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3-1

Chapter 3

3-1 What is the significance of the critical stress?

(a) with respect to the structure of the concrete?

A continuous pattern of mortar cracks begins to form. As a result there are few undamaged portions
to carry load and the stress-strain curve is highly nonlinear.

(b) with respect to spiral reinforcement?

At the critical stress the lateral strain begins to increase rapidly. This causes the concrete core within
the spiral to expand, stretching the spiral. The tension in the spiral is equilibrated by a radial
compression in the core. This in turn, biaxially compresses the core, and thus strengthens it.

(c) with respect to strength under sustained loads?

When concrete is subjected to sustained loads greater than the critical stress, it will eventually fail.


3-2 A group of 45 tests on a given type of concrete had a mean strength of 4780 psi and a
standard deviation of 525 psi. Does this concrete satisfy the requirements of ACI Code
Section 5.3.2 for 4000-psi concrete?

From Eq. 3-3a:


Using


(for design)



From Eq. 3-3b:


Using


(for design)



Because both of these exceed 4000 psi, the concrete satisfies the requirements of ACI Code
Section 5.3.2 for 4000 psi concrete.


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3-2
3-3 The concrete containing Type I cement in a structure is cured for 3 days at 70 F
followed by 6 days at 40 F. Use the maturity concept to estimate its strength as a
fraction of the 28-day strength under standard curing.

Note:
( )
5
32
9
C F = , so 70 F = 21.1 C and 40 F = 4.4 C
From Eq. 3-6:
1
( 10)( )
(21.1 10)(3) (4.4 10)(6) 180 C days
n
i i
i
M T t
=
= +
= + + + =



From Fig. 3-8 the compressive strength will be between 0.60 and 0.70 times the 28-day strength
under standard curing conditions.


3-4 Use Fig. 3-12a to estimate the compressive strength o
2
for bi-axially loaded concrete
subject to:

(a) o
1
= 0.0, o
2
= f
c
'

(b) o
1
= 0.75 f
t
' in tension, o
2
= 0.5 f
c
'

(c) o
1
= 0.5 f
c
' in compression, o
2
= 1.2 f
c
'


3-5 The concrete in the core of a spiral is subjected to a uniform confining stress o
3
of 750
psi. What will the compressive strength, o
1
be? Assume

.

From Eq. 3-16:






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3-3
3-6 What factors affect the shrinkage of concrete?

(a) Relative humidity. Shrinkage increases as the relative humidity decreases, reaching a
maximum at RH 40%.

(b) The fraction of the total volume made up of paste. As this fraction increases,
shrinkage increases.

(c) The modulus of elasticity of the aggregate. As this increases, shrinkage decreases.

(d) The water/cement ratio. As the water content increases, the aggregate fraction
decreases, causing an increase in shrinkage.

(e) The fineness of the cement. Shrinkage increases for finely ground cement that has
more surface area to attract and absorb water.

(f) The effective thickness or volume to surface ratio. As this ratio increases, the
shrinkage occurs more slowly and the total shrinkage is likely reduced.

(g) Exposure to carbon dioxide tends to increase shrinkage.


3-7 What factors affect the creep of concrete?

(a) The ratio of sustained stress to the strength of the concrete. The creep coefficient, |,
is roughly constant up to a stress of 0.5 f
c
', but increases above that value.

(b) The humidity of the environment. The amount of creep decreases as the RH increases
above 40%.

(c) As the effective thickness or volume to surface ratio increases, the rate at which creep
develops decreases.

(d) Concretes with a high paste content creep more that concretes with a large aggregate
fraction because only the paste creeps.


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3-4
3-8 A structure is made from concrete containing Type 1 cement. The average ambient
relative humidity is 70 percent. The concrete was moist-cured for 7 days. f
c
' = 4000 psi.

(a) Compute the unrestrained shrinkage strain of a rectangular beam with cross-
sectional dimensions of 8 in. x 20 in. at 2 years after the concrete was placed.

1. Compute the humidity modification factor from Eq. (3-30a):



2. Use Eq. (3-31) to compute the volume/surface area ratio modification factor:



( ) ( )







3. Use Eq. (3-29) to compute the ultimate shrinkage strain:

(



4. Use Eq. (3-28) to compute the shrinkage strain after 2 years:



(




(b) Compute the stress dependent (creep) strain in the concrete of a 20 in. x 20 in. x
12 ft column at age 3 years. A compression load of 400 kips was applied to the
column at 30 days.

1. Compute the ultimate shrinkage strain coefficient,

, using Eqs. (3-36)-(3-39).




,
Where:

[

]



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3-5
2. Compute the creep coefficient for the time since loading,

, using Eq. (3-35).






3. Compute the total stress-dependent strain,

(), using Eqs. (3-5), (3-18), and (3-35).



First, calculate the creep strain since the load was applied:

()

()



Then, calculate the initial strain when the load is applied:

()



Thus,

()



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4-1
Chapter 4

4-1 Figure P4-1 shows a simply supported beam and the cross-section at midspan. The
beam supports a uniform service (unfactored) dead load consisting of its own weight
plus 1.4 kips/ft and a uniform service (unfactored) live load of 1.5 kip/ft. The
concrete strength is 3500 psi, and the yield strength of the reinforcement is 60,000
psi. The concrete is normal-weight concrete. Use load and strength reduction factors
from ACI Code Sections 9.2 and 9.3. For the midspan section shown in part (b) of
Fig. P4-1, compute

and show that it exceeds

.

1. Calculate the dead load of the beam.

Weight/ft =
24 12
0.15 0.3
144

= kips/ft

2. Compute the factored moment,
u
M :

Factored load/ft:
u
w = 1.2(0.30 + 1.40) + 1.6(1.50) = 4.44 k/ft
2 2
8 4.44 20 8 222
u u
M w = = = kip-ft

3. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor, | .

Tension steel area: A
s
= 3 No. 9 bars = 3 1.00 in.
2
= 3.00 in.
2


Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding. From equilibrium (using Eq. (4-14)):

3.00 60000
5.04
1
'
0.85 3500 12
0.85
A f
s y
c
f b
c
o |

= = = =

in.
For
'
3500
c
f = psi,
1
0.85 | = . Therefore,
1
5.04
5.93
0.85
c
o
|
= = = in.

Check whether tension steel is yielding:
Using Eq.(4-18)
( )
21.5 5.93
0.003 0.00788
5.93
d c
s t cu
c
c c c
| | | |
= = = =
| |
\ . \ .

Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).

Compute the nominal moment strength, using Eq. (4-21):
5.04
3.00 60000 21.5
2
285
2 12000
M A f d
n s y
o
| |

|
| |
\ .
= = =
|
\ .
kip-ft

Since, 0.00788 0.005
t
c = > the section is clearly tension-controlled and | =0.9. Then,
0.9 285
n
M | = kip-ft 256 = kip-ft. Clearly,
n u
M M | >
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4-2
4-2 A cantilever beam shown in Fig. P4-2. The beam supports a uniform service
(unfactored) dead load of 1 kip/ft plus its own dead load and it supports a
concentrated service (unfactored) live load of 12 kips as shown. The concrete is
normal-weight concrete with

psi and the steel is Grade 60. Use load and


strength-reduction factors form ACI Code Section 9.2 and 9.3. For the end section
shown in part (b) of Fig. P4-2, compute

and show it exceeds

.

1. Calculate the dead load of the beam.

Weight/ft =
30 18
0.15 0.563
144

= kips/ft

2. Compute the factored moment,
u
M .

Factored distributed load/ft:
u
w = 1.2(0.563 + 1.0) = 1.88 k/ft
Factored live load is a concentrated load: 1.6 12 19.2
u
P = = kips
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 1.88 10 2 267 1 19.2 9
u u u
M w P = = = kip-ft

3. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor, | .

Tension steel area: A
s
= 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.
2
=4.74 in.
2


Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding. From equilibrium (using Eq. (4-14)):

4.74 60000
2.79
1
'
0.85 4000 30
0.85
A f
s y
c
f b
c
o |

= = = =

in.
For
'
4000
c
f = psi,
1
0.85 | = . Therefore,
1
2.79
3.28
0.85
c
o
|
= = = in.

Check whether tension steel is yielding:
Using. Eq.(4-18)
( )
15.5 3.28
0.003 0.011
3.28
d c
s t cu
c
c c c
| | | |
= = = =
| |
\ . \ .
> 0.0021
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).

Compute the nominal moment strength, using Eq. (4-21):

2.79
4.74 60000 15.5
2
334
2 12000
M A f d
n s y
o
| |

|
| |
\ .
= = =
|
\ .
kip-ft

Since, 0.011 0.005
t
c = > the section is clearly tension-controlled and | =0.9. Then,
0.9 334 301
n
M | = = kip-ft 267 = kip-ft. Clearly,
n u
M M | >
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4-3
4-3 (a) Compare

for singly reinforced rectangular beams having the following


properties. Use strength reduction factors from ACI Code Sections 9.2 and
9.3.


Beam

No.
b

(in.)
d

(in.)

Bars
'
c
f

(psi)
y
f

(psi)
1 12 22 3 No. 7 4,000 60,000
2 12 22 2 No. 9 plus 1 No. 8 4,000 60,000
3 12 22 3 No. 7 4,000 80,000
4 12 22 3 No. 7 6,000 60,000
5 12 33 3 No. 7 4,000 60,000


Beam No.1

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding.





For

,
1
0.85 | = . Therefore,

) (

)

Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).

Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is tension-controlled and | =0.9.

)
(



For Beam 1,

-

Beam No.2

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding.

( )



For

,
1
0.85 | = . Therefore,


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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4-4

) (

)

Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( ).

Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is clearly tension-controlled and | =0.9.

)
( ) (



For Beam 2,

-

Beam No.3

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding.





For

,
1
0.85 | = . Therefore,

) (

)

Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).

Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is clearly tension-controlled and | =0.9.

)
(



For Beam 3,

-

Beam No.4

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding.





For

. Therefore,

) (

)

s y
f f =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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4-5
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).

Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is tension-controlled and | =0.9.

)
(



For Beam 4,

-

Beam No.5

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding.





For

,
1
0.85 | = . Therefore,

) (

)

Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).

Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is tension-controlled and | =0.9.

)
(



For Beam 5,

-

(b) Taking beam 1 as the reference point, discuss the effects of changing

and d on

. (Note that each beam has the same properties as


beam 1 except for the italicized quantity.)


Beam

No.
M
n
|

(kip-ft)
1 167
2 250
3 219
4 171
5 257

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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4-6
Effect of
s
A (Beams 1 and 2)
An increase of 55% in
s
A (from 1.80 to 2.79 in.
2
) caused an increase of 50% in
n
M | . Increasing
the tension steel area causes a proportional increase in the strength of the section, with a loss of
ductility. Note that in this case, the strength reduction factor was 0.9 for both sections.

Effect of
y
f (Beams 1 and 3)
An increase of 33% in
y
f caused an increase of 31% in
n
M | . Increasing the steel yield strength
has essentially the same effect as increasing the tension steel area.

Effect of
'
c
f (Beams 1 and 4)
An increase of 50% in
'
c
f caused an increase of 2% in
n
M | . Changing the concrete strength has
approximately no impact on moment strength, relative to changes in the tension steel area and
steel yield strength.

Effect of d (Beams 1 and 5)
An increase of 50% in d caused an increase of 54% in
n
M | . Increasing the effective flexural
depth of the section increases the section moment strength (without decreasing the section
ductility).


(c) What is the most effective way of increasing

? What is the least


effective way?

