9ss",.c < n1stutll. < tD'r.ri1ry < pclrera L{ereze b^coy (!op.l .oa.h cXclc nroe lla Pa < l l .tm n o (fo p .) < Pi p a 376 b) s pr i apocopr:): dre tr sftrsitul ui cueintul .i lapocopn (eng]) ad < a.lveriisement: brt < rrassiercioab <.drriolel; cabh <.arlegram: champ < rh a aP io. : l o. /, l or: 6 ' : . p : " u 5 r' . .l " 0 ,;n l a i Jn ,. " t /d ' i. Lrnro \i nJrRp - pa,A1' L i\ dr r n/ , l"l, 4ioit lind r\. rine: nn , r /iisif", m oli , Dr t - r p '6 o . r t . r 9t ut t t , ' n",rjuc / poaa t o " e : ! T i b / t - & t r i . i p' r ; n, n i " d I 'o , p . ".u ud' pr np p\prtv' t o 'd n prozt-.f ., io f i: ur uT. 1' r ' , p. r J d 'a o p ' nr r l r l: ll' . a l r . < s o n J d l 'r m . tio': rrt r "n < / er ul. r ( iuni - r F r lor r -,./e -"" p ti,hr;rr 6 dJ,riL rpllj vrr.vr al^: r . ; d! lln s p " u F r s r ''. i \ i t' ",.,"/ \:,io n, \ ' r ', l u r i d H d l l ; w l l k : F . l a l l : o < rr r dn, , Fr iidr \ , O ld \ ic Bol" railing ldl/i1 e r r J J io s " t { . ?oo < ?ooloc ' , J-g. r r J ; 1 " 'c , J cin q nd i' < r ; r r r lnd / , J ; J n t Pf m or h 377 jatEon colbesc:

,ol . "r/l g nAlhrJ< liJ . / r gg r g ! _ . \ am < "r dn i J l i o l : l d b - l 4 r o r a o t y : , , r hi, . ld ion: pr ' p \ p.pparLtion: pmt \ ptu^ sof : L" ,g < no'h nd n: n ,ar . t ,sotrometrri vac < racrtron etc. s 3?8 cu addqatea unui suti.x: dinP' (Iam.) < dinirrg'c:r. sleelef (rrm.) < sle-alin8 car r-o " i a i c n fo o l bl . s o. " " ( ta ' ,' rugg# (ld,n.) < ,nu8iy lootbi ll s m ok a (l rm ) < s mo k i n g -.o tri dA e no. { m k r .rm .) / ,' o ' ,-" r,u n 8 .a r' dqp a ls o d" r \' 1 ., s1l I l $o dp Ls i"nr I < b u " . h rt l-w o-seat (fan.) < (ca. wrlh) hro seais ' _ r,ri'ial: nelnscmn{t, supi,llicirl,,z tri rl. ?/,riu: ltrc.d.i nfiBcnnrate, ll eacdo, lilnt, lotoitrnlial, s/ai: Jna.c {dmiraior (setr adni.atoaful, !,tsional(rli duti sport tito : lrra / dr, tun nr F,t, hdntbntt F,6 erN. ' lto 9e tq ' \ ' ' \ t r lr lll l nattti.-tnt lie - atarat d. ra,tio e ililor fcccttof torlniir. : : 1!o loc{ir Lr loc uin! a.

cuot' ntul ui din i n te ri o ruL t r t t .J r s u n e te .) cd d , ?r c 0" isin cold - (engl.) s?incotel: cu.tsl' < dzltesX bike < Dt.yclc mrko < rrt.rolhone tm cy < /antasy dormonse < do.mDt t0zse motorbike < tut .Di.Ycle cade motorcade < m orotcavr t379 .l) cd.d,.rea F. unor suntc Ln hqi nuIt. t o : it ii: S 380 pran < pe.dmluhto. <,irningham au < in&enza .u ftLdt\afta unui sufir: nabs< ,arDara .) comprim.Lrea nai ,n u l l o r nim)- < inmccnl (: I,rostdnac) c L rri ntc. s 381 Anc.ioaradian l: 4noican + Canadiat) lmerind (: ,an.ricar + l-did) Bakerloo : ra kdrst|ecr and $raterloo Railw, r r l lUn d e rar odnd \r,\rr,anr. o-'"""i:,r"'-"i"4si,i;'"' r,'iii"r.-.."" r -iibockeN) ,'-',"t. Ln;.1 .t electmctrtion l: elat,ic executian) chandclE.) cleeirolie. (: 'Ie.'ic Eufasia 1- t,.ote +.lsu, ro.rnishr (: /o.,.;een zi,,n,sl radd (:.adio detertiorand.anging) $ ]cz ffi:: i' I; Nta' "fij;.:;"1',1il, motol 't "nsi"'' Unpl'subst0nlivP sa 4l Attsmaffle tonatift lCrddotrcn, Xlutatian ) vPrbc.r. ) pr rn modili.ar"r unui ,1Fospb,.c alr; parli d" !nrbire (adjc"rive. de .Lnpl \o.nli . n"Jian tl at I GratJ,ttiorJ. insalita .ad nu d" lrodili.ari consonantice ale t erminaliei ;i cu evenbualaadiugare a unui sufix:1 Substantie Verb io lreathe brcath c.lotl - to clolhe S bstantie Adjcctir breaitth depth length {idth young - broad - deep -long - wid e }ouih '(Vezi ti s 22r'11

5) Abrovier0a ( Abbrceiation -l|[ult mai f.ecvent declt ln limba romend $ 383 ). se intrebuintoazn in limba engiezd abrevierea, adicd reducereaunor cuvinte la i nilialele lor: Broailcaiing.orporarion, i,'on. n R C. { Bfirish !s'1" I pounJs T \', torol nola b"n " ) , & P . i . l = p o s r d r i t 'l '. l h P { h i inc..;e n.e t- o c. r Doir . ar dt . r n N. B. , Dlc h"lor o A r . . ) , m l L S c . ( - \ r d s l r r o I Po :r Oir ir F. , d BA. I r, . P . Lr. ld .ncril \ , , ip" .i a c.l . Ccn crd l Pr ; c li ioon" r dof lor , npdr . "d r ^ p r a r U . . 1 m p J i . i . d g 'D ' f d n . Non. n a n : s s i o l " J O u i . " r '. a w q A F . d ,M.P . -u(;r,"r o l ldtl, anFr ' , , ao NCO I ( nro" of lhp So\i.l io idlnl , - rnen, b r o t rh " \\'o r"n s A r \ ' t iar \ . \ i. I or ", , U. S. r . H. Inilpd \a Li.n5 Oryuni/alionl, I rilq l 5ldl. s i f Am pr i. a, , l\ O I k ebunlicar . t5 \, q' i nlin l l ' r l O r g J n 'z J i o 1 ) p l ' . dr d I NE sco , Lr.rtL d N o : Edur s r ional, 't ' UNICEF iunitcd Nations International Child.etr's Xme.g ency Fund), etc. I A " pisll mu lna _"FJ pnr ' ' l n: ll, ' !f s.J , e. I,,.,", ribf J . s nlr l, d4 ' dF. ' r f d1' h bJ n. Lo g l l i - . \ i r d l ', r d . t . i..hr 1u t- b Jn lo ". a,lo . d1; d r r l t , r t ' ' ,.r l J U1. ji .. m r t r r j. l : T. c . t n "dr l. "orosn 'Lrt "r' ZrD";n

MOR!OLOGIA _ SUBSTANTTiUL .rr:lsj u*, 0""',inl:'l,"1i1"'ll;" :'Jiiiil;T;";^ "*''' J 3 q(i ' ' ' ' .u . .,^, " i i ,.,, 1'lill:;,' lil' dclc'I' rile rn,lcsubsla r:ll Il'ltl:,1:1"";"lii1ll'li];l.liililri''ir , - . i: i- ' B. SCHl\lll-\Rli--\ c'\TllcoRlEl ico\vllRSlo\) Gli.l\iATlcALE :"'ii'i!4.,"''"' l*i?f;:-' T'"J;l'"'* *xi'ffi #'1"'*'11" i';',.,,;1il"i.,,'#g ' ti a blildtng handw.rung a !rrrltng A ldrmng ln] \tashing ihe {c.u-".tl t h. ir t r t s l. ! - L ine r lc ' t s a\ d ll, e Llc r ar t t L h, r Ln[ ' ni] + , 1 lhe unk no{ n . lir s t 3 s elonn ihe k'lost'g the lrvrns Jhe I rsornS tLr li irnrr l l t r u r t 'm p r o J c o l l 'c s t i r t h e n , ! l . i 'd . 1i', iix;"; ";;X", Tii',;:::,(:1",tr"i1'J:i"l1x"'ill'i"lilLT* 1 \e 2 ; S ti o -t6 0 1 s 3s7 s 388 S e89 Pcrbtt . 'turr J o';n'{ : llFh' " iI.l i rorl lin t . "'i:il"* i"'r'-., r,"" t' t tl"''"* 0". ^ ....-,. ,;;;:":.Jl,1 l'i'r,"., Tn' r llL- s ,i'l " I rl ii "",l:ill ,iliil shot aL' a swu roat). a "l "t;"-e.: :iu-;Ji,i,Hil l,'1.!: ';""f,:u',?:",inn,Xti'i; i; " , "/ i j''l "' n c liL ' a rt L c o L "i "J::, i'l'"*,,, " "iitr t^'0""n i"r::.|:'" ::ll:'"'#l.q:^iljxl'v"I' l''i{*; ' l' tonorro$'l tiivc me {: ring ne^w)

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.1Ti TIC O LU L (T]lFrATiTICLE) I. CO\SIDERATII CE]{ER-.I,IJ l) I)cfi ilie. - lrticolul este url instrumrl|. granatjcal care serve,ite. S 11)f ir lri,rcipul. la indiridrlalizalea.obiectelor'asupra cirora se oprcEie a1,cn1i a \,,r1)itol.r]lui scriitonrlui..obiccte rlonunrile, plan gramal.iral. a.ir salr cu Ire t rul substantiruluilnlolit sau ru d. artrfot. 2) Fon i, Grdnatica engle zi are .toali arlicolel: !.10;i arti(olLrl hotArit the a.t;colulnPlotdrit a sau nn ,E l,ca.rr'.s ,,. JcaN lr ' i . . lF lF .int l5r , '. n l r' . thtl;t;...,r H {a e '^ rt.r r u rins ra id.a t. :l) {lrratteristiti. - Spro rlcoseb;e de limlia 1 f lr ' . , u\ i' t p c lc pm . pda. , r h . r h ar p, a . . . n t , r a '. : "r li. olpla n u , /r llnro lr-"nn lolntriN dn able rnu lVez j ins |orrrini, ilr limba enqlezn { 10 , , t i \ a t p ta,.irp I n : Fn i n ' ' l' . ,/E h.urs a .nild t ii 5 41, 0.ila)

4) Fur{,tii. - .{ icolul ru stn sjngur; ci Insolelte tntotdeauna u. sub ilantiv -qu un eehivalent,al acestuie,fapL pontru care unii grarnaticieni il ItnFniera o partjculn. ,Obieclele cxiste le se imp8rt, in doun categorii: drlirrtt. (adici specifi .atc. in.livjdualizatc) tarl nuiefinit e. d.) Defini.r(a obieetelor. adi cd indiaidaLl.izare /or. se lace cu ajutorul arti(,olufui hotdrit, the (the l)ef init. Arlnl?). erc sril pe lingi snbsl,antivele ,.c ]e ddrumesc ..i al cdrui rol ste de a scnrnala faptul ci obiectul in cauzn ,,.te snu ra fi cunoscut. Thc, car e la origin tnsemna lhis, that. tht:se. t/os.. ai pistreazi tnci. rtenuat. acest lnlcles. lmpru'ri cu irrncliile corespunznt oareI the poate lnsoli iird .{rrslan I ir.l?. nunerabiie sau ncnunre.abile.ai.lt }a s; qular cit Ei1eplural. 1r, ir i ,,n.,lie de conte\l: l)J r.slul substanlirelor. adic{ acelea care dc,runlesc ,ob ieitele, ndefini1.. ncnldirnlualjzale, sillt insotite de xrticohrl ncholl\tlt (th c In.lrfi it( -l//nt.,/. .\cest,Rrtjcli ri sau an, crre lnsemna la origine one, adici unitttca, nu poate deci insolri(le.iii,iorma de singrlar a unui subst&ntiw nedefidt.. ,\,ra, iiar p.n1r|rfoo.a (lc plural forespunzil,oue ncer;stiDd litoou il.orposibil, un . a dal .unrele de artieol zero :rriicolului r,are af trcbui s^ c\istc in acel loc. d&r care lips4r/r. Lipsa a(ieaslaesfc tot atit de ilnporl.a nli ca si prezenla unlli arlicol. deoarece are functii distincie qi holiriloare. (Vezi S 429). cn -{rtifolul neh.rtniil nu i sottte ]l;r;o(latn substantivele nen unerabilc. r l]rii 1: ri i ( ii lt grarnati.j.ni .onsnlri irindr I hol,'rril ca p. r^ anirit . itr articolut nchoun al;.7 rit nelnnntit lr.zi llF Can i.a ArfdnJ Didiaharr, a , sn, t\e). $ 40; S 106 S 107 \ 408 .s +{)g S tl$

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CONSDERATII CENEE{LE 96 3) La pluml, substantieele mcrubilc n lNl nu p mcsc articol nehotirlt: \r{tctres ) -"nN S 419 S 420 nou.s idcajj 4) Substatilele nonnmcrabilo tf:ll iici articol nehotdrit,: li nu au, in mod normal, nioi plural qnaljtv. !.rseeianP is a 'l otr can'i. lile .ll $ea1, bl D6t.. liinds air r w is a nr elal. jldis!.Dsalle to man. -{tr-is Ci. The atl in rhis room is nesh. 5) Concluzie. DiD cete erpuse pinil a;ci reies clteva reguti de bazd: dl dacd un substantiv este numertrbil, deci are plural el 1'a alea li sin gular. care poal e ii preced.at (trt[.olnl tu)lntdrit. Arl,ico]ulu;rehotirii {asau an) d. ile la singutar ii c;rcspunde al)stnltr artical tnir la pl:UJa\. , J o. g g"l I -J. ^\..I 1 1.r,l '0"-, hool I pr. Lizs \ere s$ arn '! r g our ii r Fr r f r ( 6 , or i, '. our. S 421 42P "s Substantivele al: I sj. 14' all ; . { pr. , . / / , 1 . S 'tP3 ,Ue@l1t,N Urc maiistar ol his diel,. The tuat yon sent ne was deliaious. c, Lnel {, substartive nenumerabile por de\eLi nune tbilc jn lurclie de j teni,.ia vorbi torului ca !i sint tra1,a1,c atare ( S 30). Jl Dq i unjj a, , t nr j i n d j r, a ' l j a c ti v u l n e h o tn rl t rorrc ca pl ural al arl i colului n a b o , . r il lif . d d " s ru i a l s n l u fl ts n ,r a r, .{ d r o,pl J.i 1-rel p.,a " n/nr dp.i In l o r r ir . d l^ r p" i p ro ., n u s p p o rr. i d , p in oJt" si rnal i i l ., .hrd -"i r n r . lr.u l u i r dje, r ; \ Llui . o r,,. fi i rd m ri r..tr:n F d d p i i t 0ri F1 a cL,ntri sr.;ru lului .e h o ti rit : I s!. I . dN d b' bv t l J l i s r l h e p a rr. { D) Substantivlenelrumerabile- adici abslraclii]e. uneie de matdi sj de nase, precu m ii substartivele nsi]rlilale cu acestea nu au plural si deci nu pof avea decit ,o si.nlurdfa nd. cen dc sirg&ldr"!. fdrii articol ichotdrii. Piirnesc insi arti colul hotirli, liir tn iunotio de contefl: \o oDc could lire $iurout notr. linos 'ledEe lis success sn.r^d bv the nress. ol was ' S '124 i 42; g { 26 I r' numerabile au ariicolul hoLdrit,the atlt la Bingular,cit $i la phr 1o ..3 ,irr \"- //l' .r'' ' o.' Tn " L "1. s" Tabnanent Fitn s. I g r o ! \ io. Ll do. , r o $2,, . ' - 4 r '. 4 T4t s

, I Tl@{p"a , d/i", I d \' r ,t I :,.r .i l i \. ', o .b i d s rr' J .v ,n ; rhd rrJrk. in ,r Dd r III. LIPSA An l.IC OLIr-LtiI Lifsa:trti{rolului ste tot atit de imporlanti ca lsiprezenla lui. Pleclnd de la a cest Dunct de vedere. sramatica moderni stabileste tri situatii dislir."l' !;;num ":..ot,Ltttnris.,:'ntutu;'. ur!;.uldt:"ta: si it"ti.t,nld orti1) OrDisiuned ieol ului esl,cdeliberaii. Ea nu lnseamndincelcarearegu, a lrl r!r01"r;.a'a itlp,inin i o 1rp:".,1.] crin,atirila. ri r.umaidorinladeiso |ealiza o tortcizie, care obl ine edeseori, pa de o parte efecte stilistioe r: a rl i . r olulZ E I T O t Ol . 1 :e z i 5 6 .9 . :1.rh .st. Cc talrLlotna con lund(S !t-irs), 3 : n ,.ri, r olul f r o 1i1, ,15 4 :!1 . z cuc sc comt)orli1ca nn singdar. s 4!7 { 42E

'o l l,ItIill'lriil'il ll.l;"i:l :,1; ^,,1 lil .:lllilt'l ji':;i"i ';:":iil:ii:li ; ;i1, iq c.,,,,n 11:,:,:tit:t;l,t;':l: ", , ,," ,.,";;,1);';il,'ii'"lliii: 1,:1,j ,:;r.,'J,:;: ' ;" ' "l,,ll'"lii';' ; ".d .- ^ - i' u 'llil'l,ll:'i'i ' !i' ..^ r ,,r ,.r - r ,,.'r . , '', t',', i ' j , l j ; : T l i i i : l ; ; : , i l , u: ,,,":r ',ll,r , ,.,1 l" illtli'1,,r rli,;i1'-, i '. . ,., " " ',"1:,;'^;:y::;:;l:li"-,i "-; 'J',d, , ; / l . ; i rl.' , , ::1 ,"' ,i,, L.:,;: ()"j'^:i:l:r'i"ill'"'t:l'l:li t:il; "tii 'irri'{{rui ;:i" ;l:"1'1,;' ' '" ::i,;iiii:ii'tiixl ;'";;:;;:':r,,'r;l;"'ii "' ' ;ilj;;ii,; pr 'r ''. a r ! " ' : ,/ subslanrn'h "{1.11';ilJi$l'l'lToi .hina..,". I ti k . to d rn ' rr _ t i" t" t a .P\l ' r J rn ( I "/ i;ii:ilfii:ll.lji:'l:;il :i / J "-' lr;-';)li';l':;.;,""11;11;;;;;"rl; ''' " " " ' ' " r,,,.rj ,L,L'-n ' | , L L" :"tif il" ' f , ,lil' f i, ; ' , . , 'r \r,,." r ,Jr, i ,,,r,,r,,i . ^l ..nrrt.. - 1_rrj ^ .riii;i::i;;i,i:r,rli::lr Ir,:;lll" t' l' ,';r:;i,';;1:l;i:i : ;;:r;:l i " :;1 i i";':'1 / ' iiii, rl* l i i , r t , ' i r ' : r ; rr':l " l i r l:;'.i.]:lil,lf , .," , ,,, ,,liii:lii,;;,1:ll:,lil,':"1'iilil';Il":l1 ll "", :i::ri:l;::i;til; :l': ,,''l",i:,1;:lilittr.,lil":ll"'ll:; "i;lrll;ilili ' 'll;iiii;"*,':'j'''',ll il::''lr'll';:"'l""r\"'"4:; :'1":l'""h "" etf ' Lonttot'' tt attrihsttittt 'iii''l'^"""' p-p'i' n' tt 'tnttt ,,,1,1l.'i' (;rtat t.oitaitLl'fslii' 'tnrrr'fl rr' in'ri' "' stc """'.l,txttItll'; iie nudc rnitdi'l'l rlrLr !ill,ii;i''*""' r , . . . i. i; , " , l : ; " : , . ; ; j r l ' l i " : r " i,thi u..:,.i- h ,r "r ,,i,' ,' ir ",,- .:,,,,r u ' . '" ,,,,,,i",,1 -";"'r"r'1 i:.''ll . ri1'-,' " ,"'"t 1:l ;:'" . ' 'ill;' ":ll':': 'i"',=, , , , ,--. ,,,,!, s ,*' ,,,, l",,llll.',1:i:: i *' * '' ,' ,, ii;i::;:jl ''"ji';ll:; ;::l ,i l "":lllli'l 'l l 'i " " :'r ' ':;'li' : iif.';i"i"' 1', :i" :i:i::1. ;',|i'l',,'*"'u"'u'ir'!L'' i:; ""'-'" . s'o',,;,,pi,i ll-)il:ll:,":l:"l llll"" ri(L;f' riirir -T"i"'u"t"i-tu'"uu'ri 7'tu csle o rart 'Pufritrli in mnL'n "nlrltidt ,:'il;.i',*il"l'll.i,n"ir.i,,i r'i s.rmati.rr' rtinrJi ar.. ri.r,",,,qr-:, r!.r'!xn

AiTICOLUL IIOTAR T 97 trOTi.NIT IY. ARTICOLUL (TEtr DXTINITD ANflCLE) s .137 S 438 de 1) tr'ormi,.- Articolul hotdrit 6ste the' inva abil in sdis, indilerent gen' numar sau cazi tle boys ti9l '& ,,',2 aeach&'s address t/ia houses we vrsiled r n P '$ o g i r l s f/r" p riz es wer e gi! . n o l& bny r nd IhPt saw r / P r o$n in r l4 dr r r dniF 2) ProDunlio. Arli' olul lft' 5o pronJnri: 36 it LoiN ti,onC /,f,]1 - forma rarp rr ' ind rsLe o'fenrual sau clnd ' The delinite article rs "tle" Is he 'tnc" Sli aw?' lEs lo Pl . Plebar l 5l, aw: ) is hF "dt , ' p". iar i: r i1 ! ln m d l o l 0 g J r s 4e9 s 440 b) lbtti (;NanS farn - forma i,are) sNtl6r) (acak form ln.inta unei vocalesau a u nur, mul': ,tu c{Ith ,tu jnn ,fte hour ,h? hei! forma slabd)r $441 .i " cau a unui ft aspiraf .J fb,l, t6l. torm"'labe. lnainrpa uDAiconj'anF a'imihre c u consoanole5: se"ii"6"it"to|" t*t ri [i]. $ 442 FUNCTIII,E ARTICOLULUI IIOTiRIT GXNXX'AIX coNstDtrRATtr demonsLraliv lr llomonslrBtiY.- Arli'o1ul tfre l& origine adjr'iv a u4ur demon_ t - tiLsthnt.th,s.,thnser,peslrazaqia'l6zivoloArFs,sLenu0li strati\', a'ind uneor i .hiar :i fun'!i0 ocestuia: lr. is iusl what I unt sr rtu (- this aomoni. Mnn v'h aDD v Flum ol r t u { = ihr s l ddy ! 413 s 441 i""lll1"'"'"j'*'t h? I r ha""', il;^iT""d c ar J nd d' "dorl'li'J,''',i;;r r c e r p al us It sas "4' ""tTi "O'*'" t'" J/^U"'"i" -'i.# care de' 2) funotii. - Articolul hoidrit va insoli aiadar subsiant'ivele . anum; t, "qnot"utp,lieln ambianla 1n ' ro sa fl; obicctele' ori aLribule: un'u.io" sau p

srti'ularizste prin d' rermiaanti6 ^ (":h:T:il rhem. #-'J;'".", r hea,ir ,*tidj"ii,"$T."ifi $ 445 s 448 $ 446 ,",hf;:ti;oj"j:;".,,-,,. $ 41? ""':fi.ll.:r':r':X;;;l:":T';1"/'f';b,""'j;" '.,"""i"'::: i scml\.1 'l l{l r' di ll iniliali ir r ' - r v r nl romo si"il (0I) esielormaneaccentnale to..a acccntnate ,"" "r" rof.::srLb da,:fa r"r" ;lT,,i;' :.''i1,,' n,r,r.t"! .hu,".tp;,.t"an.!.hntuc.,, '.'';""1if ' - '"r;;;l)i;;,ii;;l;": '::;1..,,:l;1, l,i:1i,r1r,""1.9;:ili',il;:i.' " ;i1"f { 5i{i:,,rt| "' tI,l :' t - qr.hailcs nnbli ensrezc

98M S 44t DJ lrnir.rtr, irdeo'ostecunoscut: 'l /M dror js shxt. brt. rl, rindo,s are o|lenTurn ofl lnc /ddto and h,rn on /F TVJ P\i ott tlte lishtr, llcasel We dor'I. sdl wastc l,crr. Are vou coine to lct ah llte .hitd tuom scliooll Iak",/F i: ilis) pastcdntro thr post-office, therc's a good girl] p)eac. Thdnk you for tnc aunitioa. I\I h{\\e the h;fi tdpe1, 1 mert ioned chcss: he was !.olieieDt in ,nc sdtu,. The pi.ttta an ,i. ,@ll fte his own . The hishlishls al tlt $ech's ln Engtaud, caN drire on . Lt and pass on t@ rist u. 1'lE c.smos is a wcll-orde..d syslcm. A t enlie ! 3 ) ,q.dvorb.- Th. est.. ar t.ical hotdrlt trumai clnd sti p e ltD-qi un subsl antiv; clnd lnsd insolelte u n ddjectir sau un adrerh, )^ qradul compdrati\. sau sup$laliv! in speojal cind s int doun adjective sau advrbe corelate traduse p ri n . . c u c it . . . , c u a tl t..." , l h e e s L ed d p d .r: t h ] . t u' P , h r " " r .t t\d \F fb ' He lias had a rcsl atrd leirtsd,. r.fu. ({or il.). l-A.dverl) ' 1, . . , at . g. r t p ,l ,i l ' 1 ,//' 3 .,o , ...a r., .\dr rb, ( lr " ) ilo - nF d b " " 6 (,t, " ) 1 .,,,a a t, ^ i .\ s 4 , r" , nosl . (\d\erb) e $ 450 Zfu eslc tnsd articol cind precedi un superlativrclativ + substaniitul erprimat, sau subinleles, deoarece, acestcaz, el determin[ subst&ntitul. ln (Vezi S 724). $ 451 STUDIU CONTR,\STIV AIiIICOLUL IIOT-iRIT SI SLTST,4,\?IINJ,I] ABSTIiATTI} SAU COIOIiNTD s 452 Etemple: o.:t "t h . d m " l , t.l" t t l h ,n a ' " r' ,1 " | ,5 .- r . r\D 5rri l di " I'o1\a") . a t e - \"a s t.kb r 1 - "p r tr ",o ,, a .onup O sene de substantive pot fi uneori abstracte, alteori concrete - deir nu pot sa u pot avea arLicol hornrii - tn {unclie d inten,tia 1.orbitorului. 1) Substantive le bed,, br.dl; (: rcc/catle), canp,'Change, church, callc:,,. S 463 coufL ha.rb aur:hotnc, lLaspital,jail, mass, marhet, parL prisan, schaoL, t(". shne, tdble, tcrm, taen, aork etc., nenumerabile,nu primesc articol (au ndic; articolul ZBRO) cind lnlelesul lor csLcabstract, deci atunci cind ne reterin la rnlian4 respecti vi: na Chanee lo have been to .ol&sd to }rine ini,o .orrt lo leav s.l,oo, to lut to sra l0 sit doivn to rdDl, to admit into norrn(l 10 s o lo bF d,ro J p , o 1 6 ., l o .o rl " g ' ,l o ,o r ' .i u..3" l orr, o" . p o ri. , e. in o h^s pi ra l .l o mT L In ro to r. to p , so j i l . 10 to town. t o uni\ c r si ,y , to $ o rk , 1 1 ,, (r' 11 t' 1. ( A b, r . , at or r.) t' ;e h [.J,' i ]!o nd " i ' 6r' .i .:t . rro l rtr.' r ' )t x I n' aL. hanp. /o r.r,rn .1 ..,1 ) .,,.rr d i n r.ur .l ' i r n^ d" l d . rr,r,,r ' sublnlel{asl /o l'l. "Ee sEnt to theb \or^e".] ii ca atuc lac! t,]]t ! din categori'r s'l de staltive care, lmlrl"url cn o lrcpozilic, au lalo.lle dc adftrbe.

TICOIVL ttOTARlT 9C c'' r 'o l i g n 'h o m " in los_ i - illhTn|n dlp roliuin b'l,i ' : i . t o J . i d l r . o , a 1. . ' lool " i qi\ " mai l seamni $ 454 de To\vn,fira articoi, pe lingn selrsurile la S 453 S zr55 a] ) rlrul (comercial ornl'.rlur: "i ' Shall Nc have ililn.r tr ,oa, todav (- Il ora!. la rcstaurnnt satl la chbl? Sl o l o' ui l d i n n o ra i ' l p i ' r4pi ' r' r' . ,i ,i 1 "., i t . t o lr s l ' on n ," x "iJ on! Inarn' ^,,(1 ,' ubu' h: i . r { d J J u ' l a " ad rl ttP) ' ta " ' ' pdr $ 455 : : r o r ca u edon a lr idal. Se intrebuirteazl insi ariicolul bolirlt atunci c tnd ne relarim la inlelesul .onrret al substa;tirrelor de mai sus dcvenite nurnc rabile, la un anumit orag, , ) al u mi l i F c oali c t c . : TheY lookcd at ,ne ndd: it !'as nPtY. |the'coltele slood {t d oossroads. The lisiciiersin tne.o&r, lrcrc not interesled. 'l'he chcmisl.'s was rear t,l" /@3,Dt,2,. At Doltani,,nd P .tsn h4len turned into a museum. \Yc salv tne scn d, bciore tts. ! , , n . r.J h i b .rrl ,' di n h p s u n i l l d r. T hpA i r' ,n r" 5 i rri _ g d , fr. ta b l " u F " l i o Ll i r booLs. rle iN sriislicd with r/P eofr in !f.p SIc wcnt io r a $alk outside,ft4 t Wc were alProaching ,ne ,oaD. 'qa. Irticolul hotirit se l llttebuinleazi S 456 !i in urrndLoarele construclii: /i ' l a b o rd l o ty ./rfi ,/ L n i \F E :'vr.go do!l " ^i nl o ' l P ' ounLrl :' I ns li l o so 'r'., ' o, io . r. l -u b i l rnr iv ' . r r A r Lm F s . ,o h i ,l ' .o n " r' l n i o q o io ll' " c ilpni. l h P i )s th ' ' o tr' e rl t/r' o D ' rd. l ,p nrl l r s. ft. Inertrper ' ' d u ''r b sl Jn i i v o. 1r e nur n" s c d G mrl l c d l P g o rF a d F l r" l rr" ! {n/ sch o ol. \ da s ' r r t ad ,t,i a a rv s .n o o iw l p r s h " s R ' :.. S l r E pnl i o 4 p' i 4ufv . {o Dli n Jr s - y , . nd s penlfo u " )PP t . d Is " ,{ o tl T l ' Pns n p \ P nr 1oY 4n4or!^sta^t \N nen ro / . , ncr:n i r h edr " s - or l, . u s to o l , .h " w " n l u p l o ,,ru rs ' rd In uucnrfest. r 4? u4' ' ?nr.ru R u c h u P ' tu n i r' t' i ]! oir rn d Fsr{ ! u" P of , ' i dl) ls r u l o rl h p ) ' drent l n l rmbT\or' ' ra accca;iregnl{: (au deci S 458 date|,cselarzilei f: meakJurmeazn 2) Numete .lrtic olul zro): o) nu sini articulalecind ne relerimla noliuneeabstrnoti: ,.dftlast is nY talourite nealCone to lrtul tomorow! ?!d h ai live todaY. lThe) d taDe. is seNed \Yon L rou shv lor sll?ef , * g .y ' a n o rh a rl v d s u ' d i w l d ' : l he ndl ' rq $i rh hP f noa? i i a i .,l. in; "* ,) Cind ins{ noliune a esto concret5, substantivul poate alea ambele devine numerabil, adic:i ore li plural: articoie ""i S[e put rh" rrd^/nsl nn lhF t8blcd ri c ' t' a ' l ' roo: i i , i" , . , s r ' n j ' o ' J -.r" h ! 'elc h l / c " , ,. P l e J s.l kd Comc on. vou \iilj Pnlov rn dniM'. \\:c sold a" l, , r ndF J t' r* i to t, a n d Iv o I' u n d re tll e ," todaJ. tastd! L\ t . . i d ,".rb inlr"r.lln: - d ar lr . : b La r , r r : r . r . : t : j \ L pr "l"r Tl1. m d J l l' lr oi , r "l . rr on, - ,1,,r .'r //i. dc " ' lt (\ ezi U.H. I{illils et alia or' .t , p. 68 J j \'e,i ii S i'rs. ii S 459

4t rt.:tJ:

100 460 c/ In acceafi cateeorie f6, inlrn si urnitoarele substantive, care Doere u plurnl 5i ori,are dir ,"le doud rrri..lp. dr l "u o noditi,!r. sem"r,ti, alun"i "lrd se relerald o iDt rrr tir la n,sF".o p, rrFrarc.t... ./i"n". .parryr tait n sr-. Il:"y .g"u" " 0 arcarsurcess. Helen has iccn 10 r@ dtra,,s this we.k. W ha d d lovely lancl at a Sohorrestau.aDr. ,161 l) ItlijLoacele(le Lacomolie. Aceeaq i uzanli este urmai,e si ln cazul verbelor lo gor to camq to learej lo lrarcl. u rmate de prepozilia ,y (: ron. cu), care precedi, fird artirol hotArit. noliunca fiind abstra;rn, numele mijloacetor de locomotie ca bicuclc, bike, boet, bus, & r, ptane, taxi, train, tubi, und.er. graund eLc. I I se nt th o D dc el Dz dt . lp r J "! . I n. b o v s q o i n F r y n , / , . b i 6 . p t o . ThJgr.l f'IorL oDdnl; r r . , , / J ". an(l 1n o ,lr !d. nr h s om ! lr . nds Go by anderyNlnd to "Piccedilly Cittus I' joi . rh-m, prepoziliitein, l,n + articotut hotirlt cind . Spuneminsa, htrebuin_ttnd nolrune a este conoet5: Sh " l o o L ,1 " /,rp to O\1 ,' rI L:r rs I/." L o d l rr.ri ,r \ in We had lun ch aL th. tnin. Thde was onty stn.ding room tD ,nd rd;n. 'fie.e \ras lo one we k .ew on ris ,ldae. I *as on tLe bus whcn you got in. 4) SubstantiTolo abshacle sl nt articulato atunci cilrd, conform resulij de la ! 455, numesc ,obierte' anumit q cunoscutc, mentionate antrior"sau particularizate prin determinanti3: Hs prafa. pd pcansidpt:t; th" p.p,n. and tbF suqsestio! was ac.eoted. T l' nujh v o, n s . l J s i h . s rF d n m" rn o t.] s;i .. " S r r r dd lhD g o'o d s e n $ o l \. .:.s l h t j trd i rF o/' o,...i ,ri " D . e ?he lile. oocurftd to t.im thdl tie s night ldre dn ovtins_ AX,TICOLUL EOT-iN,II SI NO]INLB PROPRTI 169 s 1(i3 ldl 4 c s . m nr un b n u m rl n \p mD L t J ;h tr o .rt. or: . rV e?i S ,i JJ InF\i .r.nta articolului)Num ele p ro p ri i i ft t /J In s s ry -' , r ul d. t.t,i , t,dt.. \i dp" i pri mp.. . t t t i' oJ ul hat 0t i l . a l d pl urrt. ..u ,e i u Lsrarti L. " i n d s r' r i n trc b u i n :a c or unp. qiu , i n d ,l r I !d r i , u l f i z A e ,l a n dc," rmi n. n (d" i but ..pr ot oz i, i. . r r j b u ,i !r. .p , z i l i e q ,r t,o p o ,/rl i F apo/;ti var. Rogul[ ge[erald Numele proprii cu formi de singulor,prin faprul cd reprezintn u n J n,pln r up,...0u prin,rs.arti,ol,.t o t a rr. . , " . . . " r! in J i" n f u a lt 166 ..o m uno ?s im ilarp l o r' n a mb ri i fj l n ,i ti a i . p e rsoa' ptp apropi ate c ..t Fothpl Mathcr, Mummlt, D&dcl1J, Aunt, Uncle, Bab!, Cooh, N uise, Teac her erc.l. 1) Numeleproprii ile prrsoauesau animslc, lmpreundcu substanti\el. Lrc:La s-p ,lrr.on $Jef d' ; , , n' , r ur I o. df i. r - r . r ' s , . . , . oI iald I n r , r n , t l i : u o f a t . n L :olv' fb rra i m.r'" .|") z i: . s o_, d "1. o p, J b p, ' ar ; ". ,\ru at ?: t nl0lPnt s t r nt l. !ci. $ 4 44 -1"0, 45i- 1Ljr . i- 24. i! 6. , I dt"pt-.e. r,ton : carticrd;n t.ond.a, c.tbru lcn1ru reslarrartete shnnri p;..ottiu!lprrJ',i rtr'drr tp,L d..,s{lc cu tr!.nfiLrie Lir, . ..n,1, .rm" I ., !ia|;t!!t Ci,'.s ua".\. I J.: Oiaa

AETICOLUL TTMARTT IOI ntr au articol la singular,nu au piurui sj so scriu cu inil,ialn rnaiusculx (Vez iS 301): Is ?,, on ihe Fa.iorY ConmiU.ee? Aucudus JohL'{ "$rasliq DiX" Iaigs in the Tate Galle.y r-i4.r. (Jolin) didn'l. !irg up yPsterddy. Tell Croft Urc .anteen hnoh i s nt lhree todal. Diil ?ld.l.. call lhe .oU? s",ofty is a wise cat Aceeagi conrp ort,rre !i la yocdlitr $ 46{; I shun'l,Ire a ti\in\tl., IIunvL!/! Daggi:'. tet.n lhc bulll llar.'s a good boll n;scut din recesiiater S 467 Numele tle faDilie este d.'fapt un .leternrinanl de e se particulariza prenumele lvrzi L,f:girea rumelor scolicne, irlandezP. scand inal-eetc.. care 4,, pfetir.rt lr prtruncle strnbunului flAnuldi. ir sco dl in l iann ,4{d.sar,11d(= 1i,,1. irlande,r a)' (-,/) t(desr,erdent) lui.. l, ial in fl . lui...). Astlcl t"lacDanaLd:: . scandinavnsuti\ul .ttrr sau -s.,n (:liul desce ndenlul Ir11 Donakl: O'Do oea : dercerdenl,ll irli Danomn Chrislo' : prrersron s au Chri^'tophercen dscenden-tii lui Chrislopher. hot6rlt numele proprii care au pierdut caracterul de s 468 Primosc articolul unicitate: a) numele proprii cu fo rmi de plural: $ 469 Concert ai the We me!, BroaasandilE Sttuhhs the Loldon Plil dDonic Orchesira DJ numele proprii dc.renite substa tile comune ($ 7)i I was dnv ins the ALslin: aulomolilul (cu marca Ansit'). s 470 Wc l o L t h? t ; lads t a1l,b .' r) o " 0 u " c l o l l ,p . ( c p a r dnl e .l l . ,,l o u l d p C ausui nj ^ Di d 'ro u s po r t u Ca, s l rr_ a l rh - r.' r " She ;as sitiins on- the chesleiictd (- canapca). cJ numeleproprii particularizaiepdntr ur) atribut, sau pdntr'o propo- S 47r uili e atributir.i; dc substantivprecedaL un at but,: tljt ..I.bNted John Gdls{orthy the /dtuB llrs. Sidilons substantiv urmat, de un atribut: I conld h.trdlv rDcosnize the Bd.ltarelt I didnf rike ile Opihelis ," the nad.rt o/ p.eaat ddys ier;ion of th; ptay. substantiwurmat do o propozilie atribuiirn: Tho r\m 1 nonirZ nds not tbe -{Dtr t had ntust in ny ch'ldhood Thc Tentrs /ou sd { wus the (alll}Jsiin Ictu8. Erceplii Substani.il'eleproprii praccdaie d adjective ou rua li afectjvi, srtu de cuvinte care constituie o poro.l:i sau e:rprimd o singurd idee nipreuni cu subs taniivul. nu prinesc articolirl holnril (Vezi $ 433): 31' \i darl , j \Io n ' f. d '' !. "n. Eoo l ll J ^ . s . poof lr l l . \ n n r n u 'r '. . \ldy. bnv e liub, i llaod. por r f I ' rJ/ r lo,r. dry r rr n' " " i r s,lint Joa ,,, Yo ,,n" f'4 ' 1. oU 11^ B, oN ' \: , \t;d;1;o,F"r:. ,,ri. F,ns 'dno:i""i r.;;;;. 5rd-d:sri.' I n .ij',q:'""ii;l _ **' " " R orna,,iJn li 4"4r.. r , . o loq. ir l E, ' 11 . h. n, "dipldl S 'h i u . J "", I A -8..:, Ed " Jt ,l t.\, ," t a19_t ' , ; t , t i t , . r r i s r r r op o f l g r nu . r r . : J i m i, , L ' . , ' d: \ f i 'p s S 472

102 473 Cind nune.le propriu este ur at tto un adjeftiy sau de un substantiv apo zitiv care constituieo ?ofccln. arli.olul precedi porecla: Iolit n Creail (lhnrles lk /tdl.lr Fl.\a dtlFaor t . . . . i /" \,.s 1i4 s475 Erceplii: John Laclil.tnd6, Edward /,onXrr(rAr' 2) l{umele prop i lnsolite de ti Uuris. - TjtlLrr;le (de politele. prolesiG nalc, aca{lemice.nobiliare etc.) urna te imediat de ur nune de persoan:, prln laptul ce au un caracter dc unicitate. n u sin,, artjculate (Vezi S53-54): Niss smith Colonel Brown Q,Er M.b loctor Rolinson tiin.c Cl,a.mila C,rnr, Gonzalool Lara 176 Etcepgii. lililurile striine (Empffor, En cst, SxltdD etc.) au articoL : thc Arthdule Ftatz Ias.t //,e Ca.itto llan,. -rl R6hid ()zdr,1 Pcter ure Grenr f ,te, Canstr ctii perimt e: ,na ladv ]Iarion. tte ladv Roscna. 'Imarry,/irnrl"lail].,\ nn;'flirl,ard111de$'.Shatespen.e)1';rlELordRisin ln Tl,. Bla'k Arow". fjlm 'r\ T itlurile pdmcs0 iI,sE arlicolul lofdrii atunci irind i.si pierd caracterul de $ 478 urricitate ssu ctnd stnt tnsotite de determinanti: o/ rnrur e rnra nDmp pron rrl 477 s fie .,L",/ illlectcd the tloopsZle do.l,/ \rar s.nt l.r. The lt4i4eht .rddr.ssed thc neeling. 480 481 D) titlurile la plural sau urmate de mlme proprii cu formir do plural: The Mbs Btoons (s a d,d r1t;ssesA.o.rtrl lived ncxl dcor. c, titlurile prccedatede un adjertir sau urmat.odc prepozilia ot: ,n, ,/ar. ,{dm irnl Ncisotr r/'., X,,,srI D.nD{rk rld s*e Kjng Solonon 7i. Pri(:! \\:rles '/ rne Prcsidcnl o/ lh4 riollcge to i]1c tlronr. 482 Cird tnsi Lii,lulurmat, de o/aro lurclir de apozili. articolul rln seexp md: &lwad, P.ta., ,/ Il-a/cs. snllerdcd r Iadn I ('ul llIdr.') 1135i-t433\. fpqe rl Porhiqrlil,i llrli l1]31. , CdtuI I I'ccl rlla,?;) (82:-sti). rcr1i Nt Friniei lr4rl 8;1. .ci.sub n!mete de C.trol I l. Imptuat al Shitul lmDerni Ro'nan isti-tt7:]. ,tt t,otr,.'. rd .d 'ttevic 5 AitL drd L lninil t t e 2. , irn .ird, r rr.i, Ir1 ll6'lao ttt.d. sf n ,^ i r"f. s ou' I 00i liaris(t rul, tiriti o o o r d .ld I

_ cd t cr a t- . ln, i6. - r \ -li.i l1: de r,ortnlalia 11tj1i4-1i6it. l 't , i,roNrlo. al crrtori:dtor ( 115i- 119! 1. r eg e a l l n g l i r , i l t t s 9 lTlr j r, "l li i \'91,.lll ljlu., t1!!):nhatlrtc ^"..,mna. \ligno lfd a I l: ^. t 110- r i. il A :. i '1 0 : . . . r , . r c ) i lll linsLnt rsrr t.r.r. 1 , , I r lr nJ r P lunc r . " \ sri @mlara cu S 4t6. .t.1 r' dI r . i q ir . v t . ' r.../ r ' ns ii L. t th st Na r . r i , , . o, ". , "not.l. ,,, ,. ;",, r r or r oq- r j ,i r!.. s.,u ,-. ,l Cilatul ale srroarcri ljnitii lli Siii k$po:or, dur rnj e nri !u roCll pfntN otito.ii . .

l 0B 3) Numirile geogreficc. pd ' r; ' / . r' n n ' irr' n ' Fl5 rr' r" a ) S ut.r ,' r i "l e " arc n'rn,'" ;n'nt !i !. mrrn l r :r In ' L ra) (\prr J e i : eiu n i . p rov ia" ii. lo. dlir' i ri d i ' l ri ' ,,t . ir , a r u f or r n r L l " .i u e Il a r tttl rr \\' ' ' s lur oD" $ 483 s 484 jii,:1"' s frr.o r: R i .i," i i ,,r,'" ii'r;1""#il;;!" EtcepliL ,ne -{rgcntii.l ,le coDEo rne Ltvant r/r PalntrDaie )'ro ' )'i,, iiiil*.;,,,",.". !"#:li,'.'" southrari.nsington $ 485 ' ndP st forni de lhuat si t arlif,dste cu ariicolrrl hotirit: r / "' I os , , r r . "r Obserra!LL r- ,' ,i' riir'", "" rr' H i rh l d t, ;i ;: j _ ;;' ;,r. it | llanJq ,. i r /, P \ l ! " l/" Bil t" L' JmP dr' r, . I norn," rlP R o' kres l," L" vi' s r' 8" ' ' ' FI btd l ,r orkn I d'

dac[ au formd de siltNumele Sirurilor ile munli primesc srticolul chiar jhe-P nn inp (hoin' euf*r rlr" -frir.. tbc fa" o'r" "--Nr."t.alrei rrunli:fhc Jdn.[]au'th eS! B "rnod lit]de St Cathord 'in' $ '186 articulate. mnri, estuare' S 487 , ) Substantivelecare numesc intinderi de dpii (oceane, riu )'p mescarticolul hotdrtt: /ne (Elglish) Channer ,r, Nile Notd ari'icolul nu este exprimat ina- S {88 in cazul suLsl,antirelor proprii cor rTlrse, i j?l: ;nr""'run 'lo" cr qr.l- dF rru L '/i \ Newcas|e_otr_?,nd Strailor d_on'{eo' Burroucn_r".,r '\ t de tnount|ad lLrmdte-imcdis un I'unrc S'189 rdl.. Iakelloth. c) Substartivele ' ' afllrol r\Flr S cltt': ptopr', un r " dpo/iliP l tu au ""u 'on ' -''J;; C apc Con averJl rr'r.'..r r ,r"r',n,t"".'r' ll;lill :,";'i' I oc h Lonr und ll;:' l"'. ' Cind sint, lnsd insolite {te Un atrlbut, e\e slnt afii''nlate: S 490 S agr del'rminat de u3 nu11 a,/ tll genere, cirr{l uIL slll]slon1?ltomdn este rr' i\ul 'umu'' ntooriu ta{t; 'd\ ^F nr)J-t)t'1"r" ,'a":d/"r's'Fruid'qub (""i'ii""t"",,'; t'i"r' , it ''," nu"'.rr 'ub;r'LalFb: u" rne Rasqre Prolinc.s r,{. llirrhiz stepre rrP str;i ts D .t errrts i:;i';i::*'[ii:"*' i*ilf:ljfim" I St slnne iNr -lrsrl'rd' ?yDl, lrderai. tn -\ustria.

104 rr, Strait ol Gi!.alta. r/p town of GuildLord ,ttd tohemie Fo.csi I t / k ) US S R tl, Saharlt (Des.ftl $ 492 ErceplrL htrbnn hat"n' ,hill't ldnd' ball fitth hcaL fni'l'.'fs( Substantivele ( rezr nu rle preie<tate n'rn]PpL 'prii sau c"rnurre' 3u rrtrcur rrrriiorg,clnd st nt s 4 33) : 'on; c$dinatesi alr rctnLnilornsprtrite /tin'rc art'icolul punctetor N umele .) { 4$3 'hotnrit,: liil;i",fl;il .;,1;i i;;:i .: Fllr".l r'-'" t i'ro'' )ll"lil 'i"i''" r'dnd ''',,"""''' n,:n'u, vijro,u: ljll,;;:,tli;"1:t,,:.;':]lL'l; "h'i'"ll;,,'f"J"",1' l; :;t,h.,,,1,!:. r.d cs,i.n,, "1H:1',"-r"ll*lll'il * ;,l'i";,'i 'J,,T'',I";i,i; #ii*illj"stXli.;l;,,f 'f'""'",*k Er ce Pt.i i idl ariltind dircefia' .1, numelepunctelorc'irdrn e i l'ebuinlate d dltf E 494 " nu au ortjc^l(\rcziS 49r)l o. ' ' I h" wir d hlo\ . u' r ' \ ' \ ' P NPr ' dr ' \I)' S 495 $ 496 I fol de b, in expresiile t'iput $ 602: We lcouleil the woo{t lrom io so"r 'or'i and l.nd e'Jt to 'ves'' 4) Nllmele d0 strtrzi, parcuri, elidiri' vapod'rc etcnb'tdnttu rr'rrm-prnpriu"ru rom:^ I' i"t' iormaiedin (tot'.'r d, 0un,elF ' i ' rrru 'rrt Jrri'ulire p*' i"i i:'"'o1'6"1' '" .omu4 rd sr' "/. tq*' (Vezi S 433): il;:. F;i iir,,l*i-" Rri;r;il;";1""* Er'"',:;F"'.y"''l iij;i;;i,.i;;,1 kl l,i,ll ;'' lln*iili" s 498 s 499 i: Y:rirr;r,r :i'i:r"f: ,d \ationdt oallerl tnsi articolul hotifit: ,) Drimesc nn trntne cotnan: l,;.;'nu'r'"tc proprii form aie dintr-urr ridi"liir + l/P Zoologic{l Cadns ^* :flll',;'l,;'fill.l'l'"*,i]l'"'l'i'',li""iii;"i?l'f,ii,l:llTi*;i[:'!"]"' lon( ronez. '"""1 fri,'i"'ii"f;,i!.",," .rerar|io,, rer

AFTICOIUT EO1'AR1T 105 E a c e pyi t nr oad S rre e i tsrondwaL Suburlan Pari! 6'.,1 nnele nume de cartiere, stdzi. c A $fi foorle ctnoscutel tne ndoiralty tnd CFnotapti -Arch rn" Cit.vr ,nd Mallr r n Mansion HousC li, l\Ionnrcni ne Str{nd lp l-owc' ol l.ondon rn. Tare tGrllefri tlk 7no clddiri, nanumente eIc., prin faptul S 600 ,l@ Adelplv (Tlealrel ,n? -^ldttrch lTheafei frlP/ DnrI Lane iTheatre) /n . Ol d Vi e ! i Theadel rle Cccil (Hoidl) rne savov (Hotl) dar ldrd arlicol, d.s; loartc cnnoscurc ezi $ 433): (\ $ 60I Pall Unrl?.Co\.entc ardens.Soho,Irdgrarir!, Unyiair'. 5)d),I'unrel" d,./ilp.tuni.sfii.cnotimpuri.bir bnloriau o situariesporrp. q S0, . AcFsrF rLt,strn r\o sint | proprii.dF,i IUn,. , uni.Htp. na ar, in g.n"re _ - 9i articol (Vezi g 433): t1 ,t n rd 1 y . On l^ ., r'r, r ' 4. t n. b tttd i ..) r;6 " d r.d .fi n p t,rt c U rrdl l i c. c,sIi \a' i n ,hF r S A . J u .. 4 r i s -rtr mo . i -,"* Y"1.' '. r , . 2, ,a rrs r rkd r/ r la lr - r . . | \ r!r.r l tt.l J fto .t .i ,;roa f o r. ,t!, i th ,, To r u. i. , u c \ . . pr i F tF -H rti ,o ri . .ubsrsn,i v.tp dF n,ai s us q i n r n .n, r dLr t r [ r , r , ,l a .i r,r.,t:,.i D , ,l a i d \n i pl u,, L pra rL, si an;^l hot iri t sa u nehot iiiit . du p i c u m ' u r;; a z a : ctnd articolul t,tc are valoare de adjectiv ilenonsi,rativ. se spune: Th e (: tLdt ) artunni Nrs noautiiut. ll-c sha]l go io the s.asidein rt, ( . rib) s umniq. cind substantil'ul nu erprimn rirrlut jn rtjpori ru prezentul: On ,c X lo iidal l, e wJ,i t0 w o rk a s l s L a l . I'-'^L -il1"i'.p\i'l tr:, , r s ! r . un r S 608 S 504 cind arLicolui eslI intr!hLrinlat .l,lrrasii\ | Those werc his p,tstim.s in ttg witLtr; it th, s,r,na, :C . \ o! tj,'.d . , r.., .r nf used io .nI",r r m pr . , r , , . . . . r b. ", : ^. . . i, r : I.i ri .,. -;,r.,,'J.. h, ", \ d, . . r . , , r $ 606 d,11 maj\,.hpa . . * , ; ; ", ' .?rre M.l'.,t.o,,\:. r ..s a La dr L .' Lo nd .a. ., a . t u, , t i r . 'd r u i n , , \ i n g '. s m . r c e ,J . n l o *"r.":'li ltJ;h';'"'i. "*"c :p,rJ'jl,t*lil* 3 .lS : *redinla l'rjncitr) a ro(h']rni (rhr Lonr lljn'iarar Londrei

erl.#lrJ',;;J,''j1"ilfXi'Lk"^:t&::^:),:l!,ll,Xi""li'iiili""l,"i,,ifffi,' ,i ..r" .r rr,;rFsp. r" f , mJ.r' 'po,' dp r . ar; ,r" afp. .rid '5'. ". stfarship. ttto :stftn J'o r.on / jc pt ! br apan r . . t r i" , , , loll u Fvrp lrd r I m b"ilor , lubur it ^- . t , ' \ \ . . . P 6 F] ' P F llm4. i.,,..5rr,i I,ror,uIr.d,rre^t4 Enr.,a-"Lro. ,, r..Lrl nrll ,i;,i;""ifi,:1 ,"Iijiii" !",r;":;iirj':,:d1t",,,J:r;''1;;;;i1,;ljj',t[r cii-d : .";; ,; I Belsta,ia, .MalJfait : i'"+ \: ;i:l' :ll; ,ir ;i,]l"ir'rl ";;:i: rdnsnrm' imn", a '" N{ijcre trxodsc aristoc.ate.

100 MOE'OLOGIA _ AA,TICOLUL 506 cinil aceste substantive Elnt pdrticularizate printr un otribdt' lhp' "" ot l]F H' lPil s'm''shrroi'alty' lr th"u *.f tC4t.L,n:n;r; si'hsrnod 01 t helv " d,a s d a ua l l av i a s . h ' ,1 ,n I' o m.. l ; 0; pcn^fo1..\i sl d i l ri " l .usl i p In c , c i, r . l in. d a ,l s ta s u b s L rn l i f. ^ u l ntP l P . .u rn l o rb i r^ ru l p ri !F:l e anol i mnrrl ' r no:runP sau p r if i, ia ar li. nlul u i . d u p d lron Osloto AthcDs ln 19t9. rlD QtD,,. hail b ecnte.riblei sno{ }tad fal1cnin masscs par aliz P d dc h o t th e C o rti n n l . m aDd rhe suine sls stow to .ome. Sudd6nlr-srrtag ws there in ali its berDtv' pE Lel osoti t r 1. / A f li. olul n c h o l l ri l p ' l F i n l c e b u i n La r ' i nJ. sub' l anLi \11 . , n ddj- ! ir . tl l i fi ta t;1 . c u e x ..p l rd tu Part! :t tat ,;" by Tlrafyear \te hail s lotdr! atr,linn, fol1ow_"d an iataae iv @ruNinter' it-i; now kt. ptn,e'. About this liare last ,1-cdir rvasalrerdv da '! s!"'s deratc iz dasr.d.rL, jlo lt n' i" : {Consisio b9 50 t i'i-"i" luniior si ',rbslorilur tc s'riu "u ;ni!;ulu 1-ojus'rln dal 'ii"r"". au inilidl,' ul3. (\'czi c\.mplP mei su.). nun,rt" anotimDurilor 'ninu. \,rm.l" zih lor, luoilor. aDolimpL,rilor b.rbalorilorpol \'er inoa,4/rr_ Ei rot n hota l cind limpul p n"dofinil. dupi cum pol JrpA uoeorrEr p/drdl *d O 1 a S , ! . . / d i D D e .p mb rf,I te l l ." u d d p n l Jt ' d up ar l h " i dra ol ' l l l } P del ' nroi a and aecidedto enjo': I Nci teor's Et in the nountai's bv ";;;,i-Gi"',, ';t; 611 limbilor vorbite alepoloarnu au xrticohl hotdrlt cu-exce-ptia 6) Numele lvezr exp rimst sau subin!ls cind sint lnsolite de un substanti\_ cazurilor g 433): M v naii\ e t o n a u ei s n o mn i n \ v hai is t ai f tl a y i n -F .e ,.l ' r r ; if dr . s la t.d l b ; b o o k l ro m c " n o " i ^to Lnsl i sh' ! 5r2 513 Se spuneinse: Is t6e nnalashlanstdsp rerY difficultl lYhat js r'? nou a"-id,i arlm;., tof frir Irlav ? Itun the'Busion ltdncuds") t ii"i" iiia a noler l.rdn5rarPd 7) Iiumcto obic.ictorde 6iudiu.alF jocurilor r'i il' lporlurilor nu primcsc arli cold Lotirll dcci' alunfi cind brnt p"rli'ulariTdt' pnult-un alrrbut (vczr I 14 ErcE .iigav*d ,e;nis,sheiiayed otussand t'olh walchcda some or il" *ii r6"i "i ,iu;o'd! when thcv had a oharce. "-*'ri"i,iijii"-*1r-iti; pubricrvoe /oor,ai l'c.;cir't,hocte!,stvinminsetd st@lins Se spunctnsn: al n"b' lr" \a r.s d look o n t lF. t , "nis ' . ! l.a nn o ro "S t t eht llt n llo: J l- hnlny : . rl qibi0 lunil' s 28): aPh! len;sL 4 atdain' rtr

511 8) NrIIIcle ziArclor au articol ltotirit: Ob*ret, Th' Dailv ToleTh. 'l'nnes.The Cua lidn, Ttv Ne*s Chtuai'L' TILe Nunele nagaziDelor 9i ate altor pcriodice nu a u articc'l (: inexistenla ariicolului): Lif.' lunch, Tine, Language, Nees,eek'r% ue' etc' araPh, eic,

ARTICOLUL TTdARIT 10? ALTX FUNCTn -{Ln ,{R"IC0LUIUI EOTilt lT 1. i ,.1 rl lr u l, r it i, , " or" .' ..i _ r ! : .: : 5 d pr e( ada: the Bi? Fiset s 515 s 516 i l rp p d tl i ,l p !o rb i rc tn afsrE dF.ubstA nti r. I numeralulcaxdinal intrebuinlat cu valoarede substantiy: tha Eboea' : Dumemlulordinal (la date, capitole,leclii, nume alemonarhi etc.): S 6U th? f4t \on \lr(h rl" /:rl lne 7,i ot November hp thnit chaotel th" !"nth teBsin Edward the nilh ), t r u 1 par t . to l tti ' .. a 4 . r.p n .. I;n e . p d ? c, numbq etr. grrcatr . 31". -d p t rE la- 'd -L u l . ' df p. in dc F s t , d z . F q t. n u mp ro h rl ra r d i n a l cu val oare dc ai ozi rre: T\i" is Aoat T@. ahaptr Sp'"n: L?ssanSu, ro OE-\ se obsen'alipsa articolului hotdrit atunci clnd substantivele AorA. 1' s ot t . s 518 i,;i"' rg il:r,j"l:,i:: L' ::"i,:;.:!:". ::i' :!,:; i:,,ff:; La hotl: Floor 5, ro om 51. {Vezisi S 1lie) :\ ota 2 L ri udliil" din g i00. iOJ. i04. ',06. tbt,p,te o icotd.nrcwttuir. tr:i h .' A rom;ni l:,,1...a. ,ai..Flp. e.Fl(a).ace{e)a r-r etc.).Iapr car" "rat" arrqrnProl trcolulurhol;rif. s 61$ *)L : un odjcetir, cnruia ti dd asrlcl caracterulrte subsLantivabstract: g 520 . .,a | .ulli lul'. /r, b ou!;[utl ttJr|o tt). th" ip ffobt. (: inefat .tbitrd ,t. tl ,".or.t t ". t l, I . ht t r * -

pi'" r"tt,r . .' i..: ;'! .,,, ,,,,; ^t:" j ,t:; ,'",!!i ,';^.ui. i.T..,l/.-,:;, ,,,'::,::::!,i 1o ,,,f .:;.i r ..i l l .j','",' :;, Ir,lliY ':'1''t"t " d r' . t , ' o ' h l. t h p , t " Ma d u',adirctir. urr parliciliu, un gerundiv etc.l care capiti in aceasti \ 69l ,lF .uD.rsrtr\ ,.ote.tr\,.a,btruit .u plu"alul.rar un singular: ' lf t ! t ! pt r . 1:'.,,i'ii"":*,:f;ii':,.fi1,,1',1",l1j#'frr:#;,#,#:* ','eri dttarii S itn ! huti ceh d\ubetic, ia cuyn(ul SUBSTANTI\.AT) "'ff"{,*{i.i:'1iJ,"."". ;. eomparatirul, cind acesta are yaloare do poziiiv sau de superlati!3i ptir]' t E youuter, Hc is /le utc.r al tlic two. S d2g iJ suporl&tiyulrclativ: She is llr atcrs, of aL Lti.i is tte le6t totkal ae tutiridual I e\t r\et. Ee I 1|e Mst iatarestins man I L\ow. L r: ccle ciD.i ita -" i. Sr \ . \ ldFJ 0i, dnip . I r dn,a . t l t i a , i J a ! n n i . , rizboi nrondi.rlsi .lr la I rh " c1 . * n = - e, t , , br deCo nllf inla { e PaLc de la Pr f is , r ! 1 9 . lns!.ezccc jucltori (ta so..e/, ..ichet, hachai eLc.). : \ rzi E tr ' r . s 523 E:1-l

108 ,,24 7,1,:,: Iiterenaru''ltrro -5'- o """'- :l ;inif; ",., #"l.lil;;#l;i,l"ffi{; ,?',',!fl"##ITj111 uneoricu i",i;":;":;i; tu"''i*'.]u*'",,*r}.*i"oT'*'i*i;l"liihl"|'"*eH"'""i** r o iivar""i'idi"r"tl#fli: i':",i""'i'H e'rccrd' ) ^'eai"ar. s bsb $;zri R it li ew 11, ' :,";j::::;,.,"..p.,h",h.'bo"' ",:."1;lpl:,"I^"':,ll,l:1;:l; l": B:l",l' llfll '''#';"'i"i.i.l,i,'"1"11,"",,'u.-se anLedoariz o ra noli,.lne id fi e n n d e m o t 9 r \ ar r P oat " i,,:"Ili'.:l:"*,;j.,1,;";l',1:l' l;'i' ;;l; u,,,,,,,, l;,;;:; h;'lS "Xt;:";:l);";:r "1J'"1;'$' r i I'i'* r ro' vo " lll'ilrl:'0,1:;'"J'';l'fi o' u ,'' lt-i;:";l; -'"': "' "* j ::,1;1"';":"1'1"'' l' u" -, *;r;1 j'; J:;'J "'''i';111 ur" "Y:;'"iiii:'l'liJ; i;;; .;. ilinl ii ;tll''r:i "" 52s ,"','.", '1"';.; 'iirrr,li"j'"" "u.* i,ri$ :""" "' "" 'TT;'l*i^tt'r*' " {x zi- :,:,^:"','::"'':'%' s6ss "alf'*;"f*H:lTgl'*"""T o.1 ll f^Ul"il;r""" s,ru- -. l:jli'"li"l'::llli,i:'* r,ffi;:lli.l'l:'; p*'Ill c""nru]"";',i;i";"'"""i;;"'";np [;rI cindcdP-",,] iJi"'""l,r"t .a.'rnui .i tntrebuinl"rza "1":,.::l"i'::"i"' l r""i.it"t. cu'nnsod Derer: " "" a aspiraLaqi "rfl"' "'l"r""i''- ''" ::i;i""' I :li, ^ alrnsl:';:i" i lili",," "'"' se lntrd t'" nl nad 'antualr rr" " :i r"r"fll#iliiil;i.i;"io'u ' il'i"'" ,l An {ptonunla lsnl 'lnd a 'nvelole ' ' ' rrrr-c'r" t"'""i't U' ro nd ddo b a 'r'! dd ct' *it$r,i-i ';i;; 'd "1 ' '!'iil.::i"i:i,lti .iq-r i;:;l;lllr E\'Pzi P:rg 9: . noir r ' 6\'e r 5 !1 7, nor a d *l r ddv"rb I r;;r,'i: i',i";; ";i;"'r roar""'Jr' "il " ll"'lli;*'" ' rhis 'n'irs14i'

109 Forma dn era freovedt inlrebuinlatn ;i inaintea unui i aspirai in silabn neaccen tualiij astdzi mai rar. Istfeli u r his t o ry d a .: a' habr L a rhdo $ i):J1 az hrs toricat picture ar ha,hihral dnrnkard aa hr.oic selgeanL dz hYs terical ch ild u, he rediiary ilhess guilarist aa Ha *aiie Tot asifel so auzea pin5 recent: dD ho iel aa hy ' P o i n e s B lnhiL qi lero, prima siiabn fiind prea pulin ln subsrantivele 'hLstorlJ, accentu atd, sunetul[h] era atit de slab inclLnu se auzea. E x c ep 1i e : a Hun'gdridn. 2) Articolul nehotdritti plurilul. - Articolul nehotirii, neputiodinsoli $ 539 primsola plural ardcrtu, decit subsbantivele sensde singular,acestea cu :4ro, cu alte cuvinie ln aceastisitualie articolul lipsegtei Hc is a ba!l.. 3) Articotul nehotirit $i o oonshuotio cu lormi alo plurol. - Articolul nehotdri t exprimi unitate; poate tnsd tnsoti o constructie ou formd de llural re exDrime o misurd si este consideralil ca un tot unitar: A /o&. rudtu is sullicinlto eet this work ilono. \Te spent3 ?i!asaa, ,rde dass in the country. Thesh.v wa DostDo ned tutuer r@ ,raks. for (cf. $ 2i5t) 4) Articolul nehotdril, nu se lntrbuinleaze declt ou subsiantivele numerabile, nu qi cu cele nenumerabile,care nu p mesc ar iicol nehoi5rlt. S 533 $ 534 I\TRER IiI\ fA RE \ \R I.ICOLULU : \ E HO T A ntru a r\rticolul nehotirit se tntrebuinleaze esemna erenpldr a.Lrecdre \' lh"sljtl-m" PLr ls r oddv on/ , . , l rrie ll has called. -{ pr lddFm ll d " d t h " l l s ;35 Caznri specialo, Articoh nehotdrlt este intrebdin at gi tn urmitosrele $ 53? S 638 l) ilnaintea ti urilor, a numelo. de Troftsii, mcscrii, nalionalit,te sau a lllo r subsLunlilre simillfF. .lnd a.ac ad ronrpzinti e\^mplnreoare.arcdiotr-o catego de Si sini numo predicative cu formd de singular: Sl\e b 4 student. She became @ ta.r./. (Este sla]entd.l lS a l[cut p,,/as,d.d.) 1 l G o L o , t . I, r ' t r ' d H" .vs d t,r,. ( Xs ' " & i : / r . l t - :ctosra psa" ti. n. qFf ld. I an Easlislnnan.\ (Snrl ,nsl,: ) ^n rospectiveDu aLr arlicol. A se observa ci, in limba romAni, subsijnnl,iveio (Vez i$ 60.414 41r) "pu"" ".ri"oi.S" ln*{,1"Dnslish pt:ntn t'n tintltih csle trn adiecii! ii a{lFcti RI . I I inarntea subsianiivuluipe specie sau cat\oriel rn d,intr-o d rs d rnr.ro $ooae .P.o.'/ M/s Stui o o f .

wl nu e

1IO MOEIOLOGITI _ ARTICOLUL S 539 O bse r a a lie abslracl Areleaqjsubstantile,cir,d au caracterde uDicilatesau ln .teles D u r b i.i '11 "r i ula'. ({ ,"1.;84/: af the 'Itude(s) Unian. lle Nas elecl.ed He had ben Headnastet ol trton lor setem l vea$. "rdident Dickjnson Nas ,razag,/ ol tht Norks. This book is nv John Soith , k.tei.. ta rnslislt. She sot . job as 'an.cas. He acted, as idetpteter. Hc hel d thc olTiceor sd..'ra.?. He $ns awarded the .ank ol .,roaar' Ile had l.dned sol dte,r. lve Inet Uiss Shalv, !iargn,e.' ol the celenrated writr. S 540 af' af' 2) dupi cuvintelethe l)usiness the p(ttlrcle of, the prafession the He vas ncring the ?dtt of a judge. IIe had lbuos'ed the 1ra.tcaf a pouer' 3) ina i tea numeralelor hund,red, thousan(l' millian, dozen, score: A hundred a tl@usa nl.etc- Inen altended ihe shor. I 1 bonght a dazenhandke.chids. There-we.'" a s. oft ol leollc prese l al tho airport. 4) haintea cuvintelor l;lll, Ei /er, expri mindu-se in acest mod aproape $ 641 S 542 " (-$ pe cuvintecind slnt nearticulate 687) coniririul inlelesului careil au-aicst e goodnan!1 greatmanA,lat afl 543 5) inaintalocuJiuniloradjectivalc S TU' r : A rcatt no ru r ' hpLc { r " A;rc"t n dn T ' lD! f " iir "s n"l \;.o .ld,,ri.i,; d. r , , r. pJ r t in J '6 l . m o 1 s t J d l i o n . l. . a iuloFo b v l h l n P o r n . h 'i r p n b p n d . I n l l " r o a J . ' , q s , r "a/ or ,; l s# 4 6) dupe adjctivele lrecedate dc sa, as, too, lnwl haoeaoi Shc is nol so qxdlilted a rorlrd as l:on Thev moved ro as ni.e a ,,rse 3s yours. It is 1aoltiflicutt an .xuci,e. IIa, p.rfect a oi.$ ! Iloee;er ttutLfal a sil l sl\e mar be), this finc she told m a ]ic. (l\tp:dnan!, quite, ralher, urmate alc un substantiv cu folmx de singulari 7) Manu ax ttallb lds admired Ure Danube De] ta. Thel \rere nllotted quilc a aic. haue. Sne \s rath., a dcar. S 546 S 547 Idionul rzanrr o se construiette cu verbul la singular.4 8) dupn oifi"at, sLtch Nhat (\clamativ), urmate de un subste.ntivcu li formi de singular (cu sau fnre ad jeotil'), deci numrabl, carepaate tnsd at,et) plwali He broughJi a senl eithtut d bult. me Such a bilrla\t pifatnarcc $as lo ]rc e$ec ted of a yaruiiy cha.opion. .t4.1 u scattFnrainedcandidatc! trhat an ided ! I;t . d, a magniliccnt a.hbftnenl t\e Danrbc Black Sea Caral isl n lon Dlir d", o s r d p " J i F . f 4 r m d . d d l i 'o l lr'd rr ic ol d nn . t ho d.u lnkl./'.... .!, p o . , m pr d " I r m J l r ". l, , , , nu, , lu r i t . d i n D r , , i n " d . u s r | o r : , l o *o d t r F , lor m r r lr r t ul i' nl p. l . s , n g l r " l l t e b u i ; l n L 1 . dpccse.lr.l, p prtru . on' , / F s-vo nu i o nud , i l , t . 1 1 r J ) i d . 3 , p " J p s r p l 1 l . u i 1 . l u stt s on. : \ ' r ' r , &' "- " r n on! - . s utldr r \ ?lDt r ! ' u \ " r ou t . I p l t t d . M o n ! N n @ " . . . slil. l "olo ri,l | \s4 ul,. rfaln

s i. i r tp"n oa tips t.Bahet. or lnd: I dn! , 8( n) lhr t i 6 e 'p r ClndcstcInsl hsoiit de un ahibntsesFne: in '.euent ekli.d, elliat ol fottune ^ (d. $ 45r J. ' l n r d n ', lForn r

111 :\r[ico]ul nhotiril nu cslc_insi expimat cind cuvirtele mai sus-menlio- g b48 nal e (8) precedi pluralc sau substantive care nu au in rnod normal formi de ' plura l. deci nenunerabile (nume de matcrii, substaniire colecLivcqi anumite substanti ro abstracte): .rfar caDnoL lire qithnrt ft;ends. \ li' ing .f.sanis', shP s J - u / / , o \ olnr't : f F . r inL c a no t tr st ' t t"o tt fa o d . d r r r .q r n .lh a r t,n tt,6 .a m. ,Sz.ft loyelr Seplenbcr dals I o n d o ' t l, a I r ' r . p. " ,./i ,.\a L i l . ot,t " rt,c/. .u \ 'n- . uk th . c o l l L tl , L ,ri n Wc had szd, lunl It&ar interesl,ingl.]k danca ! What tinc rapet ! l vh a t g ood r ; s ; It hnt t,oLbl. !o\ loot : oind adjectil'ul snci este precedat, de ro,?c aau ro, ori ci4d {ridf ste adi F. li\ i n 'e ro gar i\ . s ub. ' J n r' !u l r,rn a .ti \ n u i rp a ,t i .ol n,hor" rtr 1n ni ci un I.h .\tl , ' a" $. |t , it t u, . - d i n n rJ mn J rv trn | ,tJ rt.J oa mJ pf 5n[l rj p. $ b49 Whdt ald! ol the nonih is Uris? ,9) lnaintcaunui $ubstantiv precedat conjuncliuas sau de loculiunea g bdo The chil,hen nscd lhe chair as d lacomotiee. H. .rr J c o t ot h?' aL _is r r y O f i i c e . :aF d op ,dFd ar , ho bJ l dr ' s pd oJ o p o sert her a doll oli a ,rrs?D,. A d rh,tC, ttotJrL dtF ad! $as . H. $ a M 4 t ha1 \ p nr qii' f h i m s p t t : 10) in uneleexpresii curuntecarenu au adicol in limba romanx: : la disiantl) : multE/scririli nencl : cu roco larerlc{zutl) oD d larse/small scale s 661 : Ie scari laqnhcdusa) : pe picior.d-"egditdk) : : : : : a a a a a Ii grnbit) li In situaiia) avca raspnns la toate) afta rolH de niacrc) avea cap de {liloiof ei c.)l iL is d pil| lla shttu ll to lo tn ro to l.o to have dz dnswd. lor eveNthinE ha\ e an otpetiE ha ve a n/,d lo r hhilos ol} y . c r , . l nelc d Jdry Jor t\^\e at aDpo.tulitu have a rtil,:, to haYc d raLn, lor : r d ri i ,Ll l tnt l r, penrru) : a inlLAiine corespondeniti) : a tx r.,c.rpni l a) ro keep xp 4 c.rapndcnc. l It is a shd tue !de ii lnl. ) es r l: "E N, s inc l" de t ^F t { p F p . TheI a o / ps r

119 r. Jrnd an drslpr to takP a 8ar MORFOLOCIA _ AN,TICOLUL I d lf im i l p r 'b n u ! " l to 8o tor a aatkla saitla di'.la "it,;\c.' : a s' dute ra.primba"'e/p9,19v9!,19Li"' automobihl ralonuiuu tuasuia/cu Notd A ss observa construclia foarte asenrnAloare celei romenelti' din care S 55 2 lipse$te tnsd articolul nehotdrit: Tlat rascal oI 4 brothef ol tlne' (itrensa.ul acela dc lrrie al meu ) She is ar aDgel ol a womrn (Este ud lnger de lcmeie ) A shrimp oI 4 man (O sii.pil.rrd d! om.l I i; : t ' u{i l e se fdce ddesea conl uzi e l r' rr' rr' s rp u o u i I I J _A , - o|lc . f aplul . . in Ii m b ' ro ' ,' j r' n , d rl i n l ri l n pl ' ^rrri l " i numerul ul rn sau o o ri n _au formi; din r.iensti eauzr trebuie s.i "p da multi atnlre deosebrrn a,-,eeaqi d i n tre eln: a este articol, ia! olle nu tnoral: I have d dogI havc ,ne do8. un.cl i oc' T n pr in ul e: ' -rn p l ,r s n o r- rI v e d " r" /' rz 1 " ub' l snti !ul ui --,.am s ' i n ' i s l ; aquprJ n,tki r' l ,l r anrmal el or o u o pi. jc s ; r n r l d o i l e a ' r" mp l .r -a rn num ai |r n c li n F . n u h a i mu ' r" . '' i; " " or i s p inr rc b L i n rp d /j ' \n d ' i a rl i .o l u l a cu l n{pi esul numeral ul ui o' P : n i ci ndaln lns i num rrs l L l o ,rp n u a rp j n t' l F u l url rcol ul ur d: 1 r :' ,o u d b p l o n s " r b t a n l rP . Th" She .ou1d not saY a single wo.d d JPP f. d G:5 Pr oasa I' r a iPn h f d $ oh hpdd ld "r b J H, F a l .l lJ jr m u " o f.o l- . sau ln provcrbe ca: .4 bi.d in th. lush is Forth iwo in lle hand' ,:1slitch in tiDre sdres n'nc' i\ C.\TiT AIiTICOLUL NtrT{O1rt,i.RITLIPSN$TT i 5; 1 ALTN C'IZUIII Umriioarele subsiantive nu primesc articolul nehotdrlt - cu alte crrvinte aa drt icolul zero: 1) ln generesubstantivelecare nu au plural, cr ad,'irc' .heakh'.fur aitute, S ,I,5 " porlr t l,rciu rr,'rnJJ qlujbdrel' INNl: p rni'sioni prudu"P. r 'rcJ"ss. '

t r uaL tle (a\' Td$ p aood, di, Th pih avpb od ghr - v . r y lr Pt u; nt ua' ot d r ', s h r b 'n - ' o4dl\ ' r " vP r y l r e l u r n ; t u r e .p mobli lodrr ' lrumoase") S ho; niov s r ad i l n t tu ' l ,fi .!u d ta d i a !l l ' ' l o ' J" rl i ' ^ l nfl or" oal " 1 I wm ' 8ii. n qi " l P n a rl o ri /rl i s i " ). u i i tn opr m r s 5r o n -.,o @ wif ound v pt J i n r.ts s l d i c a l ., i n l h rountry{ a l erJ rnre| " sl rngaocr{' :,p m uoc J : b i to u rl " i n l P re s a n l .r" ) (Vezi 9i S 115) 1p pf oounla ttp : p .n n ! s a u ? ? n c c , . V ez i r i 5 r l 5 . ' n : i " s .r ,n g m e / , : lu i :]|

2) substantil'ele cu funclie de s,tbiect precedaLcimediat, de ndverbele Il er! authot Nas hader to translale! h(sbanll had a morc failhtul wile \eqr )( 5s(i exisl.riparolcl c: It eftt dn autlbt l'as Lanler lo translate! I.'cf had d tirsband a morc laitlilu l *ife AIIBDI,OR AR'IICOLE YI. CO\SIDDIi.{TII SPNCIALEASUPR,,A. d.numpr o blerie (au talcgorioprir.* lr \uLsrdnrilelp rrolul hol6rir siu nph^lar ll ,.i r'umirul si',gularsau plural fara deoieLir' nr:.1rp Jintrc r,ps,p tormp i ndidnJ s? ria: T[o /;o. s 1u s l, on] h onp ol lhe s l r o g F s r a n i m a s Ttrr ltotrs ls a u Liotr3l ic" so1" ot tle sirong.st anrmdts. : ;-'8 Toa1.ecele pAtru lornrc sint crtrente. cu preforinln penttu pluralul ne Li.ls arc 60ni.r of th. sfrongcsl,rnimalt. ,l Sulrstrntivele farc denuntescp[4i &le txupului au arlicolul hotnrii' acsta rlesenuind utl remplar dinir-o categorie: the brain7n. tuad conl.ains $ 569 Thr lta s ha\e live li.i8e.s each. The feet harc livc toes eaoh Substantivele di n aceasti cfltegorie, {iind concrete !i numera}ile, av6a ambele numere !i artico le, ln iunclic de context: That hoNe has a beautiiul tudd. and de.oa, a very rin e colour' All lho hoNesin thb slud have wllgroomed long ndres and lutr!. pot 3 ) N um elod0boliS i u n e l e s U ,ri d o s p i ri ts i n ts x b s t ani i vep l ni recent.sLtpuse uno r u za n le t r adir ionel p l o s rrp .o m p l i .d l c p .i v i n d l nLreburnl dre8arl rfol trl ur l " d puer m ina. ln li n h a tu l s ,' u ;1 . q .rF s a u v orbi l . In rare' i mpl i fi rsrpa "arc dicteazi regu la. axticolul hoiltrit nu mai apare deoit, sporadic. o rimnEili ir S ;fi o curs de dilpflritiei nehttdrit: u) cu urLicaluL l d . " 4 're ,l r' ,J" ' ' ro "J l' r ' l, od, o h d v " d n J p p .l i .d " ' ,' ni , 1 .-n . a -o r' Iro a r l n ." l o or., r' ,npr' r .r { rnecki l o a. uJ " k ir ' ' or _' /. rnr ' 15. o r au, h d r a a ' k o r :l :( ro : 'l '! p, m 6l h l' s . I n' r qr ! . . . r ^ r ' Lo hdvr F:rrJch .. !a ,h"t t aot r ' I ' f , rh m ll:5 r, (tl9 t A o. I t h" h"_o: 1r r . , r , u- u" r h o l r ''' L p 'o '\ . . b. n' , . t 1"- r , , "1 r o"n ir I . r t : r o s . l \ n . bir-, 1-ro"tan c.rt"d horroN' rickcls, et'i l/F hlues: ,l' creera, tu dumrs, te lidBcb,,i' i ;ri1 i' r ' b) cu saa fbd aricolut hotiLri/ / / . ', rl l.rnliJ S ;6t 4) \umelo ile mnsrui (LiimLnsruri, grcuiate, oa lilate. timp cl,c ) pot f" n' av

c:, u ri . dr n din " " lp do u i s r i " o ' F , " u i n :.l F ' d i ,rr" i l , u i v i i ' u pt' hri rl i tr11 lhr I 3; D a/,ne dosel ol beer. lu i ur r l h rm s a n d w i u h ,{ yr r" J l abpl . . t ! 2i, a(t o th " Io r' l o J u l a y !V .rr" t,$ tess a.e 50 D dlhe d.ozcn r - 6ir t o" su . tb r' d /,t" p o .t l . I A dici rrlualur cu attiaolul zetu tl o v c o 1 .d r' j bpP i . rrruti l p de h.cl " t" d i ,' r " . i a .,, i ' fp ro ' inur ul - 0 .4 J q k g m r' .ra ,l-n g F r rl d ' elrddi .i otr.l 1. i uL, o-s hrrnb' Ll lb. r "r{&,r ' r - ; . S ;tiB

l14 Shocs l]e 5 45.!t !air' '1,i, onc-A a weck. t{irie d iorl,lighL tro worh I\' /n. da\r to bc laid'bl_ tP non!'h lr r L' J ' r ' o r r r l 1 I o' r lo hr " a l d' o. . / r h o r 5;61 6 56! " 5, -\pozilia'z. l, -pozirii 'pjnr'"LLinl'1rJ ori'drp Jin "lF do-d crli' , , or" .su r'i,i un,r1, onlorm rpgulrlorrnnerul' r\pusa rar sJ(: Thc Thanes.,ic ri!.r w hiohitorvsthroughLoDdo!.is slannedbv Ditnv blidges' (q 44!l ' I sirr,, )".t . " in" tror.- $i1 'rp Dr-b!. J1 -3C \\'. H1,r,r. Lrri.h,r'.r, ".J165'J:i 'S i'lv.al $ 162' ri..",ys.bt 6l Atribuiul si articolelc' -\tributut estc o nodalitate gra maticali foade eficoce si subtili'Dentru Darticularizareau ui substanliY El loat e preceda sau urma subst,aniivul pe carc il determini Ctnd urui substaniiY fira articol3,expdmind aladar genedcul,i se adruq; unul sau mai multe atrilute .& cli l. fatnft.n un tut. o stnS rti ide' prczenra rrrlru nirnic id"ca de gerreralitate atributu\d (sau atribuiclor) nu nrflrLenlcsza exprimatn dc substantiv, acesta r lmintnd tol nearl'icuiat: ,ltaz is an jntelliSentbing. Antituniesaft no\t in the lorcfront of interest. Cr e l: a n,n titres d"r in lhe r or Pl"onr ol inr ' r s jtii",.i,;, l l d n l d d or l. . r p in " rl i n ri rl ' l \' r:b u schimbl sensulscncric a l Bubstantrluluil :5 5G6 ' t'i""ai;. t^itoji .'b"tt t ni, *t,t 4oi?d ri6 mrrl ' i ll u pl nd."u/t;" .r 'r'l'tr'slrr,) ' r nnr)' rhsr' r" vi l rdnn Dar ou un atribut carc aducF o iilce in plus sulsrantiYului. ap$P artico s ub s ta n ti v u t c x p rj m a a c u n o j.l nc preci so, sau srLj col ul nchol ,l h o t i" it , l" " { tdrit daci subsliantivul e nedetinit: Thri Ga-Md|tunr ntD is belie!'dl.o liale belorycd to Llo same slccies as (fr' moden mun. antiquiticslor nd jn the Balkan Peni6uh arc in lhe lorcl'onl oi 'nr'r's'' \rie Grcek sau articolului.- Cind doue sarr mai multe substant'ii'e s 5G? 7) RrDetoroa " in slnt unite prrn and.numaiprimul p nc,ste mod obiinuit articol'rl: atlj"ctiwe she rp ad s iD o : lo! at l dt : t : t t \ or " ,4 lilrh b ou Jnd . r . l "r c s s lhp r oad g1' n"t l} e l i t ) l ' 'rh" htb.: brathz; rd da / $ra ull In'lrPF He il.rced, E idn, nAat, so/i, sdsdr, rt., and /&er on the sticll' ro E filth a nd .,irtn Pages 'lrr' .t 568 '' Peri'rn accentuarciusd, sau atunci cind substantil'ele ori adjectivcle se referd la persoanesau lucruri dlfcrile, arlicolul ljc repetd tnaintea ficiruia: ) The D cn lu.niiure I boughtis ,ndsndf,.s,tzd,ft' {lccentuare 'sr' A se compara: TIE bt)fesor th e r"o feJer A n on ;r:on I Eo aa .ra nnd Doct l.rt.1f.s on lrlon dav' l0 sirgurit a nd t t , " r ot l t u- ol \ l. ndu\ ' l l r o u - , I n. n. r r o L i t , . o. . "j a n4 lr aj. \ . obiql and. " Z, r / . J , r i, r iur ' ".

. ilo. i u leNoan'i) p o 'o a n " ,I ' a,nr.shr rioi i ln r , 1b. , r . r nLt o llat nat o r t. + c , r ; . : r r l nt J r ! tt .l.u c . l: ; t. l ' , r lir l1 r tfl, d .tinil id . ' t o;n. i, \ , ?, 5 r _r 8,.\vlnd adicl arfidur zcro. a.ccn|!at, ii ins.amr,"t. uricnl ,:n ,, .. ,1" no" " I l , ,r ' " | rri l D r' l 'n D o ro o tn . l r(n ' . i l " -_ r dei ul e_l nrndl mol " " n l ' J t r:,' u r ' .1 i ' ., ' l ;i .,

CAZUEI TN CAIiE ANTICOLUL LPSE$TE lltt I,OCI]L IRTICOLUT,UI substantivulsau atributut acestuia: 1 ) -\mbelearj,icole ?r drzrld 4 boy lne Lov s 589 s 570 S 571 dar pd al}, lrothl' 2) Ambetearticole slau inaintea cuf intului vhole, " quilc, just: ?l,e q liol $rden \is in -bloom I worle d 3t it for a liak Nc eK 1:t'';,0:','u;.i'5"i'f.":'i"'?li "',*,'"0," n3'1iuffi."u,lil i,l:" ; : , : i , / , " h ^ u s 4I s a c ro n u s :tyi;;l;:;;,::;;:;,,i' " i. 'i i l . j; " i, ' ii '; to f or ilii d rv h e ds i tti n sro o m (:i rr- d ro" mx li;;g'".'"" 57''l sini rmdtcde articol cind reprezintdmnsuri: S holf ii double 3) Cuaintele iu @rnptrs \ -t1z formeazi un sabstantfu de Slni lnsd pi"eccrlarc articol atuoci -c lnd o s,nlurd ide" cu subslan'r\ul urmror: kli:'":""i""i',1;' fri'l;!Y.;:L,, "^" ','lll*[*"1;,:t';"nr,tiu1^,!!'*ilui",n * : ",,i"ill""n;.,._ i:: :;r:!,ii::;, :,J? Thp LolfJ@v The wod hns a d'Lbte wddng' _r had slnrl ,{ \e romparR: ' ;;Yil/j1it";uui*, i:ijl:',";l;il * ; t"' .';: -{"",i t ^;"u;';;';;:ili::'I:"f:' "" LLda,i' l; T"Ji;1'"t i'i::{ifi.,'fJ ,k hotr'h t"ott a t , ' t : loJ l I r c ' pdp' nn4r : s 'I t J c l n L IJPSD$Tf, !'r. c{zt'nl l\ c,ulD.q.RTICOLT]I, rESurd { 57{ Reguli gcnrraLi 1!!4w'!! s 5?; .u ,nlp,-.n'rdl,\\l I )l"l;ilil1,:Jii":l, "buinLa,p r/,/N' '; :;;:i:;ii,;i","* "

i' *.,"'*,,. r,n, ", cu nroulDcrihilc firiplc'ccncralIru prrmps' I r Sub.tantireto lo rr.a'ra ca egor iJintrrunnllosrele i,il""iLti,"|'o "*.r", .ind,"int tntrebuinlatecu sensgenerrc: (S 35)l {t) srbstantivelecare tlen mcsc a'sildcltt [NN] 'n 'nttu X 'rdut i" t - u' t " t - uh is t eout ! jor n' s lr h er Per Ft c s 57? nehotlrlt' all ti Dod nu sc conslNjesccu arlitolul

11t 5 ;78 D) nuncle de naturii. protitls.t ndttraLe' ?i dalort fNNl: -rnir is ns ed lor * lrng' The coin wns dadf ol -itlt# Itttual is a ce.cal Rcd afi btue a.0 ihe colo!$ 01 our iean' 4 5;9 oman''z manhind, qamanki/td, ]i ature societ!, cl s[bstanlivele ntln2, \\l : .1 d l q rr" .L i i ons ida ro " ra s' . ; / / . 1lo i' iii. ir i, *. . ; ' , , ,.' l i -to ,r;c o v l rr' i s c o d m u n L o h ol l nont' trJ' n' !td^Ii nd' ,\'dtutu nas neer lamesse.l lrr mdn. we nave dul.ics t ( sd./.,v as i'ell as to 6x'sti s PoJrai,y apprccialed PurQell'smus'c,s 580 d, p recum ti substantivcle numerabile cu forlnl sru inlclcs de Plrrdl lNl: Bo?s lolc foolbau Da"n?s' rl " ' l i k o o \' .' ," h a a h a r' t notnl 'I J I' J l o l " " " P r d ' i r i n l l ' 11 pl a' " jlu eu lftirol - ln aceastd 2) Sttbstarti vele cu car ctcr dc utricitnie [NN] catgonc lnlra: 6aJ -an'" Jr 4 ' n r I i' e ' r I ne' 6 581 c, numeleproprii la singular ($ 6); S 582 l,l numelciilelor, lunilor, anotimpuri lor,anilor. snlbitodlor, obiect'elor i ssr 120,123 124 502); " -- a" sporturilor aleb;lilor(S510,513, li "t.;i",j"*rilor, irr' u'cdrr r'polil.l . nroh rai liuld ru'il 5\l { ./ '' '4" tudt,i (S i3 5i,4t;)rl .t) snbstantivele abstracte nnumerabile' & S 5 86 paradise.prcailence eta.; (vezi S 3;). 'lr'' 'nu"nit" hcaren' h'll' purydloA' S n8 7 Erceplii' desr au Dn Substantivele eotth, san' maon' sk!. Narld. uni'erse' costlrDs. se af ld sint srrbstaniwc concreie cafacter de uniciiato tn ambian-tain care cunoscute li ca atare primesc artioolul hotiirit': indeob.ste ?/,e s&D was hot s" We l4? tu,, .omin! n'rl ol 'r" l ihc r 'aw not l,i n g n ,1 " ." _ ;rdl ,e d p ri ? m o rel ran to ' JrrJ out hi 5s hcrnror' rrr& i is W e s as ' a t t rrb o p ro l h i s l i u P i n ,i , s i g . ln limbaj literar sau po elic. "'ubsiaolirele rA3 !i rtd ar Di plural: ..under $resrcm .r,t;r,, is the ti tte ot I nov'rt. Hc sailed ihe Sevon J.^tr De IaDt, in astronaul.i.Ji. toate sub stantivele substaniiv[lui cotr@s deocamdati) au 1i plurui de mai sus (ou exceptr a d 58,'r '"" s,r r r "l a' l or ' .1 p. n Il 'd L n u l r ', u n r i l - l 'r '" i ',,r l | )ll:-l n ,r,t r,. l 'r o "J . n "d. , r.. \'\ ' r ., l r " / \ ' ' . a !CLi sensld d" tu1aki.n,L t'.!pcat.t\ n)natttitd : V.zi si . ii. a I s'minra u.r d S 476- it , . 6 :' 8.-:: ||' r'.,1 ' r ' J ; ' l ;li ;".ud ,t \": in :ri,r . \ r 'l J r 'r " 'r ", ^i in r r ' " : ) 'o , 1, r' \rl; ';"," " -n -. liiminLlltri (lig. pochcl. .r,,,,:, ' " lil. ,., ur dr ir ' \ 1 60. 1t nr i' Ll d r' n;nP l rdll

UL LPST,$TE 117 }Lseraali.e S 5fl8 de l lali, ce caructeruL E.neralil\te sau de unicilale dispat e f]e prr]1 i,prul .dunple.ubetanri\F ;r' p r". laplural tsprootcmpl.rnumel"prop r'it'. :r" nrin Jauqar""unui alribu' .du a un"i propo?i!iislribuli!P .srF la pert irulirizeazl - substanlivele primesc arlicolul hoLirlL sau nehotdrlil atunci cln d ne refedm la nl andmit emmpl.Lrconcre!, $ 539 a) hotiirit, 3partinlnd unei cat egorii: he Whcn,p lt,D sawthe llames. ran away. She was nolishine lle sr,ee.t, Do rou ;ind t'i6sing the suLr? Th. ink nt n! inkst and is drY Th. bluc ol lhe skY was nlensc. He is ,n, tudDin chaq oI ihc !'all gar ette The aotuan nexl door is {n afi studnl b) n e h oLdr it , nind unei catgorii: at u n c i c i n d n e re fe .i m l a u n e :xenpl araarccve apat\j S 590 sorla,"isau caliriili ale substa tivului nenumerabil: b.cad velaei -heads - velYets earlh watd / lt,n ss roaring. I saw o mn al the door. A fuv noan was dsing otrt ol t|e sea. ge n e ra l d Ob se rg alie cind devine Cind un subsiantiv nenamenbil apare cu lorma de plural ! rdi. ; n u mc r s bil - qi nu i n tra l n \rp u q A d i n c a re g o ri i l c l rnrsj e pl nJ ai ' i . urm Arzr q a fi e f nlples c a r e te r i n d tr-F l d i ta ri L e " d l " Eofl i . l P tuti spcl .. tori P tdl i . - ea rtlis - waters3 5591 Exomplu SubstaDtivul cdrth. ca.e are un caraoterde uricitate', ilustreazd pregna ni intrebuinlarea articolului : cind inlelesullui esie dlrfatt: articol &)nu pri meqte 6au cind este \.ume de mdterie: It was rat {or heary) cdtth Thv filled the lit wi th ea.r,t. H n Loe Fd h Fs\.n an d ?d- l io lind o, J oLr pFs pnr dd d r . s bJ . k t o . , . I h . T l"e. dti.'sm lsed on his " h m " s oon h"ougr | "r D S 59S S;)93 h o td rtt c i n d tn l el esul l ui este condret ,, p d m ef t e ar t ic olu l ' -i : aunosc tll san pf ecLzar ?tu ra.rn is rclnd. {: Tena-unioitate) T hr \ N " F l i l l ' rg ,n P d { ,L I- s o l ' rl l 6 l th" .arth. T ht lit $ 6 ru ' l o t \t l ' a t,.t (: Frlna - mrsi conoeta cunoscui.). n a i unci cl nd reprezi r l e n e h o td rtl c, p ri m eDt e 0, r t ic oI o ,I exemplar iLinLr-o catc1o'te i ,4Dea.rt on whioh the.e would be pe.ce amona pcoplff is an idealworth st.i ng for' e trr' .;b" : arsintdna. 3t.r pt,",lt t1 . d ;ri.rp" m , 1 - ' t " s , . . r p { r iur : . t r . u" i . T t r j . o " r a n p p r . . . ' , , 'l r l ln num rors e fapresrr rrg!.4r.. . o44 p.n . ro n :.i,s. d inilial' m r lJ qJ ll. J s r ) z i 1 '1 u " . u 1 1 . t 1 'L r 'a - a i i l i d ' inairscrrli cind e ntrlle de ll anetd (: Tcni). $ 594 S 595

IlIJ 596 LIPSIIITE .\r,Tr1 c,|zlmr N cABx ARTTCOLLa lrLicolui hotirtt nu esteerprimat ln urmitoarelecazuri: (S 1) dupir un substantivin cazul posesiY 247): Flf;rr's arotl,io! the \torke$' /a/d todaY's Dem 597 598 pososiresau alcdgtrminatede adjcotiYole 2) tnainta subsiantivetor m0nstnitiY6: ntJ trnby t/r.t chjldrcn ,,a, mountain ,nes"lowns 599 ripricind acesl,ca 3) lnainteaadjectirelotlast Einoxt (+ un substant'iv) (: mi fi rtpul ln rapori cu prezentul articolulzero)i H .a.6 L nme los t ) r ondau l- 1J np. t rh "j .lP l"dL ing t o" lh Deioiup , ( J t t . ' u' i) . ( s l l 'l m J n a '+i \ 'i t o T r P ) . Notd, 600 prFzpndi" ri\'lp /!9lei t''Jl nusi l.or''i,l.rrlFinrcporl'u DdclrSnsi I tl, ,1" eiprimr ordin"a irr ro sFricsi su urmdrorulInlFlp.: /fls' .ulliriul: ner l: ur;ntorul. in acest caz sini piecedata de articol, atunci clnd insolesc un su bstantiv expdmat sau sublnleles, ;i earLicxlateclnrl sint singure san au raloare ale adv-erboti de prepoiilie laceasta din urm[ in cazr lui nert): ol The lastMa nd.au tl\is monthis a holidav.(+ sul'st) r r e \ a! lL. ( o i -u ,s J r.. Iu l rl t th ' ,a tt Jtu " ul l l o b s e e r,r r, d o ro;.\.' .,1 \\,l" ) $Js/l ;r"aJ. . r . . . " " , . ir , " , . r r ,.i ;. qi r' " du .,o l h p l i 5 ro l f.o l i j " nl 6Jnna' ' : t h, \ " , t , t . t t aqtt\" " )t (\' l r' ' J,L" l ) :rbsr_ \l.hen I las, nel. Lenn. sle sas llourishins (-^dv ) $ n " ,, , r' rn u ;o ." I s houldlil" io - " - $ ) ;.u ll. \ . , F \ nar irC a L'd n .-l r,J , I' i , " . n . P.pa S ti01 S 602 qi 1) pentru a se aIaconcizie rcli./ stilului: a.) in unele loculiuni adverbiale sau lerbale ln care substaniirrulare / lrLFl' ./r./r'a ( J' ri.olul 7.ro) " in {thc) lutuc to deotare$'ar lrgnmst to fird emploJmen! to hn plc utder foot 603 (: ,J in unele cuainte compuse {lownhill in- s hom iidoors u p s ta i N allicolul zero): oul.siiic trpsidcdown do$n-at ltel u! io-daie 604 c) in unele etpr.rii cozs/ra;I,r/n.lr'tc, in oarc doue substanti{e sint' unite p rin prepozilii sau coniunclii (: artieolul zero):

trom begirning io erd lrom hand 1o mouih dry _by day . lv hook 6r iy cmok oi.e. nountaiii and plain to linish ne.h and neck lrom 1.opto lottom through thjck {Dd ihin

C^ZURI lN CAFE AEllCOLlD LIPSE$TN IIC u'"' ..",1,'.1:-:ll:1"'liifili!;il,lli",tiffl;.1'11""",i"11 :"rinoril'e'' ( omii unp\ ai"Lioni'e ;;;;:i;t;;i'i";i;.r'r:ri'',i' ""g1. uea5e, lend rnone) s'lool rre (Tdeg'aml) rt-m' lI'rt,-9:..".?til9l: ir r r 1,""j:;.,i'1".;"i'i.'*0"'il:"ri',rr'i,n:o n d Jr ' ir cr ;;;o ;;;r't;l rrar ill : i ; l t l ' ""# i ; l .,:;L;i*l;u';:n :; - r iuu,d; t"ff:,lt",ft f i:l:"::i"r'i:i::ll .Jii: equ ri o r ' 1 !l trtl l S." lio" a;d steari de 0ndi"rlii b:"1';;;;;!i;;;;L 'br comianr'{^n!ir,l izid) ,) .i o ry o i u u ;. (u i n u ' ,4 r r ; s r nr r : ur ' pe r5 ton n l h ;u ss ' (Dv Ioo n o iiir: i""r" * n"o ol rlonth (rrtlu arri ol ?irrr lnuiests l'ai on I etrol' bel num r 'fprlpr,o* I br isr",Ii'ksupr'"iv'' dilrs o" "tg ;;;iJrl " t 115,",1i;.1:i Rsic) I f ,i:,l,if if';'JAi11, de {anteziste' Foarte adeseori titturile din ziare' ericesiv ile concise ;i etnt inintetigilite inainie de citirea artioolului' [In exemPlu: da'pre cunhrinll l' ni{d l SwimbuiiSuo!mit. - Tillul urrui reportaj ';;{il-;;; Par"ur'lrri P'r'Fri tinu - nui'r'osrumd/ tlp' i;';'..lor {""1 (-\eqs'\Fek Janu0rt 15' I9;') ;;; ;''" ;g";" rirlul. 'i lo uuadFlups * ii[***r* tvl r'ffi t**il;'*;""':ri"'ri""s: "'":1:i :" i;'"T: :; i-giir' ;;fi'' i;lil'i"il$ "''

AI}Jf,{]TIYUL C ONSID E RA T I I G E NE R { L E ji3 rlD JICTIINI,tr CALIFICATIYtr 113 {. co\SIDER{l II (iiiNxtl-{1,8 D cliriiLie,. f i" tj Fu n'.orri i s i.i ...... . ..... .. ........ .. .. ....... .. ....-.-. . .......... .. .. .. . 610 6ri 622 .. ..... ..... 6|ii (itg o/tir 641 052 D6 liltl 'l : 8 '1 1 8 {1. couP\RATI_{ ADJECTIYELOTi. Com!*r&lir dc * rllfrio.itr t li. . . . . . . . . . . . . a:antrar dtiaa dje cti e elos . t .. r ldicctiv .lc d c o sin su ri s ilab|. . . . . . Adjeciivr df do u! silab c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\ ltf t l.ii de rorb irr rdj{ c t ir at c . . . . . . 65' 6i t 6i 6 6i t 659 661 IttJ..lite .u f.ine lc.:onrntatie n:t.gurti. t:9 l :19 l t9 1l ! I i tn r:1" 1a:l r jr:l li3 135 136 133 139 Ol sl fva l ii as lpr a adj. c l i \rl o r .u g .a d ed e c o n u tu ti e ri ,rc sul ai i .. . . . . ... .. .. l tt .. . . L ;tl " 41 t , 1, t . | fu l r".h lhr e lt r . \ t..' .. FI.lPr Fldc"r. OD"" 4t'1.1... I o-h" . thrth". --la tt".a . F ta h ,.i ...... 6t: 6tri 690 69t t06 ,0) tt0 717 Later.L at.st, Iiue r.I ^ ...'...',''.'.''.''.'''''','''''''.'. .............. " a oI' r. ( o mP8 B t iNil. . gdibn. ... (omp3r.,tlA dF interlor ihl. ODso.rs9ii 3$rp.3 tonp&ntii ndJe.tircloritt snerel a :o n stnIr 'a pr nno' it iei'o m p a ra L i \' .a 1 ,, , | , i I - . | , t oit " r t-rm p . rt ,u . r,., , ti , i .. r ,.,i r,,r,." , \ F t p l t in" . . ,... .u ,Fl 1 r' r : d pr " L, " . ir . i s rp " rl d l . rl r.l l :\ r S t,+l 1 l i\ ' l 1" i. ol''rl l n . .. .. .. " ' rl l r'fo t4 i l i . om p. ' . ' ir . i -l :p i " . ... .. , , t o, . 1 lhi " ^ mrff,li1 .o rn p i rdlid dinlr un ob d ," i rn e .J p I I'.b -.1 'om par r l: \ . Dub l u rs rp i c ri v .-,r.l "r,1 a . . ^m F . a \ ' r t' rj i i . ' rr.rL 0"rst .t ii idiom at i. ec r d o u .l c o ml a ra ti v e a u s u p c rl ati ve.... ..... ..... .. .. s I'ro ..d fc lc nt r u c - \ pr id a rc a u p o l a ti ru l u i a b s o l ,rt.. .. -. -.... .. .. ....... s -.. (a n p o "o' r na, t J " " t ,lov, 71a 141 i2n /r'+2

1/r:1 J2l 1i-) ,22 J23 i !4 r43 143 l 1,r :34 L1;

1?2 II I . AI,TII CI I ] ' S T I I - NI R D I' I' IIIT O A R O L A AD J E C T II N ' ' ' ' . ' ' -| ia,o ,' 01 t03 ilD iil i)) ryqr48 148 1,1 1i l 1r3 7i] 1i t 't5r l 5i 15ir \54 1i 5 ,74 t\. fcHl\.\l t\'[ll.\DJtcTIvAl.I ..... Su }srant lt . . . -.. . Ge r(rl dit . . . . -... Pn rri i j iniu r . n\ t t . . . . . . . -...... r P, i .i ; iir P miiripjrL t r c dL . In l i n i tiv , , . . . . . . . )J3 7ia 17i 719 r; 5 15t /-sL t8:l Locnliun. prelrozilio ali. ... .. -{p o rl ' rehtivl t'iotozi!ie 1t5 760 7bJ 1i.', 15r> 155 155 15i liii 150 v. FoR\I-\nI^ ADJECTIVELOR .. Ite ri rer c s . . . . A'|j..tir. cu t t Lc. esntir ". Sxi i x o. . . . . ... -, ... . 7S 9 ,-90 t9l lrt 156 li6 Ji i 157 i 57 137 1i 9 l 5t l a8 li9 li!) ,l6tf li Du l l rtr ea c ons oanoi n a l o -.. -e - ntut lilral Schndbiredcrtsoricigrrmatlcal Pdticipii adFciivate .. adjcctiralt. adJccurarr. . , . -qubstantile -substantile . . adjeclivate . \trle \,tte rbr nr i ' \rl r.o lu' r " nF r ' l' r ' ' u !b l o J r" d . ' l j ' l ' ! ( o Dp rn. r c n . . . . .

