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Cuprins

CUPRINS

1. CMPUL ELECTROMAGNETIC N TEORIA MACROSCOPIC...................7


1.1 Cmpul i substana....................................................................................7
1.2 Ipotezele teoriei macroscopice a fenomenelor electrice i magnetice........8
1.3 Mrimi fizice ale cmpului electromagnetic..............................................9
1.4 Clasificarea regimurilor cmpului electromagnetic....................................11
1.5 Teorema fundamental a cmpurilor de vectori (Helmholtz)....................12
1.5.1 Divergenta unui vector................................................................13
1.5.2 Rotorul unui cmp vectorial........................................................15
1.6 Cmpuri poteniale......................................................................................17
1.7 Cmpuri solenoidale (rotaionale)...............................................................19
1.8 Operaii vectoriale compuse n calculul cmpurilor....................................20
2. CMP ELECTRIC. INTENSITATEA CMPULUI ELECTRIC.........................21
2.1 Sursele cmpului electrostatic.....................................................................25
2.1.1 Starea de electrizare prin ncrcare................................................25
2.1.2 Starea de electrizare prin polarizare..............................................27
2.2 Determinarea distribuiei cmpului electric................................................29
2.2.1 Teoria coulombian a cmpului electrostatic................................29
a. Cmpul electric coulombian produs de sarcina adevrat
(formula integral)......................................................................29
b. Relaii de calcul ale cmpului produs de starea de polarizare...31
b.1 Modelul dipolar al dielectricilor polarizai. Sarcina
electric de polarizaie..................................................32
b.2 Teorema echivalenei dintre un mic corp polarizat
electric i un dipol electric elementar...........................33
2.2.2 Teorema fundamental a cmpurilor vectoriale.............................36
a. Integrala de suprafa a cmpului electric. Fluxul electric.
Dependena cmp-surs............................................................36
b. Integrala de linie a cmpului electric........................................39
b.1 Tensiune electric.........................................................39
b.2 Potenial electrostatic i diferen de potenial.............40
b.3 Tensiune electromotoare...............................................43
c. Intensitatea cmpului electric i inducia electric n corpuri...44
2.3 Cmpul electric staionar. Starea electrocinetic.........................................54
2.3.1 Caracterizarea global a strii electrocinetice. Curent electric de
conducie........................................................................................55
2.3.2 Caracterizarea local a strii electrocinetice..................................57

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2.3.3 Curent electric de convecie...........................................................59


2.3.4 Cmpuri electrice imprimate..........................................................61
A. Cmpul electric imprimat de acceleraie..................................61
B. Cmpul electric imprimat de contact.......................................63
C. Cmpuri electrice imprimate termoelectric.............................63
D Cmpuri electrice imprimate de natur electrolitic................64
3. CMPUL MAGNETIC. INDUCIA MAGNETIC............................................65
3.1 Sursele cmpului magnetic..........................................................................66
3.1.1 Conductoare parcurse de cureni electrici. Fora Laplace..............66
3.1.2 Corpuri magnetizate.......................................................................67
3.2 Determinarea distribuiei cmpului magnetic.............................................70
3.2.1Teoria laplacean a cmpului magnetic staionar............................70
a. Cmp magnetic produs de conductoare parcurse de curent
electric (formula Biot-Savart-Laplace)......................................70
b. Calculul distribuiei cmpului magnetic produs de corpurile
magnetizate................................................................................77
b.1 Modelul amperian al corpurilor magnetizate................77
b.2 Echivalena dintre un mic corp magnetizat i o bucl de
curent.............................................................................79
3.2.2 Teorema fundamental a cmpului magnetic.................................82
A. Integrala de linie a cmpului magnetic.....................................82
B. Integrala de suprafa a cmpului magnetic. Fluxul
magnetic...................................................................................85
C. Cmpul magnetic n corpuri....................................................87
4. LEGILE CMPULUI ELECTROMAGNETIC
4.1 Legea dependenei dintre inducie, intensitate i polarizaie
n cmp electric...........................................................................................93
4.2 Legea polarizaiei electrice temporare.........................................................93
4.3 Legea fluxului electric.................................................................................95
4.4 Legea conduciei electrice...........................................................................96
4.5 Legea transformrii energiei n conductoare parcurse
de curent electric de conducie...................................................................99
4.6 Legea dependenei dintre inducie, intensitate i magnetizaie
n cmp magnetic........................................................................................101
4.7 Legea magnetizaiei temporare....................................................................102
4.8 Legea fluxului magnetic..............................................................................103
4.9. Legea conservrii sarcinii electrice............................................................104
4.10 Legea induciei electromagnetice..............................................................107
4.11 Legea circuitului magnetic........................................................................118
4.12 Sistemul complet al legilor cmpului electromagnetic.............................122