Disregarding any other effects of increasing ,
s
d A or
y
f such as changes in cost, etc., the most
effective way to increase
n
M | is to increase the effective flexural depth of the section, d ,
followed by increasing
y
f and
s
A . Note that increasing
y
f and
s
A too much may make the beam
over-reinforced and thus will result in a decrease in ductility.

The least effective way of increasing
n
M | is to increase
'
c
f . Note that increasing
'
c
f will cause a
significant increase in curvature at failure.
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4-7
4-4 A 12-ft-long cantilever supports its own dead load plus an additional uniform
service (unfactored) dead load of 0.5 kip/ft. The beam is made from normal-weight
4000-psi concrete and has in., in., and in. It is reinforced
with four No. 7 Grade-60 bars. Compute the maximum service (unfactored)
concentrated live load that can be applied at 1ft from the free end of the cantilever.
Use load and strength reduction factors from ACI Code Sections 9.2 and 9.3. Also
check

.

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor, | .

Tension steel area:
s
A = 4 No. 7 bars = 4 0.60 in.
2
=2.40 in.
2


Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding. From equilibrium (using Eq. (4-14)):
2.4 60000
2.65
1
'
0.85 4000 16
0.85
A f
s y
c
f b
c
o |

= = = =

in.
For
'
4000
c
f = psi,
1
0.85 | = . Therefore,
1
2.65
3.1
0.85
c
o
|
= = = in.

Check whether tension steel is yielding:
Using Eq.(4-18)
( )
15.5 3.1
0.003 0.012
3.1
d c
s t cu
c
c c c
| | | |
= = = =
| |
\ . \ .

Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).

Compute the nominal moment strength, using Eq. (4-21):
2.65
2.4 60000 15.5
2
170
2 12000
M A f d
n s y
o
| |

|
| |
\ .
= = =
|
\ .
kip-ft

Since, 0.012 0.005
t
c = > the section is clearly tension-controlled and,
0.9 170
n
M | = kip-ft = 153 kip-ft

2. Compute Live Load

Set 153
u n
M M | = = kip-ft

Weight/ft of beam =
16 18
0.15 0.3
144

= kips/ft
Factored dead load = ( ) 1.2 0.3 0.5 0.96 + = kips/ft
Factored dead load moment =
2 2
2 0.96 12 2 69.1 wl = = kip-ft

Therefore the maximum factored live load moment is: 153 kip-ft 69.1 kip-ft = 83.9 kip-ft

Maximum factored load at 1 ft from the tip = 83.9 kip-ft / 11 ft = 7.63 kips
Maximum concentrated service live load = 7.63 kips / 1.6 = 4.77 kips
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4-8

3. Check of
,min s
A

The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this section, so we
should use
w
b in Eq. (4-11). Also,
'
3
c
f is equal to 189 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:
,min
200 200
16 15.5 0.82
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)
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4-9
4-5 Compute

and check

for the beam shown in Fig. P4-5. Use


psi and

psi.


1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor, | .

Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.
2
=4.74 in.
2

The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers, where the distance from the
tension edge to the centroid of the total tension reinforcement is given as d = 19 in.

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the
compression flange,
( )
f
h o s and that the tension steel is yielding,
( )
s y
c c > , using Eq. (4-16):


4.74 60000
1.55
'
0.85 4500 48
0.85
e
A f
s y
f b
c
o

= = =

in. 6
f
h < = in. (o.k.)

For
'
4500
c
f = psi,
1
0.825 | = . Therefore,
1
1.55
1.88
0.825
c
o
|
= = = in.

Comparing the calculated depth to the neutral axis, c , to the values for d and
t
d , it is clear that
the tension steel strain,
s
c , easily exceeds the yield strain (0.00207) and the strain at the level of
the extreme layer of tension reinforcement,
t
c , exceeds the limit for tension-controlled sections
(0.005). Thus, | =0.9 and we can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate
n
M :

1.55
4.74 60000 19
2
432
2 12000
M A f d
n s y
o
| |

|
| |
\ .
= = =
|
\ .
kip-ft
0.9 432
n
M | = kip-ft = 389 kip-ft

2. Check of
,min s
A

The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this section, so we
should use
w
b in Eq. (4-11). Also,
'
3
c
f is equal to 201 psi, so use
'
3
c
f in the numerator:
'
,min
3
201
12 19 0.76
60, 000
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)

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4-10
4-6 Compute

and check

for the beam shown in Fig. P4-6. Use


psi and

psi.


1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor, | .

Tension steel area:
s
A = 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.
2
=4.74 in.
2

The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers, where the distance from the
tension edge to the centroid of the total tension reinforcement is given as d = 18.5 in.

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the
compression flange,
( )
f
h o s and that the tension steel is yielding,
( )
s y
c c > , using Eq. (4-16):


4.74 60000
4.18
'
0.85 4000 20
0.85
e
A f
s y
f b
c
o

= = =

in. 5
f
h < = in. (o.k.)

For
'
4000
c
f = psi,
1
0.85 | = . Therefore,
1
4.18
4.92
0.85
c
o
|
= = = in.

Check whether tension steel is yielding:
Using Eq.(4-18)
18.5 4.95
0.003 0.0082
4.95
d c
s cu
c
c c
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .

Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and it is clear that the steel is yielding in both layers of reinforcement.
It is also clear that the section is tension-controlled (| =0.9), but just for illustration the value of
t
c can be calculated as:
19.5 4.92
0.003 0.0089
4.92
t
d c
t cu
c
c c
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .


We can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate
n
M :
4.18
4.74 60000 18.5
2
389
2 12000
M A f d
n s y
o
| |

|
| |
\ .
= = =
|
\ .
kip-ft
0.9 389
n
M | = kip-ft = 350 kip-ft

2. Check of
,min s
A

The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this section, so we
should use
w
b in Eq. (4-11). Also,
'
3
c
f is equal to 190 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:
,min
200 200
12 18.5 0.74
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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4-11
4-7 Compute the negative-moment capacity,

, and check

for the beam


shown in Fig. P4-7. Use

psi and

psi.

1. Calculation of
n
M |

This section is subjected to negative bending, so tension will develop in the top flange and the
compression zone is at the bottom of the section. ACI Code Section 10.6.6 requires that a portion
of the tension reinforcement be distributed in the flange, so assuming that the No. 6 bars in the
flange are part of the tension reinforcement: 6 0.44 2.64
s
A = = in.
2


The depth of the Whitney stress block can be calculated using Eq. (4-16), using 12 b = in., since
the compression zone is at the bottom of the section:





For

,
1
0.85 | = . Therefore,

)

The steel is yielding
( )
0.00207
s y
c c > = and it is tension-controlled ( ) 0.005
t
c > so| = 0.9.

)
(




2. Check of
,min s
A

The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension because the beam is subjected to negative
bending. Therefore, the value of
,min s
A will depend on whether the beam is statically determinate.

Assuming that the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate floor system, the
minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using
w
b in Eq. (4-11). Also,
'
3
c
f is
equal to 189 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:

()

However, for a statically determinate beam,
w
b should be replaced by the smaller of
( ) 2 24 in.
w
b = or
e
b . Given that
e
b is 48 in. for this beam section,

()
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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4-12
4-8 For the beam shown in Fig. P4-8,

psi and

psi.

(a) Compute the effective flange width at midspan.

The limits given in ACI Code Section 8.12 for determining the effective compression flange,
e
b ,
for a flanged section that is part of a continuous floor system are:

4
2(8 )
2(clear trans. distance)/2
e w f
w
b b h
b



s +
`

+

)


Assuming that the columns are 18 in. 18 in. , the longitudinal span is approximated as:

18 in.
21 ft ft 22.5 ft
in.
12
ft
| |
|
= + =
|
\ .

The clear transverse distance for the 9 ft.-6 in. span is:
12 in.
9.5 ft 8.5 ft
in.
12
ft
| |
|
=
|
\ .

and for the 11 ft. span is:
1 12 in. 18 in.
11 ft 9.75 ft
in. in.
2
12 12
ft ft
| |
|
+ =
|
\ .

So, the average clear transverse distance is 9.125 ft

The effective compression flange can now be computed as:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
22.5 ft 12 in./ft
67.5 in.
4
12 in. 2 8 6 in. 108 in.
12 in. 2 9.125 ft 12 in./ft /2=122 in.
e
b

=



s + =
`

+


)

The first limit governs for this section, so 67.5 in.
e
b =


(b) Compute

for the positive- and negative-moment regions and check

for both sections. At the supports, the bottom bars are in one layer; at
midspan, the No. 8 bars are in the bottom, the No. 7 bars in a second layer.

Positive moment region

1. Calculation of
n
M |

Tension steel area:
s
A = 3 No. 8 bars + 2 No. 7 bars = 3 0.79 2 0.60 3.57 + = in.
2

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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4-13
The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers. Assuming the section will
include a No. 3 or No. 4 stirrup, it is reasonable to assume that the distance from the extreme
tension edge of the section to the centroid of the lowest layer of steel is approximately 2.5 in.
Thus the distance from the top of the section to the extreme layer of tension reinforcement,
t
d ,
can be calculated to be:

t
d = 21 in. 2.5 in. =18.5 in.

The minimum spacing required between layers of reinforcement is 1 in. (ACI Code Section
7.6.2). Thus the spacing between the centers of the layers is approximately 2 in. So the distance
from the tension edge to the centroid of the total tension reinforcement is:

( ) ( ) 3 0.79 2.5 2 0.60 4.5
3.17
3.57
+
= in.

Therefore, the effective flexural depth, d , is:

d = 21 in. 3.17 in. =17.8 in.

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the
compression flange,
( )
6 in.
f
h o s = and that the tension steel is yielding,
( )
s y
c c > ; using Eq.(4-
16) we have:


3.57 60000
1.07
'
0.85 3500 67.5
0.85
e
A f
s y
f b
c
o

= = =

in. 6
f
h < = in. (o.k.)

For
'
3500
c
f = psi,
1
0.85 | = . Therefore,
1
1.07
1.26
0.85
c
o
|
= = = in.

Comparing the calculated depth to the neutral axis, c , to the values for d and
t
d , it is clear that
the tension steel strain,
s
c , easily exceeds the yield strain (0.00207) and the strain at the level of
the extreme layer of tension reinforcement,
t
c , exceeds the limit for tension-controlled sections
(0.005). Thus, | =0.9 and we can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate
n
M :

1.07
3.57 60000 17.8
2
308
2 12000
M A f d
n s y
o
| |

|
| |
\ .
= = =
|
\ .
kip-ft
0.9 308
n
M | = kip-ft = 277 kip-ft

Check of
,min s
A : The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this
section, so we should use
w
b in Eq. (4-11).
'
3
c
f is equal to 177 psi, so use 200 psi in the
numerator.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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4-14
,min
200 200
12 17.8 0.71
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)

Negative moment region

The tension and compression reinforcement for this section is provided in single layers.
Assuming the section will include a No. 3 or No. 4 stirrup, it is reasonable to assume that the
distance from the extreme tension or compression edge of the section to the centroid of the
tension or compression layer of steel is approximately 2.5 in.

s
A = 7 No. 7 bars = 7 0.60 4.2 = in.
2
, d = 18.5 in.
'
s
A = = 2 No. 8 bars = 2 0.79 1.58 = in.
2
,
'
2.5 d = in.

Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will initially assume the tension steel is yielding
and use the trial and error procedure described in Section 4-7 to find the neutral axis depth, c.

Try 4 4.5 in. c d = ~
'
'
4.5 2.5
0.003 0.00133
4.5
s cu
c d
c
c c
| |
| |
= = =
|
|
\ .
\ .