. ADJECTITELN DIINR]TINATIYE sAU PRO\OUL\-q.I,X ,\diecli{clc losostve r\dieclirc le ilcmofslratire rldjecti!ele rntoogau!e Adicctirele rcl'rtivc Adjf.ii!lc neiloL Arilet9t i 94 ,94 t96 t97 793 ,99 800 30ri 80t s08 809 814 818 819 3!1i 'l 6 l '10: 16t 164 1Cl szt

A D J D C T I Y UL (lHFi,\DJE CTM) CONSIDDRATII GDNDTi-{LD ,\djecti.rul estc partea de vorbire care calilicdl sau d eier1) Dotidtic. al r,,ini: rn substantivsau un echivalcnl,3 acestura: 29 lelove d a .rcqrwomar $de clinlk /i,e rerdins t.ot me a s@,ng man ud the sam, idcas a 4.58 one S 6(Xi se lmpalt in doad categorii: 2) Clasificare. ^djctivele ,{. adjective calificatil c (r 608) B. adjedn'e determinalive, r,umltc 9i adjective prononinale (S tt4). S {n)7 CALI}'ICATIVE rT. ADJECTtrVELE (D!]SCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES) I. COISII)I]N\TII GDNDBNLE 1) Detinitio. Adrecti\ul ua liticati\',care esle de fapb adjectivul pror o p rl r - 2 i . .er eL .i ln .uqir :e unui obi".la ,l- i rl , alili" r6 : anes o r btutrn elts renDl. .io[.do\ s 608 S 609 2) Caraeteristici, I n I i mb a e n g l e z n , a d j e tl i v u l a re, cu ci t el r exc' pl i i , ' a ) Itor m d. . n l i mJ r s a u ' a z . El , u .o pndl p d p.i s ofdd sina ,a l fa m d, ir . dilar p n r J " -F r.. .u b .t'an' i\ ul L. J u . u o .h i \;l ' - l ,rl r.p s l u i s I p e ' at. rl .l i l i rd: . u \o t mri sS l l .n s l ' n P \,o ,,c Doa s , ' k n rk i n F \\'e '" r $: ll, ; ' / o. , . . r " / . r ' ' " " -r , g ,l c * (\ " lam pI l Ei - ll^ l h " I dr " s o lt o u n r t+ \e t' " ' rl C n ra u l .l r pl | . , " 1 r " r - t \ o l l tn J .u n 8 . D a l g n n ' o mu 1 p i . adl rub(rJtn\a "Jo r s 610 S 611 $ 612 Ex c ep lii formeadjecscurtesint singrrele qi Comparativul superlatiruladj eclivelor tirrle {lexionarc: ' \o n g J (.u! tl J i vl \ o nc \ o .n i p r ' o m n ' . i \ o 5 r ' u p r- l a l i rr bl ." r 1 o m1 rr. ' r ! o*(Cl. ii unele adjcctive prononinale S 817-81e) t \,rt; t ; . 4 - r d. ri " . / a ru a e ri i .n d ndi ' ' n i l rl ns " ' ri . ' 1" r" ' " d Dr nlir u r . l, r lp n a i l J 6 J b a n l ' p " " l d 1 S.drJ ! Intdesui untrl curirt. a pr.ciza, a lluri ",4 ietirmim: 3 ve z i S t ! 0. nola 1 ! sels sr{matilal ($ !i. 4 unui o! .'t

114 (Adj'ctinl Phrcse) Loou't'uDea adie.tiaald LocuIiuned ."{ 013 impreun; " ua i"Ji"uriii'"ons t l dinlr-un grup de crroli"teteie p""aic"t coreiuatc au'\.aloar e de adictil': T. r-a i's , rto, 6,'dPntr" rl P: L s l d 'n r ' a1 . t h" aPa in{ o"; n L "v 'n i n ; " 'l s s T,i r,.l r'Ar,\l'h-"r:e is Ure io\el lent to Martdn? lli'.:nt vou folnil arvole glad la h?:]P !ou? ddjettrvulni b)La.uL { 614 " rnoiutca-ub.l.,olivului pp rere ll esie pus in genere Adiectieul 'lrribatiP 5: "lifi' houses - thc nlce o&.1 615 616 (Pcntn detalii vczi S 2668 '683) 1, t j t i, ut L, r' c l t.a ti r " ' t' p u s .d u p d -\-rb 'au ddp" ' ofl pl ern" ntul (v ' rr F re mp re S /o / /oJr' .1 rd I c\i ; ",". Adjectivul are Itei funcl;ii sintactice: 3) l'urc-tii. a) pot\re l i d.tributl Madse' a /iae girl. wa!-comi g to lcaI bo'urht sorne ioallen He is-a man /drd 10 ':lo!es !l'ase' ,) poate face Pade din P,'edt:"r: Conplementf: l)'' )'cd nnme pre(licatie l(hedicate) The sLY is Dnr'' It sre; ddlnAD old shoe ieels eas,' 7 got readll i^ a lerY shorl trme' Ji r" ' t I $17 t 618 inteLesul.unui,':il"^:i-:i'1".Ye:T*,,',""#t::i; ,') pentu campkta su'o*,r'",? .a .:3?#"f'ii'xlj""i'i'#ii,'ii"li"ii'?i""i-""iii" J.i,i'i'l'f "'i( ( Pred.icate ' Re.sultt | Prtdlcak of Resuh'!)l ) \' P" i n r d l l r { l ' " " l / ' l h ' g ' " u F ' _ o l " l L - 1" 1 sru' l ' r' s'l'' I boiied m 'ge cl p oate fi complement circtmstunllal de mod: Thov came hom' 'ied' Tre'$ind llew col i'' S 620 { 621 s ii22 S 6f3 "-" ($ Adieclivul substani,i'rat 750 760) are luncliile substanlilului ( s 347-358). Ir. c0llPAnAlrr .lDJECTrrEl'oB OF ICOII"ATTSON ADJECANDS) " ot,i- i.,"1, .:,.i.i I'i".r "u, ;, /;,,p. pri\in,l"" ' ,rk.,, dmr -i-^," I l f 1 it.do.ud tno'J-r': it'tr 'l eomfa,alia adje'ivFlor p^"le Ii r'alizsti laeiobie'r r He sas nn ollef workman ilrm his brol'her' iie w6 the aatas,workma^ in thc laclo ry dd balrd'" [ler health lad been growing tJelr?/ it $as Des,l6t lundav consii tle lart dintFo pmruzi!ierelaiira t'iri lmnnd' t-,t,"" r; e tttvt" ' ..) tk ti t" " " " . . "diectivah i ...;" ' .,t:.' * r, , . . i . , ' i. ; : : : i ; " p ::;,:. ' pr' rrl : un' ' ' d l ' " 1 i Ino' \i 7 lt on. r r ' r " n : ' ma r i " a ro rn a n r' d d i ' .A2t 3f l, 3 Sens granaticat.

COMPANATh ADJECTIVXI]OR l!6 2) O compara_tie poateli fdcutndin rrri punctcde vedero: a, pentru a se aftLa eg alitateai lle b 6 lizl ds Jane. { 624 s ii:15 s 62G s tig? 0.,)pentru a se ^rdLa saperioritatc&i T I" i 3 i i ,d ./ t,,d i J .n e lle is Ure fttud,r, ol all c/ pentru a se ari|a inferLorihtea.. He js less nt4 than Janc. lle is nDr g,,/os lia.l as Jue. He is, ,,,p i.ds, Ilad oI alr. 3) Pe plan gramaticalse deosebesc gradode comparatio: trei a) gddul pozitie,clnd adjectivulnu a suferit nici o comparalie: cold n ) o rc dul . onpat t t ir . rior .d u i nlF r ior ar aluiJ bcautiful " i n d a d j F .' i \u l a -ra ri o i n (u,ci retntr-un 1T" d sun" \ffl m c ' tri n g ra d u t p o zi ti v. sau egsl ;u arebi J: ' coldaf n,fe beatrtitnl tsnrerio. iratet lcsr cold /ss ieanriiut linfu.iorjtarct as cold n! ds beauliiui as (csati tare) not solos cotd as noi ro/as biniiliil as i r.riortrab) o tnsrl i re tn grad ul cel i 628 s 69$ q ,::i rl g rd dul s npLr lot i! ..j n d a d j e c ti v u l e x p m i . t.) m ar tl )8 tt sx u c el m ar srd z u l : S ft most beantjlnl lsuDerioriiate) lctBt Ieauliiul (inlerlorilale) SLrperlativul poa te fi: , c') .s.up" t lo. t ir . r . , t o,,r.i n d a \p ri m i e rd d u l .a l m a i tnal t sau , pl msi s .rzu' , . a r rn e u :i n r I nur ot , t F . l i1 i n mp s rr' tp c ' l a t' F o b i F c to sau l r. ti mpl Hc is ou. @sr .'italr. t racto. driver. , r" I" ^ t s rc ." ..l u to t ,t,p , rl d i d arp.. ! , i" r q r , I h. r v " b . n r. ry .tl 0 l t $ rp I b u t I I.rt " ,/j l roday, .: r,:tJ c" ).superlatte absolut, clnd arati o tnsusire tntr-un gradinalr ldri stabili le a urei comparaliidirecte: ,ca,.sr Fathol Tldnt y "u lof ) ^. r r d. , / jnJ ll, y { r n aor r ", L r ^ I ' im . Shp ; , . o"t ar , d. a. " I, pr. S (i:t:i

Superldtivulabsolut, aneliticl se deoseheste cet relativ.sip n acfert: Je sup'rl a i! ul rbsolul. liind d".nripLiv. ar",, "pnrul p" adierrir. tnsr."irea exofl mc ri dp ar..ta allinJu-." pp I,rimut ptan st inLpr".utuilsup"r.Lerivul relitn ar", ..rn,ul p" sdr"rbIl /rrr,. ri rqta Ajp'imt, d..,Fl.tL- tn ,:arF and obic,. s. 'I rrF i5 rl," 4osri,h,athc ot rh. boohs th" librrj. tSuD""t. 1 in ret \ lle I h thn 4o :l H . r" Trk! tq ,, \"p. t ir x lar p. l< 0"a. r bs . r no s t t nler t : . s . ( s up"r l olr r , . tj:]1 rve zi 5 638 ii 6i3

120 DE St l Pli Rl o ll lTr\TE collPAltATL\ icolljl-\illSoN oI sLrllr'IoRl lY) f ormeazl ln doxli uo'ltrrj' Corilarati{ul .sjsupcrlatil'ul do superioritale -se G 3{i (tupi curn adjeciivcle sint scufie sau lungr' _'r i"nF' 'u i\"1- - r ' "n ^u 'on'frr'''i".:i ti:l; -\. trli$rlitolo sr'lrl. n rrr 'r lto/r"vrr' "J ,n"' r,r. ut,"rlu'i'raJ'u! la ll ,JjF' i\ul | ^'1rsI sau flerionard satoli): 6]; VioleL is a rdl, girl lPoTitir) \ \ .1. is r/,. lr ' I nlJ r r " 'n "r l s uip" | r I r ". ir . \ro . L rt" r" . 1. r ul I r f r li:Js (lenlru oonfnratil-) -:l LJ. Adiectileto lu gi primesc adveit)cle '?'rc (metoda ,nsl (pentru superlaiirJirare lrrecediiadjecti\ul in gridul fozitiv r:): n;ll"\i onJr. hJr' 1alitiia 'au (Po7ltirl M\. sor is iut?lliaezl r",;o '", h' 1 1\ l"r L r "" N;:,1 ' / 1,buiBt t uo\ ' n r,' 16' r' ' 'lr -.n -/', p"r' l' i!orrrt !lnt in]poFihildf Lrrlicatii cxacte in rrrN.mtaronrlrarli!; iLLjecrivelor rual l lrrr' l " nrar!uio'rz rI .l1l i,,.t1diul:n crr-,n rtis lirnla in! r-ld i' " { r rl .,' t" oio-t,"'-".r0'. l^rm"lor ' L'/'lr '- ' ^n r '/i" "r r'-"r:i' hiir.irI on" p"nr.u crpli.ilri. ^" '' d-rrn'i o lru'rualre rntpns":r lol" -s, l",.;";l cr escindi in uzanla curent,a. ''-in cvr I ii .tl' Lion."n,'spi'ul'rl '""rnd11liFii djt''i\"lor " l- (,caI -l rel pFntflr p\pmplornd"roni" t'le 1"lu'' '..'nrri' .1u exocdiftl!uma..u '!en sarl aDruF sir aibi'trasate unele reperc, ahiar instabile , ' ontradr'torri onErhrcc erpu.e mai jo.. i rrorii vor inlrlni Llertsur'ull",1, . finthl 5eamrd" drirpl" nrprimori drt"rile, ol'i.ii 'onlrJri: dsr rLr \of ri"a 5J.rru Irc,inL4rp:l 'iur. pentlLr int'rLocutnn'tnt tn'! $ttL sau sn lie acuzatid e lipsi de con.iderslic he on thc safesidc. ri 639 a. colrP,rRrTll -LDJltfrrvrlo R, sorr-rirrl o[ lcolrlAHr'sor sH0tr'\D'lljcrlvul) ,{cessLdcategorie cuprindc: z I adiccti']e monosilabice : i l a u ' ' irelc orn]' s u l b a: .i l -Ld' , d: ' rr' -,' r,,1 p " n ri rr' i! . . u b /s //d i ' " ' ' pnl ul l n Ll r n I srrl D J: , 7 nim - r oa" " a d j t' ri \p di adject trisilabicc ct preii\ negati\. l\Iai{fitatea acesLor adjcctive au ambclc f tl conparalie: [ot" ' o Fl ,t0]' i : ' tr ' rr- F" ' i o11, , *or o i ' .r i r" l o -' ' ;i t ' ono ru b) h l

;i ili;;ii";i; ai";i,ai.,t"'-i".t" ir\'a' 'L!, ''r, r' -o", -ro'rcsi srle Dxemllc UrnlLoarele adjecl,ive fofireazii irr tnod norma] conrparati{ul iIL -cr ii suDerlativul ln -esl: ' 1) Adicctilele ile o si guri lil^bti ( nnosilabtte)l lnrc olear thitr, otc ga.r llrctuplel .iear -.l e u e r lat - htter garcr ga), -.Ic a r$l - lattcsr - g.xesl ! 610

127 2) Adjectirclode aloui sital,cfD8ildrfu, terminatetn -y _ay: fi bu: . . Dr l elrsy !,l !p j likely i \.h m. ]t\ sicktl:, etc. _busiest _eastcsf. t.i 6 n d ri p . " | ' L t .t _I0rclesr s 641 E x e m p le : Dus y -h u s i e r easy - e8ie. ! : " , 1J' .v . tr n d t," r ..i ,.\t r loncly -ton,"lier Ob se rv alie prefc s 64! cu ;i superra'if, ,,,,f;:ii#ix::,,fr::fi:;::l::;':!:';i:,i:,:'nparaL i, r',/ ml j ili bleJ i' r j- . ri \' t' r glad tn a r,s ;td b ;,.. $ 8,rs. sii|I llji i,'iIfi n"r,,,ul adjectil'cre ,Islrd'ir' tcrninate in arg_ry risk-\' -y s&u J3l, acirentuate pe ' 6t+ iliifr'!Y 'x.tx "1,""v l.id r locc.i .J adjcctivele r/J;1aDi.c.t.orminatein -er, -Ie, -ow, -sotne -urc: gi biticr tee bl. hollo* g.L,esome 'i"l i"n :i ..' sol4 i 6{l-r tend.r h u m t.t" noble srD[e lo$ stall,,w vc]ror, wholcsomo

",". dl alte cltcra adjec1,i1.e bisilabicecn acccntulpe prinm tabd: qlier ..r!r" nile ,rretr rcal s siupid,.tc. lteasui 'ppie ,/ nuneroase adjeotivo r;rlturri, .jn act:t:ntul pc Ltitna si.tabd: ibsurd dF.reet Irrolound .oDcjsr minute: totitc .cmdte sinccre, ctc. ;illlli:. s 616. s 617 . .n,,,j1orri, ,a u.r_-o .j/ . /l .'a;",,;, .la +..:tol,. .t, ! r.t: n d4t .1..t bt.tlai.t.,,t r .1rr ru ro.t ior. Et, trin ,rti\rr.: nnkindly ( r:tr l lormelc llcxionaresilt ori..grariatctr tiaba..ng1ezl: nue .t. oa.Zesr.iar nr S rr\ rri d t.l r x t r J , r . t l{ : m i i !s .u l l e 5 rpaioi a(ljectiv (cu .l rononlia dilrtr.le roc.n

t9t urt.rD, unl.;i,nv fr.: $ h rr\u inpoini lt.Pleasant rniidlJ u n h o | t; - i'npo l'tinsrxfd insi"..r,. er,. trnhary "s imPatitEsl ' lilg lor' nono' si.bisilubiucu gradede compara,lio adjeclive llrceplii: rnate analiti c (lumai cu more fi most): 4 o.d L mun osilabld i ,.' n 'r d r " r c " n r u . ;;;:; ia"r . t , " t . . t s it . t "o! \ ' I l;:i;;. .oanl r ' ". r . o nth ",. b i,o-., b 1 r a do. , r \ ' laL' r ' 4 1 r r r r ):01 1"t' (-' Itr r m ' id r ' ) r or I d " r " ' i '" ( a ' p' l - lur n .1 r.n;r t a"' t ' l ': t r ' l 'r , r ' ' ' ' 1d :'l u t ota t n' . ' t ,xlj"cfirpl.p rnJna"! 'r' oDir r r ilr . upr er i\ ul lirer ^ 'l n ' .lahilir' r" irr' n l]Jn nJ du t o ' adiF"' : \ , 1^\n rf.Fr",o-rp rrlli"i tl'r,rezi.'..r .lur,aan'rmi -,rirorii . r t ur .,l n . . j u' l i . i o c" Tr mu d r'^ rnrl '^- m,i nbi:rruit"'e ir,' 'u 3 l'rrrl iu-r''nlorll nJrat;" d'li,clii" lor hi..ilobi"p l:"ni* ri'i- " qi -Fv,,,np.lnd "Jj..riv"l" bi"ilibi" mir pu{i'r ohi-'ruir"f' d" ""miirair" u dj,rrurulf^t'n"lur I 'rlp)iiorr"r'" unirnri ' 'u "' n' 'rr.'d"1. cu adjectivele ambelelorme de comperatil'li super' lt;l ln'ceea ce pri.!.c,ste lativ. aleqereaiirt.e icestea esle in D:trc mnsurn dictate de euloni e, riLn:exrres;''iiite. Pe linsi aceasta.in lir a votbiid si l preferato fornele llcrii(naie. pe cind in ldba Lterard se lotosescnrai mult fomele oonstNite 'tna rL nost.un.l. adiFci\p.u nusn!n"\clu'rv lilprlrd - 'J onl;qa" b;:a"l si hd sir7u ".t". avin,i.aEr, um .-a aru ' i649r.' mJr torm'la nFrl'\ion1' "r sc conformeazi acelorasiuzanle rl Li;2 . 3) ,{.lto pn4i de vorbiro ailjedirrte loor ' \lho li\r on tlc r pp' . lld r r'.vn "5 r $ 6 lf . . lir lp. , Lr nuLr ' . Ou tlfu inchdcs ihc proauction oi lhc cl,i.,r, \1'eren't l.he littlc bov's {or ds the ,ii,[ witfs 4) Concluzie.- In englezaconternporani au sparl tiparele in comparat:flcxionat, l otme ca nlore!lat1' n1't' rdieciivelor, pe lingi mon;- ;i l0isilabele .oi|t. n"r , obt". niro prau!, not sutl 'au n1r" hat. n 'lauda - rulrt" i l" BllC -,bior kn "" bud n'o'" o"'1. t"ore ' uulplin". 'nplcorul^si;o,le tinaar. no.t w'tr-al,'t*d . na\t tr ll'ihlar d. n,oJ 'r'tl dt'ss d - plra iormFlein i/{ si -pd ru gradr dp ,.rnparali' lln\io rHr'z ro0l- 'rpbrrr' r,irr,rri im. dov' dindu-seuiranti lrdi leri'iL ;r''pi"1r" li irlpr"idr)l' elocvente !i lraparrte cind se abat dt la lt orn{ decit conlornindu-se, curnni: acesteia.Iiete de fapt, era noului. a ruper;i iuturor ldnludlor, a incercini : oelor nlai indrezn!; fi ,,trnsnite". din care i zbucnesc adesea idei genirl Excnple: 1 " t , ''J h4t L t r ' r l " r ' \ 1 1 1 " \' \ o nc ot th c aood , a/ 't h " C n ; t ' o \ b 'c ''l r o i Itth . lo"t 't'- 'nns lb' ! t nr t ol 11"' t t "t '. ll l\ r ll r . lt , . , P t 1 " , ! ) DorF b c"f-tno sn lo n- t hP. L - , , i44 'th"thrt t r J 5 'r p p l " r r ' r l{ m n"' j"' l. r Th l r '. . 1 r .-r''lu/ 'a " 1968) . '1...) LMdon nn:: an th. ,.t!J ro ,.,,,3 ll't lciilinscs{ ll"a I lJ ohn os|onf. ''"""!l; ,f tt Inn,tah tLnr. i' itt Pnti i'aftt ,*t"r,"*"., ' 1906) . (Pcni trltimele l. c i . iiat ! , . i. S 6t 8r ' llhc tLLrcv comcl' t I r lii'i *7.\dall r" ?1 .* ", r1.^4li,anno,at t \ l . o l "- .r , t"n d r ' " in c,- l

apa -at , e t . n . a a ab ,n L .ta "t t-rnu. 1!:-. l a: -

COMPARATIA 1!0 ..Iar pe cotorutcirlii Guinncss Bookof Reco s 1971,printre alte superla:i|e este dat mostestr." E\.ident ce aoeste citaie nrl constituiemodelede urmat. Ele alra rtin . nuid o mFniu l lu r u r o rli.pnlplor- dom.niul . a srrii' o ru lu i,a rc 1 na . c . t . a z !u poatedaclLsd ne edifice,pe unii locindu-ne, a4ii tnctntin du-ne. pe B. CO}I?AEATIA {COMfAIUSO\ ADJECTIYXIOB I,TNGI OT I]ONC -{DJEqIIYES) s 663 liv Urm;roarplF d.ie, p,.i larli"ipii formeazrcompdrativul superlativul | 65,1 Si prA pdind adjectiYele participiileln ' L djurorul adrerbplnrnorpr .:i ,l?ovz ;i sradul pozitiv: 1) adjoctirele mai lrugi ds doud silabe: $ 666 atiractiye }eautifut (rcativc cu.ious despoidcnt imporl,ant Ete mp l ul rtlr!(iive nore atiractive nost attractire dependable -more depndnble -nict dpendanlc 2) numoro:rse adjective bisilabice aceentul prima silabd: pe eu lSill. d o,il. tdr ' , t e rraglre hostilc acid . , n ,,i d t i \:d .onstant ,.a s r tr.re " t lrddent ; dd. t1.:o..,.. .. S ri".,6 advcNc t.opcf In special adjeclivcle bisilabice termir.rte ln ,t.'. -tsl, -tlc, Jcss Fi -o"s: r.ri r. L r ,i ., Ioolish tnilhlcss .toJous.ctc E te mp l e: r{ti* more fttivf .omic rnorc comic nrosl lonrn loolish - mor loolish - nDsl toolish (Vzi ,!i S 611 61,61 3) parficitiile adjoetivate ,si adjcctivele cu sufi)ic p&tic ipidle: s k rl te d I h a .m i rg u!!rt lrdncd .rnvnicilg. el,r. E r e m V Ie: m.st. slrn - morc skilled - nost skiled -mo.e cliar.i.g -nost cha.ning L x c c p ! i i : crooked,Ei tritAc.l. care pot aiea lsi formele fleriionare. skill.d cha rming h stilul tatnilidr, pentru a se accentua si mai mutt irieea de superlaiiv, 'L n er^dFF ddj,,li\F. tn .pe"iat.cl" in -obt. -.t. -[,]t. -;J :i -;ng. ,oru:i 'FrmiI dre .upFrtai!uL ir -...t. 4.{ nu au .o^ pdrativulln -rr. formear,J la'dFt .J lo. ma netlolrorArn l Jq ktrd rd -1 . biflp n,. I I ,r"rr'p s, .h, p r'.rp. . dnd d. s ' o. j, nlr ir fr J gLl, r s ' im pid. . r p ic id. . d nm lab, ps t .n"ible. r t im idpr ' toy alest tircdest Do yo.Df damnedat I He was the .asgrd6r clild. . 'r n n 'n q p c sinn,ni.sr ss.nsinsN doAs"d.l dninlenest. etc S 658 I CoDptuatjvul adverbului nr.r. s iJuptrlatirul idrp rn!l'r' ni, / l I - c..nati ca nmbii cnehze

130 659 4) ntte ptuli do rorbire a.dieotirate: The v dall' ^m P: " liis lle loted-o* nelheNso mu than uncleio him 660 """ Yo; d, ,, i'"' F bd !r 'r';,,",P: 1,J1"1,', p,n., -. Notd douir comparattl e Un substantiv sau chivalentul si\r poate ti lnsolit de un ul terminat tn -cr ;et ali cotsiruii cu adverbul tn're * fo'"t"" aii".ite. .i.te iice (h -,. sau'e'r) prccedd pe cea a'alitica {coni; ;;;";;;i;;; struifi cu mo,' e sau mosl,): She looked ,.ot" ot ti; ?!tarc' and rhe hoft cteeet r\e Lwn ie iii-lr'" "ia;", P entru simpljlicareins6, pntru rpdareaidpii de.progresje "ssu,pentru jn lnod, obj\ nuit' trrfixul -l la adjdctivele scurte'care pnm'sc *"".t"""", mote: comparalivpo i avea si forma ' on'lrrrilS ' 'r d!Frbul a'd m"' e't"/ftsins llian erer' ' ilffJl"' ll"i*Ti."*;:1ff?ii''i,,:T'#iix rnot"t' tP dnt ' P at o ' om" dd' ' r f o r" t ; . fi o ;' " r' a m' s,:;" ' o ' r!R if axve r. R;a'"i"'""ii; thaD;'i\i,"i"ii'^!:o "'," He te)\ tu e deld S 661 S 662 """ oRroGRArIrl !o'al; dF o siDgurd a, Adjcclilele rPrmina'"ln r o 'un'oana'zprF"pdar! -Ps/: onr o"nJ i4ainrpa'uli\plor -pr $r sl ".rr'l'qi "i.."trr0ra 'ldblpa/i bigg"r - biSg' t,,c - th nnesr rrin - hinnFr prcedatd de ln celelalte cazu (adicd atunci ctnd co nsoanalinale este o alti consoand,sau clnd vocala precedenti nu est'eaccen_ doua vocale ori de iuatl), consoanafinalE nu se dubleazi: sweet deal solt qniet -sweele. - dcate. -s o l i e r -quteler 663 ,J Adjectivle ternjnale sulixelor -.I sau -sl: nice lrue lree jn 'e mut sau in 'ee pierd pe 'e linal lnaintea - nicer - t.!er ri01 jerminrra in _/ pre''dsL dF o \o'aln neac'entust; , LJ adlc.li!Flc (nr In / finl eslts,l,rblsr limba pnglFTn sr in.ca amprrcsnaJ: -ca'elullest -ra'etul]er -che edullest -cheerlull'r o ellest "r'-""ii"t ordcl -cruello tivele lernrinst" l n -

y p re cedat de o consoa i dJ '\dji srrlixelor in -i inainrea '/ :L - dricst'r dr ie.r drJ -lazrest tazY - l3zi|r r Uniis.dirori nr|.rpreiear. h a|sr cazconpuati{ulnde r\ d" ' i n ,.i d !,' , d . " i 1 1 ' o n ' p;' J r . le- r , t , : , r ; - " . p ar nl, iv ulli! ' l J n g l $ rl a trr trru l /d rl F " t Cu t r c ep tra(o n s o a rP ro,, ! tr _ ' r dtY est. "Uncori aaris n't dtyet schi nbn p-:l 666 0afiind sinonimo adsf,ral : orrrnJ )' r' Lrroi '

COMPA&TIA t81 Ctnd ins[ -3, fina] este precedaLd o vocali. el se meo.tin: gay - galest -gaJe. co v Eacepl iil shy sly itl,{ wry1 ADJOCIIYECU FOnlIn Dr colrPAB,\TId )l-0riDour, aT-tr Urmdtoareleadjctive ar fornr e neregulatepentru gradelede comparatie: Pozitie s c66 Canl.lratir Superlalir l ilt lilile I { \1o.st I litl.lesi t t { J I J oldcsi I l.lihesl. iarth.rnost n I l ,rrl h c s tr. ' .th emrost rarc hind { I iitst hindmosl, hindcmost de Urmdtoarele cuvinte, cind sint la gradul pozitiv,au tunc,tie ad1erb, iar la g radele comparaiiv Ei superlativ ar tunclie de adjeotiv: (beneath) {'D ) s 667 (our) (upl l compdaiivul { I uLmosi. ultcrmosl upm0sri uupernosL adjectivelor ,r.v 9i,,y si t adeseo.i ortogfatiale ti qi.sute.lativul r t o J Icn ru ,.1 1 si ,l/. ru va oar e dp adi"c liv . v "ui s i { : 64 a , - 6 q b 3 d4hc" r Ia -t r,rob dL : 1,la or ieine, . onplr ali\ ui ddv " " l , u l u i / 'e . s d . d J p l 'r n i i !L o ri. a l" i /o rtr /u";t .I f!|. un s r n: r l Liv ior m dt dupd . , r l* . npd. ri:n d la oris n . .o m of f J liiul aJ v Fr

b- lui , tsn. ncr, I d l . i t D 'n o n". ' '

, a n r

jn; , "d"" . e r losi sunolatiiul l d d s " " L 'n t t n l 'r , b "

'! u n d 'r fo,l d or ' u i / , r , n g f r l ,

b l u r o m p " r a l i v i dverbulu ja s r Dor n"t l, iv F t or ' nar . d r , i " rcrcn^t:tr;''an - d . pl 1d\ "t n ) -p ? , cslp ul i.omp ,mtiv ror nr ' la

132 668 pu'otele cardinal au urmitoarele grade de -{djactirele rele toare la comp aralie: easlmostl. casternmost no hmostl. northernnost souihm.str. southernmost westmost l,w.sterndost 6t i0 ru l orma nprcln s r ar i da a' F ' l e l o rm" m a i ' \i ' ; o -c ri ' .' l ' sunprl sl i ve l a unpre t?' s/ . p ri r' .d ' u !' a rF s . u p F rl l i !L l u i ' r ' prmrne!r' !u l a j e. . ons lr ui adjectire sau adrrb el n p i.d n c .a .o rn o " ' i J o r l h "I r't\csouth{nnan leak ol ihe range \ " old. f i ; 0 r, fo' .t' P a .n , n " l p i d l -' l i \F C. s i ' n lin, b ' r ' o' 1" d .o" ' puo' ; nt l ^rat' o.tP quu' apt' ^n4t pc t . . " i r r ' " ' r ' rf' a , r p ri ' ri ' rrr D ' s l ' ' u b t i iie i ip l ' ' nl ru i di l l n' l r\el ' si nr ,' rF p n rn t. i rc n " . n t;t d ^ j-ri . . - . , b.,.''"l".r F . ; J i .i r.-1 , , r , L n ' o rIo l rd r \ ' cu ' " l .rIj ' r i r' r' ' l ' i m, p ri n t r e ac es t ens e a fl i i o i e ri e d e c i l .c rr L rrj n t. Iro\.nrtP tal e qui re urn nmra ,l r^ l ' i , F .h l u rn ;:i i r' l l " ' Joru\i nrul rpo-ra ' ' : l d ,i n ' i. ar l' J r " r cr n o r , b@1. of r .p P\ nJ or opt i LUnl 671 (F quD'l n I n,ili 'r "n""'/ 'dra'ler:7 'r pri- praT' E a numpro i ,in,l '-.I tn rrln,., oruti in -od "ul"r'r',r sjr'"ial tnrraiul lerni in laLi,; "L.otu -..e ma sculin - lorme ca: - adeseorisi in ccl ihe mosr P.r/4" lit e lat ine 9t,,a'des' jnzz brnd a rcr!/ tnique clild p"*"r poise in anvonc lor hcatd a nDa ?aled musical)' I harc neac. seer ".ou ler olporllnity. she sill do eelg '.D rlaDle York Giren \t ( d t itu t" . s\ neregulati obse alii asupraadiectirelorcu gratle ile comp&rafie $ 8i2 ! 6?t Itt 1) Adjectilul tll (: bolnav) are formle de comparalie neregulate ttors' Sh " (d. -,s" She \Y.rs tu.. \ t h, l I c a\ hF"lis r : s hr h J J c d l l e d u p l a r d o ' o r ' ak n to noop|ar' s h n s h" \ "' f adiJ tZ /@ree, ihan rYc thougnt" 674 "'' si'ft ln SLiA' ill estechiill arlie(Livului si'e 2) lll si siek. Sinonirnul avinda cela;iinlels: i;;;al ai atlieciivuluisi(A'anbeleadjective ""}".t"i;ii t Fo.nc r.r. intrebuinlate. : '3 afietu^t : hr1dn61 los.rmost lae.st. in the e,s n dle 'tui.lmost: 6 tapmost.: al lhc aerg tap. r tn l.tna st la! , s l I\'?r ri r'.h-'la\ t . ll \ l: l ir j r 111 oP. r r ' ' p r a 5l

co@aRATu 183 l,ohar,. In Angtia. tll (: bolnav) este iDtrebuinlat numai prdical,iv.r\tribuliv ti ca adjectiv substanlivatr, este lnlocuii prin st./r (: bolnav): t l. a, lt c oti ! ) t ot t ibbu! ) (substdntie) The si.l musi be caredlor. Cind lnsi sic& estelntrebuintat predicat ir. lo &dsi.A are in ,{nglia nuanla de: a avea greatri (la propriu), (iar la tig urat) a ii sAtul pestemisurd de cineva (ptdicatio ) "You look livid. af. you 3i.l?" _ ,, r.s,rd'\ - l l.tsl t , | ..,1 6 \ o u l o Jk,// L,1 ' nJ H F F 1 .r ,l n ' "n . 1 p i\ n n ,, /,.1 i\p on n" . ", ".1l l o.\: "As st./. as a.atl I am alwavs sdst.l *hen I cross the Chinnel! - it's alw.rls ro nsh. and I nm such a bad sailor."3 I'n si.ft la;d lire-,i) ol felliig her fo do her job t.opcrry. 3) Ani,oninrul adjertil'ului ill esle {r.ll sau in good ltahlt. In bad heaLth S 6i5 este sinonim or ill. Heahhlt nu este antonimul adjecti!'ului til. tnsnmnd ,,s dnitos" ln sensul de a fi iniotdauna sdndtos.rezistent la holi. robust. 4) IlL ri trotst, norst poi ii !i subsi,antii'e9i adverle: I woD't hale Jou think ill ol Jour felioF. lSlbst.) l' ll t binl @roe ot l,im il he doc s r ' l c om e. { Subs i. ) Let him d o h is !o rr. t s ! is r . ) Ii wi il 80 il, $iti Xon il ]ou don'l oneX Iour doclor. (Idv.) I'o.J plaJcd Dadly. fio na piar.d,orra dd Elsie played ao.-"l. (,,\dv.) Little. A littlea,- fcw. A I$a 1) Lit e- - LittLc are cinci lnlelesuri principale: O lAlhs \lntn substanliv plu ral) (contrar: narn) : , pu,tin(i)" (: insuficiont). se rclere la cantitate sdu duratd, are comparati'ul lr.rs ti supeflativul /.asl _sieste intrebujniat cu sub stantive nenumerabile (nullle do Inalcrii, d abstraclii etc.): lirl? donfl. htne \\ite. Utne timc. li,ri intelesl. She has lri& (: trea pltille) knowledgeol DnglisJi,so she .a.'t rad inis boo[. 1..$ joy, lcsr air. i.ss wo.k. lcis tngl'sn. les.s noisc Hc look the line ol lcas, resistarcand accelteii to be pui on a diet. , b) a liulA intrebuin,tat, cu substantive nenumerabile (deci fnr e substant iy plu ra l -si gr ade de c om p a ra l i r) :.,p u l i n (e )" (: .r ceva" .,,ni qte" :si noni nr: son1. este lntrebuinlaL cu Eubsianlivele care nu au plurfll: a til1|emone\, a tiltL winc,.r little wliile. o lnre jnicrest She has d hirL (: cevar krowledgc or Xnglish. so shc ran reid thjs )ook. p rl nj , t L " n . l ' .v ' r : I' a n d b /s b p .d u .dI l J\d /,,,r J m oiP v . ].1 n .J n ,s 1 l i v ., ) | 4d n h ' ,j ' n i - h l n d b .s b F .d u s . I h \d o 1." t" ,- c" \al I m on r! \.a n a ,' ,ri i v r' l v e ,i i i S 6 8 7 ) cJ lilll (+ subs t. p1.) : ,,mic(n)"6 se referd la f.irsta copiilor nici ;i a animalelor tinere ( : pui); are comparativul yourger ti suprlarivul Soangesl (iD stilul familiar,lire r qi hlles4: Ji m i s r l, t r , boJ hp k m! t,o o k sF ll ilt F r ' 1onr / i rd o ;ts l \l C a n a l L t l a p ,i i ,l " .D r" ,4 r sl i d d" Iranl a. 'Tl F i InA I is h) r har " 4 s p L. a bal siilat .r rotdcaum de .,lu de m re: !r//,ti / ./bint dJ " . t j\ p, , "uieri ri rrri v " s d u n ,h o ' a rt" d e r" rm:nari v .r.ol i utesi of,! s lD ' ad j .ri vp npholr ' p ( dp rp rm i n d ri \., 7 i S 8 2 t . 6;\d j cct , v delf , r ninaliv 1 S 8 2 1 ). t\p 6 -{djectjv calilicaliv ($ 609J. s 676 S $77 S 6;8 g 67$

g 660

134 Tnp sn arrca {a s lr J ine I ' r / ; r r L o' P' Th" /;,/P' kjd ' 5r r r pk ' d r n or nqnr ' He is our /t',6'| (onc) (Ian l ' o i; S 6!1 "' ' 1 p tLinr'1rlor'dnrrai plrL ' mi46' .r,liah(r:ibubFl 'l'F';il:':. gra4Fd' compat ' l; d;m'r'siun' i-do1"r'LJ"i r^re'd ..rn* ;t,u, lPast "'r"hri asrazrr 'ru I s'' 13 si superldri!ul f1L;r.ompstr'rt'lp'.s'pu1rnu'i:ar (j!i stilul tamiiiar' lil'6 1)r i r' ti 1 " m' nd " u1 I ' ' . llr l. r oo d i ' 1 l P n. r n- , no t , " a n J n h l l h ' n d n rs ' L 'h tlrc t?ss2' tead h rr l.ssrr \o'L j, ll' r l' iet loc r q tr 6 s' J( ri c , i : r r ": g n ri rr,. q r,,.." ,.,fi ." 1 '6 ':,;i.,' . \D,,r p5 ,.r ,r " -,o e u" lhP r ' r d Lown |t oi i,i; I bt ,:.. .hon+ ," /-.... P o\".1 o' /"' r / ' lF a "" i" , . , ' " , t , . r" a ' ' o " i J U " u r ' l tn e /td e s -t L ' j c r nLlPlla lt r i l r T lt lir , . 5l lh ' n A' o l d a rrYIn e J o nrrrnl d afecri { 6 v rrs l s :' r d rr' " run" ' ' f" ( C\i J t nJ t t t 1 1 " - IF l " ' l u ' Lu t 13' I LLLt s u r d x n rn u trv : lls dulins lt'rle girll (|'.tila tur dragi Il Iliess rour li'l' lrei'L l ((le ntimioal1 bun{l) . . s hc hadillc l n o s td c l S n l l u l n l ,i .v o i c e ' th cgal estl i l tl l uugh,tl l eni osti N oi l ati t' g lirlc vars s c ' ' F i rl o' ' ri ' pri r' st" d// " u.grr ' l el e de ln li r Lr " i l ry d mo d e rn a /J // e GD:i mar rFt' rn l " si mp l d drrnFn5rurre ! t l. r tt rq i s n ttt" \t' o tu n ri ' i ' l ' ' ""' ,"- " . i, 1i" i, i ' olp' r' u n ' u b s rd r l i \' o n ' re l : ', "i " " " I s aF a S we tl l ,l l c h o u s c .m n c n s n a /l ? /| h { nJox.si i ,l l csnd]/' s,ho IB eIl l ' Lveeve j'" $ riAl i./.CuvintullirrlePoateli '"i: ll'he /tl, (adj) (subsll I caa gile votr is, l'n atraid' loo lirdc dome r,/,r. f;:'i liJ;"li$"'."'$c l ,Fve lr ,.o g lPr ^v er \ ll,r g uis d lor l; r' lL_F S 085 |drerbI 'lr"rt it.j,, liiTo ;;",;;;; "ii::1,i,i"i'',i,";i " r lt lc I r . l. I n |' oLsr

sri\6| (. ) sp'.'l"':hir",":' nm s rl '::"J'.4"'1"1:',''i';'",:il'rli";"" ' - /. I LrctulnI' dupn * n A tenlLe " lj:i l:il F.:'l;::"ll !l i - t' ""if,' ub' ' pl r ' pulr r r *r rr,;"1' r" *l n '" -'t'i '*r.*:,:' v iii;l r""'." . "':,', ' / * , , . t " ""' i . ' . . ' i s ''':f;1;::r,,,ti.llijj:::,ll::ijii;;;1,:l::,,,i,1',"1 r r lr r f r Lit r s f oql ': ,\Lj(r lrv l\:!rrn ri plr r r al. l" r s l' eLr r t e :t:f.':;l i 'til' O(.', rl,;.1; 'j " Id't ,ti :, l', ,:1, ,,',1;,rl Dredrd'iv :,;:1 LJ o d' 1Dt hll

coMP-AnATb 135 nF!".j).]:i 1l i'l1l"l: arr I' nuanla puzrtrir: tI. Lal nid " ,r'J . ,-or oo,'ul 'oncr,., r:il^rlr t,,tt .i o [e'.'.,tc ., "r ii nt- , t ".r \ lf r ll-',q rp n.,q" /," I . u, in. , - i, . d. nrd mJd 't,, ,/1 4 .,iifd .' / , r lr i"nds o I n, r ' l: m .; l,,nelL de p r i , " n i ILi.r, 1l ft{rcr. Leasl.i tc$c.t. Drt tiind .r t1l/p( cub.,..(./ n, pri. { fbb . I:\ :i n,c i ar'rrrapa. r,!r/:r i- -ub-'. pl.rn,n ar.t. /"* ri /",./,iin. rn" n"t",," ";^r rFntrta',. lptFr Fi /Fs"o' p-n,ru ru n if. I o,Uti, , umF0ro tivul /as'.,rF ir:a raondndi l 6 ti" Flirdt ppn-rut..t", irFn f^rm"i /r r. .i, rr. i in1,'in rr mba pnsrpri ronr.mpo,a,'ap",|'ru i p\p"i_d I un,..rur, l'1::l: ,rr .ompJrirr\ Ft pozrl.\ op.r ri !l"gl' ut,r' /. r : ks.s r.oots Lls clorhes lprs leopte There ]rcre Lsr thsn ten p-.opleir ihe wa,un s-rood. 4) Little ,ci much sint antonime. ca ;si pluralele respectire te\r si rr any. ti^m.. S {i89 llnrb. lli Ir. urh. Long

s 690 q ri rt l ' ]l u r b. llant . l tl .,,s s .rc .tp rn rrFb,ri r,,a,,,r.ub.." nti \p n num ta b t t ps t F \ pr i' 1li. d n i tr..a :" rb si t.rp ^ rrj v i . n o n,t d " 1 -rbrt. nt r. i nrl e. D y! n l a (u s ubs t anli\ . nu d p td h i l .. i ma n L ,rd r rt . D eo.Fbi rasdtnrr_ rco.te "\ :: l i " i , , : i " . 1:.",.t,.,.h r cp4'i,d.i,r!^ c'bi,.adinrrp rd i. , r; \ F r, / r, . . i /.,\. .,mu{:h', ,,mnny', prin sinonimele lor. . 2) Intoeuirer cuyintelor !i Cu_ vintel e r?rci Fi r?anl sint, adescorjinl;cuite p"";'"inon;,"t" tn", ,-"*rl fi*, a La.. t)dpdl tott. pt.pntt t t,,! tat) ttam.\.ta6 (of) a[. \tarr.). se d . t?.)|u t,to n1, tl d.Fstp.rnonime a.langd tvud qara:r.tttt tnanu o yod) nunbq (o[)l sr d /nr :p {sAl,o "t,al Tlr I h a d J i . n , ' h h " d In In F .o o o F r .,' v, a { 699 ' ..d !.4 t b""'1,"ri1""1!ii.:""f | 1 soot) d.dt ot thc n,t\rF o rd' oa +H,:'IJ':' il";i ;"rl!.:'"""' ''""" ' " 'vp .t ot i np^.1' " r,. T ha' i l; '" rl ' ; , : , 1 j ": ; ' , ,i 1 i ," i 1 .,,,,, 1 \ "F. lot a t too . l . , t . oi- " ". d, lv t o L. . 6r t ot t , , t h , . j r , t F n s n m . . . d, I n- r na . , t : 0 r I , n d _ , n U , . d s " r s . B,"ot o e . . d ) t , nt b4 ot t h . r r in, or n,, h .i ,,,"t,,t ".te mai t i. , Lr j , r t t ^ r n . t d I s , r i - . . i t " 'd Jd' iol' , mdr i{ . lll "chr ln r"Fdi.p .rrr - inoni , , ; nt out .. l o l ^ . r Jll,; \..F\it.,.u., 'rlo lat of . t ot s olt n lil,llurb. T.or-9. lLu,:h ,t lun! -jnL uneo sinonime si se traduo jn Umba .a 69J roIar., pfln r.nur(;) . , i ,[ "ta1r.r ,],o-pbi,^l n f, exprim.l cantitatca. nu mirrrl, morc sugerl t jdeea de ,,. ,,artiijona1,., lrzs e\pinlA !durai.d,, i r.i nlp: 'l'ip r is . ' t ioo d. n r 0r !) ro nos. Ilt tilf s 0' ie, , r . c ak e. . . " 4o, . qu. . r o i o, , d ll." .- ' p tri n r I o in" Ar . I ne s o, , p -,r." " t i pli:,i,i,r: t,'rl'" ;-: r1"r.1 :iLjl lr,,Jtitr'i*l]. ll;,ii';iir,i " " " " '" " n e n !""r ' r ' ""oud L Jnlp":,i rr\" .. 1 .rn r r r. ,r" ," rn:Iarj \( ,6 82r.

:1 !..!, s i , t , J ,.ii."1 . . . il J , l : ' . ; ; ' , ,l' ' : "" '';';.l rr'

r30 ""11;'1,i,l;;,, *"'t li";: "1;,"1i-: i),l',T,, """':l'1".'"i'l:;': ". S ti9.1 poate aveati funclra der de 4) Schimbare furclie' - 'l4arh a) subslantLe ' i inT;;.::''';;""" ':'l''"i"'t "**' y,' ti','fi'1" i"i;l"4#"T'i'if :iii He js ha'l belter toilaY b) adterh: s rig; t "-' lrrelor pozir'i!Pr}Jx"l s' E'r' forrd dP sulPrlarit al P'lj' quoqran 5r llocl. / r'x"" ) :r 'u ,,,,,i.':;';,.Fhu,ni esz;.u."r,-;"i'ri'.t',",""o4tl r.r"a*o )'1il,rrl'i'ii'" .l'Tj"'.1"""i #-:"i''"Tf ' *a" r , " c,b s i, ; '; 11n" , ! , i , " i l ' , 0 , " . ,d,".r u b . 'n r .a ud " r ' r r<r ' :.u r ' . i, ' i \. h at" r hd 44 r ' on \ ' ' " Tho ;"n^ r-{il rt"., n{'nle lik' lnlstr r ' ol a l ^ '\ ' l i r d I 'd p l r ) -''. i: .sr;" iiir:,.l.ri;;ii;;"til"i:n; "b""r"' i';Ti'''' less' more lqr ca;i comparativele ti) llost;i lcrst rint antonime, Elder' Dldest 0ldcr' 0ldostl .,i,;1. ;'I :l"i:',1"1";;: i!'id?:'' i:ll" ( 691; { 697 s (i98 "" Erdosr. r, ildts,.P - q":;",r:,1,ill,:l :"0.;i1"""' 1'. lf t nr r x pr r o nt em lr ilor a pli"; io qe rr'r ".il;'iil.j'liXi,i I i'as an ,lda son' {h",. m! rt . \ r \ r s lr . i ; i ; ' i i ' "' ; . : L, . nr i. o c ,j .li ,; " 1 ';;" " .'mr'" ' ' /p ) """ H' s"" r no*lr Pd Ii"h " l ' ri at' rrl ui l ;i l ' hm :'':i':';'" Ti: .t],i';,':' 1"":": ::*:i'if ;l;;ii',i;*:tii';lr""''t,;;.'; ""r' Iir:;i,,; llli..'.1f".''i:i """ l''ll, .,1.'';;: l.'l;:ll, ":l;1'" l'" ,""' n iaLa { - n; 1i t" " '' ro rn p ' " rp l i c a l i p ' r' o a .ral ol l i rr 'p i1 .;.. ," "li::;^i1..;lj.;'Iml ;rj:"' rrd'a' r'rras ' '' ''' p i",;"{i li l:l r i'i,"I.1.,.::'":;"-li;* ^ 'h"

: v i 'i 'c e l o f c r \ o f u r m d l i n 1 'e cn L., c,ou, ". ' , ;,1';,li*;,.:d.liiii*ll*-* a 1 t' llil-.,,," 'Hlii'"i'ii.,-.. iilr;rrN" Etda.t * illi:: "*llir n') !h? ;;'.;{,:;1,i;'i;,,-ii nu,n,' r-oB. *'i*lj"illit,,i;i';;,:j:r';;:,l.rtt,''"*i ]'::",,.,"..,r,u,,s r \u dit /,ie nld' ; lr nt ' u J I i deos ebI o

COIIPARATA 13? tTdel poato fi ,ri sub,(tantiv cu acelaqinrleles lnrgil: Uv b.o!he. Da ,lnr nv t h.e rea6. is Yi,n sb"dld onslnpr louri Fa?r's She rcsistedurc adrice ol he. .Id, ./s. s 699 Comparatkr .ld.r u poate fi urmat de coniuDctial/rd,. este nu',L.ri i 700 . ribu ri! .i n'r p Intrpb i ar tF,lrru a',ir,,Hl- tu.r,rri. F.tF sub.ri,1i\'. .ou si l nsorclle intoideauna un substanliv. ij este ln genoreprecdar de articol ori de un adictiv poBesivsau demorstrativ al,unai cind-calificd un substani,iv la singxlar .Cu un sub-rlanliv plural poate lj ljpsil, de determinanli(\ezj la exemplele cil ale mai sus). 2) Older. Oldest.- Fornrele oldd,'!i ,ld.sl sint, intrebuiniate at it pentru { ?01 fiinl, clt Fi pentru lucrurj, ,ldf,'fiind folosii atunci cind est e. sau poate f;. rrmat de ,ran: ]iis .llr sistcr is ten yeds oldc. ll.hanhe/hjml .1 I y d o g k o/ dpr t hi, ' r o u 6 of \ lilr " n. ko rk s i .,o n s i d m b l y q J u _ I o ..n p , She is llre ,idrr, woman I cso mel. ln vrenre ce c?derEi rlds r sugreazi in eenere o comparatrre inrre tralj sau r uror i . Ii i sa u f iic " . t or n, el" o i .i ,r a i n 1 dri s i n i tn rre b u i nl oi " , j rrJ , ump,,runri ralia nu se face tntre membdi lamiliei restrtnse, atunci ;hd comparatia nu cirnstituie obieclivul prjneipal sau alunci clnd mentionarea rirstei_mai-are o alt6 implicalie decit, cea comparai,ivi,. Astfel: she had an dd./ sister. (Avea o sorl mai mare decli. ea.) Slre }ad aD ou,r sister. llrea o sold mai ln vl6tl1 deott accca despr care est.erorba.) ls there no ol&. son? lDi 1Nu exisH t]r nlt i iu mai competntp n vtusl.a dectl accsra?) (s MA eLd.er ar .ldtst) cotLsinin mod o biFuit nu tnsea'nni ,,un vtu ai mare (respociil' cel mai mare) al mu", ci,,cel ma i in vt$ti dintre doi (sau mai rnulli) frali, veri ai mei". MA alder cousin este 1n genere preferar pentru intelesurite ,,vbrul meu mai mare decii mine" sau ,,. e1 mai tn vjrsii dintre doi veri ai mi care nu sint fra!i.'3. Formel r/dn (cind nu este urmat de ,rolJ $ olddst indici rirsri tnaintatd sau durati de tinrp lndelu ngatd: She is an orlp, woman f: o lcmeie (mai) tn !lrst{. tn etat]. Tlje ,ldar hi lding jn this to{'n js the Gui)dlall. Shc is rny o?d.srfriend ( = c.a nai vcctre pieten{)a. \ 702 " n ..l' j o/,,. rtJr th" tl u' rm S ?03 I'arther. Fart'hest.T'urthcr,Furthest !i ?0{ 1) Farther, torthcst si further, lurthest sint adeseori intrebuinlate fdrh pentr u dislarl.i (: n1ai dcpirtat, cel mai depdrtat): deosebire. I s\rari 10 l.he fatlhrt b^rL ot th. rivcr. lDistantel \1rr .onld $! lli. /orlkr cnd oi th-" strcct. (Disi:inlii) I V ezi S 698 . 3 H.W. Fow]er. ,p .n. clder, -est. 3 H.W.Io\rlcr,ot..n . cld0.r -cst, C,rrtr liidl trn s[]rsi{ni.i! saD...v.I|i"), interlr'rtara date ai.l lentr u glDul nasfllir.stc tle s.nxt comun i ..!arr,. rlalrni Fi UItrr .el 4 p. nt1, sp-,i , L r., r ' r La dr n , pJ - t i n"op, ii", . , , r t o d , d \ p . . r v . . r t n r e l + r ,, . . ^"a ma r!'n. r--rF , ' b/ . . pt i. r' !. r .or dr,r.i o.!e .fill'r'.,c', , r nd n,- . |,tt. ,o lnJ, i. , . , LA". | \1i1"t Ac.lntnt.t - , i. lt t . r1o J . r t ' l ."iA" t] t , . r o. uo ' , 145' " lt

13E al., ,',i" ..,r,'i"''i i" t dc djstanln lipse-ste:' ""|.".,i l r L lin Li c l s l, r; .o n l c m r^ ro i"t"*i"'t to;n'"t"['/rth"t'//i/'ai 'ind ineea i fo a h r E i fd h t ' r' l l cgarF de i dcea do ..rn ..rupl,mcn,-r-. plus rrrdus ,,,^'";-ii,l,i .1,,.;i;; ia""" a. ,,"aitio',"r. uoeriri prin ,,alti, ,,mai" etc.): TIi.r d is r o nded f o- / ' , t / , . "' dTpl L u o / 1/ ' " . on idPr dr ion h " d r id' d t o I .m told there is no /u,ftr nevs' r ' ds on inr m y d ' i 'i u r ' t ll u v " lor r r / , / ' "" T _ ! I i' k r ' oul / , ' r l"" dplll' s r \ n o n 'n s lo br dv } er p ' o" I $:. /,/r" 'I :. , s I p / r "i/ F' pnil h' In l rs nn rusrons' ' ou- d r p a 'i [urthq li futthest at 'lhere was a st.rhLe the lt1hzt end oI ihe room' we headcdior l,he/drtn"/ sho 'e ft ii"it*r lo^; rion the sohoolis nine grad' I''l thersilu t, / sa rplpra in mod oLiinuil ld rimp crnlitala ssu ln li-b a pn rlP/ a . onr am por s nd s F r - inde l n F a ' a l f f 'n a l " lo t r ' ale t a h||ifo t 'l 'a t in lo a' . ' r z "r ih . , inlulJiri.. ' Th town i s ier kilometrcs a$aX at the /uttust $ 705 2) SuperloLivele larthermost,l ffffienmit enprnnd un grad mult mai l n d l l d" . ir t or m oln " o i F p u n ? d l o a rF /d ./rP v Si /rrl l P sl l are Solitt expcditions siudvins the Idfth{t46t ls^\\furlhettusr)ends 3) Pentru /ar cu valoare de adverb vezi $ 2283 c S ?06 Nearest. Next 1) Nearest(: cel mai apropiat) se referd la sldliu sau.rudnia. e'' comla la timp siau ordinea in 'are se rfl6 obicrteler (: ""i""e "";;;"-.O.; \1:e rane np the nrd.?s, doctor. urc f.oi lrrs zzarasC road. r TheY are mY adr.s' par ' n s r in' p v o . s ed J o r r'elahons r r F m L 'r m p l o t h " d \'.f, L 'r ' 'tn be c onLi ir r nL" / r l n - pJ ''l'\ I n I P r t u Pdi. nl lle t : m \ EJ ' al + ; " 11i ' s lP I Ud l 'r'li 1 t ; n, y , ' J ' , / r ir ' r u d p l i l F m a r s D r o p r a r pI lm i il ni a arli'oluluihoL iririn a rrrros u p F rla riv u luP ' ! l i p "n i." inr*t " i"lntea vozi S 600. Fole. Formor' - foremost'First 1) tr'ore,cu vdloarede adject i.!"esteinircbuintat mai mult in formelo lorelcg 6 ?oR 2t lormer, toremM deli cumpar{ti1 fo'$to ca formi, nu e\primi lorc 'urnr intotdeauna o compa_ 2 l Pe ntru r'ir . , u ! r los f e

dF adt "r b vPzi $ 228J " S ?0? iost{ p'olesoar{ a nea) a /o.tu' i.acher o{ nine (: un lost proiesoral meu,/o :,,.a.a rl : cp l m ir s c ur L,

COMPARAT6 189 3) SuDerlativele lilsi fi loremost sini aproape sinonime, amindoua tnspnL- ! 709 nind ..p ri r;r ul . F ar " nn' t i . rp fp ' b i o j ; l a p o ri l i F . 'l i t01F. i mporrH nl .;.' u r" r .nc .i .ti rui" a. npr , iJ pi i d c i n I i i a t a l F . s v i n ,l n u rn l a da: d) ...c1n ' ai s t d nFa : pl ' .rr:..pri mul di nr' ' D / , , pri n "i p alul' . . . F l m ai i m D o r' s n t d i ' ' i n F . b u n m a rc , +i di n l i i : pF . in l / , / s r A r' ,' ; o rd r^ p . i n r' o s p rr.: TIe /or.,ro-.rlroons had reachedtlie riter. th " l l .r o r s -., p l a J q i s h . F o. na" ^n gh O nins horro t to r4 tu tn n g ]1 " i l i ' l p . n " r" ui The /rr nns pa-ssts live o'clock I $iil lale ll,c /tst lrain Thev s ere tl,. /t(r to comeN'n; is the /^, placeon rou riglt ]t rva! a /,st nigj,t lFr romance)lntrebui ,tarea anrbelor suprlative ir expresia firsr nnd faretuast acten lneazi ideea de inriiet,al,e: The t{o hothers $erc [iN ann forcnastin thc stNgg te ior bctter qna]il] Soods' 4) Pentru /orr cu \.aloare do adverb vezi $ 2283 c Lster. L:riest.- Latter. Last 1) Lster. Latcst.Latter,Last. - Formelelolr (: mai thziu. mai recent) S 710 ln qi ldlrit (: ultirnul pina acum,cel mai recent)slnLc onsiderate funclie da timp: Idrd. rnmours tirat he is dead saY Iashio! This is lhe l@,es, (,lin doi,. doiled lopu'lui lormer): l'l r"lerindu'" ulrimul Latlerla/ "l mod,rn, a.rual. prP/"nrl: la'l I u]ri' d" la llirsitul ;n"i Dprioadc rirnpt "./ mul rdin mai In'it!ir tnp u" lui firsll; ulrimul dFfiniri\l se rplcri la lo ul pc ' "r' dclFrmint: rl ocupa in lll,p ,au iitr'o s"rip "o1r516n1ivrrl {erc hnd benovdhanld;ine later l: Ih conbi ne6l an.l tombitres nl The tlactors bt ' 't alr.adv Norkrns. T \ r l;2,, hd tt;t Jdn dv $as \ r r J "o' d. lashio ns a .p h. r dlv b. om r ' g lautdar ' rhp lak; p oa l- an rlL ing pair r n lh" ii J hr lor I ' bpJ v d n d p n J l p 'fhcsc were his l6t No.ds. He caDe ierc i,st FridaY three Nceks r ' gr I F I o, r lt j"ndt T 1p , asr h ou "p on " 1r r lhom . on. I h" L l g u".t 2J Former. Lttter. - l)upe enunFrarea a doud obiectel,comparalivele trebuinlate pentru a ardta: former prinw], corelaiivo forrrrr ti lallfl snri ultimul obict rr eilionat: obiect. ldll,lr l' p m n u n r a i n s o r _ i n " s p a - : d . : s F Ih" r" sp . tso .,.;.s. r : o, - f o- t h, u"pLp r ' ' r ip lh! sea5r4 | t o t h t a" p tolo . t p t " latat ' rto rtd ' "E lo ,a't ( Vf z i ii S 965 9e6) S 711 cuprinde md; mull dP do 'i obieeter' $ ilz 3) First. LaFt. Cnr(l enurncrarea li\ pl! .^r,l.,li\p /rrs, :r /dr/ "rn irr tpbuinlale n"ntru a aratj': /r'ri suDprl, primut obiecl. ldsl ull.inul obiect menlionat: ,,c. li\,^1 Ilt . Hdrll i'"* o nlit'"' L : r' o\ pli,l. ir "l cD r l. ' $. r . i 1"/ r "' ' r" ' r"rnriish$ri r '' 't ' r '" r Oricare dintre adiectivelo /o n.r, lattet, firtt i lasl pot {i inrrebuinl'ate s. i singuro, |nri corelati\.ul respcctiv. I Sens Cfamatical (v!zi S !r' S 713

140 ;ll l , Lr lo. l. I a' |. r.rA.r . el ' ,rr ' i' nut d / ' r ' ; ' ' l i -pr i n l Jpl ul r' i trp e l d i \ e ' ' d' d' br' ' o rr \" -r.' rrnr' ta:r ' ta t atad l a ' d/ pc t L l ' rm rrr /rr" 'a ' ttn I l 1 s t' o rd i n " a i rtr' " r tta tiitrd atrtorur in viuie)r ,"1""::'#,1llit.t;i"iii"'*:i"lL'll;ii ultina' s'is nu a Itrai o artir] aotorur, P'i'f'3'i[:l*"",'1",1i";5.e 'nu'jno' i.ezi S 2283 c 5) Pentru lald cu valoate de adverb' 'rll. ldresr buscs aft tcry 1t6r' I cNsht the lds' bu$ holle Uut s;lb P\rre m ) 3u r nielP! e b s trrd : "L.ljl":ll:"::';I";#;,1-iJ:ii';;',:',i,i,'":"oi:'.;,:": rh..,,".rna, ou./ cloll\es nn &ll" stlanger llil:;:t::l#:i;r.11,1,',, ttt liltili" &lrd.onrrsron mai inalt decli '*iii un grad muli Forna de superlativ dle''mos' exprimi forma u trmost: oI c''lrih il"'i"* .:1".,:i"J?:"""'i"";'";;$:i"l'l:; the s ?16 "'" $71? 2) Contparaiivul o ldr este antonimul -comparativului-;nner' in(F t)tnott our("' 1nos' 0nronimul 'up"rlari!ul|l ''uliarsuperla' fo mp rra i h J\" r h. lof inr 1/ ; o ra c r' rF a F ' P.l ' i l :' -:i :l .i :: : lrr'" il]Ji'l :iktrul,* $:;;;ll";",i';:;"on;'i$;;ii"fl ;r;?j:ir """"xj -i :-" " t. ar,,n.i ci nd e l om enn: t) .A.djectivere :1*x:1""il;tT, "i";tii'":*i'tL :1Tl'::' '?ffi*t*i iJil"lx#1"3i3"1'J"ii" sau adiectiv un r;'1";o'1"1'"-' o ;:';;:;riY:' ;"1;i1" i',*ll,li f##;-.Tri;"i';;i-;:))"'"1 l"''" ' e"'''|'rri.'a''ookins 'j::,i o,"l'li'';'-,n'' 3".'i%r;;:13 l,'; '" o-' :"lii;' 'ninn 'Pd foF Tost atunci oind primul elerneni lJ./ 0u ajutorul adYcrbelor mold ii ru ,-.nns un ro' indiBolubil rl doilea: -pn7"' rj;g';11i1; ;;i1,"1i,"",ii:3,.!f3ll -''",,' i" I \"' " ri" ,/'" ri;'i; #';ii'i,1:;';iilif #;: fi;,1;iil"li' li:;Tlillt "....-'.,,,., ,,,r".,.,i i 1"r,) , i.;,,1,.::,ii"lT"111"d.",. ",r,r., -. fi ;1,1'l: :',ijil:J"*""i srLoct ll:,i;; ;r;:,,:1" _, srgrr ./,,rr srshlfil, rurr "_, n i rh ra o ' r ;;' 'E;i ' " p r' s

r' l ":; i:tii:i",1H lJ:{i*;Tr**-1ff [*;i'*'i:t$:'lll##dil"aq,"'1:irjltfr

COMPAFAFA 141 fh d ! adopr r u a no* h i s h ' n i rd t l t' n v It \i .s r h; m . r ou, a[ th " -rt4 /" i ,.r.L o .,o .rd rr,n k o. i n l l ' r' ' o nrrv' /o / i ': n :oir t , ' t t ! nli P .' J -" i ,n ' .r H rl :' ' ,a' 4d' e p 2 ) ,^'ri" . r it " la " om pu s F ..l " rro r l ri m F l a .1 p n rF' un ' uvi nl ' drP n' r arc r :ra d.d c.d -pr r o1ic . t or ' m c a z aro rn p o i a ti v u l i i ,!r,p " 1 1 ' ri \ ul u 0j u orul sJL" tbPlar mo te l r ' r qpec t r v m r \ l : darbtelaced,.mo te dol1llc'Iaoed, uos, dottl_laced n tu t h e .Itb t ol, " n. u. p hpartb ro t" n , ., .F ,l rrL ro k .fthnni, moP oittdd, nos' olr and M * . o" l .l i ,rq s , @ r ' o u -.l i rri g ';u -stiit \ r c 4ol" r 4d -o l r-_ ,ru s ' s ' a n do i l ' h s,al "do llLh. , " todav ihm vesir.tav I loud hin marc doenhe@ted Shc is the morr selfrateious girl I cver .ahe aoosCOMPARATI.\ DE EGALITATE {co\[P-\RlsoN oF DQUALITY) 1) Comparolir de cgalitate. - Egalitatea 6e exprime prinir-un adjectiv 1n gradul pozi'iv lncadrsl dp conq'ru frrd: David k 6 lleased as l/ne!. S 718 Construc.tiads .. .tJ se menline io propoziliile interogative, negative ;i inter ogativ-ngative: ls D a \i J o " p l PA ,d e I/mP ? I/m" ' I D a v ' d ' ' n rt d s n ' e a s e ' l ' 1 David is not ro nleased ds r I/me. _ Isn't Dalid as Pleaseddr I/mc? in n rr s, d" c so estF di n 2 ) Co mDar alia oc qa ti r5 . - l n ' o n ' l ru ' \i s 'e l n dpa.i al i madi al ' l upd o .. ma i d .s inloc uir c u a s to p ro p o z i l i i l p n F g a l i v a . l ormS.o o l r s s d r a is , " / , t .L tn t' M rPn t.d ;d n -t ' l c i n vrFmccpsocdl pmaLmul l lntrebuin,tat dup[ adverbe ca reall!, qnite eIc.. He is n o s o k i n d 6 t" i " i HP isn r o s L ' n d c Er;' a Our task eos zo, so had/rdsu 1 as ndrd ar we ealectcd T h" n Ps m L s i rl s u ,P, r d i p o p u l d o s l h" o' d nn' s ' lh" e d i d a r a o o s fd _ ri i l r' ) d s (l h " v d ' i r JA sterddv HP;anaot $ 719 so ara The sardens zo, qtrne Inst at I thonght' .on.lru' liai ds. dr a .onlribui L n'r numsr Probabit .d lr ra,!pindtrFo tpndintoilF.implificarp'atitdp a' ri!a a clualmanl c 'i9i inllu' nl3 sononl6Lrl lo"uiiuni idiomri.. 'lP lsrqacir"ulslip mu lt aprPfidlcde Fprrlul niLore-"iilor anglo-"axon, ,onsllnd din jocuri dp.u\in'P (puns 'r-ont 'alr'nbururrr ti respF'6Jje.livclor. naslru$r'i'' ombinale'u sullql snlrvFlc asuprasensurilor precum: tive, (do.')D at. os t l; hl a . o b a t , a < . l osp o s o i o ' J tp - . o s d . a d o n u ttar- ns 4.ol o' 4 4s snatP tl aLhha"' lP.n o "n L r d ,l d sn adrso d s g a o d ose a ll.o o sd l n bo a l.t.. d, e needle, etN. ela. .rc Pa L lu b P s b d d d ' 1 ll hdl lAdelco.i adverbd ds, care pecedi adjlclivul, nu se exp.imn: The child is shop 6 a reedle Th e b aa tt,' d -u ns J ' . 1. Hp : " , \ ' n a! o t uk . ros I ' o r m 't l : "rp ,o"."r xrim lr i. "t inlFb. i^lar I n - i". i limbajrl colocrial s crG sau vorbit (\rezi ii $ 87i)

14! ca ins Anchela ,,ltiii (op.r't.. p.24- 25) ajungela con lu-zia ambclptofmF d p Ji'culdrP.sint a"+pjabrlp pnrna in snrul nrl so...arr8i noi 3b..4, alll jn sri lul t1'nlliar'da fnpl o Frpi ln l*rn"i, .;" i"-, a.r" in limba \orhil; l; lenta d isparilie fina16 a forl'rei not so...dr' DD COTIPARATI,A. INFERIOITITATE OF (CO\IPARISON INIERIORIl'Y) I ?20 adjecqi sF Inferioritatea se e\p mn prin a'l rerb'le 1rss'? .i'asls p.u inaintco adl'rrr!urur: ar Ii Iungimea li\ului ln grad ul poTil;r' ori'srp r ohn rs t.i p /4 ' sd l h a n I m F (C omP r.ari t J ohn i ' rl P i d ;r ri " 6 ' d o r ' s a ll (5!p" rl al rv' as.) F or m a nF s at rv A a .o m p a ra ri ru l u i d F e g al i tal e l not o' e ns nat 50' sj esl c prel crsl a arebrr' rs co re s ound" c a int p l p s " o m p a ra ti ' u l u i d e i n l F ri ori tatF de compa'ali\ul je'rivclor.curtc ,"'"t ad ii" iiHl"i;"-i";;i"i. r; "pl'"i"tr" i n fe r ior ilal. l; ind s o fo l i r m s i p F d a n l . AD OBSERVATII,\SCPRACOTIPARATIEI JECTITELOR IN GENERAL G ?21 o'-' Cazulrclui dc'al doilea,teJmen ici ruclia nropozil romparstite' 1J Cotrsl l doile A rare con!incun al eomoaratiei li'irlo piopozi!ii 'omparativ decrtJ rfttn r9r' Psr;lPgalde pnimulprin conjur'1r3 term.nal ci,mparaliei dc ;etlciPt orai"lanoti" dl. se sfld ln a"elaqr cu Lprmenur din Dun"i ''r 'az care esteeomparat(Yezi 5 88 1' 882): ?,Fygr\. n,r b"llari ecor. lhansir,ldidl Nonina.i\) /obiprtrvr b"r'.t rsond rhan Th.i'Ea\" Ilhevdid '. ', nu ins;' 'pcslaregulA cslFrespe'tat6'ln urmaIn enelcz,c ontomporana ex;mple tntilniir &o,i lorm" p.ono-inale, ambele curentp dupa tntn: toarele I{e is kinder rhnn sh'lh'r' kind lhan stultu'' He is leEs He js not so k ind as ttuln"r' in Cazul nom;notttts"?r/al pronumFluiobligaroriu arpaslt situalredupt \ntrchtint erza ln s'ilul formal !i.ln.lrmbdjul rhan.f{'t, promattcot "arPit'i "" insriiit. tnnrom" cc cazulobiPti! (r'./ estefolosil 'urpnl in lrmblur'oro'i;iii'ii1"itii,i ^;gi,:;i aDropiate -"'"i"i."lri"r"'"" obie"'ivinlo'ul nomineli\ului'repsza ln'aa mhipor l6muri'itunlis -,ului ,".r" rlp'"" ronulsi 0ncenlul gri,Jfi. 'arp -"i "i; i - "*i". ln conl'ersatie Spr. prl,l '. ev.l'Plul .lasi : th.tl ntz' fal I lilie hcr morc i. e ll "' d r r"' n t d l 'i llb ' lrtll ir, dP_ d en ca' el mitiar scrisorirorrc priFi i Faur"dc oriin""r ra tert, completat cu po4iunea omisd !i interyrtat corect gramattcal ,q.cest lnseamn de!'ident: / D, | ' {r' r ' I llr \ t "' "n "" 6 't 'n n " ; d or ' r apir ' lr Co."l"L li--'. o i "r ili ' r "' o ' lar ' li d r o r d ' lFp' a A "(I'm.iri o L 'p-. - r CodrarntiLtl jrd\r rhbr i,rrre 3 Supdrtatirnl adverbului ltde r l i 'o r " ' a' dlnmatr"dpiF

143 Totuli, tendinla actuald de inlocuire h cazului nominativ cu cel obiectivl. addu gatd la omisiuneaudei pn4i din coniaxt, face ca acelagitext fa,i de mai tfd, I l ike tier morerhan nm.l 6d lie folosit ln mod curcnt 9i cu inlelesul nccorespunzi tor gramatical astfel: I like her more thatr ne iliLes trerl. f.) (: Ini llacc n ie ea mai dult declll"t./ .caa.F aqle.u to',rl Eltcpv,t.liind o,nbiguu. A. S. II ornby, scrie: ,,ln stilul colocvial. yorbitorii nu isi dau intotlleanna 4t'n ol d so ol ogn pppla,t ,4r 't .ind nu a\i.ri ri..ul ambisuitnlii. Is "h os tsll is m el Cor^.t gramati.sl .5.o a\ | aml. Gr $"oto-oiti nu est"erotd.Cl. Inlr^huinlafp alui lt's mp'. 'Tbat'q bim her', dpdut d? .uta td in stildl colocaial." Dar ce s e lnilmpli cu linba englezi in cazurile cele mai numeroase.in .Jrc vo'bilori; .. ntriti dau orlpneala sd lic rrFnli la.rps.c spun {sau!ma mult lnnaj au uita' sau n au vrut .d rrip niciodard ,lcosFbirFa lnLre un rext corect gramatical si aitu t incorect)l A.Fla.i pro.ps s pFtrp.Fsi da"_a. dup" rl,oa.pronumclc sinL inlocui tc.u numF proprlr. Propozttt0. la) vu li 0 uI. r: /4, I likc Agatha nore than .E rdd. unde interpretarea ambigul poate fi: (a'):ln:, place Agatha mai nlult decit Fred. (4") : Agatha tmi place mie mai mult dectt lui Fred. Clarificarea intenliei vorbitorului in aceslicaz se poate face numai complpllndu s" omisiunilF din ."n,-*1 u. t", fa'l I like Asatha niorethatr (I like) Fred. fa") I likc -{galha no.." tl,aD lired tlikes her). (A se ledca hse nertilrat qi 5 s81) .umpcrarive provcDite din . . 2'. Comldraiivclc l ati||e. Lrup.; ,lr.\s junior. p"st..ry. yihr. s,niar, sup.rior etr.), linbi lalind, (unt,riur..in[,r;at. Fsrpt tuo.u r cu pr!p0/r\tr lr: ronlunclrJ r/?an Their sooils $ere infqiar ta o11ts. Oxr team wcrc rlrs.ior ,o ou oppr'nents. IIi s clajm {as J,'t. ,a auu!. He is th jarD, padnir iD the lirm. 3 l C oos t r uc ! ia pr op o z i l i c i .u s u p o rl a ti v u l rcl sti e. l nLr-o propozi Li c . aic .o n l i n F un s upF r lr li v re l a ri v . s l d o i l " a ' p rm p n l .onrpai al i ei est; de obi .pi I 722 $ ?2t precedatde o prepozilielol (: dintre), in, rn, under elc.l: Lilies are the nost lmsant ol fXnaos. These are thc f,E;t ;ppld ia out ochatut. Ile is the Ds, an ;\' tutlL Shc was the dp;s, @naa undcr the Nn. ^ A se conpala cu $ 87t. IA.S- Homby, Gat.rd I'd ans d l asasein Engtisn,pag. t2 4. to

144 i:11"i":iii"""?'illi s;2,r 4,supcrra,i,ur ll'o;rj;,,;,':i':l;:lJ,l ?i "'*:l:'il' :.,i'il:iil '1ut""-llr "*'lll"l" "#*r *t"*"t clnd substantivul eriprimat: colul nu este Hf']"'f;"ff:ti 'ro'"'" *iTil""n" i:f;:]fjil o.if.".i"",i', or prcp'e oauser'!!-" in the art! de un adjectiv dctermitlatiY' "--'lll"",ll:"1;,.,:;l"l'i::'"ili"Jl;:":""t:, :i,;if l''"'l'il"T"ii'lllii'i;" i "".'"'"'" i u p e ' l s ri \u l ui ds rrl puri u nLrdnLs l o' ' i LioqA 0r li' ulLrl rri //" i rrd rn l " r " t , r ,r iii'"* FmoriP : p .i .i"a o prorundd t ol i1"nd 'l rr ' na l' ; t ht t t A' - Fns , t r Pl' ' esle precedat de articolul hotidr' De objoi' superlativul-ansollrt nu '*';ffI:'15i;"'i"":*li"' C ,n t a i u n ' I"' rrrd '1 $726 u se r ndi 'uh''.n'iv :"1;.,':::ll"ll;";'iiii; :':;r:ili$i'^"11 c epet n Jsid"i'Il, '..- 'm^ ''' ' r'ul^" 'ld . """ 5J fonrlaral ia rrr trnsrogur E 726 r' cel al 'up"rt'tttut'n: " para!ii poa " li l'r dtr' In "azur 'ornpdto'i\ulLri'c1lsi 1.'"**'"' xij!,tl;"1;::;'o:"":,:::;,,T:^T[:-:lF;i't";::i'# "ln'"'f'lix; sl l'loil cd lPrman ur'pi'nTlrrmeo - LclJ' :":l'r"] ll; :'f".; ::,;'"" :; F no., .,h",,'re_ra""l,,lTi " " '' "'a'v fi i;'i:""itf#:' .x"T; "nii' is*iu*';' -h" .",- ,"*,,,... ' lec ' ro l { ?2? un'l:r; eliplicn'- \ trbul din ptofuzilrs 'bJ Propozili .romparirlrli lirrrei omp ''1ii adF eorrlro'F'la(I r/z/caro'onclrlur.dl dorlcarartirts 2? 2 8 . 8 E2 - E8 3 ) -'o rnpr r aLiplnr ,r d i t f o r n p a r a lri a o u lo h i o (re 'z'-'o rro"ur iur *r r r tirPdoY:l,"lil' "";lbi S'" 8 au"r p^z' ' r ' n i2 Jr ' r i i : : T ""i : .i ;:;i ,;;..;.p " ;" ri ri rr i ;:,irf \ ?2 9 ' "'i"'"'J'i'1""' llili::i ll"'g"li*,'i; )n;j';,] .;' i;:',i":1"f l,a'i::"";T-:,i' .,;i:":r''li'iillii' ,,"" " ''' " '" '' A s compara: i]': i"ll'i\ iffi:";iiil"'""

'""'" ;',tru *: I i,,,'; :l lll",'li:;,,1;,[1 Jil':lio-' J" rump' re' r\' L " ' '' Cor r , p, r r r ir trl ' u In -l a ' d F trr' " rl ' rr' ' ' t' 1 n -' tt' t d o rtt' w tul hatnri t ' u:t n r ' nl, u / i' pr , n l J l ' rrl ' " rul P t tdttt' u 1,'"' I i".;,-il -i' l,;;, *,ji;. ""^i ::" ;i'[;:;]:,,;"ffi . "ri.;"lll" t or Lnti',.::;";.il'j:',,"j l;;f:;l:' ir""-"11"" pnr^:".,r -"'"v *i i::i;;: I sn pn t tl'e 8 f P' r ef 'r'1]" ii';i"ici,,i"Ii"iill;1,1,,,'') ll i: t:j[,i;J \i ; lt"iill, ilrr, I l' , nt r ! dur i n i ti atrd j "' r li, ',r"',",. ' ", ' " |' pl r r nr ' ' /r"8i ili,'.:ili:1ii. ffiiLn"#'\'" tii?i :liiii4il::;',ti;;ill: ii"',","';iii'i"",1l " ""'

COXPARATIA 145 douii obiecle superlaTotusi. se lntilneqlc unoori ti irr ronrparalia dinire lilu l i locul conlparal,rruluri \ ,e.i-1., Ln n.lru .l ",,'ii'","iu* ih 8l',,i: ?i:*""1':i:;'ii '",- "" p F ' 1. . In gr r or P ' J r ' ' i' lp"r ' i la\i n F ! l i i 'n l d sril Engti'b"' i. n iir.r. runsrijit: 'tipstrod ( ;ll(l url dirrlro ohicrl:i trtr.crr rn rlrn'lun uLi"'r ''rp otnpdral I oDrpam!in '. i nd ' r/r" rl i n !' up el ' rn ' .i . r r-p u l Jr " ' ' r ' lJ ' ' nd rrF " ' ' " ' ' rp ,r'tr" i1 s't" t' " i "'nd 'nrr" t " ' in rH"rt ' rt llt t t u t , .' : '"' , ; i : l ; ; i " ; ",,r "i i i " '' 'i unor cuvinte ca: /Derrsr S 73r ." ,t'i,rg"..,p iace prin inlrodur :erea ;;;i;;;'"" ariv CornptLr ul : :\ /;J;"^';,," ;ii" t alrccre ct) J oan is ?t u fe d i l i g n ttn a n ttu r4 ' o l tl e cl ass ** J,i?#"fi"$:1i"l,ll |:li'r.,';;;ft " "t,, "ll:,'ilfi;f Dinlporli!4. lntr'o propozrlre!'u in gtupul "u .1ra FsrF 'o'np 'r'rr: 'r, h,I- ' ;,//r ,\up'rlalirul: li : :: ;:;'3',lll;"",::,':"-ilti1f."1il,#i:"1ilJ"iJ"'li:l* il? ::'/-"1',""iit'i i, f;,ff|,',#::itr" ii:::: ;i'4,,JJ'1,;:: un saP'rlaiit' obicctul supusiiiii. co mparaliei $ 7:12 is u,., n.ff:i".1""i, ,t n"a.c,,r J^6n i,Jo1*":"i,1 ';"'1"1,:,r;lii: 1,r"..",",; ,r"1""fr 'La oir ,",1.Jfl;";i;::.","iI ,,,,ji,L .nh"r.ra... ' ttn. o,p ,t,. r qr / $ ,r.r ,,r"."":"l i ,,l l oJ" ' ; : 5 . f i: ' l iLa"""L) Th ,! $ erP t h' / t ' es r oL r (CarecI) 'lt\e v lver t hc nt ' s r t h ildt un in t llc pa r k "i1lf " "'|/;-.,",,', pr race ca Hi nii'Kil,.",lo ;;il:L:; parre neriini,rria ,(J;"x;;; il":l,; ':1.11 ; .r.r..ar uraD her sisrs' srre is (Cotect) \ 733 sistcrs is the.lt"'sr ol the lJodesl -\t\e t tle dublu-conparativ 9j Dublul compa rativ'Dublul sulcrlativ - Formele e'nnstb'r't'st)1'F InotPobt dubru.'irp"rrarir | -.;:';:i:;.";;:'i;;:;rri DFsi .u'pnr inrrpbuinrdlcIn \r' n Fa lrri ShaL"pFdr" ti "it\a :i;;;;',;; "',i" "ri1",.. d.rualrrFnrprr;d"dz lip'i 'lc 'ulrurs " """. ' '"' ";il.::".'Bii:'i::: .ll.t,i;".nli':li'?;"1,?:lliillli:ii'i,''fl'Ll,".,ll'i i; '", i" ' : i i i i : ' i ; ".,", p tp i i ma' " d' d' ; "" . ; ," " -" '" ,. r'r'i i sau/dr'. ori urmat de 1)Y etc : lar ;,.l .., ' " ^' ; " unp r' ri \u l F s r' n r-' F d rr

i'orse lodaJ " d e aJvqb" l " tr" r' Jl na h '|r,. Feather is (aeu) nr'L lr ar l \n1 '/r' " l al l "'l il" i i',' : :',.:;,.'.n:'0""," :l :"-'' - , \ ' n r r \ r r ramriJ" n, /,,.. t'". i i: .';i" !.rm,ti 7, " " "' l. : i o" t, . "ll I , d . r\ ai, ) 'ra l I I'ra r ' ",r ' r .i li " ; ' . u ' l lor rr li : l' r "_ ' lo lp "4 o ' ' rl r'r lr'n / 'rri si rrin lattrl ci1 .ste nar r ' :.n id l de la S t3i. In gramrii.i.