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5. REGIMURILE CMPULUI ELECTROMAGNETIC...........................................123


5.1Clasificarea regimurilor cmpului electromagnetic....................................123
5.2 Ecuaiile de ordinul I ale cmpului electromagnetic ..................................124
5.3 Poteniale electrodinamice...........................................................................126
5.3.1 Ecuaiile de ordinul II ale cmpului electromagnetic.....................126
5.3.2 Particularizarea ecuaiilor de ordinul II ale cmpului
electromagnetic n funcie de regimurile cmpului........................127
5.4 Analiza regimurilor cmpului electromagnetic...........................................129
5.4.1 Cmp electrostatic..........................................................................129
a. Teoria potenialului electrostatic...............................................129
b. Teoremele electrostaticii ..........................................................134
b.1 Teorema condensatorului..............................................134
b.2 Teoremele lui Maxwell pentru sisteme
de conductoare aflate in echilibru electrostatic............140
b.3 Teorema energiei electrostatice.....................................143
b.4 Teorema forelor generalizate in cmp electrostatic....146
5.4.2 Cmpul electric staionar ...............................................................149
a. Formele particulare ale legilor cmpului electromagnetic
n regim electrocinetic .............................................................149
b. Rezolvarea problemelor de regim electrocinetic....................151
5.4.3 Cmpul magnetic staionar...........................................................153
a. Teoria potenialului vector......................................................153
b. Teoremele cmpului magnetic staionar..............................158
b.1 Teorema inductivitii proprii..................................158
b.2 Teorema inductivitii mutuale...............................160
b.3 Teorema lui Maxwell cu referire la inductiviti..........162
b.4 Teorema energiei magnetice ........................................164
b.5 Teorema forelor generalizate n cmp magnetic..........168
b.6 Circuite magnetice........................................................168
5.4.4 Ecuaiile cmpului electromagnetic cvasistaionar........................173
5.4.4.1 Ecuaiile cmpului electromagnetic cvasistaionar
n medii imobile...........................................................173
a. Ipotezele regimului cvasistaionar n conductoare masive
imobile.............................................................................173
b. Ecuaiile de primul ordin ale cmpului electromagnetic
cvasistaionar n medii imobile ..................................174
c. Ecuaiile de ordinul al -II-lea ale cmpului electromagnetic
cvasistaionar n medii imobile.......................................175
d. Teorema energiei cmpului electromagnetic................177
e. Cldura dezvoltat la parcurgerea ciclurilor
de polarizare. Teorema Warburg.....................................179
5.4.4.2 Cmpul electromagnetic cvasistaionar armonic permanent
n conductoare imobile .....................................................180

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a. Formele complexe ale ecuaiilor cmpului


electromagnetic cvasistaionar armonic permanent
n conductoare masive....................................................180
b. Difuzia cmpului electromagnetic cvasistaionar armonic
permanent n semispaiul conductor...............................182
c. Efectele difuziei cmpului electromagnetic....................187
c.1Cureni turbionari...............................................187
c.2 Efectul pelicular..................................................187
c.3 Efectul de proximitate.........................................189
c.4 Metode de rezolvare a problemelor de cureni
variabili n conductoare masive.....................190
5.4.5 Unde electromagnetice...................................................................195
5.4.5.1.Unda electromagnetic in vid............................................195
a. Ecuaia undei electromagnetice n vid............................195
b. Soluia ecuaiei undei electromagnetice n vid..............196
c. Unda electromagnetic plan n vid...............................198
c.1 Impedana de und..............................................200
c.2 Polarizarea undei.................................................201
5.4.5.2 Unda electromagnetic plan n conductivi......................203
a. Impedana de und ..........................................................205
b. Transmisia energiei electrice ..........................................208
5.4.5.3 Unda electromagnetic la modul general.
Ghiduri de und.................................................................209
a. Reflexia i refracia undelor electromagnetice ...............211
b. Ecuaia general a undei (moduri de propagare).............211
c. Impedana de und a modurilor de propagare.................215
d. Rezolvarea ecuaiei undei n ghiduri de und.................216
5.4.5.4. Ecuaiile telegrafitilor.....................................................220
5.4.6 Radiaia electromagnetic ...............................................................223
a. Poteniale electrodinamice ntrziate vector Ae i scalar Ve. .223
c. Vectorul lui Hertz .....................................................................224
d. Oscilatorul si rezonatorul elementar ........................................224
BIBLIOGRAFIE...............................................................................................239