( )
' '
29, 000 ksi 0.00133 38.6 ksi
s s s y
f E f c = = = s
( ) ( )
' ' ' 2
' 0.85 1.58 in. 38.6 ksi 2.98 ksi 56.3 kips
s s s c
C A f f = = =
'
1
0.85 0.85 3.5 ksi 12 in. 0.85 4.5 in.=137 kips
c c
C f b c | = =
2
4.20 in. 60 ksi 252 kips
s y
T A f = = =
Because '
c s
T C C > + , we should increase c for the second trial.

Try 5.9 in. c =
'
0.00173
s
c =
( )
'
50.2 ksi
s y
f f = s
' 74.6 kips
s
C =
179 kips
c
C =
254 kips 254 kips
c s
T C C = ~ + =

With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is
yielding.
using Eq.(4-18)
18.5 5.9
0.003 0.0064
5.9
d c
s cu
c
c c
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .

Thus, the steel is yielding
( )
0.00207
s
c > and it is a tension-controlled section ( ) 0.0102
t s
c c > = .
So, using
1
0.85 5.9 in. 5.0 in. c o | = = = , use Eq. (4-21) to calculate
n
M .
( )
'
' 179 kips 16 in. 74.6 kips 16 in.
2
2865 k-in. 1195 k-in 4060 k-in 338 k-ft
c s
M C d C d d
n
M
n
o | |
= + = +
|
\ .
= + = =

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
4-15
0.9 338
n
M | = kip-ft = 304 kip-ft

Check of
,min s
A : The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension and the value of
,min s
A will
depend on the use of that beam. Since the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate
floor system, the minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using
w
b in Eq. (4-11).
Also,
'
3
c
f is equal to 177 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator.
,min
200 200
12 18.5 0.74
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)




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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
4-16
4-9 Compute

and check

for the beam shown in Fig. P4-9. Use


psi and

psi, and

(a) the reinforcement is six No. 8 bars.

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor, | .

Tension steel area:
s
A = 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.
2
= 4.74 in.
2

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the
top flange, ( ) 5 in. o s and that the tension steel is yielding,
( )
s y
c c > , using Eq. (4-16) with
30 in. b = :

()

For

,
1
0.85 | = . Therefore,

) (

)

Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).

Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is tension-controlled and | =0.9.

We can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate
n
M :

)
(



2. Check of
,min s
A

The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension and the value of
,min s
A will depend on the
use of that beam. Assuming that the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate floor
system, the minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using 2 5 10 in.
w
b = = in Eq.
(4-11). Also,
'
3
c
f is equal to 189 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:
,min
200 200
10 32.5 1.08
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)

However, for a statically determinate beam,
w
b should be replaced by the smaller of
( ) 2 20 in.
w
b = or
e
b . Given that
e
b is 30 in. for this beam section,
,min
200 200
20 32.5 2.17
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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4-17
(b) the reinforcement is nine No. 8 bars.

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor, | .

Tension steel area: As = 9 No. 8 bars = 9 0.79 in.
2
=7.11 in.
2

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the
compression flange,
( )
5 in.
f
h o s = and that the tension steel is yielding,
( )
s y
c c > , using Eq. (4-
16) with 30 in. b = :

()

For

,
1
0.85 | = . Therefore,

) (

)

Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).

Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is tension-controlled and | =0.9.

We can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate
n
M :

)
(



2. Check of
,min s
A

,min s
A is the same as in part (a).
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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4-18
4-10 Compute

and check

for the beam shown in Fig. P4-10. Use


psi and

psi.

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor, | .

Tension steel area: As = 8 No. 7 bars = 8 0.60 in.
2
=4.8 in.
2

Tension will develop in the bottom flange and the compression zone is at the top of the section.
Thus, assuming that the tension steel is yielding,
( )
s y
c c > , in Eq. (4-16) we should use
2 6 12 in. b = = and we find the depth of the Whitney stress block as:

4.8 60000
5.65
'
0.85 5000 12
0.85
A f
s y
f b
c
o

= = =

in.
For
'
5000
c
f = psi,
1
0.80 | = . Therefore,
1
5.65
7.06
0.80
c
o
|
= = = in.
Check whether tension steel is yielding:
using Eq.(4-18) ( )
23.5 7.06
0.003 0.007
7.06
t
d c
s cu
c
c c c
| | | |
= = = =
| |
\ . \ .

Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).
Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is tension-controlled and | =0.9.
We can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate
n
M :

5.65
4.8 60000 23.5
2
496
2 12000
M A f d
n s y
o
| |

|
| |
\ .
= = =
|
\ .
kip-ft
0.9 496
n
M | = kip-ft = 446 kip-ft

2. Check of
,min s
A

The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension and the value of
,min s
A will depend on the
use of that beam.
Assuming that the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate floor system, the
minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using 2 6 12 in.
w
b = = in Eq. (4-11). Also,
note that
'
3
c
f is equal to 212 psi:
,min
212 212
12 23.5 1.00
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)
However, for a statically determined beam,
w
b should be replaced by the smaller of
( ) 2 24 in.
w
b = or
e
b . Given that
e
b is 42 in. for this beam section,
,min
212 212
24 23.5 1.99
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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4-19
4-11 (a) Compute

for the three beams shown in Fig. P4-11. In each case,

psi and

ksi,

Beam No. 1

Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 9 bars = 6 1.00 in.
2
=6.00 in.
2

The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers. Assuming the section will
include a No. 3 or No. 4 stirrup, it is reasonable to assume that the distance from the extreme
tension edge of the section to the centroid of the lowest layer of steel is approximately 2.5 in.
Thus the distance from the top of the section to the extreme layer of tension reinforcement,
t
d ,
can be calculated to be:

t
d =36 in. 2.5 in. =33.5 in.

The effective flexural depth, d , is given as : d =32.5 in.

Assuming that the tension steel is yielding,
( )
s y
c c > , using Eq. (4-16):





For

. Therefore,

)

Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).
Also, 0.005
t
c > , the section is tension-controlled and | =0.9.

We can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate
n
M :

)
(




Beam No. 2

Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 9 bars = 6 1.00 in.
2
=6.00 in.
2
Compression steel area:
'
s
A = 2 No. 9 bars = 2 1.00 in.
2
=2.00 in.
2

As was discussed for beam No. 1, d =32 in.,
t
d =33.5 in. and
'
d is given as
'
2.5 d = in.

Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will initially assume the tension steel is yielding
and use the trial and error procedure described in Section 4-7 to find the neutral axis depth, c.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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4-20
Try 4 8 in. c d = ~

) ( )


Because '
c s
T C C < + , we should decrease c for the second trial.

Try



With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is
yielding.

)

Clearly, the steel is yielding
( )
0.00207
s
c > and it is a tension-controlled section.
So, using

, use Eq. (4-21) to calculate


n
M .

)+ [(

) ( )]

Beam No. 3

Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 9 bars = 6 1.00 in.
2
=6.00 in.
2
Compression steel area:
'
s
A = 4 No. 9 bars = 4 1.00 in.
2
=4.00 in.
2

As was discussed for beam No. 1, d =32.5 in., and
t
d =33.5 in.
The compression reinforcement for this beam section is provided in two layers and
'
d is given as
3.5 in.

Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will the same procedure as for beam No. 2
(assuming that the tension steel is yielding).
The depth of the neutral axis for this section should be smaller compared with beam section No.
2, since the compression reinforcement is increased for this section.

Try (Note that both layers of the compression steel will be in the compression zone)


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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4-21



Because '
c s
T C C < + , we should decrease c for the second trial.

Try



With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is
yielding.

)

Clearly, the steel is yielding
( )
0.00207
s
c > and it is a tension-controlled section.
So, using

, use Eq. (4-21) to calculate


n
M .

)+ [(

) ( )]



(b) From the results of part (a), comment on whether adding compression
reinforcement is a cost-effective way of increasing the strength,

, of a beam.

Comparing the values of
n
M | for the three beams, it is clear that for a given amount of tension
reinforcement, the addition of compression steel has little effect on the nominal moment capacity,
as long as the tension steel yields in the beam without compression reinforcement. As a result,
adding compression reinforcement in not a cost effective way of increasing the nominal moment
capacity of a beam. However, adding compression reinforcement improves the ductility and
might be necessary when large amounts of tension reinforcement are used to change the behavior
from compression controlled to tension controlled.


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
4-22
4-12 Compute

for the beam shown in Fig. P4-12. Use

psi and

psi. Does the compression steel yield in this beam at nominal strength?

s
A = 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.
2
= 4.74 in.
2
, 25 in. 2.5 in. 22.5 in. d = =
'
s
A = 2 No. 7 bars = 2 0.60 in.
2
=1.2 in.
2
,
'
2.5 in. d =

Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will initially assume the tension steel is yielding
and use the trial and error procedure described in Section 4-7 to find the neutral axis depth, c.

Try
For

psi,

. Thus,


Since the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than 5.0 in. , ( ) 5.0 in. o < , the width of the
compression zone is constant and equal to 10 in., i.e. 10 in. b =

) ( )



Because

, we should increase c for the second trial.



Try

) ( )

Since , the width of the compression zone is not constant. Using a similar
reasoning as in the case of flanged sections, where the depth of the Whitney stress block is in the
web of the section, the compression force can be calculated from the following equations (refer to
Fig. S4-12):

( )( )



With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is
yielding.

)

Thus, the tension steel is yielding
( )
0.00207
s
c > and it is a tension-controlled section.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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4-23
Summing the moments about the level of the tension reinforcement:

)]

[(

) (

) ( )]

The strain in the compression steel at nominal moment capacity is 0.00185, the compression steel
has not yielded at nominal strength.
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4-24
0.85f'c
a
fs=fy
d
h
d
h
f's
d
h
a/2
Ccw
Cs d'
T1
bw
b
bw
b
bw
b
Ccf
T2
ht
ht
ht
(a+ht)/2
a) total beam section and stress distribution
b) Part 1: web of section and corresponding internal forces
c) Part 2: overhanging flanges and corresponding internal forces
f
F
F
a
a
(assumed)


Fig. S4-12.1 Beam section and internal forces for the case of
t
h o > .
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5-1
Chapter 5

5-1 Give three reasons for the minimum cover requirements in the ACI code.

- To ensure enough concrete is present to develop the reinforcement.
- To protect reinforcement from corrosive agents.
- To insulate reinforcement in case of fire.

Under what circumstances are larger covers used?

- Highly corrosive environments.
- Situations where abrasion to the concrete surface may result in a reduction in cover provided.

Note: See Section 5.3 Concrete Cover and Bar Spacing for further discussion.



5-2 Give three reasons for using compression reinforcement in beams.

- To reduce long-term deflections (i.e. creep).
- It tends to lead to a more ductile failure mode.
- Some compression reinforcement is always required for fabrication of rebar cages.

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5-2
5-3 Design a rectangular beam section, i.e. select b, d, h, and the required tension
reinforcement, at midspan for a 22 ft-span simply supported rectangular beam that
supports its own dead load, a superimposed service dead load of 1.25 kip/ft, and a
uniform service load of 2 kip/ft. Use the procedure in Section 5.3 for the design of
beam sections where the dimensions are unknown. Use

and f
y
= 60 ksi.