140 llli'll ':: :;";:r;;";" :li:; :::l.,i{r't;\ i':r:rr::: 'r,'. i] [ji ;""i'il'r ", ,,.,, sru Prtnrep( i*,oic, P"""'al"Pto' rindu ll:: : ;: lil: P 'J ,i\,",u, .unprr. 'r-'|J r: uLr c^n,parili, *" i i : , , . , 1n" ..] i" 1 ,,.r;.r ;"ltlll:i"'l:'""'-'",' i "'1"'' \ : "0.',: i:, *"' lrlii:1,i";riii {""4;;;il:";"::::.;::,";,. : s i\ compxralo-6itu" o""i':ll':; idiornAlr'o. dorrir l: lI, construclii 'tt '' 'li rr lilx.i:i;;,i;':t :'{i:');:l'rr:' "' ' dnf'"" "o "'".:',;lit,l?llil'';";';':i': "" "," -l,l"t"'l*;lw$,r'i"":"'ilf ri"-';;iiH; 'la pozilii dihri'P drsnarrna mar"- : cu at:li.. rh? sta4., tn, dJB "r,4fte ;3:; ;;,.:,j"'i . r : rt ' A " rn p r" " J'l c d "'F llnJLr' prrn::ii;::.' ll' " "l:"lYI' ]' l' l' ' cu i r "" b / ' l "d c o m p a 'l \" l "p"" rii'g"t" ;,il: :J'i 1:'i' ;'t:,^ i":;',r";'."; * * r c ]'l;, f^:n: "":i "" ;:iir,l jr]#Jlii;1i l; s,,,," ilL ii.,l $il'iliTt't o 1 i "".,,"1, i,",:ii RcFsi n .n " t t i. Un" L" { r i Z e ' i z i. 5' u rl : ;d ev ar dr p th b k rp . "; ifif;n"i;;l'#i:i,jlr"I;"!'i:rl;:'' 'f;'ii;f ':L:t; i'io'-' ' ,e h ,trtr. s' ?re r "" ,-,,*,1?a!iiii*iii'i"'*ffi ::":i: ii;*$i$i",11 S ?41 a) intrebuinlarea adverDe restrlNd, loo': "^o ,rr u " ,ii ., .",,,:-:;,:,;1,,1.:,;,-,. . , . . . ' r , , , , , " . , " "0, u" * 1":ltl,.l;""*l:ll" li i:i:'i';"J",i'"' i:'J:', superrllri\p. Dour l't\:'*tj';*tl{'#'; " -,"., ,n ri'-, sLrperltrl,rv LLsnl'rt drn t'i'; ))a""a ;;1 '"-:;;"r;'!)t'' ;i1:tlil',"";':L1r;';.;l:ll '""' trmotr -'Lr ci ''"' s"- n,rnJ i:'....'.?'o a"La r'II'! 'p - q'r'nrn

COMPAEAT1A 147 unui Dumer foarte mare de adverbe echivalntecu adverbele S ?42 _ Dl lolosirea tar e oau stilului mai multi exPresivitate: .le mar sus. dp_ao\ . l l l :!' 9-l ' r" t px rJoror \i P J\dr\' i i sr' l v h^r,i b' r.h' real J rl ' ,' l i r fu h j r.s ., , : t , l c,r.,\.,r " nit f . " \ r ' . ndr ' m..5 ' d L rngi 5rng!rrrrv. . i n n, i,,h r'.r-tr, - , r , , , . 1r . i' n " d i n ,.r' 1 . 1t" r' p ^ l l J . ,p m d ,L a L.\' 'i ho j h n-ommol rj fl i b l j .rra r- r\or n hn, . s r , , L' 1s l .f " o n d o i ' J . ' ':;;i \' ,"" t 'l; r l, : t \i 5 rl r ra m \" n d ' ru rl f - , dl lL 'i'. - : i ,t,r. lntrobuinlarea arlcerbelor eragerat tle erpresive este una dinlre oaract eri"li rl " . ilului t , m r liar i n l i rrb s " n s l " rd l > h p u a - o u /,/r" r,l p a ' ' d t \,,- /.rR 4 ,/,//JL i l d o r" I im drea.lfutlg sorrYn r' lr \a ! ,a ra J a ' f n d l . ,: . i D l ,/-1 'i r ' n l Yo u " S 7{3 cl ui,ilizarea unor adverbe cu nuanld de supe rlatiY absolut, ca: irut. .ruitc.' pasili(,elq, reallq. s;mplu eLc.l It was ius, snlendid. I q d a u rk d i s d D Po i n t' J ;s i n di'E d l I ll " A P^ n ,,4 , She was rimFit aslul ' a l /J , S 7r+ dJ lolosirca unor anu ile prelixe sau a altor cuvinte la formarea adjective-lor: ."'rlelalnuaid ngPelsensitive s'rra dry JuP erttnr o r,.b l .r' ' "-o .st ion, l o .a " i z e d ipnr iods rJp p r o ns , l l i ;:.;11" .,. , lF ir'rlli L.*hti" lJ P) im d h r l\' o vPn o r ' rl r' ad mi .d blf . J l4" mn8. y . d .p .rn s h . i \\ru rl r rd ro o$Jl ! c I folosirea superlatjlului relativ tntr'o propozil,ie in care al doileatermen esle l6arte general sau lipEe'qt cu totDl: ) U has Ure ,o/sr ol temlers. {: IIc is e:l.ao.dinarilv bad_1empe'd I saN the s,er&s, batY 1: nosl. s$.et) !\1 " m " l J l u n n y r Sh p i d , " / ar . , ip" , ' n ,l d H" sa. n l . p , nt , s , b rr mu \p d $ 745 Je1 come aorossl. T ha' ,l' "kl l,rd s oi n\ si\tp r i t n o ct a r n ^ ! n 3 : h ps l l p

ro 'Fst ict $ 633.itl) tdri interjec!'ii: S ?46 /J intrebuintarea unor constructii excla mative, cu sAu t|'rd, a /,r' sFechl Oh. Father.Iou are so &tndto mel "Ha| GrceaW 8 UY ValleYl"r actressl' mos,e..?aisitc Isn't she 1.he ! I intrebuintarea unui b ubstantjv sau superlativ urmat de prpozi,tia r ?47 i\ u/ tni' ^ (on.r tu, !ic spn ir sla .l' 'ipul urml ror (S 220): Thc landowner was a lnrae .f knaoes riluP t as d' t hp \ nt uP Hc Dr o! ''^ oih : ne"im "d ' o m n on r his 'Js i^ l o / r t S t I ' - 5 ii r { o' , ld ' ur pit o k nAr hp $a 5 r i g h lr tt t h?a\ ol h"o" s ' np Ile Nas thc l,(c.'r o/ ilie lod' r o tt"4 ! - e dnr 1 I , r.n u n l :ri tr ' -n ,l i " ,1 4l n l d " .: I r:tlr] clnd Inseamni Fi 'rl f 'rJu l ,1 ci n r l lns eam ni, , . , rr{ z. h "p tu br c t obt ut n i i l 3 T,u ui x nui r om an d e tl . L l ' N e l l J n p rp rra .l rn s rd d m' : Inalt dectt simplul snperlativ . i o ",t i" , ; " ' , t . ' l' " x' l d rJ ' \ 6 O B. sha{, Coaot onn CkoPbo

148 rloRFolocrA - atrEcrrvuL S 718 ir, lungirca li accentuareavocalelor: r{llow IIc's thc r("sr I ILt:trrdtstl I halcn't gol th! l'dsr I lj:i:stl idfa S 7{9 cu D.d ; 'n tu "i t') ' . "n 5 n' s ao ad d!!a od' t unei aile'dolc: proceileu pe care il rcg;sim li ir rona ctte la auz-Lrea 'odrdl iJ repetarea unui adjectiv ssu adverb: sisl'rnul. rump;rde 'lh. ncocrnewsXsten: dl thc hi" PUrh{sesJstem' '1r ri' l tmorun I al ' I r " a 1u t d' r r ui lr ) - - m o' il od i i a * '*:,!1,'JXi|.0,, du'Ic'a li;lJli",iii;"ff:' ilii"i?!u*" '" "." 'Nnosu'j X:'""#t?fi' +T;"" ciddintirneitio tate !" srumalr , (: ,,N,,p-ij cuminto E{cramaiie dd t inir ' l pljmb lnilu se d L]l' ADJDCTM III. ALTE 0SDSTIUNI REI]'DRIT0AITD (luscnr,r,arDous BllllArixs) $ 7 50 faz F"l" in dI AdiF' li\ul poale li rnlrFbuinlst'''uhstantiv'ii irr..am' gener6r nu'.t.lusiv] pr'"ed1 d" u'li'olul Lnr;rrl Aslial ulrlr/al dpsemnFrzA ( 'io:iindi 'izii crrc Io'cJa in'u+irraexprimur; i"""]"".;i".;,;*';;le,ti' rnloruprnnA he na i*,i'1. D"'i lorma lL,i romrnFnps birnl'arn a'P dn'orpa j" or"*t si se ronstruiF trp arun.i cu rprbul ia plucnl: i"i"i"J the s'ise (: lnlcletlii) nra' r hP liv ir ' g ( : v i i i ) r h. ac edr ( : i a i rl n rr) th p nobl e[: noLi l i i ] r c r iim inal i: c ri mi n a l (i i rl th e l ess enl husi astrf ' er mdt t' i rrrn 1: (: t hc unpm plo y d ro t.0 ? trr) e nl uzi astj l rhe wo.klcss t: sone.!) i h e hF6i i nfordP .l{ :.er r dr ci rl r s a u thc iotrlc$ L: sometii) t he inil' t r r y (: mi l i ta ri i ) The Daoe rsnublished lisis ol ,n, ddd and 4d nif'ng' i h e j ndi .i ary (: mi ai \i rdi l i r th c E ncl i sh (: enC l ezrrr tlLe moie intcrestins (: p'6oinel' substantivate' de 1) Sohimbare lunclie. Adioct:ivolo oba,, ?ii#',fft?;;'":1;;:"i.j ll: ;'{lr:",h.,'-i v h., .'qm .The" n ttr stto.* b"ru. {6 not *n'"** Tl",e;#;i!, i'fli",'?ii;'',)l'-.,i',il ":i*'f;","."'/,"i'i"lii " hT b'loid t',ai "i;i""i, intended the .lerarted. -i "'"iii"r"- his"i"s't^i'', er c" ";i;j;; i"ar"ia "su rJ Ln nu'r.ir.'F'rins d' indt'lizi ;;"i*l;li "i".,. prin insulireaardleld da adjp'ti! adjeclivulrrFbuic insnliLJP "".".i""i"r 1' un substantii': 'l\\e Lnclishmdn s'as ialking to the rwo 'ttotcirutr bv I saN i nilt,a.3' ryaDstanding thc gale' dsr'r' ,,dn, She t's i Ling f ulL bo r " /4 .J,'rr^ , "4 $. r ' p l^ b : . o; a'

ll 3 o t n\ l i". '" on, . Pt '0 i nl rpbui i ' l al P Cit s v , . ii. c i i v p , d P \a r,i ti s u b ' L " n r;v e de gcn ' o' run si nl th'd PosLd hisbPtroth'd, r 5e pr o, ' unl e| .l -rd . p .i rl ' i r.tq ' rr l Frl d:rIP a s" d pt bt llit n. n y .ta L e t' \" o e " dL d rd l r' ' " : G . I a. bhaw . .p . .n 3 ['erd rrd] nod dscd: nnbrltrinise;

149 bl ,{dicctivul lntrebuin[et ca substantiT cu tnt']les numai de tnryuldr J. b "m ,'F,i r I n g. " , 1" 6 a b .i rd , l ;..J U l i rn b 0 u ' u i p oporl Sroa and skddy Fins th'" ra.x. lProrerbl IIc has io stu'sent rrght dtr etD'g . 'lhe u Lln&sn holds no lenors for ]Im Iiindlv nddD, is Lindlr/ tnkcn ll'rolerb) \Ye k"n o\t litlle lnsltsn but spcak goo'I French b" r : i .1 . rh " a l ,i o n l b h i n 0 rr' F l " t. rhd Frr. ne. rh" r" rri bP 1r,;'",'r', iii. , 'r' tin lilms, ct c.). thc . dtmrnal; t u n ,l c s uur lot it ) pt iti "n ,r-sr, io. t ar " s r , r ' . \ d .r r,.- $ o ..' . rh mu r l h ri l li ng. . No td E 751 intrebuinrateln constructiiidiosubstantivate A se observaadjectil'ele 1t) lo tlL ttal. Trr"j w'r. soBc' Thiri6 $rrc "t(oine /'on ba'l E,pn ls , ' r p , ; / , f { o r t ' t ot 'o h bet t e r . I'll do nrl b6t to holp T "t .a r at d erd o/ ntL,/ .^ HJ\p rou s aP, m 4 i' t s / . ' Cooo: , o / r , qui k b\ 1l, "ir $or d . U. rc ailr I fo 'rnJ ' rn{ q' ll , r / h" lblc } ol lr ing" s hol+ ll. $ c , lu, t ' lea"4 o, l,.t lrim ri. its wo$t. ", " S 7ir2 tt i qt^" th" LP rt i a \n th " o l ' s t t dt . t o E o t o th j b o l l -ro rB k F -' A ? ,a d $ i l hth egaod atl ot o suddPnelr'l c"a.ot.itt ttu nain'in tfu oP"\' in sho't' idionatLce constr tlclii AIte cu un adjectiv substantivat: cu forme de Irdrol: -si 6h@ts, tuins. aces, goo.Is, etc. culori au atlt singular,cit .) Adjeciivelsubslantivaiecare denumesc ti plural: S 753 t/iolpr happPnsto Ie tle colout I liLP s Sh p Dat n; d r ' r c a. ans P 8 d b N " n ' o r a u mn l .i \d b . 5 t' " s i fl rr rn o i l r1 ," ' . ' rh d n ,o" F rhp pi rl [" i ,'. i t , . ' . . i, ir " ' Lieht Blu*z Th. D@k Blue;', \he06' d, L n i l c adip' liv F A u d p \e n i t a d c v a ra tF " u b s l a ni i ve si p ot av' a formd d c pl j ra l . ar t ic oie. s enili v ' i d F l e rn i n c n l i ' r l i s u bstanl i ral a propri u-zrse: a catital a daily S 7i r m gqral a lrcleta.ian Rath er a d ed ., is n i s lr P: y af t s u h dPar yr r ^ o rnr hp rp, p v , lor t t , B, : I L.t mc look at Yon, ,tv ?.ell'"s l \\^ d..rl i. tib : . . 1 ar y r ods - nadPs . she Llo ps n ot d ; r r d r ln judg' o"nl ol h"r ? 4 " 4 . - onol d. t u"'"',tiliil ;i."i:I^l/,i,lX"l ,tu tii"i; 'l,l;,#""'fl"t:,fi.lgiiili oxrord i ziBld i r ni!"trir,tii dp la C.,.bf:dsp. r' rl, p spo riv.u r"j.d r { s au a j ur t t o s r D l 'P - l n r P p r z " q i P r i \ a ar,*. ,:,p.i,-"lir'i,

150 ?i6 F . / | nF lF s 4j p c i re . p ri n a J -u s 0 re d r" r r,' i naLi Fi { i n trFbui' , ! at c numa i l a p l u ra l : rrl' bellers ' l pti n ' ub' ranr i rL '256 E r c e p tiii substantivulnrs. .are! deli cu forma de plur'dl' esle no c6re are singularulio (: singularfdra ilural; a Dlues un cint'c melancolic)' iilp!rlic cu pluralul. -s (Pentru ditalii vezi 9i S l2?) /./ Ntrmele de nrtionaliti,ti f't A diF'iivele .s;o aratii nalionalitaleassu pro!pnicnla r-sionalu !r por fi Inrrcbu inlatpca'ubstanLive sirr j;rminirF rn ., Ir[]. -s/i. -(s./s. 'PsP cu tnleles col ectiv de piural (toli locuitorii din acea !ard, regune sau ota!): &e f'renclr (: lrarteziil t he S c ot c l ( : s c o l i e !i i l the \ltlsh 1: l ocuitorii dln \l:alcs) tne lrish (: irlardezii) $e r'lemjsh (: tlamanzii) thc SR 'iss(= elaelin'i) (-' thc Chinese (l'inezii) the Geroese{ = geno\'zii) (: ihe \Iie lnamese lietnamezii] ihe Viennese(: tienezii) 1i8hls necessa.ies movalles lla\" \o. i r 'i JPl.' lle .l-,in t ie a' , lie ) . lir . l ' ls 5 s d i r i a s P q i H. dl{)r- pld J a r l' r t a' i"c \ " h a r u 'l 'r : { ?57 ' ?58 Cind esteinse i.orba d unul sinqur sau de mai mulli iocuitori, adjeclirel jn lcrmj nalA -a, l t fl "nu -r, slnl urmite d. .ubslsDlivilF man t pl. npn t. so an .'om ).ru !,opt r"61eq1;'. bsrbali \i fcmpir: \pl. scveral lrish0,,@. lwo Scorch,rn many Dtrt.li tcolle E:x c eplLL Danish - a Dane Finnish a Fint Polish a Pole Je$ish a Jcw' Spn ard -sDanish -a a SirPd. siredistr Turkish - a Turk [ ?59 " rdmin insil neschimbat$i tn aoestcaz: Adjectjl ele terminate in - frrr, -esd a Ja panesc a SFiss -some Japatrcse -selcml Swis a Pekiness many Pliincsc an IroqDois -rvo Iroqlojs /") Adiective]e Lu alt trninaiii decit cele arelate pin6 aici sini i ntrebuiniar'".a'subslsnlive' u totm.r dF "ingularli primesr un -'la plural: ir ' . \ m " r r an \m p ri ra n \ ,n Asrd -\s:Jn. a Czechoslovak Czechosloraks a Dane- Dmcs a Fjnn -IiuDs a Greek- oreks a Je\r - Jews i \l a l a! \l dl Jrs r P oI lolp' a Scrb - Serbs a Slat - Slals a Spariard Spa iards Sweaes a S;ede Turli s .r Tuk E ?60 0bs er v alie Spre deosebire de liuba rorrAnn, tn limba englezd atit adjecLivele care rdr r ; r lr ondt it a l " r s " u I' u \c n i p n !a re g i o ral s.,i t :i ' ub' rd' rl i vpl - rp' p' cri \e r,p s . r i' r lnlolJ ea ' r' r, rr tn ;ti o ta n o j u s l i (Vc z i ti S 6 1 . 1 5 ' ) I J.0 nasc., Jc'cas fem. Drl on v our r o, 1/ , s / idls r . ' d. l aam ", Tre r $crc n o / ir s - \ ilI J ' ns pom n o r - s oollFn lol I in 'r l , l r i 5 , s nn ihdr l, ain ' i m p o r 'a r

l 5l 2) Adjectiyele !i advcrbclo idontice ca formi. eaii fornre ca !i adverbele cores punzetoare: we look a /art l.nin. (Adj ) TIe lrair runs tasr. (.q.dv.) { Pen|I u dc t alii r ez i S ! : 5t l Unele adjective au ace$ 761 Acelasi cuvinL poale avea v:lloare de adjectiy clDd determinn un substantiv, sau raloare de adverb cind determini unvorb, un adjectiv sau un alt adverb: Ad j e c t ieL ..Littl ,Udr" qnile contrrrv...", lsubst.) Titian's Nomer hale rcildiah l latl. (Subst.) S 762 A i L r e rbr I se?her verv littlo norvadsys.{Ve.bl It doesn'tmuth m,t. $hctder h is youns or o ld. lvobl l v z i i i S ? 6 t) I like the roddislrrmo4 colour ot her hair. (Adj. ) She was wea.in8 a light ,l4d lrock. lAdj.) The sky wa5 hlue-s.cain the distane . {Adj.) We drovc l,omc lasr. {Ad!.} 'rs Tl!.y raD s/.dt!lr home- (Snbstantivcu r aloire de adt.) prediertive.- Adjectiveleatribu- $ ?63 3) Adjeetivele atrihutivefi dtljectivelc tive3 preceddsubstantil,uldctrmiirat; adjectivelepredicativea sint legate p de Bu bstantiv ntrun verb, fdci l astfelparte din predical,: th " b ".l,lr r n. r d nt - ! it g a , "d r la g . , A d j . a l b u l , v pi, r r r . ia. p" di.Jtiv) uc |" - d {A d i . d,) I-lnel adjctive stnt tntrebuintate \nll'ai predicatie. Printre ele se afld urm dloarele cuvinte: d') adjeotivele compuse cu pretixul a-: S 764 alight a") citeYa adjective ca: drdk ill well grup (aJ au qi un sinonin cu valoare atributivd: Unele adjectire din acest, Adj. pedintio Adj. dtributir Adj. ptd,icalie Adj. atibativ liShted blazins alighi bur Dr n A , '"j bur nj, ' g ,n' rmi ,' " t lodlin" walkrn8 s dpr r e. glosirS at<in S 705 tl L p a l i tp a l o tro Bskew 3 s r" p P l i .p, . n' i l dr l i ri n; l on" l t. l on" .rmF o}liq-" -r .p' ns $i (rng k iiidf d, :i 1 ,1 1 r L l ,L i k r1l conscious,ktoFing 'rooL"d nka 'sick, etc, 1, determinat meniio-

l Aldinele reprezini{ adjectivul sau adr*bul, 'A Nureetu Rhune. '3Adjectvfri cu iunciie de atribut. .AdJe'[\4lp u t|ntlia dp nuM ppdidti, r i c a pnshzal. VFzi $ 25 20 . cu$ivele culhtul L1unit ( Prdtat" .ohpl"np",) In Sramd-

152 ! ?66 " ,.) ,\ite adjctive nu pot li intrebuint'aLe decit olri'driri de mater ii: b1 adjectivele terminate in -dn prol'enite de la nuldele ) .r 'utk,a \as ' "| lto t l trr a leot l' * P k "d"nol: o/kare^ llour B" adPn,6no ' l r o 'r r P ' l r m p Pr Nas 'noes i.t"r"s'iiq""rt X" * poul" 'p"n"' lltr FSr"prop lu rr: , ind .., 1\o'{ 1"' '" "ood,n'. i'#;"fi:;i;;;i;-;i "ensul .*;'''.;'.' 'rhe Jrue'\\eren'adeor sen slrgurai: Se spunc insi, cu In the sun his hat had t ned soid'a' Thc skY was le4dtn uis s6lennls wcre e'oden' Her trssesshonrilfta' predirrtjs q:"11,llli:i""l1t * nu adjecr.ile pot li lntrehrinlatF .{ceste ' su I Dc Noollen : jumlei ,') the adjectivle derivate de la nunlele Punctelor cardinale: counties ilre Pes'ern iolr tulz }eniislhere Nu se poate spuDe: The hemisPlrre Nas r'trncrn Tne connlricsN"e 'res'an Une]e verbe intranzilive pr edicative' \ erl,elc esre eer ailiectir d l v F rl p : lo" o djc " r i' e pr ed i ' d ri L " i n 'l' 'h' $" ' " i rl i re 3i l eD t' \ ou lonl s p l p trd i d . llrla^ ttcn'd rd rl lh" I /,4 wotrderlul. nsppl Th" -\ l P t ror l h' rard' 'nBs ' ." * r. ir l. , - , . . ir [ 7ti? ' cer perr.rr. r,.F\r,orp 'r,np.a,,.'. The milk lastes Sood. l]"f"iil"'l; ,an" auttit1t. E t68 " sus ru arat; Cu!'intele scrise eu alctine'.iD cr'emplele de I'rai "rr ''r/r stt subi"ct.ut alre 'uvrnr" ii F\prin,rra d- r"rb ',a' iir';ltii ',u 'r"' unur ""tni , ua'".t'. i a',oai-'i' ,i. in '^nsP'inr6 rnrr'bu'nLdrpa ;; J;-r;;,;;'J; \'trbFr e in acc-csbla:ltYi: cazun rreuui" Aitdi; cu grjj; a.lyrbin asemenea prdicatrv (\e zr + cu l"p.i-ti"" (sinonime ln b'.,/'iar djectivulest'P ii" "r.t s 251?-2518). i nd'eplin'-tt verbe put' fi insolite de adverbe carc si arate cum Aclea.st Jp lcrh: sub, "tL,td.{irr' .r "rpriqatd :F loal"d nr ut dnd d o s n m i 'd i l i l i r e l t ' Tlf n' r a" k l' nt dnl' lp n a r e t u l l r ' . . . , laJ delrgnrF(rI' TnFv { - _a / ! l/ r aa' llP HP -soua{./PdhP eong luiousll' qlo$ l i . > np as , ad lr P loo4 _\ ". t dos r ' ' 3r Ft hur I o' r s r u! ll' n d l l \\' /l .,. ' ' 1\ d dPidlY' E /t/'6 m t id. r 'tr ' LrF "oom q x r f B r r . H" . lhF " . ) scnzori le delirr tl?nzili!' c i i v er bele legr t nF p' r t P l t i i l e -\ s ob se r v a l^' ul J 'l l 'r r \ u l u r ' In .in d" , r r ' u l|n, ' " 'J\-rh slnt urnilloarere: S 761) .ilu ""i;;"1;;"re

cer adiective in loc de advobe ctc nu inseann *"r,, clnil se rehn la ur miros s{u la un lrarlunr ' 'ari""l*.tr mo q : v ,' tt s - l a rru ml r. i -. t du] t r ' . ", , .? ^ " p In o r' r rts - old. , ; l i " " " g - b F

1;B d) verbele copulatilc aritate la S 2i15: to bc. to see continireimpreuni cu sinonimelelot; spre e{empluli ta became t') i h rl:l;;i,..'l iP,, l;il'i,ll;ri l;t;i. ;;JJ:";J,|', iffJ1 "l",ifilv;i precun qi: cJ \d i F/ri r ul pnir c f ilt : b t at t aloo An^J ' a t 41 r 1 n n ro bc oui l. ro.._ s, ot 'l 'i l ' " 1 ' p i / r ' ) 1. r . . dt t o - , it : t o t oat ' t t \ | -i i iui r t _\ ' lr P p i: D I r o l d l i r J so r d \hi l, u ' t \ ' t!)tt,a ;{ b btov "t"": ' .lc la f,z, son r' -;n " dt \ : . ro.\dl: to ltou tr)" Pir . ir - n : r o , / "1 ' nd J ;,:;,; 'i'n ': - aor ' ' ' "n' Fnz or ialFl Fxlt;m " p"t . eplii 6 / v"rb"l".u r " r o u g h : o l : ! " t a a i . '. \ t 'i ,"r*r, o1,. ILn q',..;.r l, lhiFr \ : ' . / "PllJ r d. painlul | -: , n ha n tJ D /d /l d d d . i l l : ' o s u P F ti el t s" orea' D /; trb-r i d i ,, , . " *r . :F 'i ' l u' npatl :,o p o i ntgr an $ ; ' . . ri ' p ,o ." ,o ' .t " _ o rs to t;" bi rgl ' ' "". , L j " " i i " ;.'r i . t;,-aonr,l.nent)3.li..orIl"m-rl,rl till. - Obiectiee Comqlemrnt : )a H " I , a." /Jd ln u li.'d ! . r ub: .uL ia r,,l ri-,1 e.rpru,, . prFdi, ri! s u b ia rrv . d ' : t " Com r l F n r" h u i i ' i a r i n l o u r a d re rh u l ri nu ' rai dd " l ' " rmi n; rL dir..l lind c'lp nump nrP4rce onrp ' s ri' ' ii" i'"t^s i ""tli 'lt i:..,"t np !'!' i;" i;; ::'" 'r'r "irh: ljt t t l | \ . i _ so',r,d tn' t T hd idkr 1,,.t /. ...' I n^u-d 1 5 .j'.-. /,lr ' n 'r' ol \ \ ; -. * hrr. " so .\ r r lp. ' nr ',r'.' sub-' \" cornpr""nl ( : o ll { r ' . r om p"1' r l 1r) Adieclivrl caro ciliti,rf mei rulte subsfirntiYo'- Adjcctiv-ul cAre ub r''r' i\- rLr rr t'pe d tnain'pd liF'; ri ."u n. rr ult ., lifi:. ,fi 'i '' S 770 .,a,h.! lvotu rhei, itiii" il$ Jiilf';$'li',:T,lT:iJ #11'.,i1'll'{'"',iiike snar ,$t df el: Repetarca adjc.tillrlui ie face pentru accentuarcaideii eriprimate :') .t dir.li\ul )i Pr.p"zilit trrornl"nr'. r:1 ': !"tr'-l" 1di' ir"oor r. urnirtr dF.r r d. Lr',,rni" tr' l^/ilii rl'r'to/rrrr r "rrrr^nsLJi: dclioienl. in $il diil-"rent /mn nnvonc 'fh; coll-"ctivc iantrfN liad llanDfd to hive 'eo trrlioN a'rd nc'' conbines ru i i7l r"", r , l r ' n ' o

im tlrr1 " learnins keen liabi. 'D a [a{ p 'rL 'o pentrrra 6) 0n0 (pl ones]. .\cstproluloe Fe pun dupn un adjectiv r,rb'ldr'li\ rlrr i o'lar; F\l'rin -l?: s" "rira r"p, tar.a l oo i o Il sGa ldk, ll l i,, p r-J io "ll li $ (liczi :r ' . ' ' liL ' lo { 1 6 4 !e n l N e o r tl Ic \h r " d orP d e la lii) "'l lr r '," " '/ ""' lP' r ) S 772 l Ailjeciiveleoilalc nu linL ilecit exe plc: ele nu de cme Dot ti d rmn t eler belp r P s l p .trv e .. tu r 'sa u uo er hi\ a| 3 Vezi S ,5t4. I \'czi S t mt" i ti t,i' o" a . s - im " r1 u T l n J n " rf" ls t J r ede s P i ri t). D r o si . ' t\'l !zi { : " pr on' r m "\./i G . C rfm' . o P i r' S l 0 J \' eluizcazl lista adjeclivelor . , nt al s u rrs ta n L r\u i2u sau ' ol o' J ti - s" si .i o IL s rn rrdH r.q re ie 64 a' . 769 b e "n rr ir, , I04 A

( ?73 ' 7) VerI. Much. - -\drerbul rPl, pre'edr adj'r ii\ul pr'prju'?is (tn u'po't"rru1; ln'inra; unui parr:'ipru ir"rrr ire "rlrcrhrrl l;i n-i'i""u "'- F.lp lnlo Li' pr int'u h.tu t"ra nu h: ,.7 I I i.. r-L 't. pl' r n "N '. ,j); r "4 Pr er ' l- - l' ' adj c " l n / i 'i \ l u. . v pr s ; b t . r t . . ( 0 J i . g r , s u p p r ) a l i t " . , . . . ' h " ) i[ d D , , o l l r g 'd p l r ' I p a r | r 'p n l n 'r',fv, )iumeroase participii trcul,e, dvenite aderirate adjective' sint prece,laie de adY erbul ,rg: tired, tc r..?.oBpli.aitd. t.9 dislinpished,efls pleased' 'cry Proredul a c.sta s a exiins ln engleza contemporani chiar qi la simple Darl,iciDii trecute ' Cdmpa"ativele slnt precedate de adverbele much' ecry much san tar: It is sciti ne n!.t colder' I I P r " f PI ng , ' - 4 n"' 1' \ \'t n '" li t s / , r bplr i. ' o ; it lor lh p r h o l a r 'h i ! n o w ( Yc z i ii S 1377 ) t 77{ "--qj li'o.!rurlii ad.ierli\alc sa|r crbitrlenle cu unelcron'lrurlii impcrlonalo I'rale''nsr''u'riiinp*ru"nol"sauadv'rbiAl" ti;br iomAni. a,lt"rrriot" 'lio adjel. .tiv'ul djn limba romani sinl,redate in limba pnglezaprin -propozilji Jn.car-e r c'0a liv inlrpb!inrdl rrrcdi'sliv lmprFuna'u Frbrn ld D" cdlilici un "ubre't pcr iorral.C'a moi frcrvpnte 'onFlru'liF ilp a F" lin 'clp forrnal' drnlr un idiecti v urmat de un inlinitiv: Shet ccrtainr" Dein. Isi(xf c] (ea)P nsJ l lltisn t lil i./'/ ^' pr obi6 i a p l ) 5 l !' n a a ra i u ' l n J l l\ u. ' ' na polm j- d ;l' l ; l ra rr' ' 1 1to l " o tn b J ' \ , " ds l, i p. / i - P s l p tr.u d , ' n v b l a ' Il p d r n Jrt, ) Tl,.Y're ru ro ,e away - r . r | , , J nr n ]p ,d (i d i n o rd i ) \ ' . is a, , . i i n d F s i n g ? \d f LDr " , . lm b ta .a t re l r Pd e l l Don. i b" t , nx a to u t i t! 1r ' r m r n. ' r ep. o ts r \od u' ft ha o*" 'r ta Pko'e l; n l!L m e ,."a ,ir a r i E li uF'r d' I Iur'i l l lT. ECErY-{LD\Trr,4.DJUCTr'[lLr FontLia adiectivului poate fi indepliniti rsi de urDlntoareie pi4j de \ oroirF ' -J .o sr' u't;i "djF'ri\ Jo ir u; 'rrl'cl anlivsau o'' onsrru li' sub r'tnr:vAl" 'u \eloarP'le. adjP'r.ie S ?76 e cDrnrclnd sensur atrjbulir sauprcdicatjv- ln ge nerp,rr i',rm; de singul0r. de plural (v. $ 1uu): -.t. - bt n . | ;:::.:L;::: ': ,'i;:";i':.::";i":.i';i,;1" ,b".".1,:;",.':,T.:! ot d . ',;"',: ":'".:,'2' ^: . ,...,-.,.t rtit , h. , . n! ". t: tndinla lntrebuin,ttuii plLlraDin rc iD ce mai mult ins, !e acceni,ueazii chiar c u ro1 dc adjecin' (v. $ 167): lului substantivelor 'llf- ho"E affa,s cornmittee. ile r'l ti'ts ' t . n r.it ,t'l;tt t-'otiong tlr r ti nual Stotes cu ditltion, "ikd lr ik p a l h p L 'l l o n s " h n o o l I o n o n '': \ t t r n t at L i n " r' l i 0 /,,o J l i / r" . b " v . - os a r . ' . na - ru b r:' .,1 ,rtl ,rro r p p \n n,l " \l i "

' p' rl l rr ra dn /r fe (\rrr

2) un gerundiv: n' ,,rIo ol..' ' ., lc"t..,; I I nj n . n o, A ..1 r - \ int . . t ". o1. d. t , , J "l i^t or '"r r odnr dd : , |)d ,n.a rS1:to. l:.tuoh' S ?7? $ 7i8 ra4nt,g wrter. the t@nhg irrnr. the 3) un pa icilirl trezcntl Ihe accampdnyiig n.te. ltu . nirq slom. au t s ains t lne. e t.r. 1 v si S l; 0! r : 4) un pa iciliu trecut: -L.t dnupdn . l\rtp d r.t 1o . r " p1lLpi" at . \ "t ' n. . . "$i' h t a' , b ) lr l. t "' ; . aa t 'a l . r k i t r \ \ " n l. - r ' i Jir. -. \ $ 7?e $ 780 5) un infidtir': an int)r1sc b sir{r thc last lo Lar, ni.v rvisl\ L ga to the pictxrcs; 6) un ) r'" v" . r ' . .,t?81 7) u genitir: | 782 lne lno\rc .f tle rlot!; nlt ftin.ls sot: hdtf a,ti tt.'s silen e: Itjjt: Lan,la t tarins's n o th Y eaf r l' t ' . ?n , a tu | ttu n rn E mo t| 0 r n a s .a ucd tp Ct'hatu GreeLe's' ic " Quie i ,{me r an"nas s et 1n \i e L n a ' n .L v .ti S :.8 , l s l ). 8) un :rticol: e tsn ): one: T o hr * l \v o c h i l r thousardi a nill i o n ; l v. s i S ..l l .{" is t " ? ftewools nc k r as ) -" Il .ri Ir ' II r Du u e l l ? A i ti S 5 r4 l : s 7t3 9) un rlumeral: fabteen sqnat\cts': thc thi..l door o n the lett i fttTn lverue6; ,nd.te.ri.l Wo rld \\'af l $ 731 !?85 "l.T l L Jr ' l. t o ) o l o cuti ue p r e p ozilionali: ' f hp I 'ol r l r : .l ri : a b o y a l d a Si rl i a hrnd(di ial. l3; r tlt/c (denlo^ttattr ). rIe D uf ain s s tmrs m e a s s " ./" 7 n . ? tn a" r c t ou t p f i l i rl p o e l l " ' (v . adverb: n. . lh , . r l r / "" n/ . . th .t t L iL-:J.i -r..',b " r r , l v ' tsi. '-, S 1ri9 2 56 1. S 2l_ | lP datn :bi.'. ' ' " ' lhd '/ . ? h d l n 'r " t l ' 1 o '/ - t ' ' - r b, l" t .

r u . t . r -.u b n "- n. , t or n ot tl c to p l $ i JL .l q rts i .' .), fi m $d d rd\i ga o_ , u t dD ,fa sj carc circulii spre Londfa sau sprc un oras mare: dorn,.atns: cnr. ri n de h Lo;dra sau de la !n orai i)ri!.ipal (atlail l,ilelessi r&tru up ptatlotmr i doen plat'fDit nlafrm : aefunt. ' , o. ' , r i 3! r ' d , , ' , ". 1 ' " . ro"r C"hhim ii;,,, r '/ . n L . . . I n l 9 0 i 5d. . u ,, n {u '. i o t c l t i i l d , u r m 't rF rto ot'd .L: /d./ a ro s . i. ' uf idin". u ! im ll . J / lo' of i' iall l L o r d u l , , C , , 'c P l a r f - I n . d u l u i d , \ . , ndLou .1l 'uDo r in ,:JT"r.' l^v i. or . ' r nd J : r s' , nr r . . :d d : i '1 1 1 i / r b l r p F n t r u d : o , H i e h. ho, / eit'^ t r t t k r ' t opl" r . oJ i , r J : '1 a r l i 4 o l u l . d r c - l d I i a m i l l ti n" . D lu u foPilo r idu r ul 6|r h }aza coircil ui brjtnnici /r./ dcn!nirea de lt'ddlsdci simbolizenz{ iii ttncl ia dc Lod Catr_ Iar. a.fstl .eprezentind |ocea Canw.i Latzitot ('Iht raice of ttu Halse of b.ds) n\ p\ pr "iii, . / , r . I l 'o o l . & rrv,rfua".i" t i mo ll j " l .ti op ll@1. "l,l- ' r ndp. i d i or.t Ldn. la i. Lo nl-r ,a, . . t dr I no , Dlii"s r F, . 1, J , - I u, l, i"l " . r " r n i r : b\rl.d rd il u" ' unr " d i Lur ' d e A p e j . P d s r r b o r u , . . r i l i ei. r^cr b ru rn l-1 Li. ' . pr ' . J r ' "l : . e i _ u c. . k li sr ra o ut , . . , " u. d p, . , r , r d . J , . j t o . l i n , f . o . J t . n U J . e r J L o r - , , , r lrb .i Jlliu ntesd,l \; d r, flde!jr;o n - \ or b. a- . b i, J dr u ar t il l ', l o r . 'l I / r, r ,!n1fl, J r.d,"d lapl L p r o p 1, ..1u i,mo.d p ir .-,n lppt r r . d, ' " ' . l' r . , t d. id , i J n " ln i rp r rb .l I n r ". nr lt r dpr F/ r n r r 'l d 'r o p i n d s d p I rJ r.lrs : . n. J r ' r ' i, ". n r o r , ' p i,"d.il r PFr p' l"o e i J lC a Ap.l.r , o, m bo, , l l. r , li iJ'p' ou. ii"r 'lio. l i . d .p L " l i : S u p r 'r d . \ t I ; " . . ' 1 ". t"r rh "u .a , n rr, t , u nrdt cr rt.u " rn Dr,J J ir d i J l14 public : ' $- hal L ll " o p n i o n o l r ' Ilnor,o-l , n rj r, l T , a, . rar "ri rol o. it p"r . . - d il' s pr nd J n gr 1r r . t L n ' l i d d " j u l . ' u t t . ont . ' . p G oE" bu r- u pr onu nla F, 3i. dr r d' . r n". . U i . , d ! " l l n '. . 1 1 , ' l 1 l t . p o l ! i rohax(i.r cnslpT to .lrle apr Fc r at . : ier.0 inb .Jr ; or J r r . iAc r d. lp d. p"opl. r ar o o r ; J " " ! . u r i . t . m r 'l o '1 1u cas;i ,j1:rtl lib ere. Buleva.d din NfN \-ork, unde numele prlnoip&lelor bulevade sintnulndalc ord lnale-

1,56 s 786 1l) o apoz il i c : ._. Sir Nrriil lIoLL,qn,,t .f the19i7 l;ol,el t'i.e, N,rs Lnightedin 1961 1or his sciens rt? s ?68 c i. r " . . . n. / . . . A1 .,,...' r.p o i l - . ,,h ,.ro" /,1. /t \.ar" d.t,r m1d tl .tt, , r n ' o .th I:. o t 0 r" 0 ' l !ro p o ,i l " r,J' \.i ,.tr." rg_r i l " l ami r,l /h" l r 'n 12) o pmp0zilie relatiri: Lord Rnfhcrionl. (ho eat a,va llt Lh. 1908-\-oLel Prite. \ras ihe liNt soienlist to sr,l i t t he at om ( in M .rr. (v . i i 5 1 7 !0 ) 0I t s t : r t at t e Uaj oritatFa erhiralenlilor adjectivali sint, de Iapt propozilii relatire or . . t t . " p. - r 1. : p : $ ' ,L i d d .,rp " m h 1 p .:..It ro p ,. o ,"um . i ,, ' h. o-o,npor ti na-ra. /,r./d,r ' . , , oF pi .:oti -sti ,aar;s.l u.o: " j ta, lcaec: l\e l.st srpst Fho blt, ri.. s 789 I. l.0nnl-{nEA lD.ltscTlt'Er,0R (!'oIirI1ITIoN oF ADJD|_]TrYES) l,inba englczil.ra ti limba romdrln. cunonft rele trei procedeee obi5nuite de l0rrnftrc a adieciil"elorI al derivarea l/ schimbar ea categoriai granaiical ./ compuno.n (ct. s 35t, !:011 s 79n DERI\i.\REA IDNRIV-\TION) Prin Llerivarese iormeazd adjecl,iye din alte adjectil e sau pdrli de vorbire. la carc s0 adaugi un prelix sau un surir. Printre prefi: iele 9i sulirele adjertivale rele mai obifnuit ln limba englczrl se alld urmdLoar clr: s 7tt (;ermanice: Prefixe 4r ' l5puk 1. r , / s r r 'd n g . , l . . : u ul-: or lr oir c . , ", lJ ins . tre.b ca o rr": "''lon ,. nngr , r c . . as l: o. "f r onliLlpr t . t . .r r i i l , i l , . t p f d n F , o u , f l 'r l l , o u p r . ! o l r t e . ,re.polulai .d, d!rsnbscribed. oerloight. ot{seais), etc. Lo anic e: r-. rlr-, rDF: aclirotnauc.adanantr arnormal, arsent. or.dpnions. etc .i arl.- : anraredent.dzkdilnrian, anr.mernlian. dnr.-Far. el.c.; / lr i1r F. , r g! m ol. . hi-:,r"n:".. Dl s a. . D . i o n l h l \ . - i , ci.c n m-: ..r.&nr t ex i c r r c am lac eit - , r r , a, r poa r , , , ^ r , , s o r a . j ! 'f t , D r s p P , r . . 'r ! e & sianlial, el,c.: col-, .om-, eon-, co r-: .ollaierali .,r,lassionatc. ..nponent, .,ncaie, .ohspjc!o!sl .r.rcct, .o/Npt , etc.: ro ofrr-: ..r,"dir lor v o. "ot nt n . aan- : . orl,stJ. pt.. !\-..I-... :,J|Fn s i\ F' P' , p' ' - : "h|' "[ |nien|: extn-: cz,.arnuial, c.taneons. d.rr ao.dirary, rrr.{tcrcstrial, .r//o{agani. elt... o' !ot I O r r c iijili la E BC f' o r o u ' o ri ; ' o. i o- J C \ l t O"A4nqhh llFrn limpmeridiamhi Grcenwich). : Ntrnai rfel'xele Fi snlixele au o.jginea indicaia,

c!rjnlele citate ca cxentl!

16? intcr-: ntrallied. i,rcrclanscable, ;/,rcollcgiatc. inrdlnational, lc.i el ' lnr.. ,P;a nnt . . Pt p. t . r l: l, / lu' id I ' . F , pel: tpfn l p t r-r r-li o'\. P-'^ 't r' /Feous P Pt or r ' o"\ ' / + s Pnr ' l '. _ $ a r ' rctuflca. /.t,grade. .er.ogrtssive, re,/ospecl,ire, etc i rotro-: ..tuacti'e, , inr. l' : ru t r -. sur-r . ,ru 'din d . .,bs"qu"nl. , D5idar Y. . , ll' " J ned n ' ; Pr it t nr r . . dr ' l' ir il o: 5"4p a l i l . r 'P d i n a . F l . : F U t c F . $r-: s/,qib un din t. Fr t , La' : t Fr'. l ru s -: ran,rthn li". zll }amun' nltla': L/r.acodv.ntional, zrfa fashionable, anlznarine, ,ltdmontan., alr a-slrort, zl,rasonic, rlr.dvi.lct. ctc dane, dltdllanetarJ, sufile Qermlrnice: _d uo di"Fd , m o pJ , r . lI pd. s r Fl. h r ' . Fl. . , \ 'o , r S P r l . 8 0 5 . 8 'l l -F d : ,. I b-J,J, : . 6h a. p ,dllFr, g old ,,, pad"r , $ood, . , $ ooll r . F' . . ; -. n etc nardd, outr (slacel, nlp'. -er llomea,a com!ffaiivul): {'rn: easlc.,. north.rz. souihe.z. $'este'n. elc.: pr,.: -tu l : l, e" / i/. ". .t.lut, a hi t t dt , g"r "l' t , p"1t "l . ll, dk &/ . lre rl r4 . r i' 1 , ! . lo' ir ! , ollia, ' ! . r l. : -in c : axru.,n p. . Dps l. $l' l; 3h. pl . . : -kt -: lrhr, r. u1 ],./': roo l, , { . ; lJ ; . n. b.illl.. licl/,. id/, rimbl., etc.: -le: etc.; -tike: bell'ltne. clild,t^?, hol!.lifr, lilrt^?, rnrlii,, q!.1/, d.r"1u t o t ! . , i. \ ""1! . i- "1! . t anl! . ; 'l t t . "1.. -l ! : : r. od i,/. ,1 ,.i/a. .t.rrtJ ^i. . tsontP). rtt: t t A: a4p. \ \ ' at ln. +o m ( A ): ' nl'o 4".|^ A r l . S '2 '1 r ' , tr',d. )r.o i r aa, -n s f l ij | 11"',d . ,. r lr . bd, , i' , od 'l J $ r . " r ' ' rl. l'r'ny. "i J ! 'l : . r , ' at ' . J . ' , ' t'i b l c , I r ^ : b b '1 4 ttt i itnot ' . t ) / r b|" - m t r c ll, -! b f r . -il, lc: /ll .,, n nt: . ! t / . g- os t lr hr t ot J . t ^: ' r l ) . l ''o t ; . / o l t . 't ' -i . f u lt: , ^m.r.//, u' J dr . , ln. r l. lid ' / " r ' -s l : !n- 1. 1 - m n l. o n. lr u ior . / Elizabil,dn. Dnroped4, amplibi ?n. GeorgiaD, .rnslaolar, -&n. -jon | \meri.,n, G.fcian. rerubiifa,. Itusslon. S haliaz3. etc.r - a D t : u" id, / , o is,o J,.i. d,. r a, / . , alj! n- ", . I 1 , , , , . " c . : innou, , . ! "r m aD4, , pFr o r 5 l , , , , 4 l ' - e o l : d D nJ,l. uilL .,.ridF, / , : "F sl d /. lh li-n ,;1, f l1". d/ , iu li. m l, adr r ond/ , . li. i -,al la ..;.. li lor , . t . bI , . , . ' r lphuli, T' ulonr " e n : - n : Rvron;, .1,.i - i r" : ,i, t i.,, ,o "r,,.", ,o n.r uFr , / . il' , . r ' p. ilgr , ' p. ! r "; , p. r p s r ; 'p . ' 1 " : " Ul. r'"iltl", A"n /p, hr r m bl", nim b/ ". Fl, jr . m F n d o , s p r ' - o u ! : ' ourd s o ,s. lo ro"i"h . gr or io, s . jo) oas . I , r ", io, . s 792 Romaniee: AIIJtrCTIINCU fiTELXS NIGATIY Pretixo Germarioe: unwise, elc unpleasa!!, uDtrne, u-: zzcrt, znhspty! enintelligenl, Iiomnnicc: dh - : di,asree ab lc. d ;armin s . d6hon"! ' . d6lonour r blP. di n l . a s P d , l . i it r -, lg-, ii-, im-, iF: ,a.jp ti; ilp. ; s nobl; . I 4p8s l. , m m o \ dbi. . m a r i o n a l . p l . : nis dar pd, n; s l a i d . P l r . m i i - : /traDplFJ, no n -: iDn-t s rilish , ro ,d'$ fi pl, @ 4m or al. nor pr r dil. i. t s etr s 4 . t u n '. m o ) . i n g n a n ' s1op, no4(eJsucl. etc. s 79:| 791 "s Sulixo Gcrmanice: pitills, tireLss, etc. cease/trs, counu,ss,lolcldsr, pennildss, -toc$: carelcss, 1 Sulixul -tu&are ln gnereo nuanla depreciatir{. , Su l i \L l Jy , s r " . ar dc

t pr F ti cp p n l ru a d v p rb (8 2 2 5 0 t. 3 R cl e ri l n r13 G . B . S la $. $ 795

s ?96 N ;C; ORI OGIi,ATIE ;";,' ''T"i';i'1"".''o;';'' l:":l;:i:;"""": '''-'' ;;;'' " "1""; ,:"ll: '"':"rl; f" -:l:;l ::;-1'ri;.. "' '-' Er cePl i i : o) LacuvinLFrp il';i:J:"t""i::"11"i".:u'i l:i:r)'i"';; 1"." '"r'i"'" 1r UuLt rrr ronsoauoilirralc' i,lif?''" in fe.able tr'rls lerabtc azuriio fud'"'r:'l::':;:td In finali nLrse duLlcdzn ' cl'laite ' D) Consoana a sau rLeaccentLrol cind actcrinl i" t de de o alti conlo and' d"rla ""*'i' ' "t"i" silabil: nu se nnnline Pe aceea-si """:lF. '3;;-x3ili:" iili."-li:#:u til**. . :" 1,"T"f t;;;i";:"j"';li'"1:i;)::'. ' /'rr ',": li i;,1": ,l ;"J r" "::l'1""';:"':; r:,t'r'''"u'"': i i". i:""" ;l: ;;1'l::.ii :;Il; t:; "'; -'il'r'r'i'l'1il'i.. "i',"Jf"' - !:"l,ilil'f, -,,",,,,, ,1*'i'ii1"' ", Eat:':!ltr: Peri/ou!, trn larill'/r'd '?"i ;:' ;;l '; , :1, ,f:; ,;sb , u,ui .u r ir" " , " in ' " r ' " u ' - 1 : 1 i' : l i ': i 'l il 'j ; ,,,r- i n.i ,'FH :"i" -,".,,, Ll:,:::,r1," 1t: -;1;:li' ErcePlic: igrcous gllt'I, uucJ' suliri ca'e incepecu o conli""r * rrrelrlininsi i ndriea unui Aj -" ''"t E:r ce p lie: ii'ii:li"::'t'! lt,l't*,i#il.'l:,:r:",'11"'i'i:""IJlt'lli? .",,l't,eil b l;;r:;ir;" l; J,"i m dr gt r bLu lliijj . s i'rli seschimbn de Ln-t preledat ronsoa'n-1 li!al ," r'r'| tirr:rt* ;)ri.1'lll;, ' " r r' : .''r'"' | -rr'le''arrl 'lul' -lp " r' 1 " ,1 ]"l i :'

'' ';': l ; .''l:.i :',"' , rr",- i:'";'-' lorlnei lalire g/d'i'sLs litl ln acestcaz _mrt s a hltrslormai 'n -L strb iDlluen lr

169 ttrtt b l ' rl a -l " aut?oJb' rn r-D.nl p' t ous' prs d u ./ - I' d 1 0 ' p ' tr' i tt """ D/ 7 ljnal s c m enf ire i n s d a tn n c i c i n d e s l e p re cedaL de rocal i : . njo/ . ' b l e p ' d ,a u l ro,,l p.buo. / a' . oroxr c/ I t inal s e s c hjr n b d j n to td e a u n a tn i l n a i n tea sui i rul ui -l y: bodY datlX - bodilY day d) -? final se mnline lntotdeauna inaintea sufixelor tsft Si ItAe: c o ' r1 trY bt e - bdbJish ' ounl " ,l :k" ho! - borl i l - g rl " n c"i e) La cuvintele trmin at in -y se int rodu ce un e mut ln ainta sufixului g : SCHIITIBARE.A CATEGORIEI GRAMATICALE' {CON1llNSION) p. r !" r" , l e r;' i p .n r ru l i -b a p ngl pz; pr i n trc" Fn l a l ui Are -r r r r oc pdp, r pr i. " s r " tn rms r" J a J ;e .ri \d o r. p i r l i l p. d' torbi rc ' F]p m" i ln """a " obisnuit adictil'ate siltt: particip iile, substantiYul fi adverbul. l l Pa flir ipii A djpr li\ a te . - V d l rF p a ri i ' rP i i l rp .ul e sj pfpzP nl F si otl nl rP buinl 'rp a djF . r r \ al . r r ne l e l -v " r.i n rl a d p \5 ra l F a d j F crrrp .unsrdpratc ' a sl ar c ln di cl i o n a r e: s 80o s 801 ple$eg _ 0harn,ing Lakng . Cn.ori Darticipiile au fost aiit de mutt' identiiicate cu adjectiveie Inctt' $ 8 02 ca ."i acestei, lonireazd adverbe prin addngarea sufixului J3: ,mur.d1u. hrrm ou.dlg"ic sood 'pJrnpdl!, "urpri""d/v, el!. l0Lingly. lovinglyrvilling/v Jd,ns1{ :AnosiDglt. (Vezi9i ! 791.1rr1) trcule. ln maioriLatea lor forme verbale mai vech i, sint S 303 Unele DartiLiDii contemporand. deosFbindu-Fp rntrebuintaie nuniai adi"' lival ln limba enql"za lvezi $ 1756 J" forn',le cor".punralbar.ele parrici piuluitrecul propriu-zis 1?58. 1760): 11! bound.endnt! a .a4,rz Blaiue lpoetrc) jr a d.urfteD ioryor sl,e hrd ,.nr her knePs.readv to laU i T h !v (o rp D o u p d l du' \ ro o\Frl u i i l l l hp ! an He iad .arued a head iir tle marble ' ' On H i r " r. t,o u a l /el mv h' Jrl i n l $ai n l I had d.!nl rnv sla$ cheprlullY H e n a d Po rh i s d i s re e l v l rrd $ork. The lam-p has noa hffn iir {sEUli8her'l Thc heat has melted Ihe \nrter. It trad prc'4d my sood lairh H e h rd s i ,' d i n l h e morni ng. nohea Slass an rnt.oqr accusaton l lnaintea sulixuhi -o&r, trecdat de consoan{sc ofiogaliaza uneori-_'pronrnlia -I cazn.r' remlnlnd aceearioa si In celela,lte )-i5. '\etizi i D.hirdledii adj@ti', li 5 0 4 '\e Com p l n P | F c 8 si c aDit olul S . . \\' c n , . - ; f e . , F . H o r .ta r . t .tr . ,it D.t 4 .4

lG0 The mate.ial 1,as ri.znk i! the wash,g the conl,was sr./dez iriih rnin. The conNc ol events \Ynsslagrd. TLcy were vr".l Nith paric, \l:ho has s,rrLs n)r viol in? The storm had sz;n thc shilShe had o,n'orid. (v e z i $ i S 1 8 a !l !/rr"8e d rn stru m Fnr s szzftez wrcoligarden 80.1 2) Substnutiveadjcotivatc. buinlate ca adjeciive: Numele de nrtedi pot fi in genereintre Celelalte substantive pot, fi ti ele adesea adjeciiral,e: l.le Bz.nd-4, streets a f1otbdu ream /a.u eqnitmenl a sree, \rorks the re,ur4lar-" 805 ,{li,cori subst antivul devine adjectiv prin adiuga.ea Fu{ir.ului -rd a participiului LrccLrtreg ulat: &o.scd .ad,iag.s tlie Doa,r.d interesls fl .&h{rcd \lonan ,/o-!p d r'rn l'rlr^. a t b, o n"r r : t l o t | 'l " t y Po"\ ' t dtu: d ;:/ / !,rfi t "' n "..:tta i n 1lrt6. Thc \\rorld Ilorlins clampionship wd bsle,/' D1- SorLlh {li.a had sal l h. di.r bcio.c. Thc homf a{lairs ronmittd, r/,ataP br the Eome J..r!la.r H, lo ok -t 1 1" . r ' . i ?1 , . ld "we adnrir.d ttis ftann.kn ind r',r?rr...l p.$on " " \n1 Lttctt. a*t.adletL and nLfre.ed, nood .\brl " 1\ ' ez i ii S 8l L i E06 3) Ycrbo adjcotirato. Unele ,ierbe pol avca raloare de adje.ti': S h e i a l k e d $ i l h m,.t s o l .dni tX . lle \ras only a sidn captain. The r sa$ in lr th. acircss e 0.. Onipnpil, iho so"ld Deorator, hns r bent ro. toelrr . 807 4) Adftrbc adjectiyatc. Cite\.a adverbe sinL tnrrebuinlate tive. unele ari nd chiar grade de comparrlie: thc o//-side !laj fi ca adje..\.lon t lsin up) hie/lutt these /,tncrl, results ?ur, mme. o&r.r space l1'r oz.r proviNf ol lril.ain the ar&f,r,sr delence linPS. This is otrr g,De,z, [cacli{. Is tnis a ,.r,sl, irain? Slre told nt i.he rpri.,r l torsc.se 1 \' e 7 i i i 9 .3 1 9 b , 6 i 1,1) 806 5) Articolul !\i umeralul ru \'alorile ile ndjt(tiv. - tlele doud adesori numerall e 1'aloarede adjective: au tne fridsP thcle a pounua wee k ?n oterativ.s the st.onl steike. iYc z i ii S 520, 12t il I : g[zduit iicole !i

161 COMPUNEREA {CONPOSITION) ln limba enslez[ se formeazd adjective compnse(CompoundAdiectioes) atlt din adjeciiv;, clt qi din alte pn4i de vorbire: a subst.i subsr.: f,ont-xh "4df|v?, \ ? l";r-pu\hds" s.\srpm. /D4..i"sr m0jo'i'] tu $ 809 rtla'. ct' si.lPm, * k 1 " e d " rD l rJN . sotrnrlprool, i fb t " ar l- r " n d i "ii i . J i ii .i ' li"lt;i'", rcn.n", h 'inj ldJ,, "" irrF s rk a L t E \ ' e : lt ' t h: ' \ ' . oln r ' d pl" 6 d n l s D o l '" n e l ': d +p .lon "d . har J bo"d ; dj. -psf.: dt' : r dv. 8d l.: d own ri;h', . epr . ' hd"p our bJ nJ . pr ' c r ' idv. -r nsit.: ra'\-c"in s. hs r d \ t or } s oul "ndr n. l o \ '_ b a r r n ; \ ! F r l m d a n n g ir i ndr lnr n Jo s n "d l. l,;sl,sh J\Pi, ha iv r _la' l' ve.b + snbst.: l.hc ral, taL blush. elc : \ p d' n t . \ n 'L l d b " ! l " s 6 4 t ' : a dl r rrrr + re tl: n ok? b't:p " s at ai ' J o. r o dr J lr i. d ' u 0 " o ! va u t o' eerb i !dr.: a h :J.4 ' g6 l , nr ' r . o,', D , r g a m " s . t h " o P F P '( s ) / n..; b"l.:a1 lfr,../i,, ". \ i ", l t ll -s roa d, it. t f t d e . ai,,rh, /l - batl ar\ h rondu"t. "\c Adi. (,;Dme t . a inl.: a 1 ut i\ : a' ' 1. . ' m; i mu riF rre"f'..ti!sdu sPAq'drJ"4oJ olrr"m 1r h: llr d odL | o t n t o . ^ - I '1 " o n d 'd 4 o t h . ' .t . u Q elc. Jno, 'o n,o L,|:)a ''J Iu 'ho, d. r \ d! ' ho\ : ado! b! . |] o' t po Ps an o tt ol th" qoJ Ptarp atr : l,o ,: ihp nol/-rl"/ "rAl,/ D-tut' dn" . ."t al-d ' " I \ \ l- h' n. t r n Joyot hona oonstruc lii rrrrrs:lc: :t+ . t 1ui E""o, dhl ^h ltv . y\.o n '. n t 'r rh! srorl ; n. o b" 4n' t - l \. \ " . d . / , utd; t hu a ^ 11 ! tp o l' anuh "rt ign. lnb il \ ' s r dr . h, 4do' . - i, Unt \ t t o l S p ) l a 'n s s -,,ds 'pa nn ^' Elementelc care inLrn in compunereaunui adjectiv stnt in general sau scrise intr 'rn singur cuvlnt, sau unitc prin oratimn: | $ "r,. , "r F ", . _J d. r . \'\ Eoeryd.nll (adj ) nnslisli Col|sc Il is a lan s disl4ne aw0! (adj ) cau. Ii lrad a lo,s'd,rd,'. Th !. u", p linl bt , - o' , i. aplt ; ! lo \ r '. T p lo - , h" t t a* - and t F: anal . , r t ? o d t a b l " S Sl{l Liniula de unire $i locul unde se alld er prczinti loart mare impoltanlA pentru i ntelesul cuvintelor respective ,\ se compara: (: 1: (: i: l: (: o camer{ dc hotel nicl o camri dc hotel nrice) retala unui t'Ia ndaiir strivit) ; pchu de trandalir stdfita) calrl vcchii diligenlc) leirlDul c d diligenl{) a cndpled /otr ledl plefgdlt de !l adjectj\. i Sll un in Foarte adcsea linba englzn. substantiY al !d u dF un FfbivclpnL a.p.ruie prim".l" !uti\ul prrli.ipiel -'d1cbi3t aluo' I un ,i nd nu exista un !erb .o'..pun/d nr 1n limbdr' forml d asLtel sdiA ri\ - -; ;rtn .-"t;; 1. , st;Pom'litu shrpP lIFt sat "auad.o,? hi rP s" J* orl l rt b; F ndnev. c d " k .u -.4 o ;.:-d ctu o rn o t ' ondi l i onpJ rgg sh0pP d i u b sl .+ Ds r t . : n g .l " a .r Io \ In g heartlelt.. ithoushtworn, erc i ' '

(cf. S 805): compus qilfedsed a ane'kgge.l rr,an bdtu ed 8\L a double Thc chair had dn upenr)ed\o\ tor one l e g . 'rh. restalrant \eas ;rcrnaDledL sh oestring : ll - cran.lre t\\.. linbji encreze

812 Ailiectire telescopate(Partmankalt ll'ords ) cerea termenului): gald nr " inr I u r'i m Jn i' r n! l d r';r lr" (Yezi S401 peniru eaplithine bl:l l-roarcdadierli\cl,'r rrrodorrrc. Cr' dr^ ' al' ' lja'i\" noi r' rli/'ar.arr pru 'F'l'u.qrrlr'I .lild .r:Jf.nl0 in limbd - el.zi a '''o'r'p "l' lolo''l; a 'accen tuarea subtiliid-tii. o\presiritilrii tn scris qi in p entru lldsi,icitnlii fi l a'J.|l.rJ e\en p|" '|- ",nFn darjp'li\F In'r':rrrrd" I lrmb6 rlrFl' ,r+alii li " ra." i,olH-;. "i -'d,\lnil ,r'i"r -'r"d" 'l' 'omn,r-Li' 'onlurFr l'-cedelor ouren te: an daclurrsbtel nnn dblel l]hces u n_ge,_al d r n \ , i 'E 8 n d , 'd g L . s t s ] , at ano ; n f / r \ t r . l d z zl E n d lhc !r.r ", r ,,,x1 -,1?i.,ish: {i r Il \r.rs a n.(r"-r' lntE., l' ; l I i' ) l/ * r ^ r ii nd /t a lidli. dr ' I L , . , - nh. . bo.t 'J lle $a5 rod- St*'r ' ''_ \' ,o ull lx q |d L '.IlL rllplh . u. ' 1. a. "r "i tar ian and Eu,lar-Dor0lrilh."r a frin ro z.v '/,,a l,' "Here'! Iatn rqiadjectivc tormato dintr o lo.ullrne snu diitr o frazii tutrearn: 1l\is h.k'a|ain'Co&a!(ilr :i ; '',1: n:t" ! . ,a ' "i " ti". ;. : r, ' oDt " l' t.:. lriend oi lis t-.l/, r' , i : '| l r ' l on i { ar d Adjeciivul trbuie studiat ptralel cu adtcrbul NALII S 814 B. ADJECTMLE DETERI'II\A1'IVE Sr\tl PIi{JNO\'II (PRONOITIIN'\L AD JECTI\lilS) lirrbA proprirrzis', P\i\1i in ljr bx enql-/;. (a qi-in In afari de adjectivcle plonunle rare nu rrruilirr lo'rn iirbFrrrni"lor' ' i lc dc romeni. o cateqorie i.""i"* .; t" ditermini ca $i adielli\tle. Ille lu n ti dtr. r: Llrr' firr '1ie (le udidit' 1"" derin adcvirati adjecti\e ii de aceea

sint "; poarln Einr,nflr ""o'iuln": Sprea se deosbi adjectivele n1ai trliiitati\ e ele':rtr\it.. d iominalc. de a4iedLw .lettmlnatLrc: Tlls lot lf ail is r f o. c ir r t er ' s l l n s t l ] l n i ?i. a lt t , c u 5 i al es t e n p ro n u me c l i ! p p r,rl r " ,l n r onunelui int e ro s u n c o l e s l o ndent d e rts a l p r o a r' e i ' e rk ,t ui el tc u ' t ul . in. d rmi n i -. l' h l . P ru n u r l " . \ P r ' b i l ' s n u rc l a l i l n /t' r' ' pLrf ur a onune nehot i ri te

subsl rnti trtl ?t' tml t: p" ' ' " t ' 11' rLrFl ' Jr\ /ri rl !r01' r' rri arl j | tl i Y al ' ''d r ' thts -i;'fa#,ll:Xi:"1'l,i'll'"1*;,*' d. L,\\,. i,, Ad,anu,e! 11',,nnqhtui din.7ti.,s (}'hatosrut 't trR. -\ldinstor. or. .n. { iala o iarLi iDiuz.tni.d ca& ra lnraiil .Im 5n lotosr aliali" 1 i" w r ' i601. " ' P u \\ \a" "tl :ng Fry:\ ',J' ou.P. i 1r ' l \ ' 6! n i\ ' . /o . l o d l r I i n ' r' b -: l

163 Adjectivale pronominale so tmparti ca lsi pro umele respcti1-el in .tncl S 815 .a tegorii: 1) adjectivc posesil-e 2) ad ierin e demonstratiYe 3) adjectirc inrcrog alivc 14 adjective relative ;) adjecLivc nehoterite prononilale sint inl.nriabil e, cu erceplia adjccti\.e]or posc- ,s Slti -{djectivrtc sive. demonstrati\.e ,si a cito a adjocLive neholnrite. (Peniru studiercn comperal,ivi rrsi amnn nlitn a adjectivelor prorrlS9'n 'll |,inil", \"/i proru,'l.r'.p'rr\p '012. 1049,IIjl]l. lj tdic;ritolo p,'sc.i\; I Po.-s,J" AIJJ T;r's.t : nt s 617 I ou' {.- trostN, n onsha.. "s. { ,a . { il ffi"l=ii,:.i',t.;'i,:ili"l"'r lw* {= (1'cnL.u dcialii {: rosrru, voastra roifr! !oaslrel $ e00i 2/ .\diorlirclc dcmoDslralit0(D"nonstrat;" .ldjcctitcs) stllL. tho (: ace l, acea, acei. acele) Orzi $ 444) vczi li: l-lii'(,f[;;,1]'"' ,. lui, ri) ln PUt r ul (: l-"ninii, rt 1,t,","lor) (nascnliD,conu.l nculrn ir S tl8 I d i d n ' t k n o F l .h e ma i ,/E Ii m e . ls he rndrCronin'1 ac s t . ac eas tn ) (s g -) ?its bol goes 1o e dax-nu.sery. these (: acesli, aceste) (p1.) Arc ,tusd cigarctn's yonrs? t h i s (: that (: acel, acea) (sg.) I'ndr rcst l,omc h 6 jt6t been bnilt. acei, acele) (pl.) Don't put ,lD.? things on the tablel those (: the other (: celdlalt, cealalti. ceilalli, celelalte) Givc me ,ld ,rrdr Dhoto: t his one is no cood. l'll havc ,1, od.f apdesi I don'l like these, ihey're g.ecn. thc lormer [: prinul (din .jouli obiecte' sau din dodlUgrupud de obiecle'?)] Do esn't he p.eler th. latwr ?f,Letn.\tite the laiier? to tho latter (: ullimul din lo d obiocte'sau din dou.t grupuri de obiecte?) Aren'l rne lo,rd !.oposals do.c atl.active lhan ihe forncr? the fi$t [: primul. primele (din mai multe obiecre' )l rvas lhe best ol the thrc.. ?r. ftr, tiile he s'rggcsLcd the last [: ultimul, u]timele (din rzal nulie obiecte'9)l Ol all ihc plaJs you mcntioled, oniX fta 1 6, onc soundsUfilllngSuch (: a.est, aceastn. acestj, aceste; asemenea, astfel de ) \there did 1on lind st., a perfcct pieceol old ohinn? ,ta.n rvre his wo.ds. .lL .n goodncss is.a.e. .larl, liorsps ,.e Aood lor field sorlt. ':Pronu,l t [0iJ rezi ! Ir1 Srnsgfrmatic.l(S tl.

1|]4 acelaii, aceea;i etc.) The sdtu dav I went on a irip to uie seside 'l ory (: chi ar ao1/acea/aceilace'le) We arcstandirgoi l'hcterl ryot Ftrcretlc baltlc\rxslougl il rc"i a""t-'' u.rdretbp \on. rt'url ,i !oniitsrrur li rdi''ir"r ' 'rel r'"a Ji alF' cl .J n jr'lul loprr': o olol"ii irt -'rr,'i n^u"r". n -"b rrnL"l \ 'l j So ms (: ln r n | " l' \" o r \ o' " " h4 ' r n J L '^ d 'i / \ d \ lnr ' ' \ ' 1, p"- . '' i; b l"' 'v d l\iczi tnrtN detalji s 93r) ' S i. l) ' /i' "s./ sir. : J, .\dicr!i\elp irrlprogrli\e I tn' rr' -at"1di rrn'-1" I-'lrins 'Frp'rrrl Whi.lii 1p"7 ure Jin -Ln rru"' .1 oj , !" " 1 1 / , . f r \ ' d- o " b .." o r' : ! 1 y t, , r ' . ; , o ! ' ,: J " " o " n nr" \r t'trl I\'hosc? (: al cuil n cui? ai cui'l ale cui!) lfr,se so r \tas h.1 rnos' roice did l hcaf? ' lT bat ? : r : e? c a re l p c ra re ? (i n fc l e s l n rg ge cral ) lr'ial rclatives ln!. Jou got in Buchrcst? ltla, lcit er .ue lrrstT iry'd, cha.act0r did lie inrpersotrate? Ho\ l m r loh? ( : c i t] c i tn ? ) ,'1,n,,,rc]' llnslish do You kno{? H,0 nr./, iJiFrest did he show' r onY l (: c i ti ? c i te ? ) llo\ t lh. 1 o lhp nnnor ' ' 1 5 - ! m 'r d 1to ' rto d o "!u - \ p, Ha r " aa -t \r,:s , . : d . \ o' r pl nLl {vezi Penl'u detalii S 101!l S sJO inirodnced me lo heo oI ihe rcadD's' ltcnt The li|rrim lfo ntra nkPr' nan a fo l u $ d r d\ r D W to'l h'mlo ' nr obd ' r lil ri]|,tl 14 ,{djectirelo&lttire ffielrtti'e Adiecttues) : (pe) care Which rld Jones' oni'l' hll'r lvhoso (: Wh$t l: al rafui. a irerci, ai ciror, ale cnrei etc) "n s Thp mln Lfta i;:' ,s ll|o!l idrili ls b- dn m r : o1p| i o " d o o I r - r " 'l p r J 1' . r ib m v $o k ce, (Pe) carel poi tl pronume orr Cuvintele compusedin *'har l\ Qhich +erer sau soer'J' .Ldject ivc: 'o . h m u l l o 'l n' dJ l- . ll h dt rro f.,. r c llls . ' p r' t om ds f ir lr m or n h : he ". p\i "i delalii S 103j) lvezi lenlN ' r"l te rd ir ^ o . . nt i' ( 1 tYl,, Fl li\r n 4r r ' I do _ troL { "hdr s o. ( Wnal liitle tobacco rmains is at Iou dispos'tl i 5::1 " il tdiertitelo rrebolnrile//ndPl'l/P A.di 'la)'i",t: cnur' rr' o inJnrrlJr a ccr titin ( un/o

d.rrdtz Dan Rlrrt with him Hc broL.lehi,4 iii" *;;i i'* to @.c.'dia exrent sadsr actorv cedsin (: unii' unele; oarecare) h t f r din oP oD l p a l e ro b rp to r i d /z mL s' He I ' a" , - ; or ' , b o u l s h a m rg h l ' n l " n 5 r ) vu

somel (: pul,ine atc.) cil,ira, cilcl'a; unii, unele; ni-ste,ceva, pulin, pulind, pulini, Wc sarv so/re teasets at worL Shc will buX srru rrce. llhe ernibiLion c.nlaired somd sorrre... or other (:1'reun, vreo .., oarecere) Hc is alnays sure fo make sol.e eti\1se or ot'tet. $'o mnst liird satue reas(n o . athct lof our absence ltom the party reEpeotiv) d, (in propoziliile S.terogaliv-e,negalive sau ipotetice):i'run, vreo: ( negaiie) nici un, nici o; sau nu se traduce; Ha\. rod dra rare books? 'fhe\-\ion'i lti ni or9 clild urder seren any plcde. It Jon trale any llorr, bring me some, &l : or ice. oricare ,1,v ohilrl conld do lhis Toli niav tale du, nro magazines like. lo n mai mulli, mai multe; dilerili, difrite; several(: citiva. rjtevn: Jarrii lircfs 01 iewelr n..c missirA. I rn re 'b ee, , lo \ - enic ; re /e /a i t i r,ra \te oalled iberc or tlircc .v,t.ral da\-s. 'l-h-"sresis said sood |yc and $rit tl,, ir .\.r.rol \tays su dfy (: diierifi. diterite) \Ve liaY m.t on s,nd'! occarions. Tlroc wrrr sdn.lfr reaaoi( lor his alliludc o n o (: un, o) Orz dat l.hc cosros \rill hold no secrek ror nim Thcre i\as onc }Qter ln pafllcul{r Nlio se rngs were Folks of lnrc a alrother (: un alt, o ali:i; rrdi, hcn) 0!c ol ile mcn lud bougl,l or. ho$e, on.lner one anolhef. Uav I lralc rn,r(. ro ol ica. trl ease? Stir LnaLhe, th! rinulcs. Fill XoD? (5 133) other (: all, nltn, alli, oh,e ) x lid! orllr peoplc callcd he. altfnt'on lo it, slie r.alized lier nisiakc c'r El da]s, ,rll \tnys. rh m o .n i n l . . Tl f " $ d : " . , 1 us : You lnov l,o\L na.n Norh l djd yestudttyuch (: mutt, multii) (rezi $ 690 694) mary (: n1ull;, nn te) (vezi S 690 694) _ inlo orttr -lIa,y \rtsr tlie resnlls iolloring !!0n lhc:launchingol tlie carth s rtellites I halc mdr.! radio h rs: auons mI lrinds I savc him ./ lrtL adri.. on h is $ork. H ,; L n n \ s r r , L, ludn J n ( ' ., l a l i u . (a) littrc (: pu1in, pu-tine)(vczi S 677-686) (a) re\v (: ciliye. citel'a; pulin i, putine) (vezi S 687) . . 1 / t u {o ds a,. o rl.n o, p plol, \ \ p kno! /.- rFop le i, ' t "t r hur " s t lhJ n a long s p 'h 1 as le d ! o bicdi n d. AT lorm' s "nl . al ln, onr . * L- |P de. i lo r m a , l d b l l p r n p o ? i -on! ro ipi v"/i r T' t - rml Jnde so a '.nlu il nr od r ' "ials uuda! 65eallblJ b l r r i i l ! l !i Q ll: 8, lt 8i. r fdd,o lan J : rJd lo am at or i { c olo( \ idll.

186 enough (: desLul, destuii, destui. destule) We have iood cn4rsn fo. our oul. ing. Thoc arer't ,mLrn caks to go ronnd each [: fiecare in parte (accntuindu-se pa dea. nu intregul)] We should see a tuture Dromisein adr ohiid is $vil..hed or' -E aci applianceshould b-; ovefhauied belo.c it eycry [: Iiecare (inteles colectiv) ; io!i, todt] /, './ L ' , , 1 v ll' ov J " 4 \p n u r i ro t' .n , rrt d .i .n r o a r" d " m i , ri ; d, . i" " r , I'i i i * E e.e Jaok had ltis Jiil. all (: t ot, toatd, to!i, toate; liecare) He worked l,afd all dar ai the lorttiit ol an a cadoni.ian. .1lI peo!]es stru3gle ior Peace. cither (: amindoi, amindoui; oricar e din doi sau do n) ,1 .1 .1 " F o {",j s l r v o, ' t la" -rd r o r 1 P rn d d / 5 h " I ral l. r \ p . t i, . . r o o m . s h ' ;.h r r s h " p - ' .: noither (: nici unul, nici una din doi sau doui) ,{.id.. I.ontranke. was over bvenly_Ii ve years oI age fi,nnd. scheme was accepied. both (: amlndoi. amiddoui) to,n mv cliild.en are at school. Lct m have totn testtlbes ior the etperrment no (: nici un. nici o) ,Vo ma n k np( r Lourqd d e n i n s a s m " ' 1 . 6 \n Tn p p o - m d ! - or ula@ h rr.rs .v e s t,rd d j nolle (: nici un, nici o, deloc)l P"d .ri .al , \ p" r : ar r p h" h a d .o r b " i n S ) ' o o J o ' rD c Bd "k,rdt ur ij lur a. r hn rew e re to 4 p i n l \" o " p h a n d Cr' Genius he is naE. (Ve z i i i S l l e 7 l Nard determinatitetrebuie studiateparallcu proounelerespec,A.djectirete (Vezi $ 1 152) tive. I zond, despe.liI de subslantivulle cn.eil determint cind cslc adjectiv,sti iI g cnere literaf). {stil

PRO\U}ItrLE coNsIDtH{T1t GE\ER_\L}l 322 824 8r5 427 828 838 ii39 839 L PFO\I \ LE r ll I t F s U\ -{ L Delini!ie Fuc lii N.mn l Iratut"ElIi pprsanol pts til trt 111 171 t1r \t! 17' 1r_2 1/-3 Persoanaa 2-a sinsnlar PeNoanaa 3-a siniular Phalul antorjlalii ti al fa: ul lonun .lot t.,.o nt le 8t!0 1i4 841 1 7 t , 842 1 'L 3/r4 |,.t, 845 t74 846 lt4 849 I r-4 85ll 1,-5 869 870 873 887 888 890 8-46 900 901 !07 !09 910 911 918 IJD I^"TiRIRE. 919 920 grt 92t 923 92i 928 929 930 931 934 9t5 936 939 1r' 8 t79 181 11J1 181 182 183 183 r33 184 184 184 1l t5 1l l 5 15 186 186 186 la J 187 18rl 188 188 189 189 189 189 189 189 190 IL PR ON|IE I , E ! t : \ D, J E C T IV L L T O S ES IV. III. PNONU]IELE IIE}'J,}III\T -qI FlI']\U]IEI-E P rn r.l u rJ - r r or idr ii i. , . o r r;.,i ..... ...... ...... ......... rl n ru ar dr er n' ll f r" r' .n l ' r' ,,1 1 ,\i f i l p l ro ,,,In!tu d. n,1ri r p. ,. rn n tn /.- pr onr m - 1" .. .. .... .... I"o u n " r n r l" \ | , ' r ..' n r ' 1 . ! n " l ronLn frn n 'rn r pb r o|F \ r v .,I,, .u t ,," ,,o ," ,,,... , /fu J l t r nr r eDnr r lx I r Lo ml p ronnnr hi ; eit . r ir .i a l t,l r.u n i i rri ri e J n i ;l ;.;... ........ Ft ,,\r \ t F Lf . t \ 1, . L L ,I:\tO.-T | | \' t,\ ' :T .\t ... ........ I\ .

t6 8 945 {r48 !4! 961 gil, 't HLS (THtiSL), THA'1 ('tHOSE) lu n cl i i .... ... .. ... . lo rma . Gc D.Nu: lr . Ca ' .. l, onu ,n l _ l r\ \Jr. rb " , . or . "' TIlD T'ARJ]IEN.THE ],!'T TL A lu ,rj i i . . . hhelxinla.c ' )H1 .: I.I A S T , ' , Oflt l n. l111, utt1 l 1 :. ..... 190 {90 1)1 19rl i9J !66 191 96t 1161, 1 9 4 1!5 s A l r E ... . ... ,i 1 9i ) 195 rl9i v. PTIo NUI E LE $I - \ DJ E C T IIL i . l Y l l i L l .ra j -l T I\' ........ Dcl i n i l i . . . . . . . . . . . i!l:r ll . 101t 1n l8 Siualkt ..tut\ ....,. ,.. In te ro q aiiadir c . li s i n i d n e d i -' Ixxili; ril DO ln irti,rcsatii . . . .. L o "r pr . ' o/ li i. 'o co n struoliim ionilic e . .. ..: .. .. ... .... Proa , l o i , iF ' r .... . ... ' rrr r?. . . . . . . ...... . . . . . .. . . 1011 : 102b lotll 'ln_ n' 10:10 l nl :' 1035 : 1057 '_ \.I PRO\UI { F I LE lI A D J IIC T IVU L R E L -\T IV.... .... ...... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... Z . In|rcnninlarc 'Tl ,L r,- lhx r ' l ' r . ": l. r 1 -l h t ..... i -r. .. . . . . Fo rml .. . . . . . . . . t HE L AS ' | ..........-.... I H f

189 4i wHo IYEICH Inteles Funclie 1053 1059 1060 1061 106, 1063 205 t05 205 206 206 206 206 207 201 208 ,08 ,08 210 210 2ll 211 211 2t! 211 A3 .. .. , . 2t2 212 212 BUT 2t2 lnr.l"s . .. . .. . .... . ... ... lnsn 212 mrPrlrnl,rr .. .. .. .. .. ... . .. ... tO99 212 2\2 Ake clkstnrli. ft f.t itaate ta p.a numete atljtti, eleretatiee... .. .. .. . . . . . . . . 9i 212 -.. Su b sl d li\ , , ol " liv . - l J ,.o -n u m, rp tJ t' r h .... ......... .. ..,... rrul 272 urrp sap o' uad. r r r J . v ,P " o . ,j , r" l u l i \ /..o to l . ....... .... rro2 213 Lo cD rp rlnur n ....,, 2t3 ' r,,6 2 14 c u r r n .{ rF d P s u b s ta n tr\' .,. 2t5 ra t6;i; ; i; ; iii'; iit i r ; i . r i p . l . i i i i i i i . ' " i i i i i"!.................1 1 1 2 ....' . .. 215 1120 216 \t21 216 1t25 216 7124 2ti 7129 21) 1130 2t1 1133 21i 1134 21i r \t' 2t) 1136 !l r. 1137 at?. Ca z I'tadutrh \:II. retalio II .. . .. Pll']NU]IELE D ' irili WHAT 1083 1084 t0a7 1088 1u91 7192 1093 1091 1495 1096 7091 I DJ D C T IYIT L -!-EH O T A R IT . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._........ . .. .. . .. , d. it \ q r . dt r ot J lt ....-. .. o r rr J r dlr " r f . t or Lr hot J r "t n , u alt p p r o n , r m . , ,." f."u.t ri l t t t(2 It11 lt41 I t4u 21! . 1. :t. l. :.jl

170 j protrumeri sdierlieo oetot6rite . EYE RI . . . - . t1r") 'I l5t tt37 7116 Llii 1t5i ,22 :l2rl 222 l.!.! 22) 122 I ri 9 223 tl6a 1161 123 1163 "l 224 116i ' )2L l16i 116,1 { 170 ))1 tl14 Inleles.. . -. . ' ' .. . .. .. Acordul cu alte Proaune . F un o i i i . ,,' consfruoiii idiomatice SOME, ANY..t IO, -i\?NE S o,tl f lnlpj e . .. . t nhe b u i n l a P Pro n u n l i e Funcli . . 1r)'5 :15 1 1 r - 6 " 221 1 1 1 8 22i ... .. .. ... .... . l nte r e b . .. ... lnhebuinta'e ^f ^rnN/i ANv ... .. . . . . . . . . . . ,' l-la l t74 22ii Irl t' l l 8< 1186 2), )t1 iii* :tl . . . . ris a 1),119t 924 .. .. 1205 !t8 F o rmeco m lus r

P N ,O N U IIE I,E (TIllI PRONOUN) OONSIDERATII GT]NEBALI] l) Drtinitic.. dt , rn Ut pc nr \ dt enli PronrrnFlecsr" _parrea vorbire care ljne jocul unni de dl ac es t Ur e. S 8gz iub.'-,,ri\ut ,.ru c.hivalanrutluir rnto.uit de pronum".e numeqlejn g 821 llnti .rlrl-z; .nlprpdcnt pronumplui (lnn.pd" tl sau Prinrr'parl.Desi nu r..'r', rotul .3ri.15.d'odf..a,pa.tn dFnumirpfa fi tnrrpbuijr!n; pon,ru sim_ plilirar" in 1rr . r*r'a <1" l;,; in lo, ul ppriha,,Fi fnlo.irFin a.c.t "az dp gramati"a 2) Clasi ficarcr proDumelor. d/ l"o1r4d r o"":o na , " I Se disting d obici rsdprecategorii de r a s l '4 i | . $ \o l h 'J nr m . , . . . ... \o" th,q I I nin! J o. r s . l, is \ F r ' i l " o \ n I onr ( r o r r ' r hqr r ! o r r ' ols . l" lour s l' . ||: m r i . I . r p l l . i , s d , o u r e p h , " lonr s . l\ es , lnPn\ el\ P s i o n c s c l l ntciptace: eat:h othe., one doitrer r i. . i! . hdr . ih o . " , r h - t o r m a " . t h " d " r , ' i. . - 'lh. ' hp las t . I n o o t l , . r t s , . s ? m p , s u . l Ir $ljo? Nhose? whom? $l,i.h? Fhat? sho, Nliose, \r hom, which, $lEr, rtrat, as, bur r nor nl l oo r u \'r' ) o! . g 894 / / t , o..,m-'r Do.,c,i\ c ' ., Pmnuml relle\i{c d, ProDn fl. (lenro,,stratirc e.) Prorrmel-. intcrogal.ire ll P.o.um.le lelal.ive ti I I I I I d. . n4 n v h. J l. on. . , r ' , or h . r . n.r.r r. ) . s r r p r jrr.l!, s" i nru , - ,. , a . om " b o d J . s o n . , 1 D . , "o r " g . n o b o d y . tn io t h i n ;q . p! . r r i . a r j o r , I D ! ^thrr bo . . k , u rr , nnJ DodJ bodv . . \ . r . s e. J s or F. t uv . anJ on4. a e. ) o.. r . od. . , n J 4 \ t , l d h o I r

3) Acordulprorumelui. cu antecedentul siu: Pronumele acordeinge/\ nutnb Eipersoand g BZb se i rnl ,rm, i. : .a. snc m.\ d1.gt,.pr. Th, n,,.- Jd aL n //",r,I.imo"b,,or-30,.S d"\n,'r"r,at-. ln privinta ca.ulai ins6, pronumcle este ildependent, de anteceda nt. q 826 cazul pronumeluj liind determinat de ro1ul acestuii tn propozilia alin care \ j 4lio 1 .l , a, ' r ' 1; l n' $ r , " , , , . , al. o ! o _ . T p . t1, n t.. N\ , $pr ( ur k ing d n t dr t /r,,, rddt.l. .o 0(p to th/r . . . 1, . . , ? ( . jat . , , e, ( "nT , . . .-i i.\roa r r v . o . n | Srrc mel lhe rolrd, ( ac.t. rrnose lgcn. ob.t in I kne{ . . Pronum-tep"rsonalp. 4) F po.".i\. ,, rt,.\i\" -i d- jn iriri au, { 822 iu il

. \., 'rDlri. ts\.pprii Inrn- ddcritF pFnl|u pFrloa16. runnr tl" p,r.oalla a3-a sg.) .r ^pn. .-",,lp parsondl.si ppn.ru Pfa.unFt, in,"rore,i\ r_td.iv "Hz. 1v. zi p a8 . 62 rlta L

r?9 dpmun lrnlivp //lr ' rftdl' rr4 dre lorn, ditprirelpnlru '1r. P"lru nronumF on, th ,t!'t.):i unrl nehotrrit (n'14,arr plurllulditFrirdcsrnguLar'LcroraIe Pro nume sini inlariabile. genere valo{rc de 5) l'u 8!ii. - Formele cu valoare de pr onume au ln 'si adjectiv. EacepliL pprsonrle pro rmelp \ u au lorm.1Jj"' li\ al. ' orplpun/droJrr: "irpllptivp' int'erogativ-relfltiv t'lo' cu cazul Dronumele d emonsirati{ s(]: pronumele *a-t; pronumele relaiive that, dr li D&t; pronunele n ehot'dritecom' iii""ii' puse cu some,dny, n0 | erera. formi de Adiecrivele cores punzitoare pronumlor poscsive difere ca 830 maso' cu acesl,ea. ercepl,ia pcrsoa e i a 3-a sg lrma o.rel" ru\inr. Pot lr fi: $ b3l 829 8r8 s832 s 833 s834 i 8?t illl"l'1"1;',1" i3il."ffi,ii#]"ii,fig: ".,,,i11:*i,'"1,:'1"'lh,''hfi?''iiti}",'' J; Dzneldlr: oDe, lirst alc-re: all, any, 43, both1, but, eilh(ri neithef, little much no' sone. sonelhi ng, (the) sanc @aiLtulii: 4. botli' bul, ilhor' neither pepa.iliet brlt. s 8:r0 $ 837 lunoliile sintrcticeale pronumelui stnt accleaqica !i aceleaale tivului ($ 347-3 5{l). pronunelui' - Substantivul (sau echivalentul 6) Locul tDtccedontului 838 d e pronune precedii aelemai multe ori Pronumele. ln rare lui) tnlocuit de cazu in se. il fi urmeazn: " \\l'cn lh. 4 r l, sl,rr ; r -/ ! - - at nt . Iylo lo ron , i s r hr , , dr 1 p uo. o i:l;".;' d l o n 'e r "1 '\ f t / r 't r 'n ' por . ( ! _or ' l ' v "t J o n e F a o E n " r " iant e' ) at t h' ' loo '1 / i . r 'r ' l a '. 4itre t hat uau Bpt la'' l"1". t ! r strbsians 83e posesivo 7) PronumclePorsonale, PososileDi rellexir0 ti ailioct:ivele (Ndtudt) (Pds.) (cel ) ss. l1 toate j r { I masc. | 31hm. t neutru t I it i[ "l'osAtre (]'totu ) (Adj.) rni r. yours Jour his nis hers her ils its oslr Jour their lours tlieirs F.flerit (l'ton ) trrsel f You.seu himseu herseu itseu Yort!$tves llcmBervE Pl tl i

I toat e r ioaie PentN on.'s o1$r onrsell lo.mrlA a.lraroe alc lfonumelo. vzi S r5l 1idverb sau coljunctic

CONS1DERATfl CEN'RALE I?3 8) Pronumele li adjectirelepronominrle Pronunlie.l,'ornLe ti forne sldbe tati he her htm /hir/ / ha: / /hm/ /Dt:l S 819a t) Forma leticald /;rn.r tale(accelluali) Farna slabil.(neaccentuarn) n,s lry she lhtll ln.\tl fomd nutudrd lli:l /s"rn/ IlAl /ttun. rclatio)t l6P.Unr th ci r J i 6 ..i + rc n e a n d I la..rl + eacatii !!em /irem/ r.her l6etl us /^s/ rre /wri yov (adj.) l1t:*, p.*, n@l 11dne rIdIjl/ i tl lqhd ttabd frc.eenld ij.:zl 2) Pronun.l" nFntiondrd mai jo. ,\tt st .Pd normald, yon.s fu a tm d L e ) "u osirs.ri tatn.n: funnd tar,,.dt. * fil{ al pronumetuiesire pronunlat [r] inairtea unei vocale si este mur Irnarni eauner consoane. prcnutLe Fi a,ljectia denat6tntic ttutzt ?ranum. inte.asatb2 hd' ", . t t , ": s-, J.. / ll 3) Pronumcloreflexirc 1. ". lr' rt\rl | J |. n xf.rt\ hc , t r / r t s . li/ m'r'' ! / a ." rF I / J', . rt| r ^,.'"r No ta i you-.dr\ ds ,.l . . lf . | , u . / o: r "lt / q: . "1\ /

.,,-.r,",, . . jJU.- h /. ,.d". :r: In r ,r . " t \. " n " ,n rt\7 l l y. . olc gi; . F un ;\F r.i ra F i i t" L ro n C o l t" g. qe ot i snri ptrF .j ca "T n " , r oo( . a s'a ronna . l3bi I m rl p .r.l ' u ,// 1 n rrrl !utor\ ri tua d d?'?... o a F r r p. \ F nr i F rte i n .5 ,r p ro n u n l -\p r^ .i ; l p .p nri al - i n u nptp e\ preFi l r H rp r tu i l /,/ Lfr rl !i .om u n c !F :,J F r . r / r ng t t /i . rta t n u l n a l tc o .rT i i . l .s .Fn!. i . pi e rel e seri oase p \ r s'i o .ra d r t i. . r a! pbi t n td i n .J d . m u l l i a . o ri . d . s prol unl a fml | ori do , p n tr.,},, . s t a nF lc . en ru a r . rD i n ,E ,6 ti " h p ro n oun,i ng D i .rt" narr.t, Daniel Jones.) r !.q i :i l, r . pr n. :i d i ,,ri v J " m o .ra r,\. ., l \ r,:8. ,1rn o".,, m. : t - e:illt;rt,"T,J*,i'il:'df;tl;i':"il;il,j: ;,i:ii:l"., t:iJ",, .;?,,#i s"nfupr .dQ \ toa rp la 6d! o. ier d. s ' , r dpnlit of J in in r i i . . . t , A i u t u i .

l'i4 $ 840 I. PRO,\.LTIELE PEITSON,TL Paorl)tN) (TUE P-0risoNAr, 1) Detinitie. -- Pfonurnel e personftl inlocuietie un subslantit. sau chl valeniul acesiuia. desemnind ln ac elaEitimp fr persoana 2) Formi. - ProtrumeleporsoDalesini urmitoarele: s 841 s 842 (: Pc nbe. I 'rie, 'nrr (- tie, tii d-talc. dr.; pc iinc. te: Pe d-ia, l: hi, i: pc el. il) 1: ci, i; !c ea, o) ei. i; Pe el, f:hi. (: roui,- ne. tj; ]re ror. nel ('- roui, rii l)e Io,, tn. vi: d!,. Ire d\'.1 {: l o r , l e i l e e i , i i , ! e ele lei !c dnnncalorJ ( - ei ele, then S81 3 tormJ p"rrlru,Iip'nr' Cu .\' Fpli" pcr'ua ' i a I " rl'ul 'r' ' r..'n, r'nr,u 4i p r'p' :'"'tirp dih'inl o;,;";.i-"" "-.,'i ".".;;";;:; ium"i dupa p;r'^aru, r"r rnir :i '"/ /' / por I' sr pronunP 3) Fui'rlii. - P'o 'rn ' l' p"rorrrl' it ! ' !')') tt 8 844 ' (\azi S lra4) nehotdrite. p"orr^'"t" p"i'!"'"t,i pot aYrja Si f rrncfia d adjective. "u \ulfi.R(ll, PRo\ulrrlltr rilrisoNAr' s 84b O bse tea lie $ 846 s 84? s 848 4l Persoana I singular' lntotd'Ftrnascrjs tn litern nare chiar irl r'; p"".r"i"] " j i:: "'l "'t" m locut llr'Irozrlrer: I Ln { l to_so' n "nlro1 i r'' ll in .ri l'rl ,u^,\i"1. rdFt"n i lt^rr,m"l^ / r'r r" nrprirr'" torbul peotiv Jipsind unco ri li el: l'" : , ''i T ' ' ,- , r l l. r ' r , r r . Tl' ,, to. llc k , , ' ' ::C "_ .,rl 'o dr{oa ,i s s I q; H )' J or r r om or f ow s 849 s 850 l' .' '.re urri pr^r,rrm' dF l"Forrr ''-l s ' , r1,' trt',' '1- ' l1r'l^r:-Snrr\ ro\c t r' pl*-;:,'ia; sL,rts. r'ortut,i " vou lvaitins' .. (l an1) sorr-v... ' 5r Perioanr u 9-n lingrlrr. mele de peNoanaa 2 a llural: .. ''u u' ^, I 1 I I d/ i';;;;'-r"i"n" ,n ' : ' :n :u r 'r

'''i n"J sL .l Ynr df . I r r , laugi' r ' l r o , dr . i t r r r t il' lr n tt l I la* a ot r luur r ar lsc \ \ " - J $ d", l . I r l ' in r nnrh I

176 ,, loun.le arhaice ale prouuntoior de persome a 2'a sint: r,z l:tu) (!ron pe rs l { \.n | ^ ';.i !{r'I:" I o ,, | $ til h. t I -l t ta u . td tJ r. t..l Pl ,,J. r!' . ,d " i J. - ,ro... no" ., ' a " r.-n p r ri n ) (p ro n . r" r' .' ,i ' a ' a. r "l, r i .o ri,.p \ndr(prol. p^.t t N oo. I\t" { . 't r,' I '' ] "" "."" I a,," t ,. ' o ::J .. - pl .o r Prorlnd. fcltc\ir I ss. thlflf l. (rcll.): iDstrli, insat,i (le inti.i.e) I d. ! o4'scl'cs : lli lreit.); in!i!i. inscri (dc ltrierifcl ;i-de Intirrirc -{cesle l orne nu sc mai gdsesc iD limba moderni decit in "(tilul literarJ i,1r 1[e., ,e ; i in sii]ul dialectnl sru in cel colocYial. c) Pnnnnele de palitele l-, dumnaloas trn. dumnrata) este pronunele p e r so n a l d e per s oloa a 2' a : Io& a.. a m cmbcf ol thc Union of Artists:? . ' DunnrJ \o tu | ro s l n l ' n .ml ru d l II ni \rri l l ' r P l d-ri r Drn n "i n lo & ,., m m ler . o lh e U n o n o l A.L tt,' (Dumn.deaastnj. Pl$iio;?l .tnr.li .rcabri ai Lniunii lrl\lilor l oh ' It ! _ "'1i ,I '"'", p fo,. (rp df. !"^ . r r. S 869 6) Porsoanr a 3-tr singular neutru. - Pronumcle tl erte tntrebuinlat: S 8;3 d, p entru a lnlocui numele .rbiecielorsinaninaie, pe acel al iiinlelor $ 85'1 al cdr or-sex nu este speciticat sau nu intereseazia. precum ,si subst,antivele colecti ve privite ca un tot, uneori chiar qi numele de persoaneconsiderateca abstrac,ti i: t rJn g i hF l. ll, )ou hcar n^ ' bdD " r i / w 6 a s l p rt. Sl e l o nk edat t h.lid Hc caued the d,s. and t came at once. The n?ru addresed tset/ to ihc ia-s k bclorc ,,. i; him would sseli tbef wlcn i/ had an opt ortunity. She iinc; the 'tsnnaD( Ve z i ti $ 6 7 -6 9 , 8 5 , 1 0 6 0 c ) D/ casubiect aiverbelor uniper sonale' refe toarcIa timp, orcme Ei distaal.i: t de{$. lr driztes, i, r.eezcs, h aib, n lightens.t rains, n sleeb, n snows, t, thars, n ,r i s !rr iUv hool/ s dr m /h o t/fi ,,e rd ,l l n !s coneI o f loc k i , , i s p a rl v ' l a tp ,r i s Si ! , dnr . , r i. ' r ' : d o i J u .y . rr." s p ri r. -\l n a t t ide is n. " a / h b s t' -c k b r. 1t is three miles to the nexl to'vn. Ir i s a lons wav

io m v o l l i c c . // i s th r p- weeis inc e ' l o u \1 o l p 1 6 i . s S 8i5 A se compara: 1, ,s [: este(impenonal- pentru timp, vreme Di distan!e)]: t is dark, ir ts laie, t 6 Uonday, t; S 8;6 2 o'clocL, it is lar. t, is a lollg way Thercis (thercarrJ l: esreGtnt) (: se afln. se giseqte,existd)+ su(tntrebuinlat biectul (: il y a in limba franceze;esgir, ln linba garmand)l cind subiectulvine dupd predicat): ?iald is a saden round tle house, Th* be peipre i the ga.den. (v e z i ti I2 5 0 5 ) t y, esle prorultrt lji:1, nneod ljil. svezi a/,i-d pas. al!. rota r. ( 'Sc n s s r am , iiianl r ezi $ 2 ). rV.zi S 67- 6! . 6 \e ri S 1196.

1?6 S 8 57 t d J ( c u v aloar e d e p ro u m n e h o te ril ) c a s u b i eo al unorvrbe i mpersonal e: , l hJ I ppn \ l : s c i n i l m p l ; ) n appears(: se la.e) , / r han, . s l : s e i t r t l m p l s ) x seens 1: se pa.cl (stil lanil inr) t says, n tclh iin d pla), a book' elc ), tl is said (:6e spune) 1, aplears ilai sle Is woried in ihe "litsi ol llav" fa'torv belore /r seemslie wants to b e a nDsrcran. . // lb o a pp pr"J lhbl lhpv \ L r ' r \ : r ig in ll' s J F l r ' i' . m ' J [ L\ d Ln N r r , ' , 1 o, -1r l$ r claxcp d /r.,a vs in h rs !.l ool r po, r r \ ' ( r ' p : . ( n lnL l i n r l l i n r 'l ,p r lr oni. l" no\ . 1, . d, t J l , l ll, . r ' r n \ . .// t- tr :n Ne putem da seana cd verbele de n]ai sus sint impersonale.in caznl de si cu cons iruclre il poateli Lleplasrt' pusah mijlocul fald din iaptul cn aceastd fdr[ ca ir sa ']j'f.'i, l?rbul nepuiirrd fi ljpsit dc sair uneori'la sfirr.itul frazei. subiectul seu: nr Shehas \'orkcd, ;t app.ars, the "first oI IaI" laotorXb'lorc' l rr' n J in ll'" dr'' slr -l Th,v r"r'lr\"q, 'o i rl P l i g'l 1and li r ' js l ' : ool In : - " . -pnrl ' ld ^o \ s58 " Mult construelii tnlpersolaie din hnba ronanir se traduc prin verbul r IjH-i'ifiu . J\in lcubi p'rul i/r limbs "ngl"zi: to l', r unddiarir ' j p 'r n i , i' ad a ,J( i, F "\r. "lu- oaJ ' ' . . ' u p p o i - 4- 'd r l, l' , 1 ,l is Flp' "l-d ' r/ 6 lhoudlr Fs r F i los bf ,/ i' tr,; po 's:b l h n "n s 'Frr I r pb. l ,/ It. is impasible not io lPel erl.Iusiastic or.r ihc last const nction ]fogralnnc socialist countrtes. I. i. r.... a -J It . '' d bd' Lr n- ' lo t s r ldnm br " A lew'o:.1 ago, ir 0ds luratl the.c $as lile on thc ]rlanet Nds Icos 'a@o!cd in in limba englezi, de ceie arixate ln De lapt tnsn. aceste construciii -lin, (h) (S 864). punctul g us$ dJ jn Fopozil;i impersonaleln care il are ln!lesul general de: ,,impre' jurerjle". ..starea lucrun erc de I a sure ;, shall lc weU$rih l'o ul i is wel/ill sith... llo$' lares Li t iares un nume aii\, in spe.ial ca subie ctal verbului,,,c+ S 8ti0 _p/ ci donorbtr predlcatll lrr nomrnauv: 1, iB ten mil es lo lhc nett lown' "$ho is nr'1 'Jr is l/nc."r "1rs a long way io Tip!era.y." \\:har is n. (JonRani)? /l ca subiect al verbului ltr r. + uD nune predicativ in nolninatj' i')so' 5 8$t pentru a sc accerlu{ rclative, construclieintfebujnl,at n 1it de o propozi!,ie un subiectsau un co rpleme.t: /r h I/m. who havc! ron lhe lrizc. lt .ra! orerc l.ial Lidioe6 uscd lo be. \Lho di*olcrrd thal. llrc earlli Llrns round ils aris i; .;; C"p""ri;. I ir: rnd ! ln ro r r n, e dc uons lr ' . t i1l. tIn rm I r.,--nr l . . , " l 'I r '1r ' r r n J . dJ - li t;rrl/rid l""ap i I nl df t u r " r i I r r ' ''u / a r r \ r b1r.: pro nu n' l" l r on, i , r : . "l " i 'r " 3 il : rhis s& Aat. ou antcc'dentul p rorL: Fopozili.i rdrtive se acordi ln nunrir;i ltAodri 'Vob!] i /,i.fur, sat ceh oslovao disl.rls d. armalu g.tuanii, c{ r.ptesalii' JI' 194''

tradusi cu consiruc,tia romeneascd: Eu sini acela carc'' A c o to -s tr to . rt u rd ... . C oPPr n i' P"" d e la (V e z i i i S 2 5 5 " , 'd' precedenrd sau urmdtoare: S 862 g, pentru a inlocui o intreagd propozil,ie ir do, s n l m lllp' rhz \lep ha . bp pn pd t . t t , ! ) l1P ds ,li and had a l FrI bad tin. ot , It l/ i"n l b .k:l'A lno m ' r , h. , odld : t au I Pad n" lud r r n L P l k , : Nati. 1 1, este in senere omis dupd {,s !i t,tan in propoziliile comparati{e In caro it, subict; inlocuieqte o tntreagA propozilie: As lil) hB becn nentianed, dl the candidatcs x're accelied. I sill he lp vo u 4 I r. t s r , / , / lt r ' v it hin ns L' ! ' r ' ue did a; l,r) s.en.d Des' H . er prL "'i -im"Pl n ot " t hon I : t ) ' os Aoat [ a" h: : I '" o l h Orr team were n't in tlainins long.r thaa (i. teds) necessaty. $ 863 il introductiv) ca subiectgramaiical S 864 "I/': D) {numit, Fj prpparotor42 al u nel pr.poririi ;l c;rFi subi.c lugi" a'ra un infinitirr tsuu o 'onslru {ia.u inf initivul); un serundiv (sau o constructie cu gerundil'u1),ori o propozilie in ap ozi.tia lui t: lPh ./l is good oI Jou 'o -4, tikes me rr hoor t. !.t her. $:hen will ll be loss ille /o. us to t2atn thc .esltlt? 1ts tro ute 5u?/rtza. /r $6 .u ulth !o ;. p nb "' ng 1] " . an Put : a4 \ 1r ' ' . \ ^. u h r o r o l " d i n i n g 1r nd n.. s sd rv thot it s @ e l p; ' t h" J ag t o \ p t o t i t P t // orcur"ed lo i'-n r " l; , P an nF "at n. t f t a o t htEh"- tP , l, imDal..ia l to t.ah- hjt "t Doe s , mattcr ahb speths firsl? tCurintel" .i propoziLiila ri.e cu .arar'rpr.' ursive.in .ubie' rplF)ugr." ala v prbFlor al c;roi subi."L grdmrli.al P' P n./ il introductiv) ou lunclie de compl ement direct S 865 i) (preparalata "ia': p;Doziiional p;ntnu3 anunla un 'omplPmp lr dirpcL{un infioiri!. un gF"au predicu rundiv. o consLruCLie iofiniljvul sau . u g"rur,Ji vulrori o prop^zitie directn in apozi,tialui il: cativd sau compleiiv i I lound n hatd ln slzPP \ ra "ou gh l , \r"t ,a t pt t k , ' a , , , v t V J . b ; . , . - 1 1 . H p ha sn r tol :t 1 ltin t o . pDr - t oL t ' . . ., d ^ i lJL" /o" trnu .ot 'o a .p t, 1,.1! \\', , o,..id,.-. She ihinks n'j danscrous ?rotr. saLmmutg tL (g eat.r. t o na P' Poal I lrkp i, ,4 rr h"i r aat "e* I but ir to vou qhllh.r h? da\ ttBht Iric. -; no ll"irs ,", ; b r ' , b"Rt at t a, t d\ ' n t e t 4". t 1 I P a " 1 'r ' lll od. o lr ll' l 'h" t "Lt " ' * r ' t ! r ' t t. .' P\ blt at oat J n '\, rplr o 1 :ttlr t )o Notd A sc observaordinea carinlclrr in acest paLlern : tl introductiv, preoedat direct sau nu de prepozilie.este prs inediat dupn Yerb. iar eoRrplementul , \umii.i i,,,tud ,. t 5. t o , t t - r ! - ; . ""v r p, , i, ' ii1ir '\ o p r 4 ! o z 'r ' u. ,,"n* r" ' Ci (l su6 i".lu l lo;i" d \ "r b, lui, . "JU introdrcl it su conjurclia tru, n.narn de un snbjoncrit, eiLc prfteratf' consiruolir cn 'l S 866

l7,J a$; apozitnrall vinc la ifirsitul froloziiiei: in ri:rznl uriFicompletiredirecte, to cul acst.i se alli la stirsitul ira;e;. j/,,.\il,,,e,1-trnn,,,.,,.r Luto.ti,,tr,. ..,,n.ri",,4 L nrJrlempnt , r, In..pf,;l il n nor 1-cr rare au nceea,li dn, b{, tornrnca ti substan, Ir r-.nF r\. .. ,u dr.t; : trppu,,rt,, ^ '1 lo niakf ,/ lti Y ou' ll c alt J r , r / Notr lor trt To r"d (p. r," t n . 'I-" h ,r, d.,,!J o J r . i Sri\ rJ r, || !a .,rp ilul .,ln \;d r p 'n r t , t , "" i. . Ito \t l tl fs i ., H..s i; ior ir. t . , 1" ,,,.1 I . r i6 r : , r , ' i u . ro u " 5 : t\h " rp o i d ,o u ri c k ur D i .furL I . dn t s ' 1nd ' ' - a ' p i s s D d rteI -,t" -$ ri u " rc ki - . r t , i, r . r, a L .o ' .' p ty .' ;1 " \,trn i .J l : ;... l n n ru /i tu m ^' r , . s , it . : t he , o t You musi mccL himr he's the ..t,,, oi rh. ih.atrB rlortd. irmlo. rantir No Nonder she's a success: shc's goi ..tr,'. iIarn..)1 S t6! : l d" . , h. r ar . r r . \ r J , r,rbi,td 4la. rrJi - rn ^ t.runun -j i \ nr i1, " . ' l or pt . . . . , n t i . / t i - . , JiTpotri!i..a.t.,i. 'r . . ., r,,r int,.t,..utJ F ..i rnL r r a l . .,f ,r ,. -r: ;. P lur alul au l o ri ti ti i :i rl u o d p .l i p i . pronurn" tn Ja r,.rro" nJ I f " .i p l u '., 1 in li' nDA r nl l , n J . i . to , r" 1 !., i ,, ti muJ ngtnz. r.,l " t-. d" .i n,.ut,,r . l u l i ' ' . ir d s o r " l" r i l .' u $ i n trrd p o r.4 d n a s i pq a "(nLrebui nrar de l urori r" ri . .u \Frr ni. . ^n i" r pnr r. ri . a u ro i i .n i ro rr , . 1 , , ., , ,u ;i i n Ii rnoe crgt" " " " " .' verbul are formd de plural: "\e are tut aa,sdd..." (Rcsina Vjctofjnt. ' t d, . , a. 1, , a . _ .p , b u r rh :.k . s .d } l r ,-. a oLpFn. _ j1 . ,I t ' o " - D- r ' r dd . l l h ,l r" . .ta rtg i . n r r, ,. $i .t -" ' .utL ur i l i ," .u." " ... ([l ' S 870 c-{zur, pnoltutrllon pnRsorALD granaiica actuati lace ,I" c.e,r .c pri\este cdzul pronuinelorperson&te, o dcmar catrenetS intre: o) stilul fornot. i:ntrobu intat ai,ft tn scris (: Boal' rngl;s D * sritut livresr : 8?1 si apisrol. rj. r' :i in v^rh;r"r .u1,,'. iolr ald. rrt i rlta. granrdrirlt6: $r b) stiLLn infornal. colodridl.intrebuintat tn vorbirea curntn si rn scrisoS E72 rile sctise in stil familiar sau negliient. _ Totu;i, ac este doud stiluri se suprapun in unele conpartimente, sl,jh: .,olocviatindcpnrti nd chiar forme gramal,icate ( esen,tiale cfolom inlocuit cr: nrr.. sau nominativ ul pronumelor personale1, D, ;re, {rc, rr.g, tnlocuit,cu tor mele de acuzativ Dre jnn. ner. us,in, n 1. lrstlel, formlc coto;viate au crstisi si ,i.lir' rapiJ rcrF n.c; insrilul lornot rorbir. n oara,dr- na.uri si 1nqtitL scris. chiar in cl olic ial. l Conpl-emntnl direct erlus ]a accst !urct esle considerat tn linbR engtezn tn a! 0?i. ' pronumehi it. : ld.scori s.fis c! iDifiaE mniuscula: He txtier.s hitullf

t. be.'11.. 2 A se obserla ir a nfonunFtli .i ,,a ' L .n, ' u : . al hi\ lp rur Jin ". , . n lim t . L nosiml roL, rJJ lb ol Eins Uenr! |IIL fia

a,iest crz Dnirz. far. intfrline nr rorb;e inainrc u rl d o . . hn r i . ' . i o, . d D r o n - , e l t "1 1 t r . ' n. / . - Llt " a , r ' r , . , i , \ nuani, aclsrcr cxpres!. r\L Shakespcafc, 'Ihe Li

tr0 ri r J' ' rr' \' rl' I -, u l r'r pn^/ ir ipr ' l, r pa -r" 'i 'u l " :n ' rr'i rF r ri r -i ,l l r ' rJ Jrr' L-rr' l i H' r' ' .,Ii .,| . . ,1 ruarl r, a .l1, n ulu: ' ' ' , ' ' I , ,; / I . , r n n e si - hi b , r r l" ' lp t, " r" " 1 " - 5 i ' l: \i J-;r ^ r' -I' d t , i" - r " , r ",n e\p r , ele u s I rra r s L t s l n -!tl .i l i rl us e d efi terl Ltl l ri sl i l u]col 01] s o v a li n e se a il de r ;al co re sp ur z elor " i n s l i l l rl g | a $ a l i (' rl l o D rd l l fonLrni el e personal l) l a zu l nor nint t ir . sllii i n ca zul nor ninr l. ir i r u rtn n l o a re l e -s rl u a l l : "c . ,/ ci n d es t e s aDt f f l : / rm xo r s on. !L i, . inr. hNr. s 87;l s 871 {r rir lrrera't of Hamret' i't thr rla.v,/it r)tiilg '{sr -" 8;;' 1,] cinci esle tt rne pt.tlicatir (dupn 1.)l'', acordai h caz flt "\rbiettrrl S ( rt ): } ut lt ' 1t \ t 'rLpt n' 'u ore crr\ u , d e pre' lr .r1 r! irir.i l;i",, i'iii ll is 1 \ iho aJ nl lot r r nic nd' I u m le { ] lo t x t , : s f lr ar g. { ll. r s pok ' w$ r l' \ h' Th i Jou 3 prErt;faiir al 1-erbului/o , se acor(lii in caz cu subiectul verbului ropulati\.: /,,5/i\ S ETlt -.-\' 1' nol ''l l :\ '" I \o fl ' I \\ ,i rer t i\. r ' l l_ n I \, r r 1 ,, t. n ,/ \\L btlj,.\,t '1 lo h " 1' l o.i -l " 1\ 1. _. , : ., /:!o o "r h l :,, o: {". r' ,n .' "tJ I \" \' ,n h'r' \' . n p . e : ori o lorm'rlrr" l' r "l' -* r "' nr u r": iL " r r ' i' ' ' ' ^ r ' ' i' ' " i ;, ; , ; ' ; i;";,; ;" ;;' " i', , " ".t r "'r' ' r ' r'"c ri "., nu"'| p r ' ' " ' r'i' i\ ' r ! " r I " r " i i; " . 1 "i;,;i" ;;iri.; 'u rr .r'r'.r ia Iolrr:i ic uzatirului i; lo'ltl norrinarivduis i,?. sc "i'bintri,x. Itri rerb.sautind rronu nere artl rn i""t" iii'i",;p;,trlii., iiii""ii"l*i"J-'-," '*' ifirtitul propozit

ici: rcspeflali in stiln) fornrLl sL:ris' -{fcastii reguh trebuic r lur"r r''r r'j'rl " '1" r, 'r In lrnld t)orl)tto. "rl: r '- lpl i r r 'e \ i r D A r ! rl H U i r 'l l' r i '' s ll7? , Whols rtroer' (f/r:s) nie.-' "Insleo tor Kr ox l" ": I ht t r m ' r ' _lt l' o "1,'s-on lr I' n s o r ' r ! o ! s " htn ' "see iI ddts r" "iare wants vo" on lhc rhon' " "1)h 'rl "l m rhaiil n tvael't thtnl " 'ill Fish ir t ( d , . . , r r " '1-ou'rc alNa.ts liglitirg hi Br'" -/ls 's or /'t' r 10 1o'l " posesiv: un siu prccclirtl gerundi!. in lo.Ltl unui adjc(:tir r. ;r" , \ l' 1r { // r i;$ o p P i \' " "' ' rr /" _ ci su i teatril . \{. Shakcspcare, ,!z Lil' . lt r:s . ! r . 1r " . '\ \ . n' l '"n l ru , , nur nt s r ' 1r _ a u t* . , z ' i i" P d c . ) uLi 'i r 'r l t 1 n t ^td n n a .l \ t , { dnt nt \ ' |ebo tn6 , nr ii ' o1. ol " ""{iilti,i,}Wlqi*id*j*:}l''il$*:i ! / '' r 'r l ' I 'i d F i r s n i n n o r n _ '-

18C 8?9 "'" " MoRFoLdca - ?RoNUltEr;E Y p' hLLll ' r b' i n-p\pre{ a Cind ins i num e te p re d i c a ti r u a re s ta p P l rr' grr ds i ' ' z ro n u , ) l -,' .' " i ' " J " ,,' ,' i .";;;;" i" ' ri r ' F-n " \' " 1 ' r " n to rml l ' r In mo J n " r1 " l : cu Jco' - i- ' ilL l 1) llt n ^, / lll i. l v t' o orra l l''l" ) lon j t' r' : ). ' I r ' - s me " ro a It was ru rc gi':a thc ea'ftikcf lritt' the kels l/"r''lal) ,r ,p ,l r " I .DL L ) | t dL, I *1";"1 lt hot I E k n a ' |' o l- it ) S 880 '. , az ul nor ninit r \: l : | t alt . t - t ilt .n / " ' r! I . " rl h n ," ' n i 'l r" ; ; ; , i" , l ' n ro " - l l $pl p, C r' :l i " i. ; , ' *'lo"rz //tlil sau 03 apariilr \lnui stil mai ingriiit' Iersiunile cu pronumele st; t; .j a"p., ,- !iir,,, ii, prup"zrliileconparatirre cnreprimul termcn ' oo\' : eor' ' ' ^ , , ri oro' rrrLL ' Jr' l r' :: iTr;;j: {,,::; al the pl{l fc.loc'n,l S 88 1 ' "ut,. H .!nld pcr:onalestin acela;icaz ou Jupi ar .'i lia' pronumele l" F "o,"rr*ra!ir. .n'i.'ri s.'r pr"rrln"l' rr ' 'oFl 'i' Sc ra spunc deci li: "p ,{i.\ sugLtslnrn1tr! Ltr nfur' inteffstifg ihrr }tint rs gold as 4r'r' ?lkt ltno $lcdse .l ltrglilir tim i ratrre rne,r ;;tff tlan II 's 'ah! . . ! . . t: , r ; " . , n,l . ; .r i \' ' r' h" rD rL ' rp ' , o i ;. \",,." "ii A s o . , om P |l r a : ! 882 t kn.\t htr rcttef Ur,tn n' fkrr'ws herl I k no\ t n. / be tl .. tl a n l l k tro (J /' L ' cl & ri Lateda' :d ln c az ul c e\ t i c l e n l d o i l ' a c re m p l u , fro p ozi l i a ar ci ;ti ga i n hlocurior: verbul onis ar l i enfrinat', lic chirr !i Finir un /, I' i n I l. ! o, \ ' . b- | . 1 d i\iczi r 'i S 1918) i'iotilea na exp nrat atunci rlod ditrn de primxt .U doiler vcrb trbuie { 8SJ s ru c i n d i n s u ti a p rb rrl P ' l c a l tul P ropu/-i ti a urmi i odre' del t ' " -" ." ti; , ' ; ' ' ; ; " od. r I p"n l i n l u r;l F v.rl i ^l or ' rrr ' l rl pfl r^: u r;rr ' a. " . . - i' r ut '' ' u miidd l'haa votr at l

iLleen Ue ts at l$'ortX lcss se'ious Cor p. l ' i. t r " P o z i l i s J a i n l le is rl. twenlv lss s.ricns minded thiLnvou c''rd ai' lilteen' r A t enlLe pers r' ral P ent r u a s a c u ro a rs to a z u l !0 ra rt tre } u i e stl 0i }; Iron trrn' l ' { 88.1 o "" ." \P ' o rr' p l " ' b n' onozi Li u Lptbul ' fl t' : dJ ,l u p" " o ; r n' r ' i' " , 4 r,' i ?ne? consideiLim norc ddpctenl tlu sld lco nsjdeN]rin-rl ii,;i ;;i;;i;;; i,'i- ii.i" /@ tlan iuret oonsiderl -.i"t*t c z i ti S 2 t2 41 (V de la S 8so sli4 slnt lalalile ii Ftrtnr subslanti!_"' '-r".".ii "".g"U;i cele 3 O llpsa (Pronumet'ri ftlrti!)' -

l 8l ln stilul colocvial, nominalivul dupi conjuncliile r,hdnti a, este inloouit prin cazul acuzativ, consiructie condamnate de purilti. Se spune totuqi in Siierrlr.Xou.ge.thio ru. Ile is ar nrch tauer than ,r. \\'e a.e a! rrlev.r as rtun. lVcz isi S s7i) dJ Oonctuzie.:in slilul coloct,ial, pro unele personall chiar cind es te ul,ie: rd, iir'.b?ul nomin"ti\J r"- nu.. - d"t"r;ins d"ni"i oprppu/iii". ia. t 1o'ul ,.ominatirului.lorma ecuzeirul rr. u rrrrr-i lr tFr"orn. l..i ll loate p crsoanele: It nas zs \'h0 had been sidEjiAl. \1'! sair him at l]|. corccfli al lcall i thir k iL nas nin. U:c -Uother md Lr -\rnt lor a trial n in or. nNv .af. "I am sorn. I rPsret." -41: nd (exploziv) : ';,1t too! lu. tooIt-r. nDl" (NeE'anaiicitsi tru tologici drr c. i.struei.,pp ,," r.' , 1". m . 1i"., , a ' 1. "r ", 1.in,J r,-. r r r. gir ilp A rJdJ , i",.ar .: i. ar d" o lor m ' I r,-r" '( , d , I rn 'i c r J J rdl n,'"q i l rr p leon. o", I c , ' 1. , d r , . r ' , lu t \ I1 t, .V, r . Toa- .11. ). , g 885 S 886 Dr. P. Gurrey, Readerin Educalion and Head of the English Department in the Univ ersity of London Institute ol Educalion. tc. etc., etc.. scrie: "'fhe use of the Nan Nominaliee form of a I'ronoun fllter 'is' in rrr","edt rcltoquial speechis ' Who is that?' 'Ii's nre"'. 2) Nominatirul vocativ (Noninuti,tc of Addte$) (S 192 ). - Irronunele g 887 este in crzul nominativ vocativ cind se referl la animate sau inanimate cdrora ne adresim: Hey, goul WIat are you doirg there? Mfuties af tuy childhaad $ty do yon comeurwanted? I 3) Caz[l gonitir. - Pentru forma de gen itiv a pronumelor pcrsonale S 888 qi adjcci,ivul posesiv" (S 900). 'Irronumel O f ormd idiomaticd de ge itirJ intrebuirllate Ln NtiluL foart. fan.iliat. | 889 lon sti din pronumeiepersonalin cazul obieeli! precedatde prepozifiao/: You wilt I. thc dcalt' ol mcl vezi I wouldn'L do it ior thr lili 0l ,nc. 4) Cazul obiectiY3. pus drtrt verb. a) Pronumele personal tn cazul datlv sau ecl rzativ osl,lr Ctnd acuzatirul esie un pronume, el prcctdd ln generedatiyul: I g d v r, (1 ^) (r' ) l e " a l l d o "oa I r Jv " ,/ J , .r /" r' . 1 7 , td , ' ul Cind insi acuzativul este un substantiv, el rjne datd dativul pronominal: I gave lf (dal.) a s,aer (ac.). I [Ii tl i n s , or . . i/ , naA .9 0 . , P. C u t i, t . " 1, ; . ; Lt K t .h L , o a a o . p t" . rD Jt'\. r c uz a. iv s iDr c D o :i l ,o n d l !l 9 i l ,R p s u IL .ra m-.i cri rarr orr\ .c.ui ,trr' . 1i\ 11li i n d ,i G aF f p \ . r . , 6ir - s ; t" i rr.,t.o ,,,,n ," e n i \s F n , rr..b.rd" ri ,uJui .,,i i Joe l ,i a . g 1 2 . p nri u tun. rl I i . d:.l l ! nl ru d 'f:n i ii da i\ ul. i. S 1 r0 p n a l o rma " u"nlr u .J-Irn iad, z dl v J lu. S 3 " 7 p n k u fu n " .i i.l ' .r' -l u i ..5 L i l I nl " un i i ni l i J " .,/ .l ' ,i i {l n l i .ba r o' bila. . nd p r.n u ,n h trs l b In a .u z a ri r.5 " 5p' rn un or i i : -l ,l 4l l sendsoz {dat.) ,i (ac.).""Don't you slve ne . (dat.) t, (.tc.)." etc. S 890 S 891

182 Erceplit: Sul,\tantir',rl | pronunele iD dati\. firrl se urmnresle -c\tzaIi\ I'rtctdti jn mod sperinl H,'" tjrarea da'rir1rlui. care este.iJr a|easti s;rnarie. pfcedat, dc lrpozilia t0: I gaycl.Iero,,l ia..i io tur ldafl. not to r,, 1dat.r. D, Dupe pre pozjlii.pronunlelesi,n h cazul aruzativ: S 892 .rbout li,. bI 4.,. oi !i. to ,p. \rilh r/rf,. eto. $ 893 Er ce p li,: Pfepozilia,/ poateIi urrratn lqide un qen;liv: T r ja r.i :h l l d ,/ z i ,c i s a 1\_czisi $ 196l personal in fazul obictiv est e nrlrebuintiat idiomai.ic ln .r.,/ Pronumelo unele irterjeclii din limba vorbit e: lvai: -{delirat? lir lrai spun.:) lv ail v ai de m i n e :) $ 891 de rsnra{n1/s::r.rc{ ir.l) (SdJacarle.acul ti.cll de ir 89.i d/ Pronumele perlsona] in razul obiocti\. este uneori intrebuinlat {cu o n u a n ld des uet n s a u p o e ti c d ) !i c u re c h e a l u i yal oare de pronurne i etl eri r' : I loid ,r. i: Drysclt do$Jr ro sleep. Ef t,ad built ,t, i- li;nseu t a trous.. T he c anar yloo k l o i r i : i ts e l l t n D te . "L'i1]e slars m at hide r/pa ( ihenBel\s)Nh.n lhel list..' \'. shakesrare) $ 896 IOLL-T,PROIITJITDLUI PDBSO\.\I, a, Plfi)umele personal este pus de obnri cit llra ; dproape de aniecePronum"l" ,1, pprr,Hnl . . a th . ,h . ,1. //,FJl oa,r "d-deo ri n"-'pre 1.. ,.'rlu/ii ln.,.p".apirint.,.Tr"L-r"daim'rltiit.nLi, 1.,irtrpb,.rn r"rcator: Ann's Diotlc. mored io Ll$l,c. Nhen sn, sas h kirjdcrgaricn. f\t nrana .ra la gr ldinjl;i ciNl s-a ,l.ai.in Llster. ci .\na. Fraza t.cbrie rcli.uti: astlel: "$'h cr -\m $as iD lindcryirten Ler moiher movcd \i,jk iord tris brortrer d didi L kn ow Engtisl. tsh _, _l\Li lntelc. .i \i.lt er.r rL, larc nr ilia engiezeite.Fraza trebuie rellcria asllll: ''Nicl<said to Lis l'rclri.r: 'I dor't know nnglishr,, l P er t r u ac elas jmo ti \-. p ro n u n re l e p e rs o n al de persoana a:l -a nu l nehui e rn tro dus ir t r o pr o p o z i l i i n a i l te c a a n te c e d entul l ui si fi l ost menri onat: .." rt t! .d D " o .o . d 1l L " ro 11 " r \ h n r ' a{ s. . n l l .ql o h;n. otr ' l "p " ,, PromLmdc de peNoana 1 singul ar'. cind apore jnsolit de pronumele care se refer:'r la celelalte personna sau la un substaniir. na lr"erdd, ci urmeazil ,1un as \dl ls I/m.r hlls to go al oncc . Io a a n d l rn e a re fri e n d s // and Iile cou. lo b.eaklasL .arly. s s9? i 898 i ri!rrl La piur al. or d i n e a e s te u rm n to a re a : $ e , aou, * eu: lt., ,,, rnd hare nianJ tastcsjn cotudrn. 'tuV

PIiONOU\ '{JD ADJJ]CIIYE) {ITIE POSSESSIVf, P0SDSIV . Pn0NUIIELE$I ADJECTTVUL s grxl S 1)ol imz $ ll03 dord lorrre tjfrriti\ul pforumFlri personat.are' L) lrcfini,tie !i rornll. i rrr r "dl' ri"li re lJp'rivLl n^ e'iLr' r, pr- p' -'it , r,, numi ll' {p o 'i:;",: to"J'r1s; f""'iu t,',1",,,t " l^' Iunui 'uh'"n'i\'b'| "r' 'lhrscoat's mr'' determ ini ur sub"qtantiv intlicirri ln acela;i timp ;i ,tdjectitul posesit' Tltis is D!/ (oat - .".n'i't nu"itut,'i'' ,,,"":,:":iliil:l?,'lliT;i'".i.,1lii'ii'""$xLt"'iii1f,:Jli*'" t""'ilj;*t""" sint urmdtoarele: !i pronunele posesive s 9o4 I! ls veDs Ii is tu. dog Obser p&!LL ,.,"s{,1.x1?"iil?:Yill'{ii';*?':l:Yi?;lii:";'#"11 906 bJ Formolorp.ri al' sdj"crivuluipo'e:iv ra;t" -si/i;,?P"rnl inlrFbuil.!dla s orr subslanlttelnr adJerrrve_ dupd un \o.clit sauinHinlcs modernO in onei"za po atic' sduarhaic5 .du cu un t. panr a dd o nuan1a ru i;. ;;;,;, ;r. ;; "' " "li s tilului: r nt n I os l n r FonlJs o n t n r l " 4 r n " ' ntn p"\,s,m i, "aa" Ftr rai, n -\'', Lddv m ; t el t hi " eJ ' " t ht lc h c d t t oqn t dJ | \an l lo do ll"nJ " in dir P I dd $ "1 ' or n"d bY m ' r ho: i: al neu s i dl ilu) . ij , lt , e i: Ce F aL m eu e - i i r l U u l . s 905 produmolui al adic(livuluipoqo'iv' DeodrP- fronumelc 2r IBtolosul $i p"*[i'-.;-o .a l' io tirn6uengt-a-(u subsrrntitul cdrcdPnume:r," * .,f i- i'i,-r' ';".;;;;;i ' ;1; se traduc !n limbs rom;nr'u roarelronu'nele sal ad:trrrv'rp Ind'lorFnt oc pospcorulur' io."siv" rehri'oar la p'rsoano 'orespunraLoare pospdst Spre ex'mplu : obipcLului i""J ri "r*a*t nir ' { - sl n ru d 1 r' a i D d i a r Ddhl r n" i. si- 1 l l o " , I l n r, a i l u r' rl " l o r) l: tiu. ta, iei' iale) "olr ;ur i: noslru, nrasl.ri, noitf!, noastrc) Lc' s e07 i ',t"r* g, *' t i, , t l ' ..' S r' "q i :,,r llr . r , onu, n "' T . rd' l m r r\ p o " s i r n u ' e ' ' i i ,, ts 9i esi.s fornil cont.sl' ntr trn loseBrs' ni ' i oddtl ns' dn l r' ' " Jmnr

184 Natd S 908 Ca ii in limba romand. Dronumele Dossi\-DoAte dre.{ si inLelesul d e ..lamili..'udc. prie'eni. sau ..propriouare-: H e { i l l a l (d 1 5 ,h 1 r \ fv L i rd r ol ror and u-. .. I m' (- n o i l ' :tt0 rr' o , i e t* e e i n;i c ana 18." . (Pentru S 909 i n g F n. num J r s i . p e F o a n a . .u q u b s ta n l i v u l .src dpnu.n,q tp poseeordl .nt -,i ''u obr p,r ! r l pn. oJ d l . .,r' ' .a a .o r,l ; l n g o n .i nu.u. tn l i mba fomend: Me has lel chitd: ii. is n,.r. Da a.e coDitul cii este al ei.) t/i? nas i"t chitdren; iiey are t.rs. [Ea a.e copiii ei] stnr ai-i. ) p s i p ro n L rrn e J e o s e s i v l ,e r" .re speeti v l rrs. si nt l a D e rsoana a [ { dje. t ilul 3 a leminin singuLai i.a si pose-sorul sie; ele nir stn U acordate !i c'u obicctu) p u s edat , r / / d, c J r e .rp n p u tfi r ;i , i n p ri m u l oxempl u, l a si ngul ar, i ar i n al d o ilei la plur dl j 4) oaz. - Desi pronumele Dososil rorezintn genirilul Dronumelui Derso nal. . l r ^ " t ' z ut p ro i ./,,i ' l F p F ;d e , IJ p c ;ru t ant" :i de.rtul ui saul d" .rmi na. d c r olul ju. ht dc ;l j 1 p ro n o ri i i a d i rr ra re fr"" parte rvazi si S 826) j ' Itz a (pron.,nom.) rs . will x on lend . l a u N a t (a d j .,a c .)? t: ny.o4, (D ol l r.)] t t at h?, a tl .j !ro ... Iom. i s d g,dr re.to..,bi t,v. lh, . l d r.r," r' i \ / ur , t s Nv lpo r --g v . l /s o r /a d ..d " t. s i -rri nst" " .brt tr,.J;n\;/r... l t'ron. , dar I lns l i o t.s . AdjFctirulu i pospsi\. in propozilie este dtorminat de rolul substai,-C0zul l i vu lui ( . nu Hl p.h i \" l c n t.l u i o " ^ l u i J t p p trnqr .1r^ .ta ri , u cdrp formpa za tm r up s int o. t i. . { \p /; pri n " \e m o l p l e d e ri r,r " u-" i l d i " a. " ur.i r..1 I ' r . bf ^r gl zJ p p a d .l i d e : ' d \p )o ,.i o' yo," . p.on.. a..). r et-s ook Jr t;s (pron d.. r l- r r b r n ||' ,u .rh o ., r.rJ t .. , p " p . : d l tf!f. Lo$. - r Nat il . T h" t . br o b. r /,..s r rra r" l e s , F tr Jt .i i e.,a un dubtu g6oi i i r. \ r r p ex em pta :" / I m r ai nl , ,l ra " ' ., .a rri .t,n J .a t l .u T h' . o bu .rn .. a l t" " ;.. ... -rL N. t , ic t , r r . / l i (.,s e \? r r, j r.t.d br.i th ; Hansi ns eommi ti ee.l N i ci un radou y 3) Gen, numir gipersoani. Promrmete adjectivele qi posesive acorde se adjeotivele posesive ln spocial, rezi 5i g 817, 911) $ 910 s 911 s 912 $ 91 3 { V e z i , p e D i .u d e ta l i j , S 2 9 4-196,:esl 5) Adjctirul posesivfzie Passestiae Adjp,ctire ). d, -{djectivuiposesiv insole!le intotdeaun'1ut' subttanltu nr gerundie: san This is mr./ stsrer.I ' subst.t Do ).ou mird my smahin1l (+ seNrdiv) ! , J Ca or ic e a d i c ti v 1 n l i m b a e n g l c z a ,a Jj ecti rut poscsi v rf,c,' da substan d " F fi ,,i n i . n u l l ,rfl ,' a ,,d ,r- i n l i rnbr romJri o: !., "F 'i t,rl , ,., a l T. (Aceasr.n e;te pilirin nad.j IlaYe i'ou patsd /oh crarn iJr maths? /7 ,-a ' l ,r(u t e x a me n n l { l raLcmal i cl ?)

PRONUMET $I 186 livclor cu tumlic dF $ 9Il lnlofuies' arlifolul subsjar .) Adiectirala Doscsive I .rr; denumoicpdrli olPtrupului 'su oPi"alpd( inbd inintP ln rFtF' subiF arli.o lul iolnrir: lalrF .azuri sF tnrrebuinlpazb S/@shook 12. head I askcd goa to Put on Y'zr coat' Se sp u n e lns i: I took tu' bY ,nE a.n I oar nover'look ntfu in tfte lace agnin They thnmpeil /,tm on rre n ack. (Ve z i!i S 5 i i I d / so Hr , ic o i, , s pp" i d l l F nt l Tr b a 1 '0" *ii . d rn li; beer ili r n e a c c ent uat e: 1 lnt on tu4 coal. 2,"";"r,;;l r' ;";.i \r $ " nn / , ' . l" : nd' ' : (\., . n " d f 1 |- ni H. took oll nt! hat F n l ;d a ' ,,p rd Ir-o n ' /i ri i l at i n " ' r^ odi ' ' i f" l " r' 0 d u r l n l i n b d 4 ' n sr; Iri n Iorrr' ' dP ddt' JO(. elilitro ha{c leli lor tlie Pioneer' Camp fre au rlecaL copiii in tab;lra dc piodie'i r c \" I' / rn ,/\r_ d p i d rd ' rr i u" I ' ' i ' I havc paid m,/ shr.e. fMi-an rlrlljL paltea.) S 9l ; c) lnlr'o enun(.rare. adjcctivul posesiv nu se repcti inaintea liecafui substlnt iv dectt perrtru clarificare "(au pcntru accentuatc: /,' d b d - r hu,; ' ud II' .rnotmL ',P p. . . nb"i na. eo " l 'n rprq d' 1ii ]] r f,r"tJr,.n 4 or" , . . u, ! 40. r f i. ft dn d 4 :. . t r t ;'n 1t . . .." \ o rJrer uJ r ' nd \ ' ' ' /Ir'.-an da ll"i o& p o.p .i!. s r F bdp. ei ; r nl: l d F ' u\ r n r u l \urp.ri\L l // S gl{i I D r a p t i u 'r ' S 917 ,dn inrrFirp id'"' no "sirul,ri rPsn".ri\' J-r.1t" nu '' rr"Ju ' inrold"lund tn lirnbfl rornnni: "TIe aii.l's Ora Boolt.": TheiL iltcrests are mr otu (Inl.tusele lor snrl ii alc mPlc) Llo m-r ,0a .ookirg. (il11l,cseshRr'm.l slrc makes |o 04? dfcsses (lli fuce sing nri ro.hiil-" ) L,r Adieriirul Doqesit gpru r-iirul. P r,"u ^hrirFrpdu 'ri 'rrl l pids' :i optu dr\' tn limb" p"r slezev' rbul prcdir.ti' ' Inlu'u: .rc ad'Fori 'u rr' formaunui adjectiv posesivsau a urtur pronume stn p Iingn care"sribiectul sub persolal ln acuzatrv: r Do vou mind lf I smldr deline: 1 Do you mind /y snaltzsl i r r i, , uo, . r . ' . " 4 ., /o " th " tr' \t' tte q 1 wi llo. r . r t ' t" . : ' h .' r ro i " " ' / 't-ri n ": (\tuzi li $ 9l ll oon S Clq DO iIT'4.RINE s 919 NEfLEXIT $I PROT*U}IELD fiI, PNONUMELE GEn riEFr,o)ul-E AND Tm n]IPHATTCPRO:{OUNS) 1l Dcfidtie, - Pronumelecare, tntrebuinlat pe tinge un ve rb activ, 5 92{l arata'ln prin;ipiu cn acliunea"exl mati de verb se rdsfringeasu prasubrcctului se numeqtePrununerelkrLe. (s"'1fii"T:l"Til;i]" The Ba!\

runeori adjcctivul ,au calain o nuanle alectili prDnnnlar!: Mv awn btuth't ! Aen Baak. care vremu,i, avea pe.echea,esrectire roareapreciarpe ii ",sreze

186 $ ,21 Pronwnele rlc t,?rnn,'. in-rolaltF antererlentul pcntru aI acccnLua. 2) I'ormi. - Prouunl rcfle\i1. ti pronuorele (le intnriro au nceea!.i fornle in lirnbr elglez i: m \* l J { : di r L o x l s e lr : i er l { I | I 1 { t : i nsnmi : : : : : : l " 9rj Insar in rsi iNiii insgli Dsa;r ( I Pl. linRu (: s) lrersell(- se) Nrtrd iiserf {: {l ' our*lvs ( ncl ]' o u s l * s r= rri ) ilEnshas r= sl onseu (: r) i I I : biine : nr_si ri i I - l'iqrI - tns'tl : ir$!i s 922 Pronulllele refleriv ! cel de iltdrire slnr sinqurele prollume care. ja peNoana a 2 a, eu fonna de ,singulal'dileritir de fcirma de plural: iss.l Jousef - lp] ) r'ouse1.., J) Pluralul dutoritnlij $i al Iotitctii. LI 'i lronLm.lp rp cnu 1rl, ." relers]3, s;r:&fd pprsoal"it,tur.lL, au.!. rflSrii :i polite,iill. rorma rFfl F\i!d Fsr" ,rA4l qi ,rc,ns.tt inu o"r.t,,. "l !i'e oz.rcry belicle this to be ie rnrh. Ion sa'd so loLru.4, Youf }lonour. (curinte adrcsare judcontoruhi.l 4) Pr inrilslelc funrlii alo proo m0tui rcflpxiy Fi atc !ftnrunrrtui de ixri. nrc. - r n i,trjnli \rpmp.p'onu1.ta rcllFr,i\ ,r.f,lI a cipj, dt o i.rrFr uin.dr. todrler ;jpindild.i rpdi."rirnrnrtori".Frecarrru,irLrl e.ri.rno.lesrrr.inrret;in lare. D ro u'l alor d, po..o,nn l. 1 .ru a, . liin4 .o,rqidord,p !". er! LJ to Jorinld d \nrbrrorulri rl".r .. pun" in p!iJ"nlj. fi, .e. ,ti-)porfir". ,,r."/ rrrn4un .u iinr n rr | ,n: t i,, pntu0,.,tJ .rilulDiur aopp.trai t^,r t.," , drn 0lle morir p p^.ibilp -, rr\ tul tn vll -" or.s de, azi.ri nre" rnutt "ud" f.]r.,,1i.,"r ln '1 . Po "nalpr',rlo\iv nI rcbuiei"to,ir ca .rrbe i, ltoiler ard 1/e fnr inlseli) hadrca rogethlr. Pronumele rellexiv sen-este: aJ la fornrarea cnnjusdrii r.fk::c iw a vcrbelor,: ,, a,d '. l\ 6 b r . l! \ ir I '.to v .Tl' n mDr' rla o p. 1eo i . d s t ' , r l n.IidPd sing trd.l \ ld 4t t f . 4/ \ ' , - L 1,,," ,t , I d., ,,.. id., s 923 s 921 $ $25 ,d L) rn ",F,,; - rrppo.:,,:. p.-"pJ. I dn onnozrr:i. 1. "t,.,t;.) n/ $i /rr. pr nnunFl" -rl,p\i\ xr" ln1"lFtt ,1c ...in;ur.. dar.u ;u1 ," nit-r e l,] a ." // s in; r n"r ' . ol I s ". r n, J . Lbl | I c am e dt ll |J L) r D. \ , \ n. r i . 1! r , 1" t ot _ n"i . o t i Sh-" did it n! hcrclli. (A lilout o s jngDrii, DcajutatiL.) d. nim".i,

" \ ez i il $ 1i; 0 .

SI PRONUIIILE DE 'NTARIRE r37 ot oz6.lf l: sir(tr.. de la snl The cdD c.ackedd/ tsaf (Ceascta o.llai de la sinDi lor o n * J / f : s ir ! : , r ( t u In s u l i c L l l l;".;;j " / . . , , , " - " r r rp \d - i a r o { i o ' ,l d ,n qi -,-a' .' i ' ,,,.r" -.o' ,nr,.!jl"i ,' , r i o rr' l r' ' r' l r l n l " r ' L : \.1 . . i- r ur \ or r" :\" f- ,' "o ' r" i " Cd. dhe prcpozilii: IIe k.!i. hinBdl r, itnt'f. She cadc & n..rall lSia rclent ) \Yhat .rre rou dontg oltk t!.u'setl lr:orbeqie1int.n iinrftr insrilijin nu.rc lc lC-" Iaci asti{ea.d?l i rootr iL Lrh ,m$tf to o o n re n . tL e m e c l n rq . (Ii mr luat sarcina de a S 921; c, Pronumole ale intirire tste intrebuinlai pentru a da mai mrtltd tirie dnui su bstantiY sau urui Pronume: TIer hcard the ncws lrom ihc witness ntnr.l/ lAri anz it resLca ohia. de la martor') I nin it mysctf. (-\m fiirut_o u lnsumi ) \Vhen in Ensland. I p.eld to \Yashmy clou,es nyMf al a launderetie'. ralher llim Iule thm $'6hed al a lannd.t'. reflexir se lntrebuinl,eazd I 997 5) Functiilerronu rclui relle\ir. - Pronumele rn g.n"r- ,rn sobiectul: p;lp n"mp pr"di ari\ sdu Obj t' ,i la s."Fdii p'Foani ' u !n' {as not lefs.r/ last nighi. {\d c Ir.Pdi0.rtili Eob I\rtL hinretf- (Comrt. d ir.) -He x-\" ]"i% .tt d mr, , nl I r I { Co npl ' nd "' di" rh ; n ,mba- r o h? ""t t . t c ^apt . i-[ f r al $. d o adr r'u_ l o 'i'h o l d lo n a r 1 : 0 s t 'o r a I ' os s h" J' p& r. rliJ rr'a r /,hrp .4/, r r. lr d ' 1ana3 r ' J " or poz i, io. J l r : m p $6 J mr' rv lco np ' p_ l o r , r o l r r L ( c om ll "Ho ' n' . . l/,e hou!,, h l.s4 /: i ,, ,ipr ,,/ b . .nnt " I ^' , dr onJ' tt. r"h; L.omt rnlo.ul .alli p.'qonrlppnrI-ud:nc\irdsmbigurldlca 'FIle.\ii.-LFinlretluinls prop ocreate atunci cind folosireaunui pronume personal ar da un alt in-teles zi!iei: \'as prefer.ed nPrscn 10 Sr, k@w that na' datrshte. ' lrr .d lrr"r '' ii 'r'r lr . r . al- r 6) Pronumeleroflexie cu raloare de pronume Persoual. Pronumele S 9'lS f"wa! prefeued to l,er" ar li insemnat,,era prelerati unei alle persoanedeclL :r celeia la care se refetn subiectul".l 6 was as caDable htms.lf -aiir r.other cr{ tot alli de crlabil ca;i Fl \ (Frutele sau l'as /r" s ar fi relerit la o alti p ersoanddecit aceeade al ciirei ffate eravorba.j shc asked nc to look alL{ nJs.J/ (lli a centt si am griji' de mn'. 1 sn aibe ea grijd ["She askd me to look after tr." ar li insennat:.,\'ti a cerut de nine".l C ind confuzia nu eslc posibili. sc intrebuinleazn pronumele personal: Hc srve nd tle nPPl.s. \fc sa w it m in lhc s tre e t. l lduz.tz.rtc : sDltutotic cu aparatcautomateundc lnblicul hi spale ii calol snt gd! d " " ! l u l s tn ' o d rd l or i t t rll",!t'n l .u l ' pi" ir . . . . Ilr 'q i rp .r5 a u (5 ir n tr" p o z i r' o n d r ::or. 'co .n n ; m en

188 S 929 7) Pmnumele refleniv tu comparotii. A se observa qi tntrebuintarea pronumelui re lle\iv cu valoare de pronume personal ln conparalii dupd lilxe, than i as in loc ul pronumelui personal: Hc is l,ol-hcaded li.td n?s.n S " i. mu t' \aut t tLA" n J,tf. T'r' S 930 . ..u..t. r.ia,il Fntiu: "1 slaq" in loc dc r'l ;ndrc n?a.f". -\c,la!L 1 loc de "l dBs /r/sl/" ctc. i\rezi ii ,,Dinie7d .elle\ivl,. I ri76l. 8) Iipsa pronumeiui rellexir-. - In contrast, cu linba romend, tendinta limbii e ngieze-este a tnhi,ura pronumele relleriv acolo"undeacestanu esie dc necesarpent ru claritat0a f?azei. \irbele reflexive stnt aqadar foarie putine la nunnr tn lin ba ongleze.Chiar lqiunele yerbe cu formi retlxivn, cari au o rirculalic mai nar, F jnt i locuite de prlerinld cu o {ormn aliernatild intranzitili: ''| ,,,t | 1r ,r, rrir_ "r'n,"J .i |,.th-u,f... "I drcrs', tI '" nn 6 ( "ad s n) r "e. . os a' - . . t r . S 931 9) ?ronumclcmoiproce. in limba rom6.6, u eori pronunele rcfleriv nn a.ai; o fclj unFcsfc!e rd\fringc asupra subiectului, acliunireciproce ci a dou; rdu n "i nulrF .ubiF. .. Tn a .Ft .,/. limbd "n-tFZj nrr mai rrrrpbrin. ,ea zd pronunele relle\i.i, cr ptunumele reciproce, ctLreslnl urmltoarelel eech oth0 r cind este vorba numai de doue persoanesau lucruri, sau de o actiune rciproci ln tro doud persoanesau lucruri dintr-un gmp; ono another penlru mai mult de doLri pcrsoane sau lucruri: Thts t$'o hierds wjll nol sce.d.l ori"/ nsain lor a lons line. (C!i doi ieteni n u se vo. dai redea mllliL vreme.l I n o . ' " ' . 1 \ p ," ." J r./" or.,. o J r r,.' ' o . ri ,.. r .t t !' rl o :r" sdu d L p, ' u. r a , r !. .,1 ,. ' ' , ;, lr i l , " ln " .o ts | rr.ri l to \' n tI co ,o,ri t on. N i LUi. , , F y u; .t u ti rr.rtro ., r.h i ra n o $ h ,' 1rn N i qi i qu si gnraD renbccerea.) Not d Onc anotho esle rdeseari intrcbunri.rl si pentru doui persoane sau luorurr: Siie nrd L,,r broilrr arc lor fir\n ol ant: an thq. rlusbard .dd Ni{e (ere siltins N a. rnc alalhn. A s e c onp& r a : Ther kncw /lanvl.s. (Refleriv) t 5. " , , u. r ea tp e ,i tn s i tr).) T h. r t n,\ . d /. o ,l .. i r.i ,.o .. d o .i p " " .. o, J tSe cnnoneau (i1tut pe ahrit ).1 'lhel rnl kncN one antnEr \tte.:itrot) n{i nult dc doun lc.soare) LS e, unoit P { x a & r,l l l .l qi r e\pri ms' p i ,l i ,!i rn n Ur . " l" r pr l" , u i r l i nb,.o..n. ^il p Lr " z r \,rh ' ,r,,' ' tru,ro c a rp .,p o" " tS Jl l : l i mL" n in nunF l]'e,.r jn ujr Darl<.sdd a l. w {ords. slorl l/ids and Da.tcd. (Nc'an hnlniL in pot:, z az sp,s cifera ouvhte. ne ttu siins nita ei nc-amd.s-

S 932 S 933 O bse r a a !i e Prepozitia puneinaini.d pronurnelor se reriproce, tntre elc ca in limba nu 'lhc.t t.\ll<rl Lo .Le aiotker. lvoibeau un1 cu altul/lDtre ri.) Tl,.\. couldn'L rt.IL hotr edcl. .thd_ lNn_ sc lutcau desr)jir1i unul de altnl.l

5I PRONUMDLE DE TNTARIRE 189 sau adicrlivul neboltrit. - Panlru roflexiv !i prr,oumcle l0r Pronumele pr onump lprefleri\ cora'ounzdiorf r^nu"rFloli cdjF'li\ alor n'horari F \'zi s 4145-1151. " in llr 0ne.plt. intrebui0lare. un:1[PrF inLrpbu;nLJl ]"sBluri 'r 7'o heoe Lni ts ivell doDe,a? mu$l do it oaacry a is ?'o srcdl at lensth ol ozes.// bad nanne .s Eihi;!: b! aneself is the besi *ay lo see a c.urtrj s 034 s 935 ln "onlrH.t rollo\ir ti nl nronum.tuiJc l0iirir.. t2r Locul oronumolr ri pn ',pz H cu limb" rom.rru.1n dra p'onun "la r"rl"rir pr. - ta r^rbul. rr, lin,b rellexi !' se pvte dupd rcrb: lronumela I lurt rt u / '/sil|| rh 1/-d r -i r , ro 1 d h. \\' '1 - J " F . ' lo"el " . m ui. lr ' l lo r l _ b n I 'a l s 93{; Pronumelo dc intlrir0 "<ep\ne inediat llald carinl&l p: care il ittdrclt: I n"sdl f rvroie ure rvordsflr tl,c song rDtr-t;dDut arn s0ris cuyintclc on,tecdui l him *l[. He had rews ttom Unde fnt'.t {.\ avtrl rc;ti .nidl de U ut.rhidl Vin0entiu l U re o .i I r o r m " J . r" rrri ' a - a r l ,,r' ,i r-t" ri l ' ' ' r\i nl " Ji l ' ri r. ' l i n "n r ' -rl i t rF -dl ",l i a .El ' i t ' r ' " " , r . i ,, l ' ,r,.,,r' ' u c u ,:rrtu l p tr"t r' - l ' ," r l l , _ ' i a rr\' I |, l Jt"{../ " 11i l p p ru i o ' ' r'r,. I lJ rf r. r lr " ndd dojp l h ,\, 1 .- y \ " n t: r' .t.^L-stl (t','lc!sc e:eruiliilc .hre thiat de rrolasoarn) l ' o n l u ri i l ron.rrn.l " J" Inl ;ri r" ' i | rJ " I Ci rrd n op, r i i' i. lnqiur ' . jr l i, e l': l " ri n ,r' :i ' J i i i ' 01' ru .r- I rnl l 1' o ' - r "'"r-i -l " ' cu deosebire preleriin ln limba ! orbitn: t .lin it nleU. {tm lilctl o 4. t'rtn, l Ih.! \rcnt thete thtusele^. /Cria. dt s au d6 acoloI /Fm,4. !lj. tired id the |loctr oL rlals st had desigtrcd ll-muia in blo l pe (am .d ,nsrift il lt orciavi l , \ pr r Li_1, , lr , r ri .' ] L 5a \\ \1 1|Y fu. s , / i-\n vlzu fo.fti al ! e Uar ia. ) I sr\ llrr\ nrnl/. s e37 S u:lt I\'. PR0]{U}IDI,E ;I ADIECTIyUL DEIIO\STR]{TIY oEn DDlroNsTridlrlE PRoN0Il\,1-\D,{DJr lTrIE} S e3e inlocuiclt un substantiv (sau un S gao I\onnnele dt)/)lonstr.ltii, 1) Dcfidtie. p reciztndui toLodaLi con-tiechivilent al actstuia) erprinat sau sLtbinleles, nutu l in sFatiu sau ln irmp. std pe linei un substantiv (sau un echivalent al S 941 A(tiectie l d.emanslrdtlr pentru a srita locul ocupal,de obiecl ln limp sau in s pa-tiuill raporl acestuil) cu vorbit6rui. Pronumelc !i adjecliv{te demonstral,iv ese acordii ln numir cu subsirntil_eie la care se relerl. Pronumele demonstrativ e slnt urmitoarelc: S 942 2) I'ormi,. this (these), rtiat (\hq.), same. suctt, stchtitt, e, the 14u.r. Ihe fi4t, the h sl, th. other (the aherc)' the fond, one (an4)

1OO MOFIOLOCB _ PRONUMEI'E s 9tB \ 911 "' ' demonstrative pronurne celelalte Cu eroepiia lui so fi,nc (anes).Ioatt! r;r' Lt" n'hn*t"o'ir'1 ru' li 'i tti' l' ' l\"?i a\"n,rl l" ii lr"qu .F I ld ria.dr' prnn rrmri fdr'F.o'^'Lm'i rralrrc rr'/r !.6r.it)l ar-; -P2t.837. i .r p" r'r sJie riI rp dpn'n ' i) R;0;h;"4 edi;cti\trlui dcmonsttatir' - Cind adjecLivul denoDstrati v bar' el nu nrlt; sribstantive unite prin conjuncl,iile .ln'J sar'L a"t".i';'l' "1"j sc repctn inninter fietirui substantiv in partei lh' ror'l ?nsd bovs arrt si .ls \tant to "oss *a3 nisi,r ?na, Thc atnaieur P rYe.s were Lh. s' ticlds ' _-'tl., btt IiiinfirSs sellllir"s "r a fe srldom lountl lt-1"j,liili, l;t,11",#;.;" u., r|,orL in rhe ":lg:,.-bl:i "., THIS (Tl]trSrl), TII^T (TIIOStr) .IDJECTTI''1 Dtr]TO\STRATTIE) s !{t S 916 .'his (TFONU]IE S\U 1) Furctii. mY look This (thes(i)' rhar (thas') pol li pronumo sau adjctire: LProa l ?ft'sa arc mI .:rl; ?h6? are nl.vsns iPionl. . , ii.j iJ'-r''s"" te-".] ?&'s' boxs nre dv sons l-ldl 'r itur a,,r is tlai.i '"r "l". rezi !i S slsr (I'enin ndje.li{c ! '1tcnlt. C.r\ rnlul thdt dre parru trrn' ii ptrn'ilrlp: d,tia1tu ien; sraie e aeela.acer' cer, acea a!ea' ;i ;;i; p;;;,^" ";,, iotdeaunaldetl': tea), f ronunJati fia, is ml' bol ?ftdr !&e ts dr'e' i,i,,i.'r'-.*iii". t-ra;.i iiii" 's 7/..rcbooks'ar.mitr,: (-{dj'l hoolis (Pronl b) prcnntlt rel.jtie (: carc), ptotlunlAt [o'eL] (forlrla tare) lilat 'tl (forrm siabd): do4 thc laFrs \cff Niling about Thi6is ure loundcr .) nnjunxlie (: cn) ptonunl'atn ld'ell forma iate (rar inLrebuinlatn)' l6atl lorma slabn: He |ind me tna, he had |een lhcre (l) ad')crb(: atit de). pronunlai irtoLdeaunr accentuat [6eL]: 'l'hc sro\t Nas /n.r high ia.lllnd inellid'"i otr mloal S !rfR Zr -Formi. Uetr.\umnr.(az. " 7t'+.tl, . '/,r/ '/,o "uo'in:ur;forfl' pnlnla cenuriteir .azu' rle': ele nu sint dilerenliatedecit in . ',"',t;;";i; irrmirului: itti{ ,,,,

{ li:l ::::!:,, ,,,-, r*-r { liij r"')J {li:l il:::," [ruu:t{lou:] 'o'""i li:l ii:ll .,,.,t oo : tI tB; I ', il,' L" grI llil 1 ," 1fr'r ! lrt I ", L tr i :l adj,'.litel,tr, rezj I 8181 ' tt 'a t t L 'l t (r' ) I tr'"- { ii:j {l,en|.fl, tNdu&rea : f ru nxnlir dr t r t n io nc pat r r az r ir lP oJ r " 1i' 0", ". r ", ' - . ' , ' "' ",.',;;;1 1" e ste lom ' at s t c u pr . poz u, ' a t o' 'Datilx1 ,o,.: .jnraloaP adje.ri!. nun{arsax ste d. ,"., PSI I ,lllilillL,Ti.x!,{l'1".,,, " r".'""

l 9t 3) I tret'ui lare. s 9{9 (ttuse) inlocuics.j sau deterrni.i ob;ecielrpropiatejn tin,p sau u) Thi: spatiuin raport cu vorbil.orul: depirtatejr timp sa.r that (th osc) obiectel spatiu in raport cu r-orbilorul: Tinp: Tntr t-. Iinc Neathcr oe dre l{ving. (Prczcnr) a. lhc rvcatlcr (. iad li6t Snnda l iTr.ctrtl ?'no, "rdr rill De iine! (Viitorl Thxe arc \a! remarks. ll'rPzentl I hasc iete t\is Nords. ilrtutl I shalt tatl to rlosa preseni. lviitor) Sp a !i a W ho js , nl- " ? (A !fo p i c ..). \\:h o ' s ,,l a rl (L retarLa.e) / iu t ' r r L ' y l ./ d o o r;. J o .. D p . " r .r ' n J to $ -!. t@ p d p i " | i . th d." .\' .r. ' pr ol' r " rlcri la i,imp, demonstrativelc this, thesc sirt jn gene re lgate Cind se de lrcrent, iar that, those .le lrecut ran de t)iitar. Cind se r eferi l,r Fpaliu. demonslratirele this, thcsc desemneazi numai obiecte din imsdi ala aTropilr a lorbitorului. obiecte pe care acesta 1 porte atinge. Cind tnlocuisc o propozilie sau parte din aoeaslia.this, theEe sini in gerere intrebuinlate tu mai jn c:rzul irt oarc curintele Ia care se releri precedd ine diat sau urmeazi 1n aceeasi fraze. Potrivit acestei reguli, ioarte adeseori in limba englezd se i ntrebuinteflzn lndt f*oseJ acolo unde limba ronAni {oloseste demonsiraLivele opu se,,acsta' , ,, ac e n sta " (. , ac ef iia' . , . ac e s te a " ): ?/'a, Nas onr decisioDat tlic lirne. lAceasta a last hotlrirea no{sili ]D ac.l non|Di.) fld, was a lortrighl rgo. lA..asta se $tretiea acuri doui-rsliptnmini.l Is rrzr all l he lrgga8e }ou a.e iakiig? L, t ^ a- n to , i i i .l l . l i"i ' \\-1,all r}inl , ,nr l.l oti (n,dim usrt l.I ?ra, is ny opi[i0n. csn, I irna nica a-.1.errro lvha t do yon Dean bI ,rar: icc $fi s,-L su'i cu dadsru l, -\p l i ra rc a r c E ulii r l m a i s u i , 1 -a l a b i l ni n o a re fa re nl i suri r fi i n l i mbarom e ni. e ste mu lt m ir i s lr ic l, d i n l i ' .b a c n .q l e z l . 7 ' ra l i n pri mel e doue rmpl e se r e lern l a u n lapi t r ec ut ; ln a l l re i l e a e x e rn p l u s e re l e r d l a un obi eci cfl re nu sc a.fh in imediat.L apro pitft a celui rare l.rrbeste; in ultimele trei ennple sc fcfcr, la.iufinte spuse inajntea propozjtjei in care se afln lllal. ?rts is lvhat I advisc Jor lo do: ma ke n list... rtis st intrebuinlat aic; pentru ci !e relern 1a o propozilie explica tiv.' c^te ur/.ca:d. in at:ee.tti lra.d. Ti d i ar e in\ A o niult ma i l a re i i n tre h u i n l i rr' e rl cci l l ri r, l ui nrl u i acesl r)i a adeseori lo cul. In asemenea cazuri idiomatice. el scape regulilor. ;i poate lj 1n\'6!at num ai p n obrerlaiije ,.i notare. s 9;0 Lo lelcfan:'\\'har lral:" 1:Cinei acolol (ia distan,tn)l "rnis is e Gene). ,\pro apetoti, incon;tientrridicn tonul. strign chiar. Gene"(-,,lii rind rorbesclir tc lclonj aiii derie e impresiadepiirtnrii.Rarcoriallii tnLrcab; 1 sel]s sranatical {$ !).

109 (.\Vho's apropicrii tlis?:'. prcbabil pe un ton sLizuL-\i?oatc sub impresia 'nl1 u r c c n a ' .onriian t.rpd lp d F r n. P3 !n la v or bpilp S 951 S 952 b) This (Ihese) sint intrebuinlale in corela,tieN lhat (those)l \ hi do Jou Pr"h r' trb o" 'i'' ' \re lour slamlrs lidI de aceea a adr.erbuhri ?trs este legai de noliunea adverbului t'l' I'ut rnlr lich.c hrt. and that 'ir th'tt S 0;3 ! /ltenlie i\'lor Puri lii 'o',dim ' " lii ,l u'r pl"orr'rm rr'lr^bunl r% I' ons lr_' r'.Lu tr"'t'to1t":1' r stttt4ltn'ra i4;. i1ro, lr.ulir. rr;l',r r\d"/r 'i ' l sa recomandi:i'qi fic evitatc. ea Se aude 'Lotrsi a,:lseu. !i ir linba ronlann: this nuln hte thdt child Ih$. eLc.(: on"ti u"o"iu de aiei, copilul acola de aco lo) ca o rccentuare sau clarilicare. .7 L ri inrr r,L,or^m"J ''.is t,t ^ t \thl| /'''s ,'inr Inr'"Lui r":i Penlru a se evlta repeLarea m . on' - , ' oll. r ' . . t . , ' H""h^ $.d I r,"""-.o .r r o / h. " t.- -r a l e - : . I. s J s " l 'r ''l !4 . a $ - 4 '_ a a ] ' S 9;4 .J) Irronunele ttis (thtsN). Ihat (tha{) sint lntrebuinlate li in lo'nl denonstr stiyelor the l1.uer. thc lbrru:r: is Hc disliksl liolh dnosar'. rnd nanill,,'i l or 1nis rs ruch oi a! cltrerne6 dar' homelong alie. ihe c ldFni ltlie 'lrild'erl I'ad Nn al ri-" r--nt...,1*l $ d I d l o \l \' 'ftcs' r" l l ' $. , \ . i\ ' l t hn. th 'l E r ' c eplt iel La singulrr. pronumcle li;s li llnl nu pot intocui in acesl caz subsl'llntive']e care llenunesc PosLrane: \l-. coui.]n.t .lcci.lc brtieeln d re gtl a\\f rh' ba!: the ltrz' \\Ls us innrlligenl' as ttE Fritt. d' l i }p pen ru i / / 4is s ' , , . ' rn l i n rr-h ,ri n l s re In p r un r i d rr' :r ' l i rrmp rrnrrosai o p' ri od' l ;44 a re f c ht : l, nnz " n . r" I p p n u I d -' ' rn t ronand. aceasti construct'tc nu se t'raduce viitoarc, iegate de prezent ln limha decit rareo Ptln acesld, accatlal Sce you aaain fils di.r x'eck (\_'iTh .r is.r sl.onri bfrier. cs.ere^itgs lLn+ zcnt) (Nd reledcn de asLezi inl._o sllu nn'i ) (Vintul esLctnlemrc searal she is eoinq lo Sinain liis month bcer asal ,r is rvc.k (Tr.ortl He h.!1 {Se dro; lr Sinaia lLrna4..dsD.) lEste Dleori dc o sip LimiraL. (-{ losi rlccat siPumina a0edla l Iou Fill rcsret jt one oln's The-l.l, avc ben norkn,S hard d,s lasl. (\l s-o rcs' e!i i ntr-o zi l ) Itu luo, l t onr t " m ' n t i n Il trn ' 1 r z l l r l; ; ,\ se observaintrcbuiilarea i'lje'tr$lor //ti\ sJ thdl.c'rp Lr li arij'ohl { 956 unpr nehotartt ($ 529), de;i ou formn ila sinqular.poh dctrmrr5nurrLcLe peoade d e timp cu sens de plural' prif itd ca un toi: '1 nd \'\e bd ar , "r ! bus v t hh - dJ l. r do! \ r "J h1"l o n 'o Thi; Jo rmy / i"* u, . r s bN b+ I'!c been cxpeciing lot this taert! mLnutes r " sau, pentru irecui: Thst lrst ,rd turntnsFas cndless

$I ADJECTTVUL r9g Aceeati lntrebuintare o au !i cu alte plurale care pot fi privite tolectirl sixt y 11 (sau rn.el no* Beiterhavcthis t{o !ound(s) Did he rcturn t|rtt tbee Nunds? Thel: coultlha.dtt walk that lst tqo hitomres,they wereso ljred (Veziregulala S 2i'5t-25ts ci. S 533) Natd A se obsdva lorma de sirgxld"" a substantitului ln ur mitoarele expresii idiomaticel Wc hare tilcd heretn;r seren,.dr a lialll coulle ttp ha, b.-n ,4. , i n ad I d do o. precedet[ sau adesea o intreagn propozil.ic f) lhis ti that inlocui-qc parte din ea: kno\ ,i; n, t"r. t S he r.it "! t " ut t n" p anat , 6t . l tn r r ' lo' lor i ' m o 'n : e I dJ /" I p' omi.o, -: l " .)1 Th.a ntt\t !. hanP anl thtl lle i,s th e;epulation of a rn.^l lrnt 7//, hc cellainlX is not 1a r r th6 p sin nt "ir i' f^lo' ir ' S ) T his. '.i ' L" S 957 s 958 s 9;9 ? les' are m! childfcn. (lli/\ { r.eziil tc copiji mi.) h) Thi,r (these)\i tm Uns e) + ta ,, sc traduc prin .,iati": T7z.r. ar. his lliings. 7/,;s ts sliat hc tol d me. (Ia ti ce m i- a s lus . ) tIat,'!i l,rcNfile (nici).1 ,.\l'hioh is 1-otrr por olio?" ,.7/,tsts il." flior. afc ltis Dftenls. ilalli i Dirrinlii lacolol.l lcre este'scrrii,t.rtn? lai o ) Tnoas hoN ire heard about rt. (latn jr c! fcl a m auit desl.e ace&sta.l *This" ,i) Toate Pronumelc demonsttal- pronlDclc relrti{ . ,si'thii' r" ' du j " hrr:' l " P /} ' ' si t i\ F tu l i n J li ' , r - s r " J a t ,o u n ' p rp ,d r' ^ . , { p ,i ,rdt sint supuse aceleia,siuzanle: lvhat is r/,is rno,. I sci? nefor' is a ditTercnL nroblem lmn that (.tltuh) \\c discu ssed d l o ' k ' r,/&. tn h ' .n a t" an l ha ban' h d mi i l n r "Lir 1 ." \ n " l1n. b1ll" i n ' n8" /rha Th p .u l l ^l; " lr n| . , . r . fl d r ' .d l -" ,, r' , i l " l d ' a v rh -t.t" am A l t Tri s i s Jol, n S nit h. {lli/^/d }ronri t. JolLn Smith.l Na ti i . Consiructiei thas. trho ii core""punde la singula? l r, (s au s,it, {tlD: H. ( 1, . r r n do p . n u r tl ne" l ' .1 i P { pahd. ' ' r,i l o " o l F .p ,l .' 7f r ; - , ' n. J o n .. .i r!l i . o o l ." g " J ,j r ,l p ( dl l l ^ F{ pdl al . (pls3. socotite acum prelioase. le slnt prelerete ur miitoarele Acestor constilrclii. conliderate mai pulin pretonlioase: Thc siudctr i nho doesnot submit... StuiltsntsFLo do not s!bmil... 5) Adrerbe compusc. - Thi .s \i, that. precedate de prepozi,tiile after. at. l n l o u i l e i n li nrbd ] i r" rrr6 " cri rS ori in , o [. o n . t . ) . ur an. r ' 1 k .. r' ' rn .^ ' i L, t , oii"ial a "u FJ v " r ba . o' np. .., d i n a 4 \p rb p l " l | .o u th . rp-: tratrozi l i d ' F.pp" ,{.sifl: her . alt c r: a l l e r th i s ili.reniter : alter thal S 960 $ 961 S 982 , p' onun lal p I : ri. , / . " r . , rr J.+r .13 s d, r PP, . ' ' nl l . I n a o n P d d n o u ; Jo_r . / ?r ur . L'. pr 0num . . I ar ir . pf on I nlll [ d3 ] . cramalica rinbii eneleze

194 iherety - by. ihal hereuron: thereipon : l,e.Nith : th.rcwUr : rpon this tlp on that with this with that 9{-i3 o, -lbiq $i{h l id{erbc. ln' ilul rJmilirr'/'l''"i/nd'l"tfisisd!'r1." Jpn'^r"lrJ i\e I = .ol Dl' sinr a un'i urrnllF d- un rdje'li! sJu de un adr!rl care e\pr;m n lniltimta, cantibaiea, distanla, timpul etc.: r l. s h. . 1 = \l ' i l (c a :r ,. /t" -r,, 1t us 113| ||t u !)n i g l ' { In / i l l i m ' ). P , , , . \ r i, i G u u i .' ,l o J l ( s au a ,) i a r' (D i s tm l e ) "&tr fPlnl aici (sau acoto)l Th-a $at.r $ds Inor hia} ,i n d L :-' l ' I I n, w / nr s m u rh , l h a l ' o u s 96{ He rvcnt tldt iat and no Inrtle. Did wc stax the.c rl4, lons? ! Atenlie ?/,it ti lhdt cu in,tclesexciarnariv (: dialeciale: '' J aiit de...l) sint expresji vulgare ofl I s $ r/d t.o l d l (['li_era aili de Irigl) $ 9ti5 6 966 Trr! Fox-trx& Trrn r,ATTnrl (},IONU}Itr SAU ADJDTIIIV! DDffONIT'T,ITTTX) {) Functii. - Demonslratjl ele the fanrto l- pLimu) ldin doil pr in:: prim ii sa uprin',leldindor,igrupr,rirlsi 'l' tdtt'r ' ult.i rll't r<lin,loucr. ooi), ulLin aioin do r' ullir"i"u 'rlr m'l'rd;ndou:grLDUrrrlpol Irplo'l' sarr adjecdrel I lr avereadBob's1\ork anil Jan's l ptekr nk funet {llol\ work) to /r lor"' (Pron.) iJ ano,s). '-- ine;"r";ked l.ochoose bet\on Sha$dd Ocas'): rn' /n/'/' snbie'r (Eh't r $&. pelsipr, t h P 10 .t \o ' p \ Ocd J ld mori rp" r!'cdl { 967 r/r 2) Fonn5.- Demonstrativele lbrmo ;i tfu lalter au o singuri lorm; InrX disti nctie de gen, numdr sau caz: , \ lic el. lNasr 5i l. m s g no, n ) Isaw lho ho !6 r s , ig b"h: J | ' e' t L' h' \ 1a5. s i lpm . pl. : , . t h b "r \ ' e d Jl.' p 'n t r|| b '1 " ' J d d ' s 'r " ' I Cecil dit Alice arc hothr and sislet: the f.'rn r (C.ril) is youger Uran /E larr_ t]l ' /r' th Demon.rralivcle fnm". Fli /o'"f. tiind^dnua 'on'p(not;r ''ill rar s e r"tpra la doui obi"c'pr.In 'zul unpi I numprari site numai arunci,jnd conline m ai mult, ale aloud {iinte sau lucruri, tnt'rebuinlarea acestor dou: demonstraiiv e sste incorectir. -- -'ti fnrrotruintar". \ll dFnon'lr"ri\ul [om'r. rit "i d"r" on' -1 . 969 I tattpr pot li inlr;buinlaLe inJpp"ndFr urLl de arlul 'l"r "u morr lr "r: -.i 96E m:r lomr Dteits { toe ii m' rhri, th; fun{ dcin 1 - lostul dc.d) in /o.ne. tines (: ne rremndl lhe / dt lpfhalj o t l h ; c " n l u ry I a d o u a l . nbl a' p 3 s" ol u i t he lolb, Dat Lo l L h Pn o v d (- u l ' rmr Ird l n a romuurul in r h" : " l; r pf d s v s { i n ,,l rrmu l l i D t. 1 n ,i l " l " no6k" r a .l J F . ' p :D i idp ul rrmi o" rJ v I r r r p. - dav iew ! a ' ;o n .e p l i i I S

ensx am a l i .s l($ 2 . Pe ri ru d e ' -a l iv p z i $ 9-n i ! perrrir o enumFf ;re d mai m-lt dp douJ obipctp vFTi 5 970. nv tonat t . a th Pt .. lo b l , n "d p to i"r d "b )

$I ADJECTIVUL, lt5 S 970 THE TIBSI. TflD LAST .PRONUUE AT ADJEI'IIVE DEUONSIA-{TrIN) /r" Adic"rivFle fi.s, ( -primul. prima. primii. primalelsi ilp /arl , ullisini l nlrcburrrlat".a m Ll, ullima, ulLjmii. ullinFlc). liind doua s,/1,./d/i'P. pronu mp adip.livp dpmonstrarirF eazulun.i eau'nFrSri.dre Loolrnenar in si hult de dou [ fiinle sau lucruri. (Pantru detalii vezi S 965-968). TEtrJOTIIEIi (TRoNUMtr S-{U ADJESIIY DEIIONSfRATIV) THE OTf,EES (PRONUME DtrIIONSTRATIV) s 971 (: Forma de sinqular llv ol,{r" celetalt, oealaltd) este consideratdca lnd' jar ol inind une"ri funrLid do adi..liv sau pronumpdomonqlrdliv. Iorma d" oth,rsr= .prl sl i ;lplil ni ea fiind numai pronum" d"mon' rali!: ilurdl !h" j. r ' ( \ d j l r nd t "t ' + t |' at h. . ir Orinc rl' b lu" \a5 . r'. .s i o .rr J ppt d, t n, r LaLp , t ? o/ f r - . - r o n . ) I . A k" ' E a h", . dan' pd l P " o n r l n rir. l h i l in a "h ro $ ; 1nq ; nt l SAITE (PROr-UIE S-!U ADJECTIV DE]UO\STR-!.TIYI $ 972 S 973 poate li (lucru),aceeali aceia-si, aceleafi] 1) Functrii. Sazrc[: acelaqi pronum esau adjectiv demonsirativ: lrllatrrryNew Yearl" "The sand to yo!I" (Pron) in way. (Adj.) Thei irehared rlre sdme A tenlLe ! Intrebuinlarea pronominali a curtntutui sdrzste condamnati in une le cazuri ca nclitirari !au desuetn,dovedind uneori chiar lipsi de culturd, spre exemplu in vechiul stil comrcial: Wc liave Xonr aelvet and {'ill scnd sa',. at o nce Samc poate avea li valoare de adaerb,cn sensul de,,la fel", ,,tntocmai": wor k wnl on i'ast E satu. In his nbsencc I leel thz sdne as yoo about teaohing. Dimp oirivx, loculiunea all tle sdnd (: totu9i) exprime opozi-tie: A lhe sanc, I don't like hef. S 974 S 975 S 9?c Sdmepoate inlocui i a tntreagdpropozili):saa frazdl They alplied the Dcrvmethodo l wo.)r,and I did the saru s 977 are 2) Formd.- Sam o singuri form;, lari distincliede gen,numlr sau S 978 'l'hcv all s:rid the saue. (l'ron. neuhu se. ac.l T hr r df r p op l " w r' - d ,i .' o n l a i o , o n l l ' p bu' ro l -i ol i _ 1. \ dr m ac s i l e m l l n .m ) Sdnc est"eaproapc lntotdeauna precedat de articolul hot[rit. 3) Accentuflrc . - Pentru accentuarea ideii' same poate fi precedat dc cudntle ter4 sau sef (: c hiar acela, identic): This is ihe v.fu saa.r baa I lost. S'" \.- r h, . " 7/ . d p. Li " l l I' a d m i o n p L r,,i n . s 970 $ 980 relativ as(Y. S 1094). S 981 4) Corola,tie. Samcpoateii corlatcu pronumele I Demo nstrati{ulsdru poatetilsi clnd este treoedat ile adv.r}ul tery: "This is the $r

198 S 982 $ lrbS so {FNONUIIN DEMO\STRATIY) D"mor'lr,litul s,, { a"rqra.r.r' r e'rF lnlrnbuintHi 'J I fur.lii.pronu ' :i "lu n i In'o.uiorIpo Intr'-ei propu/rlreprpiedFnrd: I knewsnc wasr'l ri8li, and I to ld her so "C& she IelP us?" "I tlLiDk so-" E 984 ' \'erbele cu care pronumlso este tn specialint'reluinldL tn acestcaz,sinf: la beaft aid, to b(Ii.ee:tu do. to fear. ta hape.to sa! : 1otlqpote' to leIL to thLnherc' So poate inlocui lqi u Adjectir; S 9Sb tle $ -Etre1,snaod sn rre \e I xse d to -be , r An, s , iLL I am o no lor ge. "I t ws .old lesierdal." ".!. it $4" i 986 ,So esLc ;i adverb sau conjunclie: .to Dranymer, so many mnids lAdv i | \ (.\n 1 .1 S he is s i r t r e l .tl ' L I le s nok e i, ' a l m h l i \,rL ) k r ipt ; on b tJ .j .o . ,o L r.r h d " J r $ ," . ,\c\.) T1e-r i.r n l I' . ,L '. ."d ,. 4un_ l s $87 s 988 s 989 \ 990 2) Soandso. Lor liunearo an.l s/)(Fubstarl,i! set'raduceprin',culare l $ilh ihe lr'_ozl sos lsubst !l ) \Y stayedovcr ihe \tecLend ,ct 3) So"so. Sr-s, (adjeclil' !i advcrb) inseannA ,,a!sa ala : a clcrk she is ro-rc. (-{dj.) lIe ^s sirss ioso.(-{d\.) SUOIT (PNONLT]IE S,\U -{DJ}]cTY DEMONSTBATIV) S g91 a-c erLl { dFr' A ' a/ a l a ra . i rt' l ' l ' S a rI I , hr nc lii. pm' npa p as laj s " " pi; r a1 .3 re " tc 1 rr F r..l p o i l p l i p r^"nurF r' i ' dJ^' rr\ d' rnun' t1 o, Hc Y'as a .lNm man and eell knoND rs s"/' {Pron l Sz., rcsull s are rery uDsr$sla.rorJ edj ] rh i 2) Ionnfi. - ,9r.i are o singure forrnn, lir n distinclie de cn, nunir I can'i ba slackersand all sr.li lPron Inasc.ii lem l)l ac l (.\dj ncntru ss Doml a\raJs Judn music 'tlcornc. 's dternrinat de adjeotivul sD'n '= al substantiruhi Articolul nehotarit p u n e dupi ac es ta : Did vo! cv er see sz'l a tJiing? It rvas !z.l a ,ine drYl S 999 s 993 s 904 s 995 s 99{i a) Sar,t poste {i sironim cu demonstrativele this (thesc), that (tha;t.' rd .n I Jr./, I lh6 i, r ha Dq, / l . or J i . L' \ ine , n s i l , l o r ,:", o nlJ r l, , ar ; n - od r Lr r ' ! I n J n n l .. '\ 'l j r o n l F I 'o ":'

3) Inteles. J ( . / . li: . , , : d .n , j r,\' , ' . J rp r; i n g ru l L ! rr' B " l JrpJ : (V.zi 9i S 51') cJ ,A.deseorisar,t nu apare in lraducerei romaneasci: I t is d ps i" ab hro -.u " l d l i / n l ra * d -:e . ' . r ' Jl o" oprr-1" lL" t e d. d ori L .a r l rJ d ..r p a J F F p o lt' rr' " m" as rof" dl ' 1m' T hpv \ v " r . a L " d l o s l o n ' l l ' Ib u n l l ,/ Io:a' ' ' a m4' ' : sr \' l ' p r," ' i' : ir ' i s i a .n " r r iu' t oq b) Sach aN qi lnleles e\rlamati{ (': atit de, aqaJ: Pr'lrr"rio,, uutF"a\P hal ,, t a bumo| 'rol rlrF - ' ThF Asri.u'ru,dl ' o r

FRONIJMELE SI 197 S 99? 4) "Suoh" -1' prontmel rolatiY. esdeaproapc S 998 a) Cinn snch este urmat d u,n pronumerelativr acesia as iDtotdeauna (: care)' rareorr rro: in l.r ' l hi t' , m ig h l l. $ r . h " a 1 r , i r p w !"o d ' r ' r ' \\ i\ : l, d\ o'' ' | o n p p " o j . | 5 / ' l n ' r d |lo u l' | 1 | .| l' .p n r J\' 1 0 1 ll, n $ lp l' n ' lo L J lh p h ' r 4/ , u. lj J l o l ' 1 r 4 | | ; r d r'nl l d rr \ar po r' b) Suchus este sinonim .n thoset\Jn, tlv)setrllich: ils dcicnoe' Let all slrl, ds t: tl,oseshol want leacc e'ork a.t, but'l wjll shi tlx lrr d Jotr.rd,/'dr ( : I hoseNlich) I nav' i!;,s."; le; ".(,ik$ "' dl Srrl & s poate avea Ei tnlelesul ..ea de eriemplu": The Sl,alcstore ad{crtised loys sr. /, as lraUs.dolls' drums aso Do lou lnow therc is se./, a piohuesqucplaic os Clo vcllX? 5) Such and such, - Locutiunea srr.l, dnd s ,]h se lraduce prin -,cutare' : On sr.lz and sai a da[o, it sacnond nr.t a llacc SU(,lILIIiE {-{DJ00rlr.} (= ascn'{ta) S 999 I 1000 S 1001 s 1002 ! 1003 .\ 1004 ihfillers and nrnltne l're neto hen sr./r,^. iDlrdinccl rrr.'rrr (Pror!M!/ (: asnentn He enjoJ.d rcading a lotr lovels, short sto.ies, pl r$ oNr,! 0r\Es (PnoNU]rD DrxrorisrR"{rlv}, s 1005 On. si .,n.s sint rrrolrrme denr.nstrative Ele pot {i qi S 1006 ltluxctie. ..,b" ts ri'o ii I2641.:ingLrl"rul pu" e ri nrrn"rfltil2lSr'prorulr'n"1rnnn tirit !!u a!lip,ti1' n"hora,lt (S 1104) or' li on r d r n ircurd iormj panlr I S 1007 2r F orori :i lDtrh..- Pro'ru'rFlc d-'Fpbr' dai jrr pri'inla nu'ndrulrrr' ioaja Lpnur il..i 'rlurilp. EIP nu '-''. 1008 S -^ au urmntorr.rllnleles: demonstrative C; p ;;rril acccn, cel,.eal o,, l: acela. tss.) (d cci acerea, cere) ) ores(: accia, inttebuinlate pentru a se S l0og Pronumele one !i ,n.s stDt, 3) Intrcbuinlarc. e rita repetara unui substantiv: I c1\e h pf rr'" r"d riL lon J r d I , pl rhd oo( olr I'e r,,d g lo! "" r r d ! . r lhe L, lu o, P in s om F, dk o4Pr. O e nu lnlocuielte ilecit subsLantivle care pot, a!'ea -siformn de plural: S 1010 to SDeak tlai llttle boY. l.he fair o/ like tncm? L;ok ai thoseplroiosl\touldn' t you lilt to hare ones Se spunc tns6. cincl subsi,antivul nu poate a1'ca plural : I IiIe cold milk ieild thlln hot. I'll lakc re lat neat not ihc lean Llneori pro mrmele onr precedat d lr adjectiv tu are antccedent '{cesta este insd eYidenL: l l y l i tt lF o, . i ( P uiul rn .x r) Ou r l i iile ones { : c 0 Prr'n u s l .r ) l rl '" \" r ng, 4i' ll" o, q o t d n i rn a l sI p ' ' ." r' i m d l " ]o_

198 MORFOI,OGIA - PRONVMDI'E s r01r Dr] oltSTBATlYE gl coNsmucTtl lDlo)L{rrcD co ?EONUIIE ^DJEmlvE oi'l', #i"T"fi."tr"uoi"f"h"',"i'' noi sr'rna'"dr L) iit.i-;J,a;' (: Ztke tirrs//ndl asilcllJi tu r"r" ) Vii) iiiij 'i 'a'" r' cla"'i u,nm armi :r :;i',,' il:", Am' na, ;",i Ii: ;,Ui,." ":,,."'*,, l#ii"'111''at "^";'i''n:"''"'l]';,". lj:';,;1":,"' i $'1"i: o :" i[lir;s. "iS'" u'"*n :'l:Hrll'"i1""i35:'i":l;l;r i*:i;;"';l ran out ,rilft tndr, sh. r S r r alnd o' c dr ' fu g r a ri ta l *11;""*;'t *l'n"'"lfi'a't a gaod Laa' 't"n 'li.l it Tho' tAi reusitl Brdt' rl r 6; s and J Ir wac a lwrls J ol' n i e. cu lo n in Fus . r on t n J ns l c'r c@d I ' n ' ldr ' 'Fii"*,iliii:1;}iq:i pe a,a,i ;fli"[,.1; a,,a;,i irinc. i; . :' ;"?l,Y';;J; \' *"r { ll i!:;'l,,,: il^,",, ;l'"i:f ?ii"ie3 s1012 . t l0f3 a hr ' 1 "". 1 ' *. "i , r 'p ,,, ;i ; '" '' " t ri ' o;'""' ' ''iT;'","' ii. s" orat .u'd^4 r r"*"... ""a 's"'1" "; ;;'r {: io .u,adzi,tn ;;?l' ot,i''.1"'"; " (TEE INIERBOCNr'r v.PRONUlrE.-L!,.trr?JR:ll'*t';l'131"*tl F're f'rr"s de I" ;nt"togoli! i't'j p ' t " I) Dotioilio'- Pronutr '\'orbirt s r ' r e ' h iv rlp n lu la ""ll'"u t ' t r n r p r ogrrrta D r oDo zilie """' "'-" i'-i'O'r""ri ' ; l ixoiimat ln r[sPuns: ''1 4h t ra d,r';rs l' \ lv ' t olle' stl intefoEatit' Adiectialll tntrebart: nnei ..," n;ii';; - FFrre:te ., -#ftfTl1*"ltf-',"-,f:i;i;iii / /i,.,l' forl LulsfeA q ubsrantiv pe ]ingi un intcroT::.:]r"i";:lt*'""' fi 2) Formi,. pronu,rere $djcciirerc - '.::ii*"* " ^'o' ,X:J'i.::':;,t::,"'t!'" *t ** ;;"1 ltlnol (: cinc?) 1\om l $ 1014 ai are ac''?cui? t;n:ii laloi? .", 1Tj,xfllill"i::ll',1*l da'i {': '""J#"1llrt"fflg*i s,'paLFro l=:itiil:ili \#,:\\ ""' IFiilllil""';,,i"; ;fll'1..,0,',.'1"1.''''

FRONUIEI,i S1 lv 199 T \r'";:l':t':rl ''-'n 1iY,n:.', ',;l:"iq,T { l"#!':lj,l\T" ';, i- ;.,i''ldt"*, ;- ;" :;' I#l;;l"J,ll,ill;iiTi;"J,'".liii F r l' I n dn ; n B ' L $ o d ''r " o 1 ) I lv nol t|n4,'(',: iii:; ""';,..):r;,,cj.J';.i"i:t;.ll,i'n"iiljx.l ,-' ill';;. . l l'i'" ::: ,n,.7.'oli:, ,',,0'r" TbseraaILL $ lorb '\on. -rr. ltl,]""" ,,, Jirol.iiJHi" alti pot inr'crosarire alea sens de sinsular' ei adjccti'rle .u,- sdip. in,,, i', iii;::::i,l:;ii.;,ll ii,i'' ,lll"li"", I i .,l ,, "i r: u n ora rr' iL" ^o,i " " ura , jr , d i n Fo l c i, un s r r b. r dn l i \ r-r, .rr " ' \i rrl -t " p"":;,, ._.pr. a .^\FJ..,n " .i .1"*) l:l,l.j:";; 1,.1r:1:;, *h; +i 'a.i'li?ll': ,:'i"': ,"',r ",,,'i,,':::#:iT";l-:ol; ;,,,";' "a:-,i'" n'o.l,l;1"; 'l::'?;'.i1,;!l'il:1,]Jl;ll;fJllij'iiii'ii"ll"'h j'|.rG :l', il:l'lri L'''i;r{: *"1'l 'n ] . u . rl:;"" li,ilirXl 1,;;t li'"1 ii;i:fi ; ll;l;;i;. . lli tu tt lt '; fofln1.indit'r.nr ,1, gcr':i nu'nnr' P' n ru ,, a "2 . P ro n Lo " :i r l j ' i \a l "in ' u' a' i\" "' o ' :ingr ,r S l0t? r dil"r t rpFr I arurrL'r' stnt tnirebuin- S 1018 5) lntxcbuintare. a) who (trhascl, Lvlto(n)' to o/ro'r, t ate nunai Pentru Persorne: ' iwno is ihis rnm?" "Un'lc l orn" _iv,l" ."o' ^i.t? f i ' 4" I I'n" rhp!J ri -\ rulr'y"rouds.. -ii'r,,'"". i:".,; ;" pr s nD n ! _ " -' -whr'. is i r p. on ) "Th" n \ ldoor I ',;:f, l:i8;: ',7',' i:,iH' """ )l -riq llnl,lni ' ; ll"il; ' ;j':rr' .. _ T o n v \rd rp n' - who! n. t di d v o ' r '_ ty in o -: ').0:""':'"" $' 4n d hrss Lp P" ' . l don l liL F r l' Whon: ) " :lT;;o:;'-:"::',;.J; ; =

-r1rbrbr'.^ ,;;ili jJ'ff Hi.J"pr"poziuia :;i' dF ;,"T.'iJ'Silil,"':,tTlfi:JiiiY" "'i"li'ii"" ,ilJ,ilTii o/: li' J t'"""i";'"rJ Ji;ing;r sauesr"utn'61 , j which intproseri! e.ip 'plc' liv ( 'arF ' wh ich t/nr ,t wh ;.h l1|6i.1 o l vour br olhpr " i5 \I^d\ p f a! on"il"j oLc J lx o " ih is $Fk c t ilm \ ) o t"p s won r hr r 3o- r \ or I dratr:ns do You P "f"rr '^ol i Pron' 1:'-',:i ;i[ Tjlk"Ji, ]:ir':, . " {fiT'," din'rp) - prFupune aleepre S I0l9 o*'Pff"l",lj'i,i1 J-.1:"J8iJ'fl flil'';3f'.)i'i;ri#j:"il'.'f, lI;;lJ'."$,".';.:* plurarurui. p.ererarr **"rui esre i XflH]i" ;l"J:'r'";"{ sr ?"'*,. ' i r."h,ip ri'.p.r', deprFpoziria 'dat 'o '?lh,f '

Whieh iiind invariabil ca fornil, sint situalii in oare numnrul (sg. 6au pl.) tr ebuie toiugi specificat: I'vc lound sonc smpsiiotsr /ntul, (pfon.)wouldyou havc? Ambiguitatea lntrebdrii creeazi o sitralie diiiciln: l.cbuie a]esun singur insL antaneu sau mar multel Solutia: Which .ne \!antd, you h.r1e? s a r tfii.l o"s s'onld vor hr!e? 1020 c) 'lYhat, ca proDume.sereferl nunai Ia inalndatel gi indirect la aninate ; ta i anim&te: ca adjectiv se rcf;rn atit la aninate (iDclusiv persoanc),cit -si d i d " ,,. ^ o , pdno: "n nd, (adj.ld,s nit him?" "The }utch.r\." 1 i r1,," r," i ..eb". do rou rrcler?" "\'rolet." gtts did I'iru tnlk to in the hnll2'nTo Jill and Ar.r." 's lhe ,tmcr" "1Il's), itrst goDc livP." di.I it .asr1" "T\r. rrounds'. js your nafuc. nati;natiht, rnf.s!n'\ kleth'n. nnnt,a, oddnEst" 's i'our \rife l il'e:'1 "Swiret and .os) to be Nilt,". I "ttrlo arc.rou?" ",\lec Jores. tour nro ther's rricnd. .oDP l,un :1 s. canPan { the stares i: sL,{j"\ !,. J ' :\' I' } 1 /., ,- ' u .' 'l 1021 Aten lie ! Se atrage atenlia asupra intrebuirtnlii incorecte a adjc.rtirului inlcro,JF "J " ron1' lolo.; d" .ru,lp lii ro, ini t'-,,r,,, rr" Lu -i, ;a rr .i;i. TI/; /' i, i ,nji'r\ -''" 0djari\ului inrpo-J'i! ",.- din IrmtrJ '^,,';1. srlfcrir (: care di ntrc...) . Cind adjectivul iDterogatir ..faret nu eslc sclecti'. ..e-. cl ste tra dus prin }'hat' al firui inlelcs tn limba ronarri nu ".tenr.rnrai ci 1i ,,care": Cdl. scriil.f lLi nlar! cd mai niull? : Ilrld, \vritcli d; Xou likc best? Cdrc d in1rc scriitorii seoobhi al IIX-l.a ili tl{!e? : Which of lti riih cenlury wrilc rs do Io\ like? 1022 What erclamati{. n?d, a rvisesa]ingl \.rzi S t46. 1090.239t. SITLr:\TLI,lCrU-{I.l. 1023 .rJ IYho lYhom. DupI cun s a mai aritat inainte. iendin-tade sinrirlr ri'.-diir Iiml , !njhir drn.lrlul .o,.';"1 -rri. prr".ii', r.l 'rl 1'u ' 'si r'r" ,vhat4.t or". iiili\,.lui ri, rin?inJ.dinlo 'ri.., in l^d. iru-lrr ' ^,, la pInu^FlF )i c J:p'riv.ln i.lp,4,d i\ ' torn,' oLip.,i.ur..r.,r',/,. r 'r | . ls,FlFrFloti\F. I 'rrn I9'o. l.l"rr.l 'idpir.. s in:Lorq,ri1". r"1'. i: lrom now noi el et Lil saft o prophesJthat within a corple ol hundrd -l'ears nost leirned jurist t'ill be sal ing''l|hom did yoir see!" Evoluria actual'l acestui pronume confinni adel'drul p roieliei cilalo. - t f / . , i. I " Jt,r. !ro"urn.. nri\..- o t,,' r \ n. nr ' . a! r ' . ' L d I .i -at Jrd J ?1 "qtp tn"r r, ?,o /,! n "i ! j , i t d . n obF : nanim a t , r " e r r . ' u i . . j i r ' - l r '/ , o . tit pl,\.: d l . / l i d , . t r o r 'r

n . _ u : r 'l u r r . '"'"+od ..r i. 1"i. |lpl. n6r am ali "\.o u. \rfe' "tani rL Ul I tyloi's the time? [: urhal tJ...]. 11'r just s,ac live. I: ll no6 6',8.. .1 r' S 1::' 186t, 3 Citai de Drian Fosier, The Changing ErylAh Ldnguasc, p- 2al , 19;t'

PRoNUMEI,I Sr lv 201 ";i .", iiliit: il:i,T i: li#;i,,f if iil;i,1l.r :l:l;;,1; i, t". :j;lll.f .n ilul .oloc\iat s,ri". prin ior^r" ,,o j!i,.r,,,?J::lJ:i'iff:J " ",,;'ii,lii;,ill :ff"1x!?l::,,""1J1,:i.ifi?x:J;ji; s t i tut i nfa nnatIcok.aiat {ro.ntt sau scrjs) lllat.). prcp.) Erenple: '.rylo Jid ro Nhom lor \vhonr.._ , pr (9 " t 1 . pre!.) ' vho .. 10 who... ior, crc. \^, r"iil;s jj, r.;i'rd' ;''r'i'r-,i ,. i". I;0";1j,.; ' J y , no t t , . h ,,o k D ! ,.r I ni, nn I , pj,t.r..r,i.-.1 ,. ii.jt l; 'l I :,;i,i.," ; ; 'r":,"lflooll;, ,,," ll ' ,' '. \, p;'liI " i_11,1 illli;:; ll:trli; ,Jil,l ,,,l;;";' -t' , n lo u r.,.oL . ' r . , , p t r dq r hi1t . . gol. . \, I' r ;:i;":r"'lij (,:;;;;il,l'i:li#ii:i Thc cottage o/ o,,ri.t Lhc sh,ttqi ;r"': r;*';ir i ;ir.lr o'"r"u'i,,,i".i^;;;;; irlj l#:, '', lr ;ii,r' , r,ili ii; ,in:li'li"r i;il: arf grlcn js lton\. . ri $bi.b "i $hat c" nanrir "., m,i su. r$ t^t_ ln stil,rlIo ,,at. ni.j jn cl Lo loclidt. ',r.i

tu22,. t.,r".,t,ir,,bdri q t0Z.l c, Which - Nhose. cenitivul o/ eht.h. ltni o lorma pred greoaie. { 1096 p!re dp. Fl. rnai m rlrn ori t,,tocuit, u'it,F.,,n.,1r, Dr: Esto inlocuit,cu: T,rP ro om r1".. t a9 r , , dv . |lr. ro om .,./i . d . t , - "r . . iii';iii#E,r,,;'ii::1;:: (:::i'i;;,.ili;,,,,."",.,") i;fj,:;it' ir b"y nin4oq . Inljrogalia diro.ri \i inrlirccta.- lnrratbr;t".ar",onli,, qi pronu,,,p { t02rj . ,, li LrJAsrr\. Inl"ogr i\p. r r d' JuIA htuflr ,tirp. _:i inuirrctc. FF ri r Fopro. n' ''' ;;{,ti' ; ",!'1 t ""'i;;;, :l il;\; ;i'1 l' -":'iii',iii " p.' "1;[:"i] tt'tal is lhe lran,s namc. IflBtn) .tid vou rt,E rD. I t 1, n i l t n e e r h l r ti i i i n i 11,,:i:1L;;;';,,11x,,:,i,,;X::,:i;' "'',u "i:::',:::":i,:ix,,lii:tl':ll,iliTf | '( J ' r "l"' ,,/.n \,, I _l I r r t , 3 . n r \-czi R . Q ni. k c l. at ia.

909 AtP,nlie ! ver\ul sau aunF La jn orice propozjlie interogat'ive'tn interagalia'l 'irectd 6 102? " liarnl /r.t,rdii subieurul: m' aa 'Ptul: \V "t h g '"" f ido al l|" d o o ^"r r \ \ nul n' '/4" al \ Vhu { l 'tl' d P propozi'ie interogativx' ci declaraltt interryali'1 indl]ectl' carc rru esteo \ Prbrl se PunFJl/Pn 'ubi"' | : I i\ ", qhd ln ' ) ! T lm I r ) l' d h - sn o In Sn o d o o "r ' l "1 o \ s t9 5 1i { V e z i ;i S t0 5 2 ' t8 9 l ' tu t ro""l "Jk ' iP h a lJ touan at th" uoot '' n /l fto r sP '' Lh4 s"rP Io 'r s 1028 pronum"l" inloroeatit' "' ' ?r lttritiurrrt DO ln ixl' rosd!ii' Cind ji,i':"a"a: ""1i\ Jl inrFfofairv Ll"t'tmin; 'ubiP'i-ulnu 3e inlrcirurrr.rr '"1' propoziliil' in erogr'iLP poriLivel: iil,r" ""'ri'".i;i Dti in l7lD thitrks so7 loD: lt ' t t "c s o1 r am " or ' ju l n o {: |, l, t r n s or nun ] ooLed in n"'1 J" "rProar l'"ta' l3l! E 1029 : propozi'tiileinterogativ_negabive) Se spune insd (in oazul obiect'ivsau in I":#, 1):; wn!! l':':" i:"'i:"*'! W h h "a' d: t lh" Por ' m 8 n g o ' tt rcgulilor.srdm6li'at" stilutlornal 8J Lorul 0repoTiliei' Conrntrn 1030 ' "" " p r " p o li,i , p r o i"do phnum'1"'sr adj";rit u l in re ro g u lr\ : EL',,=n Hi;;' i::,1"'j".''lLi' **, ^x: :'li f;,,iYil.,' he %xl'n" ' want it?-* 7or ohom did langhing? At ehat are lou 1031 il este pe prepozilia .{cesta rotul care "":iirt['ffi,il,ii1'"x'rgli:i, esie I c urentriinsn. In aorbiett Prepozilia Ilrl'o is Uiis |ook school does he conc l'o4' '/r I/l;n it lb'r Itl@ did hc $dt t{l'i#"" ]""" J"- ;-,tri,; l:: 1032 lrr s'ilul Ln'iliat sp lnlllnp' rl r' 9) lronumele iol'rogaiiv compu' exnrimd su rprrnoerr' t/'dl mele conpu"p: i)rLotPr' ettt';r "'/ li '"/ 'sre nedumeriri. ind ignare elc : ,tp ,in"': wl". -"'.,ro d tthD a1-: "rounill'i :i"iJ:'", ::*: ##}1i;' :iit*r;lii'*l:3r{ r? f;:'::;:'i ,.::::" :"' ;;;;" "::,'s r " n'a,', oede acediar". :. po?ili\ nu r upr ind p o n e g a l r P : ,.Cine I ln "roe ,l i a . d c l_d' r er

"l* iffig,qit;" nu cio' Jii'i"oon"s'fr' "'r"0'

t Scrise tntr-un cuvini fitlo-r.. 'xhicheaer) ,haterer pronumele intero- S 1033 )r t Insc s, 'drrtDtrcbuinlat pentru aseaccentua $l{)g4 sitire deroti ljps5 d cDlturS . prnnurn-lai'rre'og1li\'.n,r Fsle puq llngi pro'lrn": have known the rcason? de vinein sc,is: lfha e,et aadC, Wh, canl.l,erd have known th," reason? 10) Conshuofii idiomatiee Cd Xou tcli mc @ho'sqho? lPoli si-ni srli cinc slnt c.i dc faF lsau ocj dcspreca rese Yorbeqte?)l lAluarul notanilifililor) Itna, ,ind did h colne? (i,a ce ori a v.nit?) l]'rafs the Xnglish 1o. lhis? (Crm s s!u!c la accasta in fngh' (D a r tu ?) Ate n l i e ! asta?l What abaur t show? (Ceai zicc si ncrg.n la un specla|ol? ) Johnny'sdrawerx'as luli oI ma.blcs,njls, nsils ard wrzt ,or. (tirl.arul hi Ioni cil ra Dli! de lilc, penile, cuie Fi cn, air.,,.,f trhdt of thot! sat What theh ? i ]]i i i ? C c i cu asta?) I d.n't know tuhit:h is ehn:h. (Nu 1e lo1. deoseni. ) l l e k n o { s ," ftul s @ na,. i s ti c c l s e sc dcscurccl sau (D l ]e ) H . 1n111 me nax (ha|. dedrNbiuril-" cliestiunii.) il\{i r ertlicnl 'hot (M-a l u s l a ruenl .) tEr sr I Lr' I uu 413.', $ r$6 this in En.Eli.qh?" (Cum S 1036 In hnba englezn se spune: "Itrdl do !-ou 'rall r .un,e:lia -dbla In , ngle/F:r":, ,;i nu. c'rnt ." .t',r, ' uF nl a" ' tr" 'n rir ri. , lin,ba romdn.: Hou Jo vcu :.ll hi.. i" Lneli'l,l' prir "nsluLi- u RNI,ATTY YI. PN,ONITU}]I]E ADJNOTTI'UL II (TtrE liDll\tryn PRoIrouN-{nD -{DJltlr IlE) GE^"ERAI-IT,tr l I $ 1037 l) Formd. - Pronumele relalirc slnt urnldtoarcler': s t03n eho (,xhase,ohon), wh ith, i|hal Mt, &sj but. Ca qi in limba romAnn, oha, trhan. trhich l; trhdi poi, Ii aLtt pronume inierossiiv., ,lr :i pro,un," r^,irirp. dupi Iun rr" t" "d'-. in d-plir'er. ttl'u',. .vhi.h s, ,/'ol tnr li :i rdjF" i\" r"l"ri\F. Pentru simplif icare, relalilcIf|. interogatiyle !i adverbele care incep sini grupdte tn gramati ca englezil sub denunirea de "phcu literele ir/| forms" (forn,elc cu nri-tialele rt,{-), la oarc sc adaugi !i ftoo. Ir^nnn,.lp rclativ arc doul func-tii sim tane : S 1039 2) Dofilitic ,\i lunrtii. le- S 1040 ul tinc loiul ,,,,ui s,,bstantir ( sHual unui cchivalontal acestuia'). gindul de o propozilje alributi.i.n care exp licri{ sau detenninis inlelesul antocdentului; .1 . ,,,' t. h .r ,,.tl at.,- rsl l :l n l o dp. r , , ' nr r n s i n c ' ,r,u ' b": r ir I Pentru hadu.crc, rslr (lrourmel 'S till'r 1lrix, ladj.clirc) S 820. r Ve2i S 190, notr L I N u mi tn nr oDoz it je: r ti .,' i ' ,1 l $ j l t3 l . i ! . \u mi l plo ' oz : i, " d i' n n :,u tt r \g A n. s ., o 1 , u r ' , . a ' , . . 1. p "o 1r' tii,r ',' dl dr,/, t,.o^pusp,'d. l l 2).

904 { 1041 al propoziiiei D/ este subiectulsau complementul direct ori indireci aLdbutive: 'lho man rno lectureil veslcrday is mI brother' iffi'ffi"#ili "$${',:;ff J:ltf.ffi ."0,1:ll,tll,::'*,;f,,';::,'f 'x1':}L'J"f est c subieci.l 1049 ditec-t in dFt'rmin5: u l" ,lou: fu;"lii tol li .(bJ al" pronumcluirclativ a"stuin' nu'rbr-ul 6 7 p"-.o"' " 1i orul L . e u' l Pr umer-,vhi"h inro'ui r,i' ;'"1,",i.: ",*"::i' ;;#' "f :f; liPn T;li propoziria t'ibutivE- "Nl m.trtioned !a!e. iy'3'l'"i#l'lll,gl';"1"+3i"I":?'i:li:"1]"ii.l?f"""1'"i r04r li i;;.'J"i:'u,^^"'n" ;:; .,":l,",l"lTi'?"T11:,""",{lfii;i;, .a"iiuj ;i 'e, li"j;'J:'ll"1l:;T:ii"'.i,uji.*:;";;;;l;"";;;,-. ,npe*oa"n lD numdr: r' l\'dJts ldre g"Ls ulrpn rrold d' ,or. o / rio 'noa ,r m olhPr , . inDoL la! o u_ \ d 'ii': Par lY r iq' r s $io r hP dav ' "n "* il'u#* $'* u" ",1"t$ll,'"T"1T;*:"l"lTfiJi"i1 n"liilit"J:"i:lT'n"* 'u" t"'d rPro\Prhl Obserr&!Le ;o ill;"" -;tr"tl";:P"fl l"J" "T,iXot'i":Ti.ff'l'l:#: """1i"c""",."""11:"Jl"cT,t s,orscps t sll joac d in p ro p a z l l d l:'::#i:i;; ":,|:"Til:lil"$?,,:",;'"" d tn ta a il. o rk L" ti ;:,1,;'; 'ii;:il;'jli"li"'"1\ ri l"''"1 r" ,d "\' :""b i;'""rt i1 1',";;'' ";I' ,:;:;i;,",,. *-''',' t .". ' -ho ililf^-:*l"JJ'iitl1;:':1,:t;;il';li;3i*i'ii"i,T'J Lomple*ent direct' sau indirec t' ' r nod r laus hq J l m is lor lu' o i s s i s . $ 1{X6 Declinarea pronumelor relative este urmdtoarea: Datie Genltit' I ol Nlich t o whi l h ;"'":pi,i i;.,;", "t;:" "l i;lj; ;l; :L'';.:,, 1r" 1 fii -,i..,,1 li'".:,1x."il, 1 :"1', ;;:T,,,, qhich Ceielalte pronume relative nu so dcclinx' corelative" 1{38) $ (Vezili ',Pronunel e ! Atenlie pronum"l" alenlia xsuptx;rP$'tttar.dP rdre sepot i!i 'lnd SF slrdsp s lM? '47 " iDrrdelru: relativ est" ur.rol d" o propozilio I He $'asthe bov @nom lelt had told tho huth' ' apdriioa'um sulutuitirpsc f8'ol Ensli"l' Ultptio_ ' r "emot.teO"lo a"'sl pun'l tn paiarLez"' penLru as"pf' ri"chivarFDLrF iair,. ;i ;en !ibnar' t"lucra ii: 'oloc!'alP {v liii,iii-.iiriiiiii'i iii l; i;drr d'.";tip ti 5 r0s0-i05r)

FRONUIIELE SI !05 wlpm trebuie inlocuit p n {rlm, propozitia,lird incidenta,.I felt',. fiind: ''th e boy.rio had told the truth". Thercaresome ?eotlehereltrft I knowyoy nell havea ident lor music. fl,loD, Lrebuielnlocuit prin rro, propozilia, fdrd incidenta,' I know rery well", fiind: "people rr,io have a talent, Ior music". Fraza trebuie construiti ficlndu-se abstraclie de propoziliite incidnte, cat I felt, I noltced ,lhe! said, he thought,tre knoq, e|c. ln .x.mplul urmerorlnFd.propozilid-l beli" red 1o ba lba rulp'it np. fiind o in.idpntj. ulon. pronu'lc in'"roJari!. .rle .o mplcmFntuldirp., al verbului belieoed. atare, se sprne corect: Ca He asLed @i,n I lelivdto be ihe culprit. me (...p/b I believed be...l (coIo.v.) io Df scruf &EL PaONUIIEL0I iI ADJIi-TITLLOX Rr]r.ATl I t $ 1048 Prorumelerelative sht tntrebuinrate,in general,dupn cum urmoaze: (Vezi olseNalii le S 1053) 1) ponftu pcrsoano: S f04g who (: care) (nom.) The man @,{,spoke io you just now came f.om l.he countf}.. vhoser (- al cirui, a ctuei, ai cdrui, ale cErui etc.) (gen.) 4n8in.rr /x h o a ra u ,n d r) $ " . . .n | , -td." tdm i . J tri rp . . . Tn p a g " hut r u" al The wori'al to alnm yo! ryere talking is an a.tisi (s a u The woman you were talk. i n g io ...l which [: (pe) care, care dintre (selectiv sau inlocuird substantivele colective)l (nom. Ei ac.) li a umite substantive ca sh{ .p,. babls etc.. He had two broth.rs, onc o/ onicn was siill litUe. Slre sondere d qhich ot rhc sislds w&s the eld-"st. I c_an't teU.rrt.n I ivould rather hea. y ou play -Chotin. Tchaikovskt or one of ._ The c.owd ,lialr irad collcctcd cheredt he foreisn delcsal.ion. 1nd bnL ' t t h t , h I don'l.bow (pron.) this bas is. (sau ...,tF$ ladj.) bag this is.) '"hose whom ( : pe care) (ac.); to vhollr (: cxruia, cdreia, cdrora) (dat.) .h ;dd "J . ; r hir q4rs 4 - ..L i F u .' oto ,n o \ r b r o u g "l in d . p r P.1 o n .r hdnt r/.' 2) pentru admale !i lucruri: which (: oare) (nom). The d.s r/,t./, blt rou las Nn awar. Is the -clr}oard ailt l siands on r:our lef t nrll? ot Nhich', whose (: al cnrui, a cilrei, ai carei, ale cdrui etc.) (gen.) th roon, Uredoor o/ oLt., {s a tr o/ lhe door) is otren, minc. is The room. dnos , doo. is oDen. fs &! ',lri.n room oith thi oDendiot...\ is mi^e. the Th ta t.r , ' h" " oot af oh :.\o f" h (h tl a N o ts r" d d p p l .d .arpr. $aq be.r,' i ,t. Th ",o F. nlol" r dr \ v a 5 a p p rp ,l .g -F,^ r * ttt, k " dai pLed " p,J ,odlw 6 b" dnd .\ E , (Yczi si 5 820)

S 1060 . l rn se esie urmai imediai de un substmtiv itrii a.ri.ol ctnd est adjectiv. p sl4 dps pm , , dL m o d .L F n r p ri n I hmi D rn;n" t* . S 81), l ro n i n .h j ,p rsooal 'si i D pr onu mp l r laliv . or ps punz J l oIi i n d l n s { i mo F 6 o n a l d n n n l D pnl rul urruri , r rp . 3 6 a rv s r r d" " " m nd'dp o ri . p p p r.o a n A r a r' rf.i . D d ri n ri acpatanu ,nrotdoaunal . (i d si pfin p mnim"ln imp"Bonal _r. ru proDumel;rptd ie imb"Eonal .orpspunzALof r,,,t.t (v. _ { 854 1 . { ol enrn este precedat sau urmat de un subsiantiv drricerdr.