Step 1: Estimate the dead load due to self-weight of the beam:

Method 1: 0.10 to 0.15 ( ) DL SDL LL ~ +
0.10 to 0.15 (1.25 k/ft 2 k/ft ) DL ~ +
325 lb/ft to 490 lb/ft DL ~

Method 2: / 18 / 12, so estimate 22 in h h s s ~
0.8 18 in b h ~ ~

2 2 3 2 2 3
lb 18 in 22 in lb lb
150 150 413
144 in /ft ft 144 in /ft ft ft
bh
DL

~ = =

Therefore, DL = 410 lb/ft seems like a good first estimate of the weight of the beam.


Step 2: Compute the total factored load and factored design moment, M
u
:

From ACI-08 Chapter 9:
1.2 1.6 , 1.4
u D L D
w w w or w = +
1.2 (0.41 k/ft 1.25 k/ft) 1.6 (2 k/ft), or 1.4 (0.41 k/ft 1.25 k/ft)
u
w = + + +
5.20 k/ft, or 2.35 k/ft
u
w =

For this simply supported span,
2 2
5.20 k/ft (22 ft)
315 k-ft 3775 k-in
8 8
u
u
w
M

= = = =


Step 3: Select and the corresponding R-factor:

Assume the desirable strain diagram shown in Fig. 5-27b, which leads to .
From Eq. (5-19):
1
' 0.825 4,500 psi
0.0154
4 4 60, 000 psi
c
y
f
f
|


~ = =

Note:
1
= 0.825 for f
c
= 4,500 psi
From Eq. (5-21):
0.0154 60, 000 psi
0.205
' 4,500 psi
y
c
f
f

e

= = =
From Eq. (5-22):
' (1 0.59 ) 0.205 4.5 ksi (1 0.59 0.205) 0.811 ksi
c
R f e e = = =
(Note that this R-factor is reasonable based on values given in Table A-3)


9 . 0 = |
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5-3
Step 4: Select section dimensions, b and h:
From Eq. (5-23):
2 3
3775 k-in
5170 in
0.9 0.811 ksi
u
M
bd
R |
= = =



Since no column dimensions are given which control the width of the beam, the designer can
assume any reasonable value. Here we assume = 0.7
1 1
3 3
3775 k-in
19.5 in
0.7 0.9 0.811 ksi
u
M
d
R o|
| | | |
> = =
| |

\ . \ .

2.5 in 22 in h d = + =
0.7 19.5 in 13.65 in 14 in b d o = = = ~

Note that both h and b are rounded up to the nearest even inch value for constructability.


Step 5: Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars:
First, go back and recalculate the weight of the beam with the final selected dimensions:
2 2 3 2 2 3
lb 14 in 22 in lb lb
150 150 321
144 in /ft ft 144 in /ft ft ft
bh
DL

~ = =
So, 5.09 k/ft
u
w = and 308 k-ft 3695 k-in
u
M = =

Calculate the required area of steel, assuming 0.9 jd d = :
From Eq. (5-16):
( )
2
3695 k-in
3.90 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 19.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= ~ =
| |

|
\ .


With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd .
From Eq. (5-17):
2
3.90 in 60 ksi
4.37 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4.5 ksi 14 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =



From Eq. (5-16):
2
3695 k-in
3.95 in
4.37 in
0.9 60 ksi 19.5 in -
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= = =
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .


No further iterations are necessary, since the estimated lever arm was very reasonable. Select 4#9
bars as bottom reinforcement at the critical section of the beam.
2 2 2
4 4 1.0 in 4.0 in 3.95 in
s b
A A = = = > OK

Step 6: Required Checks:

1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A-5, to verify that b = 14 in is sufficiently
wide for 4 #9 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK

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5-4
2) Use ACI-08 Eq. (10-3) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 4,500 psi, 3 ' 201 200
c
f = > so use 3 '
c
f
2 2
,min
3 '
3 4500
14 in 19.5 in 0.92 in 4.0 in
60, 000 psi
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = = s OK

3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (5-17):
2
4.0 in 60 ksi
4.48 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4.5 ksi 14 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =


We know that
1
0.825 | = (see above).
1
4.48 in
5.43 in
0.825
a
c
|
= = =
From Eq. (4-18):
- 19.5 in - 5.43 in
0.003 0.0078 0.005
5.43 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.

4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (5-15):
2
4.48 in
0.9 4.0 in 60 ksi 19.5 in 3725 k-in
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d | |
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .

310 k-ft 308 k-ft
n u
M M | = > =

Therefore, this design is sufficient without being too conservative.

Note that other combinations of b, h, and A
s
may also be correct if different assumptions were
made by the designer. If all checks listed in Step 6 are satisfied, without being unreasonably
conservative, the design may be considered adequate.

Fig. S5-4 Cross-section of final design at mid-span
9 . 0 = |
9 . 0 = |
22in.
14in.
4 #9 bars
2.5in.
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5-5
5-4 The rectangular beam shown in Fig. P5-4 carries its own dead load (you must guess
values for b and h) plus an additional uniform service load of 0.5 kip/ft and a uniform
service live load of 1.5 kip/ft. The dead load acts on the entire beam, of course, but
the live load can act on parts of the span. Three possible loading cases are shown in
Fig. P5-4. Use load and strength reduction factors from ACI Code sections 9.2 and
9.3.

a) Draw factored bending-moment diagrams for the three loading cases shown
and superimpose them to draw a bending-moment envelope.

Begin by estimating the dead load due to self-weight of the beam:

Method 1: 0.10 to 0.15 ( ) DL SDL LL ~ +
0.10 to 0.15 (0.5 k/ft 1.5 k/ft ) DL ~ +
200 lb/ft to 300 lb/ft DL ~

Method 2: / 18 / 12, so estimate 22 in h h s s ~
0.8 18 in b h ~ ~

2 2 3 2 2 3
lb 18 in 22 in lb lb
150 150 413
144 in /ft ft 144in /ft ft ft
bh
DL

~ = =

We select DL = 350 lb/ft as a first estimate of the weight of the beam.

So, using 1.2 1.6
u D L
w w w = + from ACI 318-08, Chapter 9, the bending-moment envelope is as
follows:






Fig. S5-5a Bending moment envelope
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5-6
b) Design a rectangular beam section for the maximum positive bending moment
between the supports, selecting b, d, h, and the reinforcing bars. Use the
procedure in Section 5.3 for the design of beam sections where the dimensions
are unknown. Use f
c
= 5000 psi and f
y
= 60 ksi.

It is necessary to design this beam section for both negative and positive bending. The
need for a practical design makes it reasonable to assume that the outer dimensions of the beam
will be constant along the length, and that these dimensions will be controlled by the design of the
section subjected to the largest absolute value of moment. As seen in Part (a), the largest expected
moment is a positive moment of 226 kip-ft (2715 k-in). Therefore, it is reasonable to begin the
beam design by designing the beam at this location.

Step 1: Select and the corresponding R-factor:

Assume the strain diagram shown in Fig. 5-27b, which leads to .
From Eq. (5-19):
1
' 0.80 5, 000 psi
0.0167
4 4 60, 000 psi
c
y
f
f
|


~ = =

Note:
1
=0.80 for f
c
= 5,000 psi

From Eq. (5-21):
0.0167 60, 000 psi
0.20
' 5, 000 psi
y
c
f
f

e

= = =

From Eq. (5-22):
' (1 0.59 ) 0.20 5 ksi (1 0.59 0.20) 0.882 ksi
c
R f e e = = =
(Note that this R-factor is reasonable based on values given in Table A-3)

Step 2: Select section dimensions, b and h:
From Eq. (5-23):
2 3
2715 k-in
3420 in
0.9 0.882 ksi
u
M
bd
R |
= = =



Since no column dimensions are given which control the width of the beam, the designer can
assume any reasonable value. Here we assume = 0.7
1 1
3 3
2715 k-in
17.0 in 17.5 in
0.7 0.9 0.882 ksi
u
M
d
R o|
| | | |
> = = ~
| |

\ . \ .

2.5 in 20 in h d = + =
0.7 17.5 in 12.5 in 14 in b d o = = = ~

Note that both h and b are rounded up to the nearest even inch value for constructability.

Step 3: Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars:
First, go back and recalculate the weight of the beam with the final selected dimensions:
2 2 3 2 2 3
lb 14 in 20 in lb lb
150 150 292
144 in /ft ft 144 in /ft ft ft
bh
DL

~ = =

So, using pattern loading again, the maximum positive moment is: 222 k-ft 2670 k-in
u
M = =
9 . 0 = |
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5-7
Now calculate the required area of steel, assuming 0.9 jd d = :
From Eq. (5-16):
( )
2
2670 k-in
3.14 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 17.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= ~ =
| |

|
\ .

With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (5-17):
2
3.14 in 60 ksi
3.16 in
0.85 ' 0.85 5 ksi 14 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =



From Eq. (5-16):
2
2670 k-in
3.11 in
3.16 in
0.9 60 ksi 17.5 in -
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= = =
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .


No further iterations are necessary, since the estimated lever arm was very reasonable. Select 4#8
bars as bottom reinforcement at the critical section of the beam.
2 2 2
4 4 0.79 in 3.16 in 3.11 in
s b
A A = = = > OK

Step 4: Required Checks:

1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A-5, to verify that b = 14 in is sufficiently
wide for 4 #8 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK

2) Use ACI-08 Eq. (10-3) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 5,000 psi, 3 ' 212 200
c
f = > so use 3 '
c
f
2 2
,min
3 '
3 5000
14 in 17.5 in 0.87 in 3.16 in
60, 000 psi
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = = s OK

3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (5-17):
2
3.16 in 60 ksi
3.19 in
0.85 ' 0.85 5 ksi 14 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =



We know that
1
0.80 | = (see above).
1
3.19 in
3.99 in
0.80
a
c
|
= = =

From Eq. (4-18):
- 17.5 in - 3.99 in
0.003 0.0102 0.005
3.99 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK

Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.

9 . 0 = |
9 . 0 = |
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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5-8
4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (5-15):
2
3.19 in
0.9 3.16 in 60 ksi 17.5 in 2715 k-in
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d | |
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .

226 k-ft 222 k-ft
n u
M M | = > =

Therefore, this design for positive bending is sufficient without being too conservative.

c) Using the beam section from part (b), design flexural reinforcement for the
maximum negative moment over the roller support.

Since the outer dimensions are selected, the design for negative bending follows the method for
designing a rectangular section where the section dimensions are known. The maximum expected
negative moment, considering pattern loading, is

- -

Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars for negative bending:
Assume :

From Eq. (5-16):

( )


With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd

From Eq. (5-17):





From Eq. (5-16):



No further iterations are necessary since the solution has essentially converged. Select 2#9 bars as
top reinforcement at the critical section of the beam.



Required Checks:

1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A-5, to verify that b = 14 in is sufficiently
wide for 2 #9 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK

2) Use ACI-08 Eq. (10-3) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 5,000 psi,

so use



2 2
,min
3 '
3 5000
14 in 17.5 in 0.87 in 2.0 in
60, 000 psi
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = = s
OK
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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5-9
3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (5-17):
2
2.0 in 60 ksi
2.02 in
0.85 ' 0.85 5 ksi 14 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =



We know that
1
0.80 | = (see above).
1
2.02 in
2.53 in
0.80
a
c
|
= = =


From Eq. (4-18):
- 17.5 in - 2.53 in
0.003 0.0178 0.005
2.53 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = >
OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.

4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (5-15):
2
2.02 in
0.9 2.0 in 60 ksi 17.5 in 1780 k-in
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d | |
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .


Therefore, this design is sufficient without being too conservative.

The cross-sections of the beam design at maximum positive and negative bending moments is
shown below.