!06 MONFOLOCIA _ PRONITMELE which (: pe care) (ac ); 106l t) penlru persoane'. * 6 i"5 ' 1 i p. "arel {nom $i a"l il i: (;;; carel (nom !i ) Ahica iij*"*y'*jr'lrt"iJ'J'l;il"'j'xi'i";"?$'"5fl1 rol '.o'' animaleli lucruri: 'o {'htch (: clruia) (dat.) ;\fi tiJ';l#:l :,: r.'o:,:r ;",{ir,,l :;i;,:;"0 relern mai dsd*'*" -'',' I:: ii." 'l' la inanimatedecii la ob se re r: rne)carel(nom !r ob ) 1 . r' " n ' sL h F r' I J L l "'/ /"* rJ.^ o",a",d, "ij.; . , iriii; " l i "';i1 " " . i" j''-;:"i'i "" p "",nl' ; ; " " , r ' , ' ] rol ;;iT",i:' +;i1,f*lr:"rut: hr.n. v i'a,r'i":J';^,h"' l\r tup ''I",h"rs l{ soo d L ] ' ro 'j t i:l :."r ;";- ?;:I t/id ',1, l;;"11ii J"1"" T'I T"iftl"T;.',ii tlut (: care sd nu) (nom) rh . p L ' o rt' ' s o o d o n .o ' rr d' { sa" \ou' s' n" ' i"i" ' t*L ""r" lti"*:*r"';:t:1.*i s lo52 nchotilrit 4r cr irrtcles iil'i:fi'i;$":"''" src$e' orn'ninescu oD i shat (: cP. cPAc') (norn fr * orr'J i d''"m nrs "r rr'e 'r" ;;;;; h"o',;-"d n^ \J' 'p r' ,:";),,"1"{' 'l ' " v ""ir '''r -l,J""i ?i:; I'i,:""' OB SX I' IA T II \TEO {?RO\1J}ID XDLATIII s 1053 : s,o'n ,"l,i"l"lil;1.:f"i;l'i:li.: lXii:,l"J:'J ilT':?$. : :1,'l: p ro n um ' r F orl:.i'#il; i < /' c: ^,": ""' ; : ' :il: r ;i '1 " 'i 1 J'|" P -i n ll. i J 'P *ttt"*""**-.

" . ;i:x}f"nJr1i'ii* il*rUll'lt*:l*+lf{l$liii S fOff Zi U*-i afatlar un pronume indepenPft' esLesirotrirn cu h' tt'hd' este ll.friliifi,ii$"tiiil'ttl'"",;i rl !i,?ho ffl",ill,' _ deci _ nupoare s r0b6 s , "r' ,'"f"",11,i,," jt.,":}","iitr,t;;,;,:' {,'6.'1 , "*i"J.,"J'i:i":'lil,l"ll ;l ,t"t;Jl"l:l"ii',i:i;:,1"i# " .' .l " ll" lig'-"r '.""';ll 'i, ; ll::1 "1. llc'r': cu ---l.,1;"t enlioul'e imP'cutriL aDim{lesn{ cn'd siDt ," 'u''?lJii"?;;;r'"'."" "Trl:,,l:"|]jr :;";: l:*l: ' ;--ti*: .i: ; ;i{,ii i.rr -,p irnd ', ".rr,d..,.,i:i,",,.ii,":;::ul;;;1i;,:l,l.jg;"j;ii"',.,i,.:i sr a ri". 'n "'nt"t"l l' lr r J c ePi! 5i a7t ".r".a r. lcrsonnc

PRONUMILE 9I 207 Thc trc., l.arcs il,(tered in ure h.cze,... '//rsd ligLts shono ir the darkncs,. .. The lut. .!Los 5) nhom. ln linba englezdactualii, pronumele rctnLi,twhom nu me i q 1058 este determinat de prepozilii decit atunci clnd acesteall precedi imedi et. situal,ie tn care prezenla lui devine obligatorie: She ivonderedIot @hon 'lom lad boqht u,c llowc.s. C a !i l a pr on, r m el" in, p ro g i l i \F i n ,n . l n s L i l u l .o l o cvi nl di o,n ocLei nl ,..ri l p r in /,t . s.b im hln, lu s F or J i n e B ru \i n rp l o r p c n tru c i prA p o/i .i J s" vi n.] dJpd H rt"n , lr " h a d l " n l h i q s k rsh , u d q b i n d i rq on. q h , rp ,ai\ " d. nnt i" m . 'in n '| a | ' hr 4 ' t.,n ta a I ta ry d ,h a .l O) We lrave no idea who c]]ntabol.a.tes @hn.l,l iiLh I don't Lnorr pn a he is wriiins dbout.lbl ' U n p o ri rhiar s i or p. p d J r d o tra p o z i l i p l "It js rery imlortdt." "To ohr?' LOll Pp n L ru a s p ev it s inlr F b u i n l rr.a p ro n u m " l rri J r\rcn. i n rtp Je dr.p" ri l i e, n h o ea Jl @ l tjl in) o. ui" " { p c b i i r 9 i In l i p s s u n p i p re p o /i ti i : Tcl l me wno you watrt. (: Fhom) Ttr"F n no on. ( , t h. ) tru .l o n k n o w ,,re . I \' o .. A t l }p .lub , n , hould I r:n d b u t C ,ra l d : - \h o m ll A i q n pv prin r o ppoplp n d i s ' i l " r. | !h o n , O l n ta ' u pf o q.bqranti vr h hnppi . q h " \ a l way s ( r enr bdb y ' i 'l i n g b .trtd fp , s h . . t n , rn or, s" ,. ti dF., " toa. ^ u rnr o cu 'ip n - r nr l Wh o m p oalo I ns a li S i p ro n u m . i n d i v ;d u a l . d " .i 1p ctor6tor, tdra sntac cdc n l (: h c Nhan. t has pN h o n ).l n c a rp .a z n u .)i i .cl F i nl o.ui t. ci p retFra. : l.I'non the sods love die youDg. (Prove.i) IV]IICII (PBONUME iI ADJtrCIIv IiE'ATIY) s 1059 1) inloles.- Pronumele nlic, cstetntrebuintat: Q 106{l a ) . j n d an lF.Fdcn tu l d.numptLe animals un "du u n o b ip . Lin a n ima:t Tne figers ,fidn he had secn pedormins carn from Belgal. w o ipslp d rnF !o p. tc ..41r uh; . h s , l bFln ; 1 I . p, . on.r i r d o r . \ l lhF @4 ;16 ,rnr.& h r d jus t u, n, "|] , d, ha t ook t r , " I n o r . g I nndor. -/., 1 i"'."",,'l a ! . ' h"Un, o l\ i1g, hm . 5a . ,ofotisoD theTrJT^s. ,) cind antecedentul denumeqtetn acelaqitimp atit fiinte, ctt si lucruri: $'e iarled alout the tic"ds and erpoiencpr@hichM had had in commotr. peorle sh;c h sl.ood oli in oDe,smemodes. Tlrerc \r.r r.nrs ^nd _. c) ctnd antecedentul, care dendmeste de obicei o fiin!6, este tuat, ca I made oi lrcr L\e eomak shih I rvnn tcd my daughrerto becom._ notrune: {cr. 5 854) d) cind antecdontul esLe substantivcolectiv(g 1101): un Ile had leen listencd to Iy taqe audienccs ont.l had tctr enUrusiastic. I : lips a lui ,/,r. r U n p o ri FIa' i vut rnr:..[Idrl ha | F nnani_. ' 1" 1. d o m " s i " " .l ra S i s . In rF b ,,i ,' !" a?J h ad a l o u n q d " pr r no Ls " d lo to l l o wh rr d b o u l i L r d D e tb u o D v.' 'g a l u 6 r . r v lnlul. a v o fb i l { l a o i n t} u .i r" ,, , pi f . . . 'lu i cl p l dnB 4oaaoaa. or ri T a rk l @ n d rrl J u lc d p b rus .u l p ror. c' or arhj ' nnt l oel ti i t al ian,1 4 7 5 -1564

r0E mic: el ctnd antccedeniul se referd la un copil shchad seenat the lrospital the Do', '{n" """]a"'t {orgei ''li'} {cf s 6t' 84, 854) prp'Fdenls.r' reca' a): sdu o /r cind inlo.uiFSle inl rFagrprooozi!ie lr"za '^ , " h " tp " J ,h " s tl ,' ts . u l r' /i q 6 / prti ' ' eotl l v proi P e' s acrron ,,, o' a d ' s d ' h 4 a ' rp ' l ' h r" p I' r' r" ii- oir " " ) ',t, !. t lOar i ''*'l;,';*1f",:";.i:'^1li';,il:itli;r,:""i]:liii":;i insi urmaatunciclnrl pii,'.-.ir"'";"4 iubstantivul detLrmixot stijln ( o/ rni l t 'oll5J drF$hir^ t hrr' ' _oo' // *'1 l or ""&\rsor zt io n iiiv. rl" i, ' o n R"lntitulr/'; l ot. rn "az u lg " n iL irro r" n a/ ' I,'9""aero"-" 7-il';"1'; oapoalc !i J) Funclic. S 1062 ""' t r . l ' ,1 , a r i' fen r r u tiinrn crr 'i p"nrru l.rr ut il thicL titue 1l 11;."i;li:.1i,"''., I;lli: """:l '"' ", "' in carecazsepoatelnirerelatit) Wirkn poatcli qi adiccrie girr !ett".1tiU,";Ji1i,",l:f;"1,llii,f ire iak; ro.rhe "1.11'" i:lt:'i,::il"$i"i i,"d S"if;,i $e lPfi rlP Plo ngh ' t , 1hc ' gr r c nrP'pJs d"^prppo/iiiepoarefixnpotl qinorrimo ad\crbialp lllil 1063 t'""",nto.ui, 4l r'/" r" 'poeri ri lir'rdri i'p'e '/'irl r(dF'u"l' pri""a'*S'f""" Doetic qi l iierar), rvt?/ eic i "'l*i;:llt"l,.,.ll,*,'jfl"!i'i:'#"ii;fJ7f,i,lu,'ii!^.*trh.ire ""'" {ff ." ,rqrrir":j':.!:.ir:\.:l1*}'il"hllii'j',ll;rrrr r(co,ocv rd ) a hote, i! it a hotPl u /rrlliP' \r $ P lnt (;i,fJ, '""'llf*.;" flJ,li i::il ETf" iji'i1,,, U,.:,t* hdd bat lent: to) s1064 61065 r'""" rlai poat' \nlo'ui' pronumdc ll ftrlrrhuirrlarr. P|irumple rFloli\ d"t inoint"un "; propoTi!.ii rntit'ai'rP' '0re oupc uha.,,l,a*..1,' n ts'n"''oi .ri.. p'r" ab' 'l rr np'P'Jrd par'rru'l:'rrar.eaInlplj ," "u* ,","",Ifx1,.,,,, S 106 6 t '""" 1-!" :.p-' ' l hal " l ronumcl o 2) Cdz ur ilo in c a rp !e i n l r' h u i n !' d z i i d " u rp bi rp rr ' rrmi ' oarFl p ' azufl : . plF lHll" l ro n rrm p r" l Ari \F i "f* ri a7 dr r pa r r n ' r\i n l re ' e ' l l ' tr 1 I ' o t" P l A f 06?

ti i:i,;4,rit,ilil ;:ij:i["i,ilI.. "r["*!il) t'h ih) I s ar it t o s t l ' rL ti!"'t 'if:,,i $ 1068 s 1069 D) dupn r mcrale]e ordinale: iliil not kno{ wnaL'nrss nedia" mtant si" rr"'.,1,, f,,,",r, "t.o.rt,rd' (l urr adjcctiv ir gradut superlrtiv: r:) dupn un subslanli vcaliiifnt div lriarl \re hrd on onr tri]' Ii N*'Itu l,ris"/'rrr rh" r ! ilnl. la',.. "*|' "l;i%iYi;.i', \'''!'\",','o,i;* :': ';;' i i "r '''r " n" .H:f;Hl':i: il''33'ii"i{:il't '""i:',i ,*gj;m*rill;,**;,?gt:irliii:lii

5r rELArrv ^DEcrLvr]r 209 N otd D remarcat constructia irtiomatjcii de mai ios, tn care prol1umeletha'' imDreurj' .u verbul rFspecli\," inlocuil prinrr-uninfinili\ slun'i 'lnd snte,.i.nrul lui c rc lori esic pr".Fdbt,lF, un r'um"tal urdinal un superlrliv su rhe uDa din enpres iilethe anl1J. t'erA: F hie' o; l\ pls o n r h " B o 'p l 'l 'n " Chdmoolliol $ i" tt" lt$ 11 J PI ' t o;i v t " i " p 'r r 1 r " a J e 'r d F G A r r a l op' t lt ot hlos ;i; ; ; i"; ii;":, oi'n ' . -; H " " -' ;ler .\a. /, /., I No,-nr n ' o d' : ! P. a t r ' ' ". dLr un i l' buz r i, t"'' p ima I m "i" r."' . ' Tal"" r or l.v ,o rrm" ,a h rJ..an" "/ t ni r h f ", ". $ds Lm L s rur La-m!r i. , op. "r ' I por ni' F ii.. iLi,ii' t , , lov p s r i r i '4" Th" " or' ., Ens. h b vo l. t o - anne' / lu l' ein1Fr 6 t t o L l r a f r \ r 'l ' s p r , r J ' \rr prrPre I n p 'r o l o r Lia! ' P. ol Put l; r "Nnodo" ,r-allllF p^ sl ,;5 li 'l"rrt .le lur O\.ar \\'il de l d P re ;tru q h s.' r /i,,,/, o n @ r o"oA t r ' ls I s l L;" d ,/ d bin" p lgl' r ' r l" r srrru , 'F rr He ws i/re *ry nrn i. do the job. (Xra omur td;.al ca sd ,ndeqlif;e1ld sanina d.r1t ) s 1070 d) duD! Dronumelenhotlrite: all3, \'erqthng, sarne,anA, no nnnP no \ 1011 one.s6n thinS.ontthtn!- n.thtns.i dupd rr\'inlcl" D'ttth.1;ttl' th ' th ot Lu ,4/ / t.dl glitle $ i. to t r j ' l, i t P. n\ er Ll :s l r,t.rht r e t+o , I rr ,.t , . . r " n 1 . t lol inr I s p"int or /nr l\ \ ' i h' i-' n.oa -l,.j t ' ot hinelth atl yo u tl" r\ a l. r r r e lul. \ ' Lt P ' t ' ni J U s o u o l l " ' 1 2. \ o. Ao ,"'r g oo d r ' , \ ' s . ri. i rr' o ju,i.t n , ..'tt', o' t t po! ! t r , 4i | , lin' I Ln o { l O J boal l/ 1"/ | n r pd . ol O n np ) lrL l . a $ ,r,.,/ rOi e/ dupd pronurnele interogativ trio. penlru a se fita o repelilie: ii It'ro wa,s riat rang jllsr noF? /) dupe construcl,iainrpersonall t Is. il oa, etc : He was suren eds Ilme that had rung hin ul S 10t2 $ 1073 din eEte sl cind antecedntul compus doud (saumai m\ te) 5r$stant'ive,S 10?4 trho, alnt\ ahtch: unui'crind thdt ha\c niade ttre world lhal I $nll write abouf ,n? l4o?1e and thc eoenLs it is' 3) Cezurileiu caro ai: $6 ns "\ on hn l i ntrD rf \ irhulas. l J o u Ily m ol r ?lml nu S 1075 S 1076 l d, in propozitiile e)iplicativea.deoarecel/lrll a.e sens restdctiv: nu so lntrcbuilt.toari prolumelo "thst" -. poate ti lntNbuloi 4 d y arr:\e d \ 1s r a- Lld- 1. lIv mo tl,"r. rn rs nor an c dn /d/ ro u r aus h dL ' v r r ins ala' s r l r ^ h o 6 / n ' r ' r lldr dr r v "d po sl .p ln;: tN . "

a!gnof b) tn locut unui genitiv (ahose, af ahich sa.u ',honl)' dat liind cn nu S107? are formd de geniti{: T ' F ' . \in rpn l, {iDs" s ' ns " ' l lum our v ou $i' l at p''i d l F _ e: " v r n. e l. oI . r d' _r _ oI h' r m o u r I 1\d . " !o al".pu r p ' "i I p' ' : Li d Dio ,,,,,'rh 'll " ",4,1 pl, \te.c Fcscnt ag.etd " ' ! Ca r nu llnr alsoli't nfoesa.. reftrtr j;i"ffi"ri;*r-_ ''"..Jii,l;:';;l;iilr:" I nr ' . ' ' -li::j.,.fre;:iyir's n 'l!l l,:,ii.'ri' n " oi lr u IJj, qhar r r'r l1 l \h o r..rit , " ,1 8' 'l clariiat.a lrazci 15 ltal) r Il. . , d. |oc.' ;La l. l ,'E . Cdir o ESlpl. u d" ! _a gdil- ir . l T t c s lPslpdpa.dP -d' il ru

910 MORFOLOO _ PRONIrMET'E s 1078 rle o prepozilieJdeoarece .r) cind pronume,leIeI,rLll'.{rsteprecedat, 'ilx, .,, oo.rl. ii pr-..,lrL ,1" pr"fo/rln' r a n , a r . , ,,,i ,4 \d . " b " " 1 r1 r':, "' n11"" ,,,1... :l " " "1, '"irJi;fiir ,l;,;';i t\ri lir ,;"'rili" i'" #i:'i,, ' f he t \ nr D i\ L sc Po atc \fl r r ' r : { 10?C o ' 'r'"rbinr'm:i;;':i'jJJl;:l:i;l'il: ir"i,.."ii"rirre' 'r:r.iil'r"'i ln stilul col ncli \e lootF,I rp'b: ".tt"l '390) pre'"d rp Je sdje'riv" rlT,Jupa num"l' or^prii 1i duni 'ubFrdnLiv'l p n'' ii rosr" ri r"strins' Irosbi\",', demuns'|ra""" """":;i;";';" '""''o''l lo l IPstn.ov: iar l,tai ^f $nr lrccFdste imedisi-de lrepoConstructn in caro pronuniele rcl lii.t-" o ': ;; Jl,,',t;,1"1l:. :"j,-% (Vczi ii $ cfl DrppoziLis rin; Llupa 'a { 1080 """1" ii*"xfdffi t g-.*rT"fti'il "",-'"' _llral zero.l ztt 4, Pronumelo s l08l ' rPla'it //'dl nu - De obi'ei pror'umFlF oolliri""J""i"ii" rn Fitcerpritnrr 'tna"ro ' "ur rits" '*bita depersoaa'l ;",,,,:i1.,, f " "iijT;"',1:1i ii1;r",,1 :.,1i;,:")ll.l.i r"r 1o1 rf'?]l"l'ii";" '"; ]iult m*' q ]ill''";;'"tl:"i''{"J ilr n': ;*,if l,tl'lllr"[",;'b'i:" di Ob se r o a !rL llX i ,0" lJl:ili"::"'J"#"i"J':',::.::i;fili;;l'"|il '!':,0:""t' ",,"'jj'T3;, ;. "1 *,r' " """"i' ioar''i"n'el"rn mod"urentIormdA i,i"ulii ii" .:""r" 'ndinjnd Ih " ln oo- irr tormnro '" :r"1^:'; l;j'il ['#j.t:d'ttI inl,r;r;:,]:* "H:','; " "h ":h;i";i':;;::';1;;;ur"* .IVHAT (?NONU]IE SAI]'{DJEC'IIV IIEI2ITIY) s 1083

{ '" 084 r J 'e x Dr lm A t : g * i, lil! rin d rF " i ';1"- p r Mdt bclonss " : 9 : : 1 " ' I, ln r r o lr rri0ltrro't4hot ,that'r'ril' Cu p rin c d p n ru u e s ra nl sr n ' i ' rn ' l a n ru inrr"bL'inL"a / r/"r o n u mei' 'p to -rou shr'u be vous' We'lI tell You 0'd' s'e sa$"

o b se r r a lie antecedentr'esie ivhat e$telntlebuinlsL numai atunci clnd Pronu mcle 5 1086 vag: neprecrzai,. '.u-.r"r z F-r'nrur Ij '1";1d4.'?i1r064r. i';r. ' "' iiit*l"inl"iia s I08. 7.r6r r. tr *hr'a c0 , C'oi *lati'"lolldr -r Cons t t uc ti a e Vl h a t c s re th I doI t lnoq r ' oI r o r X P r ' "P s l i k P a I 'g Com P ' "t ' ar

PRONUMXIIE ST 21I Thot \thi0h se lntrebuinleazi atunci cind antecedentul se referd la un S 1086 sl ro'FdFnrur bau ,p"',"4" ;;;'J,"r= 'jnJ ," "bi".l";;";;; rrrcntnat (Lhnt hicL 'to brip '.J 'Fll Tnp\ . , J rl e ll lh memrn g. in lh- J ! lio r ' J dod li' ly "o , _ 'i r r o ' 'l i Tl,,;F $ai rro r i1 l' m "nt l m il i r p"lon' Lr k p Thal qhichl he said w as no !e$s io dvone 4 lh" rdl' d 2\ C$2, Pronumele P,tdi cste alegn neutru. cu inleles de singular fi se $ 108? in treiuinteazi in cazul nominativ sau obiecliv: lyn r r, ro b. I'n. n,rr oe s"l do " \o r'rJm"hi1'lppd rob' youh.dirl'1n".a1d ll'l:d i')i'.,,, 1088 3) Frmotii. lt7ftal, in afard dc faptul cd ara l-cloire d" I'ronuJne dupi S pfi 'j sdi'.rir+ lai\'indd-l'rrrn;u4ntrbbtar'pJna si,i. pod num. a "rcta Adjectirtl tyhar Pti.6 that got were all _"amcd phal poate fi tntrebuintat qi ex clarnativ: W , { dr a l i n d a l l nhdl n o n q c n s rr I l' r " / h e a l LY i a l ' Ps r l lr ez i ii S ' 1 1 ' 61 0 1 1 1 0 9 0 , 2 8 l rl l , $ 1089 ! ,4 tcn tL e In erclarnalii, pi./t exclanativ nu rcdn cuvtitul ,,t4" din declt. atun(i cind acesta insolelte &n sa,slatl": tYiar dreadful manlers lre lce manhr ,, olirilf .rrlr 1CcJ r t . ' I ur n u ;r.r) lir a romenn S 1090 Cincl cuvtntul ,,ce" insolelte lln d?j..1io. el se iraduce priD ad1'erbul/I,*': \ se o b . pr ! ' . s 1r pro p o z i L rrl p a rp ' ' 1 l i n ' u !i n rcl F /' ' r si rr' 4l ' ubpns ' r0 ' r' u l i ' n b d rnr3n; orp' F' l a prp' l r' e.xcl a-fl ri t. I n gp' c r F . u6i " tl u l l n .o tul. g rp ri l i n u \l ' l u l .. c eva r" ...nin' ic r c , ' . . F " r r l, hir " . o rn n u ' l p l r ro n ' i n ' q c ..' p nu ,' t hine . sa n ;h ; r arri \): c i pi i n rr'a t t de obi" . i n" r p ri rn rt In c J Z u l ^ b i pronunrclc din e\0tFirlP"tot ccea'""' .'F' 4) Whst. That.- Adescori l hot D u' r x ott' 4' rr' r.s d u c F p rFda nrrn o' or' S 1091 .4r 1 d , , h . r ", . i . n o , s,rJ. ,N,, io, pa :;:.-;" .,:,:"i:"lj,l t""- ;",1"":... & s ' . br u. p, . , n .p rra r' i ^' ; ":ij", ,;'ij :,# 1 1 - '

*' " ,j l l l T " * , 1 . \i .i "o;",: , , . ; t u - n . p n r o " 1 L n do.b i . bao.\ don" . '" poL rredure ir .lirba $ lo92 5r loa'Fstpp'unu'nc rrrrrndlo'ul unFl '?lTlrarn' " inse tntrpburna irun' "aza $hi'h 'lnd \ t J s v h! t l r t r d l .nd .\r nd ft4q \o'! tut rr:t P" ,hi h I ' What. Wbi.h. - Ilelarir"lo prin rirrn, a' rLa cnsleznorin ,t/,d/ 'su :"" ,';i i"'1, 'lin Fa i 'ind pB pr'cJ;: "i "r3t-irii irobozitia urm r ' d l,fidrlcou lJ ' Dt r "Pa ldr' I n l _'

6)';What" idiomstic. Pronumelerl,al, repeial se t'raducetn limba S 1093 romAJl r "in ..ba...ba " in urn:itoarea construclie: jn lrnu;Nilh e.lins llnd /rrra,J witn drjnkiiS. th'i \e$ Year hril tome belo'e thev I ?tdr ,,nt,n estc *i8r.rL" "rri"t". ocuir IDin pronudclc .r,ar li siil,l colo, i'ial: $'rrsi nc sai.l ods cstc o prolozili san larb dh accasla atuoi iitrd anteo cdcnrul

219 S loel o'r".""*""**-, pe circ le urmeazn' "u,l ti that' Qhich E_'"-r ; t r0 o 1' |t"r'd I r F unc lii . - ' 7 4' sestPp' r e l u ' l a i X \" il' ;l;;i*" " J" ? ' i"ii:" i:' ' ;;: *'" rdvprb'au 'onjun ' """ *i'1"'1;'nn*'' Ill,"liuiJ"""'i'H'19""1# L i' : i" "''"" t'" "t' ^ $ 10rG ""tJi1":iiJlTi?"iilTronumeie ! loe? ?,,"." :'f li;;' i::.;if,l":"; njt".,'r,;,L'i;"pl;''i;;li,i';'l'l$ atit asseinte buinleaze peniru rerativ ,**o*n "JJ,o".o" npgaliv Fi pronumer'lsriv' arc lntclpq - B't cu veloJrpdP l) iolelrs' s 1098 " , 'tore 3' nu': "noa" E10sei " """'l""lrrw J#,*'f'"ffiTit'J#"Ji1""T""x}'':l -- u ' ,,- '^ jtutrerruinlare.-,-4, ,1f jii,Tii.{iutii"Xgi.Tlit"";ji:il't'*,i hmD buinlet Si etunci nunrarln lsl F tF: 'olo'\ rronumFrctaliv bu' mai I $|roo i,,l^Yli::,; :'si:;,i. ,'i bdbr' too:poirr mu"n ii' "5 'ur -'i*"t dcclr' numai){ ="U): bt od tPr b \= r lir h bov H" is . nor h i n g 'b ,r = a f6 n;?T"'lu"r, d e. daci u | = .t" ppt).. "/*:'""#ilhJfi *'"*""* ' (t) e nan tial: dar' insn (olieclie)l: iour lalk is ldll ol 0,,, s,, ni:".J*:l1"it,"J;.r'","1,.\ l;i ilI mlffit linili 1# * ::i* l u ! PsrP. relstr! trtD dnc{ Terbur rlrJXCTlrELE r'A PnoNU)txL! nEl.trRlTo -sr ,Ltrlj cIrESTruNr 'E 'rrs RllrflTf, 'l';""J';" ii ::l';;'1 Ii: :'.:', ; ::*":;'.;" :f ,"".." ",,' " ;]:';'i": il;' ""' tI:"':i:19;';i': ;^;1 -' "o;',;"'"",1: :'pTll"" x'l'i"'3i"'" l.n;:i'lti'::'ri'YTi *1"1",1,:i:;liii niii ,,",ii"":,il,'ii,: :,l.i; j:i,:t, I lr;,;il:il:i'il ,'t,['" "i:i;liil .' .lnLi-"lllif*l

t Du nu are lunctie de i1 1 Unr i aulo fl c o n s i d a ri _ 0P ace6H silualie c urlniul onume' p" propriu. $lJ;Jril":: "oD,

PRONUMf,LE iI ztq pqle Plor ln tnlrp p"rsordlli itufPrcorcl raz'rlt'uhqlaDlir 'olp'li'F AlAserea l acuia ti gon.r" 5,i fun.1i" d" iirFnlis !orbirorului scu o s'riitnrtlui' relaliv zerofolrr' pronumelui S I lol relatir. (Pronumolo 2t Eti-osa rclsti\' poale fi clipti. r'uD'i 'ind qli in raLut obt tt' d/ Prbnumdp indisf"n'ol)itd si cfni pro pozitl" din cere la"" rtl";d" J t rminotirn dn ln alip'6 F ' onclrEspronpPinloLdFd una 'r'rLul in{elesuiuifraz;'i. Anpasl6 nosrull rn o.ara.leriqricd d lrmbrrvorbr rpdc cnglezrr coiorvial:i.on.'ituip Anslia: T h. Lo\ $. _tT AI i .l n o $ i . m J -F r' n e w h " b o J rl o a w " In " r" l , in o. " d. . 'Ih iactor! we aisited iv$ er.cted quilc rccentlX Iln loc dc:'"Th c lactory @li.t we visiicd. "l lnp . 1ild r n r s p o k p l o i s m v d a u c he t-s I t i" l; ; , t ; , - T i . .l ,i l d ro ;t;/i v o u ' l o (r' I did' l t f ind r h d p a p F tu)n u $ F re l u ^ l i n s l o_ . . . _. l h P p a Pp Fi o _ ,n ./l ]o u rv rP rookrne r lo loc d" : , J Pronumele relaLiv n & poole lnsa fi omis cirld este sabie'l sau clnd pro' pr y lic at i*i. dc ' i n u e s te u s c 0 s a ri l n l e l e s ul ui frazei : p ozili i "ste T hp bol , n g n 4 re J J r p j x s ru w i 5 .my n eth w qr norv ... l [ N- ' . poar ps p u ra : l h i b o J tn ' r o m p J L. r ' " \ : s it t h. tu .ro NLri li " ft i s o n o ,r s J y . _ " . v i s i l l h . Ia , o ty r" on l\ u - " poA le.p -n F : lhp T h. nap" f t idt i . o n Ih e l a l h i s l o J i ). _ l \' { 3 b l P rs rod,l Jn j pdp r L r \ u: ; " poar es p u n " : ^b n I b l s i D !F S a rd n in F ar h t, Ct ul ' n _ C a l i D l 1 l h " r I ' a s i n l h' . -l t Nu " " podr es p rrrP : T hank v ou |or J o u r n o r' q l ;c l I r' " i v F d J psl nrdov' t Nu " e loal. s tu n " : " T l J n k J o u l o r J o u ' " S 1103 Es c e P lii intilnite in vorbirea S llo4 loarte colocvial, A se olservauneleerpr esiieliptice. lipsescf|onumele relative chiar in cazulnominativ,dupi ai" care "u *"tA.it is, thereis, who i^P: Ol //\ th F !d_ r br r , l ls \ i' \ r c lr h"' t "' ' v ot n O I n"r l 1' 1 l"_ ' r ' r o' /,' lhp r'..'l on lh' , ' ho_r ' q1, " s an ' l " ' l k 'n , ii"""'. ol rh ar Jl/, \ds """'. \ ' r J t nn' k ' d J l " doo" \ " 'r Ol S c) Co structii idiomatice. In unele ati cu Pronumelcrelativ: ,l ,p, ' 4u. r . s l, i hl 4ol i, / / t . $ ! h. it r ' lr" .d { l ' h ? r \ t t t . hl t hP no , 'L q Sne d ns! 't t " r ' l \ 4 l "' . r tonstruc.tii, prepozilia lipse'Rte 1105 od lO ' | ^ .'n rJ t4. tw) ^ .p r , . / , r r t L \ '' l l' .l v u fnn w 11, n n"r t in r-J /l lon $h' . hl J ' P I "ar "d n t u t

S IloG 3) Loeul Drotrumelui rolotiv. sdu' pus, pe cil, posibil, Itngd antccedent dl a') Pronuinelo relativ trebuie Neresfectareaacesii reguli dd naltere ]A mari c onfuzii: IIe took an ar.i.o, lrom the iable.onrn he at \tilh relish' ( I nc o/ ec t ) fNn a mincar nasa, cr catsa.l 'Fr;n the table he took d altr,t ( c ot ec t ) | - z?n p lati. p rcn au a' O l\ x dir d ( ii.,r he ale \!lth relish r F a 'i v , P nlru simbolul r l, p. n pr o' um d. i t"l enslFze m;d"rn1: 7 4 : 2 9| j.

.umir-rD t,i!.,ro srdrarim '" .T#jiiiil."Hi.i',i'l'"'o;o,,.r',r",t-,.. ispr...sr n' ol Loht'nPo4rv Lnet'8n' p.o9ziii Ptht',tidle tqnitk. A cnnfut

214 I s d\ v t hc m nn i r' l h " s " .l //' , v u ' r L n o \' , , - r ada " . ' 4, , .u 4 o s .u ' j ....a 4 rri n d " u b -tJ i vJl !l n." doroti l Jr pror. r" l p l l07 I'i the strcct. I saw the man ,ndr vou know L,,Omul" este ,,conosculi'i mdD liin il substaniivul alropiai de prorude l r-nti trt' a (ott. both. ndny rr" " rp -i n . D ) \ um " r alplp !i c ' r\i n l " ' " et qol. s a t., e ri ., q p p u r ' h ;b i " i In" i l l " J pronu' ^l ui rpr' cP dst mo .t. nuf i. d F fr" po/ ili, " t ) o l ' v h o n . o l a h ;;h . ms i a l e q ci nd ' Lnt ' rrbi prr' l The !triv{Tsity secttarialc cmp]oyedsix clerks. r"'o o/ sn;n rvere univcrsitv gra' nt.tlrods nos, o/ rrnrn wo Hc erpo,rtrd.il lo ns a rnmbe. ol rfccnt lchnolosionl alreadv knc*. spoke ol ihe neoessitv ihe confcronce. the two sirls. &ort./ trl,n took r.hclloor .1ll ol ha\'ing a pooling ol e\peri-aioein farmirg pngl ,zn nr p ^si bi l n conll08 / S pr " d. u. p b i ra d p l i b . ro n ,i n d , l n l in' b d ' propozil,ia relativi poate. in unele situaljj. s: stea dpparie de strur:1ii iri care antecedentul ei atunci cind nu existi ambignitate: i _ o" j mi " n n \d . .\/. !o o -F l ,l - , " a ' ' I " . r ' ld1" l lo tn . u ,tt t i t \b ' n o ' |lJ l ' ' ^ n r' n;rrr:lb^l o (Vc z i s i S t,1 5 1) 4 P r oou||r r lf rc h l i t :i n re p o T i l i i . - C " n l orrn r' .:ul i l or:rar " ,i ' l p prll09 Do rit i" t r Lbui" . i D r" ,l i n ro n rm" l " r" l 1 i t p" ," ro 1l In' uLP : a, .\' n ' l i i e Euii r im ine ins " i rts L i l a n u mri l n l i mb a s e r i sn.l n stj l ul col ocvi al . prepozi l i a se"punc lntotdeauna .lrrpd verbul respectiv sau dupi complementul ]ri djrect' The lainting d, ,li.n yor $cr.loolin g is a Dcgas (itlamatical colect in slilnl lormal '1 1l o' fi ' r u. , r ' r in! \ i r,i .r.i \' o u w -f ,.o l i n g , i . d D g. r' i I orn.Jl | ..rr." Li .m" r ' ,o.. r l r' r..\; r,.' i ;,.4 ,' si "-' trdditiunal..r ' . , . _s , /rrrl ' 1 . " : s p. ' , rd r' $ l ' o rn ,l l 5 .r J o u r ' er ' , u " l o^\bl S 2390 ) lV.zi ,si Cazurile in r,are prepoz;lia sH intotdeauna drpd verb slnt urm{toare le' al cind pronumele relatiY nu este exprimai3. lhe, r ' " t r ot hia e ,$ i " l ,l o ' ,v /o ' . Tr'c aitlor .i it,i rjN-Ihonciic Diciionary is TlIn hol. Dani .l Jones!lwh.{d]l Jotr must hare lrcard aD,u,. D) oind pronume.le relativ intreb uinlat este rrdl (dat fiind ci nu poatc 1111 precedai de prepozi,ti): fi Thc nrrs e rho, lhcf sclt /o/ $'as on dutv at U,c hoslital ft? animnls ,nar wc show kindn css,, al alsav6 graielul jn sine Pronumele ttftdl este un caz special deoarece cu prinde Ei antec_ 1112 iar oliicD pronumele reldentul. l't:l,ar: that tphich, thar lliid antecedntul, tiv. 1110 111e Dacn prepozitia se releri la ani,ecdent frralJ, ea estepus{ numai inainte. Dronum ehi pftdr. dacd se refere la Dronumelerelativ fttliictr' a poat'efi pu:; inaintea pronumilui rrral sau dupiverb (adici se conlormeazeregulii qnela1 !i uzantei de mai sus): IIe ncv.ir {greed 70 i,la, you sugsestld1Ch. Dick.ns, Daeid Copperfield. xP.onum clc r;htve ozilii. ttnr si ai nu sht nrsolitc dc !. 3Cr iltr cu \;^ . 1n Dr o"um d. i r plar : r z " t o lDrt;? lJa vF r donr J ' Fl. 1 l. I piil I ! L_. o n d l i i b r ' 'r g ! / d- J u, D ictio nn r lo ne lic .ng l. z il 1- q1r - . a D b l i r 't i

!16 p d .n l r - ./o ,} ,, \!hi .h vorr qrrg:pcl oi l' l Pr"n o z ir r s / a . " r F h rJ l 3 J n -' n,r p u d' a t i lu. i, dF ' i r ;n l i n l p l p ' .r rm ^ l u i r' ' d r' l we do!'i knov ,, rldr lrc rfnned (cranatic'l '!tect, slil loDDal) $J. don't know trna, he rclerr.d tu (Slil colocYial) r. : ' \\ don I I' na' r ' bJt I Pre D o/ i. i L / o bA , . t c rd d , J rn | ' p ro .u ' c ,' n d . i . .r p p u ' o . ..l o r1s:nr ' a pron rc ;r' i'l""lr Ll m" ri . i ;.l , n " r l' p. t " d rn "! dupn l Dumclui relativ, iar ln vorbirea curlnli, 'erb :,) Prorumolo ruLrtiv cu lunctic tlc suhsti,ntiY. Fle\ibilitater limbii S 111+ c n s r a zr Fr m ;1..r - d liidF.uri,,.noi rr"t.',. prin . u n iz i' s i " u ro r ' in I I " n . W ho , Wh o. uuu r r ul r u m " l o r J a p ' rs o d n " ma " a n l F i t I l at r' p domFrrrr' rc . lc ml rl l , uno' c . r t . i DUb l i '" r " b i s rl r \' r .i u n rl - rtl ' 1 l " nti rr i r 7 hP fi nl " s are o i n rrec s . l pas i: a J p ..\4 :.1 ru b l i i i rF - i n ri rul a i frP W hr' s l V ho af de l E b0bl si tt" rs lV h a i ' tth " " e . li " a" e ' p " r a , u n l u " ; /" ' h ;' i n . ' " trt-s. l ^ Iot t abL B uild, n e s , Bo u t o L i n In .td n ! Ba i l t n " ' t c t. ehi ' In l i m ba e. ) r lpz E " .tp c J r.n r ro rJ I d e ' u b ' ta { i v d3r l ro' ru-rFl ur ' !l ' qi relativelor ln ginete - dovadi articolul ho tirit care 1l tnso-te;te: jnt.cbat r,,leritnr la xltinele ;ti.i, a ritsllns: "I slau ask thc nexi Carl Sandbufs3, bana n a n Fdol" ' 1t ; t h. d .l t]" !h u t o t i t l yn a fr . : pedeapsa , c e a rra : Snc gave hnn ,tl,afo. whell he did n ot eat his lood lcolocv) WlLaxnot, p\. -s : pentru acestea etc. nimicuri, fleacu d. tot felul de lniruniiluri; dulap' raft Tablou rezumotiv :ll utilizdrii pronumelor relttiYs vho' whoso, whom, which, thA t Pentru inl,rebuiniarea cazului pronumelor relative din limba englezd trebuie l ,inut seamade urmAtoareledoud considerente: 'r slill,l fo,tuutrJu "u]".,)in! pa' 1r. ll sl a'a- E871.872r: n rl t r4"n lt rits \) ' tfti'otird - rtrPid .sra .rul I'rot,ozil:Fi 'li\" 2J p u;"1- InrrFlui,.ral t|2;42 ) 1"\'. ii "t.'l;n" $ 1115 irllesului) (ncesarn I. Propozitia aleterminatiYar, Caz .. ] io nitu ti, A ct..tn. Cu p ip..itie '... Ce n.ilir ... $ 1116 Anrmab r Yho. llliat r l] iat j lll, ar l . . p. . poz t ! ' c llhos e tFrnzi r c ltl trtl . i N hi , . l u \l i ' l /l \hns' . . lI. Propozilia explie:rtivi (rcnoccsard intelosuluj) $ ' h o (D r).... w h o ..., r]r* n ri l j c ..l ,e o z rr $hJ ....(1' hi cl r). tthatl ... .... prcpozi l i e \!l ' i ci r.. + ...rrr ' pr l ,o/i l i d ... . .. f kl ,i " h w ho. $ 1117 L 7. / | e Zrmp r, AxSsr 8. l9: 8. b i o s r u f $ i $ r i t o ' a d {a dv. cpld liv). ar . r . ult r J n d w n e r7 0 r P ' 's "ii,'; ' . t ur c r pl. , ' i\ e l " 'n u a , . .all1 cu ,o sau f,. tn iaz J ' ag. 22. ii, t i 187s - - ls - 67. . po{ l " f n r ' i k;, . en, lr b, , ; . " " : r lu r lr v ; a' p r r pt t f \ t : - t M n 9 s 4 D,ii."t e sreclDrin s t d a s t 0ur r t , ddo r d p l l i o r m a ! " P t 'o r'r,r0 r dativ

!t6 Ilezumal loarlo brhomalir (. il 'ol^'\rJl lrblll drlerminati'e sho.e Pr'rpozi!ia \rlri,h I fnanim"r" rintoc'ri'pnrin /ldl o ri' rr r' uz"ti t' onrls"shom, $hi.h i ro'rrilFpri- r/"r/ ornF in '.uzlriL' { | alrcrn.rirp a' r"plrbi)o in genpre i i rle oloieeiomisein vorbire I ol NotiL din 1-oF Propozil,ia xplirrtif.i. neljjn d eseniiah irllelesului . este omisi 11fE i' i, a\^nrudl "p"rrr'i "r o "rpli""ti a ln rire\e 'uvrrlp birta toirr" aU,"ii' a*^iece stilul coiocrial erte format dr n propozi-tii scurte' O" i"t*"t" "*i. neavindnici subiect, nici verb' ( S2743)' iiiii"i" ri,i':.S lllN "'" " in,-''"7rr1 JF"i penrrrr pe''osr' proaun'"lrp ln pr npozllia4 1 t' th4t: 'tatn0tird I;" ,i". ,""" o '*t" . ',\ ir,r. 'in l;-tr" 0d' "^ri rm:, ",i' ""-;' . l t . d ' ! : o"lr " | ) \' f,' (.Animate -#' -f# (;,";; A ten lte "i" "a;.;ori ! ii#iiiT;firllJildt)il1.T.r^o,u ro.uAp,les !r;'tiru il | r:r'l ;,l"iil,,..,,-. li i u'0.,." n-,s,!!i ,am'), " ,li'1,:JXl,iil",,lilli T,',X'"'i*l: elcr sne is rn; ('-.sr Nornanda' lras'r. ootncnv Nav s 1120 Pno\uuEr.ll lr,{DJxgIl[L'r, RJlT,lrttl- colllPlls 1) tr'ormi. - Relativelc rft' tvhich 1i what impreund ou ^'tl:lb:l:-1' $ 1191 t "" c*e o'i on cu"actermai general' *r'ti'" qi l";;arlJ".""-" "o"'pose, "oJ; dect i formele simplel Unii aulori consideri acesLeforme ca i""i "oltote"rt nehotdril e compuse: liind pronume ahak'ershesavs . , i'iiiii2i r':.l,li",lpcl o'ricaq- tiep qnieL ( 1122 Fo nle com pusecu sootl tthosoewrf: (pe) oricinel' rphicl*oepe -ri " t r o .f ^r ica r - l"i '-rars, ''l I ori'"r sin l lilo rs t p d o s u-e t p ' 'iJ"lnei" .i'.e'i"t" vhas oe'c' ihichsoe'erSi ahdtsae'cr slnt lntret rrga " buintal,ein stilul Poetic. """ 'P;.;-;i; cuprinsin ele: au antecedentul .o-p'* 1124 S '"i"Ii"" careJ otit)e rhae'er \P{mani ohiche,o l: ari'c tlinld sae luc'u care) (tdrer" l: oflcc ruc'u ca'c, Pronumelp rclsti\.e comDuse au aceeaqi declinare ;i 2) Dcclinare. S 1125 s lnt supuse acelorasr regun oa ti formele simpie corespunzitoare: whosoerer /N,h l Nhoe\' $hosesoever whoserc /cetr )' $ho(m)soeYet $ho(m)erer iob i ""'",:;;iiiii,,t"i,r;'"'*Ll;l'lr,x.:ll$,'i"tl',,';,I{f}, *'o'"* "'""' q 1126 Cazulpronumeluit'hoefereste cr !i 'rzul proturmelul i"l1' lr|c pi ie: car c l].:::":.1'"" ralativin propo?iti'tlLr) "'--- a" pc'caretl are pronumel' j, i \ 1' Lr lt d I r " 'a l -fU ' Ps PJ / '1 ' l $" l *_ d \ \ ' An e' l ! r olP, "; r " trtrt ) Th"r s D L' o ! h' r ' r ' nqf t ' l tunt ) o ! t ' ot n) \ p' ' \F r " ! ' f l. v s r ' ol

1lli oompnse'S t0rrx cu r)ronumelcilrterogatiYe

PEONUWLE ST 217 Formele compuse cu acuzativul {!Irm sint rar, {?l,rm fiind tn curs de disDaritie. ' R;tair1lp tr srdl'o / /auo.ingurdforms $ ll2? ahi. 'rl'at 'i 'vh'thNq. Jr Adi ecti\elerelciire comlrusc._ Cu pr':nptraform'lnr i'\opJ"r 'i o/'o_ $ 1l!8 ^o"rpr , pro" nunolo relArirPco"nirFFsinr in r"buinLdrcir ,d a ljP'ri\p: soo,,'r. Everv article. of ahoLe@ daoiptian. shall be enlelcd nt lhe lcdgcr' pat itc tu.n in Buciarest, Iuilding is in Fog.es! Ithiihqt 4) Constructia cu Eubioxctirul. Clnd ac,tiunea are ir "speciatun caracj p r n p -i e u r, ph^lnr ir . ir - a l . \n rb u l F j r' I' u . l i ' " ro J u l subj on' ri \ ' ' u ' 1 l r' rro n . rr_i r. ,u .t,autd. hnr. L uinl p J;i lor m , r n p. hi\ a tp r,rp ..b .i o r,i i ru tu i ,?igl'l ctc.): rno4,.f tlicY ,.. shall he p..secuicd TresDtusscrs. tlr 'h;lcrr :-o\ anrl s{r. sh! will not lisicn to rou. $ 1129 qndteret .a:t thi I ani Eohs io lrtrr urc camera. |t'hale;;r iit .eo-";rs,his &n duct wrs n!)sl unsrtisfictu.l ii ,\diectirul relativ tlrl'r'.r. prrs duri un Pro numesau un adjceti! S Il32 ro rl nll o n"1'o,,.; n",1a,i,,rr" rr oori i 1-lp.rrl ..,b.olul i' ,r' ...'l ' neinsemnAt"cte.: ,,odcit de T nF rp. /.a . ^ "1 .,,t . t hp. , J e, ',p ../ .." o- ol' , r ' i \r,. i ' l: . r' obr d' ior L m '"r ' d .ir" "i inlrrr Lp-dl Jr llte roxstructii sDcriale. lipsi: r'.,h',1 Dpoitc uneori lo ,) Dupo fo"n', ,i, ra;c,'r. 1130 -S S ll3t l,ltoNu]f ti',ti (oriDL-{TITII s 11r|3 ronnneEti: S 113{ 1) Forrui. C.,n-qtruc,tiile celt ftre. at)rtl (san cn) tn. se trarluc ir linlbs e glczn prnrr l1c at"la isau (masc.),src trlLa(lent.). th( ane (sau ll,dr) on;cll (rreutru)| 'vi, tnpthar.t I r ', n '. ', r , , dr , r t f . . r , . j. f r tdr,tt,r . . r" no dn Jrr ),1 r J \ l ' r J lr r ' i' r ' r o '_ ' n Yor lca\'r zs strnrdrd r rl, cnr b! t.iLslcd lot lo l.i yo! down i' i r' a' , He . 4 irtn ' "r L ^1 I rv, ^./.,;, l.ct,r j . n 'r '' 'J r " 'l js tlv aut l.r'ntutt dti.I iJ on lhc lrble ' r Tolr larecl (\'czi si 5 s;9 r 'l 'l l " 2) Pcrsoaa a 3-a Dlural.- Piuralut iccator corslruclii in linba erglezl S 11:'6 suth us \: cel (desuel).ci rltrs. tvir. uncori sir.h Lvha. actuain nu esterreJ ' vl,o ?'l@sedlo liEhi lor tlie }innin$ -ol nnolerr l\rapon tPsls ha!. \ron tr.oad Popu lar . l,.r.nlv rn ha fc linolr n ie. \ r or k c an t illi a|oul i t TlLc IIN;un rosscs.s leF old mstos. |nt su.i ds tlqt arc ratrk among urf Dest 3) ,\corilul prort nelor corelatire. - Ca 5(iil1 linba romeni cele doun S llSli nronLm' ^r,lJlr\i nu .. " orJ- r'lrp I dF i rr, ' ap8 'a Ir'r\a'l- lorolng ii nu n'rrLl.,"/ul In"itr,i d, .rn'rT, d trrr .rr 1,""rr" oilJ'lJirre'' inltnpozii,ir din care laro parte lierare: I/c d, addressed trs was our lea.ho. I *ant to s-"e nt,z orrs. \ro.k is bfst. \I e oDenld t ]s kho \ad ahrnvs beetr our friend. I shnll Eivc it b hnt ih.nl Yoi !r

aiscd. :l.tt th's; loha(n)l lou s0ni g..cting cads l. \'cre dwaX i\rezi ii s s.trl tceste conslruclii sint intrbirin-tate in stilul iormal.

218 $ 1137 4) Pronumelo corelaiye Si stilul coloeyial. prorunele corelative xu slnt. intreb uinfate in stilul colocvial. Aici pronumete personal este inlocuit tn genere pri n substantivul corespunzitorl The inaL s'h. I $.ant io see \\",'!p ,bl"o | .'.lll g ir i, \t tl.. r..,J addrcs cd os Nrs our teachcr. *e salttEnt ahase qork is best. ' . r l . l|at s b " , n o u r t r 'n d , t , , , he. t u, ) "at o. ' , ) "hot.nt , . ' .v , . d5 "i,r d . . p . iio J or r . . L. J$ir. A, r ir " s rr38 S lleg T,RONUUNLN REL,TTIV II_I)EPXNDDNT ( NE I IDITDNDENI RII,ATIID }NO]Y OI]\I Llneod aniFcFdentrn Fnrumeirri relativ nu esra exprimat, pronumele d,!p ir d o t t,l inJFpFnd.nr: 'pldli\ i. n. iF . . r b\ . , r t , . , p r . I . o , F . l r d J s Il:,wt., | " sho \ o - 1. \ , . J d, : , . , \ . r s r f . 6Lou may wrile 1a et.an l: ro him (sau her l irloml lou like. $ 1140 Altcori anteccdentul este cuprins chiar in pronumele relativ (cazul iur wlal ii al pronunelor relative compusel:) I doD't kno\L on01 i tt\aL i, ch) tLc Fanrs. Ilthoer.r t, h. Nhol is l,on.si. ti rJs lis detjts. s 1141 S ll42 vrl. PliONrJrrEr,E _{DJECTIYU| ITETIONn'T sI (IIIE INDIITINITE ANJI'TIIIE ]|XD fII,ONOUN) $ 1144 1) Iclinitie. - PrcnrtrLtk n.hotiirit li]lc toeui unei denumiri cle tiintn s0u , la lu, ru lr , i rp .- rFtFri tn r,o.l rag. neprp"ir. un .. .,4djeLtioul nchotir it dFL caracter ragr nodefinit substantivului pe care 1l determinn. 2) Pronume ; i adiectiy. ,, trIdioritated Dronumelor rchotarle Dot ti S 1143 Adi",ri\". {\./i e\pn1pt"te !i ri "r,;p iij" t. lronur,.t. r..p."rir.1 3) PriDcipalelc pronume,si adjcctiyenehotirite sinr,: ( d) . . f r lRinJ . ru i . .i u s rF (1 r.. a n u mj trt ,l { .dj .j r\-?i si S 82l l c af o" ( : : lr e.a rP ) T hp . hidr , n 11 " .".-i \,n l $ o a p p tp . .d ./,. .r ro n.l [ o. t L or - o tp r.-;" .u ,t- ' d t1 ;o i | h. p" o,t,,-. t\ d-., " n ,.r" erery3 [: fiecare. to,ti ("dj.)l 1J ' y \ or ling m .rn tufy \.rking man l u s p e ,\o .rt l b rd ry . lLe bt pnd s?r e f, !e ' r' y h p l d s o n !!o k s . ell (: tot, ioat', totul, toli, toate) I had seen dil belore.lP.on. sA.) il ,1ll

thc sl,udenis were thdc. (-{dj. pl.) onoa(: unr unulr una, o; cineva, se) (!tg. ) On ca on ot Jl$nls nP r is lt . { Pr in ) oa P dd y h c \ill ge1 h s dFgr r . . ( AJ j. ) rV ez i I l1? . 1 1 2 0 . s :V ez i s ii {S 811 , 1 1 5 2 . It r , . 9 p" " num a i a d ." .,i v r\p ? i r. 5 h 2 r, tti : . oronr' " tF.or" .l ,rnri tor ti i n d: _. \ : / r , il d2r , 9 i i , 9 4 i , r0 0 5 -rc 0 9 , l l 6 4 I|:i ,.

2t9 anothd l: (un) alt, altul, alt{, alta;mai ..tncnun(ul)l ( Pr on ) ' ldlr On . ild r''d v d, or ot l ' s nr l"d \Vol dnd{ " vo ,, l'a\" d@ ' i. other (: alt, altI, al-ti, alte) (sg. ti pl.) (sg. ;i pl.) the othor (: celalalt ,cealalld,ceilalli, celelalte) o/ p' ar c r m { , r r d r. n o r n " ,--." r\ (\d j ) h \d n u ,,/rp " .l /.o n . D on l t dk " ll' : . p . , Ther came in o;e alter 7n" o,i4 iPron ) He iech,r ed on Milton lna olfu. day. {Adj.l ot l e rs' (: allii, alt elp l (p ro n .) (p l ) r b c o tb or s r ( = ' " ilalL r, , p l " l a l l e J (p ro n .i rp l .l We harer't lisl.cncdin to l.he conccr t, bul orr4r5 ha!. Someol them $'.re late. n l tlE odere ]].adcome in good iime cither, (: oricare din {loi sau doun; amindoi, amindoui) "\Vl,ich oi the tso do you nani?" "t,,nc. \rill do" (Pron) I had a ohild on d,Ael side oI n'e lAdj ) ncither [: nici un, nici unul. nici o, nici una (din doi sau doun)] Tti.! L'oth Aot up. btrt neid.r ol thent slolte. il'ron i rlet;.. siofi' api'cared h prlrt i -\dj.) both (: arnindoi, amtndoLrn) .BoA arc awar. lPron.l B or n c hildf t n { e re a l s c h o o l (^ d j .) it 3 {n e i ra dus ) ( im per so n a l ) (p fo n .): 1, is Uonday, . rr las go!, " sri vc (noi) ( inper s on a l ) (p ro n .): I1', can't $'ork ii d'e ar tired i \jorbntd in g.nQaL) yo u a (: per s . a 2' a) (i n p e rs o n a l ) (p ro n .) l-o4 iccl Jour dal has nol bfen \taslql $hcn lDz have dore a goo.l day's worL s e) ( inr pers o n a l ) (p ro n ) ?ny sai' lie is a succslnl ariisi. mei nulfi. nrai nulte) ol l.licin iProtr) in . (-\dj.) $C90 601l t h e ya (: sevel:ll (: r,itiya. citeva, lhere Nerc r.t.rai "sed.dl d.n 0rme mrrrh {D r o . s i ddi, ( t a ri mrrrr (pr^n.:i rd.i.l ( \'",i $6t0 691/ ({, lirlle (pr"n ii adj., rf"7i $ 676, ( a) lcw (t,rof. qi adi.) (\ezi S 637) ,a\a ri.rp. turir . fu!i'i. LnL u plp .r ,5 r!s. i{it" \ou.rl partc, vreur. vreo. un (o)... oarecatel ,!,D. saY slie is cler!.. 11'ron.l Il. took me s,n, tnne to get l.hc.c. (-\dj.) ilova. lathrs, the othns nu sini derit p.onnme. sint o,n. ij -\djeotivclc corcspunzltoar e I Vezi fi S srt. . Vezi $i $ 85i1. a Vczi si { 1168. '\'"zi , t : 1. ll. 8- ll c 6 . :4 1 8 -2 !i x . >i S

2!0 onyt [: oricare, orice; cevar vreunj rrreunul, vreoj .t'reuna,vruniij vreunel e; (cu o negalie) ninic, nimeni, nici unul etc.l I havc no money on m""r havc rou eoi onu ? lPron.) Il she had aze"iea, rhe wolld sir; nie ionl. (^dj.) ro'l (: n;ci un, nici o) (edi). Thre nul, nici una) (deioc) Pnticncc lre hril lo. Bl,aL hc didn'l e. ljlror l so d e b o d r 4 ( so rxe s yn@n al. r.he gate. ,!b,rr.d, rafg t was Frong thcre. s allr lrodl f ,',jon"i i i "\ ir ': {'u o l jariF 'i"rF'l (p'on ) ': ''i D aaubod! lsit\ anx.ne ) corne? Anlladi coittd ha!. don. it. Ban I don'l riirnf ra ",!t"*,1 see arwnti lsan anubod!) anythings: re1'a orice: (cLro nosalic) nimnr (pron.) !'d Iou say a,37r,;nsr Anrtjtlnp \s bel,lpr 1lun ill |.alih. I ..,d d ,i' i s c c ar r r r nr s h tl e d a rl . u ,'h o rl tc I o o | |e c I ( : n1n] . r r) { trri n .l ;\'dl,ol! stok e 1or a l)ng l,ime. rlo ,nc osFerpd Ure door rvhen I rnng. n o tl ri n g 6 ( : n ir nic ) ( p ro n .) iV,Di,4 mal,|c6 non iliat s|f l{s gore. cre rrl ,o i lr T I ( : lr P td l e to ti l (p ro rr' ) e'e .j o n c i i T|e lcrturc. spohe lo a,c. !r,ly dter th4 lectnrc. n.?rrr. Fas Lhere. e ve rj th i r gT ( : t ot ) (p ro n . ) I ha!e told Jou cc,/rni,z6,. (pentru doari obiecte)3 \YIj.h do lon pteterT N.ith$ I: rici imut) tnlur (: ori. are) will do. I \:ezi t i $ 8 11 , 1 18 7-1 r 96. ! ! 38- 2! 43. r /, .' " m1 i , or , 5pun/ b t o. I \ P 7i $i S 8? 1. tlu z tao4 4 lezi ( ll45 -11 18 . t 205_1206 2q1i -ii 5 \ " . i .i lli'. t , 5 t 2^, j. l! 4b. r r is . $ lt11 0 f -. zi \ i S rl4ri lt t8 , lLiu. r : l] J . 19ii. ? \ F 7j q I I',5. II t1: { r . I t 6t 3 SeDs grnmat ical: ',0 liint, aiit cit Fi lucnlli. ,,4 ,..," S r2l. Il97l?nl . were zo ltoNersh th-asarden. norct (: nioi u lilic. (-\d j .l 'one r\:,r, ol thcnr spoh o rel 1 ( : ' r n. \-J ) (fro n .) Tt,oe i t|c b.11. somethinga (: ceva) {pron.) Sondri

PRONIJUJ E FI !!1 (pentru t di nult de dodiL obiccrei (or do r.erer? whioh then) you r{;?: {l_;ij::"iill,ii, ." ILr Frr/ i pF' rrr' 1 ' s . i l a p l fd d. d. p r ' r " r u lc l L rrru ri ' " ' r l r l i i n ' o l ;" o r ' " \ Ver:bui rbspectiv esLe la siflg ar: nehotdritetu u verbul. 'lc(purrd 17' '. h ;n .i h alte I,Ionunlefi S p."""*"fu" tormolF . , 4 . /P r. h ts ; ns , t f , . r u 1145 pronumclorfi al ndieetiTelor 4) ,Leoralul c S rlali de cu nehotirite inieics \ingrlflr l" "o h a s t[ d a :' ' e r-fp' i l d n rsoa-? 'e' h i 'i

.,,,,,,',.';:,'"i':ii,,,:;"ilT''i,i,',L.,;ll;'i1,1'"";';""''':"il," " -s, l , pF . rr.1 h; . iPm i v r "ao1 l:n,1 l o ;/ ,t i ; r " : r , k ' ' m a n g 1 /i ohai . in trr eon.s. lllerul :, ,,1 ....t r""r, ut " er , ! , " ,j ",, i." ' ' , lilH :# "';,,"r:' , : : ':i, b; g: , ] r " "i' " ,,,'" " , | ' ' r' , JnI ^' '' ,- :r,,.. .-m' " " o r d-r:' t a ,t t "t r,:F,"',:l:,:l., .' ""d,,rr::,i:.,'1{ ' )'l1l'l:' . "'"".,:""1;:" [ill.: ,:,;:l J,"be. ror''. i,,r '-b "o \irr" t/ il n t i l tcr..ol l l ' " ii".,ii""ri:. Obseroaltt 11'17 lL':' sa .z/ Sc oluisnuiesle sc rxtrbuir,ie?-e his hitn -sii'ilz sef chiar atunti S cr-t^'i || ."1" iri,nn lr I'h^4n'Llp.p( mae' rrrn cir,dI run .r,,-t" r', ho arr si l1 o,r.obn^ de'pt i-rnin'n lf'7i "r"rrrl" - 'i' I pun' rul ld /l' s0u d 1148 ' a't cina pronunelenehotirit inlocui'fr' "u\'tdntiee de grnhminin nndl' po Psr\arsFU rrllprrv.'.orFs r.-lr'r. | ' " nr,l , .Lr l'r. ur -1" ppt tb I ti (' )l' r""rJio,,"t,-r, "\'1, olFl, d- td t',1lrtr' " ,1" pl,rra13 I ln uonpt" /ir"/. /' ;r', $ lllr a rp', r"h,r 'r,." "u in1,r-. ;; t., ri\F ii p o 'ur'" 'or"'pr|rr;'o rc tprbul lrrn0 qr pl " .. tt.n'..' * a 'Jj* 'l'.r la plural : s"-'; i t ..a Cn xl celelat t epr onum i" " t " . n. t , . .t,. m onet " d f l" i i! , I nale. n "r-.i ' a. i Atl o f I '.i bov ) . or ' t r" ' b rr' r ' h .t ' J ' r' " t " P t " r o o . r o rr ' r' d _f | | rp u ' -o 1 i"i;li'l"i"i" "; lo.nia lo" d" pii.ol. Yerbul pistrlndu-seinln la Finsular:

n e h o i n ri te ( * /rD o d r, t r i l Jotl P ' dnl bol l J.unttunr' S 111' 0 l fl .rd l . d F .i ." ' c .o m" n di .a prunumFre pprcod rl r p u -p rr s i rc r l a r. s c" ' l ea si nl l ol u:r ad" corr 1151 dl Adicetivelc nehotdrito au pronumcle personal. posesir'5sau reflcxiv $ pe ltngd c8rc stau: corespunznioracordat cu sub"'tantivul tea, mon is oblil.d to d o /,is dtriv to ntnef f;ft"" si'l 'o || \i- ? ''onp'rt4r// , // r o a 1r ' r ' r o I n d p u D r '' . -Lprtl, d orr h in ' . . ' \ r n'/ ' Lni-t e r . f i o i , n d 1r. , h s o. h ' i I r' n4r_'onand lo ' r ' 1l r5l r P o itl' :/ 'al d r o l rp 'r\ l". Jlll l ! r!b "!J h a ' 1 1 ".. bi ' "l '' \d, onro tre in /hr. $ ies gof g I n $or lr - P '' Do on r r b ' b' lo l d . iol iu' l! 's 'd '/l *it,,'" l'll'il,i'-+iiii'ili, r':"":*i,i*il,i,1,lr',.;1; :h . . n r cu r dt . c r , ( f t e o ;r!i rE . 3 cu m fn l i u n l L . l i S rl i 0 ' Ie liia c t s lor I Si adjcliveleposcsrlc. 6 Si adjcctirul loses'v.

pRoNUr{! $I ADJIIC'I M NllllotARlTE IIVEBY i,!DJECTIV ]EIIOTTRIT) s 1152 6 115 3 " IIACH {pROrrjMEirr -{nJncrrv nEtloriRlr) "o $rua [i.ft]"yri!/-;]''".1r1","" i" r " " d .' ;r - d ' , r ' ' ",,",,. li*rxiil# i,llir,".i":] r l ,';"'il, '1: ; " 'f ' ' i , : ' , ,,. , , . , '1ao? L\tctp.Jl e p a rt ' d ir rr' " n . 'p" ial lr..tip-r- uni'' i" c respe'tit' ci 'Ll'ituind 'unt'oi' r;r; exocJrlre"' r^ i 'ite! "r"ir'i" ""i""4 a"'g"'"""rit"r" Do 3cle. \p .si !ildll',:1"-:."1: traducpte o a'l lr """";i';;;;;"i*;a"iii.ii. nrite ori fn ronnneite prii lol: t)'rltt ta1t tool' Ateeu-\L e"rvDodv lcr-'r!.nrc) : tn.\t lo 3.ta-l respir,tive: -"i -J/:iUAcelrp RarcorL sr F,,cn "".p""" "t";i,i"r" i; iirr a"t,u;: psletor, pl.rurin'lenir' iitiii:t Iaqi inleles': fi " drF' \ ;r d " /' . 1 ' i " J ' 4 ;^ q p a n" i n l i mbr romi nd lt lnt elo o. de o s Pb i rel n s ;: o";;;.;;"i.'.i" " nLr aDt adc g ru p : " 'r -" ) Fiirixil t;:i;"1ir"il". i""1"1N": F* lru;r;;rl'll ..." "..",",. { ll55 " Pd'n--tL '"rv 2) intrebuiniarc. - Pronuntle ri adjertil?j" n-elotbril'e rucrurr' rpre mai m{rF dP doun frrnle qau sint lrltrebuinlatei pentru un numrr t l'hp')t- li tol^'ir 'i \n' zul 0dn'dobia c: deo."L:'"da;./rn". l: ,,uth p,. t\ tl:,iL t:",J.,: t 1"m "s Ld I lillp | " ar led 11 , i ' u' ' 1, \ , r i ol pin' i " l;*;l#'ii"ln:':tl:: fi?i'*lli',.:l iff'x'l?#"'l"liii;'"#iiiiil:ii':j S lltd de un numeral 31 'Drer1". Alte irrtrebuin,tiri' -L-tel]/poate fi urntat' s"u 'lp I ljo ri! r1Ir' rl ou bmi 'l , -rrlln,l jl lll ; ;,";';"rt :,,,ij;,* iF;,j,y .T i.",;,i', :,, jl'l:''"i' l'"i,:1,1i,'"1 ll;;'':-*' :'l :: i"i'ir'.fi:il:l 1i;,1 J"l",:ffi HT'XF;',".li :[" "iHilf il'j'i;":'.? Fcei{csl..shr-n1!ties i'"'* r t', ?r,,ii[1 'rhe sior. lMagazinul de stal ldmclt' tr eN olto dnr hti lrnohed ai thc ornl'cn (O aitii ta Oo.i zjle tra l'lnzul la oanlua ) srar.c ilJi ,* I cind sint subiecte sau Iac psrLe 4) Aoordul ou verbr 's 1157 -r-ach Ei et'rl, " din subiecl. au verbul la "(ingular: n ri ' on "L l o 1 rj ' d \i ' l / . . a, l ' r' a b rrnl r' r' ' t l, , r ' \L rd " J " n ' "ttt " o' uf-a, atl c ur i n t

u l u i " c a c h " i u l rt' l ' o z i fi c -Lucul pe-' arci l 5) Loc t { 1158 " -" " ; :: ' ' ,"' !ll- l1,p" pr l e i' n i "o - i i i - . "pi m i l.l' 4' "1 e Dc'dnr i\ul pr onum F i"t ' ub n -- f-i ' i , ; ' a i . ;.i r','i" " ', .r'r e,lj* iv'rl po "'it resl"' rrt '' 'il; ld 'nrLr 'r: own }all The bo"vs , f . ?i ; r dm p l l l S l l ,! s i S l tS r' r s pns A n i t l u rr,fl ti rro rJr'" , ' .l n " i '" a u 1, i" L i , i *i s'ant to have cotl nis r am ;ti c a l : i n t.

PRONUMELE FI ADJ'CTIVO! NEEOTARiI 2'3 .:, il3';: li"d;illYtlli :;:ili"T; ifl,{i5i;:Jliiri "Jt ",,,'""i;;"1: ;'o*""'i., l'Ji"lLJJ:':':.," c ,'i^ Jl \^',,,, ,, a srdirenl r' r/r"i" o\,' ounl.,,j IT,L (PRo\rDr'l !l'\DrEcrIv '|h"i $ f1b9 rtrrloa;\tslr) lll$*1* ,."uil"^il'J.tlll:",*i"i-:ilt:, tn"" *.*""' me'ilionates1160 'sise r.,lt"'!:"ll,il'1i,"*,i,j1'i\,i,il,''lilil "tot" ".oainirave l .';j"' :;": I l;li'; "';;x;',;:prin " -: i'n**I li se t'raducc 'inirel"' "inirea qi"- 'lntr'qr"' "lrn"t"'U t*"* ** urmt't de sjngular *eorj re'latd!i prin &ll1r arLicolul i hot;rii l;:J;" i:': #l :l:,.lriii"*)i",,1'ilil' "Ji'I, ;:;,"'ori *". :,,"' day' all ;;::,' "p,. a "" t,ourtriunile arlrerbi'rle all r * '| d1l o - it r F ' r l'; ^ l" T Ii ' ;"'' 1"'' t"" *"" Pli'l;" :-*ln*ti,; brroul'''''' .",?;\'l ",*,il*; ";;" erprl,;li;,il',li'"1' ;li'1, i' i: ;'-;' n*rr'''r"' ,; i Iil;.,i'r"::lifii"i)',",i ?l'li; l:1,:ii:i;ll,l$.:,l,l,i:';i";.''J';'i:'""[15':r:"'i]'l *re,";l,1ii;i1ii'1 "1 ;ri;i'G i; ..,,, p .,p n.cr pch' .Joinr Fr NLl r r f l : 1 "i ,", u \ i n ,e ro ,,,^ mp u . -,, *u iLril,,,i{"#ttjiii-i;is,** 3) forme ;:jI;iI,,,i", i drr n" h'rppi l':'' ," ,"' ", ",, ,h soFp. ",,.":l', .no,d, th" otL ror "rt'r\ {1"'1fl'"i,eh, b.,\-ot nl,,ll-,n"j,,1',,i'.1,j'",,. ar,. ar'I knou: ff,Ej:;;":'" ::''::,:, idio'atrcnei !i eo''strnctii allpolfrlnl' au_nerciful' all-embracing, s11

;".r.f ",,..," llf,)"",."",1i""11#. gi't i' ,x")i 'n {i'l;*,,i'1""*: " ^i**" *"r-""t' (Vezi S 2J atii anirnalc' cil' ti inanimalo'

224 $ 1103 .L vrnlul , / / a" e; i ta l o a r. d " s u l b rd n ti v ,ru rl " adrerb: , .,1 ll )ou l,are to do lor ihc nromentis to 1'atch th." nork of {.hequatiiied turne. s. Hc f \ or k is n o t d l i b a d . { .rd !.] 4) Furctii. - Pe lingx valoarea de pronume sau adjectir: nehorao!, $ 1161 S 1165 ONII lPrio\.'urltr rDrncrrv tr_Drrorln11) 9r l) Formn lri irtrelr i[tare. Cuvn]tut ,nr csLeprorume sau adicrir' nehotdriL are o singlri fornn - c|e de singular- indiferentde gen,numar si ,1 ' ./ 9.". evP. k no\ r u rP- n ""''. 1/ li'",p \'_ r i^ ni, ' ' oll".LJ ,. ore.oulljn,t roll: Sh-" was so shy and qllianass.d, het! icclilg sofur rrr hef. _ tPronumele si adjfctn.ul in e-tcnplele tu)1i(I))siLt pronutne i ddjecri,) nelt aldrtt caraeterde nltm.rdl; n e\emplul d," ]a runirrrl tcl nronumele cn ps r n.l ,utari,.. tr;,.,p.t.onat, .,r,,n ti .,l.r trrr .",,:;,"n r.li_b.,:p,manr; cinen, se iri linba iomAnd)1. d,): un oarecare (nccunoscut): S 1166 Ilf introduced l. ,a. Prot.Rced.ilron ) nc 2J Tnfele\. r-lrp (rmper"o',il) este iul,rebuinlat apro ane irtotdeauna S fI07 n.ma' i, r,J ;nr.1"..I o.. t,-rr . qer,-r,r. Jr'on,.ri": "r'rn, "prn.,p" Onr should ahlal"s go nr n falk alllr dirner. $ 1168 s 1 169 s 11?0 $ 1 r 7l /'.l,,d "' ir t-. \ i, ' : , ", , , . i: n ol Lic"r .r, a ,,. . , . n" t , 1. r . p+ . I' -Ir ",,r,t: U.z ilir'I l'. is { Ft r ins I'eapb belie\a lrin 1o be a s f.ati artist 7/,P! \a l slP q d good \ A' r TI_ mu r J $ . d r" ,\' | nr o. dr a t 'r . '\ '. 6 Ite is.sdtd to lc a m an lor aU $eat he$' /ir, irn pn r.nn ar r p . p t r t ir i t r "LLi' , H i r t r r b r , n . : t p z a . F o l o . i r r r . ih-" ^,-. . r J nr . t i, , , q' " . , r 1 , . l e . t i l r',. u i lr un, ' m , . r . r o Cu cji in,telelrrl der;re riai restrins, penlru redarea idcii imoersonat sint t,+ fprdre_iltcfnrmc si pron,,menho[tirp: t. peiple, thcu, ,u . ,u/ ii , Fl n,pi in l a ,,o par..i: '"n p /,. s/,.. - i r i. l oldd l I nr ' . t - , o- . ht\. h;n. hin,.tl. t, I nr r r z d . d r p "ll ' h.r\P tl. lt, 1 /\. tt* q I , i 1a l.. "bo J ' a, . . 1 1. . . 1, . 1r . , r . , , , , | ."t Jt n n""".,t /,, girl - r i.nd io h c 1 \. , t - r

f olu r "ar '-1. t oe 'l J) ,tcordul cu alte prorlume. a) Une (pronune nehotirit .,u l.aloare de numerat) estc intoLdeauna { 11?9 ,J ,ne (proDune i,npersonal) are fornr -_ rcllcxi!. corespunzitor onrsrf: '[o lo oL ait.r o,c'.f is ,ri.s dutl. l Pronrme Drscdin id nominatiy. 3 Pronnme lminin in acuzatir. a Pfonnmc imneNonnl i,r nominal.iv. 5l- c z i s i { 1t il. 6 qlr n. lpl' . old .J u n dL a i d l L i t" n " ,i t . n ,g r ' : rn om pe f.1relF !o! de geniriv ,n's ;i plonumele

FEONI]i{DE 9I ADJEC1NUL NEIIOTARII 2P, Notd Orp limppr(onall csr" si pl uncoria.orda. (mdi alcqjn vFrsiunea amFrjcanE , . ru hp hts him \i hin^41. .tat s'paoru.^nstructie nu esrc :^l'::ll."l,c]:'") A se compara: oa ot ri" wof&'rs.Irided h;n"41o. hisa.ti"\"n"nL. lpron. . numerdt, uz s d nt ndr oa c u r "r ' t ir ih s dt c . , erwavs p d "s o trs" r y . on ou ! a"hi. g"m n, s . { Dr ^n . i m o " r s o n d t , n ,nd. dF ". d- i. . - t r it . noas , . p. l $ 1173 4),Futrctii,.- Oze poate fi: Ue coutrred lrom on? 10 Urree. O alJ IJ T P $ t b u rn i n g . ' ," nehotdrit cu caracter ale numerat: One \'nto night he wenr io ihc st rting-rink. nehotdrit c u 1.aloare de mrmeral: Ozd of them slot e. nehoLirit, impersonal: ona shonld pla y rair. demonstratir: Shc hnd a gren tain ottranl.er anil a s.cv one. Lan yo! sec l.hose womcn? Thc on, jtr bticdjs in mo!.ning. H. $rote a hrndred and fleren $irh thr.c oids. s 1174 D, adjectiv c/ pronume d) Pronume P) pronume 5) Conshuctiiidiomatioc: o rP o nd oll .wtya 'P t la t a it ru , , ii t J - l . \ . d r . t i l . n. l . p lo, r . ( - l r "r , lt m , nr : v- . t " s 1176 SOME. ,lNI. NO. NONN { pno\untr tir -{DrEcrlyD xEE0r,iri 1rE) $ 11?6 _ Same,ang .i nan. tt'r ii atit pfonumc, cit 9i ad.iecrive.]{o ste numai ltZT a4j p.riv loarp !inr i',\dri-bita. ;noir,r"nr Jp p"i*--. "' e."":";-,;;, ,!bn. ot rE wcrc aDsclt_ tDronI ",,"0i. Hc madc son. mistakesin h:s w;.k. tadi.) I r d \ " " y , I J o u rd r. , r" .. ( p " or. H \ to . rn ,J ,.h i td ra: L tt. I travc ,o lricrds ti.re. tidi.l i:,,, ot ihen carc rtr( me: iDhn.l Au', thf.e Ft6 zoze. ladi.t SO}IE sr178 ples a[inld.ti() qi n ticttu. ad:,ce pune 1) r accentul { 11?9 _Inteles. . So,7? ar. lnt i unur nLn. ' r { f-.td n s ) s d u i u n " i , d n I r ti I i rF.| | i ,rop di nrr.un I , F . r\ rrcn I I .nra. i..:r sFlr r d. u, por ir . . r t i rJ r ..i tn ta ...u n i i -r.,L ,n _ F..,..ni .tp-...puri ntdJ-. .. p\ o- .p d rr p*. jn 8. . : l . ,n .,a rts :n r' .L u ;^ 1 3 ru n ,,i ...sub!td' l ti vi ta nt ural . m e, ' r ii J dp. r. o L i p n ' ,:.trn rrra s e p o d rp a,." ;u o p..i " j .i 1 uD s ra s ! , lli" ':.,1 . t Ds t r ac t c . l r\ e "u 1 .tY- Foqle\ on . cit,. , Seusg?anatical: attt aninlate, clt l5 cQnaiicq umbii erslse

ti inanimalc.

228 s 1180 { usr 2l lntrol,uinFre - -iomP.F'F lntrcbuinldt: p*pl';l'lr: 'J i" j;jfi';n'". .'"', li"Jl ii.^J:fi: h'tTfl' "Tili'''"'' "", c"" ili;";i:#i "itt;1".il:91'i1;*' " *''"*'' '''"' (Dd_ i, te rog' din h'lnza acecar "ttidl""'I: E?l rcttoiarres' r:eT#Ht*ed?f ,:\,um,r rps,r,m, ," dFsk mens 1182 i,'l"t"H?:1X-ilfJ"i:::fi111'ilr-, obiectur obiecter sau din iionate: ''""-#";"t ci numai pentru obiect): Se spunetnsd (lfun intcrespentru cantitat'e' di 'l i o l a r i p \ : oi r ' e r e"o nm "nd' d HJ\' to u go t 'rY o rr: i;: ';, ,r'.ii"" ,i d'n ""r rqoma o o sause adreseaze rugiminte ori se lace ,'/ tn cares otereurt lucru sugstie: sliru I heh Jou to rone cale? {olertli) ri:,'i';l;;;, Pl'Jl,Sl'$*in'"' a, tD 'rmo"r' c'''": b- ) in car" jnrFrofdlia nrr s' rpl'r" la S ll8 3 "* iii" ;";1,'il Siij'1,#'T0,1".,' '',n',' '' ru n'"/" m"'":l ' l ' fi ri e " , " ' ,""; nu n il..ltui'uu '--' r'aves4P " " d: lirl ' o ' r ' r \l d r) o l ' m " c g a ri ! i nl eroeal i l e In ' 6rP ' " , . / in pr opo T i rrrl " n ' c a rr' \i ' {r'ii) a o b io ' L u l u i: a ci nu iniereseazd' numar Dar se spu'c (ctnd nurt[ru] sau cantitatea oliectul): ' I nerer bur dnr lio$e$ lNu cumli1i nioioda1e llorr') A s e c om pa ra : 'nrirr{ii I n"' - eL \ J Ji s';,: ilx :'.\i J,".!'l l,T';'i]",'' ", a,, u lr o_a r o ::"1,q* " "ji; ''. '. l\r.io olla '"" " ' "" ' .? i; ;"i;' ;i*.";i,r i;"'e14'* 'i; :l'l' l'l'"",'':: l:''JI;";l"' \ro u n rrn o ) rl s P r a rra b o ' i l i l I \' u s ' | | m" -v J o r' ni P i rl : I $L' l " rr' _ ri ' r ' ' " o l r' D l r ' \i ' l ^ _ r-' b aprori rr" n: i n " i n re a u n ' ri u r' rd r' oD n' ru a ararr , i f lv er bi" l s l1 8 { \

trnd ih. : ; r - { n( ns r" s ta d i !n i rBn c l L a ' e s tc a n s ' n " 0nooI ' eopl e!l ucsonP ' 00n0 t'* xo 000in licioat "i3lxut""', ,,* ,t,,r'st" dir Bu0u rcll'iale s0 00ir'le loruri' I)lrs "'o I' r" :l o l o' m' b' aarrl usj i l :r' i rr' L rl : l) P r onunl i e ( ll 8 :t ,' o " ' " rF dp ' bJu ni i u " l " pnr u s r; s h tr " ra ri ' l ar" i nl cl Ful ,'."" pr1rn ' :;r;' " ' ;' " -1" i af' b a ' " d rn r| | ' ' "'Ll" ' F\' ar" ni or^" nar t e: I or m ls l ""1 i el" . . , DU! ini" ,,' P' L ti n " : I rn l { m e . r m l s :tl ' " ' ( ot r l" / m o i i In r" frJ ' n rmb I l ' rr s i ' u ' ns l ar' i r di ri dual ..r p o J ! ' l" " , *' ; olJ . u

PEONUMEIE SI ADJECTNUL NEITOTARIT I $ 31 se srp b oig l' . s dnr t alpt eo { . . r pv a. 4i. t . . r oF, p J $T- pau , | _ lni. t p, 'r.tie, 227 4) Funotii..- In alari de pro umc $i artjectiv(sau numeral)1 nehotnrit, S 1186 s omestesi adverb(S 1{84). A.ITI wreol. . . lt lo.t"ln.. An? (: r.rcun. s 118 rominFd-ca :1i;:,'"i:til:*,it,:l :;1,i,,'*Jj:1,*.p "d;.;";';;;;i;, 2r Inrebuiolarc. !rJ Fsta Intrebuinla,. a/ ln p'opoz4iil" dfirnarirF r- oricrre. or i""l: n, c, nsr es lp u nehoa,i t q i . c , " , " " o , , ^ , " " l " " " i,ily" ji;;f ,;i[,' "il:"$ 1188 ,? ;i;; inrhe wrons frl,*:l,lil,i,j*,lxi*;JJl"ifil"*'Ji"" .,lny man could do this. (Otice btthaL ar luta tace nceasl.a.) $ 1190 s 1189 AT",;!i,f" ," "i1""t*"i:'lh*rl'::fill;,:""i:,"*"ive aDv news? llnre'osatirr ,, in propoziriileiporerice: (dupnnesari) o cuaccentur $ 1191 rc'ends. (Nesariv) &".iXf;.,g;j,,T, Tt I h r d d, 9 t - - on. | .' ru d a i v p \ ,u ., .r . r!'a cJ ns a\ ea lanni. i i a . ,1 1 $ 1192 $ .' an!,he to, be,'o -\a\,, t:i:X:J"':,1""t;,"ii;ii,""jii,'1i",,",, ",;.lil,xj: lt;ijf i:Ti', deroc binedupadocmai NONI] (ADJIJCTIY $T IXONU}IE IYEHOTIRIT) (pentru sau + s ,,r."".l ?f':JL"#ii"JJi,1'lil;gli'.r,liiie' timp) anv s 1194 ill rf" "'"' lli,T:iiFilfl,'*"" ': ' j:,"," J,: l"Jj"j;, t ;,; ,.:;;,. .i ;I#,, , ' I\i" ,,1li" T:l :ry i;" r"r"; ' 'r ,li; 1.,"": "i; d"J + un comparativ,an, nu so traduce: $ 1195 , 9""{:,*l'#;;,," f";"','l? , '1f" i,"yt,::jj" ":ari d-) the nL comparariv: + + 1196 dJ ca adverb: u ", 'i,0" , ixq :':id.fiy li i,i""li:,t::r:::":.1 ,1;;J."r.i:'. ;'" " rr93 Nt) (ADJDCTIY Nd{OT.1.R ITJ

$ 1197 1) No este: ( = ni"i un. ni"i or aru' i,in.t J",er'llini dn suh.rsnri\ scu ,,.:! ),dd!"," etnrldlentultir aceslDra. !1.." "_" ,"" .r, , ,s rri., r'o , m r'.'.,s: in -lo,-k Cind verbul ro be san ta lmre clc. ste urrnat de un substanti\.. negat iv tntrebuinlat ste adjoctivLrlno care precedd sutstant;vut. cuvintul bace'inii 1 V ri q i g 130t . , V.zi S p. 195 adj. not a 1 s 1198 s 119C

MORFOLOOL{ 2!8 - FRONUMEI'E enough'e''c)' *j*'i"*(ans' mch t*:t',ilii"iqtr*1".'u.9;uti;ll s 1200 " *, tiii:i"*irqi' ":r'n. 1';:*,," 4r*, u,il".''" """,, i) e ad'era cind n.uttLrnci sd \e r! : q n ,o k .o r,i m no$ )o u n ." J ilx"jli*"*iil il{:'ituX,'"1";iit""roi,,1ot unui r,."int"ucompa cu funclre de a ln genere'no p arerr r o e rd c ju b s t s ' t i{ L : u , no,'""'', " " -'-" ::^ " -l ';; r'i ,'""'"': :l;'ii ;;i ]::.""" l :";,.;l i l li?t? ," ';;iTff;.i; l';;,:i;ll;ii, pr siuncr ) s lii:islili']J ii:t;i$:"ll'nl"l;"-'"sru "on","u'/',.l"il"1ll:h mFr' Ds li\, l,)i;i;",1."X:=;"".i," ;1; ""r1, "'ilii,;:. "' llrir ;;"'"n?"" cind r "" '"" pr run'i dPlPrmi lil";l "'''lt *i:iit;lti" t "";;;; 'l'ir'; " 'r ,.. ,., ii,.o,T",ra A'ii **ti$ffi **,i*:t*l*il:****Jl''1n'ircb i 1 1 . q i i ".,;;.;1'1 (sg) i1 "r","," no otrc(: nimcni) ri. or. ""n'emba-dt" " ".i"u d".-mi,,i, un alr ad\prb: u , , , , r n p i n , rp , r . o a n o : cp s120b *i:;;ru::fi.;::^::;;"i:"i"l ":':";"1:,1:i;:l.l ' ':{y.li;;, "' ' ,:i,",:," ili:;;' "'ir'"' ',:;':,';'" " '"' i;';:ri ,+,r1" ,1i11 '" ''i" l:41: ";;';; ,,,"",,." l"l' ",",lli'i ",, , " ''oon,',"0 oro'*r;i ou', '"b'l,7 "inl "ino''imlv ez i 1. h li"Ji::: T:"X'"Iil-i".'";'"..*"n s 1206 :;ii1 ii i ::Li; r::,'r::;l:i" ;;;;,i ;r:;""#';; ",' :j:';,: 1 ,";; i;,i "l]'";';i;:'

rl''olurn'"3lc

NUMER,ALUL !!5 231 7201 931 1208 ,31 1109 231 M0 23i t2t7 t31 l a26 233 235 :t35 1249 9J5 1 2i0 235 t2i t ,35 7252 ,!5 1254 ,36 t257 ,36 7262 237 1266 231 \267 237 r1268 23 ' {tti 9 2t, 1279 239 12S l 239 7282 il39 r39 239 240 1290 241 1291 241 1292 2L1 r2!a 241 1296 24\ tt97 212 t3a2 242 24t 1306 !43 7i t0J 2\t 1t08 i243 1308a !44 190e ,t4 1310 2t\4 7t15 444 s, I. NU]INR-{LUI, C,\RDINT\I,

N U ME N A LU L (THE NUTIER,{L) CONSIDEN,{TII GENENALE l) lretini!ic.l- Nun eralul cslp parreade !orbirp , arp F )iprimaun nunrdr Sl20Z absrr.1.D Jorprrninare numFric6a obiFntplor "0u ordinca ob ie.tFlorprin Fie and leclee Thjs is the r,r.4d ol the monii. 2) Clasificare,Numeralele se lmpad in urmdtoarele catego i: numerale cardinale numerale ordinal e numerale fraclionare numerale colective numrale lnulriplicarivc numerale distib utive numerale advobiale nurrerale nehotdrite $ lg08 I. NUUER,\I,TTI, CARI}INAL {luD 0aRDINALNI]TNXrIAL) s 1209 1) Delini,tie. Numeralulcardinal exprimd un nunir Jntreg alstracr, S tZ10 sau ur numir determinatde obiecte: ,Ttz, and s?'nkez arel twentFsi\. 'fhel' brought r/';r9 chairs iiid,.e ta),le , 2) tr'omrd,. d) Unitnlile (Thc Units)l rought, ona.1wo, urrcc.lotrr, iire. si\. sclcr. eighr.ninc. s 1211 s 1212 ln Notd Numfalul O (zero)estc nrnit noagilr r::nl" rti/i . .i O rpr^r Lnlut loul/ ta 30:l (thrtc norshl lFo sad th.. linndr.d s a bo ve :..,, l1 d. 10 d. gr es Lr ek inLJnbi Lurentn(forrnata)..zcro rgIS q ,atFton.h TV, -r..t .rd g.i a ,o,gir in ler ex.m. i-qhc g.e r r . f r , hrol

,) Cu exceplia nunorelor ele|en _!i I'vflre, oelelalt nu er&te piI,A ta 19 | lgl4 se lormeazi" adnuglndr se terminalir,1..n ]a unitdli, cu unele modif:ciri orrog rance !r roner,lce: thii.en, Iourtccn, iiileen. sjrtern, se\rnlfor. ejRlt.a,r_ niiaicen Nurncralele trminate in sufixul -rcenstnL accentuate pe anrbele silabc 1216 cind stau izolate: aight.:enL etrl nl. ln propozilie insii si;t accentuate pe Dnatp s t,un , .i;s, no^", , r iu "1r n|, . ) - n orh 'ns |, m r : u. oi. " t o "t - t h , .^d r i , !,,,i, , " , i!1 " 'S" 3." a tt;,e ta nou|h! a "

9S2 singurc 9i pe prima cind sinL urmate de un subultima silabi cind se gnseso s iantil' sau un numeral: shr is .isrt?.{ [ i ti nl 1 ,' :ii'i'' ii"": i;'l;:i;t.; i;"3' } d I1",u',v nrtaDd,n'' r 0,Lin 's' , PP " r a ' ur oat '\;r'^ r ne ^ p $' n lt t td50 sa iormeazi a) Nrtn,rc|"L "oL. rfino ' '!' tth' tns) d"to 20 $lS16 " l"rmin1 ii /'r lo rrr'l;Lr: sdausindu 'p iwenty, t\irti', io;lx. lillv, si!lv. seventl' 'ighll' nnietJ' Arenli.e Zecile si L legaLe de unitnli printr o liniald de unire l E 121? breniy one thirlJ tno' iorlX Lonr, nincil s[ Notd unitnlilor' Uncle pcr soar,eilverse'lzn modut de numirare al ztcilo.r.!i s 1218 -l$o dnJ rhirl) -"i\'nd r""n't a".t"' i;"taln ''-'" "1"nint-on" 'na "i i" ln.j- .rr"rrrr o,,p . -rl'irr \,$o : -ror')- r\"' 1...''nP o'l; cu i",i": ",.. o nir"nla rl"su'rl in lrmh; cno l'25 'nnrdrrlofHr'ii plural: Numcralelc care erprimJ zecitepot avea fi formi de 1219 some dns ol mnsl"erli'ces ''i ,i "",",".,1l ',, 4, , r r P 6r . r iq . . . i, r ! . i\ ' r.11r.,., s 122rJ qi rrtitLe niliounele (Llrchunbed^t the li1rrsdndr' lhe nillions ): d) Sutr.tc. hund..d. tNo hnndNd ur'ce lundret' etc n 1 . n. hur dhd . "' . ""' ' . ,. . - i", r ' i" " : llr il lf o r \ " s r ' l ll"^ I nr li r' lrr' '_ d n d n: l o n 5 0 ' I m 2 m 3 'l s 1221 { 1222 o Ca si zrile. :l.,csienumeralc pol aveAiornrd de plffll: ""1i;,ll,"rl'i,.,;;i"" .. '.".. ";,1,"..l.o"i'0. Ji', inrre Ple-pflr Cilrele care io.iicl sute]e' iiliile ;i milioJncl' eie se 'li 'pa tL p'ir Iun r '' r ||inrr ur inrrru ilb i ' 1r mai'ri'-rp" 1;rrlor ,irputo nu l lii 'i" r'ru l,. l; nol "r'!1""'r i ' ' t ::' ""ii|i*' "i"' J. f" la 0 "'J 2;'": ti^, '0 In -u.r. N atncrtLlccu aflo1rafi': sl.lialnr: S 1223 liv c ,\a nor l',,: tt ",, l, r iijt

;:-.. U ite .l I (saurn4 liliior i'beanrni bilbn (saumiliard) tn Statelc 'le E 1291 " in lldn'a Briianie Americii. iar triiion ' ' o :':',' ';,,lll-"' ;,,rt i'l,lli!'i'l1i:ili",:l'::ier't,1.9": .,*-1- ,^**li::ill*lil'i'";".fil't ln r , , or lll /i /," " -/" s' rlrrril" ,.etr t l4 ,' r ! hr e, . , , S/ ' l{ ) r r ez i f r r ur m ir ntin' ln /'rr r..t ' I \ r c u 1n |o' t ! ";::, ri1l1 ,,ir t ,il;;t.,i;i,;i,";ii rir;r,';., , ,;,

283 MtLrea Britanie ti alte ldri ewopene St i 1 00 : I 000000n00 1 0r : I 0000000t0 000 $ 1225 .billionlsl : : .r/oneqtradrillion ./one qujrtilliOn 10b .= r 0000000000000oo , l r3 1000000o0o000000000 :1+ r/rzcfou.i :l F30 zl rou ri Cifrele de la un trilion in sus interescaziinLrmaipc specialitl.i. 3, Formo ..i ronblnr.lii .ne.intc. { t226 aJ \urn,rrl"lp arotf.,,,',li //,FF ,.u pu, or,.,r c ,t,ctanivalap.nna a \ZZT s r f rr,.,-pJr; u pron,rnli..p,,id'd..F" u^u., .uL,.rr nti drn rrm. ;"tiind " a hallpcnnx Io'herynti lson n q ,'4!"$1 . s on"n \ . 4. Ln ree tF,,cFt ofrlr ns J ; , ' ."p t"n rr.4Ji. ., 0np nr t . J b- \ . rdr lrno np dr a c,h r l Ir,r . I . t ur : I rn.da ,!.i. l) NuneralLrl huniLreiL este intotdeiula lcgat prio and de numeralle S 1ZZ8 .ar A JFn rm p. . z ailF s au ,i n i tn ri l " , x ,a d . J .q i . , rrd t,rndrcd esL e ' " e r,n,i subinteles: two hundred a,d siat1.-four a urousandtlirce nutrdred anl sir s.u l.hirteenhund.ed and six oDc l.housrndond t*cnir sern lnnndrcd r&ri,r .&s). c.,) P_entru simplificare, se obisnuieste ca miile sn iie transiormaie ln g 1229 a l.holsand oni Inndr.d and fir! sau cleren tinndral und rire i - . nl ' , 1s 1' J J d rttJ * i \ .i ,i s t,, a ,t , t-si \ d) N u m" . al, le hundr" d . th o .t" a n ,l .n i tti a n p tr. srnr i nvi ,i eLi ,F ta pl urj t { tZto clnd sint lntrebuinlate adjectival. snu cind stnt. precedate de un nu'maral " ,! rdi n rl o ri ',+ dil' l" " s c r . , lp. tl u r.l 1 .1 . . :(:u e /a tct| .). cu cr .]epl i a adj ec $1239 [.tp ( : . t llr t . ,rtF \a J : ' lT-" n16 lo.r ni nn,e e,, tznrl., S.\e|nI hLldred were at lle nfrtins, Sone hun.lred, wont)\ in rhc la ctoB lLrd n.t ti,. set ot qn.tps asjgned to ihcm. \,-. l, pt,rrat,.ind E t23J I,or li in.. ir ,rt."ttuti,F. rr ntit,, dF.i -, slnu :rnj' . JF ,r'r ru,,,,r.1. . nJ .i ' ,|'n," -.t" 1i"1.^zirrr/ 'rat'raFJBr. sau f ttunci cind au un irlclcs nedeljnjt: . ' Lnrt ands )in ] r.ad lh e i , if lP rD.onr colrntry tli! rumlcr of !o.ls lu| lisli rr.nl.htJ anirnrs ta huntlreds $ .,,i }iii"i lliHj:(r"j,l,/jil"itt'.iihij :il',:## i;if;,T1,,,r"i ;ir"i.u'"' p .r i,l, r" 'the rlolc aurtrled ,^ Ti, . . , 1 r sa lo $,tc hu,dreds. a. ha . a. t . . at ^t . . . (Yrziii S 1!21.t:la,sl ppq, p,.c o$ '.ra, I' . n. d. obu. t bJ nr.o"n" rilp, ..srd.t,A . o s rl rl' ; t 1' rpr 'turtj I srksDJr ! l I hDDr n! 1. ...1 .:. r.. .. .mt.o rlt ir rj i. - r . . ". . v . , ". . .mbotrt no . Ll n . n t ror' un ,ri rbr , ' a. , , . iplu: ip t,.. r,, .da,t. . ,, 'r'J. . i 5 .lol.l in d ld r "r t d r " r . , r . t n r r o i i t.n ' t t . , t J p timoul 'r ' or.tJl " ^ .r' rlo ", i i i lo . l l] 1, n . , 1- r m l t r . r e t r . . a L r t n i '\" 1' l-os,l ir. n li , , r ", r

, . , , 8um . .\o | \ t t N n t uop/ / , , r r ". 'l : \ 8"1 lu jdJ'r ,.r'd ln | 1 lri, . t u,.ii,. sl/d de cAr1i, rreo nl. s tsSt

n a h u , d , . . . 't , " u - r n d " l/r!rl c mFr t oo^: . s o m " . h a . . , a r t t r u . , d) - hut at . d, t hi, t . r , d. ,.t.t \ i_,,.a de rersoanc ctc.i, riutln nrvarjabile.