Fig. S5-5b Cross-sections of final designs for positive and negative bending respectively



Note that other combinations of b, h, and A
s
may also be correct if different assumptions were
made by the designer. If all checks listed in Steps 4 and 6 are satisfied, without being unreasonably
conservative, the design may be considered adequate.
9 . 0 = |
9 . 0 = |
20in.
14in.
4 #8 bars
2.5in.
20in.
14in.
2 #9 bars
2.5in.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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5-10
5-5 Design three rectangular beam sections, i.e. select b and d and the tension steel area
A
s
, to resist a factored design moment, M
u
= 260 kip-ft. For all three cases select a
section with b = 0.5d and use f
c
= 4000 psi and f
y
= 60 ksi.

a) Start your design by assuming that
t
= 0.0075 (as was done in Section 5.3)

The equations presented in section 5.3 initially assumed that
t
= 0.0075. So, while no changes
need to be made, their derivation will briefly be shown to easy comparisons with the solutions to
parts (b) and (c).
0.003
0.286
0.003 0.0075
cu
cu s
c d d d
c
c c
= = =
+ +

1 1 1
0.85 ' 0.85 ' 0.286 0.24 '
c c c c
C f bc f b d f bd | | | = = =

Now, enforce equilibrium:
c
C T =
1
0.24 '
c s y
f bd A f | =

Thus we have an expression for the initial value when
t
= 0.0075 is assumed, from Eq. 5-19:
1
0.24 ' 0.24 0.85 4, 000 psi
0.0136
60, 000 psi
c
initial
y
f
f
|


= = =
From Eq. (5-21):
0.0136 60, 000 psi
0.204
' 4, 000 psi
y
c
f
f

e

= = =
From Eq. (5-22):
' (1 0.59 ) 0.204 4 ksi (1 0.59 0.204) 0.718 ksi
c
R f e e = = =
(Note that this R-factor is reasonable based on values given in Table A-3)
From Eq. (5-23):
2 3
3120 k-in
4830 in
0.9 0.718 ksi
u
M
bd
R |
= = =

Note that with


t
= 0.0075, 0.9 =
We are told to assume = 0.5
1 1
3 3
3120 k-in
21.3 in 21.5 in
0.5 0.9 0.718 ksi
u
M
d
R o|
| | | |
> = = ~
| |

\ . \ .

0.5 21.5 in 10.8 in 12 in b d o = = = ~

Note that both d and b are rounded up so that h and b both result in even inch values for
constructability.

Now, determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars, assuming 0.9 jd d = :
From Eq. (5-16):
( )
2
3120 k-in
2.99 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 21.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= ~ =
| |

|
\ .




With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd .
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
5-11
From Eq. (5-17):
2
2.99 in 60 ksi
4.40 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =


From Eq. (5-16):
2
3120 k-in
3.00 in
4.4 in
0.9 60 ksi 21.5 in -
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= = =
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .


No further iterations are necessary, since the estimated lever arm was very reasonable. Select 3#9
bars as bottom reinforcement at the critical section of the beam.
2 2 2
3 3 1.0 in 3.0 in 3.0 in
s b
A A = = = > OK

Now do the required checks:

1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A-5, to verify that b = 12 in is sufficiently
wide for 3 #9 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK

2) Use ACI-08 Eq. (10-3) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 4,000 psi, 3 ' 190 200
c
f = s so use 200.
2 2
,min
200 psi 200 psi
12 in 21.5 in 0.86 in 3.0 in
60, 000 psi
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = s OK

3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (5-17):
2
3.0 in 60 ksi
4.41 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =


We know that
1
0.85 | = .
1
4.41 in
5.19 in
0.85
a
c
|
= = =
From Eq. (4-18):
- 21.5 in - 5.19 in
0.003 0.0094 0.005
5.19 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.

4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (5-15):
2
4.41 in
0.9 3.0 in 60 ksi 21.5 in 3125 k-in
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d | |
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .

260 k-ft 260 k-ft
n u
M M | = > =

Therefore, this design is sufficient without being too conservative.


b) Start your design by assuming that
t
= 0.005

9 . 0 = |
9 . 0 = |
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5-12
We need to re-derive an expression for , using the same approach used in part (a).
0.003
0.375
0.003 0.005
cu
cu s
c d d d
c
c c
= = =
+ +

1 1 1
0.85 ' 0.85 ' 0.375 0.319 '
c c c c
C f bc f b d f bd | | | = = =
Now, enforce equilibrium:
c
C T =

1
0.319 '
c s y
f bd A f | =
Thus we have an expression for the initial value when
t
= 0.005 is assumed:
1
0.319 ' 0.319 0.85 4, 000 psi
0.0181
60, 000 psi
c
initial
y
f
f
|


= = =
From Eq. (5-21):
0.0181 60, 000 psi
0.271
' 4, 000 psi
y
c
f
f

e

= = =
From Eq. (5-22):
' (1 0.59 ) 0.271 4 ksi (1 0.59 0.271) 0.911 ksi
c
R f e e = = =
(Note that this R-factor is reasonable based on values given in Table A-3)
From Eq. (5-23):
2 3
3120 k-in
3805 in
0.9 0.911 ksi
u
M
bd
R |
= = =

Note that with


t
= 0.005, 0.9 =
We are told to assume = 0.5
1 1
3 3
3120 k-in
19.7 in 19.5 in
0.5 0.9 0.911 ksi
u
M
d
R o|
| | | |
> = = ~
| |

\ . \ .

2.5 in 22 in h d = + =
0.5 19.5 in 10 in b d o = = =

Note that both h and b are rounded to even inch values for constructability. Normally these values
would be rounded up, but since the estimate for d is so much nearer to 19.5 in than 21.5 in, it is
rounded down in this solution. Adequate strength of the section will still be achieved by selection
of an appropriate A
s
value.

Now, determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars, assuming 0.9 jd d = :
From Eq. (5-16):
( )
2
3120 k-in
3.29 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 19.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= ~ =
| |

|
\ .

With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd .
From Eq. (5-17):
2
3.29 in 60 ksi
5.81 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 10 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =


From Eq. (5-16):
2
3120 k-in
3.48 in
5.81 in
0.9 60 ksi 19.5 in -
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= = =
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

Iterate once more to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd .
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5-13
From Eq. (5-17):
2
3.48 in 60 ksi
6.14 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 10 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =


From Eq. (5-16):
2
3120 k-in
3.52 in
6.14 in
0.9 60 ksi 19.5 in -
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= = =
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

No further iterations are necessary, since the solution has converged. Select 3#10 bars as bottom
reinforcement at the critical section of the beam.
2 2 2
3 3 1.27 in 3.81 in 3.52 in
s b
A A = = = > OK


Now do the required checks:

1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A-5, to verify that b = 10 in is sufficiently
wide for 3 #10 bars to be placed in a single layer. NOT OK

So, either different bars must be selected, or the beam must be widened. Here we choose to widen
the beam so that b = 12 in.

2) Use ACI-08 Eq. (10-3) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 4,000 psi, 3 ' 190 200
c
f = s so use 200.
2 2
,min
200 psi 200 psi
12 in 19.5 in 0.78 in 3.81 in
60, 000 psi
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = s OK

3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (5-17):
2
3.81 in 60 ksi
5.60 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =


We know that
1
0.85 | = .
1
5.60 in
6.59 in
0.85
a
c
|
= = =
From Eq. (4-18):
- 19.5 in - 6.59 in
0.003 0.0059 0.005
6.59 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.

4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (5-15):
2
5.60 in
0.9 3.81 in 60 ksi 19.5 in 3435 k-in
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d | |
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .

286 k-ft 260 k-ft
n u
M M | = > =

9 . 0 = |
9 . 0 = |
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5-14
Therefore, this design is sufficient. Since
n
M | is 10% larger than
u
M , this design is perhaps too
conservative. Options for optimizing this design might be selecting different bars, or slightly
resizing the element. Notice that the design in part (a) was more efficient, so different initial
assumptions can lead to different designs.


c) Start your design by assuming that
t
= 0.0035. You will probably need to add
compression reinforcement to make this a tension-controlled section.

We need to re-derive an expression for , using the same approach used in part (a).



Now, enforce equilibrium:
c
C T =




Thus we have an expression for the initial value when
t
= 0.0035 is assumed:



From Eq. (5-21):



From Eq. (5-22):

( ) ( )
(Note that this R-factor is reasonable based on values given in Table A-3)

Before we can estimate the dimensions of the beam with Eq. (5-23), we need to determine| .
Although we began by assuming that
t
= 0.0035, tension controlled sections are so desirable that
we will ensure that the section is tension controlled. Compression reinforcement might be required.
Set .

From Eq. (5-23):



We are told to assume = 0.5. Also, since we had difficulty placing all the steel required in part
(b) due to insufficient beam width, and part (c) requires a higher reinforcement ratio to limit the
tensile strains, we will begin by assuming that two layers of reinforcement will be required.
(

(


)



Recall that we use 3.5 in. instead of 2.5 in. to account for the effect the second layer of steel has on
the location of the centroid of the tension reinforcement.

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5-15


Note that both h and b are rounded to even inch values for constructability.

Now, Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars, assuming 0.9 jd d = :
From Eq. (5-16):

( )



With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd .
From Eq. (5-17):





From Eq. (5-16):


Iterate once more to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd .
From Eq. (5-17):





From Eq. (5-16):


No further iterations are necessary, since the solution has converged. Select 5#8 bars as bottom
reinforcement at the critical section of the beam.

OK

Check whether the section is tensioned controlled:




1
6.97 in
8.2 in
0.85
a
c
|
= = =



Compression steel must be added to have a tension-controlled section.
Try adding 2 #8 bars in the compression zone, which is approximately

, with


Try

) ( )
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5-16



Try



Now do the required checks:

1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A-5, to verify that b = 10 in is sufficiently
wide for 3 #8 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK

2) Use ACI-08 Eq. (10-3) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 4,000 psi, 3 ' 190 200
c
f = s so use 200.
2 2
,min
200 psi 200 psi
10 in 20.5 in 0.68 in 3.95 in
60, 000 psi
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = s OK

3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (4-18):



Ok, .

4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (5-15):

)+ [(

) ( )]

- -




Therefore, this design is sufficient. Again, since
n
M | is 10% larger than
u
M , this design is perhaps
too conservative. Options for optimizing this design might be selecting different bars, or slightly
resizing the element. Notice that the design in part (a) was more efficient, so different initial
assumptions can lead to different designs.
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5-17
d) Compare and discuss your three section designs.


Fig S5-6 Cross sections of section designs from parts (a), (b), and (c), respectively



Note that the area of reinforcement provided is higher in the third design compared to
either of the first two, even though the section size is smaller. The design for part (c) also required
compression steel to ensure a tension controlled section, whereas the sections in parts (a) and (b)
were tension controlled as singly-reinforced sections.

24in.
12in.
3 #9 bars
2.5in.
22in.
12in.
3 #10 bars
2.5in.
22in.
10in.
5 #8 bars
3.5in.
2 #8 bars
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5-18
5-6 You are to design a rectangular beam section to resist a negative bending moment of
275 kip-ft. Architectural requirements will limit your beam dimensions to a width of
12 in. and a total depth of 18 in. Using those maximum permissible dimensions, select
reinforcement to provide the required moment strength following the ACI Code
provisions for the strength reduction factor, . Use

and

.

Begin by trying to design the section as singly reinforced, with one layer of tension steel.
Set

( )



Either 5 #9 bars of 6 #8. To fit within the 12 in. beam width, 2 layers of bars are required.
Try 5 #9 bars:



Check whether the tension steel has yielded, and whether the section is tension controlled.