!tt crn,r s r2ilduaher",,,imPr'r"rF-,l,'rrlfl ;'il:.'il;ii"r'#Ji ': irfrlli "T':"'*; l,u,'l' frimPi' ,,ousJn.l TJIili';l:,"" l. on in mv po'kor' i i't L"'a*a" ' '" e''|",sineuful ./ 3J"i: sr2r;rvea si uirriod ' de Plurai 'u *::i',i' ".T;'J#':"1 i.1;'ji#l'Jll forrnd 'uuu ii" ".;'"; i""i"''i unui dlr numFral: titree nl:l/;dn reolrc lirc nillior t{o hurdred \" /i $ 13l i ' J h d " d ,p ,1s n .t l t' u a tto % sr.rl i ng s o ( pLinc ln j ;j ' ^ "'ilitr';''pTilll'T' i{"{"" i,"*"t'#"i :f.l' :i{liii ;l/1p,""'l:--,!-n-ririad 'l T Pn \ o f ' a r iltd r 5" -, ,,o ,. "llllld.i;i,,:,i",:i,"" ",.. 1236 la numaralulilor'uo'd: ^olrt ln ('ilul 'olo \rrl "" 'punc $i r"ldliv it' f o" I ndld ' wo "x ' dnl' thausand ti millio' /) Numeralele hundted' !- 123? al sau one' ! t r. R O ne s e jnt re b u rn rc d l r: sint' precedate de nurneralele B ffi S 1940 nor: 1'l'"in'.t "';l:::::,;.'::";";; "' f"l ) ^" olli qonn'J'in 1\"orr)'ror' Ir'n ' o ""' un de nnPsP gdse'sLc num6r 6upecin d inaint'eanuner uiui precedat' d..p'nu,'d-, nu,dq,p one d lhousntrd hund'eilatrdsirtJ: ini: / "1 la Ja'" numai PFnrtrr *'i lim b s "ncl'r ; 'onremp^ rrnr' numdr'rl ^ " -^ " . ; : : ; ; ; ; ' i anurt n s ru o cd e rn s*l '"'' 'n 'arr J+purlir'du e I'iii i".*"'r, 'sr" '1"'emnazd , , 1 ii"^' u" " ""'-*"*r"*il**'11*'",1ii1$"" !l'""ii,l"il";*t "n"" ''n '' n \' J nP si i l co oi u l iil"fl.i'.'li.'$T'iKi*"Jiiil;"u " 'and hun{tftd rive' u'"*-u nine :i;i; j:1,,* ro._r ll," al,;'",:ir* .:: li l ::i"l::':l. o,.": i' , 'jr "ii:::l il'l ":'i'"i':'"lli1- '""""r -,' 1n r ' r ' ^

s l2ll fdra dcoscbl l e d s 1 u a n l ' p i nl rabui nl earr ^ ' " l a l''Ie ' J l u ri rq) peopl d 5a rr' tr' n e " $ ' r' r' " r u ' I I' u n ' (Vezi !i $ 541' 55il) .r" 'rrtrL o ' u .J:l""l.Xir'{;"',r'j1T"li,"':.:il"f"'^" $12rs tF,rm, d"i'q"r r: ctit,' " d c r Lf l Dr ec e s ti ' d e nt, indurisinsuri ilti'p""'i"['i pini" tn;nt"itui iru 5eani un A tcn lic l -:k{ai:.}s#LHr,i,.,.,rutiiir:ril 'r'&sdn4i'-'"'"' mllr maP 'i;; 'i laicn strpedot, numfil

r&i Nu se spune: lrrndred and i,serl.\' I0ur lhous and t iir f c hr nd. Pd illi(D lonr liundfed , Iund.ed atrd t$fniX{orrr d thorsand lhree trllnd.ed d m,llior nrr hundrfd t it . , ind ! le j F rm i n i u ,, .u ,,rrJ n i \ : oa. hrnp or $rgar js fnough . ' fh .re w c ..,n ,. l e o l tc o n rne ro]L su bs t unt ia. c jnd a re v a k ra re d e s u b s ta n i i v . i n care caz poat avea !) !i formd de plural: Wdl. elelen $iih tm ,nes I soon pnt l@, and lpo 1oge1!pr. She js oD . t hpr ( " r th c wrols sid. oJ /orrvr. * d tL i n tj .. I,J i rq o rrh rp :- DJ. \os,r.r r_-/ i r c r s ri n rs rrc l rr' \" . I $a ,. rn -,,;tr" .r ,' d I n , . nr .ry. o) odj lv c z i i i S 3 3 a . 3 !i , 1 !3 3 t:3 6 t N u n r or alul onc p o a te l i q i p to n u m e . (S 9 4 2 943, 1005. 1164) 4) i lrcbuintare. \rezi g 1257-1261. 5) nunctii. Nrrireralul cardinal poate fi: $ 1243 $ 1244 $ 1245 S 1946 .l s 1247 C a q i ru m pr J . l" . s , r i i x u l -/,.,? p o c tp r\,,, \e l u rpd.aJi e. ti \.au dF sub- q t248 s ls rl r\: I p- 1pl. ) r r p ro ri r.ra i rr i J n l .F " -n ri \" d i ,d i orJti ra,ed ani tnr,u numa t! .p rn I nJ r " t n - / , . r . tn trF l j i .: Io d n i i " rtu b i rJl f he. ho' f . on .s p d o l p q o 6 p ttp i | re,,8% :ubqt.,l t ie r s s f llt r n t' rs l ? tu oGu b n .l " ...o ..) . js Ile Jb, olt .l ljis teers.6 {sunst.) Ile is o.r of ,,s rdab.? Lsubsr.) ij r Nu mr r nlul . ar dina l i i a rl i ro l u l . - N u r,.e r" t ut poa F ti rrF. eLrr ,tF l 2t9 Brli h olar il . r , r n, h.l Ari r ' E .r8 . i ' l l ::i :. l 2i 1 t2i zt. ^ l l rl II. NI,IINR-{II]I {)RDI.ITT, (TirI oltDlNAl, \_IiltxRAL) 1) Delirilie. Hc .amc out rccond ii liis cxrlr. She lut on lfr t/.t.d b.sL (d.es sl i ,t ri 2) I'orm[, Numeralele ordina]e se lomrpaza ad:uqindu se terminatia n .rmFr r l. lF . r r di' pl p s c u I. F ,h i v rl ,n ti i l o r: loudh, sixteert h, lweniy srcntl,, l,udredth: the Dt), lower 'I = n bccut dc painzeci de aDi. : A re ftslf nDtze.i d. ani t t h ri f i, s ol t i, "t " , ,h. c , tu " ! n ,^ a n i J :.as , s e j nrt,\i L: rhsi rr,. n/r? ..,-nr iellt ,.h tu "r:lnLt e anii t Cr i o i l 9 C 9 i n l l u s i \ s ! : Ctr ri late din Dal,!e: tcolooria|. r , rr ,^ ,i re a ,' i . Jd.r" i. ) . - n" i! . : g u: ,t I -,,r. - -\t,r aa nr r , lin il20 d r J n i l r. , dt de 20 de in i . ': -\ s 1250 Nrmcralul ordinai indicii nnmeric ordjneaintr-o serie: g ttsl \ 12bP

986 E r c e p I i i: primcle irei numeralei precum 9i nunreralcle oompuse thsl. second. lhird thiriJ seoord. sixiv third' i'i;it-ii".i. 'tc primeqt termira lia'lll: La nu leralele compuse. numai ultimul termen s 125a """ " s^n tanl\kn Numeralcle orLljnalecare con-tincuvinLcle l4n(beit'-thausand' poi sa nu de a (ci $ 1237)' sau deeit de nurneraiul on. .sinu .hi;";;;,l"te "" aibi de cit ariicolul nehotirit: , .n p o ' o' r ' d d eigh'h' ni'th. . nd t L r v - t i- . 1 i' r ' r ' l id L' l 6 p 'n n o i{cl/lh twoiii'th' ..0'n',,,',0'., ll: :H liliif$l'"tl"J;"IJi'ii'J1' \udcrale li/ih, tu ortogrdic spocial5l: thjrli'th' etc s 1?pj t 1265 :' l ormo :i coo'lrur!ii b0c:iclc'-itre doui lirorF adnuglrp ou uLrirnctp d.,/Nu rnff'lcl" 'rilrnrLe srns 4[h , nd 3.d 63rd 100th s 1266 $ 126? s 1258 a) Nuneralul ordinat precdanumeralul cardinal: ; lTl]""iJ:" lriilll*l*:i:.1;*:;:llr;; :l[:ll'ii':ii, ' -:i The tfs, llD xea.sol tle century:' rsrdiolle nurnerAlolor ,'il lntrobuinl,rrca I rolor ordionlo'h ir ilu l oln'!idl: Jur'F rln s'r"r" Fl"'ial ln.rr ru l. s rrb s t o n riv " 'r o r : d : n : 1 4 ' t\ irP E I 26 9 r o l "ii;i 'i ;r "'" r-\rr.-r,,n.i "rn'l nu "nnrol" t' d in 3 p f -" d ' e i' rF U:d p n u n rrrr "' -" " a i .i ,i,1"ii"'* "i dl numeralul cardinals: i;i.J i""e -lnur" the t""d $'ortd \\at (Wa14 tr Tqo) the 1/"rd Rooh (\la( Boah Thrce) 1 t ') ar I nt r h' v od Pdr l t 'r t Los n l" I nt \ 4t ' I Ar at sn r \ ' t dt t t utL r r r r ' . \ . p", / , I c l t r a- " t I F / ut r \ ' l\ t lr / thd , .' n 5in il' " ( ?P {'r l '61tl"'i'Jl'Jr'" .n"", the orJ n') r'hird "n cFplrm b ' r t s rl\ p ' lirsL 10"' l*,j:x'ld'"X;Li:Hl,".'?l;xllwl;t*:]:,$iiiftl;:"11"i" "t tle -ir-i''ft ra'agraph lt\xr P astdph nlhe) r h", l"r "d r ' "r o \ ' t dt ; t "4 ' t n r " t .. , $o- J i' ar Pa3 " 1r a : '" " - s r ' " 5 t uor n 44 u4 t hd t h' ltaor lr i 'd *'*iil,i+lii+:*:r'r'#rliif';*;}lt"{:}i

; ilrll',,111 **;1.1 sl1;',i{lil* tP, ;r"';li':t''J;Jili;"""r: ord 'L n'r '" -,: e;iilititti l,-,fllliliil*Jli'i';r;:l

2C7 nata capilor unui stat, ni bisericii' ai uni familii, expric) ordineasaccesidni{ de nu neralul ordinal: gitliam the aoorl'i Popc -!crode. tlie Att& Borgiai Quccnlt];ab el.hthc rtsr, Joln Smith lhe Zrtd tL, numitorul unei frat:\ti ordinare eBLeindic at de numeralul ordinal, ) iiind cxprimat prin nuncralul cardinal ($ 1272). numd id,r.arul Numeralul ordinal poato avca valoafea de: 5) Functie. o) alieclitt Hen rv vTtr \Lasihc first Kine of lhe houscof Tudor. b) suibstanri,':tnil puero a$r ambeJe articole ;i pluralut terminat in 's: ' He 0amein an casy/ts,. \!e r J \ r s ' J ou o lJ / ; J . . P. / ilr " n. - ol \\' boohed tao secotds'zlo !]raiov. ( Vez i t i S J e5) S 1260 S 1261 $ 1262 S 1S63 $ 1264 Wlicn I l'sr camehe.. I sas a olild. s 1265 6) NumoralulordinalFi articolul.- Numralulordinalpoate fi precedat $ 1266 in de a mbcle articole,articolulhoteril tiind lllsn acelacoretl insotqte mod objlnuit ( $ 517).Nuneralul ordinalpoatesta Si ntarticulat: He Ieft tor the seasideor the t,.lrlt ol ihe monl.h He llas the ,,tt..t to oome A ,odf,n innovalion wB added 1o ibe othc.s. Slakcsleare's comcdy 'ils \ou Like I t" ws pcdormfd on Night "esfd ITI. Nf]II{ERALUI, FNACTIONAN (TED TRACTIONAL ]IUUNRAI) $ 1267 s 1268 $ 1969 s 1270 1) Dofinitie, - Numeralele fraclionar exprimn fraclii. adice una sau mai rlulte p n4i eqal0 dintpun intreg. 2) tr'ormi. - Ffi1c\ia (the Fraction) esie de doui fel uri: lraclie ordinari sau tractie zecimali a) iraclia a inatd (Ihe VuIS(irn'rutr ian) Fraclria ordinarn are doi ter' nnmitarul (he Denominatur un numir intreg cale araLd ln clte pirli ), pqole s- im pdrtjt rin ditsA; - nut,,d4t;rut(Th. \unrolar). un n'rr;r inlrpq.nrF srJrs .i Fd in e.A.la Dirti sini tn lractie. - -Numlritorul estedespdrlit,de numjtor pri tro linie orizontald sau oblicd, S 1271 numiritorul aUindu-sed;asupra ei. iar numi torul dedesubt: 'r tu S.^t* 1t,,,o^;,- 4 ''' Frd, lia s^ po"r" pxprini ii ttin 'xrin ": lr linba engl"zi n,m:ri orul lag,t constddinrr un-nuoLertrl-cardin^l pin liniuln de unir 6 de numiLor,care S 1972 esie ur numeral ordirel, eu semnul pluralului cind este caz : 3 : (iive+ightIt : : ) r r m J' 1 lJ\n P!a - l - .t\ lth.ee qlarle.s s!u llrcljon hsl t (a thi.ix lirst) 31 J ll

10 I sc citi "Henry th. ScvcDlh". t -{ donr:rbilcl,e de t.cn la chsa a t-a. :

t38 S 12?3 determinatde o ftaclie ordinaril se aftd la singular: Substantit)ul g hatt atu hou sau a hau-hou'l I n "" "a*"' 1 l"e .itette,three qudteis ol o nl:/ el a' ^it" determinatdc nwn(r'tlul 1 (one) .jft compnnrecn o, fraclie Substantieu l s 12?4 ''' ' dar pcl. .,rir lic la "ingulsr.tnd 3eciteltPdupa ..ai.-"i!. olu"u lin ., " ":1''r. 'is. plural cind se citqte dupi fracliel tntreg, fie ia 1!, n* t | 1^"1" loz anil three qnafteN sau ane and tttteequartErtot) ot a ptay 1o""i"a dc, dnd a harl sa\ ane dnd a hdtl @ts) -x plural qi compus cu o Substantirul determinst ilenn numerai cu sens de \ 12?5 p l u ra l ' trd rl iF or dinar a oe 0 II5 l a (secirette: iln and a/onehau /ruotur"! sa! rea kitbwt'^ and d hdtf)' t0 + ftilnet*' complicate: :1r E sau ait:r6: :; 30/et 5;; se citcs c: /ozf ae{ fi'e -1@ai'; seren reslectiv: ,,{i/rv okr nlnetlJ ttn ;n o t F ru a i on ) l ' unP l ' razuri fra' Li a s" r ft' bJ F r u' lio. . ' t n o d $ 1 2?6 pdrrea ( f h" D " " i not V nn" r) ma i p6r ' . er pr ina rl p ri n rr.u n ,a ' rmd r r" ' i m a l paftea zecimal; prinlr-un puttl inireaEa a numarulur lxno ocs ldr-titd de - pr ir r r o \ ir g ' tl l i " c \n l i mb i rn m i ;i ' ;i n u ' o t5 s; citeqte: (noushl) deci!tral rsat point) ser'n li!c' o ii ""u point) two F raclii mai ejght. /saa ?#i";'i#.;;'11";;':iil:i,l"lH,i,'Jl",i'l'ii "!ei,,cinn, '0" six Obserrlti.e Nunoratelc rnailte Jr' purrri 'qeciLcscca un singur.numnr' 1Y!i,p.li -"] a 12?? -numar ;r ouprl rcl ' lj".o'" cifra se lite-stP 'r;t l{inutele se cii cscca un smgur '. Ir.l5 lr l\ il P l- ' A se colnpara: poir! No lonr trrce) anil eight]'_scven 18t!s3 (s; tirlire: ode h nndred ard loi'v' and eis}iv{er'n and l'wo hundrcd . ,1, nP ,'d, }r,ndred 13;.il ths ilirce thousiu'd 12?8 '-'" la singulardaci Substantivutdeterminside o iraciie zecimal; se afli parteaintrea gd I (zero),qi la plural dace irac,tieiesie 0 o""t#i"i"""sll iractiei ester:rnal t numeral: n.J" nn r ' 2 J d t's \n a Al, I p ' r nl " n i\ p at a ^a" w " ' \ ; Poir ; l s o ii\ ' , " " 1 $tt*nntn*tuxuu fi

!80 3) ALte nnmcrale fta.clionare sintl q u d1 rr' o ' a r, r. t, .r J n d aqr-ri dri r.r' cu....ui , aqr d l "ro l '1 1 hoLr i h,rl t d. ro$n '. h J r adoz " n: t o, r ' n d d ' .d -l : " n o o u rd sa n d a r,4.t." n :r' .dJ nrtt po rnds; H o ff a l. al is beller t h rn n n n r . a good-hall ot ii.. t_he ri.sl hnll oJ i]]e year. one hau ol it: the rwo hahes oi an apltc; to go halvesi to do things iI hnh-es. Ate n !i e ! Numeralul naffh o:f] in compuncre ru subslantil'ul penna este pronuns 1279 quarel;1 taharr, harvest; (rour pr. 4+ i t" "*t, ". ' a , lr r eF tat I herpn4,. Dxp&sii matematiee0urcnte + + : + : + < S 1280 $ 1281 A' X rekslsouared X3 x feksi cibed It X lelsl i.o lhe powe.fou./io nl n tn l lrctorial the irtegral ol i llus/aDd mtnus/takeawav rlus or mitrus/aplru.imlklv - iy/ti m a isda b1 i i s ) m ! lr iplied pentu drm4srulL) (is) diaided bv (is) eqnal io/equals t not eqtral to/doesnoi equal is less 16an pi lpa4 r fol : radnf oI ci.cle % Pc_.lent O is an emlty set ts lerDendiculd to an a.c) ' minutc -acsrei {or ' secondlor an uc) rv. Nulrl]|t lr.ul, co[Dctrv [T[Iri coLLtrltTI[I] NUtntjlt.,{r.l s 1282 riv orprim" id""" nun pri"1 ,lp plural in s 1283 I Dofinilie. ),lumFrslul "ole, ^ Jufmd,re srtrgujr. i, 2) Formtr. Numeralele colective sint: cauple,lair, brdce ,span, team, s 1284 yolrc,dozen,score,grass)qaire etc. a) Numeralole coulle, pai r, brace, span, ledm, yoAd numesc grupe de $ 1285 do; astfel: couplel: doi (sau mai multi)3 (neasorta.ti)li pair l.: tol (asorta!i), perechel: a aupl o sen ,nd -. a.N u. I " al d- inls : ll' J oLn; , , , r , 1. r : | | g1\4 v^u d .,,rk aptLP, ( do .r . ^r .n.o,p!poi"Jt\ n !at, oI gloves, a lat oI trorsers, ctc. \,. a o: / . ) , al I or " " l . d .d r' i " 1 ," J rd t.;r 1f . \ ' t r 4 t@tvq P4tl l'hey wuiked in pai6 Ior couples ):.,perechi, pereohi" sau ,doj .lle doi". a ,/a.. oi dor$. of ristols a,.a.d ol dLoks. of rhesants thlcc ,.d.c ot parl.idsis (termen vtnitoresc) brace i l:,J.oi (neasortari)l t helf a ctuen:2 s 6.1.anodc onetnrl terimrtai,ln ci.culalie irri',ter introduc.

.ii :is t em n l )i d . . im al ll9t lL 'Ve zi ti $ 1! t 7. ' 3 Cu aceastnaccept iuneeshr nxmerahl nchourit : oilira. cttera. 'the lauls caupte: tifua t*eche ($o .tati), sinolin cu rat (e\cep!ie).

!40 boi el'c inhima'ti (ressran l< Alrica de Sud: doi coi. catlrj, ci-tivfl ' p;.ri\ ' inJugrli, lmPreL'ril: ' ' rinixgaLrimpround: pprF"he: ecbipn teaml: doi " i. b oi . ". lnh,m8li rln labri'rl plcl: (de sportivi .i.r, ""1'ip" r"u noriun"': '"l ,ipa doui animale lnju.Eate; Perechc): live sol, oi oxcn mai mari de doi: b) daz en, scarc.gross'quir(t numesc grupe do.zen iJnzin; (12)ll lokc (: h 10 t c q hr "lq ) ^ L ' l{ r J o: somo .lD:eu eggs, ctrj TLev verc selling egg s in twentY lczm oI catile tcdm. 1tc rv0. \ve .fc ^ a s?d. ot hoNes, bto sPdr ol o{er s 1286 ) dozen (: a lon{ (san rcunrl, Itoker's, deril's. pnnter's rio:aE t3): 'altf's (ternen [: qross gros(12 duzini)];sredrgr{'ss 12 grosuri(144duzini) [: co mtcial) (ahe1' g. gr')l: $ic bonshl srx g.oss !e6. Slie rvante'l fit s'fss ot but!'ons' li g.oi g-* is ti r:elvesrossoL144 dozcD scarc(:20): qair"e[: s 12E7 $ 1288 " 'u' ' "i l ' i , . , *, . , u ,.,F , f' ,,.r- o r" ,r,\. ,L d o L., ,r ,- r "r .,' tp: s 1289 ;;,'i;.r - .i ,,;;,.-l-'.,1. n r'-r ' li I " -' r' F r' o r; ' rr" p ' . n n ' ro rro .n,, r' r' rn in lriP in rn .',''""i '..i" 'i',.r' .'i d" i r" p "rF r' ' r" " " dpos ' birii-ln l rmb i \^ L n rrn : .u F cieht .,url.fsJ .l dogs coald (nffe, de 4 sau 24 etc foi) de hirtie]: The Paler \tas 'n tzrl'r' colct'ive au valoare de 3) luncji' NuDix. - Nlajoritatea ntmeralelor il'h'i ffi r?";r;ia* ili,:ll*'r l' r1 -" s'Ine d4'" hmdk*'hiels l.am old tr,,;t ?::ixX":l;iF1,,:i" He * as ln. c c s . , f . \ : |jnl ,,p li,,T"r",:.iiil"il'.*lid" "",,, tiv coleotiv nr.sinl' ltecedat'e z]) ci l numdalcle fu.valoarc des )ita Irr'rr'' ad' ttFpozrLr'ro/ frrmoqr ti'. J ' 'r'r^u'.'"r ' 'ir deun/ru -al. I .i ,jub'" r rrrol" obirt"'t1': i.i"i',.,1i" Ln ctqks 'I'he gxcsts l dkd i 'o uie dining room Thev sto't1 an l tr P'rr'

i--ria-i'i.:o t'i' re'rite do:'ns !I li'rfs loflra.terminati in s;-c) substanlii'ulquire arc Ia p\Dal runai 51 ru acerali fo rnn la plurar ca -' brht:, vt'ss sVin .'i 17okt ai "''""."r"f" la siDgular: lhree ,rd.e of Pn.s{!rl's two r.ors or pen.ls scvcril ,ole or oien at t t "an" d^?n | lri":.ilif,lll:,.,'", s*:iil";-l;;:lll , .-; ' -\ se i:, . l" 1,: o..pail , tJ t", ; r" rJ :r \ Ju i " 'acl 6

rlv Fr cE! DIsrBBUrrv 241 Y. NUIIER'{LUL (TEO }TULTIPLICATIID 1) Detiri,tie. Nxmelalul }IL-LTIPI,ICATIV OII' }TULTIPLTI]Ri arate proportia in care cresle S 1290 q 1291 NUIII]NAI' multiplicatil' o sau se indeplineqte aclrune' o cani,itate mulLrnumerallor 2) tr'onni. - Cu exce pliaprinului numeral resl'ul "-;l:,"-"; cardina]e; la nurneralele .Jai'gr"a'-"" sufi:rul -/old p["";i"; single. dou|le /so, t\tolold), irille l'nfold' fsad treblc' ihrcelold' lou'1old' a huDformele laiine: Cu func!,ie rlc adjecti!'e sint lneori tnt'rebuirlate li quadmPl e,quintrllc, serl'uple scptnplt' octuple' elc siilul $ 1993 lormelet'erninatein -lo&l se int'il cscastdzinumaiin Ca adr.erbe, pin; ;ti;ial. ln lnnba curentn,le au roFtlnlocujLe n,"";: t";;-; tiBes' a Inndr'd tim's {as onoe, twi.c, tnricer .saa .threc time!, lou! times' t e! as nanl. as g.ear rc l' muclr, cu ultima grupx ( $ 1293)' exceplia S 1291 multiplicativedin aceaste Numeralelc ri,1'r (: on) cu.|intul punindu-se rftrlc4,setormeazn ,,",'"c, o"i'r"ii.l"al,"* dupi numralulcardinal. sau dc .{ 1291' 3) Functii. Numeralui mr t'iplicativ are v aloare de dljtli' 0J'eiti !i .le rdbsldnli': atL.,erlt. T he snilra qF lrrl a 'lo r D' ; 1r,';l l;ll i""i"-l lr i,f',':l;'ia o r';;; i,l'9j ,,. .. , ' l r\/ ir 'l' ti tr - Lr La' \i ,,; r t hr , , 17" I U L r' r (\u h s ri r& r" rrb l' , s" r" " n' ' |ot t um iiljl 'lI. r-UMIIR,\LUL DISTIiIBUTI\' (TTTtrI)I STIUBU'flTD NT]III]RAI') grupe egale d obiecte'?: ]i nnrcrnlut ttittrib utir arotiL repartizafea in 1r ' oreaL rr; ". "r.in ". ' r p' li . 1h, bj " o, bv or'". r* , bv pl' ds dJ ' n' ov L" .,- u ". tt 't'" .. : nt r nJ , , . . I p ilr . r , . i . ;1 i;-,,,,,. . b.. ' $ 1t96 nr '| "' i i ,.,r" t r " , ' n l rr' " ' l o r ,, j l , i ;:. r , . ' . i iy . 9 ' i \ n ' h r' n " ' " ' . o r J ' \' " ' . :h i "',0 ,..' n tn d a J nJ ! s f

s dr " \' .v cr.i t ' , 1 .a , b r tv .! o ,o \F ,i .' " . . I.; t , " ; '" l'i ,,i r \ ds d t a ' P l ,, Shc ran do\Ln Dr.. r/4r {i a mc' \t'-" N.re sivcr /lr4 fouos edr' Tnc.e lt.ni ionr sfotrls oI str der 4"' r Le pr' L' r' l r' ' ' I- to:' d rJ ti " ' t rd' r r l Ntrmerahl ,irl.t cste .ar nrhcbDintat tn ii'rba cu'cnti tstc inlocuiLprid Dnnr e'alL't 'i"" j?;"" s",t"'"ti""rl'.,i I !)

AZ s 1297 s 1298 S 1290 VII. NU}IEBALUL AI}YERBIAL (TFX ADVBBBIAI NUIIIIiAL) Nuneralul adverbial indeplinette functia de ddrrD qi ar ard: a./ lrecventa sau periodicitatea unei acjiuni; D/ locui ocupat inir-o serie : a t at". t ha" t , M . . - at h- ic ; h 8, , t . n"s . a t t u d - d t i n " . . os a. r , t ". p o, [ ^t t os o. t ik ] . c r , : . P"opt , 5 Couo. i' r . r r h: t d o i r a r n . r e r t r q o v . a r s . Th "l".rion s to f Uy .l'iJirpn . s"J r o I . av p un I : nCUlh t Fs s anr n r @ I . p , a ; p p t i . ' I I' rv" ro l I Jn u a hu, d4d t i@ , not u go t he r e . tti', S 136$ Notd. Oncq twicq threetimcs eIc. Eint ti numeruIenulti) licdt;re. Deosebireadiat re numralele adverbiale ti cele multiplicative std-io inl,eles: Ozcbitten, ,at.d s hy. [On"r ".1,r.rr..,1 adverbialpFltru.a arald frc$Fntd atiiullii. r+rce oste nu meral multiplicativ pentru ct aratd mssura tn care a ;esou; prudenla.l _utir.lly , eigh y, etc.,in rhe iirsr (or second, S 1301 ;hird, riiln, , ,, rirsi.,lirsily , sccoritly. e i c.) plac c : Ladi-"s lirsi.l Satetv lirsi.l Tle o,,lt, quesiiunsu,r rhp agcn daweft itfs,ftrl, ihe rotrre to be followed,s@.dtg .. th e DLm ber m en t rr..q I. 1 o d l d ,4 9 th , tmn .p ufl ol th" Frp.di ti oD . oi 5 1302 $ 1303 ITItr. NU]If, NAI,UL NEUOTIR,TT (TII[ INDEflNITN NUIIER"I.L) Nrrmeralul nehotrrit eqrimd un nunXr nedelinit de obiectes.Numerale nchoii!lte s inL urmatoarclel :p! " ' dl a oa !. /o i h- 1, s an u . ", , 1 d . , o t o '\ , , -. troacr . a B eotle.ad tnnalt', i4pntqr, .Ir. S&trdl oi the bo$ in the school had Fo! scliola| shits. u!,-.|d n r s r . n. . L- gr i. ' . , , r ot adJ . lr'f4 a t,d {c o t o . \ . J , I shaU be lack nr a /e@ davs. T ,j n .r\" | , r' n dJ F 1t - t t ' s dr . ho. , t so a . m o n t i , s i o w , A ru ab ,.afth pajdnr - r r d b. n t , o", 1 t o n . p 4 5 p n r r h d , o o p d r a r i v . a , conleren,,c. A " out b al n i s p -p :l r,d J y i ,,t." ru ,. 4lo o/ lhe u , m n k -rp q ,1 i ri ..t $ o .k 1 5 . Itls of rreopre had come to rhe Ineethg. l30l ,.r' t. l -' or m A lpdp " in 3 ,r,rc u n o rJ d i n trc d .p s re nu.ta" al " , \ anump : (harl "l d tg a op 4 n u .h f u) 1; t t |" .d d B , o l o t (o l o v .), 1,,{. r/pnl r/ ,prveso l a exD ri ma r.a . dnr ir ; r ii in" t.t z u r n ,rm ,l o r d " mJ t" ri i l a u al .i bsl r;ti vel or absrrsi te: ,c yo. hd\ no iJ " 1 t" o ,ttu u .r..r.i p rro n s . h a \d roti + r,.d. Th" r p wr . v r r . n r" n ," 1 trr i i ,t" a ,d o J . A / t lllr ' m oneyg o ,: a l u n q Bd r. Hn . dd 4, , . i_b s t o j r ,,r t,-i ,t r,. a 1 t .p - o t r .5,.. T . l,ol A lo, ol iris assuianoe was du. to ihe su;port his conrailcs Aare him. r,nrt., estc dcsuet, sau lil.erar_ s t . , ! r s idr r at e 'rfo nn a fiatla Sc^

s e rdn ,ri .r l l3 , l 4vczi si b8s . $ U{1 ,08; ' pr et ioc d. ',1| o !p 4 t e .,a d d o l a t tr a + . i t;;tJ; I \ czi r i S 0! 2, 2 5 4 6 . u ;";:",i;:,,/p J'p,i (e , 2 8 5 ). { ".m'rd,co.. ' iv o o . d o u a

?43 Sens nehotdrit au ii: ii"i''i'""iliii"'f*;ai.;le, aprorinalie (rzi S 130tj): r s 1308) carexpdmd etc colectiYe ) insolitede cuvinte ciire nari (rezi S 1all5 Wc stopled there fo. o'olt t'"nig minntcs D) nuneralele (cardinale. colective tc ) care erprini Thcv came in nudlelr to the meetinSprrn srrrrxul t rlo: "n . o n . ut 1! r u. t no, . th r' r' o r n Ptr-. s a u . i n ' " 1' rl l l ]rnrl rar' -irl adnugai la numralele scurte: lve s'alked zror,/ ua.iy a mile tw -n " tv n i n u tp q Io o k i n s rot a rori - . i' ; ; ; : i- , i; " ' N i l l ' ;' [ s o a ' rn i rs i i d tq o hL' dred I i er Lili- i" r , . " i Slie was manied src fiYe Yearsback' o D " r i i !" p ounds ir iL *r r . o' L tti n s n ' " l i t" ) l?e a{ lt " . a n d i d a l ,e s h a d a l re a d yfi n i ' h Fd15P papdr (1Fq LIF I' ay A t laur hht t pN ,i L o t" l r! L ' n o l l P 3 !d i P n ' " suror o l $ p trrv th o u s a n d d d l -r0 0 00 bi r s , " . * i" iil " LFvd ! ur r: nd l r 1 j1" br r d t or il l $ " n ' v o d d U ro trs a p n d an l 'np :oqul roi r u \d rD ! . , u, le l- . ilr\a ) o l o u f mP n a l ' ras$ p a l 4" pn 1rutr t lr dv ' rlold io r d o F 6 o l i i m " s n o f l o ln i s \ n lih p h a d p u b l k h o 4 N \D b a f d o ' n l ott po^K s ru o lnev t ir r l b" b a ' ! i n a d q r" o r ^ i p 4 r ; n * ta n tn ' i q q u tri ro l p a rn J o .r iii -' .ad" .. i or , v ' , , . no. l, ,0 mp ro .l d ' u d d y o n a n 0 !n L jin, c .h .. ' r^ :4 ' l 4 tn - \ \ i, - l -h, | { n eifre //o/rn.le) se xprjm;: aeer' marc than' dntL nore' 2) Depitirea u ei ahorc. u|,"a s (of) en.: I le is ote. sirlJ ,qhelost ordr tilenty pounds in weignt. \ u, n- r " ar l h e fl .h i i . l ,b ti " ) 4 u " ' d _ n o ur' p oF on r l a , " 't; 'o r d .la t"n 5 r L lp t' r fl s l' r l h k ' i' r ' e i ;i . o l i g ti u d D o P r' rh " ' r' oi r' 6 n a 6 ' a ld n i s Tnf s rr v bn or' SPECIAIJ FOBIID $I CONSTR,UCTII ouorcd.i s, ":*frirr; prin: |ltaut.qlnost n.artv .sor'' S 1306 1) A0rorimxlia .lneal,erc 1iA". o oLout. kq. rcuthl oplrr tnotd.!. nddd "aupt'', lJ son", rhrne \ l3O7 '' inriabitants of ii'i*"i-ii"t ii"i" ipi.,a"' r ' ]d t*o minion 1308 cul se 3l Dmrimareacitrolormn netletiDite tai'Fintrebuitrlindu_se inrPle S h,tn,1"d.riousond,n''tttodt,nttt;on.doz"n..or"pl' .,rppra'pdalcdpnumprJrP qi de celemai mulie ori in forma lor de ptrral: TIct F.nt iu /,endre.ls lo the conlcrence H t;rea : .n d ' t aLs d- dr nJ r h' l r al ' " r o s r r m . 'j;";"";i' "d hPappeJ l r '1 d \ I o r l d 'p" r , ' s o lds s r g ''/l tt.o u'"to !: na YO o r n r ur r m ong"t ' : 4 th"u o.d rqa]'o:i : A th'""and l nr' o4a lhin- s lo r l' ilu I n a\d o rh ur t r l4nd ^ o i 'd L o n 'r r ' P "..j,;;,lt:;,ti 'p n r c s ! l !.a cP co n"*r ise / Tl( o ' ttfir s l llm d a zP n l"o ' < I na\c m' th d i4 4 lL IJ n "lo "" r h fh;v fP l lf 'a in $ p i l rdPs i g l o r L r a nyria.I : zece mr. ru,addr .'.". n',, or

@s or p,orr. 'l orm r" ga.l l a i" ; o * or n .-.' t They had ioitrcd the cooperaiive it erea t numbets

214 S 1308c 4) Plusuls u nirusul fa,ldaleun nunir dxt se e\prinri asifol: on. (t,o. tt|ee, cta.) ko ,tun! t: t,c\) nlui (doi. |Iei etc.) mai Dnll, trntrl {doi. lrei ci c.) in r l, , s l ane (nb tu, elc.) ko t4r l-. l.n) unul (doi, t.e i ctc.) mai pnlin, wnl (doi, tli eio.) ln mrnusl lhcre js,ne ligurc ra. ud,r to. a lhone numb.r. llr g \F In i' Iillin " r o o /.r . $ 1309 5) Iorme ialiomntice. A se obscrva urmntoncle forme idiomatice: 14, ,tr, on. (: pdnntioull set nd best I j de lort-A zild') (eorocv.) Hc's fire foat hnlhins. (: exactly live loot ialll $ 1310 S 1311 rcr, rnt-^h i|| d d fFnrr, . Lor: a.) nunirul unifitilor de numirul zecilor cind acesLadin urmi esLe yecedat - dtt nu si urmali de primul ( g 1217 1218): 6) futrchuinlnreaconjureti.i "and" cu numcralele. Conjunclia dnd S 1312 a, nun drul unitn,tilor al zeciior numirul Eutalor al miilor ($1228) sau de : ;i three hrndred dad onc cight thonsand dnl Utirtr iwo nine ilousand lou. budilr-"d dnlt fifi.y-seven $ 1313 c) numJrul tracliilor de numirul intregilor: tso ard Urree qnartos a poued azd a l)alf li{c hon.s o,l lortv minutcs fou az.l sirpence liar tn eaftircd curentd: lotr dnd. si\) S 1e14 Not d In senere irsiL. nu se htrcbuiiloazn conjunctia and ra snlcgo numnrul unii nlilor de nnmnrul subdiviziunilor aoostora ln (azLrl ini\urilor ale ciror denumi ri difern de acelca alc subdiviziunilor respeeLive: \ po. nl l, l :n a .1 ' r ' i .. p o u r ' l nl n , no' r nd ' o rr ' l i o n o ' rn i ,, I -. 9. i] 0 ( nin e lhir l rr) (re l .ri to r l a i i rtrp ,l i d b a j ol i ci al ) S 1115 flonot{ tn Marctl Britanie 100 pen. e[ pen s ]l 1 0 0 p l:l Iro n n ds l c rti i g l paund ' stJrr!] l rl n sl tserliid)t ealonre tu)neda t oihlf on, \ .p rtn r.,.J l a d ' d l !- nl l l , ' onrl lt i ! F , , ny I r r n ,l . f.o /o ^ .I r! twolclce I l^jrrt, two prnc. . f.,1,,r..1 l.wo l hi:l - ". a i$opcrDl I!1,!n4 ptc.. t/on.: l hi l ra' !9r,L.-"' '

{L a | ,,,,l. /s/ , ?! ) | quid f k $r ll ti, ttn . !10 i\. P G n, lq; r r . t ! orrds, allala, fivr/i,,r/trventy a^f iv . r / L n / t w . r l J po!nd n.ie, /rla, s, a t3.8t lhre potrnds .ighl,y two p.n.' 'Sa\ hatf past nine ln litubr cnrentli.

,At Monete tn StaleleUflile r00 ccnts lscnta] {100i) : I dollar t dclol (gt) (tun. : dola!) 1131C toi ten cenrs 25c lwent]{ive cents roi }all i dollsr. fsia'81 a nicke'l I nlkll a dime tdarml a ]ialf'dollaf a dollar ltll $r a doltrf, /ildDs) a bDck [b^]tl a riYe/ten/twenty dolla! bill $ 5, $10, $r0 live/ten/lwentY ' dollaB: 1sla,r, rivr/tFn/l.wfltY S3.8! in.ee dolla .F iBhly_two cents

TERBUI, tit CoNSID ER A T I I G E NE R' { L E ndnhiliP *t' " i ".l i ,' o" . j' i' t r t r b rr rra n z ' rr\ Di a l zd. . . . . r : ,: , Prr ,o a n a Num & l' r n f ' ^ u i'i-.i, J"i'":pot.i v'.b au\lia' -." -{srco1 . " ' t!18 25t 131! 255 1329 236 {333 251 t58 l J43 158 160 \RI.t CUNJUU C . \ RAATERI S T I CI G E NE R A L I' ] ' ' Inilicslji Detoitieo . . l Tituputi (ind;catieut) irirr\l l'ormo r eiltsle '. iNSi 13ii6 t:6i 260 -.160 161 1368 26t 136! !6! 26t tS i i ltlGUL-\T ila dilt'za a0Dva ' 1it I { 38rl {3 8 1 ,64 iJ6a l6i \_!RB CO,\JUGAREA SI]\[PL-{ 'q' LNUI DIAT]'ZA ACTIVtr. NTODLBILtr PT']RSO\'{[N I. Indic.titnl ?tc.entul snnPlu . 1382 t65 1384 t65 ,138i 96i 1386 t66 t66 138t 1388 !6t 1110i !69 :t0 tI]06 1t0 {4 1 1 ;. f,l"il"'".:;";'"; "i;",i',;' i"j,J"',ii'i-;ip,''."',r- ' lrl.: jl, .^: .;. ,.-". ar,niu' p'.?"1,, indi. r"ddu ,"r"d lll i:^-1.;,, continur cr prezertut iiliJ,ii,lilii,lii;i;'Jiiili I're.:utul srm?ut 1412 270 .,]70 MN ti o t\14 74t1 271 273 tLlB 7429 213 7431 t74 214 t43! t15 211 2i t 2i a 215 !76 277 :78 2i, 2r9 28tl Evet \i ,ct|, ftenn! | .i lo u liuni' -\ l!";b. adv r Lir lp d_ 1445 \t 46 1447 14q8 lt'35 1461 ltrii2 1463 1465

T n , t ut t Dt r488 t(8! !S 7 i rst ' r4!4 :r88 1495 :88 119i 1 289 1501 l 5r2 150? 1l )l i 1528 290 :9D :92 ti 4 197 :99 t110 tlt0 !0t S u l , j d,f ti! ul !.e ^ Jrt. ' t5i t liit r i 5i r ti B tiilr liiio r t61 1i 6U l', T .t ,." : r , , r' r i. l tr,.l :' ln '. l u a .s i r , ' . rir' .l r_ l '"s 3ni t1,j3 N 03 iln' 3U l 3r)' 1r6i i tr3 1:,05 N l r4

,\ rAY . , . . . ..- .. . MI GHT ...... sI l ou L D. . .. ... . F orme .. . , . . , . . . . lnle l e s .. ... . I un ctr...! 1591 15!' t5!3 15!4 1595 { 590 1611iJ w au L D. . .. . . . - . I n i i i i livul !15l 308 309 309 309 310 310 llr ll11 312 1606 160,.. . Indicatirul .. . . . R cca p rtu ta r e- . . . IY. lmpcr&tiYd Delini!ie . 1611 1614 161i i 1bI," 1618 1619 ' 1610 t6t1 !tzi l 1621 i 625 l ttt 1630 ' 163t 76tt, {6i 15 t6t6 10t, t6t8 att 313 313 314 314 314 3l ' ,l 31t 3l i 31i 315 l t6 31i i 3li 31? 31t 318 3tt 319 31! t19 :l!0 3rr0 Iorrna ao0cntuati - . T ra .l n o e re. . . . . . . . Sllicctll im!{rl,in]ur.. N nrniaea iulerallvtrrur I]IIIERSON-{I,O ]IODURIT,IJ I. rnfinitirul F ormJ .. . n 'dL' , J . I i, f . i; ' 't, T r rI r"rP.. l un "l rr . . . l, , i ;ru , i' or n p I ln :n l ."l . . 'li r b : \ \ ru r'\u l ' r n ni ' 5 r b r d i ' " r p r4 r -, ," .,,.tr. " al" i\ ' No n r,i 'rul ' u \ L o rl, r' lr,'r''\rlu: 163,.1 1640 16r3 16r6 16Li 1658 1666 16ri 7 n r' ri : l(itii 16t9 16.q3 1681 16Sa 3r: 31rl :126 Jti 328 3!! 3j1l 3j 0 t30 3t1 n t alr \ | ,i . "'rl II. ta icipiul . Caatilialii seletutc ?6ti.it i1n $t\b.l) llama 'Iinil. tn 'ing Djatczi Ee tun' 1i! \ l . '1 6 s 9 ucn n m'rc_. . . . . , . . . _. P ottait' ntl Pt.z nL 1691 :l rt 331 t:t2

. .. ltilti . O .l, r)gldrie ... Particir)iul t.ezent + ger n n d i v n l.. r33

L'd.ticipiul pre.eat Caracter 9i lun4n . . . {F rb .. . A dj' .' irel" I,"u \"n r. dr n p"r |dpr r pt dz pnr ! :1 Conshuclii !a.ticiPjale ru p'lr Tip ' r ' ' .\.!/ari\J' \on:nali\,.1 .r 0d rL \ominativul alsohrt 'Pr u i 1100 ti 0l 1i 02 1109 . _ t7r4 17{i t tt6 7721 7,.2:l t1!t 1,426 1i l 7 17!3 t i 37 7i 44 ti 4i 1.1l ra 1750 171\ ,14 334 334 334 335 336 336 336 t31 338 3lr8 338 339 340 310 311 3'+2 3t2 iti: l'nrlicilntl aisohl . . . G.rtullirut . F o.ml .. . a Trr" l' ri. l 'I i iu n.'ri \ 're l, ' !ii I un. ir sin l r.l1 r rrrl' . rl- : i !o-'iva P " rmrS (nd r\ul q -. ..Lierundi!al DPrlect l nt i,Lii r. Pa .tiuilix !r z nt |;au 1i t4 C' r r n' 1r ! Jn' t : . : r .t Dtt4d l.o.nn. Diatezl f 1 n i ,.l c". nnc lii ln i o , ,,r a t , 3, t l'iliulr r i I ' ri P .r c u l a rtrc rl rD l Pani.itiul pdsie - .- . It3 7136 113i ti t9 ti 6n 1t61 3\t 1162 346 1t63 1764 346 1766 3n6 CO^-JUG\REI SI}IIL;\ A U\UI . -. \-]!RB RI1GUL\T (IA diAtEZA rr-68 1t69 3t1 trir 1t7t 348 1)i 2 ri i t 171tt | i ,.6 1t80 I/-81 1t 82 ti tT 3i8 1)-6i

Dcl i n i l i e . . DiateT a actili,............ Di. t eza tJsir" _. 34il 3/,9 3i 0 3i r 3i 3 L, n "a i" h\ r " l .' r' n u l 4. ' , P oL .. l o .m{ren c onlr gi la s rl e .. r \.b '' : : ' om Dl.n r 1 r llFm ' nlc \f rbul xciiv 'lt,u; " dr r'.,j,i ,iii.. o, ratoare ic,.i! CO\ JUG-\RI'],\ CONT]NU;\ A UNUI {ERE Canit t ldte d . a r t t n l d IIIGUL-\T (la diaLczaactiail l i 9l l 3i 5 1 , 1 9 6 355 1195 tJg); ;;;j;*;" iil'## !:T;ilti';,,'i":iil,$ill" "i;"i.T,T;l#1'iii#;; ;;;,;;; 3tn $6 1 8 0 6 3i 8 781)1 3i9 1 8 0 8 ?ii9 1 8 1 6 361 365 t8t6 lr99

!51 ! Formt lreevenbtirn . . . . Forml k , ,n .ri i tarl t 828 18r9 T r d d -c" t P . . (1osithsrcs cotrjrgdrilor' CLniugar' a 5labd . Co n j ugd. ^ la t P Co n r ugarP dm xL A r'orbe r.gulrl. Fi rcrb' n'rerulilc Prln.i l sl .h ,Pr bc t r er r y ur trre C4 r o ti@ : ... . . oc.b.tarnercsltlltc \t"abe1i p,;";p"t ii^p",ii "t" Verb1.nrreg'Iale .ompr3c . : 1. . r-l,.la' rc ' ; r lo' P O b -, r' ltt ^npd Cibra absc\alii to.eri.e asuPN adbaa' nercSutnb ' . 3ni 365 36i ?65 1832 366 466 1838 1819 1840 36,' 784t 1843 36tl ta47 368 l 8rru 3i3 r849 3i 3 l s l g a 381 1850 DNTRTTI] CATNGORII DD ITTiBTJ AUXILL\nD 1851 185' 1856 18,8 I861 1862 i ,i 63 3S 3 38:l 383 383 183 384 3E /r 38i ' 1S 65 386 1 8 6 6 386 38,' l|l6t 'r 868 1869 388 388 3rJ8 488 t90 3!0 390 390 l rl 391 392 T O B! A. CoDjuseo! silnprn.. Diokza a.tita . ' r870 18tl 1372 18?3 t8?4 t8t6 1380 ' rN 81 Fi , nr!ii . . . Ca ve rb Dr inc ipal . . . ca ve rb aiailia. . . . . . . . Ca verb colulativ . . . Ca verb modal lixprcsii idionatice.. Ioniele .ontase TO H-\\'Ij A. Conlug&e t sinlti Didt.za actieil 1889 393 1891 39n 3!4 1 8 9 2 394 396 1 8 9 i ] 396 1860, 1867 3!; 1 8 9 1 , 397 1S9ti 3!8 . 'l90il 19!5 {9 0 6 3!9 39! 3t9

' B. 0onjrg&3 conthun D hL .a tchpa C. Formcle ootrtrd$e ,' I t rn cti i ..... . . . . C., vcrb prinripdl ca vFrb anx r r r dr . . . ca v. ct mod dl .. .-.. Verbul .,to hare', ti inrerogatii !i ncsa\ii D {l zero , S ; lol"s'ir' J',r,1'iru l D O

TO DO rdDclii . . . t!1il 1914 1915 r916 p'q 400 400 TO LDT Funcl tl . .. .. Cd Ycrb P.i.,iipal .. , C" vcrb aux iu rlu; a ' 'i "n i LI T . , 11l"F "n Ci / u o r. r ' l. l i i \ u dLpl \i rb I , ' oL_'' l-o' m | I : .t; D O d o+ ' uJ ,t)2 tga, 1921 4!1 1924 1925 1926 1t2J 1928 1,)29 ]\IAY . ,' 2074,2088, !02t1 442 LO2 l u: 403 SHALL, !fILL, pr r n*e. . ... . tL vliltB]n,E DErri(lTlv!] IIOD,{I-E.... .19311 40E tgill lgllt 1t35 /!03 405 r,06 406 (I,) C ^ \ Considdstii genBl. For m. . It 0, iu ri l pn n i r ' . r . or r Rlc r n' ltro n a r' :r . . . P r onu n l rfe Intetusrlia !i rcgalia I un. ,, (II I C O U L D Considcrllii sL{enlo Forrnel. con'lnse 19/12 tlrril ........ {-q:r{ 1!ll5 11J!6 t!5? 4lrS ll,\N S lud i r "o rl r' F lir Tinturi .i .a\.xt' tLta CotlLD Bn \BL1i 1(] t1158 410 i 10 (',{ { .. l- t | i" " d t ur t.1 ' totl. l L at lll nt . "' 'l l6 L L

l n .. 1902 410 1' rt1. 11tr t!ri 5 To l|ltliAli[ bt tntt r,, -tl'\tt,l.7o... .. 1!67 1963 .. \ ,rJ r' u rifl /f'\'f ir 'ii rlr .Ar-LI) l ra,OOl-D in stilul irdif{|. Coniuqa.rr Inodduhi C.'l-\ dc tftcu i. ,.. . . , . . . . . . . ti .onditionaltt. . . . . . . 1!60 1!t0 ti12 ti i 3 L91L \9i 5 19ii 1987 411 41r 411 4r2 4\' -) t' 1! 413 t't3 41n

. O ( L D . Tn. r ut F im plu.r o trJ i l l o n a l p rP /" n l i r' contrastiri lractice) CANICOULD fi lnlmdilodi rNpcctiYi- -" BE ABLE TO. ' ' . MANCE T O . . . ' I JSEI' M . . . . . . TAGET. . . . . - . LD ZERO CANICOU . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B E,]IPP O S E D T O , . . . .... lnpcr.tli\'ul Poliielrr Co n cl u zi o. . - . (IIl .) II]IY /IIIG l IT Consiilerstii gencrnlc . ! 'orme . .. F ti U od L L ri luDjpeB or r alr im n ' .5 n n a F lnierogal.ia,"inegalia . 1\l\Y luDo ti i . . . . . . htrcbuintare . . L] ! r\ rjd r mod1l . -.. ! 1989 t99t 1998 t0o1 !008 2009 !010 t011 20i 2 ,013 20'J4 ,0t0 !02{ 476 416 417 417 41t! 418 41l J 419 419 tL2O 4:10 t' 10 421 !0rt a024 !02(i 202; 2ltl CJ -, r, " Ju ,J \ili"r" u A) .ttlcHl t0r, t0ll4 411 2037 L' ' 1038 t0/t5 2046 lr P' Ll 2A4! 2li2 ti-r5j 1055 ,053 1049 206i .!2il (t3 42L !21 t!)i 12t i25 426 4:6 416 .. . .. Fn r0 h . . . C'N]J,D: N'IGII'I' .r[1G9" : c.ndilional P rLo' rl J joo "'r 'i \:r' 'r fa .; ' l !rli;-ll ]' llt .I i o r ot r lr u. tr n V l I (lv ) liusT .. Fo mre . . . . , . Fonnele comluse . /rFa ( .! lll:r at ML-sf in controst 4-4tI rlt 'l io "not-.t ru \tf, '11t.\ f llL.'t t06r ra (v ) ouGlIT 106' 20611 L'-),. ,1168 4),i !061 4r! BU V:ARF . . . . . (lu o r H . . . . . . . . F of m lL .. ...,

xIF:THl\Its ,. ... v L l SfI \L L 11:19 ,0t1 10r_! 429 1rl 1i l r29 !076 ,!!9 419 20i ) :0i 8 90711 4!9 2080 430 ! 08r 108( 43i IntercsaiLa9t negnlra Fu n cl " . . C a vcr t au lilju.,. .. Cr ve rb m odal . . (vrL) s]lOUI,D Fxn.lr . . .

954 w {vrrr.) IL L ! :088 Lj 43r 431 431 43\ 432 4,t2 {rx.) woul,D Fu n cl i i . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . C a \"r b p' in. ipJ l d" r c l v C a rux it iar m odal ,SH AL L ( S HO ULD) . W IL L l rtOU L D )......,\l te tn tr c luir t i. i .... ................._.. , .. ... ... . .... ... ...... tlo? ,104 2,Oti :,ori 2rr4 211a r1t8 433 4t3 43r 414 425 433 43J (x ) To rr\Fx Fo rme . unc iii.. . - . . . . . . F Ve .b lex jc al r egulat.,..,... .. .. .... . Al xi l i a r dlec t ivm od a r.. (xLJ TO NErtD Fo rme . I nnc lii p\ i. c l t r L, z it r v rg L l a t \a b m od a l .. ....... . ... .... ..... .. .. ....... ...... -. -........ ....... .. ...... ... .. ..... .. ..... 2t:24 437 2r2i 4X 7 2126 4X ,2rg4 4A j 21.1j 2t46 j I4' l sJ !166 216)' 2! 68 11 69 2ti 3 2lia 2179 2180 t181 ,l !t 2192 t193 rt9i ' 196 ,200 439 43s 11a 139 141 4tl 447 4t4 444 444 417 4t8 4\8 448 448 449 {xIl.] usDD l'o ro"md .. Ji.p l. lele .. . T"Jd .i Prr I tL. \_ERBDLEREFr.t\tVt-:...... .... Dp" ! . XC. , . .. . V - V ER BEL E I ] I P E RS O NAI,E SIU U N IPD R S O N ,\L D .....,... ... .... .., ,.... v L \ iERtsE CA RE S E CO \ FU N D I..... ... .. ..... ... inil: P ....... .. Trddunprp d o ir liob a .o 1. 1. i. . . . . . . . . A l^ . b, rplp rivF t1 lr m bd . r 5 "/ 1. . . . . . . l v . \ F RB E LE I OVPl.C . . . . . . . .. .. V ericlc co mple ae ou pa r t ic nli adr er biiu. . . . . . . . . \a L" lP p rrpo ziL ion al" .. . .

YNR,BUL (THE VERB) GDl]anALE coNsIDEnATIr $ 1317 " 1) Dtinitie.- Verbul erprimh o acfiunesau o activitate' o stare-sau $ 1318 un'i l nsuiiri o a'irudinp .ri,i"ii".""p",lfir' .u''it*i"r"'" s"u modifi'ar"J Pcnlru .impliti.ar" \nd prin a'Fa'r0 si ului la acesi punct i li tranzitiv -si 16"h1ngP nt dir' t Verb )'. M.g ts! ta1reil d', ga.den\\.e 30{ lIa c.mrng Frcd js ltriting d l.,l?. Tlrey ere enioXiDs d.ns'Ites. S l32o \:erbele tranziLive pot a|ea iliate.d po-tipd\ $1i74) asupraunui obiecl e sie bl Yerbut a cdt'ui actiune etc nu se risfringe (Intran:itioe f erb inttaixi\ i\ ): He rral^s slowlr' And i]liiv ll'd happilj cver alter' l S2 l i r6 r !l n i | .| r' l i .i !p \ crl ," le inp, t s onc t " a r u n ;l to n 4 l " | 1 br,.' rr ' I nLr 0u nprpnr \'.rb le inir anz it ir " n u ru ,ttr' , :n p rt' d t r' anzi ti l c I E lJ 24- 132 8 ). '''1 i \ e rb u l l r' rn z i l i t p o " l " ri i n l rp b i nl ar ssrl ' l ' i 1 i -npa r' " ' . ' l' " ur il. i nl N " ' d' ' l ' l, ri sr ru " e r " s t r ins r r ' -p ra u r' ri o h i F rr' J D ^ " rF ' a_t' lrri pre" i rr" r' ' n b h l u l J ' u ft' " ;' u r' ' F ^d l n a' ar ' i ' a, li u n ".. \, r bului, r u di intranzitivt: veibul devine He sroodtlie mirfo. on a lab lc. (Tranz) He s,oodthe.c siarins (lntr') llr $ a 5 l n r" tu rg I l o d r:i l l T ro m - l I s . r\rh i m p t;,r' ,6 ' d r n L s' a s i (Lnrrl llia/ / ' L o \v ri1 1 u . ra ri r l T .i n z I o '' I I ' dr l L I il .i rr'q , ' ld ' ". . l' ' m '" l l T 'r 'l 1r, tRr ! r - l' npp r l lh r 0 o' ' ls - n r r ' J d \ r l r r ' 'l - , m f t , m ", . l; , , r / r "r a. ; / ; t in dr - r alolr F r p '0 r r , r i : dpr it in l^ tn jt'J s 1321 s 1322 1393 "a I-'n relb d) daed este urmat de un Pro unre rellexiv: s 1324 D) dacneste s''u 1,1;# il,1'J;s;ll^x""iti"'ij'"&!iJljiib'ui ,ff v p- oul n "" lp Ln ob! 6li. il- ali" trp . p r ' vern lranziliv Inhebuinlal P:,fr i,""i,'i"tr";, r."u,, !1;H,",*,r t : Lnii x ,,ri ,o nsio"r t . " d "-t- in, r n mo, l db"o /"I, -oj.J n" 'o1 leicri ln "onlinustp n'rmai -.. dc un rprb.'ubin "lag cclelalie notiuni ori* "il, "t*"" cuorinse in definilia vcrb sau in- S 1319 2) vrb tranzitiY rorb inhanzitir. - Ve.bul poa trimzitiv nen,iilor;rssrpra unul oJ verbul a .JrLi a' liunF sp a'l' lranziliI' ( TransitirPun obir.l, nuFil 'ompti

250 MORIOLOCTA _ !'EREI''i prepozi ia urmitoare se intesreazd atit de mult verlului incit devine o parttcal d.I'erbdld. care transformd verbul din intranzitiv in tranzitiv: t:r.r r on, . y dseo. "s t u lp Dv nJ Do S D o . r i p a r k . I n t r . l 'f1F t r al. ld i^ , . ; ' r / . . . x an: "n ed 'L i ; n s . rTranTI \\" s o, t Lns r ! an, r hJ d t s aDd$ic h . I n r . I \\" 6! l o. , ; oLr . . r pr r p, ( Tr d z . interJr.(Cagnate $ 1326 . , c, dari.ar un complemerl,lL Objrcr./( S2603), care re peri roeea vernutur!. Ee was r&e rinf $it h on. c v e oDen. llnl. . l H.p \1 - !""p,n i t h" J . p ot ilr dan k ho l, dd d o n " d g o o d d 1 . v s $ o r k . ( T . d n z . , Th" , h ld $ b lou"i; ne a Ldr py lau|h. Tt \ n t . t s 132? Nunreroasewerbe pol li uneori tranzitieej allcori, intanzitiae: II" to .u "4 inL a s or Ll' , , p t of . ho" r . oai". . l l r , D z d , t r L E \' ur.ro n a i. r aa t o r n gov on - r r d , r v . . T r d n r . D a . v , 'l-t p .d" no r,r'nt r' B" r ' br \ t J m i. ; s an I oLr . I i t " . , Tlr ,.sn "r ot , p pr dt d iun , ' o", t pd Li. t abo' ,r " r , v " n t d r d . T r d n / . i f l \ ll"y u p." /, rj or - r ' "- "", . p6iv , t t r r , ". 'j-l F mb ' ),'nr HF ra -tiag har I I nr : is , \ am q. ' l t r . -o. Fred rpca&s Enslk]! iTranz. rcuyl Spanisjl is s?,ft.; a gie,ri dcal in Latin Am&ica. tT.an,. rasilt rle loo kcd oD without sp44ii4s. (Inh.l He took her arm and besan rl d,aln her uD Lhe hi lt. {Tr.rnz. activ} She las Ddara,n..t otl hei lcgs sholping toi tlc hotidat:s. ( Trnnz. paiv) lle rds last. (Irtr ) -dll;?s Ti,is coltagc can s?d.? twehe pcolrte . iTranz.) Slic Jldqs like a top. (Inl...l ! lB98 . . Uneleverbeisi schimbncu totul inletesuldupn cum sint rranzirivesau a culalal: ,",i" I ll,iHir a laceeF,' .n .: - d i d She did uie roonr. - ot, Ihl t !.,t dr. t" h"rdll;iTi.) { '" ct,e llTni) { 'o She sar. me a prcscri. The dike ts atrtzs. I ield the |askcl in mr hand. Mr p.om ise still /rld.J. l( t r m z . l :a s D u n -" : ,^, - , , .,, liLr . . ' z .r : a D o \c i ti : to r!.a. I llnlr.) I Il-" rds l" tne the l,ruLl. lhe child;.n a sto.ll .r ;,\,,d .r: T|ci. nords bll. I i ,n r .r : ".,1 | ( inlr . ) - a l i l i n l a v .a rc ae l r.)i Tlis rdlls in yotrr lavonr. I llr . , nz .l :a p u rl ,a : Slie atu (.d.i,s orlrilis. : ldasrr.e1in!J a trcce i.cct: The nighl

ds r.d/in6' lo ib end S 1329 3) Diatezir (Voicel. Diatcza este torma pc care o poate llra un -i'erb pe.nLrua arita raportul dintrc subiect qi cornplementul direct, exprimat sau subinl,eles: { 1330 al subirutul gr:mati,al lonte tndeplini actiunea exprimarl de verb (dnte otti -+ctirt l'o;ce): I rd.n Dnglistr. She rr.r nrr. ,l subieolul gramaticil po at sufcri acl,.iunea exprimati do 1.erbsi indeS 13,11 piiniti de conpLement\l d.i .recL (diarezapasiad , P^sioe yoice)l I n,asrdagtrE glish ar school. Shc /d.s lur (lJ n,el. rUDii art.ri ljonsid.rn vcrbul tn accasHsjtdrlie inirlnzitiy.

CONSIDtrEATtr CINERAL! 257 rJ subiectul gramatical poate in acelagitimp indepliii 1i suferi acliunea S 1832 r\primatn de verb. carein acest, se nume,sre caz ftrb tcflexie ( Refk rcftl))11 I 1. a-.. t. _'"J -..t|. ?. t. 1l t:|t:1i 4) Pelsoeni. l{umir. Timp. llorl. S 1333 a) Persoand Persoana este lornla pe car e o ia \.erbul S 1334 f"drson./. ste tndplinifi de cel care vorbe$te (peAoana 1). fenlru a arita cn ac,tiunea de cl cdruia i se adreseazn r.orbitorul (persoana 2-s ) sau de un ali. obiocLl a aninat sau in8nirnat(persoana 3-a). a (-\ruD0). Numnr ul estelorna pe (are o ia rrbul pentru Sl33i b.) Nundr a arita dacn arliunea expr imati d cl nrc un singur autor (nw Ar singuLar.) sru nrai n,urli (numdt ptutat). c) TiDLp (lense). l'impul ara|; momentul sau perioadain care s S 1336 potrece act iunea enpdruatn de verb. Gnnaticr englezn.ca li .rea romeni, ounoarste tci,,timp liri de bazi"' ( Prindxl T1trscs)3, pr,:z.nl. h.t)ut -.i riitor. Pe lingi aceasi ,a. verbul mai poate oxpriua si nuanle ale tinpurilor de bazi cu ajutoml timpuri lor perlecte, nunile Si ,,timpuri secundare" fJecondal, Tcns?::l). (A se redea C onjagarea, g 1354) d) Motl (Mood). Forma yerbald care arati nodal cul]1este conc eputii S1337 acliunea exprimatd de yerb este numiia nod gramaticaLIn gramatica e ngleze se l-orbette delalra moduri: indicativul. subjonclivul, condilionalul 9i imperaln principiu. acliunea rprimatn pri! inl.icaltu este reale, sigurn; prin su bjonctia,iJea16, presupusn; prin cond.iliaml. conditionatn srr dodtn; p n inperu lir, parn|ciLe sau sugerati dircct: (lndii,rl,ir) I rp.aft XDglGh. r'is ri{h Lim "\o., p,A?Inq.b,,.i!r rn m.,,1i.," .. -..ion, iv) t'iE.,.n it h" ^""rd. ,.on,til iunat, |^ "art,t spp.''t English at Ionr lessonsl(Ituperativl ^i?rdl patru modur i sint numite nodari pffsanale (Finit. Farns), deoa- S 1333 -\cesta reco forne,l c 1or sint,legate de persosne.l)e lingi persoani. ]nodurila personale au numlr. l,imp, aspct, diatezd Ei sinL pnCic.Ltire. adici pot loma singure Dredicatulunei DroDozitiiI 62:llr. ' tl rt:r' rl' .ro,lu"ilip.rion. l". I'r crlnJri.a engldri r e"bul ore;i/or.'r" t l:t:19 in,t r'nnatc(Nun.F;ni1,Forn' ol u I ptl, |\r I tLrl! ).ar. nFfiild Ip!irp dp parsoane, sini inwaritrbile.EIe corespundmodurilor imper sonaledin g.amatica romene li sint urmntoarele: inf;,nitivnl, carc denume,steao, Liunea, slarea etc.. o\primatn de verb; pdrticipiuL prezent,oare aratl o acliune in desh$urare ori o siare in curs. erprimlnd verbul sub forma de tnsusirelczult atd dintr-o ac,tiunesau arntind cirounlstan,ta(de mod, de timp, de cauzi cto.) i n carc se pctrcce acliunea verbului; qt nd,irul, ca.c denumette ecliunea yrbale; grama 'rJ ,.1 !it/,, I a. 1, ". , , , uiLt "/ 1r p t p . i . i - . i J " 'd p t ii .,o"' 1. , . 1 l,mbii roma np _, L l. n . P. li. , a" r r "f \ . I n pr \ inr d u F . r r d r " , l " a 'r m i " i . r S ens crn na Lirn l l$ 21 . . {,.r' mr ,Iil. J. L;, m on, nr u \ o r b r ; , , b m ' n u n F , f dpolr r , l J , i l- . l. p + - r nl. ' r F_. p' , ni, . ' . m o m p n , l . p \ r {i " . " . ti . , 1 ,' , nu" , dtiso lur-. r..;,no , i " I . . _ , l n r r d a!a f . _1 '" r o p o " , u1 on dn r p rdrd rr , r ' 6. ! r s au ' i t . i : - t t r hr . t ; . " ,.. ur.,."os,o".. > i I n. . { od t r , , : 'j . l, li nd

958 de tnsulire rezultat5 parliciqiul treeut, care exp me verbul sub forma dintr -o aclrune: ..*. o"ili"""Iiu "" i;"l'l:;:'.:;: -,4 \ l S40Fo rmFl FnF p- r s onalFn u .d rrp p rq o q n a ' a ' r' n u ma r:i ' i ' tnp' t!i a' l i r' il.: i:i " "'" sr a rpoc , . p""."'] i T:,,:l;ll'ill:;lli"l'-I" +:"r,5J"i jlir p j r i mo no'l s ip s rrr' rp rd rr" r" n r3 n 'idioi"z' iarinlin it iv u l t S Z5r '1 ,..r 0;n ' rerbul poate ii pnn5l Vorl princip: !i Yerb suailiar' - Dupd funclie' cipal sRu au) iliar' v''6l rp ir'Lcl"sproprirrrsi ' re al t'*b t,rin ipol t.Th' Pt'n";pd\ { l34f "' ,,rbul rurilia' l' formdrrr'n'oJurilor\i c li'"rpurilor'on'lusp "1u,",' ,:l" The housew6 to ld' I ndoea son ihtv ore at ttie ptav' Sho dtd the room' \ f lt l torl l cl ar rrui r' t , ) V , r bt t t au t;ti o r r tl e A .u " ti u F t I rb r uj ura l r " on' roral 0 p' our.i u ti i n i 'r' ' :l ' r ' 1u rsi j i rl : !e rb ale. om pu' e. l rrn a ' F a e ' | 1P' ;;;;J germooreo 0"r,,.r', \'li,'":l;i" '-;: !,'1")i"10:'*i l,:%i!!"i;. ii::j" li,lii'il;:'li'l-:-' i" nntoo'r r"u: s"*o """,11.f"n1,1'.J;i.T::'*;;fliiii'"x""J'i*".iJiJ Din punctul de vedereal dur a!'ei8cljunD n,A r P. N ar d Totrte auxiliarelepot fi ti l'erbe principale/lexicale' v'rLcr" r i"nnlrr1n,/r'r erprimar". ii'_|,i"']i ,"^",,**us \Pfbe cu caracter o'n r d') [ 1J11 a) Aspecrrll \)erbclor' ' ''' A,p.a. pain.. ;'-:1Ti':1i,1'ri ':'"i:: l,*ii;tt;;i;-lil;l;j;r:ll ':i::;;;il ei: ninnrii 1':$"1'* i:[::+ i:]i:1"* f'"T; lslclJ' care eril)rlm* a"/ verbe cu caracierdrrdlio (y erbsof Dutdtiec d1315 " ac liuni sou st;ri ce dureazi: csre au taraoter d"') verbe cu caraclerdubtlr (Verbs of Doable AsPe'l'' da cotrr'\r: sru dura iv 1n fun'{i' -n^pnrin A 1ir16 '--" *T),, tl i;,1'i;i?'i:l iii"",#;"il'""Ti r"*"''r I l?a fd a n ois c ( Nom ent J n)

to' !iii"i".? iiin ri" | 'sons {n ho - " rolv nu"di' He srorrel shorr' {Nomenl'n r rrur ii;:;;fi;; i'i l" '!irras' '$^ dJrs Durirriv) gmnr'i i ' J i 1' bi i ' J gl r/' *r ' mo l i \ v Prb u lp ti r.;rs l ' ' ." u n porirumi l i r auri'i'-r r"'" "rp ri1.''r ' r - *" i" ) i.iii,ii 1""r;''""uriii i p \rd"'"t"'"r ' " ^bli di r" \' ?' s r:{u i))i.i'l l i ra t rbpl ' m" rn P t!) t' 4 r' ' u "r"tt'': i j ioi" i" " ijai' iau^ r ! An a ajungc lntr'un lunci'

CONSDIN^TII CENIIALE Ob se r a. L! { e Lrnele rerbe lii schimbli caracterul din durativ in momenranl prin adnrgara part;culei advcrbiale sau prepozitio ale care le translormd in yrbe .orn p l e \p . ins i. l1nJ u s " . o . t" l c ..i p r" i n .,l u tu l u i . .ti ' .i rrl i .Ju rezut arui -i a . ! ru n rr o r i s t if lr p\ p m a te . 1os.t (: a der.n'r ldlrrativl 10s.t u! (: a sc s.ura) (momcnraDl (: I ii cnlcat, a znc e) [duraii'r b tie t. tie &\\,r 1: a se c!i,,a, a se n,lnidc) (!roienra.) t o, n al. (- a l a c f) l d ,' ru ri v l (: a lusi) ituomenianl ta nat'r off (: I sed. al ldu.aiirt ta si.t _ 10s . t d. oqn 1 :a s e a re z r) (rn o n ' e n l a n ) t o stdnd l: n sia h ricioar) l,tr.ri.irl to stand up 1: a s. saul. in pi.ioa.c) ( monenirnl \ lg4? fo s;t do, v n. t a t or d u p a u u n -o ri -i In ,J l -q L l ur.ti r (r-Jp" .t i r a scdad. o s t a i n fi .i oar r ) ln t u. r,!i p d " ro n te \tt o rl o n 4 .u p ral /,/ L b0r sdu bul el la care se mdnlnci stind in picioare); a stanrl-u p ieal (: gistare luafi stind 1) ) _ A s p p, t t , u l f - o r,m e L o r u e rl a l c . trIa j o ri tatea fornetor {erbal e , or n rl mo a e ngr c z a at r do u a & .p trtP, h') aspcctal perfectio (The Common Aspcct or Perl ctive,4sr..t). care c\ D r i md .liun" a i- s iF i d v " rh u l u ;. F 1 i -i 4 ,n a u " " noLi Inad da rl Li rara qi d" S L3{ 8 .a1849 b" ) aspectul inpetfectie (duratie nn nnLinu.ttiv ) (Itu Cantinuous ot \ lJiO Pr c'-r s';r, A s p*' ) . . s r c a ra l / .d a , l i ,rn F a v a " b u l u i ,n , ur. .1u .b se " st" r e petd . Acestor doui aspecte le corespund doui forme de c onjreare: . ) ftnjuqar.o sinpla (lhc Simplp ConjaEat;on) cind A0liunea verbului \ 13il . I g, hon-" And llc do$n rvhrn I olz tir.d. Shc nas s/P?r\di. I saw t,. . onz in. ThrX ndd tud such lrnl con.tinud (Th. (ontinuons .c").conjryarca oind ac liunca {erbuiui este i'nperiectivn: ot prclrl'.ssit)e Conjalation) | ltiJz 'What d. ron.r,inAr" "I am t.Liins at t.hencH jfr air linpr..' t hp ho b, . s l " 1 i ... | ,r ,1 i .. .r Hr ho. t t , \ r" a d " A rl | l " r-, ,.. HoN lorg iar yan bkt tchiaq cotds tjke this? (R.t.tililel A t e n l ie ! S ljb g ._ \un'"le te.anjutor. "au lonnt pn"ta:ri F.re i'lp"opri,r.,t"odrp.c il limba ro mdna .progresivtrr"umn, !..ir! .r,,./. sau sFd. /. ar, i rFDtt roDu! r :r"s,r. .m r re nu e nazulaii. Fo|ao,ontiiua nLm"tpinLtj.Jr,tn limbl englezeb bc in lrrgrer r insemnind a fi in curs,"tr" in d(:s.fd.turarc, Mnti uare, i.n de unde:,.lrogre ss;re". t Ve.belecomplxe oaractd nnmait.rr pot delcni dnrnrivc in htn.lic de cornrt. ou l t*

!00 t s 1:l; S lil'r; CONJUG.\REA GE\DRAI'tr C.TITAOTUIiISTIOT 1\DIC,\'1,'ll\1trl 0Dtcli 1*!F*$*ff ! 13;1i i1;, ffi.u+;.{i*rrr,1 TtllPtrRt I\t)l c \T l \' Ii i , Gn,Ir rrczeDl{ttui T i m D u ri l r' .onP us' a u ru\iliid,l h !tu:flt l i i tor 'L i r I L urLlrrr '1 , , r u , r r r . i t j .t I l d t . d " f_i!tor ti1n, tlr lrtIl ig*$fitffil"xi'fst s 13t7 1 i trli \ili,r n"Tt,r,t Im*\ I tig. 1 l

i:61 Aneliza fig. 1 lqi 2 Conjugarearonlini este un sistem eentratin Drezent{ver; Fi{ . 1). pcl,Ltu F\primarFr lre, u'ului tal,l dp p'"rpnl. ronju'tar;x romdnJ arF-tr Fi rin,puri tl.tutrt impc4-lut. ppt[,"tut\inptu ,i I,"4..tt l ,ompu:. qi ,rn rih p rniFrinr a' P.lofai m4t mult ru p"r[ ftul. Pentru prprim"rpr rii'nr-lui romind are atitorul Ei \In timp alterior acesfitla. oi.itorul anttior. "onjugrr.r Uonl ugxreo$glczi esl,eun sisten construit pe doun aft DarulLIci\ezi Fi:. 2\. cisl.mu l F6tp oJdr pc rlouj t;npuri: pr .b oplr.p pr...ntu! ( p. *Lt i.rr,. ne dF a|a t t..u1u| (Pn,t t"nv). Redarea unci intinpldri sau a unei st;ri poate li ficutn: l ) fie la prezent, lntrebuinlindu,se prczeitul indicairu,Iui; 2) fie la trecut, t ntrcbujnliDdu-se t;cntnt indicar.iruluit He knoc16, aaitt a liiUe and iher ot,ns th. doo.. lPrezentl H. kn.ked, kaited a little aDd l.len oFn.d tht door. iTf4,,L) ( l35S \ t;i.')t) ' S 1:J{i0 i fl6t .\r..bpl" limpuri .int ri'.1nurir;,,r1, Dle au liecaie trcrural si ;iitotul lal distin.!. expfi-late pr;u r;lllpuri co puse. 1) Fati de prezrnt ( Pftse t T,n*). prc.entLl p.rfect ( prcynt p.jrfcd ) I tttjl A\p|lrni o a rlunp "r,t-fluJ15.iJ' r;.totut (Ft, t,) si r,,]ar',tt.tl .t tFulrrp Pcdcct). acJiuni riitoarc: /,,.". d1.1"1 '.'t,'r,. r,.r.riofip....nt .tu Ll t,".r toU Ir '".-,'l iii', ; , i, . . , . , t 1 -l ' , :i r , , ., { | , , L ! r ' ' " /,,1 ErentpLu: Yon Ano$I Lrre."/1l ..r l)fr ard itratt.all asain. !X fir. o',li.k I sl.r'trlre. olLd t$i!e. Atenlic! Toaj.c recsle limpuri. fiind raportate la prezent. au auril iarut respectiv g 1B{i3 , , r l'n{n de trrecut ( pasl Tcnse trccutul pei{l ( past p.rlcLt ) e\prima o 1J64 ), li. . anl,ri^ rd. ),r,' tut loto d" tr.rLrt(t.r,ut tn,l,. t,asit ii't,ttorut -s a, p, !4 fuli dt: tecut (Futurc Perfett tn the past_/acliuni I'iii,oare: I cn u t,i jI Ir i . , d , r hd s no, ld, n r t.cfll pedect (acliune alr,erioariL ircntului) 1 acliLDi riir.oarelaliL t 'lc trecrl I I sno&tl harc I called viilorul lale dc lreort \'iil.orul terfc.t

E x e n p lu : I lold l'o! I lail unled .n her and \fodd catt lgdn. You krictr ihri by livc otl eck I shorrldbsre.ali,l {s ngrccrl. )! \ . T o ,l n 0 , F s t - t im pur i. fi :rd ra to rtx ' . l n dlc ollrnl lfP.nl. l d /.p . r/. J u i U \i ti d,l ta r,.pri \" S l S ri t Obseraalf.e . Arnlele srii d-iin luri - erupr prezontuluipc dc o part li grulo irec u- S 1366 ru ru, pp de olr0 - lormF0Ta rt':t-tbm p. I t! sitr,tlir.

!8i s 136? FORME VERB.{LE lloonotnia de formc tn coniugareaenglezneste extremi. La verbele regulat, care ro iNtituie mdroa majoritate a \;erbclor, o si[guri formir - aceeaa infinitivului p rezcnt- stil l^ haz:rintrogii coniugiri. Este deoi suficient se se sLieinfinitit 'il unui verb peniru a se afla ;i conjugarea lui, dao{ se cunoso urmAtoarele reg uli de bazn: 1) lormle simple ale coniugntii dedvn de la tnltztltt ( $ 1639); s r 36q r^ rrll (infir ilir) - .4t1."olls (ildi.aliv prFz"nrr ' .o1r{imperdtiv) .nt l"tl\i",li."ti! lrc.u sLbjon.liv pre?pni. parri.ipiu rrp.uLJ- .dtrir: {participi r prezent). s 1e69 2) formele compusese construiescou urmdtoarele auxiliara: WIL L s 1370 n) SHALL qi pntru (cu trecutul SHOULD si WOULD) + iofinitivul viitor (mo dul indicativ); sini ciracte stice Tiilorul I s/d ci1l, .tc. (lersoana 1 sg. 9i p1.) Iou (lZ orll. elc. (persoana a t'a ti e 3 a sg fi Pt l I iilt,rul faln ,1. lro(rtl I sno"ldc 1, etc. (pe$onn.t sg. $i p1.) you .ro,id . nll, etu. (pe$omaa t-i ti a I'a sg.ti pl.l s 1371 D/ SHOULD ti W0ULD + inlinitivnl lorneazd qi condilionalul: I sh.uA crl1,.tc. (! eNoa^a1 sg Si Ir1.) a sg Jox ru.id eauctc. (lersoana !-a ti a 3_a ii pl ) $ 1372 t[turor timpurilor .J to HAVE + participiul fecd ajut[ la forrnarea pclfeote: Pr ezentulpertect Yiitorul portect I rnz[ ],r. caued, ett. l'reoutul pcrfect Viitorul pcrtect fati de trecut I stoall /ure called, etc. Co dilionrlul perlect I sharltl. ha@ .altcd, etc. pelfeet (forma modernd) Subjonotivul Participiul perlect qi conjugarea pasii'I: Infiniti{r pertcot s 1373 dJ io BE lormeazE conjugarea continui . pr ni. ipir l pr f ii. il' iul , o n i ,Ea rF O .o l i nur: p rc z a n l I an ca.lling,ctc. l re .u l .^ n j u !d n 3 p J " i r" I a,, cailed, etcr Ac.stn tormfr de bazn esie nuoriti 1n Sfanatictr nglezil,,Iorma comuni" f?tu Co tumt Iaitu. The Dase)

un Ztdefl 0bs.raalie \o,n0n laiurs rct,,ali ., ,o,,jucr i engleze prezintn acceasi sinciri e si S 137: ? o .i .o,]iuga',.. T.a-,. l" r, durilF o/1. lirnp,||iln i/rrr; or., olor ^r'mic' rrpi linlpu'ida b.zi rrrp,u,. frpzen .lir !ii .fl. iu.u\ ,rut Ir[p] rldu,".I lo n'rr"lp timoului .au -o,l'il'ri r^.fF,.i! s-'1"' too1" r'i1;1),1. t .n a'.,1 1;' core".punzdtoF: Viitoful Intn de lr(ul Con.ti!jonalulrrezeni p.ezent Slnior.ii{l I n i j r i ti v ul pf z . nl P.,rl i rit ix l pr ,z . nt l)rczcnlul !erlc.t Tr ecnlul tefL.ct \' i i tn tu l p -a f eL l rl 1.,l e 1r.1rt l L o n o T ,o n Iu r l , rP o Sulriofotirul perltut Inlinili l rrerfect Parlicitiul perleoi S 1375 ll r c e p I i c: Imperathul. xce p l i o n al. ( V ' ) z i . s162 2 ). .1 te n li. ! carc nu are perlFct decit in nxrd cu totul s rB7 A se observa ideniitatci de formi a urmitoarelor timpuri ;i moduri. en. si da i .inpli .,ter ri , -izis ronlrrc.:rrii r z-. ',r ,a,. iriLli"rti,'i' pr'rpnr rhnr p"r... .,-a.g.r. d/ lnfiniri\ul t,rpl-nr ,tdr.1 subjonctivul (forma recho) si i mperativul. DJ tndicativul trccrt si subjonctivul prezent (iorma moderni). a/ I' recutui portecl ,si subjoncti\ul perlect (forma modernn). rl.,)Viiiorul falE de trecut si condiliondul prezent. ,ri viitorul perfecr faln dc irccut, ii concti,t ionalulpericr. Diiro.lierea acestor lorme este determinatd de .ront.r/. cnrc subli niaze inl.alid vorbitorului.,\ccsi are astiella dispozilie qami intirriterie,^ub tilio Letti (ooertones.) caft.loate jongia pentru a ;i exprima cele n]d ijne nua nle cu are qrn( n sau srmlrrn. 0onchrzio Sistemul conjugn i enElezecuprinde la m odul indicativ: 1) ttei.tinpuri d? be.ti aLercnj\gdri.i sbnpLe preznt. trecut ti viitor care evrimi o acliunc przenti. trccutd sau viitoare. nelimitatii la rllornn tul 2t trci 'tnt)uti d h:d ot .q iup,.trt; ,onttrr" ptp7. ..a1tinuu.trFnt .u .on rinuusi vii,o' o.r",irrn, tn, u". ld n mom' rt, -'n'inlnr, dat prezcrt, trecut s au viitor; "i"c:r1rim.j Jt tr i t,npu t,,rl .,, ,tt. ,onjd;dti; r;,/,/./ - n-a/nt pprtF, t,a.ul ', p,rf.,r si \iir.r p"rh" -,1p Frprimr 0",itni ,.rmina ". , nt "riu.rF unui m^manl dal pxpri'nrl prin prerFrr, trerut adu \ tor: 4) trei.ttnpwi perfecleaL conjryd.rii cadinu. - prezent perfect coniinuu, lrp,r'l I,Frl""' .on tinu r Fi \iir4r p-rlF.t ,.,,tinuu ..r" "xp"i.r, i.!iuni in r urs pina lo Dn m01 .nt dar prFz;rr. rrp.ur :au rri or ."i.o-tin,rlnd .au nu in l. ur trpzF.t ii un p.rla.t. pdrri.itiul J\ind in r , Cplplelra oduri du lo prus ir un rrmp rrecui, I DennniFa de ,e./c., are. ln rclasia sil.lr}tie.si sensuld. polcctat, iermina!, deci anterior !nni alt timp: !|czni,. lrecnr sau viiin.' : Pentru atrolunaarea a ccstni astect al limtii ngleze, rezi Y.rbele defe.tire ,odale $ 1377 s r930.

904 s 1373 s 1379 A CONJL{,i,tltE-{SIIIPL-4. UNUI 1ERB nIEGUL-{T TIIRB) Ol' (sllrPlll coNJUGlTrOr A rLnGU[-\R DI,\TEZA ACTIVA1 (ACTTVITYOICE) TO N,ILL {A CHEI{A)' I \r I \ITi\i r?r\?l\'1?1 rz, l)rr,zent ( I'res.:rLt) lo c au ( : a c ] ' c m a l I'ARTICIPiL ler{ect ( perfecL) l o h a tc c:rl l ed a i i cl ' emar) {= (! ATTT]C]PLE ) Prczen\ ( Pftscnt) (alr;ns i: clemhdl Trecut f parrl calld (: ohen3l.) Peficc't ( perfcct) hdenq .alle'l (: chenlnd)' L .V tnD ; \l r' . l :L l N n l L \l l \ ( Prcsent) Pt.z$t I otll l.= chcn) rou call i' " I sre I caus tl .\l rl a A i l l i;' I'-- ' wr c{ll rou oall il,cJ call 'Irccs\ ( Past le se) I called (: chc!!am. .hemai, am chemat) You cnll.d h"| she I called ir J Fr called vou c rll"l l.iieY calld Pfffed) Treeut lrerleot( Pusr PerfIt) Prozet pefc0t ( Present I havc call|d i: am clremrtJ Iou ha{c ealled rlms.a llrd slr {'e harc callcd rou lave callld ihcr have eallcd I hrrl callcd (: .rhematn) Yiitor (Futue ) yiitor pertcct Viiforul perlecttati Yiitoml ta$ do trccut dc trecut (Fuhtre in the (Future Perf edin Pdst) I snolld c l l - v or c l 'e m ' the Pdst) I siodld hale calted \"i li 'h p m a l , , , I rn,ll hnlc callcd I s/d/l i,all J, \ ,i.,T.. I I "oi . i ' fo-\ il|.'l\o]si'|' '"\"il"J \ ' o' $oU|d' a|L

i." . | ,rr " I l$ir.,'r ;, iljft \ii r . . h //,.d l , t .-,, "i'l rl' " \ ' $il.d .l ',r"r \o . $ilI ' c { ' ll"J ". . r . i. | lJ \ " ' llqJ * s j.// r,av. I woLrJ li_ I $"urd hJ\" t;.,ii" -'e i",i; i;" .lr, r" . 1 h. *. ,,t, 'i l l l ii" { ox " l l, ' lL' J { ull' r, , ' d h ) ! " r r c u , ra"J'\.'m 'l " d l h 'y $ o u r o r J v r 'd r r P o ", l Y c z i q 1t7i- 1 7 7 3 . l -r ' , i . , i , - otr ' ..r" . " . * o n ' p rl i ' ," ' In l u ' ra r" Jd- dt" un hi ngu_nl l Fs ' l \' rb ' l ui j*t , "r l un. l i e ,, ,/, . \ " t " ir " .,d ' r" J " c 1 ,.i u n i : a s rri g ' r. a xumi , :r \i /i l a/l r.-l D '' tcu sersut ,,.tutii ce a chcnat" lcesi tinp liDsefl,e g ramatica limbii in 'omane (V.z i S 1r 0r ) .

,6; tl0LlliL suBJo\cTIV forma Teche ( I ndependentd. linp ) dc I call (: sn chcm ) slr. I call (,ttj B.ttiNCTtvE ltooD) Forma Doui Ptezet\t ( prcsed) Pertect (p.4.d) I cancd. se .hcmj (: I l,adcalted s,'L ct,cmatj (fi Jor falled |eI she I call.d Jou had caltcd t re l she I had cdteo 'rJjrl ]\IOIIUL co\DITtoNAL (CONDIIIONlL MOOD ) lrtzeloI ( Present) chena) I'ri I Perlect ( Perfect ) I s/pzld have cdl.d (: ns ti ctt.Irarl you wonld h.rvc call.d nct slic l ivould halc ,ralled ri I we sloLld nare onlt.d Iou wolld |ave oalted Urcy would }ale ca llcd ir, I lloDUL TMPDRATIV(I]11'DFATIt/E trOOD ) ( Pcrsoana a 2-d, sg. ti pl.) &ll (= ohea ne,.henali) {Yezi9i g 162!) OONJUGI&XA ACNY.I CO:{TINUI (vezi S 1te1) DINTEZA1 ICTIYA (acrrvu Torcx) XiODU R II,E P E R S ON AL E i ! tN l T ! IOR \IS OF _ {V ER Bi s 1380 5r 3 8 1 5138 I. II\DICATIVUL (T H I] IN D IC AT IY N ) pdltif'S. exprrma ta ije ler b Lr r , ,' a t, rr{ a r" d . sau eristen,ra 1]8s .trlodulindicatjvprezinreacliunra,si,area S PX,DZENIUL {THE SIIPI]N $}IPLU IIiESE\AI) s 1384 1 ) De fi ni, lic . I n pri n c i p i u . ti m p u l g ra m d ti .a l r umi t..t rei ,i r. e_rpri nr.r ! tB S b o a, l i u n e sb u o s r s r c . o e ri i q l rn ,li n p rp T r' , . l n t, p t i r,.H . p.fl ,,.,,t. de Li --,ol .- , aresFrp f "rd \ pr bul F " , n " l i m rrs ts ;l n ,a p " i n tF ,u t -i dutr0/.. ri n ti i tor. ir , . 1u.i v mo m c nlul pr pr p n t i n .J rc F . \' o rL i l o nrl . " ild rVe zi S 177t - 1t 73.

266 a r:hB , sroeulitr' - Ptpz"n'ulsinllu:'"::": 2r [nr,n;. Poreoarra:r:l-i'l ,o r'" p".-""""f"-", ,',-pi;" n^Fodn;i a :r-d'ingul 'r' '"re ,., si i ni:-r iv.rl. t. "']":-' , ''rrinllio di 'in' r'ra: .... "" " a 3'a Or tog r a "ilo'.i'"'ai" -" o- ' p lt"alu lu ri\" p F n ' L u fLtL persoanei t " l' ' : : r: T : ' "o ""r".i - " ' i ' A t i iu rit " l n 'r u ,r ' .i'u "r i.' i 0..".rr .h"sri,rn' t " :S' i''o ' "rb ; ' t i' " '" : e r a t i'r i i v '"" '"'""l ilu't's p c\emplc i i - " 1u"."." r r r m;roJrolor

i,'l:i'|"!il"' i;i'iI'J"l5ti"l'"",i";"li:' s in g u la r' /a) (S el): lo looli to r.dd l. bcar hc looks h. rcads lLe bctrs to i'o lo lsl lzl Lzl take lliSueclrcte to s.ow - hc sro$r lo iaai - he ta\Ls ro eve - he cXes he takes tsl nc ne he Pledges he lursos to blil,z trl tzl lt) (b)( s sz): to laoD to .o[gc sn'" laces she .orges l,o plcdge to turse |o l.eezc iL fee?es (cj (6 s:r): to d.css to mir he orcsYs hc nnte_' to lnsn to icach to match iL blitzd he Pushes he r_"achct he maicnes rd, {s95): to l'Iy ro,ar-J _h.,ar,tr xe saJs ne gods -..-" to say io go ($ e6): to to'r he loys

(e) (S tot)' -^ f/) ( S10 2 ) l ro do '' ll l;1""-i" llrnl" ;:i:li"r Hi":f;"" +,2-i s r38? 3)Porbotoa :'^::r"*; i"i lt',i"::'"*."* Ji'$iJ:, mutr racr si bun-b unl " rormi , o it ta p"r'oan? 2."u""il};l a.Acii dinrre .iTl"iTiilo";llili,""lil"lil'il,i'i'T pa"$q*1 p""'." ::';lt" i. ,,"'i"i."i drn o ngrndr' p"r.oan"lp .1 i""i.,.i i-i " s au " m Ji r o r r nal -How oo 1'"' i"oi';rli"r- u ^ ( ti : aslc'iai asoni (llsrd : !h'o (onomalopce hltl) 1t o a P o l c o r' lto r : - " 1, c ain c i rl l a i o&.4ll*' p"..,,iTi,m ari arhaic,-I, {rialectahsntrliLfari r: !e,s. n r a ss. c- r.Lu lormi ensrcze d '"i'",i;i"," i;," io,rre .cra.leris1,.5 irmDrr A.asru i',1.'Yll.li-1"^.r;.i,,i."r rctar,iiru r' orisin'iul:"qhii""^",,..*".".s"a". a""^rn!'IliJ dP ' g ra z :1 9 )' " ' ' rY ' din jc x ru r F I'ii1q.",l:1"""1:':T lnrrch"rih i'""itir" polirctii'r 'or "r " l ma c a z in-\ v h a l c n I d o : ^i:]."i..-,,, ,, ::f;il:'ril"i' :rr,....-rs r"r;o,ri:'ir'" :;: i"ii i'"Ji ri;::' ri:i' i{itl"l,.jtil'i;ifl 'ii'iii obr'^""r:a ':ri'aIl:il '"',,.;T't\l;;ir,:j;i/,"r,,b,irr.;.1,,'il":ll,',,lJii :lXl,ii:l;;-."; . orr fl L urdr'oFn' I't

!67 lor lou, lladaml" La rcstauranl,: '\lhat \\rili lrou have. sir?" etc. stnLtradus e cu .,Ce mai /acl?', ,,Cuce t serrescl".,,Cec'rr:i iei2" in loc dc: ..llespectet e si mel_e". magazin:.,Cuce rd pot serlil'. T,r restaurant: In r)oriyi lua1i!, s n ,.Ce 4) I trebuinlaruri przontutui simplu. - Ilrezentul indicatirutui esic { 13 88 lnlrpbuinlrt penrru pxpri-.'. ir. lun.lic dp,.nr,\r. drj in.pul pr.zcnt. frI 5r Irmpur trecui- \iI 1ur,or. z) Exprind f i,npul prezenr. $ 13Bg PrFzantul 6implu.cind InJJ ri'npul prpzFnt , ^.r r'ai hc,rpr ti tntr,. bumlnrp a sa xpnlnn: ( dJ un adevnr gen eral. u ]ni:;er sal an etttnul rr uii J. f; ra speciticarei ijmpu \ 1t90 ' lui,rumil ln a,e. rrz sj ..trpz.n etrrn-1. loar'" ii..li,"t in prorcrbe: The Earth rurn.s lts dis. or jn reed i." a hiend jndccd. lP.oterbi -{ i.iend Tlii, sun.;rs irt the east ad se 1si! $c FesL. TNo and iwo {"3 ion.. Dab'es u., lery sNeft. "Thc child is father ol the nd." ,/ o acliune sau o sl,are care cartrctcrizeazi subiectul: The lanulc flor! into lhe Bhck This tcni /Mlds lonr pcople. II i ,r \e N qui, k $o. 1. . r cai\ slim ' f os i. He laees ltr canp out. l. b bt:d \F sle ju. . t l , \ Ps t aot : : . . c . ue h os a tbm . Sca. s 139r cJ o ac,tirne sau o staro permanentd care cons|ituie un obicei sau care q 1392 e ste repetatdl (adesea cu arlverbe sau locut,iuni adl.erbiale repetiti\.e. cn: ' al*alf, often. seldam.usuaLll. ca.r, neecrl trhen&er, erent rlult. on qe.hends oa, liles and lca.ns. lProvrbl s,nls hlr lltiers brf ai. nail. -qhe Hc rlccpi iir ) litlle. doisn'i nc. , : , . s \ ilh "L on d n fdllin ; n' \ . \\i, /isnr 1o. r'cace I r "r l. r '" . . 1 ,.1 \r" rl,, j. ! \fF o lnrIr o. r - r r ' on 1""1, - . , p. .-J ,s o/r a $r. seldom ltsr.? i n t. hilk'sDoesit shc u a ! statl ut kde? It' \at er.r r.,7cnr.f whil I sa!? Und c u t-.r.r tl,c tt o.l.l I.r5 on lb. T\i. ",rf Wheher| t,\ttta cd,ls, sh0 brings cran.ie rlo1i?rs. r a. i , / l.r - l i ?). n u n ap .l-., r',n i i ", 1. , ' l. i",. J r J. i : -\i,,1 \'-l . I . r r . . t '. i , . . t 'r r . i . . / r . , , - i " l \p \ s e li,rh, nkro u ;ma inl, , . . 1L- . t t o. t r . . I n , r ' a,p : -t l.!1 . h,lo ut,fu ,r / . , c . r b. r , r , . . . . r p . t . : . . H / 1 . , i r \lrdirdi o \-.pl d p "ddu, , f lr ^r dt n, , ". n. n. . , , ; . ara, irs. ,:.t I\ rr1lr E d t n p A tlaon,pa "u : r;/ru\i.t,lo r ' r r r J . ai, t , , . " ; J t r..Jt .l_,L!\..., n io tr.J " /,.b i m1 ni" t u_din a r"ili",l"1 1.p . r J ! . luilor . . . \ ' 1 / p/ n, t L '- . t b " . , t t , rt t t,.i--.1 d i n ! p " uulanl. Pd "ld st,-rr: . . \ m n' in, r ' , , . t i, r " L , . l . ', t ) ; . , t , ', . a t n . o J , r t u n d a r, t , n &,toftl ttun E. L. I . d. . . . . . r 1, iun iu, r . a . r t p r ] J . , ta.dat,t. :.\cor z"a .,1o I ' r , t l", . r . d 1- r' rp ti t.. sp "\r r in' n u m c r,i rire:e ar sno nrc (ra anlt 14! , nt ) IJn lo. ' n p lu"r'.-Ji,/p ! ^ nai pud! . r , L " I i". , l , "7 , i r . . s . , , r - , t . r , , aFo.mil ninild h sramatic{ ,ic,ent iloatie (ttetutiee P rcsent). s"Innl.on Ca ine" a: Vorleiti Londral este nlrmele iransmisi.i TV a RBC

.nlui.

268 q 1e93 d) o rcljune sau o stare cnre are loc ln momeniul vorbirii, dar care no qrr_.urrrp. nrrn,ri ra ci an'tr' ' , I riin.l In ,1, "ristind: _\ o .-r" rrL o o 'r l " ' |/ , 4P 4. " r o lr r o - - \ ", 'ni. 'c o l l 3 n d Sl,p ra:",1(rl l,Jn-ds uid-,o/is su rasL that ihe oihA sirls in her teanr cdn hn rdlv ke .]l ur) $ 'th bc r . "Y.ur sist('. /ts / in?" "No, s hc ' s out " natuic d. l)aphnc ts l,apll h.''t d. ttt^t.l Yon d?rrc so l6t. \\'a o.ltnanl.ng. re.cip t oi lour leiler oi cvc! date q 130{ .l o art;u,,ein curs sau o stare eristnti in r'.rb'i' nu y'"r . r!"r fo'mH , onri ' ui { S l8{6J 'fhey /,.1 old and {oul{i like io see thet grandsi,n ronentll vorbirii, cind I remnbet ihe incid.nt no\t Urai lor n.nrtdz it. Tl,cy a.e shd Xou'! cone g 1395 /J l'rezentui se mai tntrcbuinleazi cu verbe de mi;care. care se referd l a u n iapi c e ar e l o c i n P re z e rl t: Herc .oma the ,tnzaf of ihe CuP. etc ) de eveninent'e corllentarii, interviuri, descrieri (la radio, tele;ziune sporlive; exclamalji (cu sau ltui ordinea subiect verb inversati): Thcrc r4lfts n, ld.l a s'a1l th I r od. c ur l, ' , po n e .l ' a i rr.d n to Hcr' ('. a,tu a-carolling lr atuitt ga.s yab cdb! 'ttrre a.a th."rtnne. beli ! Tlerc apeats anothq Napal@t ! Hcrc c;mcs m! fdtlet ! Lct\ sneak ouil: gl Dc asemenea, prezentul simplu introduce un citat in mod djrect sau E 1196 ind irect, cir,d verbul irtroducti' aie un caractr momentan ($ 1344) fi nu exprimx o aotiune in desfigurare ln momentul vorbirii: on l{adletr'sadvice actingi.(: "Do not sawthe air too much " Jo hr's l"ll' " ia y s r t i" . u ' f ' _d ir ' a' . ! r l. "l Dl , ,pllr nr. J o r r ' nr s n br r m p r . " o P ul ii a.rp in reb rinlar ln i.dicaLiilp!..nicF, in rezL'ma pir sclor. sl filS I3 9? ' lologrrijilor mal^rii pov^tiril^r. la rillurilp arli.ol.lor.lin ziar.. al l egendelor din ziare etc.: Oli\in e ,, r u o "t ds t , \i"r.o .* , or', dr I up qr . r dd d";rl. slulvry. t: trec 9. Erptind fitupuI $ 13$8 S1399 a) ( Pr.zcntulnal alir saai^rtoric H isl oriN ar N axratiaePrcscnt - P en) ' tru a'se da mai nlulte aioiciune stilului, t ntlmpl6riie trecut'e sini porrestite la prezent, uneori ohiar in continuareaunui tilnt trcui, ccea c contribuie la rliefarea faptelor P01'estit: I qenr ir MC, clovd lhe doo. Snddenly a voice .alls oul .l the dalk dd srart'cs flc. I tcel iainL atd .aD ha.dlv waur' i ji au il,c Pacnls ri that d'll1 I rcmem hc(d one flridlr': Noihe' ir in the silliltgjoom' in.o,tt raiii to l,tr lii a 1\ hilci bnt nll the ti;ie I /.cr th{t atl is not as il Ot rd, slould -,'" and yet I datu roi asir r,cr aboll lhe doctor's visii. Prezentul narativ cste loalte rar lntrebuinlrat in engleza vorbitl A 1400 il ln cazul unor Yerbe care se reterA la informalii. cat ta forget, to hcar " to l:n d lh). io l.dnr (: r 8lla). 10ldl, ta be told, to uniLcrstand, tt'ritcela'j 3e int rel,uinjclz. do prchrintr l'^pznt(l simplu in locul przentuluipedecb: I /o/3.r \rl,{t diy iL wt6. (t\nr ur.iat Ne zt .ttr) r Pe o il$lfatiL de !t{im N or: .,In1.,1-n.. ,,n ea tt aL t: .a pt .-A.nul t u' jt . cr !e si ri colindim."

t /.,"drrc\ 1.i; "ji t 1\ ' : rr r. r,-surIn ",ad.,onJr ;,,. r, J,' - 5r ',n \,,,r 'l\o ' bF j d . o n \ ir $ ar ' - J t r ' d . BL, l' d- "r lrrr"r' n " l l r 'r ' r"r'rizore I 1.2., vou !e {on the Pdze l,1m ali.tL t'.\ ai ciltisat Prc iul.) \u lr" J r/r m J' \'-eol y uur . d"g- ' n\ r iar J i: . i . r oinlom ' n'i.d ? ; I \ .d-;v " I rn tal.l rau rrp \.rv rr!\Y Llli s-, stus ' J .rti to rrte o.npdt l 1 unlercta nd. l\e is a mathemati.ian ol rclulc . iDupi olt om i4leler, esle un matcmrl'c'8 n repurirl, ] rlv[her u.r,p s o \ " r '" n l d lh' ' . d. n l ot ' r o\ li a. , . . , . \Irmn rdd :J\Fr . 1lLa1a l\ l r r ' i uo r r nb. r Jl r d p ' p " n i J " d '. riitar s r10r 1. E a pr i m d f i m pul d) In limba vorbitn, clnd exi.itaur adYe lbde timp aiilor tn propozilie' .\ 1{02 simplu erirrnnnuneori o aoliunesau o sta rc viitoare. a.steptatiori prezeritut un proiectatd,sau care constriure obrcer: 'l'otuia* is J!lt-. 2i Term beiiiDs o^ Monddy. The past;nan doesn't eall on ,S,n da? simplu esteintrcbuinlat ln specialcu referirela prograne' s 1403 D) Prezentul et c,: avjoarlelor orare! nlersul trenurilor, al vapoerelor, \1hat tjmc ts ihe nnsic lesson odar''1 \re razd at. livc this allnn on The York trnio is duc in al 11 am. thc mass dntonstration is at 8 a.n shulp Lolnonos' Prof esor Morris is dne io lecture on Frrdag oe.k. ' ' \ ! npn da,c , . r Sun do ! , iil, t s BBa p"o; - or F. . lL du, 5n . . l, s d n a lt ; - ht . on- . . at b, r , t . as t . ' nd: r ' lt do! lnLv rr \" t-'ra 't""-.lo l t r aa' ann"" Tt " ir is o ,a to H'oth' a; . t ; ' p. t t lt t , all hnur ' D" fapt, 'a.i in limbr rom-n5. programarpdplanilicor"rsau inlerc'ul eri.ld in ir c/"n1, i'le'Fs.si tn rraful. !1, r'alizarFain \iilor' Uo rh "r 1. , , - io- r ' r r " J i d p D ' { l \-P \. te.r,po.l Pr"z A n. Ll s im plLrp ' l A l n l rF b L i r,l i l i n p rc p o z l i i tP si undot. ql rrp \ rrl ocrp care r ale. a u cu nJ i! io' J le - p p n ru a .x p ri rn a o o c L ru n r s" u a p l o . .a n. init , nt , F a u rp ro p F (o n " o n ' i l n n l . ' u oLti tt l un" tau state Ritrs me un as sooa as he ga,t lome (Telitoneaza'mi oe ta ros, rc'r.si.) hr J , s D o r' L 3 u nnlil t'ndatn l ]o u to . _ $ 1104 viitoare (S 2E52):

indicatirului prezelt ilin limbi romeri, ilr limba cnglezi' s 140 5) T:raaluoere a asupra traduccrii urm:ii'oareloroazuri cu lndeoscbiaLn1,ia - Se'atrage totul spc iale: t ,.o.h -.v At.ron p.'p , ot or u, t 1r r . L, nl, , . \ nu I o' "/ P", \d l.ou _ o nr'P | .ha Lu v,, T\ ." s h"n I c n, s , oJ al, , / p in. . ' 5o"t nol" m odal" r tV , i " mdlrd i,n "l'\/o- ' i Il Virian crues on llondav, I'll look him uP iDaoi Vilian ta cd't luni, am si na duo sil vad ) no longr t b d l - r l o 4 i i l . I nra. . \ our,d lh t, - . ' lonof los . ' ' il m r ' l - ' lll m in, nr n Jr 'r n L p a d b 'l ,frr'r-, D-cJ nu,, \\ a . np \ ' hi r I ' D )h" \ ili lo ol a r ' $. ! /;P d" \\J\ F " \d v'r;rrjJ '

97n S 1,l0ti al lndicotivul rrrzent din linlba romann tradus ln linba englezi cu ' ;nd; ;;"ut r,.ut s;npll' $r,ontin,'u { S I4ll. 2838): i"t tl) i / 4"1"' iil rl:.', d.p .6 laot " r n t uds do; ag h"r I ' om \ \ . r \ dd c o , l l a r " o n " ' -h .5!'d .he s 1{07 q 1+0S ' ,) IndioativLrl prezent t&tl,\s cn |iitotul fald de ,'ed'.tt( $ 2838): .t," rn," , , p / t - , u, . ' dt x-t n, m r o c o m p . l e./ Indioelj(rl prezPnttrdJus cr prerentulsau cu ,;iordl cantinuq reJind iiiton, l in .rilul familidr (S 1521/: \la: dzc la llinbttre rresl. o o.d: $al. iD ar , ho I d rl t + :"'& tr " l ll i" A:t' E . u a s alk I n J n hn r ' \ ,ll lndi.atilul prezeot tradus cu ttfrrldl sau cn eiitoruL fald dc tecnt S l{0$ " nntinttx. r"drnJ 'iiao',,1rn s ilul fr nrliaf \S li2Jr: o A spusotl se du.eta plimbare Peste oIe ir. .b rd p -' - tl ,.,id h"d q 1{10 ' ) lndicativul prezent iradus cu construclid idiomatici to bc Soing to (enprimd crt itudine): Vrcmease s.ilrlnlrA. 1- The rveath.r ;s g,iig ,, .|aDgc l crnhesl,e-l'. tievi l.enulI r' t ' ir ' "? : | ou l : | ' t-s l nL dn d;'_Pl. ^: p s i, ' "! r ' r a' da r r ' nr r l J n " n u " " " r " b p '" i". . n"got ,'eo i I i' I r ' r J in i r s l P d t d n t t o a l , I r t p 'll lo lJ h".:n l n' d . \ r n r ' Sind " o J u ' 1 6 ' d ' f\l_imi \:tn go rn9 bio nlr t r ' l sJL _, j?Hf or n$. lk ; nanI . o. r ) qoos or J \ v 1l k i d "; ut ! , I h o 't . l continuu. Vezi Conjugarea cu 6) Prezotul simpluin eontrast prezentul 1806. conti nun S I $ 14r llt2 " T&ECUTLTLSIUPIU iTIItr SLIIPNE IIS'i TENSEI lr Foruri. TtF ulul sinplrr I'rc o \;n ut,i forud l''rlu loere p'r'ur ele, . ,r . r " Fpt i H '.rbului /o At. Tr..,rrul simplu v'rb lur rP!d|ot .c Iat n ^l meaz n adnugindu-se suii\ul -cd la inlinitiv: , .,!, ., -" |-i I pt I r l' , : J o L, . "i t J : I . o lL: l. t . ,'J t ", . h . . r . .J F'n.l q l : d esle foarte dire$. (\rezi thta verncrclttlate Trecutul s;nplu al rcrbelar nercsu latela S tE47). belor 2) Ortogralie. Vezi 5 1?;9. S 1i113 tr." rl ' rl .i m p l u . p ri ' o d l i ur,r ' ru n' l 0rp ' unrl l ' l Jr f un. lie. 1414 $ ttaddd d n" A s rt 1 " . l ' .rr;n n ,o n ' ' x' r i rr' 4' l i ' tu" F l ti n p re l ;"1 F " lF , ' 1' l tr' p. .a u i ri ri D" l t iinJ ir ' l l c ...l ,' ,, r.'mi na -nI ttttn t' " , . in\ n' lr i JnD d sts ne1t uir "t J ! ul ;Po td . In o ' ' e rs z u ti onl/ , - po ro tu d 1 " . F t t,t t tt tn tnt t\' ot p ' rl , l ' ,pr I F' r" ri rnr" rl ;n r-l ,ui ntdl $ 11 1 5 " t,-, l e p o r " . Lir . a inlr n ' p l a

' i l o r t;p ' tt- t It ,' tu t l totot ' a| t ;snr" ' [)orroti v" or Historic Pdst)l: Georsc,,a,...d ai this rnd !rr,,d.l ac.oss{i lhe Chicl I'ligincer' rle ,tird himscu togel.lie. and rhtt ontLnued IPrpn r,r..,jLn rdir e J F m r l J "Dd r ' ) : r r |\ 6 1 ^ r d r r r i 'i d r : n . d F 'r r r l p p r o \ i t r '. l" f^e T"a* 4n u' ii A"a^di. ip i ' t udi i n i o u l n . a I r i c" Lc tciusi DomFnrls_ .ri {\t ). dp T tn Dul 'nln Lrin l Jr il l" ndr i' f l". 1"i . ir ' ' 1 u " " 'o n j r r C t r 'i e n g l P T a d i ,"r .nierna naortaia tr lndareJ de fJli.

2?l 'limpul ln (Jrps 0.per.erutactiunpsxprimati de verb poate fi precizat S1416 " urm aroal0Le rn modun: a, prinlFur aJ\prb da ti'np pr"ri. sru prinrr Jn rJ ati\. a1: u.st,r.Jor. \llt7 t t x a d otc.nA ' A.d fn'!J.dr$ er.),,- 0. t d. t ( Np"t : , nr t t Lj, 4, ". . t ; , n"c ' c. t . ' r k p n . , v\ . n p' .. s3u p rin n r i. p 1lt p. . t v . f bp or i t o. I J iU, ; I,l\erbilte rafe Drci_ ; n 19. 35 a. w' 4 a. ji ut t t r t , t t t . , 4 1 t h n l t i n t . a t t h e z " a 7 l limoul ln lrp , ., ': n u m nt. Jus ro r l ( ad inFaur i/ ; t h. t J o. t b, l, r , , t h" o t t t . t t l o . t . , t " da t Lelorc . ! s b " do. t . t..A. r . " n, l: t , t hi( d. t t t as t , t . 4r F l '. 1 ' J 't.tdo ! I called i.here z.,sr..da,. IIe srw mc fi; nizL,.: aq.. She lolt lor thc Cort.int\ir tdsl ucut. \\:hcn I $ng u!. sr rlr 9 out. /. .... d s'3DoLc . I f l+ oc r iz r d hm I mat r'm r1r , , a. , i, ; |J You sr. hir.e the otte da1t, rreD't !on? '.\l ."b-lh $ as r ir . D ll. iil rn tr-; . \l!.rmc in ar ll] . r 0 t odr l \. d ,.,7 , I rsal ot p1 t o . r f oo J J r u. I so i trie te er nn t v pdne, k i. I didn't sl.cl al thdt Li,li. :,a a ula 'da u'.r ^11 c r n r o - , r , c r b. , ho ue hl tl,p t i. k nt , ; 1 Tr \ , ! t o lhp ahi . The Houses ot P{rliaert ir Loridon wore l|llitt d,,atiars petiods. .^r, printr{tn verb la un timp tuecut (care aparline grupei trecutului g 1418 1356): { 'thet s,cte sains rhcn we ord{e{t. 1t f . t t ! had ! " n " r,.n ry d li, . ' , . I . 16 \ ?t . oat d: p " it II- totid to th "' . p. . r n' r $niUw"' s t aoid Dointtnes. p said .h p tir ' . 1 1u- n , - - t 1ii" I nus i. . J , h" ^t . S' {St,t in4:r;t,.onfnrm .^ rPrlon d, nr, I m t r r lr or ) h o o ntcrpd thp room _ c.) prjn orice alL indicator dc timp trecutpreci,s,care se nu tie adverb de S l4tg f rmp cdu.onqlruLllptcmpori\|5: L!i,fp. (r..th,t.tosaV.totell,togp\tabutf, to cost.to payj to LastEtc.l h'tuN ,]id yor sa this buruundvl T t r y did ni. . a " h .r u r; ^ ;r /ra ," . l vas ,nar ihe nilknm ivho rnls? lvho sa'rdso? Who ,old yon inarl 1 bauahtl\is ooa t ar lla.rod's. What dtd your teleajsioncosrl Hoh m u. iJ , ]' o u r,r4 r.r rh . As ta c .l s (tt.? HoN lons did tie 6h;q /dsr: d) priq context sau numai ln intenlia lt'@ she a! home? He .ane cv.rv dav lor $cks. The rlay 1'0u aL the nartv? \\'h1 l d d Jo . . e tn ttte .lub. I ner him o, d fntt s 1420 . 4) ,Ilte luncfii alo trocotuluisilnplu,- Trecutulsimpluinlocuiefte urm{- g 14Zl ,u ph.,nttt p . 4 p 4 t g t i 'r . lor . , i . Ld\ . "b. t r l D . l nu )iJ" ' int . , , . r r t r ui . *th" t n"t' ,..., ( L r, n' t ^. ; , , , d. t - . \ nlr id, 4 n g l . r i. , . ' iLf \i r/r. p ". r! a I na. "n : , , . | , ; t , , . . , o"u a F r n t . t , u 'r , t J r c u r c t r t d c celui care vorbeqte: pd; teii sed,.,t rou hea. that noise? ,'d.e' aJ / | ; av n r h"J r d ) ou Yor d/d, I sc night: he $as a regutaf ti$t nignhr.

27t $ ff:.:f o t tlt -.nt).t tl'o 1r.r1 .rr l: intlell;rI ''\Yhai .,x -1 "\l \J'' ' i it t t t t t l- ' i nr ' ir ' r ' i 'o r i r n 'j ' T " l i i 'o 'a itr I do lor )ox?" r n' d, to ' o '. ' :What illd YonwnnLio ialli to me aboutT" fDfst)E .,c i,tat ( ' lrcji si\ni \r,rb rsti?l (eu pro.edcLr niperfcclul in louul prpr'ntllui) Cr. ill tirnbalomAndacela '(i scop.ilustlrt prin rrdJu efle din pnr'nicTtlP I e rnal tnlrebuinlaLtn acelal qi Sll:3 " ..1.ln locul cnruiaesteuneorilrtrbr tul /rf I))tr,t ou i"ntr.r "'iarpi unFi r"peririi: 'r.r.irnpl:li'ar" pen,L8t .'.\' i o L o r r i r '_ u\" l. 1l 1,, / . r r , ". / l!. L ho .r I l! t r ' , ' p a .,.t.r d t-. ".r a 't s t u l e 'l r L d a v Shc hn J |.cn {l lhe lui s inoe \ i, ' r ! 13v Thr s n o \ i t r t r n \ : loll"l I L\ oJ ' J s Jr'l / 1 .'a \b l dl ill.r la cab rnll dc hr i. \ ir s oar c a / , . / / , r w i L l o ur n l u l a s o 5 r r e r lirt! de doni zil. l ' ' l a d m e t l H a 'r 's " "sh r srill sh.l,r d l. hr o$n u, e bun do\ n t l, r r c b e n '. s l c ', r r i ltfu.ea cl i rom l.ic cliill aool. inairtc de a't fi ittttttnia'l intllni lE llau's) iYez i t i $ 14811 {ll9l ' 'ht,tt 4tp, in 'ilul indir- rinrr'o prap" ti'nr'lu 'n'n-i,l rinp,lin gr"!d r'"'' r'rlLri' au ulorm; zitjc.p.Lr,l 'r;.Jur1 ,n r:hl'r' s:nll): J; r re.,r.3t,^nf"rn ' r'i,rlii ur'0'nd.r'l"r rimputilor t:') (dn|il un tecut si.mpltt)3. S 1{2i} I n tousht Yot nad a sisier' ci lcredcam a, o sor,'' l Ilc dsn.ll nit jlsr row ho\t Iotr 4?,r' J r'/ IIJi'n br ' 'r ' .\\'n .tr to ,, n " "dr r ^t t.It fl,,r I J,,. tr,, , t . . , o, t u, l i. lu .. \ "r l : i..t" r" J '...\b 5n \ ' l lJ \ r s l' " "lr "r ' 'd d '" '" "ld 1 n i' dr l" lio r ' l\ ' m r |I ' J ,:'lr'1 /. 5 r+'16 ' ." ) (dupn eiitoruLfdtd tu lret:nt conform regulii coresirondenleilillllu) rilor ($ 28314: \l'e rre.c told lNi s'a stus .h 1, "i,r, ' r.ra T "\' p:x, \.r"r'F li t,) wait x nlil thc lus .rdr lhcrc. sii {sl,eptlm riDiL .t ta srsi allobuml l r _"" oll1 l' i ' . r ia "r ", n 'r ' n lo. . l ' l l: r ' l , , / l n ' o " l i 'r 'l 1 . r nDt t J . . |at , r s ' p s nat J n' ir , i- ' ir ' r l " ' S 1{:}7 ti")

(dapd u i !ftozldl,rcd.1: sir ho ntuiic (asijsJ Adr' es / t \ d. . ) lCrcd .a r nn n.ie ':i condili.ottul : )t I J.r(. ,lcrome, Thtee)Iet d a R.tl :\'l . l ur: ' l d' .i o' -' 1. ,..' i .u ro \ r'..,:, 3Df r ; l I ' " ld l _ -q t r' rrL i ' . rrl i l - n;l : I' l ' rl l r' /nr ' rrrrl uro 7r' i .J u,r' , :. \- l r' r.: ' nJ' -l .' ,i .. p r' r I r | .:t n t ; , nlJ io' . r , . noln nl b | " : i- t '..d | ' t - b' r" l in | ' :r rnr ' r ' r | ''r " i t r v " trDl. "m n carc iusLil'.i r,tlnrla ' 1nl, o iTf,u l. nr r, oui , r ' l. J ,jmr . i r b. ", ' ' \ o '! d d ' I i: '.r.'1, ' . ' i,ut i.:riro t.o,r"dio nd: lin11" " tli'r ' /"o . r lor ' r \ d' L .n s.blo .' :' o ,J 4 l' l g . n r-. ' '5 F.n nJ ,,o llc v ialf . \ 'l u r l d p r ; / p - r ' lund' ru uljo I n 'r d d r ' r r i 'u

2t3 \\:e riotldi,ro&ldr liltc lo i.lierc Ic @a."lbr a poct' (\_e'ar |],-i.ca si! rri ilfm .ii esre Poer"l : )) Sl i h rl c oloc r id. - Pi n .i c ro g a re d rl rr" g u l a ' ofesl nr' r l rl rtP rl i nrl ' urj - S 1128 ru 4 0 .rr F r 4. prF/oni ,\rq-Fn 3 rn t ur : . in l ; rr,o \ , r Lir ' : - i t , - .r' . r" " :,r' l 'p d ' n r p fn ,' rF rnr ' r\urrrl r' n , , \ . r l, .; n, r."l ,r: 'l | " .rl r' -' u i . ' rrl i i 'l r i n' nur di n r' r' t' ozi l i e oruoo l i i { . " u . l r . / d t" i t,, t., t: :t t : . , i, ,,t-* ." r li, . . r,t/ mc she Is gting to bc o{$ied so.n -!lri I /rnlt stif,s d ll' fh ". rl ||I r , ^. . d' , , l, nl , ' ,, .!r', ll" ,.. ttf , tt .i raria! 1.1e c\cnllol.. de ltr I !S!l lgI'2. jlrl44l' 1t.zi Desjsur ci rella lea u no r ac f iur li s nu s L; ir i t f c . r iie e \ p r i n a t e l n s t i l l l direct fiitoare pislreazi toLuli forma de lrt'xl conlorm plin prezeni,fnrn il1rplica1,i i timpurilor: iesulii corespoDdeDlei H'o,t . r.t. ' t:tP ? -a ro F\ ' r \ "' s ld1 'r '" a,, J" $ 'l ' g'.o " '' Din schemclede la ! 1356 qi 1357-se { I'129 6l Tmihcerex in lirnbt rorne i. la t rodul i,'djcrliv. noliurca de lrecl]t esteexprilnatl in limba con.iiit:i ca. qlF /d n,inrr .,4n r" rorn ' .prbrb' -'i rnrrm' I'in inlli"1ri 'rl rr'ul ' ^ j.. l:{ .or. iar r' li nhr I 'n;": lti' / l l'r'rrF \.ch 'l' drlprrrp: t P)!1I t;s ) I i nr'.ri t.i,li:. Ir:6 ln lr"r. irul tr"' rt p,j.",ii 7.,1 t't a,-!., .i ".,p',,.. "-1"_i -l 'lr'dL'F'1 'rr'r ''lph r p r 'rrr , ur",.c.'rpe tr linba romeDe.astfel : t ' ";ntt,' 'du 'I p4t thl "otlpu li rFd'r'" inrr'lpbril r t ll:lll ot-'tp (s l:44 rrF.ulp d n, li'r ", t\orr',', d dp \p'l' " ' rb 'r num-nl 'r 'r 1347): 134 r: il t . t ' |J t s t t ^ ' 1 1' lh! ' p d ' , .11 1.1 t li . _il ,',,-. , . 1, s "al" " -' \\c a ,nl to { lli"r J f s r er dar ' 1Nc 4,, .l4r ifri la ttalrrr.) b) crl inperfc.tul ln cazul acliuni]or sau stirjtor' cu cal'acter duraljv (li 1: 145) sau reprititiv: Hc sd1 ll,cfri i ' aiLins lDur aliv i /.se&a aiolo aitrflin'l l l fL P\L 'l ' l' ' ""Po r ' r _ ' / ft L je :r'\.' \ ( s],. ;'16 i Llcrei N.avcr lDu.aiivl / Era ,r lr.1 1o . { c Dr it . n r ' l S 1431 d

., D rpTFnul \arr \ri o' ur' s u! I { l 4 l l . li2q, . dlil -n "l I l i rn p rr rrl rn l l c rr\F e fal : om i- i t radu i c l n ir nb "-"ij \ l'r'rrn \\'' ,,.i1, / 'rl' llri l' 'n i 'r'dcum s-r ardtdt,rnJi S ll32 irecutu l sinplu e\prinliir'1. Pe lins; aceasta. 'lrrpa q4 urri .s1433 sau unci ac-tiuni stari anterioare ii,,i; ,,,"tt ,,"?'.rtcrril tn-ca zitl monlenldadtrecut(S 1423): "" "'ii" ni,iiira' r)rcztnlcind noliuneaestede pr ezent(in cadnrl cores- S 1434 "i t;mpurilor) 1424); ($ ponddnlei rr',.n i rol, ' \ , ' Ilnir r- i i r P r c s sin :\!'.i I,qd..( l" at td ttt." .t ir ' r - lrn d ' 1r:0o1.r, ,' .i,:,r ' . 'n i n'' d i n l r" i I l- " rr" , i 'l l " r' l o d " ,,' ,, . S - Ji i i _' ^.r^ ' Lrai ri . r4' r' i r rr4' u\rorr 3 1 r.c t , t 1, . , t , , " r," ,1 anterio. unei a.tirni lleente. n 'n " ,,

??4 143, . { 1438 c)..cr t'iitrr uL_ t:n\d noliunea sto de viitor (in carrul cljle.,ironrlonti ( $ 2834). Atcntte ! ,{ nu so confonda trarulrt silnptu cu subjoncrivul prezc,rl cu care af e formd identici. (Vozi $ 1553). jon .oi!in subjorLl;ruj sr xu treLurul(dupn r c ,.iu,,Llia dc . .Exemplele mni ,.d/r ii1 .^r,. rurr i.-, a\pr ,, Irqt-ri,.ra,: I t\ linc Llnlil ron qe',r fo rr1. llr fi tirilul si Lt i.ut:i. la r\tjNa!. Ion nrd ,ef.. sav .r.s,. /lIa i l)ine d i s pr ne _dr . - i: TLey \vish llhrrl ih,:J .,r sr. von. /-,1f l,.t si i. toit r-l redfa i 1 1. rath c . her ) ad t . t ] , f . g. . (At ',o rll pt.fira sir s! ' ia, r v insoarc cn ca d{it sn a. destflrti.) 5 1437 7) Trecut Di riitor.-, Din Fig. 2 () 1357) se vede .,n in.i;.j4liiri?lrrecut, oc upa prtrul .jstemuluide tirnl,uri care apartin trecutului.r\sadar.pentru ' rednr cu unpi ,rcliuni anrprioarc iceteia exprinat prin i dicati\-ul tre.ut. vcF bul cF lunp l\.!r. rt.t pa[!"..t pa\t p"[..tt.i"tp.n.u.F.riun" vii nar.raia d" d.cF1_" xpri dr! pfln in.t q rrrt rrq ri r"16,rt ... pur. t) t;! ut [afu tJ? trecut. (Ft llurc in the Past)l lt".bllm ) 160. . . a , r \t -d st'r. .i o r ' : , , . J ttp , |". t . t r ( \ t i. , .n . " tt. .,./d.F" r. l\iiror ," o ,T f,d.d../ S 1438 5lf39 Obsereq,lie l\it trecnttll anterior indicatiyului tracur. cit ti riilrr..,l fate de acesta slnt l,impuri constnrif,e ajnrorulforn.i tecute a diriliarctor lesiec tirc.lotme cn irnpuse de coresponden,ta tirnpurilor, care cere ca un \erb ce se' &t''td raport in temporuI cu un tecut si aib; tot form; de trecur, ( I 2838). 8r fompnr0tieiotrc irocutul bimplu .i trcrllrrl.ootinu||3. FormasimDla r indi,iriv ului r".ut i\primrj o drliunFsau n starp,,.m/ral.itn1.un mumFnL dai.irecur;lor_m a continua snger6f.ze tinuitdtca unei ac!,iuni sau a uner co stdri_trecute. deci ii Japtul ce acasranz, a fast desaitirgiti. Dacd intreabi cinovn: "Dd lor hEd.ab ort Lord Nounitatten'$rragic deaUiin Ireland?.' Se poate rispunde cn lrecutul si mphr: "Yes. I /kd.d l.he Dews on tle TV.', "14 './r'r : ,r-eJ " n t d u t u : b r i in^ r o z i o ol r "t J y . _"u\ r . . t a s , dor dlJ lr _ da. . i \ _o"biu"LI "" g r i j I l d m n m " 1 u t d a r "/, r I d" id l l L. t g nd, , t . , . . 11 . , , v r , . d . r '. r , ht|-,..Tt,v,v.r, ns rlo ,( il r ',. . r , . t Ro r,rt., t"" inr;rpr. iorbirorului nr' : t . ,.1 :1 .n ? .i a . , o . , , luJ r ; . d d., - .,,i.".it.

R;spunsul suqereazdrd informaliile auzite Ia TV sint suficiente si cd vorbilorul .on.idFr; Lhestiunain, his,iSe poate lnsi rnspunde fi a,r trecuttl conti.nun: $ 1410 t) Douna{tiuni simnltAne. Dcui saumai multe actiuni tre0utecarese dcsfaso8ri i.o lasi fimp pot f; eriprimate ln prin indicatii,ul Lrecut, conrinuu. d d .; . F ^1 . . . r I |t c rF s F J T i, s . a . u n I i | , u i | ., p d lor l " u^ motuent drt: \,"/.la,In l^ ,tt) t ,1 1 ,' o . " lu \, co q r t.1 .) .,1 . 'E t,.,., T

!?6 []rfn I tuned in i.o ihe lilc o'clockne$s, Ure annoDncer,asrcddt,g the nalnc s ol tlrp njrriirq teams. whilc oo{'ds eere ctucrits and musio 44s LeingPlalen. (Cind anr pns radionl pentru sinilc dc ]a ora cinci, crairicnl r.'zvrn.a nunle rc lripclor cistigetoaf,, in timi c. mlllimea addnd li se au*a tnnzioe.) Foartc ado scori ins[. una din cole doui forn}e conlinue este iniocuitd S 1441 p rin 'r'.u ru l . i. lt ' lu I nc ^ i d p u n d ,l L Arh ' ? t. F \p ri mj ' unri nui l al F- ' JU /,ci .o n ri n ri r ,rp o j . ,r,/. \ :i ' nLl ranpi l i aar pr..: i {, r t t.."i 'Jr"J lrere Pourtng tn laft-comets -\s thc slrow ntuceetlen. He ou.ed, an, illrIc thc noist outsider@ sro"B in Yolumc. Dacd insn nu cortinuitatea acliu nilor intorseazd. ci simplul fapi c{ S 1442 omcnt dat. l_erbele respcrtire se pun la trocutul acestea au avut loc la ur silnpln (N.rrftrtirr ar H^toru: PtLtt): T h-"1 /ear do$n lonnr and 1 cam ho .. a,t-;& dar in oras. iar eu d,' ,.,ir acasi.) \itc. tlc livc o'claok ri$s. the enouncer /add the mo,es 01 tl,f cdsi ir the pd pt it t l l o . l a _ lo lo n n {. so il n'u :. r 4. - l' r ' L s or r n i l - l l i . s '- P 9 , . P 4 1 r l r " l r l n t h . " i ': . " u / , r , fl1 ; J ld o ra.r ", ' r ir J r r . r l r . , , t 1um . 1. tlup. i: .dl r /"1 r " r r ' ' / ' \ " r r _ - n' o ,o h . : n:. ,^ urd n' PREZE\TUI, PNIiIJIOT MECT] $ 14.re (THE IITESDNT I r' Formi |'rol.n|U|p.|tFc.''a' :in''||r|U|.ompU.di|||inl,ar"r'r"nJ nun r. Ja ,sern'n.'r". -" torn,pdr". u rruronrl rndi"' i'ul.ri prcr^nr il su\iiiarnlui 'o f l.\\E. lrm r dc p.tt:;piut tr-rl "l vcrbului dF.unjucal:, I hale callcd: fou hdt! .alled; lhey la!. called, calledr he. shc, ii h6 callsd; we hale calledi you IaYe $ 1441 D. Functii s 1445 Din F;g.2. S l ,iL. q. or..'ori a prezerlulpprfr I la'e parle,lin srupg ,lF 'i m puri , arp rn ""rrrrl lor 1,r':,nt"t indi ,ltitu't/i si slnr ' on lruir" ' u "u auxiliarelor respecLive. rr,"r:.nlul Prezeniul perfect,erprimi asadaro acliune s au o stare treeutl, anterioarl \arbului FqlFin ,.. yntp1y;, lar alll rlp "lrin. l"qrr" do a -- r In'll lnlPlFSUl t.tpt Jc tt"z"r1. pqz.nlLl Dorlpil li:nd 'r',an ri hiar lr-d'r. u prF/rn ul ln ]inlba .omend (S 1475 b). PrezenLulperfct are l,"r i tntrbuintiri /rrincilale. Dl fuaLn: l) mterioritRtec unei acliuni terminate ins intea altei ac.tiuni exprnnate $ 144ti prin prezen',: on i, nJ"i". \h n 1 p 4as / , nd bnak d r , n- al{ d' . . d " '" 'h l J p e r ' m r . , l dd_U. j 44. ? i1 _ 'l d J u n a " i " r F p . D urnin ,,l . ,lu r,1 oi \ or l. I s r o l i o r a ! u p o l \ L liv.. , .n I h t!" ar ", t '- J . "u, ' , 1bu'r lr l' . a t b a 'r o e p a : c a , "r , d lir p. m lop r . r ' tlut',t " on l, * l, r' tic| n, ) 'd 1447 i "r ndia D.ry 2) rezultatul in prezert al unei acliLtni anierioare. de cele rnai mulle or cu irnplicalii ulterioafe, l}ronentu,sivlr*rii acliunii respeotivencfiind i deaarace intereseazi: n has broken. IS'a cr{pat de zi. l: Esle zi, dcci ne tutem scula )l

ln di mull a LiPr ic nni ' E \ orsie um s ar .Pd" 1 , nur n l ; . , . o , r , r

o 'i n bt t o. : \ t at . t dd ' ,' it o' n,w 'l duri iitlu). inspj.at{ din blts Dele 0clc mai cnDcscuie ii o e constiLuic cvenimenhtl lradi_ liohal a1 s,lrlrilo ril{tr d. ialni'L-

276 Whal ,rs Dfozsn,vou here? lce te-a a.lLs aici? (De cc ds,t aici? Ce nei de l a minc?)l lvho nas l,tu,\e, the l.caD.t? Icire o s??, ceainicnl?[: Ccainicul.s'. sra.r, deci nu putem fuc. ccai.)] | l"nr. .""t n , In .,n L d JU' .1 p i u r p n tallou m nunJt. (Nu stun.,nd anr vtzut. iar)loul. cioi nu iriereseui tltu d .r ,_ f F 7. 'a.ut ln f r ,/" n r: ta r,.u l, i rl r.n o ... . r i ,pl , al i a .d j nr ,nLU ,i d.rnrr.I lld ul wl{ Drf ctrd aios t des c his di d c a s L .a .c i l a p tu l c i l e rc a s i .r'adsrdes chi si i i j cl deaceea.srrcr. letter?" "\o. I h.eca't ben dble La get a stnmp. tlecryihing "IIarc lan pastcd.l.he p,ts ctosed." ]{ { Ai lus sc.isoarer cutie?Ntr, n an lutut gi6i tinbrc. Pcst. tot cra ltrchB., "Eao. lot ne! t\ti Flcndnrsr a" "No"_ "I'd like votr to rnaci ttiem.i' ( cd;Drri fa'nilia l lemmint?- \u. - n i vrea i[ rc ,rcztr.) ld,. 1 o u o j. o Pd tt n \i \h .\. 4id,.hi. ( \to m F .,r t"t"d ' t^ a x' l .!r..t,i ni r'n rr!,.a.d $ 1448 3) o acliuno sau o stare incoputfi in txecut care durcazi pinl ir prezt'rlt (sau pind intr.-un moment,trecut atit de apropiat de prezent incit se confundi cu ac esta)jcontinulnd sau nu ln pfoze.t sau in .riiLor. Se deosebesc urmitoarele a) d urata perioadeide timp in care s a petrecLrt, acliunea nu e:rtearitat;, se subtn telegi;e cuviotele j,pi;[ in prezeni": Sheids redD a.long scacoast nos.,.a alt i he new buildings. all the and a t(Pi l In p.ezent) losLpe iot litoralnlqi a vezu ttoatenoilaconsh-uctii.l H. h d " b " c n t + or 4 to $ ;d , n | l.m d s S 1449 lse qiic cA (piDi in prezlnr) a iiitisai ri zecereprize srccesiv.l Thi ooncertna sa'l ,eszn. ddct nu te sribi.l lconceriul nu a lnceput (pine ln lrezcnt) Adverbe le c/cr si nerdr accentuoazd ideea, nu sint deci obligaiorii: Have rou (r,er) sP, a sazelle' l A i r J z ut ( ! r eu ,l a l i ) o s a z e l i l l I Lav . f oer c r ' l/ u d . p o p p o rtu n . ty l N, ) m dv ur ( ' ijc i o d a tr) :j u l l : t;rl ,/ durdra acliu]lii e\primate de verb esLe aretati prin adverbe sau lo5 14 50 cu l i u ni adr F r bidlc a l c ro i | rl e l e s e s L el e g a t de prezent asau attt de apropi ai d prezent incit se conru,rdd iu acesta), -ca: jffi (: tou nai, abia), laielE', o/ lal., fecentlg3. d.aring thc I tlle:e l.rst three yeors (feo q'ecks, LtrJo montht eIc.)1 this last Aear, tlrcscllhis t|entlJ minntcs, oa Atr, Uet elc.l He ttds irgt dt:iecd.. lTocmiri (acu, abia) a sosit.l SIe /dsn'i ,c,u !vel1litsly. (Nu s-a simlit biDe in uliima v.eme.) l2ur ioclbr lb. so l d .l IF U !F s n I' F l d s n r,/ m u . l o l pJ.n, I n ul im ii doi d n , a a v u t m .l tft d n In \d l d t.j \- ft, hr.d u rF.r.h Jou tbi! rhcsc ro y mioutir. , I n. T dm d pd u re .r 0 e m ' n u l ' r' d a o d ti n..l cJ duraia acliunii e xprimate dc verb esLe o perioadi de timp indicata { 1451 de un adverb de timp ne p;ecis, sau de o locutiune-adverbialn (precedate sau nu de prepozilia /d/J : (fa r ) sone tine. some iieelis. sercral !ea6, a fart ight, an h,aur or tpo. a fctr minutes, ([ar) alang rine, ha',long...2 eIc.l \\c haeeb.at Daflt.l (lofl o week. /.tinkn cisiloriti de o sntiiLohi.) r r\ 6e obrlna t.arer-'{ saDDilicai,ive d. ia 0..retrLdi nerfeci la trecnlul sjr nold din ultinia !tupozilie, ca.c s. fcrrfi la ur mooenr Dri;is din rrr;trr. : n

crfect vdnbilc si: "//dr? vou ir.D;L sazell{i?" "1 ldrfl''r /,ad thr olro|iunilv ." "!lnt ' xrcd,tttu a;:Leun droib cxr. sicdnsLrtri.,ii; ri eu ir,curul simplu { S 1i6i r}.

!?? tt In"' l \ou: I / dt ", l ' J or ' lor r c ei' i t r r I nl' n. s i l \ u r " d' t : : ' r | ' t11 . 'o l '1 long? Itd.c lon ArorYz the (li .rtold dc iult? ) {on long nat. lon beea \rith tsl lDe .in l cl,t la Doi?) . 1r pr - u t . "r a u l r ' l i u r r " J " \ n r i - d r d dr ln,"lur'rl t'.'i ,d lP: J - li' nP; u lr ' n x! l ! 'r l r d l ''1 r '4 \ l n r . a p rrn t- ' r nt l\ "r b' duolo { l a ! e rL, c" le r,' ';/d : L" ( :r s t t t " " t 'P c h ' t luhlu! ! jin l " r 't o t l9 ' a L i n o , rl r' r. . i-, A: \i $ ll52 ii,,i'ini'ii,i "f ftan t",, (:t'c).tron .Lhov (froin his chitdhoott' 1e50ftum 1957' n Br ' ' 1 ^ \ t 4 b4 . ' ir " ' lui: n Fur"L"i fi ' li "a u.h ' home rrom o lle has liaed a\tal- lro 'hild' era coril-l a(Dl) tfnicete delarte de crsr'r d' cind tale agail thrt dlX sh. nds nele. beea f 'n |l]ni accn zi {ia) nu a riai ttlt.idr niciodai'i l Atcnli.t! je alrlL" in sncrill al"nlid rt nu ' intrcblir'1:" r/'hddld ln lirnba en"ltz'' ind, ,1t",ttiftz nt i t]n'i "|nJ un v"rb e r" \n'olil dr u-n udvcrb do r' rimn lr".rll p""""d"r d" 'i. , ( J..in l Jp Jtu-.i da. 't tn lar' lron {1'ii,s i s t4;;, 2361). er incerulul perioadei r1etimp in cate s-a petrecut acliunea cr primatn $ 146t un \Frb la rr ut'tt 'tmpl u: <lo '"rn...1" "i)r' "rrn, tot hdr. b*n lrY ldtnd evo since I w!! born' (tni .f/i prielcn_dc citrd n am nds c!t.) she .anc h$c as a .hild rnd nos bftn \titl us erer since ai'unct') lr\ ven it aici de copil ti sd la noi mereu de S:n1J.. I la- m r t lL r d l \\'e /,, . , , trnJo r nd ian i1 ; ln l u l m a o d - ' l a L .rrr up lJ I J " \u a ' LP itr I97' \tp l F I .4 n- r " lr or r ls o y ds nol "\ Fr s i n r F 'n t r In l9:9 r . d' ; r n' t ./l@ ai" i1pJ n: ,\ ' 4 ' "a ' p $ 146{ rJ d r r , r " r io- l. i i n c e r." Ip ' l rF ' u L a rri u n o ' F r p ri ' nrrdd' tFrb,F percrerol rr'' l or7t o i ' i ' uno n tu t p r/.' . \ ' " r b lA r: n d i t, d .'i n; t t ' b r" ' " n He ha3n't {orPel i}pilg since hc lrs s Deenin this room ia n'a-:inade cind 3e afla rn aceasfi caderd ) il'-. l'""t.1 Ji "c"id I iatd neler rzdn disatpointedir hcr sincc I iure knolr! her' (Nd m-a d ""zanegitniciodat'l de clnd o / l 'z@t' \1'c rat,6edn jn nish spir'ilsa]l ihe tn ne Ne heYcrrorled at tho barage -entuzintti dc clnd lucfta la La'aj ) (Sltiten m nur loirie \ t n / ioi Dp " rJ r ra ,l .\.i n r" \" h u ro I' ccn mrrri P d oi i ' r r d . rn I i ,r" ' a " -.r 'rn fo I ' oerlec co lr , r uu " . c " n u, i rJ i ' l " " " d A n n ' i n -i ' r" d u d" J urx' i iernrinaie in prezmt sau lnir un treoul' fo t'e recenl': He h.s b..n ,a.n tq llrglisl! (lor) l$'o veaN (.['t..li. eielrza .tc d.r am ) ri .fo rn ll. ' v 1 r ' ' , r " ' , LD, ' rtd In o lPll,T i $ 1455 d. Prezontulletfect simplu Si prczentllller'feet continuu , l L x |cr b.l " lu r ' r\p 1rpla 3\"' t^ ma'o in u ' rs lli: ' p " ' z " n lu l s 1 4 6 6 d' r' ur' r unpr l:li::lllii;"':i'":ii:l;'i1ilix"l-i;ilT n:nhxli:ill',,iiii'l:jir,il;:l:;fi

2;E i..' '|:'':'].' ' ' ' | ' ' ' ' | i' ' i l^ , . ' \| ' ' l' a -'t',: |a" ||''j ' '|'' , i d t r t 1 , . t i . , i , ri .m tL, rdt 4, ^. t on'h5' n ut.:mr.c f I S r157 ll L eori ffi.rna continuii t, trez,,rrutuj priclr !\pfl,,ra LUniirLunrea unci_ar iriuni pr;rzcrtjcv,jriunt :r 1,, \jitur. i!,!|lrott lir eu prezerrt!1 rrertoct. simplu.car.c nrat; o acliulp termilrti in prczrrLt: l1 r , \ , . r J r , . a t l a . tm .,t| " , I\ou-tJr,rl " b p ,../ t t ir r . , ' . r - . t . T i .a n r,.rL ,r ,d t " ,, , n " ,r " Li ,t_ t.i z .. rr.r rpl r ' n,r-o.J I uD ai.aid I /,ard .o/an 1.our lunotr. lTi ani niin(rr lrinzul {iu a nai r;iD$ nnriol.l P r ez eit ul p e rfe c t c o n l ,j n u u rl \e rb e i o r n ,oD entai e (g 1344) edpri mn $ 145 8 .... / a.,, urr reperaie: r . 1or , t . " ,-" 1 ,/.r l l l ,:" \d\ r, th.i a..u" j .. l .t d ,,, r" -" \' r.,r, t, .,, .tr . r" b i .a , ,,t- ,,i , . \\c hdt. l,un :lapprrs erfrl r.rtnan $e met ro rclt h im thij ,.s5 ot ouf trrigadr.s , " g , 1l{},,frn.ID roli mu.rjr.o.ii l. carf i a m nitilrtit. oi sri lc spur.D rcsLalealizrrli o da' n. i r ' l S r45$ d./ PrczeDt ul pertect lorrinuu drl uneoi te\rLrtui o nuanln emol.ioratd: \,r L .1.. g, r , g I n I i. i, iiLr r . J . r 1: : nd , Lr ". ! - b ii.'rr', ia rrp i o5la, : \:i d:r d, t.ziu,j ll. Lo t."- . it. ; , B ut r , ddinA , I dt , , , r . s n {J i n : (i J Lr / iu n, . . ' t r . , , . Do d.; J , . o b o , . i . l ".d -1,titp n1 \ se corripara in contra"ct,: : ,1 sartu snnronie. tte hasatut n a svmDlionv. o \r"a -nru t a ,,iLni , . ! n npr . r . r ilbr . , i, . ' nu in . ; , p s , : r , . i . r d a r . r '! s i m l o n i d . \ , unul r - e, ut . _ t , e n, . , \"r \Io n".,ul a,'iL I r , j. p"e, . i/ J ' . an, r t t r Lr". \ m p h o n t . t a . L . ,1 . -.. o s,n on: p dnr . t bi. r t , , H hos r . : t . " , d s r n , r , h o i . 1 . i , r r a r . I \i u Lr i .!pu t d . i t pr m nai, t r " J " . t dn l p o i n | ,, ,F J n u I a' ps , i. lt - / r bp. , . . r t; t , , . g a s J l p r ! J , . i . J F r r . -j . ri - ' ' i \i n . d .nro pu, J in a, . p, J n du"p r / l . i . n F r p l " r , 1 $ I460 D.narcLe pfuz-nr,rl pc pcr e\primi ideeA anterioiralefali de Drezenl de J1r " i. tJainr;icuitutc';I.ri\in,d,o,,riru.,ii r.;";, r-";; ""1i,_"ii i r , r r F b u i r t \I o". F.l' LIF Jo fll . J ba I nlit ur p a. FJ . r i, r , , iio u r u n t i "",.h;trai;i n d | | - s a t n t d t _ ,1t.lina p.'tttn indicarea contiD!itnlii acljunri lerhutui ttztntut retel:t confinuu. care aduoeprecizareaneccsari daci aceastanu reiesenici diir cbricxt. {cf. { 1455). r/. Treeutul simph si prezcntul pertect S 1.161 Deoscbireadintre trecurul sjmptu .sjprezentul l,FrIFrt prerinti mdri difi_ ' .1. r i ferrru .r,,.1-,,rii In,,,;ni. obi.rr.riir ,,.ri,g"rc" i"manl. as"ln".o. "u n I , .Lcl-zo :r I a i.'ii ,imi, fu"rrp ,lit"rlri J" pd. tje a, aFr. ru,|'r! ", , r r. , Jb.tr rr_ dp rin,pufiJF gran,Jti..,toJin lrn bd romdna. s, r" .,urJia ,rr .,I ltru,-lr]rJ orjulrlii e',slpzc Fis. 2 S 1J57.avindu_"(e .!,edere in tn irif /.r'i/ \ Dr!utuI d|l,.rop,.2,,ia, Fzi. ri niridncrrr:r pr, rradrr, a.tin timoaru mina. n, . . U c',mparair"intrr rrrcnrnl simplLt prezentr perfct va lnmuri mar .s i bnre intrebuiniareaa(l*tor rimpurr. a.l.t:tdratul linp netut 1n limbo engleza. lll exDnm.ro . Trecutul simplu est,e d.lrllnn,Jrp r arut lo. tntr un tuot\..t pr ec^ 6du in,ro p r;oaddprp;isddin tfc.r?r!ar_trune ternrn.ltd atnnci s\ fdrii nic i a legdturd.ct1, prezntul-

2!9 hczc tul pedoet stc esentialmenteun tinp prcz.nr' El erprimii o nciiLl si it ne t recnLA, crie aJ".l..g urd cn prezerLtul c e a losl s;t'irliti indr un r?,/rtnt " "ffl"fl*t simrlu inrlreaptn aten!;a asupra no rnllthu rr..ur ir ca.e s a ,<nvirg it acliunear prezenhl ptrfec{' nrn|ra rr. ltatttlui acli.u.ttiiin ft:tnr: I 1,s, mY look len da$ a(o, ,,.r, \" .' u,ri rmrj, r r ' . d, r - , ; ' . r ;, / l . -q ' ,r r,i. -l r' ,J ar, I " eo-rnl .l r' r , d, . ., .t I n . . t , , , . t m . ,r" " . ." r 1 tr" r,ru rd p , ' .' t,.r " I nd' lo'r n'v r'ook. p" P ' 7d ' ' i i nr r' 5' ari U rn r D- c . d- -r r " ' . \l o n r, I l ;rJ .i i n r " t .i \" ' p rl L i i Io " J ,,.-' i pol l -n ,d ,tr r lo! d r r l ' ' ' i " _' Ir' al IIi .. s o n D o dy/d sr' r' / / h r' ,o, arri l | :.i .h p a - lt - l^t h r i lir n n i, no "c " rIl " tt,b ' l d r \' ,1 .l .,r \d a api n' o i I (\ I.l " ' ' r L'as in Bu.Iarest last l-.tr. l,\n lost anul trecul ta Bicnrllti (Tjmlnl p rcciz.rt: ldsr !dr' ,\cl'nrneallII ltgli tndi iru lrezcntulr n! nai sint aon, in Dncurciii )l i haac \n\{ beenin tsucharcstllorl . ycar. tsjnl (acnn) la Bu.urci ti de ur an. {Aaliune lrecute carc ocnlinud in plezdli ti !ro!abil in !iito..)l ds "rtd you err go lo Czcobosloraltia a .nttdl" "No, I .iil''l.. I onlv r'.4t lo Hun_ S t "v \u. ,,, a,n r,sr. \m ,.i "j e i r " . t v podd' a r n r" h !s r, \d .." ..td p tr: ,o p t: nnas o d d ta r r Lngr id t lrn l l a c L !r' a r7 1 l d p ,u \i n l " l ' d., ' nl d ). 'tl .r. \ l -7 1 h o .l o \n l i a . \o , l /d ' u 1l ) r' P o l l ungi rJ ' ' - \ a t " . n lo N " a m l L i . ndi rr' I n d" i a rs out' i " _ - \i lo- v r - , ] d d n C " h o s l o rt,a l L In ]rrzent-11 tc tege ,,pin[ l l i.d l.r Init,u , ra . . r ' r ' , " J " r ^ ou. P i- r n"m alo g , a l ? ( T i n 'p u l d r 'n r l 't P n _ zat di cuvjlltele befate coins ta tlE lictLtes ) ) dard lou d,rc vour norka Lncreea ste sata {in prezent) (Sublnieles: ,,Dac[ inat "lrcraree?: tTi'ai'ter ste saia, poli acum sn te distrezj.")l I h. d,d O"h oL . n i Bh, ' r s d / in Dlu; , , . ' t . n: ! oua lF . a n . " t ( \ I o m n l r q ' r t D ''i z a l lA muu,il ..lla D oo id 1 lb; . r , d: d lu: C"t . ! $ilipr i' o nr Fr t de cN'intele Pi'dd?/ at the .otu41 ,i fad hstttcd .u Pterentut.)) LdJ" ,{ .."d riprsh{in; "ll dnsodv in lrluc_ /;r, ( t r n J i n p r P z e n l '. r t l o n. i,r d traDsod rlr I , a! . a- a l . i c pr . h\ in d" f';nPsi , \ mlrn7r p " r io. oa o" Lin, p or . I "eot u, o " p e ? ^ t n . ) l n p n l u t 0 tlu l: ,"/ ;-i.dr. "Ilate !\it rcad 'Hamlci'?" "No. bul t hnte seen it I sao the pic\n.e du ing the l- tpt 4d t n F* . ?n! t " - Nu, dd l d m \ t z u t t l t 'o t r P r P z P n t ) | -A . icit:t lliil ot )1 t n"t pt ulu: t t - Vow ! t t q r ' l r i i A m iizul t ilm!l ra .:mpr' f ". l: \ alt lui She d,, u! to lhem and !s/'.dr "Why nd you c,ru: Whv dn lou sdv vou rveren't rp | 5-a roro !:dl d " "'s a nt ^"bA t t r eu ' a, at ir t : . , D"c F a r i r . n r ''. '. D r "tnrpli ai ; . t , a p* ,p"t, ,,Dp rp a lis pus lnlr un anu4: t r nom pn( s r b r r '" 1 " s r d i n / ' P . u l ) c i 'u ! e n i ti?' il Diu r" L oo 1ou" \'^tl b .[."P L a :,A to ttP p i tu "P In urma to r r nl. s d\ er bF d F i ,,Ip n p rP " ;. d a r i n s i l ui l i i alo Aalyerbele timD inhcbt riato atit cu trccutul simplu' cit Di cu prczentul $ 1462 p.rlP l p o r li i' rF h u in t a lp .ll D c r l c r l- Ar i l tr o uiu l i'nnl.r, )i prF/pntut . di l eri l " : 1) erer $i nc{er, recently,slnt, folosite cu: S 1463 g cind se gubinle lec u v i n t e le, , in t re c u t " : simTlu, a ) Tr e cn tul "rid vou crcr /tnd o,, the nanc ol the goal kecpcr?"r "I dtd'- iusl relorc I Lfr lhc st{diun " mcade le stadioD.) / rt;i,rJ drn se 'r"tia lortarul?-Da, chiarlna inte dc plecarea She was lh. rreitiest girl I or0r rad (Era cea mai arrgule rain te carc (fl pd:,t_o .odail:r') 1 (sport): parur {la lotbul, ho.h.i {do.).

{i0 Hc rcrf..er?{kd tlr. o/I,,& tor $tji.h Ie tad n{rn c.nsurcd. (Nu a /cprr, ri .tdd.d grei.th telt.u ca.c nrsese o.iiicar.) Sr { 6 { b) pr e ..n tul . b r,,a n r { . . io ot h b. , p \r!'r.. i\-, /o., r . 1lr':r,, / "U | . r iI c o ir ,rt t . . t . ; t .' . qnt t ! . .. / p fe ze n- u- : }1{r, }ru crer llrilcl l.he ller.,itasr llnseun, nr Lrnhsmd? (.1 i ri..inr rreodaldiluz.ul Emitasii din LcnilAfad?r I i. . ,n I.s ri n : | !l !s J . ' r h o r\n qrJp i of d i n., \.,tr,,L . r .rd re .1 i ri ,o t,r .- ,l n o \ .' i. t." " ,. ., l r,tLa r,rc4,to) l r DFr.r r", I/ olh i d i, ll);u ttn fast niciaddtil h i\arc.) $",, Dd,r ,.a or / pr ^ i. " / , , . , . . . / uf lr a to O,bcor. /\, tdn .. | . . d", , , t t - , n r / i J L t d " o \ t.rIr/:1. t)tfi sc s L rb in le ] e g riirc t e , , p iI i rn cu $ 146i, . . 2) -ldrerhele li locutiunile adrcrbixte de tiDp neprccis care cxprin e iileeLr de..pili:i la un nlornntdar trcrut sxu p"c,"nt.. ci: dtt,dtl.lJ. stiLL, uet, .ot t.,,t. t tn.\. I tt ) ,t'l ,s tt,,. ,luJpt...,in r'uto-itc,u: a) Tr.t: utul si,LDl .. cin,l sc subrrreleccurintlc ..ollrdnrtr U, '-. ,r ,,iiJu. :,, ii, ,.b.,,^mi.:, , rr irnpnrt,, ruir: lle LyardlrldX tircd. /,4.o deji obosit.) Trrere p.fe articlis ltill not irfittcn . /E.aa attiole lncn ncscris.) -fhere ,e/a iobs not vct don.. atra& sarctri lnce neildellinite.) So nu lhinss gr.. al] ris[t \iLh lhe ,,e\Lhjrcddcd corn]e. (Pin, 'L atruoi noii instr{iei se tnrd,a4 t}i.e.} I p lo nor pv " . v tl ' n A r .,a " d o i i c .I J . n ,i ro r l p d -, g r" r.r . P r ' . 1ar L) P r . : nt u t r, n d .p .,,L,nrFt,s ,uri n el , ,prna rn I. r[..t. .ot.r,d.j p r.zrrr r ' r r J u s in l i mL a ;n i ,r r.4 .., t . . . . r' b ri ." ' o rrc a d r. Pr' .."r al f! fi rd;u r .xrozitia.) Hdrc yo! boughtuic tiokets rt? [Ai cumpnrat bi]etele (ptni in lfe?enr)?l Shc still ,usn't aond. lTot n-a e.ni1.) SIc n6,'i .dne xet. {\n o rr"n nrcai.) Up to no{/Bo Irr tl,c experjmert lds De'r a sucoess. {Pini h prez"ni cxpcricnla a ac"r succcs.) 14tj$ 3) Adl.erble ,siloculiunile ad.!'rbiale care arate o pe oaili, dc timp DeterS nrilafi, ca: tadu!, Ihis tr.iehl /nonlh I gear I matuing,-a.tt tluy, all n{ght etc. si n t folos it e c u: t ul s i rn p l u . e n rd p e ri o a d a d i ;np sau acti unea rpfl . ).trt. m.rr1 cre \ er'IJ s a le rn.Du1t: I / / . lJ f . " o . th n (N-am bliut oldra azi djn' n o rri n ( (\:orl .so dlti1-amiazn sau s!r0 scare). nealli.) lt iiinerl tune!. plaud a n.) -{ tlou at. rzl. (Xu "tui r,,!' nu si, I.l.Ia numal l.r p.czrnt. dar ia nn Donx,nr dat r .eclq consider.ttca ii Ir.z-;ni .F rtro or. z ta !h^ ,J.q!= pilt.\7i: tu rna, la y : pjnri ahuei.

981 h.rc lor a lerv liours this $cek, He 'ds [{ lost aici cileva ore slltin]ina aee.rsta(da. a plccat )l pcrfe c t. N i n tl p e ri o x d a d e ti l )p si rtLar l i urea vrh ) p rcz ent ul hcn: bului dureazn I hdeen'L har) corlcc tbis nosins. (\-am beut calea azi dnnjnea!{.) {vorbeso dim in.a!^ i 'l'odrr nds ,c.i a line dal. lrzi I tosi o zi lrtrnmasa.)(Esle sca,d !i inci rrumos ) \on hdrc been here onlv onc. tlis weok. fN-ai lo6t aici dcctt o d alI (plnl acud sipfinlna ace,tst r In a{ard tle cazurile menlionat la aeest punct . ur1de iimpul verbului rsDectiv esto imlrus de necesiLatea clarificirii nri,.ele su\ri, r.tunci ri d situaiia r p ip. r l i rn p "lr J in " on, pr l ." l F d o L d l i " l p u ri ,n ' .4 "..nti fol osrr" l ur' d" o*bir ", n . m ai r " r . r , lndu s e d i .ri n l i a d i -rt, ' l F .l l bi l i r" r Ji ,,' . A ' f-l se s pune in mod egal, tn,telesul fiind acelagi in ambele cazurj: 'l-e hnt a l l d .\. "artpd 'i .r . s | e hd r r t e n t L , ' rd5 \ ' / \ _d 'r .\" i1 p lt" rad t. p, n" , o' t J - u. . o * i a n n l ' :j . | -ttl o tl t. ,j u o ttr. tt, q\.rttJ. t' '. .: t d" .a n . ! ' n s , ipt + ol t ' -" s . L i ' n " d t' | ' ,q o tn . n o t or t 4.q' n. L ' t JLtt. ". oJi ni oar,r pe tr' n' uti . .t . r. t ,-h fu rn t. . r ' r y [ o n!1 ,' ,.p t! I v x , t.-. n r" , m t t ' 1 \. n r l t' l j /r' i ,acpLi . srnr l ol o n. t \'.'), o t.- . t - o dJ l. ) . 1 t ti a " " r ' c i n d s o s u b l n -te l eg cu1-;n' .el c,.i n treeut" I s inl l [. a) l re cLt t (trecui indicat printr un adYcrb de iimp prccisl): Our lolk danccs grout lrcque.nttl toz g.eat alplans! dron Ne pertorned in the contiruttirc slrnrepetitire' S u67 dc 4) Ad\,-,rtel6 timp ,\i loculiu,rle advrbia le ,o ' r Pd rard Jl i l J\' l o l i i s L;l e I :. { "tu F [. i ra rl r' e o ri l L d l ' dl l Ll d J-Jm !r:.h :l a nos r r t d" dan r,r, I" l u l d ' r" l s pF r l n ,,l c i n labr ic j. ) In mr cbllillooil, tle olten s"r n, thc holida$ at. trrc scasid'r' (ln cirpildrja nrea, petrecea adGeori lacanla 1a nare l As e b o r . I lom pliDcsttr+ d tn th .rh o o o n l b n l l I dn " -; i n ' r' i | n a l " d l d " ol i i 1 u ra ,-lr im , opr . . iur J " rr Shc ,st. i to tite in ilrh honsi once' (Locuia pc lrcmuri in ace'rsil casa) pe rf e c t. c i rtl s e s u b i l l l e l e g cul i ni cl .,pi rn l n preh) p re z e nt ul I ndr. olrlrs tftorqrr slie 1'.s shY. _ nn {A oczut. lnto tdaan d .sn1ar.r tindda l He llds olten ,a.z hoe. (.! vnit adeseori aici.) I lar. r.dn "Othelld' nonJ tid res. (Am lazut de mnltu oi ,,Othcllo") She ids ,,,2 here only otre. (-\ iosl aici o sirglri dati.) i:) Since (adl.erb. conjunclie sau prepozitie) se intrcbuinlea zd cu: c i n d a c l i l rn e a s a u sl arca l :i cate sf rferi s; a) tre cut ul /l a -. (lat drn 1,"..r1: rre loc tntr un nonent I ta,.r't scenlini slncehi.aru hcfc {s a child {Conj.) (Nn lam v,"rzdtde clnd a lcnii aioi, trn oolil ) r" l b L . C o n l . l r'! r'," e J d\ . qinr p 'c. ; In a o " . -i ,t tr - r / i J , . r n, d to | .! ' rl r Sau prin fohivileniul tui, n,liri o loculiure adr..biali . o propoziii. (nrrnslanli{ll rc. -\..sf te.rr este nun,iL iknri' i;at rcp.li1i, S 11168

2 !S Tlis line buitdirs ozs a ruin noi lonlr sincc. lAdv.) lAccastt irxmodi cltd ire .ra ntr de ;rnr o niira_) b) p, c . en t.u t,,' .,pine /, i;T].-.;'::'ri,'pr"g .eri.,:;''u" in pre, !(, nos tuld a }rrof.ssdship sinoe 1$0. {prp!.) i t ) eline o c at . dr i Ld i n 1 .J 5 0 .1 . Ravei's "llolcfo" \'as irondcast last Selrcmt.r, Lut ndr not tc.n ftp.atetl ci\.e. (_{dv.) ( .tsolefoxl' hi ltar.l a loEt dituzni la radio in set tembria,dar n! a lost retelar de . P , , , , 1u, , t , { s .n .,? b l l .a l s a n d b o u n d s i " c ea!totuati on asi nrroduced. orj .) io" (C s w 'tr oJ . , d as t or, i -i re i n o . t. ,i n ,l .r ro dL. durondt,rdl I lr r . t , at t 1 s ," a -.i p 1 t q i o rc I t, rd b rrn ,n .i . o.,i cp.rC ...i . /\r n ir \ " . . r 1 m u :, J " .n l s i n . t, b ro u .J ' -. just Do$ poal,ri a1-eadouir i t elesuri clnd s retlri la o trf1jur t rccuti:1 6) S 1469 c) adiltainri; acliunea pe trecindu se intf-un auumit morncni, dir trecut. '.impul eramatical i n tre b uin lai es Le t r e c u ru l s iDt p I u : s lic r d' lr nF uD i u s t n o n . i u i a i. , ir , nr r ad ;e d ,.i ./ L) : tomni. cltiar actLn: acliunca arind lLrc i ]]lr un momcni care se corfundii cu trezentul, tirnpul p .rfecl . . q ra ]n tr t ic nl t nt r ebui n l a t e s te !rc te n tu l Tl,cI ndrE jusi loF &nc in_ I\u irirat .iia, r.z ./ Obs er uali. .o n ' i n tr.cutul b;rnl J:du D ' cz( tul f, r ' ' p. - r bil c . r, !" o p o /rr h ,d t, S Il70 j ' i " i u q rd !,rb p -n rf p r...r 1n' , \ i. li n rl i cdrpa ti mpurui rn." r" ' r.,l osrn;o a rd ac liunc a v er bu l u i , d a r d a c l rn n i n t, J \ o rbi i oruLur aceal tn,{cti ,r ne este , l- r 1 . . ur enr . u ,i " a p .r:o ,. l d ,ri 1 r. " u pl rd r r.bu;n ta h.r,// l .ca s tn p tl 1. . r t jat i s o g i ' rl l e q tel A re z u l l a t u l a c l i uni i l n prezent, va i ntrel uh!a pr...ntul 1rt4.(toDnl trecdt You r aid rou Itdr't liLc il.. \rnltt dni ih."r dri lor Urat ],al? [:here dtl J.u .{.a urem? Tl,. raj! sropcd r0r ten njlutes ihfn E Son agair. Ilorv dtl rou sroil yo ur dress? I 1,,, 1cn lrl "Did -\an n!rc. and ,{cliurc l,.c.utn lesdn de l'lezelt Iox'r., said ii. t\yicc alrady. \liral na-s s h-" ds^./ you? Tcu look so naplrx. The rain lzs i/rpcd, I an so glad. \ 1\nt ha@ sou dane! fo!'r. I'rc sc.n them sad and l'0e retr l.hem s!.ih you h.at ab.ut llelen?" u.te6 \on brcasht 1t t)ackl I hde;\'t h%rA \on. _S l eL (: /,d\l -\\ rt abort l fr" l ,r tl ' t s.l " rl arbhilr, Lon,l nn or " I @, hcrc lor a weekc ,1 rn j o"nlru o p. o. , t , . r r n '. i - J pl m . ni. t - la J t d. \ dr l, s 4 p- . t u! g r r d in v j i t o r . ) lluO a s e. A. (St aro trccut.i, legafi d. lrczent)l LSini aici d. o si!tlmln:i.

herc tor a wock. ''ds .1n to6l di. o r.plin ln". I ' l1r r ua' un' . Li' ind\ d. lnLr r n t r d c u t d e n i f L i l d . D r r T Fn t i , ,nL, o tp ,roa dA iP tiq,r ' , l- r : ' dr " n' dm I nr or ; . I I 'linpul grrmaiical pe care tl alegc volbilorul ir acslee\errple - si nu neapnrat prezn,taadverbelor dc tinp - este cheia inteniiei sale. 'O neiodd simptd pentru a llarea iinputui gramaticat nicesar prezent S 14?1 simplu. preznt perfeci s.lu tre cut, sinlplu - consLi ln folosir'lja crior d0ri tntrebdri indicate mai jos: a.) Ere npln: ,,E1est la mare leni.ru o lunll". lntrebarc EsLea.rm la arc? A lost s,i tz 1..&rl l?ds?ens - Da. - -\u. prezentul s ir.tlu Sc va intrebuinla deri uu simplu prezent .arc se prelungeste ti in wiilor). He n .t 7llcs.ar.ld Ior a month b ) Ex:enpl. ul .,Ijl .s,. l.r m.rr. d! dori hrni." (prczent luri. A fost ti ir rre.zt.' Da, dou;-L Se va tntrebuinta ur timp trecut, care ar e legituri cu prezontul Hc has ben aL tl,c seaside fo. hlo inonths. nsle d',m la mare? D a. pr.e;enc ) Ex en r tu: .,I.ll a /,s, la inare in iunie." lnttebote navzns Est a.,n la are'1 - \u. :\ l.t nLiL lrccut? -- Da. in iurie, deci un timp irecut care nu rre legiiurn cu prezen td He,.a r n i tl rc s e a s i d -" J u n e . in So va lntreb[inla ?. Alte furclii :{e prozerhrlui tc ect S 14?S perlectlnlocuieltcliitoml pcrfcctl in Prapr.il;ih src rdof, I U73 1) Prezentul in special celelemporale condi,Lional e 2853): in (S si I shaUso to nil oflicc w]ien I haeelod locr. {u'1 voi dncc la birou drpi ce coi fi luat ma.a dc prinz i U t hdeeseenho lcfore roon, I shau ]eare ai jira. IDarii o rot /t rdr,,'o line la prtuz, roi ll.ca la lora) .inci-l You can'l go ard pla y till ro\ haved.one 1ou. nonreryork. (Nr t"" poti duoc sI ic joci pin;1ce nu li lci /t it.a,1 1e.!iile.r 2) Constructia idiomatici haio got 1: frare). deli a'i nd forma d plazent perfccl. arc tnleles d lrc:enl. dcoarece vcrbul ld ge.tnu indel hrette nici decit rolul de a interi ideea exprin,atn prin |erbul t.i idr'.: I.nd re so, a rvatch (- I nalc n watch). (Posesiunul t nm un c c 6. l I I p 4, 9. , , oD 1 /,,1 { ( II /d ., r-.1 .-\ . (OIl i ..' !' ( lr abt r ies r r nl " L trd s c l c x m .) a ,\oeftstn construcirie nu este intrcb nlatd.lc.il iD sli1ul colo rtial. S 1474

284 1475 3) Tredoccrcs in limba rome i. - Prezentul perfect se traduce in limba romAnn astfel: pofectnLrom! s in toat cazurile ($1446*145rr), 0u cnreplia a) ^ pu nct,rlor g 147,irb $i c: I hnce \1:cfrarejust n., thcn. fhishe.l \ti\iot4. (,7m teminar.l,. scris.l ll-an izdlni, adineaud.) bt ,u indirc itut pr . n'in nzul 'r rrpis,tiuni in epul. ln ,lur,"/x plna In pr "z,n li probcL:l;i in.ri ur t I1448' : I haoekLoen hcr lor a J.arHoe long lare Jou Dcaa {o .L@s. de un an.) c) cr ';'ii rarul an,r;orl ( S 2853): Yon Filt f(l ielter Nher you /,a.. beeD he.e r Nek. (T \' ei sinii nrRi Line dup{ ce oti fi skt aici o siptiminar.) s 11?6 Prozcxhl perfeet 1) nllrimn o d.iinne all$joari piezdLiului {-\ 141ii) :l) llontri ine.lt nee.-Fi mat ' r.zultatrl in treze.i inteFseaz:', i1r int,lirajii rltc.ioar) G ]1 lil. 3) Actnhetr rfti lo.ini,r-o riordi do iimti ire(\li-i .trc durerzn z, lirii adrerl !r !trLnrirhsc Ild'ia lon r.d, 'llrmirt"? ( \ 11ii4) , .lnrn in l(^ nNr .\ar cl iltrned i, .n erei, ner.r {S 1a!i) Ente lri ,1; .i/i/ ..lltrnlet l ^ Te-rt -rrld i liici l{r {lrcrdX l0id rlc ]li-dt ,id,, n$ rd,"i trcoiluli I I 'e i i cr. r.",.'t' .;"ut" fS rlll,,i i ../ or n rdYfrn rFrc sn!s..rz,i Iuu id.ea do ,,f:ni ia lrez{r:.t : al.q idL r t, s6lo r c ic ( S 11r j; ) ld! I rreoditii I N_ruslov.stoa lori Ml DJsifrcr Xtl? -{i .u,r.rl'o linn u.!d !_. t.lgf.gU ut tnal) iltrol r.r:ll I i snr risui dc I,lde slill sotrDollet l/d \-rm.rul i i cn l ri l ei al . d, (tr un ndrorb .rro o^-lrnni T h ' ,b rn l r,a sq tl .. r" N n. Trenul d s4sii chii. acrn, i jrs1, ltlciL ll0s{ !(/dn: tscnty Dinuies.tc. {i! 1116iYe ld/ . r f i , ! L J ou l i t i l l . Nn tr-d, !.i;d h nliin! ..) d' u rdrerb crre rrrt.i o TodxX |ad r lnrc da-r. ,\lnri z I'sl o zi lru!!'rs i. ldi tirnp reierminrti: t..ioadi rLe lods!, this ret, ill daI eir. I ldrr uorlr d lPrv lrrd -.1, |(rrl ioarte ntrlt (! 11ii{ il, ) 1i. r*'nr,t^1i,' rl tltrl I $'Iet dsJl tu& rou t(n dl Unde ni /r!, lorln ziut?

t Viiior'n rnFrior jn liDla ronini. ca si riil.onl D.rlccL ni linba rnsle7.i. ru cste d' laLr,l., l-n imr,e, d, . dt . , dl. lnl. . . il r nq n, n nr in n i / r n o f i r , l r - ; r \ i i r , r ', l n i \.l. l li id \ o, L, i' . ir . d . r i j , . , t r r , L-... r i . r J , " , 'l d 'i . \ l nr opoi, , l "l'. p," ,'u , da- . . 1, j. ., d' lrhir"rou r , l a ' , r a i i '. . . \ u l I . o I r u " . td. i. r ". i . ! i r r b i r , r r " d r p , , . . . i !1 ror,,' 1. . , h. . \ i"a

!86 f) ((n tar) u a{lv.rb .are anti o '(srn Dcriondli (lr fi'nr t!ri! rorriNlird) rrina ii pr.7ontj Niic ! rr lrt.i (\ 11: )1); She ldsn'i trN' Irere ({or) (!ar Il'd /4r aici de un 3n. IIol1 lolg ldE votr ,.4 , ir fo. so0c ten$ lie irds ,e., Tho gtdcn /Me ir?r,r.l I Ile cl*d .iii in Buourciii? De cllirs mi Gl) l,{rd?d I Crndinr s, /d".u/nri In noast iledl ln oprili. I'icsa r nrrl succcsde l& 4 / i nalxtrl frrii'JJrj d P tjm P t. rmrnxi lscx Drcz.ni este ]lr.Lt4l do nr idvrb {.susll: TIle tlrv /mr re.! a .uces l(]l Treortnl sin,!\t \ 1111 \\'o nrL lirril lifr sin.e Ne ,,.rtlr mo!tui il lalr Jas)-'. ii.i do ii'rd n!-rn l J i ne! ri' 11 tcriu ad "i d .. li' nl, t P ru rnJft (srtr (o0 rrnn nr nl 'r ! r.20trt. este pr..rzri de ua i r!,ni sn,,p h i\ 1 11 11 : i./ m {a lrmrr lrerier t. an,bele lofu. dc trczsrt pcrlP.t e-F ldn!'i DriFird tarar.L. Iis hetltl ,ds ,.tr botter Sinitotea lui $r a,r,liorui sitr.e h. hrs b..n t*inF do .ird hee Qia I. tsiile the Ml.rs al tle Slirnic jl is r151): .n u ruati! olle& ci ., l i xd v or bd. t im ! . o n ti - LaE dhr.xs l,ln!.d na -.1,r .r.a4 inloldeinn| ol s an rcretitir: 3l${r\ somrii ei, urDi tiD'es \\'c ndf. olton l.er to the ,1m fon od*cori la nrt. 1{ 1 4( i?, iib) ; - cr.r,ai",tiln*.,t !i l]{jr-i t rtal I l I liar4 r..r "Ila.r!t" s.rc. !, rii{l.,Ilanlot" de Dri TRTICUTIIL P]IRTNCT irflli r'1sf rnRrxc! oli rll;PtrtuEt'rl sr1?7

e;le un ijnlp ,omlus iofr,,nt cu sjutorul S 1178 Trccutul pcrloct. 1) Forni. lrm L Ul li d'l\il:1rL'ui to H tl L ur'. rt J- II i' ipirr lr-'ul Jl \arbulur de con luEni: I l,adcalled; f,ouhadcallcdit., sle. lt lad cau.di se hadcalled;vou llad calledi r r P t r ' l p o r l " " r " \ p 'r t "r t t d l lt ' 1\ 1 . CA. s i ai' qi I' g l Am, ri d ro ln;n '. ',.a / . t i4, : , l' r l ! . lr nr lr ! . J osr slr r r l ur m0mpn n, a ,, r. ' iu .o lra.r',: ^ 'n' 2) lutrebuirtare. IrircutuhiiPerleetdin gran:rli.3 'nqiezniiro''.punJ S l4i9 fre.rt. si se tr.rduce in ];]rbs romeni ln acest caz cu rnai muli ca pedectul' c u perl6ctui sinplu sau cu perfeciul cornpus: I kneN Cuv. hl. I idd not r.en l,in s'nce mJ Inar ase. de la cnsebria m.a) {ll c unqrca;n !e Cny, dar nnl 'a!zs.,z ll' 1 r : l. ql on l^ | ' I {'t o t i \\l, en tl,.i /../:d rd lo oior p, J |' onr r r uJ l J r L | u l !..ItLot i J r' , t " . ; , , t " p " t d ''i . r ',,.:i Trecutul perlect irLr-o alalti: rher h.d a aL e b"lot I .\. or luiprotr'u ' I n l F l" \dl" mro-rJl" "' an u 't plopozilic cere trecutul simplu sau contjnuutn S 1480 ce . d, r ' I roia 1,,u nt tn,t been iaillin! rdr@ so_ :1. I 11 s ' J Z\ or ' l a! . n' in " r 'l p ! '' L u : r l "1r u Lnr u 'l Jpe ial{

r86 S l48l 3) Trocutul perfect si treeut[l simplo. - Trc.utui pFrfpct .1re, fatd de trecut{ simplu,rolul pe caroI indeplinette przentul pertcctfat; de treze'rtul simplu. Ca atare, cl nai are urmetoarele functii: a.,i tradus tn limbr rcmAnn, cu rfrI,r/p .ral, ?.r[,etul sinLlnu sar !,:rfc(rul S 1489 armp[srarati ci o actiuoesau o Fta retncopuLl] irrintea un i dnumit nroment trecut, indicat prin trecuiul sinpiu. a durat o pedoadd de timl pini in acel moment (cI. S 1448): H" ,o id h" h ad 0. . / t nF- t f o" $a l. , r r b . , a r ' oh J . doJ . rq pu ncdrp u5 . a 5o- , , l S 1483 bJ tradus tn limba romAnn ctt t'iitorul antcri.or,inlocuie,(teviitorul pe.fect f ald do trecut ln propozitia subordonatn ( g 2856): Thp \ pr, lfrs;ou :rd Fp ,l r hd\ r , o. ld iom . s he, , lr d\ n 4 d t ; n ; h e d \ , L r ) t . .r L o. i, n , ir , l \ or lt k n: ni \ d 1 : a - L , a . t , a t t , t r '1 . rrlt d d$d\. "-" $1181 ., estelolosit adverbelejast, !i g./ (cf. S1448. cu srt/i 1450.1465. 1165b): \ . r he $r Hd /kJ iu ar ,i, . n / lp, ' ih" nld ri .'r s t ill nnl^, lns ' ; J ou. She told me slic lddn'l s,., Xou -rei. A se compara urmitoarele lllze pentru a se vdea rolul trecuiutui parfect fa_tdde rrecutul simplu. identic cu rolul prezertului perfect fald dc prezentul sinplu: She @rnds sh has bcei matied llor) a rea.. ' {scric .e csrc mddtati de un a;.) Sh e orcr. she had beet nuDicd tar lctrt. (Soriah scris c[ estc,'era miriial,l ^ de un an.] n.l ,s ro nl d"n' ) - , ill bp ar n a r b k h n h . t . _o' ,, t -t., r '. t I . t J , r u, , t . - r , , / , /.;",f.. ", rd lL,a n."tp siJ ",. 1 i"a\ io. ' or l' r ; b" Dan rd s ron d nl l' . - or ld L. B. - , r ior L. t ,. r n d n , / - 4 r t s 4 i ; r . . (Dan ra sigu r ce i s c v a da o s lt r jhJ Ll! p I c . , r i , , t i l | . f , r , i d r i . t t s , u m f n u t d c s r a t . l A s e r em ar c a e l a s ti c i ta te a c u c rre l i mL l e nql ezd spdrge Li D Jrl e.Luntorn 'i n d u . " " loJ a 1 l o r c l n l l n ra ru l : Shc ras,ni,ntz b,on lic. wa} [o lhc oemttcfy: "Ioddy her cl]ilil /dl r.ez dcada y.a.,,r S 1{85 4) Trccutulpeficct in stilul ixdircrt. ln strlrrl irrdirc, dupa un r.erb i. grup er cu lornli de trecut.deciapartnri'rd tre.rtulujr,lrcLutulpe}fe,rinlocuicstetre cutul simplu sau prezentulperfc.r dil stilul direct: I.a id:'l ,r a - |r es enl , 1, \ F, r lh. ld. r \ \ , " r P , , | I h oJb&' J r , oa. nldir . n , lh l- . : " \ \ 'r l J 'o L i".r.r , 'ril Sn asl&'t tue: "Hdt. tot seen todal's !a!e.i"' askcd mc wlictrcr/il{ I nad scen ttiai dar's later. qlc ;: S1486 5) lnlocuirer tro0utului leriect cu treriutul iimphr. Pcnlni s; rplii;cire. ln u nele sitra,tii trecutrrl perfect este lnlocuii ou i|ccutul snrplu, spre eremplu lnaintea unei propozi,tii secundafe iltroduse prin conjurclia ,rtrc sau ln propo zitiile secu dare in care anteliorjtatea dcliunii c-\pr; ate r,1 mod normal prin trecuiul perlect rezulli{ ciar ti fdrn lntrebLrin!arer acestura: T l, e nr . r nd , / , ( h .t l ,.tr) L . ..1 6k - ..,. ,.. tr, . n,.fl / \rj eI

he obroitrJ ( . hid obtdincd) liis ii.it.lt.s, ne spint a \r..li s holidar ir r he Shc.tLnid the tarcci Fiil, Lhe doll I lorsl,r (: Ijad lorChtj ii,'r. (Y.z i $ S 1 /, 1 r3 rvczi \ 11 :t., v eli s i not a. 'The Ir,nqe-t "torr,.". LiL l0Nl.er. 3 V.zi q 1 1 56 !nhcthLr - un.al lr.analifal, dar iorDal: 5ltn lruG.C.f. v ez iir ! g. 3r i 0, f ut { i. i/ !op!lar, dn. cln,nt.

! S 1' 187 . . i ma rtu l p |r ir " 1. , 4ut , ne se lradu.e in ( $ 276 2 ) :

p a' " " .i ,u . i .. d i q u b .n " ' ;ru l fF,h. r . a,e p\n' , .i " u ,, r" nLr ' -:rbui e p ro o ,7 :i d ,o r' ,i ' i o n 1 . , , /l r ^ t . rF . u tu ',o F "' coniundat. ln linbr r'.,Lli ace.stn situalie cu cordilionalul . tl x.tt1 l ie T rn

I naCs.n liin lcto... brt I didn'L knoir his nnnc. lTrecut Dert.t ill rnai rd:k.D , dar nn stilrn cum i] cheamri ) it I h. J . , p, h m l ., ., .' \ts l o ,u \o u rc,bton.l r\ p/r' .1 lDJ, r I j , i . - .l+ r ' sp u . i\rezi ii g 175:lJ TLTPUTiILTTIIRTtrCTX (f!n Prxr!.ria. rir\nEs) s 1488 1) Fcrn[. I'imporjle perfect se constniesd cu aiutorui au\iliarului g 1,tE9 to IL $'E, la modul si timpul de bazn, icspcotivi urDat de partioitiul trecut al lc'rh lui hrieal dc corjuEat ($ l:li2 l3?8). Obscrealie Inlre co sll'rclin liilo.ului periect.a liriurului pLrlcllala de trecu t.si S 1Jl,O h " 'n:r:ron,l,rlui Frr"rr p"J"opi,fl-.si ,o."rr..riJ\,ILF'rrFte!rr !.,,oJdl. urmal.e.de un nriiriliv pertcrt iJ. dc alta. e:ristn identitate dc lor me, de;i sltucturarespeclirl diferi. Cn alle cuvinte.in cazulde la1! se suprapun doue irterpreterj: al confornl hqulii de formrre a timpudlor pcrlcte, viil,orul perfectj S Il!)1 \-iitoflri pedect faln de trecrt ti clrndilionalul pcrfeot sint iorm|ll,e din .,iilrrrril (respectiv ,ttrrr l fdlri de tre. t sarl ':ondiliaMlu l) au\iliarului to IIrt1D ]parli.ipiuL trecd al t',:rluL,ri. l,ti.taLx: / .pl . l-Fc'rr. | | I'o'1 Io, { \ir' r /o hotl-,o.t \r rlor p! lp l ,,, .,,4 tr,. I rir or/a t.4) ) -:t.,h.n ip"rr. r""xr1 | I'rr' I tiilnr l.r J r. .' o tnre|!st pl t I-',,] ,!.,r1. rra Ur/ \ ii or p"r'll felrl de trocut l rou l.Jr. (., \'iiLor ii !,i d., trrrt|l Lahaee)+*en 'rarld (parl. trecut) I | :hould haoe (: cordilional to lLure) + wtLlkrd lpatt. Conditi.ndl (rruld I'arc (conditional to haa.) -: ru tr (patt. perlect -\o', t!acut) 6/ pe de altn parte. cin,l trebuie redatd ideeade limp perfect,verbele g 1492 de l'e.ljIe nlodrle. deci Fi SHA[,L ii WILL. sint urnlaie de un inlinilir ?erlcl: I sn"l, (dcl.cti\. ia.l6t) haft.att.d {n'liniti! pcilcci)ron ,,i/i {den 0tiv nod nl) /drd s],ot n tnrlhiaiv reriecl). l rau lJ\4 ,.\ r'r. Tol' / "/ , r ; nt ir i \ r . r . . " t . , . l: dr ini jr t " r " c ' , J, r Jorl/ t i"r , ' , n, l. ' l l. ' " Ideniitatea lormelor de la $ f491 cu formele de )a S 1492 ste pcrfectd, cu toati structura lor dilcr'itn. l,,Propozifia coDdi1iona1."' \:stt: subo aNta catu coniine if In lraza cordilion ale g !t ir . :!'r zcnt . t r , , ut : ad \ il t,rr (S r1 .:!l t r r .i .t I11ri, i. '" , ., dr' t l l . L " nr d z.ve r h r ll"\i.l,D,s,l,' r n h d lir .n r u d j' .,n.t1tJ i . . , t d ,4 d F to .r .,p tn 4 e lip r fe ,.t m 4 n l' onatp. r, t , r. gr t , r . t

s86 ln lucrarea de la!d, paliru coisecvenle !i o mai metodici. pred-are. coriuqa rii \ erbului tn qeneial, se vorbe;te de utilizarea au\iliarului to HAVE 1.. ls firr;ar.a /x/l/ror ri';nijrilor ppr[a, .Flilal rcpe,l dl c^ <tru.l:pi cprute de ver!le SHALL !i \''ILL liiird aratat ln caJrul verbelor delcLi\e modale. Tirlpuril e per2) Timpurile perlocts eonshuite cu auxiliarul to BD. { 149:1 (prezentul per fcet si irecutul perlect) ale unor Yerbe intranzitive llo fecle /; do L io tini. \/. tn pr.to.o. tn gnrl la lt e t. to n'|t. t4 'rt' b*om ,,o -n,, return,lortsee Lc.l utreorio form; psraleli.in curerrrxiliarul au to sit,to ftst. to to HAVE es le lnlocuit cu to BE, padicipiul trecut pfimind aslfel aproalle valoare de adjec tiv. Aoeasli oomporlate eiiisfi Si tn limba rornnnn: She $\e Tte The h&s .on.. lEa a aenit.) is .one. Ea a iuit. {: ,'sie taatr.i, de .i poii s o lczi ) sun brd .:.", . . ljodr c t , r as a- . e. ) /,tsdrit. dcci n u mai lut.au sun 1r$ ras.n. suuele r\J.isc. (:trd ve{ea rnsitilul). ConsLrucliato BE + participiul trecut, tiind in getlereintrebuinllta ctr verbe c rre exprimi in mod obignuihaoliuni, arati sLareasubiectului rezultatd din acliun ea verbului respectiv. Astfel: Ue hs soue. lEI a ptecat.) (Alnlia estelndrellati asupra acliunii in sine.l He 13o ne- tlecat. (: tsr.rl,.a,. nu mai esterici.)] [D (-{tcnl.iaeste irdreptatl asup. a rcarltntului acliunii vcfbnlui. ,,!l ntr nri este airi, aia ce nu'i poii vorbi "l (irandlalhe. sas gmr'4 otd Grardlatler hril s.otD old, (Buni.rl tu {),trl;.) (tsunioDl trDdrtn6?., mai rechi il] limbi Formele de periect construite cu auxiliarui to BE au reusit si se;entine irl oarecaremisur5. alitud de lormle noi de pe.feci constrriite cu a uxiliarul to HAVE, prin laptul cn, deli uDeori aproapeperfeci sinonime cu aceste a.poi fi intrebuinlate penLru a rcda totu;i nuanle care contribuie la o rprinare mai subtiln a gindirii. .\sttel: (V-aii ' odihnii?l {SInteli odihnjl,? }'ulcn tleca acum?) I travc hea.d he has / crrnd. (.^.m alzit cn s-a IntoN.l I have ha.d hc iN t.rurned. {Am auzit c'1 s-a ln tor6.) i: Esi ai.i, il put-"n redea acu .l Tl . bxtier h.s aelr.J. { U n tul so t ot,i t.l the buti.r ft n..J''d. {Untll es[e l.o!it.) ( \tr silli dau dc nt'oar.) .|ne1.harl jn the sircel. t -dt I L \e ,nt i ns' r, l ,e stradt.l ,/ T l i s N Jq thE .asc th' \ scn m , to I lAcesta c.u onzul p.ntN discutafta I druia so int rdnisari.) I | 1 I t s 149{ S 1195 YIITORUI, SIUPIU (rrrE slrfrr,E rur[nD) \'litornl (The b'uture) etpri,ni o acliune sarr o stare care l) Delinitie. vorbi rii: va area loc drpd momenLul I Lo os .h",',/1 , . h' _d u l' , n (Siiu c{ ra /t aici ]a ora lira i.r

289 l) Formi, - Viitorul sirnplu se formeazii ou ajutorut auriliarelor SIIALL S 1496 (lq pcfsoana sg. qi pt.) qi WILL (la persoaraa 2-a fi a 3 a sg. !i pl ). ur mate 1 d.e Lnfinitieul lf;e"t al vetbului de conjugat: I sIaU otrll, rou Flll cal 1lihe, she,ii will call. we shsll calll rou wiu oall; they will call. 3) SHALL. TIILL. - .\,ieasti ut;lizare tradil,ionali ;r auriliarelor SH,{LL S 1497 (f.f..L g.sr pl.r'i\\lLl lcrs o2"'sia3a'g 'i lt' I r" forn rrea vii'orL'lui qru \.orDr' ). in ,.rorr-. la n..nclult2t.,t" at\ d etontat,,dt sltltl larntut(ncflq irc m"' u'a L''s il ,l toloc.ral t-' ri ',u torbili, \\'lLl d irlo'u:r rr l^Jtlr propriu -7isa ,,din'e" \\ll at-nape"r'Iuiv si a..,rli.,rulSll\LLin \nsli i'. :co'j0. lrl ardd. \\'r1".. rr nro'ir fiF.i lr torirorirlap\ -dbtilani.^r!3 cE Britani" r.chi -qin 'r SU \. \u"lr ali3 ;i Con.n'unseartbul "nd" 'agl'za esle a doua linbn a-o rbi$. u 1ll.i sohr'i- prr,onizr" l" 3r,'"-rsti'"ni n"n ru :a'ire" 'rr "i cui de iunslaaLi ,l.conluz"{ s prob)an;.- 'tFl pdP.FJ n'"i mrci -.,e.:n . r0Do' .r sll\ l.L/WlLl. 'nodrc5 " ;n rpbuirr,arFl Iorn'lor ti. r" ul 'on'ras' penl,lu ambcle a uxiliare. ,{cest erpedient', foartc I't.1. ltou'Il ;tc.. l.alabile rPrPbralrrp'" .dr n lri qi r n irrim'rl J" ri se,lLrLr'or nrir .irnrli '''lorr i'lausor, eraLi cqu" c.rrl,ri rur, o nou" su'',' ,lF Pf li.uiLeli e"-Anr;'e ' r' Iflbui d tir'^d dla l-olL rlF i rpo^ts1la'5rr'irp a li^ bii ltinpi"td"t"'nrrrlui numnr de nuanl, e inlplioite ln contrastul S}IAI,L/WILL. tinii eramaticieni mafcheaze aceasti sc hnnbare prin iotala e\clndere a .'nili"rului Sll\LL Lrp.n .li! SllOl'LD7 'lrrr l sb' l" 'ulilro"rii -\irii u ddupld' un "o-,promis 'n unna divar.clorFn.hplo,lo l ifrrl a.pl-iA a I'i Il;r'in . .i au ins"rlsin !r.m r i"i pr"z"nla rnbFlur au\ir r r ordincr Ir! \'Fr -f. illrebuinLarF. i"rt.l: t i'tr Isnarl .o't.t r 4r:t''hott 'tt ri irrari aliii. L"i JA flrile dezaventaje adusc de acaxti schinbarei lnscriu : irind drept oiteriu I shallliiLL atll { Lve shallltvill call, nt\ mare numer d intre aoeltia inregistrtnd cind. I I we shallI wiII call. cinrl 1,/ oc tpill I s hdlL caLl ltun , S au lircut toarte nafi eforturi!i pe scar; intinsn cu rezultat e,.coDsiderabile" dupli cii se pare6. pentrr prclucrilra masclor in vederea menli nerii raportului SI{\LL / WILL traditionai. In aceasfi situa,tie,granatica de f& ti adopti tormele dc r-iitor t; de oondr" lional tradilionale, araiate la S 1496 ;i $ 1618, ca liind singurLrlpuncL d ple care posibil pentru expuneroa clard ii metodicd a numeroaselor subliliilli semttitice (oiertonc:.)care apar odati cu or ic nlodilicare a raporlului SHALL/ WILL, relpecti!' SHOULD/WOULD, rimlnind sA se indice terior separat, modilicArile apnruie gra-tie interl'cnliei stilului coloc vial actual. ir ' : fo1,, Inl t hat ntt' ,,t6 , m. \ " 1, " r r l |"r ' o1. . nxmxr i <lilu l Do,t r s . L r c lir ios grp n, i, ' t F '6 r , r " l p . e r,.:/;o I . at a, . d r " l 'r -\ Lrl" d d \ l ', l - . ) i . , , , r ' 1t ", , . n- t o, . n.mliDr s.J., in: Lt : i t : 1ot b r " , : . ) , "u , ' l - r 's p l i r . dbt lr "F' r l I ' . t ' l t nt t "d i ' n; d n/ DA,t " l l, p , 'r , S 'o l '/ \ \ b l d K : ' cd a' a l it "t I nt n o' d \ ". " "n / , , / 4, , tt ,,,r' i.\n!lia protau ./oj. I 3l. d !t , , . . , , . . , 4, a/ . t " 1 . t aJ, \or'.1 .a., O./j. D. Ox L ttrd t,tr,x l! h Dic r inl r \ r r f 'r '" J ls.Ir' r ' dlr on- n" ' \\' . l,l l " a l l '' 'l of E.slish is evcr c.lled oD to oleni a Nav through " "M.dcn r\n erican l\igP " ilf . I L NIitl,i'rsct {lj{ . , 1r t dc , r . . . .lt en 4S, pag. 9; $ ii: 8 Qlirk.1 . d lia. I r t lt nn{ r . . " 11. I ,' . 1 ?i r ., 1 .

200 5 1498 $ 1499 4) lnfsles.- Viitorul simplu este inirebuin,tatpentru a exprim ai a,,l o acriunesau o stareviitoare fatd de un momentprezent: I-sha l.vill see Urcm on Fdilay. (li ,ot ,cdd !inui.) s 15oo unei ac,iiunisau si,iri ln prezentsau ln trrecut: ,J probabilitatea Cononclo..llease, that rtll Dd St. Thomas's? (Ta-\ai.., v1i rog, acesta esre!rcr drtl spilalul St- Thomas?) 1vh.t a hollahal.o at thc doorl Tbat t,il, bc the chi ldren. cd {Ce t{ritroi la us{l P.oDoDtl stz, copiii.) lr anv nr lhe h ;\s h rs e a l e n l h e i a m. rl a r h 1Z Lc JohD . r O 0. i \ r F U , . ' L J ;." b e i " l i a ,_ n i d l m d m " l J dJ, l ral A rr.rt; sa /i p l on I A s \ r u , , i/ l air ra d v 6 ,,, tu o m h rr l p .l " r. s he aoi s l o Jb31. " , Lt upr c . 11 t r ob o L i i ,.i l i r rl ,r . " ' s o a rF a ;:.r l ' a,; Ia l d:.1 :tor ul u; s 1501 5J \ iilor ul pc rre c l | 7 h " I' " tt,' r" p rl i | .o Iorm1a7b ru aj ul otul a u r;lilr ulLi r o il. \ \ E u rn ' a l d e N t.;p ;,1 /f, al al vprbul tri de conj ugal r: 1 shall/$ill hare called; you will lavc cailedi lie, she i[ Nill ]rave called; we shall/sill lavc ca.llrd; you will have call-"di the y \iilt have called. Yiitorul perfect exprimE, ca gi in limba ronind: d) o acliu ne sau o starc aiitoare: anlertodrd, altei acliuni ori stdri Yiitoare sAD r nni m om enl d a t v i i to r: Lo_, J on, " : L h o l l l !:x l a r [i ,;.l fd t _ ' b o roruprp' . r \ : ' a I nF 4r T t lA n .a t.p 4 :n sd b " L l ." J i u l I' i r c. L.i " osi ri i .) tle ial\ lLd'e dor ihe tanslation bv this inre i.omorros '. (Nu ure sd. terminetraducereapin{ mliDe la acastA orI.) l L 1 l r obobi ; t a t,o n r" a l i ,n i s d u .ri n r " " mi nrtp l i c l n r r P cuL.l j a i n vi i l or' fn 6 r p" i ar z \ iit or u l p " rrp . t .a l -r' l u rn l n l rm bl ro" r;na uu \i i l orul rnl eri ^r gi esle de ohicci lnlocuit pr Lr o construclic l n care apare adverbul t/obaDii: 'ton oi haectuald ure nane: it is so lanoxs.3 (t '.aLdLil.cd ai d&.i, acest rnner este alii de celcbru.) Ste eilt ha@ tin6?d.i nr nine o'ctocli.l (r.ababit .d e; fi tc.ninarl'a rrntnd phl la ora noui.) s 1502 Patt analFuture krfect in the,PdJl.). - Acesteasint doui timpud, inexistente tn limba romAni, care au aceeaqiconstruclie ca ti viitorut faln de prezent, in ebir ea ci sint form at e. nu cu prezeDtul,ci cu Itcr dlri auxiliarelor SHALL cu d eo s \\iILL: ;i Viitornl fdld. de hedat (Future in the Past): I sliould/would you w ouldcall; he, slie,il sotrld calli \te shoxld/rolld call; cau; you would calli they ilonld tall. 6) 'l-iitord f&,txdc trecxt fi viitorul porfoctfa.ti de ftecnt (ltutur..in the 'triitorul perfect ta,ti de treflt (Fntute P:tf.ct in lhe pd\t): I should/would harc caltediyou, he, she,ii wouldhavecalled;tte s|oxtd/$ould Iale callediJou wou ld have caued;thJ would hale ralled. S t4 e0 - 149r . 'zVe zi ! 1 ,!t5 s i not a n. lr Das , t 84 ,Cln d il.t.r\ 1; i , . 1. ' d o . Diobi, bil, r x r . - . r iilo , . l p " i l p c l io.mtl l o x l d F r r ', i n a ,tri . ldl r t , t ot . l - . r . o ! - a t a 7 : o t " p c ; ! a : a" liun "viilo.r"an '"lio "la. n, , inom ' uh qdedb de tinp eiitot precX. rln u .rNLr Dr oD"/ i b. \ ' : r or I D"r 1, r r . , . , e". ! " i l J r o . 'r n r , , , , r i n " , r i o , , , r r 'a i '. . o r u l I n l , ', t J d ''n ': t.;:i- ' t . ' r , i nbnq, r ' ". r , hlrd .",,-.u ! '\ i i n{: ,.Vd l.ermira ll ni la ora 9'. i9 ti01 a) lVczi

2$1 In lirnba romAnn,acestetimpuri se traduc cr riitarutl dupn cun urrnazd: $ 15 03 ltulure in the Posl cu viitorul, tr'urte Perf.ct in lhe Pdst cu riitorul anle rior Ce.ledoun timpuri rprim& o acliune considarati c riito(tre l*.i, de un $ 150 4 momeni dat din lfrclrl s&u rillor': r ' ' or , I ioid / ,l lho uld snr|l - lp ln \ lolhr r . r \ sr". t,, to, {re , nam c r . l l .{ m h. b, '; (\i nri \ lv nl. da \' o \ o r . , l 6 j ''. rio ,,/ . m . . or I I Fhould/ r oul' l ".o. a d", a ?: o ilr 'd t, " r lut.l) , \J,rn J lni , 1.".-o. She ldl arirreu shc'd/wonld lrc 6ble to come on th. Iollowing Su ndaX. Niihr pe cct) (3ois6e ce ed pLrea r.ni drmirica urnatoarc.l ilt appoinf..d linre. (\'iitor I rol.l Jou l'd/shouldi rorld l&yo t'dltlled IlrI tdk |rlot ' r Ti an .\"u' ci it\i tai tnd.epl.inisarcina nuinie d-" ertirarla I llbueht ron wo utd b&le ro'rd his books. lAn e:.ezrir cir li rpi ii oiilt (probabill od.!il.l i ernenllui acordat.) Viitorul perfect {a!i de trecui c\primii probabilitateA ti fdri prezen-ta unui a d1'erb de tinp viito precis: likc l,ontc ihc tine you'd (- Irol, bI Ted,as sur! Jou'd(- toDld) bcrctliDg going ,T " d.fd l: -rur,d ab s o l v im a uni{!Nitltii.) v r l, , edor , l", c . i, r ' , 1 ..\''r: .dl \ 'i l d J dip-o.1 ,l In limb.r ,torbitaL dsl.i;1. cstc curenti lnloeuirer au\iliarului SIIOUI,D ctt \ {OULD la pers- I sq. Ei pl. Periru a se evita problenele gramatioale cc se jvesc astiel, -se inrrel,uinleazn in gcncre forma r,ontr l'.J l: I shouli l q.,/J./ s i "Fppciv r.tI ^sn x "houtdl^Ltdt i,,I h,i,.1 -lo.\iJ nun1i. rinrorbi .",i"r'i.. (.1.,It,t'.)!r! .n,p/, \'rI 'ri .r.r '.r'.1. "^nr'a.p //l 9i e'll ( S 1507 voli tiv). ,{vind acerali fomi .tl Si candilionaluLcele do,,i iimpuri riitoaro sc deo S 1506 sebescde e1 nLrmaiprin inteles. Colter.tul ne va arita deci tlaci avem d e'a face ou viitorul sari cu condi!,ionalul,viitorul fald dc irecui fiind corela t cu li!io Jul l.1.i zrrll ,l,.o proporirip u. tt..,tt:i,nr1,t d.."rp d"prndF,i' r,. g ""ititi nadt., i;[,!q., /..{piima,j.a,r -,binl"l",s;. \'"t,.,. fr""Fl.,ifd indi liitntuL pofect fatai dc Ltecutto oontrast c\l undiliannl L petfetl: I lnde .sfoodrot'dleouLl..onte orcc. {Viftor) at (Dutr .ir d,' i' r.l"-, .; s, u;i ;n. d J . ,r I 'o',ll rrnsro'r ,,r'.Juu,//ro,r/ or" d .n'.. (. i d D ' ri , p. "1 e . o ,i. a , ,p , ,1 .' l' d I li nll S 1506 rt,rr .,tt t h. , ; li- ' . ' ll; n " s . o r T q , L rra ,,i ' l r r' r' ' ' \. [ .uoi b:l l i l cu adverb de liml precis) (\iitor p.rlect). b) I kne|9yot'd.lq ohldft6s over Dickie il Iot got r chancelliilorul rali de tfc.ut cernt de un f.c .ui simllu (ttn.tr). sot fiit\d tol u irecul.l c) Un t:ondili.onal !rd:.nl corcl at cr un saDjon./i(, tr!!nt. f t lnct i e i l e s it Llat ie s au de i n te n l i a v o rb i i .o ru l u i : ,J.'].pnif, ii .\ sc cornpar'ain contrast: a) \or @iU ha'. re.eindn"yg..ctings $!ilc ol th.l,ol iday rush (I'rolalilitale-in (Yijtorpprl'ctl. rlc I.(r d,h.erlr tir p prccisl // the letl.rs 49, a lake ihey ./ cdtainly not Deadd.ess.d you by i.o nan'e. "vo urIret r,,,',,' m iinfi { { io !r z i i s l .i ll i i .ra rl .