Add compression steel so that

; try 3 #8 bars so that



By iteration,



Check whether the section is tension controlled.



Calculate the nominal moment capacity:

)+ [(

) ( )]



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5-19
Now do the required checks:

1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A-5, to verify that b = 12 in. is sufficiently
wide for 3 #9 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK

2) Use ACI-08 Eq. (10-3) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 5,000 psi,

so use 212.



Already verified that is OK, and calculated the nominal moment capacity.


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5-20
5-7 For column line 2, use the ACI Moment Coefficients given in ACI Code section 8.3.3
to determine the maximum positive and negative factored moments at the support
faces for columns A-2 and B-2, and at the midspan of an exterior span and the
interior span.

First, confirm that the ACI moment coefficients can be used.
a) Two or more spans OK
b) Longer span length within 20% of shorter OK
c) Loads are uniformly distributed OK
d) Unfactored LL load does not exceed 3 times DL OK
e) Members are prismatic OK

Now, estimate the dead load supported by column line 2:
Dead load from beam, per foot of beam:
2 3
2
12 in 18 in lb lb
150 225
in ft ft
144
ft

=

Dead load from slab, per foot of beam:
( )
3
12 ft 11 ft
6 in
2
lb lb
150 863
in
ft ft
12
ft
| | +

|
\ .
=

Superimposed dead load, per foot of beam:
2
12 ft 11 ft lb lb
20 230
2 ft ft
+
=

Can the live load be reduced? From Eq. (5-3):
At column A-2 and midspan of exterior beam:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.041 k/ft
2 11.5 ft 30 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(

(


At column B-2:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.034 k/ft
2 11.5 ft 55 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(

(


At midspan of interior span:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.044 k/ft
2 11.5 ft 25 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(

(


Live load, per foot of beam:
At column A-2 and midspan of exterior beam:
2
12 ft 11 ft lb lb
41 472
2 ft ft
+
=
At column B-2:
2
12 ft 11 ft lb lb
34 391
2 ft ft
+
=
At midspan of interior span:
2
12 ft 11 ft lb lb
44 506
2 ft ft
+
=

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5-21
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored loads are:
At column A-2 and midspan of exterior beam:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.863 k/ft 0.230 k/ft 1.6 0.472 k/ft 2.34 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
At column B-2:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.863 k/ft 0.230 k/ft 1.6 0.391 k/ft 2.21 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
At midspan of interior span:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.863 k/ft 0.230 k/ft 1.6 0.506 k/ft 2.39 k/ft
u
w = + + + =

Calculate the clear span length,
n
:
At column A-2: 30 ft -16 in 28.67 ft
n
= =
At midspan of exterior span: 30 ft -16 in 28.67 ft
n
= =
At column B-2 (exterior):
( )
30 ft 25 ft
-16 in 26.17 ft
2
n
+
= =
At column B-2 (interior):
( )
30 ft 25 ft
-16 in 26.17 ft
2
n
+
= =
At midspan of interior span: 25 ft -16 in 23.67 ft
n
= =

Design Moments using ACI Moment Coefficients from section 8.3.3:
At column A-2:
( )
2
2
2.34 k/ft 28.67 ft
120 k-ft
16 16
u n
u
w
M

= = =
At midspan of exterior span:
( )
2
2
2.34 k/ft 28.67 ft
137 k-ft
14 14
u n
u
w
M

= = =
At column B-2 (exterior):
( )
2
2
2.21 k/ft 26.17 ft
151 k-ft
10 10
u n
u
w
M

= = =
At column B-2 (interior):
( )
2
2
2.21 k/ft 26.17 ft
138 k-ft
11 11
u n
u
w
M

= = =
At midspan of interior span:
( )
2
2
2.39 k/ft 23.67 ft
83.7 k-ft
16 16
u n
u
w
M

= = =
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5-22
5-8 Repeat problem 5-7, but use structural analysis software to determine the maximum
positive and negative moments described in problem 5-7. The assumed beam, slab
and column dimensions are given in the figure. Assume 12 ft story heights above and
below this floor level. You must use appropriate live load patterns to maximize the
various factored moments. Use a table to compare the answers from Problems 5-7
and 5-8.

From Problem 5-7, the factored loads are:
At column A-2 and midspan of exterior beam: 2.34 k/ft
u
w =
At column B-2: 2.21 k/ft
u
w =
At midspan of interior span: 2.39 k/ft
u
w =

Properties of elements used for model:
Column:

2
16 in 16 in 256 in
g
A = =
( )
4
4
16 in / 12 5, 460 in
g
I = =
Beam (Use properties of the web as an approximation of the cracked properties):

2
12 in 24 in 288 in
g
A = =
( )
3
4
12 in 24 in / 12 13,800 in
g
I = =

We assume story heights of 12 ft above and below the continuous beam being modeled, and
include columns, fixed at their ends, in our model. Then we apply the appropriate load
combinations following Example 5-2, and the following design moments result:

Location ACI Design Moment
(From Problem 5-7)
Design Moment
(From software)
At column A-2: -120 kip-ft -135 kip-ft
At midspan of exterior span: 137 kip-ft 93.0 kip-ft
At column B-2 (exterior): -151 kip-ft -159 kip-ft
At column B-2 (interior): -138 kip-ft -114 kip-ft
At midspan of interior span: 83.7 kip-ft 55.0 kip-ft



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5-23
5-9 Repeat problems 5-7 and 5-8 for column line 1.

First, confirm that the ACI moment coefficients can be used.
a) Two or more spans OK
b) Longer span length within 20% of shorter OK
c) Loads are uniformly distributed OK
d) Unfactored LL load does not exceed 3 times DL OK
e) Members are prismatic OK

Now, estimate the dead weight supported by column line 1:
Dead weight from beam, per foot of beam:
2 3
2
12 in 18 in lb lb
150 225
in ft ft
144
ft

=


Dead weight from slab, per foot of beam:
3
6 in 6.5 ft lb lb
150 488
in
ft ft
12
ft

=

Superimposed dead load, per foot of beam:
2
lb lb
6.5 ft 20 130
ft ft
=

Can the live load be reduced? From Eq. (5-3):
At column A-1 and midspan of exterior beam:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.052 k/ft
2 6 ft 30 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(

(


since L
r
LL, no reduction is possible, so use LL = 0.050 k/ft
2

At column B-1:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.042 k/ft
2 6 ft 55 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(

(


At midspan of interior span:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.056 k/ft
2 6 ft 25 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(

(


since L
r
LL, no reduction is possible, so use LL = 0.050 k/ft
2


Live load, per foot of beam:
At column A-1 and midspan of exterior beam:
2
lb lb
6.5 ft 50 325
ft ft
=
At column B-1:
2
lb lb
6.5 ft 42 273
ft ft
=
At midspan of interior span:
2
lb lb
6.5 ft 50 325
ft ft
=

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5-24
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored loads are:
At column A-1 and midspan of exterior beam:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.488 k/ft 0.130 k/ft 1.6 0.325 k/ft 1.53 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
At column B-1:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.488 k/ft 0.130 k/ft 1.6 0.273 k/ft 1.45 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
At midspan of interior span:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.488 k/ft 0.130 k/ft 1.6 0.325 k/ft 1.53 k/ft
u
w = + + + =

Calculate the clear span length,
n
:
At column A-1: 30 ft -16 in 28.67 ft
n
= =
At midspan of exterior span: 30 ft -16 in 28.67 ft
n
= =
At column B-1 (exterior):
( )
30 ft 25 ft
-16 in 26.17 ft
2
n
+
= =
At column B-1 (interior):
( )
30 ft 25 ft
-16 in 26.17 ft
2
n
+
= =
At midspan of interior span: 25 ft -16 in 23.67 ft
n
= =

Design Moments using ACI Moment Coefficients from section 8.3.3:
At column A-1:
( )
2
2
1.53 k/ft 28.67 ft
78.6 k-ft
16 16
u n
u
w
M

= = =
At midspan of exterior span:
( )
2
2
1.53 k/ft 28.67 ft
89.8 k-ft
14 14
u n
u
w
M

= = =
At column B-1 (exterior):
( )
2
2
1.45 k/ft 26.17 ft
99.3 k-ft
10 10
u n
u
w
M

= = =
At column B-1 (interior):
( )
2
2
1.45 k/ft 26.17 ft
90.3 k-ft
11 11
u n
u
w
M

= = =
At midspan of interior span:
( )
2
2
1.53 k/ft 23.67 ft
53.6 k-ft
16 16
u n
u
w
M

= = =

Now, assemble a model using structural analysis software. Use the following properties:
Column:

2
16 in 16 in 256 in
g
A = =
( )
4
4
16 in / 12 5, 460 in
g
I = =
Beam (Use properties of the web as an approximation of the cracked properties):

2
12 in 24 in 288 in
g
A = =
( )
3
4
12 in 24 in / 12 13,800 in
cr
I ~ =
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
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5-25
We assume story heights of 12 ft above and below the continuous beam being modeled, and
include columns, fixed at their ends, in our model. Then we apply the appropriate load
combinations following Example 5-2, and the following design moments result:


Location ACI Design Moment Design Moment
(From software)
At column A-1: -78.6 kip-ft -88.8 kip-ft
At midspan of exterior span: 89.8 kip-ft 60.9 kip-ft
At column B-1 (exterior): -99.3 kip-ft -103 kip-ft
At column B-1 (interior): -90.3 kip-ft -74.7 kip-ft
At midspan of interior span: 53.6 kip-ft 35.5 kip-ft


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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5-26
5-10 Repeat problems 5-7 and 5-8 for the beam m-n-o-p in Fig. P5-7. Be sure to comment
on the factored design moment at the face of the spandrel beam support at point m.

First, confirm that the ACI moment coefficients can be used.
a) Two or more spans OK
b) Longer span length within 20% of shorter OK
c) Loads are uniformly distributed OK
d) Unfactored LL load does not exceed 3 times DL OK
e) Members are prismatic OK

Now, estimate the dead weight supported by beam m-n-o-p:
Dead weight from beam, per foot of beam:
2 3
2
12 in 18 in lb lb
150 225
in ft ft
144
ft

=

Dead weight from slab, per foot of beam:
3
6 in 12 ft lb lb
150 900
in
ft ft
12
ft

=

Superimposed dead load, per foot of beam:
2
lb lb
12 ft 20 240
ft ft
=
Can the live load be reduced? From Eq. (5-3):
At m and midspan of exterior beam:

2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.040 k/ft
2 12 ft 30 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(

(


At n:

2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.033 k/ft
2 12 ft 55 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(

(


At midspan of interior span:

2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.043 k/ft
2 12 ft 25 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(

(



Live load, per foot of beam:
At m and midspan of exterior beam:
2
lb lb
12 ft 40 480
ft ft
=
At n:
2
lb lb
12 ft 33 396
ft ft
=
At midspan of interior span:
2
lb lb
12 ft 43 516
ft ft
=




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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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5-27
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored loads are:
At m and midspan of exterior beam:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.900 k/ft 0.240 k/ft 1.6 0.480 k/ft 2.41 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
At n:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.900 k/ft 0.240 k/ft 1.6 0.396 k/ft 2.27 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
At midspan of interior span:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.900 k/ft 0.240 k/ft 1.6 0.516 k/ft 2.46 k/ft
u
w = + + + =

Calculate the clear span length,
n
:
At m: 30 ft -12 in 29 ft
n
= =
At midspan of exterior span: 30 ft -12 in 29 ft
n
= =
At n (exterior):
( )
30 ft 25 ft
-12 in 26.5 ft
2
n
+
= =
At n (interior):
( )
30 ft 25 ft
-12 in 26.5 ft
2
n
+
= =
At midspan of interior span: 25 ft -12 in 24 ft
n
= =

Design Moments using ACI Moment Coefficients from section 8.3.3:
At m:
( )
2
2
2.41 k/ft 29 ft
84.5 k-ft
24 24
u n
u
w
M

= = =
At midspan of exterior span:
( )
2
2
2.41 k/ft 29 ft
145 k-ft
14 14
u n
u
w
M

= = =
At n (exterior):
( )
2
2
2.27 k/ft 26.5 ft
159 k-ft
10 10
u n
u
w
M

= = =
At n (interior):
( )
2
2
2.27 k/ft 26.5 ft
145 k-ft
11 11
u n
u
w
M

= = =
At midspan of interior span:
( )
2
2
2.46 k/ft 24 ft
88.6 k-ft
16 16
u n
u
w
M

= = =

Now, assemble a model using structural analysis software. Use the following properties:
Beam (Use properties of the web as an approximation of the cracked properties):

2
12 in 24 in 288 in
g
A = =
( )
3
4
12 in 24 in / 12 13,800 in
g
I = =
Here we follow the recommendations from chapter 5 of the text, and assume that the beam is
pinned at m and supported by rollers (which are free to rotate) at n, o, and p. This neglects the
relatively small amount of moment transferred into the supporting beams due to their torsional
rigidity.