(i"';13y'" s"o' u, iJiil$"if"}i""'i .oli"l1'ti,i$"T$i*.ili{'l'Jf"51"K.i;; Yiitorul laF I shail call ie. she, it shall call r9r MOTI!O'OGIA _ !'ERBUL Prezont 'le In L e n i i a l ui ddftsdtsau .e c@ese firbel.e .lespre I $ili call' he, she, it will call iney will call Viitorul fa.t[ ds trecut i,e. shc. it sh.uld call iie. shc, il wo!)d call ihey wonld cau riitor' o-idee modald3in Aceasti tormi exprrma le ling6 noliunea de pl.|l": inte nr,ic, aainld, holdtir;, pronLisiune' ordut' amenlnlare' estinlre' inten,tir sau hotarirea o ar rcl carc Iorbe e' SHAI-L o, Cirt,1 { taOg buinldr ld Loate Persoan ele: $c stn r'a'd tomorroit (lnieniie) lfotu ,lecd nnte ) exp.lple sint Lipi'epenlru tloua "i i"ii""iiJ J.'f,"'i,.r*. on'irg't"ic rprimel" etc ): oii'"-t""i oii"l"l", initrucliuni, obligalii lornale r om ' ADDli""nl. 5l'll r ' 11 r " J - . { O r lij4i"' u | , . lCa _n did alii,. eDt i' ' n ' o' "Pr c k : F ' a to : r , d / i ' E a J c o l ' l a l i mp n u _ l ' . ' aLl ho n J rl n ) .u tp o rr' { ]-ru r' ' i ' ro ' ttt \ r l e' r o& dd, i' v ri ro . o / l o l s p trl rn u mP ! l r o r ' j, ll go t , o r a r o n c " l l o td :n i / / t s d ! 1. . i a c a s Jrr!' d ra !1 ) dre) l t t p " t ail bP P u a i s h Pid n ' J ' Sn b :I' r ' l m" n i n d l' F J d t P P 4&P s tt a ' i n u 0 5 ' u trI J I l c to' te pol soar' p]" mai cxpri mi lr or m a de \ ; ; lo r c o n ' (ru i ' 5 c u S H A L L e noLi uni " \i sti nd un.cl eman' ^ rr' i e rc l n to a l e a ' c ' A L, : oli" , p, *; ; un ' il".iil'i' I'" rx,, - . ir'i"l';:,;i,il'':l :^il''":' ... liil'111""' li'\it'il' ii.'3i'#'"1 'ili,':,, : :yl'03:,,',1 ""i' i\ c , l, ll / l a -, i l i m p . d o n I s o rrv l (P t ombune) $-e'srud -r'u1r ":i;li':;;i'):i;:,!l) fxl lvom ..uii cu sigurarli (la o:.::Ji'."i":"'l: i" d,.," ;,1',,,,:.: l;1,"1';;ll,':l "i.,1".1ii;; "l rir;-' i" ,'l 1"'l."i;,1 ;l-''"liliLl: "'''" " ),1.,'li';"li g.' rft'oesr, r se to t V ez i ii nof a, l , c a res c re l d a L t l r ,,i l l .n l i n c.' hi crre i or| ' ste' : I * i l l tal t rt

993 La persoana 1, deosebirealorm$li rnt.e simptul riit0r hreeulurat)si cel $ 1609 _ etpLr. cici st; in faolul cd. in .crul de tr1d,rto.l estcroloral modal,a;r"ntua t sau nul, pe clnd la simplul viitor nu este nici accentuat: | r on" oo\ . qim llu v ' i , ' ..htlt ljt . m.l t r n, v r nl, u I., t , uI . o , i. lot t Hot J 1 r ,l ..tu r . " . 1, 1. , ,I.,,.r . . vr'., Viitorul constmit eu SIIALL intrcbuirrtat la toate persoanele E.isste S 1510 se a i jn_propo/irI.p "'ru^,lorrrF duo., r-"1 pl" ,au con.rru,ljite .ipcirir" ' ".1" hotdrirc.inltn1tc,e,ti li, un anlhI It hdsbun de.ided thrt Tetstars,sha te usedI o. flie transmission TV proof gra'nmes ac.oss the Allantic. Y,ur wil ir.rr"z,i,p d ttst y,u .l,tt t,,.. a rtlns h.tidrv tr', fFar. /o,-.,., 0r!1dI L"pn.x,ponr",, r r.;^,:w \\,,\; rru.i: rdl/ ,,.pr,, ,h. .jf"l,i,,* ,, Cind intenlia dt,arlinepe rsoanpi edroiate adresezi sau ilesDre carc sc S 1b11 vorbc\fe.auriliarul ,1,r, b ,rin:at \\ ILL la to0te pprboanptp 1507): ({ ^"t. Y u s.'yJ U ;//sp-,k,o l,.r,n. ri -ol,v,r\r':ns rHotArirp 'sou'., .l /.o,a., \o"b,..i. nc,,..rJ..tori: iml'r"(. au oi.i,-"artrdrrta.l " I nnor \v',t,pr j, ". J n p d .linsloL h. t pr . ", t r t $n . l|p f r ritrh"to mp. r\.oidra r\ rI i. lrp l ,lJ.: p od l. . , i l, ar r pa! J mj J-,rtr.l I know ll,p) .'.'/ nLL r hpr r iLk s har o\ Fr t ho d i f f i . - t [ F s . t t . r s j . t f , n t l l 'irr.L (5 , u ,1 vo" p .,"","!a p - nl, . a. i : ndF. ' , r i - ar , or r J t d . ^ d i d r I i g r u i d i i r p ) ' na E r c e p !i e r Pn r rH . norir flrFr. o. t L. o r or p r or b. l| : I sill tell him $tai I th irk. (Inl.n1ie) {-\cccrr treuiru) (-\ intenlia se,i stln ce siideso.) r ..ra, I go .rrL no \. 1o |. " inoi"t inS: ( Ho' ) "t , c 1 \ u vrrau sl ie s a , u D, d' c . a|a s r . ir ur t J 1\ Jll1 r,.o u Lr ol d . - , on J , s . r r , La, L, lP r I nt : J n " l i ., \o . J d | . r i. - I d, , id . r r F \ om , n b l o i a r ( A r r 4 n ' n , u b u , II\i loB ndt:n td I,p,urr,t p.tp p . t e o n 4 / . e \ f rin b in - S t s t z ] " , P, i l 9p e r su "n ,1.|rin insust Notd La persoanaa 2-a $i a 3 a. deosebirea formali intre simlrlul riitor necolor ai S 1b1t si viitorul coloral modal erpus ]a acesr capitot std in faitul ci, tn cazul ale " fatn. \\rILT, este acceniuab,pe cind la si;plul liitor nu este: Yr!' llr'rtu, se. 1,e.. (Snrllu riilor) L rr !e r v e0ea. ) IIe /l /,t?t under s t and. S i d l l u ri i to ..l l a |d i rtelegc.) Yo n sa y y o' r , , / l s p. d L 1 H ,,t.l ri re l lSu u i ri i r s r i j" r l- ir it s - Ll o rb p .l r' .) I 4 o n l , k' uL( ihpt h. r I n ,,. t u r s o to th p l i r st ni sl ,l , r\' !i n| 11 r\. ri u dac r r 1 lr o" r " .ru n . ,/,d -o r' ' i ." " ' r p r,mi .rJ.j ., "i . . oJ ti ., ", 2 : . i : ,:;" ' saielili (le ooniunicalic xliliz{ti in traDsrisiu.ile tetefo nice si telev;alc 'ftlsr4's: tla$atlani,ice. ,. ..4 t n|u. ) , io Lt o n oa. t u 1"i dr p J" "in".,,ti .ri,,.7i. a.r ,\"u lr',,. . i mrf l rmns, rl' "rt,,'t ! r ' n anar h: . n . i, L, uet r z t i I ' o r . o n t o 'm i " r n J p o u p r r t 1 , , , . ' r n r q p . p5l ul,l,/.,tr.'lF q 'rJ l. . nq. . ur it o r n t ! i e , t u a t . , r l1 Lnr l. "r , J , / \ i ln , , , r , i\ e t F r , r onr r r r 'd : , o r 1 . r r a , n i u a , l fet l jl. ',.1.., , , 1f p . , f r . ! his r t r r . . ir nr uar d . t " , , . , , a " . a o . d u " r ; " " , . I.,1

2S4 q lS f f ' ro l ;t;J tl l ; ; t Id l i ' r ul u i i ro .' e\ pu. r r nai s u s . .' r d " o .a b i ' r1 ;i 4 tr" tsl -ttrm.t-da ' ]t 84 tr r.nr Ir l t' :u' {i l l OI' LD . IIe said it slarl,? be as rve would (P,onrisiuDc) n.utNl (Ne ldsdlut ca va fi ai r cun von !oi.) (Accexr: n h p ' .u.r' -. rH ol i r:rp, , , \ nn L, r m e ' .^ t l .i g s h a -l d \i n i .l ' ' r l l t rJd r' p' I A-; o l rr' \,a n i m' -l n o | D i q " (A nam . r . pt (Il " /l ' i r' ) T hev s ad r l' " i J o 4 d rl ' m b ro l ' rrrn r. (A u' s p, , " 1 ; d ' /,.d r;/i s 1 n u I d i c o rl i a L ' u .' i I krle{ rou odzl.l hare lour oM way. {r'e.sisienlil) ($tiad ci tet !,.rtrid sn laci ce v..i-i (P enl. u c om pl e l a re a a c e s to r i n d i c a l i i g cneri l e, 1' czi qi 51517) Trotluceret in limba ro end. - Ace*te formi dc viil or colotat' modal, S 1b16 --' neeristinrl in limbtr romani, este tradusit cu rir lorztl. la csre se adauga adeBea cuvinte ce redar.r ideea adifionaln. (Vezi trad uce le la e\emplele de mai sus ) raliti'J (Voliti()e Future). dat acestui timp p enlruJaptul Nurnflc .le sugereaze, ln maj l]rar. s.|L nrai rni.r-r rnnsur:r' o n rrrllest'rre toaie lormolc 'iilof c{ a voiniei celui carc:'orbeite. cnrria i se rorbefle .\rr desp|c calr se aorbelte, este aplicat in gerere numai urmitoarclol ] innn'": trc till call I wiu call von sfall oirll ron sliall call they shall cd l iie. she, ii slall call int er l re i a re c s tc i n c o rn t' l p tJ . p c n trtr ' ; I u ti n" scdmd deJormcl e A oc as t i n e a c c eir t uat c .s s u' n :,i mu l i o ri n d i p u !,i n a l : .et l uate. consi fui tc cu S H ' \LL L. ' i rp ' u ' l q' r rnl ' rF r3{r p -r.n e rd l a p . r - oano I . i \ \ l L L l a "2 oii ' \u-" l " dc rJ-' " 1,/ P ' ru' t' a u ri l i ,r,i t oln' ' " . : , " . r' ' ri tp i ' r," J a :i l sl u t ti i ta r t uI it it ' t r ebt l\ e d e c i c x ti n s p " n tru d ,,4 ,ri i i ,l e. i rr rno,l ul -crpus" nnt ' us. S t WO U I , D ) : ' u v i l i rrpl 15fG ' x.Licl'rr lu,rdrer de rt'JJ 1et $ 1i0?)' ir",""t" .*;", ;i este intrebuinlar 8) i[odalitnli de oxprimare:l viitorului: S t517 riitar fald dc d) (i.leea viil,orp ur nu cnntim niri o inlli';!h rtod'slA\: r') ti riitarul letfect ae piizt:"t tlr pdnat' prii viitorul xntplu lsinvti 1:tti (Futue Perfd): I rna .dll \'otr whcD lic comes. lTe eoi ch.nu cnni va reni.) Hc q,tll lat? ndd his balh }r the tinc lou gct ur. l1!' fi fAa,lea /ac baia pln{ c. tf vei scula)r 'd S 1518 tirlrl tuld de lrecutc\DriltraL prin aiitorul f.Ltd de tftcut (Fature in the Past) tl , P a.* t): Pc4q ,i ,;i t; r ; 1 p. t l. . ! t o td d " tD .;! t F n tu t 'n nrc iir teould Lret\erc. IIe iold (ui-a slns c;"1 ft tuolo.) ra I kn er' I sbtld liee gone ortL lclore they camc{ltiam ci ,,t /l tl..d,in orat hainie dc veni.ca lor.) i.teea de hotbite. promkianc e!,;) exprimat prin tiiloral $ 16 19 b) /t,iitor " ( S 1 5 0 7 -1 5 1 3 ) (c o lorat modal ): r'o l i tii ( t ' ol it it . F i tfe ) laln l.c r rc:r/n: I ',r | "" \u f" ,.r You slzll ( t'.i ao.a lo lr " m nl. h ) Pt . il i' "' r ' l "ddl. s lp i n . ; d ,/ , t t d a' um li m 4' i 'F /dt" \vhat -rou ,;ll. (Stil lo.mal) 'voi, L.r cc vei !i-o iag{duiesc ) d d L 'r n e l I liitrtut pahct dla |tibtr romannesfe,ca ti in lidba engle'i, rtrmar un tlml gr dna,t.{, ii !sLr ad$ca nrlocu't c\ tiitorul. si}n|ltt.

295 fald d.etrecut.: l, ' r l' r "Tr ' 1 { nlj ir ( r s s l i l l d - l ! , I sa id I "oL lr, 1 s o l \m spu r (d x r , t pou i4, 6 s a r lt r I r m , c ir e s t e d e v r c m c . l j lromt d 'y "hotLJ hoep ihat thpr |aut.t. {Le'am lngnduii ol eal aka re @. @i,) $ 1620 c) (tiitolul ' I hp- , / " / * lor td 1 1 n " \L T o d . t f Lo. o x l: , t l x n d \ri t.{ O n Mondal. I go to Itxcterl add t?r., my wire back. (Luni nir duc l.r Djcter s{-n i ddrc sdlia acasa.) tn sp(iciaL Ia dtte. orarc etc., Tomo.rorv ir l.hc .igliih ol March. (ulirc cstc 8 Dartic.J The uptrair .on.s nr ai livc. lTrenul de Londra soseiie la cinci.) What lime do.r U,c down-train leaye? (La oe orl tlcuci trrnu l care vine de la Londra?) Intrebninlat in no.l cLr.nt in subordanatele temporal e utilitdt cert sar lrogramat) exprimat prin prezentd simplui s 1621 2752): 1s2717, s.u candilionalc You won t be readv ieforc we t dre. (N-ai sl lii sala lniinle de Dlecarea noastr ll.) ilrlal shall I do iI ar4 6t bach bv dinnei time? -rou (Ce sd fac ilace ntr ic Intorci pi 1la cine?) d) viitorul (viitor ctllocaidl - al)liune ptuieclatd) e xprimat continun: we d/e dtztrg ont tonight. frllncdn b oras astil sfa.e.l \lhai d/c yo! drins o,r Slniiay? lCe Inclti dndiDioi?l I shdll Le coine to the scasid con Fridayel.c llneri h nafr.l Y.u ,e !.ci,g liur 'rrll (Ai sd-t re.i fiit\c.) p dn prczcntul sau S 1522 prezultoL continu refrindu-lc si la Dreznt. un adverb de timD viitor este necesari n acest caz sprc a se deosebiviitorul de prezent: Tha r'.. rhp e.r l \ , r ot , laal; , 1 f or . lPr F/ "n l {litd ld lr !i f dc { ( an! jl) qg l. , r np\ r Tu". d d y s . | | t \ i i t o r r l n tao h,,; p . ) r . d r o ""l (L '. tl .. pl- . "r e s l le v ; d d. r ar li r nt r o s J p r i m r n " . ) Fald d,e|r':t:Dt,viitorul acesta este c{primai prin trecutul continuu sru prin , r'iilorul fale de trecut continuu: Hc saidl,c aas.?aalrnlis holidayin the corntry . (q .J,.s ii i i , J , , r , . , \ d. anJ la t dd. ) r olh; m ouj' t J ins lo r t l . $ ? . k " n d . Tlr\ \rurp ' r . ic - ! J ' " n Bai' g (.\u 'ri. ,t ., nt u nl" s d. r i p. bpa. i b l r ) i t . l d s J n r d m l D aI I $ . ..1. . . a bp t . . . , i, 8lor \ - nic e on I l , n u - , . "1 ,J luli I-a Venetia.) l-{ln st us cii rl..nr H. pro mis, i - . . o. / . / r . , rtorso.,Colo,ar moddl J ir d d np \ a' ll p F s r p \ r o j l p l a n : n d . ) t\ llga d.:l ,.1 q 1523 ID genele. prezcntul (respectiv irecutul) eontinuu si viiturul uuntinuu ar : 159 ,1 a,cln.r.s",r aproapra, inlel".. ln n.la birupriie\i"t; in., o,Jeo."hirp,l'ra, "i. sens subtild inlre aresLedoui formc: 1Bar,sale tr.r! ln SdrcFcl., Anglin. rpnumji pcntiu restigiile romaneSi pentn ap clc t' Devon,,\nsrja: fl.trd caled.ah dafind din sec.x] ri utriverstai|

t",,l"it1"if./195f..,i

?96 Pr.:.nlnl (rcsDecliv :'ecutul) cantinuu erprinri o d'lix"d holiiritd nai ic Iii.torul cantiiu rr tr':spec\i! iiil.'til [d&J' 1t' tl1cunin n) dlnaizre, tn nn plicalia oon!,ine "rerire cd indepli irca ncliu';ii exprinr'rF 't' \erlr nrc rnr nlite consecLnle: l{olhcr tomoh$. we arc .li,,i,tP (L uim a ia";ra 'iih 14 m dm r ' r Pr ' er _r r r ' n_dr l r " o r 'r " olo. , ( r m p {" wt \h rtL tJ" o:' t , e \ . r ' 1, ll olhd' r . n riine o air t a niam a ( - { i4 r i' ir . s r is l t r u r " I r r r i r g L i il,ulm \ve are haein! a reheaBal at nlrc lodav. {A,i avc'n rderitie l a ol:r 9 ) {l'rosran i\ofirili we sholl be haeint a reher.sal in a mirlle g t 'l a r l l ! a ! *r ll:Pectr.ind ]}L ai 9aif unai: ) L] |ll|. ] ' f PiUn. la||' \ r t . ' ' l | e. t lni..n '"in ]''1"'|p'j|-'liF' ' ' |' ' ' ' ' ' ' r ' ii"' : a n pJrle ' plu: r ' ul; l ;,mnin l ltor " ahase'al.enl'a cii el ntr conside.I nicid.ctr'n chcslimf t {f5' 2-5 o " " o. , o ") (t;;\,t,n -'oi"oi'"'o d; , ' 1 - ". ) "f ; t nt \ t ; lt ' I ! ' t , ' a' i" . ,' , , d; n " lel)l llnanicalii modale) rii"i'i-i'"p'"Llfi" r,i:'t" iii"i:i mi"L". (Deci.pres. trcrt" :lmus b"o.-^tona noJdl -1 4r..-p.. , oo.: l 'r'li trn nrrt'istill " l t u . \ ''^ t i | : l o t a ; 'r r ''f u i t 't r - i 't r a 'e ,e '' l" n "u 3 1t t ; 4 t " t a " r 't " t pt goirq,-urniail de infiniiivu] \.erbLtluide coniuglL!: I - v- r ' n u l i l qo: ' 3t a t \ " o' n- lr ir S.hele,r -f: \r eh En s4 ltlnr a ' 1 L rl , "' "r ' r r | ,1t : ioq 'o4 E,: ' 'o J '. r ' s "ir i r' rr" ' . d _P l' bir ' lr o' ' ili tq n-J"in a (Coloril rrodrl r You,'erd soi,A tr sat sorn cthins. (I.ltrti') (f.i@i sd s?ui Nc\r ') dodrl i She sa. gtirs /o n@e lier onn wrl (Hotirircl (C'l! l@&titij tti n" faii dccit ce roir.l lEn :f D,at.li nt"" l dt r 'r l r " 'o l o r ' r " o J i l (Nu rfd L r 1 ,l8ul"ht r,',td' ,d, r el1' / s ' r Pt , blt , ' In Iiolidi,i.s a'.e g'rg ro /]. llPasatrn'r ftr' h'rr l'ldor iit noddl){Sitdalie -\t hontP. ' -(\ cd"\''I'''' n' | / 'I t\ olu r t t r 'I " r r i J n n e i f r o l 'n z i f i i 6lt 2S ' c i es te ' i n l c i c u i tc u rr:i rn ru l\n n tt' t l l i ' ttntLI ' ' ri l d-nn(ce Y rrbul "o ra lrnr'ir . ,.. || r , ' ;n ' p i r-l i i \ i i rndr ' i .i ru l !i " . rl - i r r.,r .r' i" iar " "J 1l she doesi1]ui I saX,sllc ll ri{n/' me I{). it. noI u lt llit l r ro t,,)r' i l ' 1 r s ta b ;t" a n t ti ' t ' n' l rtt ' j Lrr' nrl d ' ^nl uE ' dr rtrai r,r; i rr\' rr ' o r p l ' ' r-tl " B E u r' ,," 1 fl p o u ri iiar , , lui' ' S .r" c d+ v o rb a ' ..u rrrrt z .r b .l .-, r !ri ' Jr i na .tL" l a a "' p" i' i . i*t r ; " " . , , e rt:l ,rrri 4c:i l cn)eva o se b ir c { le r iit or Lr l v o l i ti v , a c o a s tn ft]tr,,i rrr t; ur vrLt,' r p"".";",' care rlorbestc, s:lu dc aceasla in lnlelcssre cu alicin eva';;.;;;" His noll,.r t"- ro ,,om.tonorro\' {lr ro.l,a .{ nrma lui sd tt'd nln ac i Tcaolicrsiid re (.'e ,o Degtrrt oncc i edrat l (]'.onso,rl I slrrs cA trii. sd,t"!"r 1'he lloNr "l,ightning" (as r, r/arr lirst (Calul ..l rlger: rd ?r,s.dna l si l.fre.sci lrimtrl ) YiitorL tl /, t. loins

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297 I aas ta tutat thc ne\fcome.s. ti.l T h.t \ 4rp \'r) h r,t..\ l r F - D h o n t e l \ $ d r l ; : r d j r . : : j { \u io"

turma (c.a sarrin{ mca) st , . ' , $h 1, . ,L"t t - , 1 . r . l { . , d, j aodla l i -ia ri o .r., . J ar ,

,6/^Liesc pe Doii veni r as . oon r , d F r n I n , , , r / D o , d ' r ", J

g.) ( Vittar in.tliar) to be ahont inliniriv complet: + He ii a,,rr ,o la,(e n)r S{iorlrnd. (Esti ric lunctul ne a !l.ra h Scoiia.) \o u .e .e aLout/ o s , u s ' ,mrt,rrs l l l r0 ; p . pur , . ' I l . ; .t| r . \., . l o ,mb i \!i d r D J 5 p i ,p\d, V;i to ru l un. dior , $t . . \fri mc r i n .ri l ,,l , n o .ri AI pri n torma to Lp poi np + i n linil i !u l .om plc r . i i \ r " n " .F t,tn a to b r,rb o r; i i nti ni ti vul -com" D l et ste tntrebuin ,tafi mii mult tn solis, in slilul formal si se reIerA la un viitor j i m a i a p ro piat ( - pe pun c tu l d e a ). (C f. s i S1 5 2 5 ) 5 1527 9) Viitorul in lntrebdri. al SH]\LL la pcrsoana I qi a 2-a si $lLL ta persoanaa 3-a exn md uDeori ti dorinla vorbitorului de a afla ce gindesie interlocutorut ( Viitof in ji ^tnallI tind ]j.rtime il I so !ow? Mall Iou bc jn r6u hurry? fr, i1 rain do rou tnlnk: s r52e s 1529 ,, tn lntrebiri sc lntrebuinleazn obiceiauxiliarulpe carejl arcteptim S lSeO de - respuns: h _Yps v or . r . / / . ' -tr,oll I so L!m" io$ { , . 1: ,dau ioip., l t \ i i t o f v o t i t i \ colorlrl t "Lpr r, j,op Dou ../-11 \, : . - \ n, uF. / , a" r \ , r or Lolo , a r "-S l,//.Lou bp ibl l,, lq . r pt om or r oLL, \ Fs . l"nou t \ jjror colorarl j , , ll { . . \ ' r ", , u- r t v iit d r \ o j j r ; v "I4; / l rou sF"dl, iL. nn$. - .,norxtl 'o ' J-,{ dIi6r' pJ n , nFfn"(dr , 5s ? I o. s , . . . } dr / o, . ' ( , , \ r - i d a r v o i " . - , r \ I 'u r r o r 'i v _ 'Iltil she tut oD lrcf ne\r dress?" "\o, she por'i.,, l,,Nr vrea ca..J (\ jiror rotitivi.i linA. J . < he s / d/ / . . t v r i, or lnt i t ; v _ c o J o r a t _ . "S f t,il.,. rom""_ ,\, "lt:i4!h" .or ,.otonl) "' /1 'd ro s FnJ . , . nhp, , ", , / . r ' t \ ' or vo t : t i v _ _ . . Actu Fl m c nt . in\ a " F t i l l ,l p . m.i a l c c tn l i mb a ro rbi t n, si s cl i t acesre { t63l dr F lr n , r i n inlr abi' r i " i s ' In rrc h u i r.t' ,a . r,.b .l . a LJi l i i ' , trr; di s.ri mi nar ' ( e u p r"h ri n -a p" n r r \ \ ll.l , i n s ..,i " l i n .,g l p /r a m p' i .d,,.,. .0rc sp bu,urd d e o, n crp i nll, r aniS i' , ^. ' r a r1 ri l , u r.J p q p \,' b p :' 4 s .,u s, tn\ori ti mba,,,gh26: "WiUhIoU !ar be n' Nl,fD I .all i0morrow-?'.-"\ps, tr;1 tirhd\." I (Vcz' ti S I r3i) .l SH \ Ll. i, , r , LUi !. | 1 a to . ' c 1 ," * " 6 n p 1 , s ptr.grp fpntru a se a a r n t en !r3 t, r. ner pr , ; r " r 1 i r " .1 , d ,l '' F ,..l i l n tr-b 3 rra : ,tftoll Lool se.ts lor ionislil.: (SI.uN lrri. nihie lentN :6|:iscaril?) Sltolt ltit! .am. io iho mccti|g? ( S liv ini ] a, l c d i n l i ? s rr l a i a n s i v i n d l a i ed' nF?) ,l/'?l?ror ,, in to norro$? (Ai se'iii nriile ac.sI?l ,Sftali she /atl ine table for li!.? . (sa lun a riasa pent cinci !c^oane?) Mall \e ,'2..n nn lor rou? ' (Se-9ispilir, 'r;ele?) rVe zi !ag. 418,5 1014 ,n o l a B. g 1b32

2SE s 1633 "'"" i ,r frr" lolaylneldll Do dou . \ a ^" t r lt ; ll \ in l ' J th c td b l e ? ) {Yczi ti ! t8t6 !9ilJ} c ' 1 rru rr" x/// p rs /s e ftp l q" I 5i! 4 t l) lv lLL t d r l :(,..t r din e" r r c " m" i rru l l i n rrrb u i n ' " 1 ! Iri " " rrd lin SUA De lapt, tn uneteliri in oarclimba Irglezt'(rc-lirnlr0 oficiuli sH\IL p.r P ln cdr' dp a commn'rw"allL brirrn,,r. t"l;J,i si qr"nnim' "i -cruolul fijn,l i nlo.uir ru \\ lLl srrr i r ..4"o 1n dqsi,"ruaine 'i: t'r tonigl't? Po&ldvon /ild me l.oioot seats {-.tna, I bookseats.l') ur?//P l i rl crosd' ' u S H {LLdr' p" re: " lr , / l I dol I frl,ir-t"i, ,ttr, tt" to fte opera?""lYi[ I conrt \iil\ ]ou? wi ll l? ol cou*e ""." Flll." (ercla;naii\'. ca o relctare a lntbiirii l$e ) la irce.put ca acceltaAcestea sint dou[ din putin]e cazuri consideraie acestcr lo rme s-r exLrns bile in eramatica tradirrionih. Cu tirnpul insd uzarta ensreza i"".J'i"tf cu coniirln)ltare actuil, nai ales.prin r' tii"l':"i colocvial cst'i preleratnco nstruclieishallI i tvt: ".i'".i"".,r '"a" W lr v Plll I liar c io s t ll' la l ' ? \Ihin @tll @e move i3? Where @tli I take Your siuli to? \ V, d, , i{ / . , r , y il ir l l. lr ill u, " \ . . hn, N , 4 m . . . dcprirnant Aileseori,a0easLiconstruct'iewill l / rt cxl)rimi un scnt'imnt llc nea julorarei ll so.what rtl' 1 do? /r reach\i'i in tincT How "il' What train Pt'r a ! lake?r t LL.\\'IT'L Ilaci 1rr unele cazud inlocuirPldurili'rulni SHAIJ' T i1'tl minnrc sc po;t' rrt r''tr; l'r 'rrrrrLuu serrrantire consecinle ca -e,iii-;"i;a Pentru ln1,eles. 1n: Sna zo! be iD tolrorro\t? II,i &z b. in tonor.o\r? sau ln: ,Sldil ?o, see hcr at 5? lYill io& see her ai. 5? jnrl.,rl'rntc ca tn: acerslii schinbare crceftzi insi adcsca anlbieuilrili ' s,, 1/ r"pv.on" ro rridmdbrins'rtj ",t \.';.','.,',1"i'i; , ," "',, Ifill thPll ra$e to I I meeong' sau neccsiti lunginli ln exprimar6. pertru cl'rriiioarrll intrel csuluifvezi $ t0r9, t1l5 'retnplele) 1'or": inlelesul dc .J WlLi, la persoanaa 2 -a sau a 3-ft (intero-crltir) are "r S 1535 "Itjill rcu trke a tram?""No, I 'tll trke a btr:'" lrNo!sllc 4ro4'r'i' "iriii itre spmtrto me?r' pur ( S 149a) La pe rsoara a 3-a WILT, poate cxprima !i u siuplu viitor ! 1636 2074' 20E8' 2115' vczi 2099' li Vr,t i t t aa"it" l"mitate m potitel':, $ r vczi ,i unele exemlle prccedentc.

399 II. SUBJONCTIVUL {THX SUBJUNCTIVE) suBJolfcrn' sau II{DICATTY rREcur! s 163 $ 1538 Existl o atitudine conl,emporani destul de rxspindiG, care evite problemele modu lui subjorctir iie ignorinduJe, fie ncgind tnsdli exisien.ta subjonctivuhri tn a ctualitate. I-n mod Jrr.na i.l in.,. J" o rli' dc mar. irnnnrtanla..arp.\primd i reotitdl"r. ln .ontra:t , r t ntit.t,,t' 'ndotj de modrT ir.1icali', cele dolri aqpc.l" f'rndam.rldr. dl, , \i.i.1!,i urndn. - psla cu nFpulinli sc dispard. mii ,u,".'t,.,.npt4.din,.,, tijnd 6xarp 1rco,uparilein roarodomcniiie, pe descoperi rearrecunnstutrrlui. a raportului realttut.lircalitate, a.r \evole de in-qtrumcn tc .Lo c-\pfiirla'. adcovate. Este crrl cn wdriLrl subjonc'"i{, a,(t:rzivetust a dic; forna BE la toate lirnpuril, 9i l" "." ,r" l-. :i li1,-. suli' rlur ; J.,pe r"s6nxa J-b .g.. .a iodicaror . a ,,,prr tir',r L,r,r.rIn nnu- r n nrpmsii lirp rrrditional. si ruhjnr,,ri\,1 tn limb:rjul lormal, livrfsc. stinl,tiinr,juddic, gazetiiresc etc., unde necesitatea preciziei fi clariiilii datc do subjonctiy es l.eesenijali. Subjonctivul trsi nu a dispnruL ca /riodgrarnnrical.El si-a schirn bat, numai veqmtntul cu altul mai timl'li.t ,i n,ii l"rnili"^, .',liprD.l r .- n oilor ,pflnt. da qimplili.rrp.un,, pute qi dituzatn6" 4," p,a, in tt :4 ' .i,l t \as. ,t1d;o. A , apa ar i,l. pri', , rl prol,riuluisiu fp,r, \i rn-.r!4 .r r^n.r lingti li . u'r I.r . t'| -,i)1t l,r 'i t';Ltrtti .nu r'tl .t, nut, 'ir purrlnr ".,.,'r0ii'"-,'nforn.om.pold'rri-i SingurJ"rFlii. , to r i-rLut ro Blr. il .sru i subjon.tiv nraipn . a toll,. I cu auxilicnrl r'rF. Frlin l.' toatp persoanelp. pcntru simplifinrre. Acstcforme nu mai slnt astizi substitute pentru subjonctiv, ci ru del'eniL tntru totul stbjonctivul modern colocvial al liuturor verblor, in clusiv al auriliarelor modale. Numai aceastx concellie poate rezolva toat complic a,tiile te se ivsc continru in interpretnrile invariabil necoDclr.rdonte u or cob ^truclii suh ale jonctiraLe c?ra, figdduite ca aI'JJq d.pd.renla trecutului simp lu, ddl na.ei , inlel"*ut at stu;d. sinrd:.n,. \.rl'e'. ^x a) You ll3il rcrer go noN. aasrt e hc Fent to lcd. t |tod/alnel.eiun jn a diy or tNo. I roxld sooze. c&me you $ith me,elc. (Vezi 51548) conBiderateoa lorne ale indicatir'ului, ar trebui si cr.prime r.alitalca unor ac .tiuni xra&|r. intcrprrLifi care nu rezisLdla o analizi gramaticah serioasi. deo areceele se referl ]a ptt.ott san r;llr,.. ,{cela;i patternuri sint pe ect consec venteti glllmalicri forccte daci sinl ini,eryretaie ca expresii subjonc r;!alp.p r"Jr,r /,pdrrl. (\--l; j l5-,4J De{id!n', - Sprc d.oscbirc dc indicatil'. care exprimi o acliune sau o S 1639 sLarer,!al.i, subjonclilu] crf ni o acriunc sau o stare ;r.edl.i,realizabili sau nu, carenu existai decil ir eindul trlui rc vorb est: ...r, .t, ", , 0. ' "r . t 1J . I nli"J . \ ) , ' i. l \ r,,. : 1. r ", ' 1. 'i I $ish llic n,.r, r,c. lsubjonctiv) f-1,s dori sii lic aici ida. nu este.)l "*t -'rcnre 0uardire' r'rrezenndsurrjon'r'ilur' cu'silere iar comlr-

800 $ 1540 A. TDIPURT ii#l; Xliilll."ii J"ni"'"f ,"'5f ::i,1; i:.1::lH#,ii"ll:1;;li,'li",iiiii L[Ur r0Rll]I l-llcl{x a suBJo_-{o'r'll s 1541 s 1542 x::xil,Hll"i,""' ,".,l.i,xlili*.I"ii"i'"]":ili.' T" "":'*:::i"""11# ,""""{ l,!i"',i",".l,"i1l,liiiii,' il'!i"' ,"'," { l}i"lil""'";l"if}J'i1.""' ObserrtLlia ' "-',iili" fi::if :#I'll,'"',.1i s'r*' f;l.t,i l;W ;:**i l*l;tllliillt san rtLt or: tinp, lrr,tl.l. Prczcnt mod ( 'onfundnfornat tu ltrut l' s'rbionc'i'n r dr" '"r'l'rn -' i' i " - 'i "g"r ''i "a e * r-se Ficind abstraclie *"T;;:]#"1:;,';,::i': :::l$fj""1'"':."""i:i'l (:, "',' ","-1,;:,L);,1 ;"." i l-;,",,,,. on.,,,,,,\dr,b,l ",",i1. : d\" \"or 'i c':' ,l': l t ,:l':'; ',;;"';:"f i'";;"':" '' ''"'" rr.'li'ltiiJl"'l?' " Lnor"tieror') ra aiitoa'e ctrrsa iir l,rre sr!riimina r" I " ;l .'","' l:,i";; jl:i l,,,i,,ii," 1" :)-iil'fXt::"1:ll:;; ".lli' "," - F',l.''1 1544 3)Inrere".n p ' )::l:"i i"I ';iH*lrf i'l"+lil"l " rri ,r' o . , l r " d" l u .ru .:,: :;:-" s/r' "",lJiX::'il|*:;' s4- ,r. .4 "" ,' "r';.. ,' , \ f ol ' rt' t I" v o' o n 4 i !; ' ^ :n ' l n to ti ,i * ,r p, ' , " " P . o d a rtn l a : o llr ur o rA in, -"i;"1.'.:;'if'rr,'"*ru#&Hliiiff:iiiilJ,.:lli"'iiiii "lxi" atil de elicicnt ) '' l::lfl![)-"',,"'. t;ru*k*"t; :l*,1*,i:".:T,',1'li; ;ip"ffi': ",$'l;n " '.'""i,'li 1. rr" r"* condiliona l,*"lit"ll"'::"tl"i".Tl"'*q.'f"';,T.fl$'i::,i!{li'i; ou l I rpa-r n In r'rtn'r a'lirrImrn t(Noi) am cerut s's',tn'i armde trrlclearc l {:i": *;' j:iil:i"i"),ii; ilji': Ii:: l';'l: "'T-il;,, ftr';l' ';l l;;':; li\Lli li";li"l';:;;:i;; -"'" ,. . . ii.:;",;lt: *; /,,, "l:i:i';,,,,., *".,iI":;;i:,r; ,:',lJ;;,,':,;Xi:l,l:" \i. .*1, (co!rJu' "' ;iii;'; l::# ;Ti i:ii: ;i'"fi" **d$li*r=lt'ti*,*ivi{:ttn#','r'rilli'

li i l il"ff";li'l lll i. l';:l:l'.:;;l'i l'"li:':,111"r l rl: :i;rI' ."', ll,i" {:;:.}"i"'l:li";'1" "",,,

SUEJONCTIVUL 3OI 4' lnlrcb inlire. - \'""hF., fur..ld c subior.tivului enaliT a(tp DL,t;n { lb{6 f^lo.ir" in liml' pnsl' 1s mod,rn... Ejra IrF.rrnrd in.r :n S arele Uniie it" ' \ merieii. )t:.st subjonctit se tnenlin. astaiziiD englezabriranici in urmdroare le si. a) i stilal oficial si in ge*re in limba lormala rrnrd (frazeotoei iuridio d. { 1646 limbrj ziaristi ;i narlan'ont pro"Fs^li\-rbitF .h.edi,.l"lor, in Stiin la si 'r. '-hnr.i el..l. prerurirJ-ni undr ,:i. n.-asar u tin I.Jj Ior.1atpreii" . .1"i, {dre ambiguiLdti: T ho judgp dFa d nd s rIal ll' Lr . . , 1pr r " l' "ou" . t n i,ur ar r . i . p i r oo. s . l lJud, . A rnru l.dre .l If ih$e Dd all w can muster, ii were lctte r to teavc thc scutf,tLr.esgatterics emtty. ___ siil ziarjstic) l"Tl'e Tine6" p. , aje, "t , . L- m " d u n a . d r l : l Ddr4arpdA o rir'..o d.Jot t oa1el. t " t - ' mirbi!"sd lI s l m R {l. riil. de scu l!tur.i g oalt s . l I rnove that an apDcal madel,oi,he lcsconcerned. rd ra (l'ro!u sits. /dc; dt.l l { tirrtilc in caizir.) b) in loezie ti tn prcza Literard: "T'.l rp " $il$ill I l. : L ' o " " l , /d r. rR r" o n ) Tl o u g h sl' c b s , , 1! u, q, I \i l l .o n l i d o i n } e i . s 1547 $ 1548 c) tn unclect:preiii firc, ca. {Savini ia a, ci vd lnriLlacl sh latineze.) s4l,.d it l.osaJ...(Esled; ajunssi s pun...J, ic. in ixLIcniri injtioase, imye1lii, proteste achem.ntesan n|.. d) Clfse voul ,.d, tlte iellowl (irire-aibiestemat lii l) (Firc-ai sd lii de indiri .l l) sI ' ilxpclscs Ddhansdl (Dii le incolo de helluielil) 'fhat ,e hanqdfo. a tal cl (Ce niscocire nnst.L,inicil) il need Dr {: daci csle neroie) , a i i so s . t u s o Dd l: a s as Afi e l it bi hal as it n", (: oiicuni ar lil ,, ," i r r' o, n , , ; , . . . r . ,, t," .,:d m i i , ;i J u tJ . J ...) / " ,.ro i d $ l\ o. m . J in q o b p r,ru " , l ;" p , \-1 A \i . a s r.r. 1: c . rr r \ l r n J ..' j .a ! .u r a r l r) 'L *haL ma lt (.- rie .reo li, odoc s'ar Intlmpln) catue \ t on t bJ i ." n t i r" ,tc L n i u n a ri . L )'-r ',D . u i'- ' t F r r nil hr $ tl l c a rn l r s k rte r .' i un" nor.i rot S 1b49 5) Troaluccro. Forma r.echea subjonctivuluise tfaduce ln limba ro- { 1660 | . n a p r i n . onju n .l i '. p r in condilionsl printr-Lnin , lira lir , u o n u a n t a s0u ( \Fzi r r ALl d" ,,.reapv mtlplord. ld $ 11 4 4 r. ' "r i . c n l i . SItsJONCTI\'TIt, MOIIEITN SUBJONCTIVUL Pt:tXZ}!NT (rnDSllNl svtsJtNcTtrtr) l) Fo rn ri. - S uhj^' , ri ru l p r' z n l r- o s i n g ,r r. r' ,n,d r'uj n p l p . a r i' 1. s i|' r . , la r. .l r (i | , l l u rp l : t. , ^ ^^, , j L . t e l : \o ' r. L h ,s tr.:r ..,t' ,1 ' " " - ' 1 " " " r.0 , \,,r " ,t" .t. r.y ,,I^ t . r " * J r ! - )o ' r\ r.r.l ,..r.p .i ' $ .r. h" I s e - d re r,o . \," ;trr\ $ r-. prnrrJ s 1551 s 1552 loate S 1553

t,n u ,rr estelorma vechca lcNoanci a t-a singular,astdziarllaici sru poctici.

m9 ObserQd!te ,,,,'',,,:i:i,;'ii'l;;;':;;1,;',:'l::l"i-"j;l"T"""i;ii'; ri J' rr"uL' qi a J a ' inslllrr u'uot ;":hi:*,';"*"'nffi;t"'*ri eTl"}"i: '"".,,i,i1*:':i :ii ';;]j.l;:il',;;,iir iri;11" "' ""'-' ii:ll::; :['i ":1, ' : r':il ll""'n:|,"i i'll'n"i'i'ii'fi"'' il :i;l :lli;;"; N old Cit"i lq**" - "'!!rij'' j: ;*,""" ):':!:;"'iT;'il;':" lh saustarc " \ll iar'i' o ".". 'lif' indioatilui : corespundereatte-iii' se inr'rebuint'eazi E 1556 i) ' Ii,:i::ni"t;,1*':l'.;lll'll"*ltfllilTil*-*"1r 'i*: iiiJi,liT'i:li'" sif Yill'J iilil,lJfi estetntrebuinlat atlt in stitulformal' prcznt Subiouct'ivul ^"4*'.;:i,:;";qlr-i::*lr:i,.:,"f1"""'*ffii*x;'" i,,* ;'1 " ';;i; iniica,i'u, i,iHiHl ;:il.'Ki' *as; re"ur ;i:'ii '"1,'i:\'Jlli$tJ'i ll:,:': lr,t;'i|"]:lr"i; l't '11"::"1:" r n Hir r nr n i wistr 1'o ' l n t oc dc * r ' ' rlori 6l iid r\rAlt r l tA.s lo ' dn r aPi m P s sl" / a Sl' t'r "n ii"lijlr'l;i:;'xi'irJ'Yr I":l':" :' ihlilli:iritl;ir":rr'':1 ll"l'Tii'^ ''""' :* iii:il.:": n *:*,ii'j:l;ii"i ;::';'::l;lj il; ""# 165? Limbajul 'ulr. p"''"'o'" '--i"ai' "'i""t 'n"' $o!' disrinclia dintre inJi'd Li!ul trtr'rL l.''l "' :,i I::,:";;,1;l;r *'r' il,'iriill:' :Ji:;'l:;',', ":f:;,i nrr l" podLFrFda: lllJ'fl: :{.'. itl,:r#"li;*l;;*t /firfi":lJl$"ihl'J1"il*i'i ".," Obtervdlie r t I h" $ur c a o , 1 ,d trr) rPr" u P" 1 rI t r / le ns s Y o " (i n rrc e l r J D r) i1i' i:r:,i':l,"'l'l:$lil[ ,;;;" 4,11l;.l' ",::,';l "i:: rr, iii:j ;ili*lrr,l.j,;:: t:ilgll' "'" "* ""'-""' il*;:*:r*:"'?tffi[r::i;iitY!*is$"""'' diferile: dar .tr tntelesuri Corect, ;i*n?::ft""*# fxffi,i:l'ltl"l'r$r* ri.6rt liupoai'e o?resqzne

a0s Traduoorc Subjonfti\ut prczFnt, trs,lu.p In lin br rom6nd prin sF S t6i8 -.4) co nlun.rrvul prpz.nt sau p'in .ondi{ionstulprarFnr: I wish I pft vou. (.\t dori s. , fd rn rocultatu.) (Conjuncris) S.!!pore he ddft, / (tnchiluiste-li c{ a' dnt.) {Conditional) r l' pr Df we . ir l g r rIp s .b j .c r' { c o l o c v i a l ) { t - ^- art i s t ic h i m u m s u o ,.tL . j ,p " o n u n ;" " . n." \, SUBJONCTI\'LTL PERFTC'| IINRItrCT SUBJUNCTIVE) s 155 l:iTlt;:lil'i:"lil;''":lJt,{ t;:1,.)i"t:ioji,;i;; "" J -;i;;a;;;';;"i; . * { i"}X13"fl;1i,\ltT#ir;}iiiii, ""' il}T"}f ,^-,.3,.1ot"'"" Ea poatefi: 1.1Formn.Suljonrtir.ul lpttrd t-r n sin-ur,j [ar,.,,tp"ntru todtp p.r- { tSrj0 ' t"*n{ j"}Xt jX'l:f"hlgi,li,." j1l!jir,ih"}"ilii1iii""" Subjon.ti\.ulpFrtectexprimdo adlirn?rdu o,tarc contratd 1561 \ rc!iunii rcu s jrii exprimo,"prin r,rb.rt din propozilid _^.^o)-antptiaMd J'rrnc rnals: I I" rL rr.. t , " I ad - ot , , . / s ^ .,r.t" " { o h i s d .tr. A- d o fi .,1 " r , . 4 I / o. r a. i, J e D p c l ,j ,n t.nIn d .o t,n " i r.d , :i ,L { l a r a l ost.), b-) cu un verb ta un timp perfect. din principali: .simultand. I l \d h o d 1e- . lll , 1r qur J ,s h o p ." @ " l r h a r. t,4 p .d \o r. h Da ra o t h t , . 1 I n r r " t . . -, re .d r i ,,;,,r,1,1 ,r, ; ti ., L i i i " , .. ,, 3j lotrebuintraro.Subjonulivul De attt ln stilut 5r1562 formal sau literar, cft si in cel ,"-u,;.,""""1"1-!,'j,."''"ebuin!at 4) Trad_uccrc. Subjonctivul perfecl ,se rhdu.e trL timbr rumdni cu g lb63 u rj rn . r i r u l p"r f,r ' ru cor,,tiqi ona,u, p,rr"",: ",r u I wGh I nad Dd,z th.rp: (_{r dorj rd lt /os, acolo.) {Corjutrcrivperrcct) Ii he tdd oru, he s,ould ha! como IJ,acn b ^u ttiut, ar ri venft.) (Condiiionalpcrfecr) fi . .r r. Arp rl l l r o pr es ul, un,r.. F t, u i n l l i " a ti ru t tr ru t, i , x,e ar Ii un nonsens0 b s e r e a lie D L l , 4 In p r o p "/i l ia.on,liLionald. sFIntr.buir: F a zs u ! . io n . u , t rt r. t lu l b mo B. t) tT RE nurNTA nx $r INT x L D s .1) lntretrriDlare. Suhjonctir.uteste intrc buinlab duld urmltoarele S 1664 ii.' ,|X;lili,'".ili," 9iJ';:",:.:,,:,'\':i:t 1,, 6i dupnverbele: " '; l"llJl"l:l ";ri:"''iJ':;" '"tr".i;:"i,, ll: , l;;:,,'ii::'";::i':t ,:',r:r s,ru,se {: a lrBslprncl fi ro /tst I V ezi pag . 3 14 , ( ",i"I;.q f tl.,;,'f,i h;;i,";:,;:I:jiitl .1;l,f;j;,*i;::",11, i'":, {ht, or or .':rt.,,i;,';o'nr".

(: a dod).

m4 S 1565 i tsC C 2) I[{elos. - Subjonctivulexprimer: irnala'rrr o pt"r"tintJ{ d u p ; . a s . i/ a s t h o u g l'ra t lt ' r n .l o "ont p a ','i.a t l ro p o /rl rrl F c omparrl rvej : l h o n , t hon t l, han 1 l ' "cYin \ olnpr r , P dt c , 1 a I I r-P 1 l i | l r d ; l l l) I aaa n, l lr alF 0 z i" i ri ' u m a r " i o i p l i l i Ilother used id hert me 4s hoqh I hn'l b en n l:trtle girt {ltama md tral, ca fi cum a'i ii iost o ietitl.) dupi eren i/, (ercn) thauEh,lncveocr'whaleoer'whichewr' bJ o concesie, t 156? ' phaeaerei,c (in propozi,tiile concesivc): m' rd l ' e' f " - r t ' agh na h 4 ,1" n z ,,,l J - s o -l d rJ v " ' it r c hi lr , la' " d l : !' n ;t d .\ | q i r" , !_ d r m r: l i g l .i l _o ' jt ; r m . n . r , . . " n rl " /5 1 rr & p r. J . D o l rn k i n ' r r.\rhdi j . s . ( [ , lul lur o. a p rrl J . d " \i ." \P ' n J " rd l rp bt d ' l unat' re i ". E* n if iL qnc ao, this is no eaFvmatier. rchim dacil ar ii asa.nu cstelu u utor.i , (A i/ r , " r . u " v Da . . $ rs n d v p .J I h o m r o d n y o ne. fhai c]. a ( O , ; c inp r li r a i F l d p " i me a ' a s i n rrro d ctipo nrmenr' ' s W L^ -s h . lrF. ' dppi4, ldn , / oe l; uPdLv him c F r i rng!f tlr Doi sF s nlr m r i i. f ; ' il dec i' dad dr lo' ur f dr lP ' n' a s o 1 o T p d s i sl'ou l drq oirJ I: l- l" lr J r a r un r olr , r 'tonr "t ur s r m ar S r a r P a l dF ( ,^ ?p F t"_J "a r. ' In cd s orrlln '$, r it "o' "' m por t anLlr ' al J o " h o u l 'l b F l o l d l h t t u l h r a r h " r d ? t / o ^ l' l L in is nor an" t'haa tla t \or l/'/h '" ar]pv$u dqir ir i"' PUn' ; ' p""r "n rl;,r,r, d; b ";1 ,. '[ ! i s p a s ^ u n d d "t ""n"i r,t.i ia ti"lt So D. il I (Fiecc'oiil) Conte Nllal mag ! s 1568 c) o conditie ireal&, realizabili sau nu (ln propoziliile condilionale): $ ll v our m ol, l"r d & // " o n p .5 rrr o u l d s o o ns " l m ztL" Bri gl l ' l r Dic n m am ' rt a d f p rl " d v ' n i , a . d r.rrj a ' m d r 8r ru' rurr LP ir v our $r t " . *, ri rl rs , ' l ' F $ o u l d s a pro !F.Jrhi ns' ro a l " r { Dic r ' olir t a d r ., l d n o i . J r a v ra g ti j d ,1 " lI r ot h" d aP t ttP r, J o u $ o u l J h a tP l i k e d l h eo ( O ; c l i- s i t i e , n o s c l t. l i _ a rIi l l i c u l , ) I sish 1 @de a student againl t]\q do.i sn fiu iar sludent.) Don t \ ou Lv islfo u l o d 3 s o n ? ( Nu r j \ r ea s ; i a i u n ti u ? ) 'lhev I iilpd thFI iod not .on? so iatr' (Doieau$ nn l, vcnit ai a ltEid ) shr disne./sl( l,dJ 04, o d)nc.r' d o ri r s dl i ino' ' , " " r i t o " .a " " .r' - s o u ArIi .J o ecxlama,tie, o iormuld retoricii Otl ,Dr iL 4dlc lossiblel {r\U Daod ar Ii losibilii O[ | /l'r hc lldd .oae yesimd ] l { \ l' l S J t i lF niI e l i e rj ) vehemente l/ irnprecal,ii, proieste ,.dl lhc fello}'l "pi''"iiii s 15G9 dl o dorinln (in propoziliileoptative): l n' J dr)' $ 1.;io ! 157r

sau nu: lio,g it alll. .. (Lrs-oIncolor) allabetiL pPnttu a fi nai "" "Ltt 1 Dilrihle tntelesurialc suljonctivului slnt o'donrlc Iesne consnltate _'' I : Hi s matner. ihoush slerq was noi unkind-

.3{5 ai,.sd tr,e manl t/os/ l,im! (li.'ar blesiem.t si-rficl) 1;o da wil,h \'od! Confaund lin\l {Duc{-sel. naibalj iLns - oballil s a u C u m rn s n c ffd a q ac e v a l ) r./ o indoialn: $157? I doubt if he l,d ir. iArlrii.l {[Iii lndoiascce .rr li ic.si.) Cl. I don't thin k he's in. Ulxlicativ)l Ih "J,l u nor b" r i, v er ld, I ' p p " ,' ri u s6 " g ._ .i 0 .. (\rr d i " r r l i n u L ( il r . - rlic t ur a dr l i o ri-c i n d l i .) i...ts g e iuine. ) ' ( I ndic { t i !l l I, o presupunere (in propozi-tii le condilionale etc.): .\ 1573 1/ l.his ,e true, he iB a clerer man. lD"/ d ,, J . l" . a, dr ' + r .-b J v l r,' l rd ,,p :,u tu 5 p .' . ! rnomJrsl P Ii l .l .P rpl pnl 1 D. o ' rr| su !ro n L l|\ r t r n e\ pf lm a ,tarrose shc dalL.i he reI ' n , ilielipuicitc li ci ar leni aicil) I1 shc ,c/' you, sle would go in lo r mediciDe. lD.rcnrr ii ia locultnu, ar siudia medioina.) S/rrl .5 i a gt his r J . l t dit 6 " p av o ,8 , u o J : In l J o r h d \F bppD l dd' S {Pi ,u p ui: ad c " a- i" J . rr fi l !..t .1 ru ,n al J . n J l i d r i i p l rut bi np?) t) o propunre, o sugestie, un lndemn, o cercrc, un ordin: Il " mrveJ / , t orr h" m . - r , n gr/ i i l tu u rn p l . (\rh d i c ) (.o l o cv. " b,l depl t (El ) r l r opus s d s e dm n e l e d i n l ).1 " Ir \J" srggps r . J ld, - e g ,( l s p p c i mF ln .s o n .(\' h a i c) (.ol ocv.-sfrorU g;' ,, , (n .J p ro pt ac ' r n s d l, n4 i ,l e c l i e d e p ro l r..) Soneone.omd Irde and stag/ (Sd vine cinem aici sI cintl) rcsularly. (Formal) (colocv. I t is requcstcd union memberc rior r,oy uteir subsoripiions (rr"n i b i , " : n, 1, , - luis ln t ru ' rl i . d .l i a .h i rFc u rp c !l a r: l rl r cor' .1l i i l e.l dt j,) un scop (dupi rnai, in afiar that, that, L.st) lln propozi!,ii]e finale): 'a /d, Mafy re accel ledto ereningclasres. Hc lut in an attlication {Arhaicl (colocv.: I \ Itr!t' o. p" . i c r \ 13. ir s d f ^ rr' rn i r5 ' d .u " s ' rl5 ' " ' 1 . l ' " ddrk (s oLd/n; T..\ so uonlI t l r go,/,-/a J ," l ,p n a r$ J r ' r' ... r' i IU rd l J . a rb d un ,.- p' i t r ' i L -\- \,r'u. - ol. " r " , l, l l l o." s r5?4 S 15?5 lil o tenrcre tpn lcst,for fcar, ro bea raid, to fear). l She le.rred14, she Dcaught in the stonn. [(co]oir'.] $l,e lcas al.aid she u,g/,r le...l {li era teaoi r{i nu o pdndl lorltrna.) .|i1570 Sl;it lJ o ttrare: l r' ' ng Dc d. l!!tl l ( S ,i iir rou lli n rri letritrl ll In afarn de cazurile mai sus citate, subjonctirul sP mai Inl,febuinleazi; a) ,iu pi .un.lru.liiiF in,t"r-oncl" i lr' lu.p trir 't: 't ;s nP .-nr't t li;6 : ,1"1, . potibt t. ir is d /,i/a r.ru,/ ls ru s.,r,,a.7. ts F,LtLt rslr unfoftunat.).tl ts /tgrt (sau wrcng,proper)2, shaner,fattLlnut.rar I i!' ?" . rq ' tr,b. i ,J rli, r l' - r ol' J r u 'l h "u p "ld , , ot "- ' o s-.r.. . ttr , . \frame-. ,,t 0 ,' ,,.. .j

- oPiar . t / a' or t 'I a t l d b I lll.,,/ a t,tl oshna":,f , . / . r + . . "u. ir r i''. . .j"l'l rlru a u n" d nn, ln llr -u,h ot ahjng". , i, , nr i ln a . . sr. , ' r n.r kiDon"$ ' w h d t d ! i.vp q ha mp irp sho ul 4 I ' a. " go L n lo r hJ nl. n". , T oll;A ' esle "o rrr'..ii c "r . ' r bt o li \ ul , , "oar . . s r nl L r m . l F d P . o r t u l l i d r l d '. exprimt;1 sa tr snlrinleleasl 1$ t!641. d oitf ,/ pf1 .

400 Notd It A (hi\h) tims estc urmale de subjonctivul prezent: It is (hiEh)tine (tlrar.) /ere in bed,Nan_ you lAr Ii t.ehit (dc nuli) si te culci.Na .l lin t lt rine lou sro,,d Dlavina? \.d r li r md .l . . r ; ; m idi , ir t ; d, d r It is hish tin z \ hd / pd qr oLr n up. \', f o Jil.s ; ai m h; , iull, 1 ; ni , r l"l. ' \ , r s r , d . S f5?9 n, in construcliile idiomaticc iarl bctt.t, had mtller. wauld rather, \pould. so oner,verbele had,Ei oould tiiDd aici la modul subjonctiv: You nzd ,ir. srdd,,i io ],im. (-{i lace mai bin; sd i vornc$ti.) \lt "an h d.J Ht , r plaa t - dt rT,rt m"d Jr fr , . t pr " s d 5" jni, p"o. / it . . d | . , r , . / " dq I eauLl, ntho \\e acckand..t at $iDdernuc.l (At ptefetd sii pet.erctu sthliiul d srlptiLninn la llindcrmcrc I !4 tA..o."r \ ' ou "dd" v r n m . (At pte fetu sd rtt cu minc.) ) $ 1580 sulJo^-cTlvui, yENBELop, ,\uxtl,tiRli IIoDALI cL Dolrl foli\lE ct1N . ttty . EHALL.t ILt, PntN studiul complet al verbelor auriiliar Inodalc, vezi g 1930-2178. Prc ztnl (modal ptezent + i]dltniLiv prczF,rl,) nas call ( toil trei srd call I p .rsoanele atl/ call I (nodal trct t 1r.cltt irrn,ili! prez.'rl) ntgnt call I toan]tr.i rr,rld call { Dc.soanele Conditrioral sulrjonctivprczcnt i pcrlect fi (modal trecut Prezent I infinitio prezent) could .d I miqht.dll I lo.ric lrci sh ould call a Drsoanele sauld .u lt | P.|fect (modai trcut + infinitie yrfett) <\n\ti ha calletl. mighi do. .alLzl shonlil /Dee .ared vaxld hd)e catted I t toa i,e lrri I pcBoande I O bse r e a lie 'S f681 . 1) A so obseNa cir modalele au aceea,si formx la indicativul trecut, s ubjonctivul lrczent si c.n,lilionr!rl prczent, dec\ o singnrd farnd.la tri nortu { 1582 2) X{odalclean rn limp prezentsl .ut:, tint t.:cut, tleci difnenla rle fo nn,i: apare la mod,ale, care sint urnato la ambele timpud de un infinitiv prczrn t: (o sineurn formn). t t l d- r ' p, j Ibr ,- \V ,,n LaLe r' ; h,t,o.-r 'F nii ' . ,r' ,ri n \.;l J n a l i. , n p.,,.u grLt td. po.ri fo.,i i rrhl . nr o. . , " h b -,n " ,,t1 ,p , ro ,,. 'aI'hELak ' ,\chool".stabirili in regiune:tfi iom to r)i a;h " .,i ll't f tJ1tt 1350\:.ra;nlet l.aulal cale dse 11712.18141!, Rabe soklttu l11i!t-ta4t).

,07 l" s, h i mb. , " n, liLi" nr l u l s ; ,,h i n ,,, ri \u l 0 r,n d Ln l fpr r., I v p t1.,1. rbLtL,i i rp s s ru rre , u ru l r n l ]Jte l a !.(, tut ,lil- rrl ,!s d " f ur f ls r r nl, ', ' i n ri lerical. auriliarul moclal rlminind acela gi in ambele cazurj, ca arcn disi,incti\ . i . a .e sl , or doui m odrri : e ,"o , . I s l, ouldi: d r { re"b u i l -\o"n l d ' t f i ' ;' i ttt rr " Jrr ) ; i, ' . . . " ir i ")t ' r-' l I PP Prt c ! p i ,' .d F ,i , ' rP" " ' ' d I L, " i ; . E l ; (: . n ..",j ," r , II n, ould . ; , 1 r, l re " !i )- $ o n l' d I4t :i ,i !ur prt:ha\" t: ;:,'" .. 1 p , 1 ,.,1 , .r gi. ., r, p. ,, ., l ' r' , 1 , 1 I i ' h n . I'ou 3no"d r,ll thc t.utl. (-{r trelni s:i slni adealrtri.) I wauld ntlt. talk t o vou than dance. {-\i lrcrera sa siau de vorba etr line decil sri dansez.) -\o onc .olld haeedone1Lrnore competentlythan rou. (-\_ideni .r li tul.ur. Ia. .u mai multe comleienld dccli tine.) Du You 7rtsn, Idre .one soonerl (,\j tj pulut sir rii mai dcucd.ll Pertru r n parre . celelail,e auxiliare modale a se vcdca situiia la liecare rnodal (] . C OIS!R UCT I I I , N C ,\R N IN I,OC U IN SC S U R J ON C TI TU L S 1683 ln iimba englezn contemporani, cu erceptia celo. citeve cazuri aritate la S 1i44 , {orma leche a subjonctivului e""tetnlocui p n construcl,ii formatc LUT, ll-A.Y,NIIGHT,SHOULD, WOULD,trccunr cu ajutorulauriliarclor: qi pri'] infin itia sa\rindicativ. lxr LllT + infilitivul incompletl lormeazl un echi\.alent al S 16Eb 1) nornl. subjon ctivului prntru tostc persoanelc - singrrlar si plural - cu rrccllia persoanei a 2 a'9: n r''ll,IIIi., I ' ' , il . ^ ^-,!| l.l ! v ! , ' , I tp t u s ra |: lcr f l, L, n c . L ,l ! 1684 . O b s c r r a lie LDT esie ur ai de un pronume\n cazuldcLt.zulitl Lel n4.and,,, go lor a *alll llon't lct a sceyou again: Don't lct'r st.rft yet, v 'iil you? s | Ld's noi slaft yet, rvill Jou? 'r 2) inteles. Consirtcl,,ia Iormdt d cu ajuto|ul auxiliarului l,El esie S 15EG lntrebuinlatd pentru a exp lr)r o pr opu ,ci ur lndrnrn. un ordin indiect. o o presupunerer concesje: Let Be sp.att no$l {Protuncrc) (S,'irorl,cs. cu acuml) ,r, rs so lromcl (tndcmn) (tlai si ,nlrsrn acasall I,er'r /d, bysonesbe iysones! (lndrrn) ( f l{ i s n l i H rn l .c c u tu l l ) l lnfiDitivul incomnlet nu arc l]arti.nla lo. , La peNoa naa )r-ase Intt.:|[int:a7i] itur)edtirul, CaZI deoarece acs]a exlrili lrl

l0ii Jtt hin statt \vork ai oDce! (Ofdh indi.c.L) inr,eapi luoul imediail) 1Si1 r?r her dft'c thc motor boat an.t lle.e rvill b. u rilidenl {&csnpunercl trn (Nu mai rd .onde.d ea baroacu ,noior Ei se !r i,Li,irlr)la aocidert ) l ' \.rr t d n padpi1) o ' | t,) i rnn' ti l 'r ' ' { ,Is o ,' r,l n jro 1\r I dr' n' 1.. \ u ' r c d" , r : , d. 1 -d ,p /" 0 ' .o u l ' r" L o l' ; alit prin jlnperali\', pe rsoana a 2'a U ordin adrcsat dtfecr se ertrrimi $ 1687 (s 1 6 2 2 - 1 6 2 4 ) . $ 1588 (H b ." .n " S,' ' , " .i 1 \' dc (-{ se vedeati exenrlnele u r1a S 1928) g Iirf l, are doud lorn ngatiLc: 4) Forma ncgativi. -LPl's .Doz] lets (.olocv.) 3 u u ,e r' r z o r... (n a i c o l l l . D,n'r lcr'r wait nn rim. Cft going z.r's not I' ait lor l,im Bttlef 3el g.ing: C s D a L ' 1 l e t' s ,a r.l i a l l ri ri s l ( ool oci .i Zdfs ,o, do suoli r l|insl DO selv$te la acceDluarea ulrni 5) Acoentra re. - Lot's. - Auriliarul S lt1l0 co n s im ! em lnt entu z ' a s t: fo "Sl ,a l l $e har e c t nli i s l t' : r s u u c r? " " O h l d , i c a sl ' 3) forma contrasd. Let's. - Let rls por1, a{ca sau nu forrni contrasa duDi inlelp suiDe care il are in intentia lorbitorului: ' ,/ .;n.l ."ilul principsl /, 1.r a re toati lorla sa de 'erb lcnical (: d al p rnii.. o tnso.1. ,..'p a..pnluJl ;i r,. Jr^r'. br.a lorr j' 'or'lrJ i: 'l'ea.her. llease, l.i a6 go on a trit bX our schcs: subjonctit'a11, D./ cind Lllf este insd auriliarul unui cohiYalent, .de'i neaccentual, tornla contras:i cstc aproope cirligatorie. acccntul cdzind pe vcr bul lexical: l ' ill f" on rrrl $ 1591 . l tr, ] ,u i ,. ronJ Yo . r 1 -.,,n . d r," r' i r' Ia Inrl ' : rr' i t Dinr r - d: 1 d i ' v -d " , r' o d i . b o l n \' ' ,l o temere sau o sDerrrnla. de c cle mai mulic ori dupe conjunclia llal, s au s ub i n l e l c ;s i . l r tra d u s o u m o d ul conj unctfv (marcat d con' "\t'i 'nE t i j u n cfia s d) : I r ll raid wc nar nir* lhc sisnpostin lhc dark (Uic tcamn cl ru aotn pntl,t ved;r indi caloNl futio lc lntuneric ) Don'l, so (1orlearls lou ?,av r,.urri, ii thc stomr' {Nu pleca,sd nu ic lrindl n'ttnna ) I hopeJ ou nay ,t l i g h i . ( s pDrs t ai dr e pl i tt.) c_,,rn scop: I lravecomeso l.J'atXou nay r.ll rie thc ne$s{\m vo tit ca sii-di slui vesi.ca.) lrAr cthivalonte M\Y -f infinit'ivulinconpletesteinltubrrinl,itin 1]onsLrucliiki cu subjonctivul,pentru a expima (cu o ruanli de forrnalisttt): a,) o dorinln sa u o urare: 1e28, 's 1585, 2ctdyfi.sh, qi coleclivilrl. .rasltstus:.a.' sg. z (fo. t0) ncs@r il con{frdlF

3{19 .1, o concesie(dutn ftrtt.re,". trhatercr etc.) saLrabsenla ei: Fo'..,-m'r,,r I anJ l: t F \ a. . Lant . , rori il d. .rn , . , I np. I ol , r t oo \ t o " ,.tdt,." I t.,1, Construclia cu \'tiY se mai intrebninlo xr:l : .../ in comparalii (dupd as tl a: thaueh): Shc lo.ks,s i/16 lbulh st\. nda t:tu (,\re acNl cti fst' sata !i plin8i r it /J dupn constuncliile it i: rossi.l)b.. is trcbul)l.. it iN liLllt|: tt i pofiblelptobableitiiel3l l[ar. he /,dsr &. ttr.re. lrhte losinil/prohbil ca cl il lic arolo J ( V . ui s i S , 0:6 2 o l l ) rtrcHr \{IGHT ale acclca;i I|n(l:ii ca Si}1.\Y ( g 1591):.+te insi ftnosili,r frazele l n careverbul di trropozilia principaldse afln la trfcut. sau ttsrl,ru a suqera o starc de lucruri loarte problem$ticn. c&recaz rre rol de,qubion.ti! dutn 1i lla t erprimat sau sublnl.lcs: Shc sl,enisld nerer kno$ ilhessag.riD. {Do r1,'.1 'rt rnd (Dorea nu mai itic ni.rtudaii e tlorla.) s(i cc L.t il.did \^ ,"i.s ,'" r,.. : h r',rk I.m," (lti".d lJ , p n l . n r ', ;c i ' "/ "pur . d. l "ij, ' ln L\ I . 1, . . , r ",e 1 l.p 4l \n n, t t t l , r l_r "" n, i (Sd rdm'rd a i - d, pr a t ' i ' 11, I al - . lDr pl n o , o r Hp ,to"Fd llFsl' u' "r . . , I L \ ln" r o!lo dD. . , , , . l n. : , , n: t , , al1ir , - 1 , , , Ii oas lossiblc (Uratl hc /rigir trc iher e. (D,'!I n is ld$iil, (S lute a sd lie r 0olo. l lc.o! ,nar etc.) s 1502 Obser"a!ie d) MIGHT intrebuinlat intr o irazn a circi profozilie princfualn cona ratl circumstanle a ciror realitlllo un prezeni unori chiar si ud trerut zare est e foart problentrlici: I kn.w Jou are rer,! busy.bnl I Nishyou ntgl,.rrd hcrc. .l (il:. ." r . , i, Lr . . d rod, r . , ular . 1. , r "n rl" e ,6 itr.,id s . , r i8r l 8- t o"t in I , p L ooJ - . (li p-a L4 JmJ , - . n4 . ' n t uld, r "' . 1i i i. t di. . . ) \,,ri,j. 6J N{IGHT { infinitivul pcriacL exprinra o acliune neralizati: Shesishes.shemiaht hae.seen \ai. lDorcitesii le li vezuf. k].r nr 1.;a vii?ut).] Atenlie ! Ca auxi liare care formeazir construcl,iile echivalentc cu subjorctii-ul, \1.\1' .i ltlG ITT ii-au pi"rdut ruprin."l no;io ol l npri r I a tural/ :i. ,la .r lp nai mul o ri. r irr r u sF ridu. jn alr,, limh,,. l, rin,Lr ,^n;nd c\r.r; | " tr .d poqibi li d. d a' rpda ,lr l r',,1i" ,1, , onl-\r sau !l- in "n:iJ \ "lFd ^rbirnrul,ri ) nub.tpl' .ubti1. .u sue.. ii i'r6i"1c ",rbjonrtirului. :nrr.r"." - cbi. ruhri modale. chiar ;i tutenlii nralizatc atc. (Vezi traducerile exemplelor.) sHornD s 1693 g 1594 1) l'orllrtr. O alti etr-lrcsieechival td cu subjonctivul. dar inrreluir c olocvial, oste accca formatd cu ajutolul auriliarului SHOULD la tatn ti toate pe rsoanele.si timpurile. ;i la ambeie numere. l sau s.: ,,Do.et1e te li prtui vode.t".dn!d siftalic sau conntrn int.nliei torl ilordri.

310 Se folosescurmitoarele corNLructii: pentru a se exprima prezerrttil sau viit orul - SHOULD + infinil.ivu) prezent; pcrfccl. Ienim a sc erprima treoulul-SIIOU LD+inlinit;vul qdbjon.li\) ('rhar' y no ' ,lisob hin /".t Ir 6" rnl") { \ u , i n d. . . lt 1 ' u r' c 4 n u s F s r' l Prd Don't djsolel hin les, hc shouti be an]ry- (Prezent){arhairant) (Nu li ne$cJllntor, rd nu se supc.e ) lt I s lt uu E ! " 1 e ry . I l F s p ' rn (l i i l o rl |' ( Da. a \ a u m' r. i \. i " \p l i '" " , pd rd ' I r , ! inloo. \ ibp tl h d tt y o t s l ," rl d h o . pb .-r b n gry.(T-.ur) r' tl ' a l F r' :u p rr' a l ,l u + ,u p It " l" c , inn ulinla (rJ I' $1695 ln lirnba cneleznmodernii, atii scrisi cit Ei TorbiLS,con3l I'onctii. S 1696 L; str(Lctiacu SiI O UL D i nlooujps forrna veche a sub.ionctivuluiln urmxtoarel6 2) inteles. - SHOULD. ca auxiliar utitizat la formarea unui eclivalent' al subio n,iivului, esta intrcbuinlAt uDeori pentru a arlta cA o ac,tiune sau o stare est e problematic{, dar nu,si irealizabila: ' t l \ r . 1lhaLt rttu. " t l ti n . i l l l l ,i ,ai o ri rE m " u p / r r' o 8i \ p mF a ri n8 ) d l In l i n p t' i . s p u npI sl _mrl ' l pronezp ( 1, ' d + r ' nUr l ,l d .u 1 \d ' S 1697 a.) dupi il tcst,far f.ar, tiLI, ut il, Ifbt stouLl cane,t.thim lino\t tlc news. (Presu!un-".e) {Daol a. li s, ainn, slu ne i restca ) c c s ir l. hc " d1.c /. p rro tl ,J l a ' ! ' J .(S' ImerP ) ^ lJ '\' 'n"n l^p. , n l L L . f " / i l o r r l " s.r ' ' 5 ' J si ' iJl 11 Lest Ne (shavlt) torset (Scof, tc'ncre) (Ca rd nu uitim l) wc dare not sli. /of /ed. sh e sno.ii, a'ara trp {Tcme.e) (Nu tndriznin sd ne m\oin dc tcanl cit arc sI se lr tzcascitl d r1 i 4 a r , B hil . l, r . _ mr' , p n r.p i i \ i ' _ JrF ,) dup[ fsr) r/ul, peniru a cxprina un scopr un ordinl o propuncre sau S 1598 o suges hc : I rm rv rilins thG so rloi rou shoulitact accor(linElJ lsoor) illd ) {iti sc.ju aocaslac a 3n prooedeziin conser Tiie olrre6 s{re o,dr$thnt tlie nrines/rtld ,. floscd (O in) iPlt..nii a! dar ordin e7 se ii,tiide rnina l a' i i ' ) l opn" r' p rn i .r " l l -1 l I or ol " s ; " 1 l b .l rh ) iPior'trn , JLts l'ed, lsili ) ." I " : | ri nro Lbi rc i \p i l upi for' r' r l59C ' tp ri ' r- !" ,rrr ' . i ir t r " 7, l" " t.2l etol ts.us^t' !a\ p im a l r s a u .rrb i n l J -r... i u n " ia t f r at i ,rF .- J l 5 J-: t . , ' nni1J 1 . t.) r, r t. tt i c .1 t t J ' .t r o sl nn )' i t ts not l rtt ,tt,ts su rp r iprnbobl i ,ri r: r""".ttct, fo r' J r' ,tP J ;1 i ' t. ' nt:nt ' i r:. po' si bt p\r' : "nit 1 't t' ,' . tl ' t i ' t! r.r' ' nn I'A ti, nll at t t , . q rt" l i u n ). tt t. tn : J an iorry (rhr t) lon slould sal/ so (rkgret cii st,ui accasta) p .h a 4 d I' a ' s " , p S u. t ,a p: , t lh' | "pn o u r'l'" ,hJrrl ri on.l ' i l rl i n!l otl r" pron L:) ;l ( Le 1. . 14: J 1 r l n u l a r it t , r " ' . ot u rl l , r, y o u /L" l J ,r, o! l } l ru lh i LE . t " n. r ' J i ; ' u n o $ LJ ' rF \' ,u l l $e| re r_ou p . t ! x o! iI pa" r , l" ttttd . s h -" h .u tJ 1 " ,\. " ,.,r\h I t , a. u r ; r r ljD l ;" , e d ., Ii S i j r " n l ' " ' l l r l IDsdiptie p nonumrlul eroului necnnoscut "Tl). Ct'Iotalh" de la Lor{j"!

311 h sds olt at te qa6ti.n (Ll,atl sli! slould ({i& ihe.e. {Era crcl,,s si nea.ge ! t jos linil acolo.) l, is th;a ht tin " ( ' hr ' ) l' . . r . z / d. p i^ bq . i , " ' l' m ul n t', . l{ElJ r, b uJ "Do vox tike it?" "1 shiull thint sol" ( li i; r ac c ?- c re i l ;i e d l ) \or sh.attt hae lEdtd them lraising lLinl (Sd-i li auzit lludntdd l!l Iesterday in thc $lfeet, lvho ./,dl I sce}ut llJlll (Ieri. r)estradl, !e cine eo ved? Pc Nari al) i in unole Dropozilii sccundarc condilionale. in care ac{iunea ardtatd 5160f .e po -i i l ,i l l in r iit nr et e c o n .i J ' r" t.,.l .o d rl , p ru b l F rn r i ' i ' rpropozi l i r pri n" i pal a p ndl" ,o l l rn F r n r nlr ' 3lr v . u i ' .o n d rl ro n o l s P U u n l m pD ra l fi : t l . t ps t oul, tL .t.tp d !tn p o t.q t ,n d I ti l l l " tr" ttta\ ( 1J . l\ J f gan .z 1 ,a " o ' J r l l .rJ p rn L p o ngrl l ShnlJd, @ccpl to t.cture, theJ Nauld be inteteste.t he (Dacn ar acceptasd li i o conldrinll, i-.tl iniersa) r hn 4d h. r t r C L p . p ,t L m tt,r^ u ,. t , l h . s , .rpl rr)l ., , r" 1 ru n ..,.J .r l pg5urd.u" " rr l a" ul .l Db, . J s ' \ J t ; t m o l ' r (]litodre: $ 1{i02 f) pentru a ar{ ia o conccsic, cind subjonotivul exprimd o acliune ^ N l . " .,1 ,h ^ u th\" I t h o rl d l rush aL n" . I $: ll s De. Lm v 1lo, " pln" , " i ..' ,o s r ' ' rd d ., " 1 fi .i r./, nc r. i n .r Hor . / . f hat d l ' ^ :to ttJ h o r ta r!d " . h $ i l l n " vrei vp I ( u" i. . r d' T . it .' r J . d d " s u o i : . ,;l n u ' a r ' nLr I . ni :odJ ' W hok t e. D a t n ts ./,,r' /J o v .s h .$ rl l s .n m il l u | ' i rde' ti ' n ( O r r " s . s ^4 p ;" i l i .i . d ,^ v d s p n " l u rJ" i rj ; l or' pun" d,/ in stilul exclamativi ttoric: like tnis: Th{i sherno,U D,nd'e {S.ise poarteca astielll $ 1600 g,) h unele propozi.tii comparativc, dupn as if' as lliorgh: niss otlr train. I[ lools o' ilwe snoz,,, (Ni se pi.e oe arcm si lie r, l..cnnl.l s 1603 S 1604 n) in ulele propozitii conparative introduse de cuvinteie lidn (that): an so It is bctter sl,e inozd..uit:, hc.Iailings now rather tltun (that) yon sl@ut d nuttitrc no wilh ihem. i Es"bmd i b' nF . , r id" d s J T .' l p i i u i l r ' I b .u m d q rl ,.onl ;nui 1i l d l ol drd) d Th Frpi s nolhinsir . d s l' k a . n ," .,/td , /h a rrl p o t l p . h a L l ,J ; - u . hi ^. r\i mi cnu. i di- p lJ ' " n i In , r,1 .. r' " \n " i p a s ' .J " ' p re pl ITOL]LD s 1605 1) Formi. -,A.uxiliarul NOUI-D esl.r intrebuinlsi iu lormarea unui $ 1606 e.Li\J "nr rl.uhjon.rirului nun ri Ir1'-rrorne '2-r;i c: J l8 dmbdc nunera 9i la toate timludl. f \\OUf .D- inl;\;tirut Ir'"Lt -\f irn" pr"r"r lu' 'r \ ior'l ir['n', r' ' t rl .t 4\o,i,nd rr'ru L]. 1 \\,'Ul.D I $i!h rou mald stt doFJll {Prezenl.) f De c c u s la i j o s l { : It d .ri ' t s l a i j o s . )] I wish she trozil .otu tomorowl (Viiiofl lD-ar veni niincl (: Ii dori .d vin{ mline-ll I vish you ,"ozd na'e rdez himl (Ticcut) {sill Ii Yizt rtl) l conjunclia ,nd, nu pdte li omisi aici 0a b ctempld pr.oedent

nt S 160? $ 1608 2) inkhuinlre. duparerbu] in a) $OULD estefoloijt I tnodobi$nuit stilu]coloovial l o tti. h ! - nlr u . , , rp ri -r o d o ri n l i r, d l i T d b i l d: I s ; h r ot r ( , & l d ..ti ' e a rl rl l t ( f if e) ; r dor is d l i i d e v re m e (D c c e n u v i i d e rrI,c?)l S 1609 . suh6, Cind insn dorinla exprimaln Psrt ireali.abib. se inirebuintazn l o n cr r v ur pf ez enl: I Nish yotr tel h.rcl l tAt dori sd lii aioi (d&r nu e s.tj) Ob scr e a lie exprinn o dorinl* o dat el rr) NOULD pcatesugera insu-si dorin-t5 , ai,unci S 1610 fiind ffmai de un subjonctiv: ireali.zabild, I Qoui.l I ('rd Xoul 1-\s dori sli lju tn locd tau.) Woul.t, il hatL mL bce| sol (De n-ar li lost atal) s 16rr xprime !i voinln: ,i NOULD cu valoarc de subjonctir-condilional, Wnat ,odd you nd'e me do? (Cc-airrea sd lac?) Look at it as I r'ruld, I could no t see thc ditferenc. todcun al fi p.i'il'o (: at Ii uui s-o piYesc), nu lutcam ve deanici o deosebire. s 1619 IN !' IN IT IV U L 1r iimba engleze modern[, infinitivut inlocuiFte adeseori subjonctivulEl se tradu ce de celc mai multe ori prin conjunctivul din limba romAnl: I s \ J llapt up 1 -\ l ' , | ," Ia r.. (S u b j .i rn a t ,.trnJ (!er' matl I bhdll! up p l rl \ ' o l ro b " Ia l -. (In .i n i ri v l ! 1U, 1 oi s c uh e \fe n r. c d & t n u l n i i rz rr' ) i 1 ," d o l l d .p ' ' H n I r ' l^i" , r n l 1 : l s u L . p_/ nl ) (-" rn' dl r llF i' ll ui h , .,,.1d ' i t to s r.o k . { In ri d ,tv ) (" o .nr1) l. ; ul ui, h ' h a nI d . i t h F ;d 4 ? d c u l ' j . p -7 ,ro.!" ,1 1 ' ol o.!dl ) (RidicaL nina oa ti cnm ar li voit !d vorbeasoil ) : " " n, uLs oul tt.a t. o m o 9 l p p d td .l [.]' i tJl onl : bj ]l toanal ' S lt f s nF ik sl iud r4 b pn e d rd .(In l i n i ti !) (Volbiile tarc ca .".ilie auziH.) rle clos cdone evc that he nfsnt i.d beiio. {Dchiralcnr subj.) (tormal) H. c los ed one q t' c ,.." .e b e i ta r- (l n l i n i ti v ) 1l Inchis un ochi ca .sdaadn mai r rjne.) Thc childrendesovc thai.thex.n rld 8o to the licturcs {Echiralentsubj.l ( lormal) The ohilitrendcreNe i, so lo tIc piciures (Inlinitiv) {Coliii ru.riin sd se duca la cincmatogral.) ohl that I sn d D, youns asain. (nchi le'li sulj.) (I omai) O hl / , Dr loun g i s a i n l (l n l i n i tj v ) { , \ hl id liu iJ t ti n rri ) s 1613 estepreferati initivului pentru a da o nuanlndifeUnco subjonctivut ti inlelesulu i: ireale) ore milel {Prcsupnnere rhe SuDpose distance@d.e (lnihipuielite-fi oe dis tania .r li o Inild.) cerlA) lhc SuDpose distance,o ,e onc nile. (Presnpunere (s d p.csupunem distania esr. o nfle.) oe

318 IN D ]C A T ]VU L s 1614 Subjorctivul, a!'ind majoritatea lorrn{rlor moderne idenfice cu aceieaule indica tivului, este inlocuit de acestain loartc nrulLe cazul in stilul col.ocpial: Irv ishI (aslrou {ln loc de l d/,Jou"). (ir Sulpose easryonrlaUrer locde "]rcrele yo nrlatho"). he I shalluphold loint ol vicwwhcther i on my sideor not.(ni lo! d! r 'wheth{r mI he he ,, on rny sideor not" : pcrinal.) He does lo.L poetic not altl oug[ he is a loet (1n I o. dc "allhoxgh r. a !oel" == hc I am ai.iid heotll r.la le to. theoreninS .iglit (i n I o c d e "l ad airaidlcst lrcbd late_.." perirnar l n,dicativ tiind irsn l ndrmentald in g 1616 Deoscbirce dintrc subjonctiv -si c eea ce prive9te tnlelcsul, sint cazuri irr care subjonctivul e preierai, iiind r ec.saf prntru clariistea stilului (S 1557). n I:rfttITtrLAxx In aftrrn de .rechi ul subioncliv. c'1reare o singuri fofrnri. areoa a irlini- S 1616 ri!ului incoml let, 9i cares-a nrerlinul in unele cazuri in lin$a englcznmodcrnn. subjonctivul modar,, arc dou; innpuri: prez.nt Fi pofect. l'ouna veche a subjonctivului cste pu,t;l folositn in limLr englezi actr.raii; rd esie intrebuinl,atn mri nluli in Statel Uniie al -\nrlrricii. h stilul r:olocvial. scris sau lorlit. cu e\cepiiia cjton-n e\presji iiliomaricc. a disprinrt aproape cu to1xl. S-a cnli,rut 1n hnLa scriEnin diferite donenii (literaturn, t)oezie. qtiinln, tebnicn, ziaristn,n) s i 1n slilul olicial ljuridic. l,arlamntar, ln nroccsc-vrbdle. de seamnetc.). Fiind iidcpendenii de tirnp, forma dnri reche a subjonct vulrri esle jntrebuinlati in propozi_tiile carc so reiori la rrl.. timp. prezpnt. tNcul sau. rii.tar. Subjon ctivul prczcnt fi subjoncl.i\'ulpcdect nodern sint folosite in mod r',rrent atil ln stilul colocrial. riit qi tn stilul formal sau oiicial. o jn scris. ln aIarl de oilera caprcsii{ixc ($ 1518.1579),rrnde"qa menlinut, qi de ronstrucl,iite cu unele corjunclii las if, enz, if. lest sat'r:,,rdrirg,. ridl etc. ( i( 1564)l c are cer subjonctit'ul, acesta e-steinlocuit: a,/ fie prin ind;cattu. c\t care ar e forme comunc, (onluodtrdu-sc adcsea: suhjanctiaul tre.ent at inilicatiaul trec t; tubjoncti.rnt,perf.ct cn trcctttt pttfrict: i,) {ie prin construotii fornaia ru ajulor!1 auxiliarelor LliT, }I\Y {\rroIIT), sHotir,n. $.oLrr,D: () tie Wn\ hfinitit. i do i,,lclesearo dd rai peDtrLr erprim,r turere etc. s t(n S 1i56. Cons i .l i i ar fi i n l i o rl c { rj 1 :d e l l: .{d... sa,tas i-= e zi s i qi IDtrebuintflrea subjonctivulLri o precizie o subtililali nu poi fi oblinute prin indicativ. subjonctivul liind prefe a irnprobabililate, rcticn1I, indoialir, r)esiquranln, presu d o a t u b s l .a l d a .d , u i i x l i l i z a t ad.s.a i fbaj ul ,-a e (:ber or ! ) r dr aio ,r,o e ri oL r' 1 :i e aml str" . 1i s,-r.' ,1 nrl ai i z,rntsi destul de fo.nra excetrt. Iul f.ri 1: n' aiaft-r liu \l!p1jrl i tii 'lc. 1 \'

314 s 1617 { 10f8 r ll. coNDrfroNALuL (T IIE C O\D IT IO N _ {LJ prczcnt f/i." Presnl Canditianal)se formeazi cu ajuto1) Conditionalul r r u l a u xr li. alo rSHOULDrl..p-r .o-n,,i | :-. : i t l. r ii \ \ -O t ' L n rl" p ,' . o J ' ra a 2-a !i a 3 a sg.9i pl.)' urmatedc inlinitivul prez"rrtal srbuluide c oxjugat: I should callr you lvouldcaUrihe. she,it wouldcdl; calli lou worl(l call; theywo uldcall. w should Condii,ionalulpreze t se traduce In limbaronAni cu acela;i timp fi nlod 2l (ronditionihrl pcrfecr (the PerfectCand.itianal,sc formcazi cu ajut. ,n aurili"r.tor sHor LD,ls p, r. I sJ. !i Dl.r .i \\or LD rl" par". a 2 i -i x.l r sg. ti r'1.r.urn a " de jniinitirul p"tf" r ,l \"rLului dp .onjugJr' you,he,s he.it wouldlavc callcd; I should haveealledi $B should hare calledi you, thcy s'ould have cald. S 1619 Condi,tionalulperlect se traducc tn limba romend,:u acelati tinp ti mod3) Condit ionrlul rerbelor dofectirs Inodslo, - Condii,ionalul vcrbelor ! 1620 CAN si I\IA Y aro s(ccsli formn cd Ei trcutul lor: COULD, respectir-l{lGlIT, urmai de infinit ivul prezcnL p.nLru condilionalul prezent. sau de irlinilivul perfcoL p.ntru r,o ndilionalul prlect ( S 1580 1582): Lo u'J,lll. s h" it.dlt: J ou c , . lt . , alt : . . p \co,.o o"_,, '.,, lr ' ou . onr . . a r : ) I .orld halc califdi Xou conld hale c,lleili ) h . , sl,/. :l . oin, l h . d i ld, l \ .o, t. D4t4l $",ou l,l.h"r".dll d: . ^u, u ll , , d, , I . d . " \ " o . U l 'a \ o J mrr ' . l. . l )"m.1.'.s1 l li.:u r s ':'. l ' \ .' -", Al is hl } t . .1 l o L n ' i .l I I I i{ I r ' r \ . r r r lu n, ghr hr \ " c d l e d .j called II miJl'l .1ll:. ) ^L. , iel . . il r i. ir '.crribl \C-.,.-,.",, ' .1 -J h" .Jr. ' Ti S l ' l .l l : .I S r;.-\' I \ co,n. D tl e.t I ulrnat l )erfect " .-.--, ," L I OUGIIT redi el insr.rli 1.1e", dc condilional al modalLrluj I'IUST. d a i n f iJ , ir i' ul pr c z e n t p e n tru , o rL l i l i o n a l u l p rc zcntr sau de i nl i ni ti ' ul pentru condilionalul porlect: lI ' ughl / o o J l ' : J o u o u c l " o ' l l . ' . J . . i r ougrl l o ' ,l l l .^. I \ - o. qhl lo r J Il : J o ! o L " \' l o " l - l h e ' u u g \l l o 11' l o u sht l I oughl ' o h J \, c J l l " d : y o u o u g r to l ,a \' .Jl dl h ..1" . i l I ougt . L' o t1 !.

,1 ,re r I \ | na | $" ox ght lo L d \e ' .l " d : J n I L x g h r ru L J ." .1l l eJ: In.y uugnt J t 10 nale .allcd { Ve z iti S ,0 5 i ) S 1621 4) Condi,tionalul moilestiei sau lolitelii. - Condilionalulprezental verpentru e xprimarca belor delective modateesie adeseori intrcbuinlat, .ondilt.> nalului ma desrieisan politelii: CouA -ti\ tett me lhe tin.". l]leasc? .erJ. w r ,i tl r w a r, . rl , g ,,. ' o w r uLr' l V I' I-o l u Io u .a " l o ' a cme In ni sl ,' ? You sll;zldD't.do ih ai, you lino*l O&sn,you lo go lor fl Falk in this wealher? t tt..u u lJ,r d s r d t om r t rnmoi ir slihl r ne li. . \ q. "! . nt r r r,.r. i 2 a - ! - . f o , i . 1 r n t r b , r i n : . , r 1 1 , 'l / i

CONDITTON.ITUL 316 A se compara acstforme tn conirast cu formle indjcativului: Caz r.ou tcll me the tiu,e, please? ,"s ivalch the gane on 1'onr TV (set). Do yo ! oare lor a shor ionight? M&s, you go lor a walh in this aeather? IV, IMPERITIVUL lTirE rlrPnRATlvD) s 1622 1) Doiinitie, lmperativuleriprimi dile.l un odin, unindemn,o sugestie,$ 162t o u n o rugeminie,o urarejo recomandore, slat. o dorinli, o anenin,tare) consubrecL. iesie tc..motiv D{intmcarcnu are in senere gaee jt your oinL wirl tr!. l,he .hild alonelr N ota 1 Subjonctivul ate. printrc altc llnlc!ii, ;i pe rcelea ale irrrporaiivului$ 1694 (Sl'',14. 1547.l5be. li i3. l-,;;r. Aratar' ldSlClJ. dar nr aJr"' l"d,r'rlpers.r anr a 2-a. oi l/di.l. la persoana1 sau a 3-a ( S 15814,ceeace il deosbegte de impe rativ. 2) l.otmi,. - Inperativul. pr;r insnli Jcljnilji ltri. nu poJte J\eJ de'j t S 1626 ., a., idnJli, i.ir d, Fp, a inlini pprsoonq 2 asingDl0ri, rtutot. o rr .il"r o tivului incomplet (dpci tiri alr): Diel nln Ha!. a cup ol lcal ntalp- ro1'l ]]. 8oodr, all oi )0uJ drla, LJJrpbai lrprqoin"i0 2-?i ti $ rn tntt"rutt! indi., r { "lres-t t"rr^dn, i I si a 3-a). ,q.ceastIinteryretare ru torcspunde lnsd nici remnilicaliei moduri ]or rcspp.li\n limpprdti\ul F\p'in,inJ un ordin d/r',1. i"t subjon.rir,rl Ln urd in tnitft t). nii Irddll'-'ii tn lrn br rom;nJ. 3 Nota Yerbele defective modulc nn au inperativ. nici nu funclione&zi ca auri liarc ale unui impcrdtiv. 3) Timp. - Imperativul nu are decit prezentl trecutul lipscste, iar fnrma dF pFrt'.1 '.r e un idiom rar. ." ;n: a'\llr il) (l'erminliodatil) Haeedan6 N o ta 2 S1626 inrperativ si lorna de subioncti\-con' ca tlnii eramaticieii cons ideril auriliarului lr( s l5b4)s i \ ^ rh p . d u n ; 4 ' t z rd t t r LE s t r u i t r r u i m pe r a li'ul $ 162? $ 1628 1barc the chitd.alone ! s l.ao. I lct llk chihl b. ! : las{ colilll In l{cLrl r looi ?rr, I : asculi,-Ll^! ! poorru lr5".rTn .r:, ' l, d"auni. b n- . i' 1", - 1 "m l . r d 'r . ' l r , n , . . u i m l '" o r i . r| 1;nd. I.a,l9 B"G..d. n, id r or l, lon l' , . , , bun_ - p luDL li"d "il'l n i !lp-,i, ' r dl u , . d6 de. . , . . . a ; o o d , . b u n '. i F ri t tul u' . i r';6p ,uma .r5u i - . d r _idL. : . . Coni 1 b l,i r - . m ( n l'l , : h J r a^at r . 1l"i: aBadnn n . hor " lau b"n o .r s n. ir pu r, unl-dr. 1"l-,Ll'Do l. '.

310 S 1C29 4) Asleft. Diatezi. lmperativul nu are asl,cci continuu, nici diatezd pasivn do(,lt ln cu totul exccplionRl: 'r1od \.n ,, "i l dinnpr qh"nl' 4c "r '. Id ,- at r t t ' s lhd u I | , . b; d, , ; s pr . r . i( h, E lT. Ca . . - l rc !rcpa.e.l1 I i |. dfescd ] n ""n*u..d' I bc s cated I be oomtoriedt I nl I'asi! $ f63O 5) Im iratiml ncgttil se construieste cu auxiliarul DO urmat de hfi nitivul inco nrplet, chiar in cazul \erbelor to be ,s]to lwrel D,"l Ddso sdtisl,l ,o no,so ho met'etl ,o,L nareher in nowl Dan't do thrl! ln stilul poeticsclntilnastcsi torlnafdri DO, carede azitextului o savoare voit arhaiL a: Crll no, thysell a slavcto manl Fiel Charitll .Vezfrn,, in sliie.i O h eart.los, no,th1-mhreF r\tun.i oiud in propozilia imperrtive se lolosettc o alti i negalie decit auxiliradverbul nol. la formarea constructiei negdtive nu s; ini rebLlin,teazn rul DO: l'.r.r say diel ,Ioua ol you goesa\a-!l NabadsiNa ane sl.a Jsbchindl Formclc do subjonctir construile cu auriliolul LET, !i considerate de uDii scriitori ca inperativ, potj sau rlu pot, sn pr'imasri auriliarul DO lft for ma Degativi: do not/don'l.lei .all sdzlct me nol call. ctc. rr Formele negativc conslruite cu auxiliarul DO silt, ccle ilttrclruirlate in lllod normal aiit, jn limba scrisn, cil Fi in rca lorbit;, chiar pentru verbele 10 Le si ta harr: Don' t hr n. ke.p you lron your Forkl ,oa', ld,'r so liomc yet! ,o4'l l.r her De a bLfden io ]oul Do natldol't tct the ni la,e their oirn {.yi Don't lets do srch a thingl &r's nor do such a thingl Formcle nesalire conslruile idrll auxiliarul D0 sint iDtrcbuiilate iD Iinba lite rard oii in stilul formal, oficial sau oratoric: Let ts nat *ek ralD areuncnts. lnkind lo her. -I-c,lheN uo, Z,d ,., s normissseejlg rut exilaordinarJ si.uniman a. S 1631 $ 1639 6) ,q.ltoint'rebuinFri, Inperativul mai est lntrebuit,tat: o, penlru a eliprima o sfidare,o ameninlare: JT Pr p n ^ \' . ' f 1 o u , d n Go i,r r .b n llo u . ri q " l ,.t,l e.. rCitaicdcIt. QniL, A Crunmat of Conlenpatat! Enslilh, i.)2. sW. shakeslearo, Iti ng HeDy W. 3W. Shakespenrc. ndmkt, Ptince.t Dentuatk.

317 n ) i n tr o. t r f ot ! ' z it ic .,.u . nr ri .!",.r/]/, . pr r oo/ r r r r i L rts l fs .u n d i l i o n a l . i i n al sau concesi v. artesea ( t6JB fl ,i t .,1 r" ,d r-c u p ri r ,l - ,rn i Iti ." ti \ .a. un i m_ ' l-df Js r',, n r , u , , . . . . r oJ . h. . n ' .r .r . (u 1.r r o"t i , . , , \ "r , . on. : ng"c r d i r r . ! " r , . ' an r,.| . ... rd tp ,n , . tp ro rerh " ,.i L , l, , i I . g" t , r t.,. n J t{ r, , In i ., . to, fruit and keo! ltt {Rectalnn) (Mircafi lruc rc c, si tifi sentitot , abne ud se! mr toior..Flt Lvlro sli r. !cr.n !)iinctl I I \ or k / P\ { i ' v " rr.l ,rl h s ol e,l ri .i m;nru , ' , i - r I di c r r, ,n ...,., 1 \ J ,p a :, d , ,gJ.. ", o J \!-r LliL ",.J.,ot-,!,,r tLt ,.. 7) lormr acee hratl. l ornla accenlurta a imperurivutLri se L,rnst,ru_li l6J,t _ ielt ,u.,"r'.,.', Do,,,r,., r; I.201: l)D stoD snireltinsl ,o h a * a otL* ;rkel ,o l.t lrc s-a-" you homel: 8)'I'raalu{rere. Imperativul se iraduce t lirnba romendtot. printr un \ l63b S,or ihrt noisel(Nu mai taec zaomot!Taci!) IJeWier) (1ati ! "ttai t)rinjntc Jrat liristil.| I ,,nl $orryt (N!-Li taoo grij ) m^,,i,nrr td Qrb2.r, Lr,ij qJr;J6 . ".9..:.ul'ic,rul_imt'crxli\ului. bup,,Irn,-0 r' .n, ",trvul nu irr tI spnFr. !u biF.t. 'rotrnr:rp L\i.t" n.i .i ud,ir ", , tri.,n.h rn , d|n .ubiF.tLt. tiinJ (o , ,si r, -"sar. s a m{]nlrnut puternc afcentuat: d.,/ pentru elitarea unei conlu zii; ,, pentN fl ie atrage at.rlia persoaneiadresate: .i mai / r' ,.,/ul r, l. | .r .r.t'r.r. Fnrt./, i ,rn,i .:nJ "r.,"teri.ti. prFz.r,1 .'rr)rF.r.rtulFmn,lp.r zio nudnli, ih" ivd nFcxprims.i _ rs.,.drp. nerrul um.r n.:Lrttr,,r" sru ,li.,r, ot'ivi. r-nJrr!... duiosi. "r". SuUi"":-i ",r," .na,rr 2.a:pro ; : : :i, , il1;l ;il l l ," E r e m pl e: . . i L ).h :t . o) r'u ner" , z u n n u "e p r n r r iu a r.dseIA1d ; 'o , ',il;T,jl",i',1q"l.j",';:' 11,1,:;;,.'l;;:il 'r'e a t p'd,?-'r' , r''' h rp o n v o : r rre s ', 1 ' -. r r r . . r r.. .\,.r l p. u ,\.. . ,r.. . ,""0 i I Don I J 4 r 4 ,- t.u "-t ut You r , - t &lr h . . , , . J . d$i , t , , . , rnd uod. Lehz. tne "i"r,,?l;,li" L o .r d

r\ ,i^\ ", \Fvtsr ,nr n ndt \u 1 6 p, . . . r d r r , 5e, ijl: t \ . ,.,p ' m r,F .r , \.TJ \n w g o j on, .\.-r..;p e (J l i ;L rol i a,al r t.d,s.L ljo I av , h nr J t o n r' D d ,',' r t , ls I noa, " .rJ f rl n l u crul) ll L l:ezi si g 15 83 . y, . ,' " ' r." p i ,]I, ,Yj .;.p , :,arpr.j au,i n r" . i d " s p u . :, y o , try th l t d nd Jo. l t se" l 1 l .,..,i .a ru r,r ,ri ,i _i .z: ,epi 1..i i iil,:,,,p ,trv.r o, / r ". . . . J oJ H. t 6h. . . . f . ". . it t . t SL,l n .. " t arur, . . , t ru .omporra ara,ri r { A n, h ,ilrlrri rl&o lt u; s , t d/ . t ils , . . niuhf i U. i1 a ] . o o t . Iozi,,i.i..

318 1.,!t, ll' ,jrld Jjo n. , / o/ nq lr. : cLDlu lrnn "c".,1 dr ' olo{ l. , ; lrl \ ov a", r. r r'o, e '. 1 ! i s oolbor : ' L d"r '.,-ii:"r m in ln' , -: 'lAi ' sl at dcstdl)j , il 1, .' '. '', " I n - : p : Hdi. n 1 " : 1 / - , d o - m i l \' 5 \p7r . b n' ll l1.e l l' / : ld' rul: l. "1". ,u , 'd " I . n p 5 r 'n " , ili te nriiti dc aioi.)l r \ '' Confuzia l