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to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
5-28
Now apply the appropriate load combinations following Example 5-2, and the following design
moments result:

Location ACI Design Moment Design Moment
(From software)
At m: -84.5 kip-ft -14.6 kip-ft
At midspan of exterior span: 145 kip-ft 184 kip-ft
At n (exterior): -159 kip-ft -195 kip-ft
At n (interior): -145 kip-ft -200 kip-ft
At midspan of interior span: 88.6 kip-ft 23.5 kip-ft

The software model assumes that there is no torsional rigidity supplied by the supporting beams.
Therefore, the moment that is predicted by the software at m is only due to the fact that the beam is
offset from the centerline of the supporting spandrel beam. While neglecting the torsional rigidity
of the spandrel beams is not realistic, it is also unlikely that the spandrel beam is torsionally rigid
enough to result in a moment as high as the ACI Design Moments.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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5-29
5-11 Repeat problems 5-7 and 5-8 for the one-way slab strip shown in Fig. P5-7. For this
problem, find the factored design moments at all the points, a through i, indicated in
Fig. P5-7.

First, confirm that the ACI moment coefficients can be used.
a) Two or more spans OK
b) Longer span length within 20% of shorter OK
c) Loads are uniformly distributed OK
d) Unfactored LL load does not exceed 3 times DL OK
e) Members are prismatic OK

Now, estimate the dead load supported by slab strip a-i:
Dead load from slab, per foot of slab:
2 3
2
6 in 12 in lb lb
150 75
in ft ft
144
ft

=

Superimposed dead load, per foot of slab:
2
lb lb
1 ft 20 20
ft ft
=

Live load, per foot of slab:
2
lb lb
1 ft 50 50
ft ft
=

This live load cannot be reduced due to the very small influence area of the slab strip.

So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored loads are:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.075 k/ft 0.020 k/ft 1.6 0.050 k/ft 0.194 k/ft
u
w = + + =

Calculate the clear span lengths,
n
:
12 ft -12 in 11 ft
n
= =
11 ft -12 in 10 ft
n
= =

Also, assemble a model using structural analysis software. Use the following cracked properties:
Beam:

2
12 in 6 in 72 in
g
A = =
( )
3
4
0.5 0.5 12 in 6 in / 12 108 in
cr g
I I = = =

Here, we follow the recommendations from chapter 5 of the text, and assume that the slab strip is
pinned at a, and supported by rollers (which are free to rotate) at c, e, g, and i. Note that although i
is a point of geometrical symmetry, it cannot be modeled as fixed, since the pattern loads are not
necessarily symmetrical. Also note that pinning these supports neglects the relatively small
amount of moment transferred into the supporting beams due to their torsional rigidity.

Once the model is constructed, apply the appropriate load combinations following Example 5-2.

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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5-30
Design Moments using ACI Moment Coefficients from section 8.3.3, compared to design moments
resulting from software model:

Location ACI Moment
Coefficient
ACI Design Moment Design Moment
(From Software)
a -1/24 -0.978 kip-ft 0.423 kip-ft
b 1/14 1.68 kip-ft 2.14 kip-ft
c -1/11 -2.13 kip-ft -2.86 kip-ft
d 1/16 1.47 kip-ft 1.29kip-ft
e -1/11 -1.76 kip-ft -1.99 kip-ft
f 1/16 1.21 kip-ft 1.29 kip-ft
g -1/11 -1.76 kip-ft -1.99 kip-ft
h 1/16 1.21 kip-ft 1.24 kip-ft
i -1/11 -1.76 kip-ft -1.94 kip-ft

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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5-31
5-12 Use structural analysis software to find the maximum factored moments for the
girder on column line C. Find the maximum factored positive moments at o and y,
and the maximum factored negative moments at columns C-1, C-2, and C-3.

Estimate the loads supported by the beam along column line C:
Distributed dead load from beam, per foot of beam:
2 3
2
12 in 24 in lb lb
150 300
in ft ft
144
ft

=

The remaining loads are transferred to the girder as a point load at mid-span. Loads transferring
from the adjacent interior span will transfer directly to the girder, whereas loads from the adjacent
exterior span must be amplified by 15% according to the ACI shear coefficient.

Dead load from beams and slab, applied at the mid-point of the girder between C-1 and C-2:
2 3
2
12 in 18 in 25 ft 6 in 6 in 12 ft 25 ft 6 in lb
150 13.5 k
in in in
in 2 2 ft
12 12 12
144
ft ft ft
ft
(
| | | |

(
| |
+ =
(
| |
\ . \ . (


2 3
2
12 in 18 in 30 ft 6 in 6 in 12 ft 30 ft 6 in lb
1.15 150 18.8 k
in in in
in 2 2 ft
12 12 12
144
ft ft ft
ft
(
| | | |

(
| |
+ =
(
| |
\ . \ . (


18.8 k 13.5 k 32.3 k + =

Dead load from beams and slab, applied at the mid-point of the girder at the interior spans:
2 3
2
12 in 18 in 25 ft 6 in 6 in 11 ft 25 ft 6 in lb
150 12.6 k
in in in
in 2 2 ft
12 12 12
144
ft ft ft
ft
(
| | | |

(
| |
+ =
(
| |
\ . \ . (


2 3
2
12 in 18 in 30 ft 6 in 6 in 11 ft 30 ft 6 in lb
1.15 150 17.5 k
in in in
in 2 2 ft
12 12 12
144
ft ft ft
ft
(
| | | |

(
| |
+ =
(
| |
\ . \ . (


12.6 k 17.5 k 30.1 k + =

Superimposed dead load, applied at the mid-point of the girder at the exterior spans:
2
25 ft lb
12 ft 20 3.0 k
2 ft
(
| |
=
| (
\ .


3
30 ft lb
1.15 12 ft 20 4.14 k
2 ft
(
| |
=
| (
\ .


3.00 k 4.14 k 7.14 k + =

Superimposed dead load, applied at the mid-point of the girder at the interior spans:
2
25 ft lb
11 ft 20 2.75 k
2 ft
(
| |
=
| (
\ .


3
30 ft lb
1.15 11 ft 20 3.80 k
2 ft
(
| |
=
| (
\ .


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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5-32
2.75 k 3.80 k 6.55 k + =
Live load, applied as a point load:
For negative moment at C-1 and positive moment at o:
2 2
15 15
0.25 50 lb/ft 0.25 33 lb/ft
24 ft 55 ft
r
I
L L
A
(
(
= + = + = (
(

(


2
25 ft 30 ft
33 lb/ft 12 ft 1.15 12 ft 11.8 k
2 2
o
LL
(
| | | |
= + =
| | (
\ . \ .



For negative moment at C-2:
2 2
15 15
0.25 50 lb/ft 0.25 27.4 lb/ft
46 ft 55 ft
r
I
L L
A
(
(
= + = + = (
(

(


2
25 ft 30 ft
27.4 lb/ft 12 ft 1.15 12 ft 9.78 k
2 2
o
LL
(
| | | |
= + =
| | (
\ . \ .

2
25 ft 30 ft
27.4 lb/ft 11 ft 1.15 11 ft 8.97 k
2 2
y
LL
(
| | | |
= + =
| | (
\ . \ .



For positive moment at y:
2 2
15 15
0.25 50 lb/ft 0.25 34 lb/ft
22 ft 55 ft
r
I
L L
A
(
(
= + = + = (
(

(


2
25 ft 30 ft
34 lb/ft 11 ft 1.15 11 ft 11.1 k
2 2
y
LL
(
| | | |
= + =
| | (
\ . \ .



For negative moment at C-3:
2 2
15 15
0.25 50 lb/ft 0.25 27.7 lb/ft
44 ft 55 ft
r
I
L L
A
(
(
= + = + = (
(

(


2
25 ft 30 ft
27.7 lb/ft 11 ft 1.15 11 ft 9.06 k
2 2
y
LL
(
| | | |
= + =
| | (
\ . \ .



Calculate the clear span length,
n
:
Between C-1 and C-2: 24 ft -16 in 22.67 ft
n
= =
Between C-2 and C-3: 22 ft -16 in 20.67 ft
n
= =

Now assemble a model using structural analysis software. Use the following cracked properties:
Column:

2
16 in 16 in 256 in
g
A = =
( )
4
4
16 in / 12 5, 460 in
g
I = =
Beam (Use properties of the web as an approximation of the cracked properties):

2
12 in 24 in 288 in
g
A = =
( )
3
4
12 in 24 in / 12 13,800 in
cr
I ~ =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
5-33
We assume story heights of 12 ft above and below the continuous beam being modeled, and
include columns, fixed at their ends, in our model. Then we apply the appropriate load
combinations following Example 5-2, and the following design moments result:

Location Design Moment
(From Software)
Negative at C-1 -121 kip-ft
Positive at o 236 kip-ft
Negative at C-2 (o-side) -224 kip-ft
Negative at C-2 (y-side) -198 kip-ft
Positive at y 175 kip-ft
Negative at C-3 -164 kip-ft

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
5-34
5-13 Assume the maximum factored positive moment near midspan of the floor beam
between columns A-2 and B-2 is 60 kip-ft. Using the beam dimensions given in
Fig. P5-7, determine the required area of tension reinforcement to satisfy all the ACI
Code requirements for strength and minimum reinforcement area. Select bars and
provide a sketch of your final section design.

The maximum expected positive moment is given as 60 k-ft 720 k-in
u
M = =

Determine the effective flange width:
By ACI code section 8.12:
30 ft / 4 7.5 ft 90 in
f
b = = =

Check that:
2 8 6 in 12 in 108 in
11 ft -12 in
2 12 in 132 in
2
f
b
+ =

<

+ =

OK

Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars:
Assume 0.95 jd d = :
From Eq. (5-16):
( )
2
720 k-in
0.65 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.95 21.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= ~ =
| |

|
\ .

With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (5-17):
2
0.65 in 60 ksi
0.13 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 90 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =



From Eq. (5-16):
2
720 k-in
0.62 in
0.13 in
0.9 60 ksi 21.5 in -
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= = =
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .


This seems like a very small area of required steel, so check minimum steel requirement before
selecting bars.

From ACI-08 Eq. (10-3):
For f
c
= 4,000 psi, 3 ' 189 200
c
f = s so use 200
2
,min
3 '
200
12 in 21.5 in 0.86 in
60, 000 psi
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = =

The minimum steel requirement will govern here. Select 3 #5 bars.
2 2 2
3 3 0.31 in 0.93 in 0.86 in
s b
A A = = = > OK


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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5-35
Required Checks:

1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A-5, to verify that b = 12 in is sufficiently
wide for 3 #5 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK

2) Use ACI-08 Eq. (10-3) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required. Since this requirement governed our bar selection, this is satisfied by default. OK

3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (5-17):
2
0.93 in 60 ksi
0.182 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 90 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =



We know that
1
0.85 | = for f
c
= 4,000 psi
1
0.182 in
0.214 in
0.85
a
c
|
= = =

From Eq. (4-18):
- 21.5 in - 0.214 in
0.003 0.297 0.005
0.214 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.

4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (5-15):
2
0.182 in
0.9 0.93 in 60 ksi 21.5 in 1075 k-in
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d | |
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .

89.6 k-ft 60 k-ft
n u
M M | = > =

Therefore, this design is sufficient. It seems too conservative, but that is because the minimum
area requirement governed bar selection.



Fig. S5-13 Cross-section of final design for positive bending region

Note that other selections A
s
may also be correct. If all checks are satisfied, without being
unreasonably conservative, the design may be considered adequate.
9 . 0 = |
9 . 0 = |
24in.
90in.
3 #5 bars
2.5in.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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5-36
5-14 Assume the maximum factored negative moment at the face of column B-2 for the
floor beam along column line 2 is -120 kip-ft. Using the beam and slab dimensions
given in Fig. P5-7, determine the required area of tension reinforcement to satisfy all
the ACI Code requirements for strength and minimum reinforcement area. Select
bars and provide a sketch of your final section design.

The maximum expected negative moment is given as 120 k-ft 1440 k-in
u
M = =

Although this is a T-section, there is no need to determine the effective flange width since the
compression zone is located in the web of the beam.

Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars:
Assume 0.9 jd d = :
From Eq. (5-16):
( )
2
1440 k-in
1.38 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 21.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= ~ =
| |

|
\ .


With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (5-17):
2
1.38 in 60 ksi
2.03 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =



From Eq. (5-16):
2
1440 k-in
1.30 in
2.03 in
0.9 60 ksi 21.5 in -
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= = =
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .


Select 3 #5 bars over the web, and 4 #3 bars in the flange. This will result in part of the
reinforcement (about 1/3) being spread into the flange, and most (2/3) remaining over the web.
2 2 2 2
1 2
3 4 3 0.31 in 4 0.11 in 1.37 in 1.30 in
s b b
A A A = + = + = > OK

Required Checks:

1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A-5, to verify that b = 12 in is sufficiently
wide for 3 #5 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK

2) Use ACI-08 Eq. (10-3) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
From ACI-08 Eq. (10-3):
For f
c
= 4,000 psi, 3 ' 190 200
c
f = s so use 200 psi
2 2
,min
3 '
200 psi
12 in 21.5 in 0.86 in 1.37 in
60, 000 psi
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = = < OK




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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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5-37
3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (5-17):
2
1.37 in 60 ksi
2.01 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =



We know that
1
0.85 | = for f
c
= 4,000 psi
1
2.01 in
2.36 in
0.85
a
c
|
= = =

From Eq. (4-18):
- 21.5 in - 2.36 in
0.003 0.024 0.005
2.36 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.

4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (5-15):
2
2.01 in
0.9 1.37 in 60 ksi 21.5 in 1515 k-in
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d | |
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .

126 k-ft 120 k-ft
n u
M M | = > =

Therefore, this design is sufficient.



Fig. S5-14 Cross-section of final design for negative bending region



Note that other selections of A
s
may also be correct. If all checks are satisfied, without being
unreasonably conservative, the design may be considered adequate. Also note that all flange
reinforcement that is considered to contribute to the negative bending capacity of this section is
placed within two flange depths of the web.
9 . 0 = |
9 . 0 = |
24in.
90in.
12in.
3 #5 bars and 4 #3 bars
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
5-38
5-15 Assume the maximum factored negative moment at support n of the floor beam
m-n-o-p is -150 kip-ft. Using the design procedure for singly reinforced beam sections
given in Section 5-3 (design of beams when section dimensions are not known),
determine the beam dimensions and select the required area of tension reinforcement
to satisfy all the ACI Code requirements for strength and minimum reinforcement
area. Select bars and provide a sketch of your final section design.

The maximum expected negative moment is given as 150 k-ft 1800 k-in
u
M = =

Although this is a T-section, there is no need to determine the effective flange width since the
compression zone is located in the web of the beam.

Step 1: Select and the corresponding R-factor:

Assume the desirable strain diagram shown in Fig. 5-27b, which leads to .
From Eq. (5-19):
1
' 0.85 4, 000 psi
0.0142
4 4 60, 000 psi
c
y
f
f
|


~ = =

Note:
1
=0.85 for f
c
= 4,000 psi

From Eq. (5-21):
0.0142 60, 000 psi
0.2125
' 4, 000 psi
y
c
f
f

e

= = =

From Eq. (5-22):
' (1 0.59 ) 0.2125 4 ksi (1 0.59 0.2125) 0.743 ksi
c
R f e e = = =
(Note that this R-factor is reasonable based on values given in Table A-3)

Step 2: Select section dimensions, b and h:
From Eq. (5-23):
2 3
1800 k-in
2690 in
0.9 0.743 ksi
u
M
bd
R |
= = =



Since no column dimensions are given which control the width of the beam, the designer can
assume any reasonable value. Here we assume = 0.5
1 1
3 3
1800 k-in
17.6 in 17.5 in
0.5 0.9 0.734 ksi
u
M
d
R o
| | | |
> = = ~
| |

\ . \ .

2.5 in 20 in h d = + =
0.5 17.5 in 8.75 in 10 in b d o = = = ~

Note that both h and b are rounded to the nearest even inch value for constructability.

Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars:
Assume 0.9 jd d = : From Eq. (5-16):
( )
2
1800 k-in
2.12 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 17.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= ~ =
| |

|
\ .

9 . 0 = |
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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5-39
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (5-17):
2
2.12 in 60 ksi
3.74 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 10 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =



From Eq. (5-16):
2
1800 k-in
2.13 in
3.74 in
0.9 60 ksi 17.5 in -
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= = =
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .


Since I am not satisfied that any of the possible bar combinations that fulfill this requirement are
not too conservative, I will choose to widen the beam slightly to help get a more efficient design.

Select b = 12 in.

Now re-determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars:
Assume 0.9 jd d = :
From Eq. (5-16):
( )
2
1800 k-in
2.12 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 17.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= ~ =
| |

|
\ .


With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (5-17):
2
2.12 in 60 ksi
3.12 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =


From Eq. (5-16):
2
1800 k-in
2.09 in
3.12 in
0.9 60 ksi 17.5 in -
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= = =
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

Select 3 #6 bars over the web, and 4 #4 bars in the flange. This will result in part of the
reinforcement (about 1/3) being spread into the flange, and most (2/3) remaining over the web.
2 2 2 2
1 2
3 4 3 0.44 in 4 0.2 in 2.12 in 2.09 in
s b b
A A A = + = + = > OK

Required Checks:

1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A-5, to verify that b = 12 in is sufficiently
wide for 3 #6 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK

2) Use ACI-08 Eq. (10-3) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
From ACI-08 Eq. (10-3):
For f
c
= 4,000 psi, 3 ' 190 200
c
f = s so use 200
2 2
,min
3 '
200 psi
12 in 17.5 in 0.70 in 2.12 in
60, 000 psi
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = = < OK
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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5-40
3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (5-17):
2
2.12 in 60 ksi
3.12 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =



We know that
1
0.85 | = for f
c
= 4,000 psi
1
3.12 in
3.67 in
0.85
a
c
|
= = =

From Eq. (4-18):
- 17.5 in - 3.67 in
0.003 0.011 0.005
3.67 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.

4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (5-15):
2
3.12 in
0.9 2.12 in 60 ksi 17.5 in 1820 k-in
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d | |
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .

152 k-ft 150 k-ft
n u
M M | = > =

Therefore, this design is sufficient without being too conservative.



Fig. S5-15 Cross-section of final design for negative bending region



Note that other selections A
s
may also be correct. If all checks are satisfied, without being
unreasonably conservative, the design may be considered adequate. Also note that all flange
reinforcement that is considered to contribute to the negative bending capacity of this section is
placed within two flange depths of the web.
9 . 0 = |
9 . 0 = |
20in.
90in.
12in.
3 #6 bars and 4 #4 bars
12in.
6in.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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5-41
5-16 Assume the maximum factored negative moment at the face of column C-2 for the
girder along column line C is -250 kip-ft. Using the design procedure given in
section 5-4 for the design of doubly reinforced sections, determine the beam
dimensions and select the required areas of tension and compression
reinforcement to satisfy all the ACI Code requirements for strength and minimum
reinforcement area. Select bars and provide a sketch of your final section design.

The maximum expected negative moment is given as 250 k-ft 3000 k-in
u
M = =

Although this is a T-section, there is no need to determine the effective flange width since the
compression zone is located in the web of the beam.

Select and the corresponding R-factor:
Assume the desirable strain diagram shown in Fig. 5-27b, which leads to .
From Eq. (5-25):
1
0.36 ' 0.36 0.85 4, 000 psi
0.0204
60, 000 psi
c
y
f
f
|


~ = = Note:
1
=0.85 for f
c
= 4,000 psi

From Eq. (5-21):
0.0204 60, 000 psi
0.306
' 4, 000 psi
y
c
f
f

e

= = =

From Eq. (5-22):
' (1 0.59 ) 0.306 4 ksi (1 0.59 0.306) 1.0 ksi
c
R f e e = = =
(Note that this R-factor is reasonable based on values given in Table A-3)

Select section dimensions, b and h:
From Eq. (5-23):
2 3
3000 k-in
3330 in
0.9 1.0 ksi
u
M
bd
R |
= = =



Since no column dimensions are given which control the width of the beam, the designer can
assume any reasonable value. Here we assume = 0.65
1 1
3 3
3000 k-in
17.2 in 17.5 in
0.65 0.9 1.0 ksi
u
M
d
R o
| | | |
> = = ~
| |

\ . \ .

2.5 in 20 in h d = + =
0.65 17.5 in 11.4 in 12 in b d o = = = ~

Note that both h and b are rounded to the nearest even inch value for constructability.

Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars:
Assume 0.9 jd d = :
From Eq. (5-16):
( )
2
3000 k-in
3.53 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 17.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= ~ =
| |

|
\ .

9 . 0 = |
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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5-42
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (5-17):
2
3.53 in 60 ksi
5.2 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =



From Eq. (5-16):
2
3000 k-in
3.73 in
5.2 in
0.9 60 ksi 17.5 in -
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= = =
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .


Select 3 #9 bars over the web, and 4 #4 bars in the flange. This will result in part of the
reinforcement (about 1/5) being spread into the flange, and most (4/5) remaining over the web.
2 2 2 2
1 2
3 4 3 1.0 in 4 0.2 in 3.80 in 3.73 in
s b b
A A A = + = + = > OK

Also, select compression reinforcement such that the area of compression reinforcement (A
s
) is
greater than one half of the tension steel. Here we select 3 #8 bars so that A
s
= 2.37 in
2
.


Required Checks:

1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A-5, to verify that b = 12 in is sufficiently
wide for 3 #9 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK

2) Use ACI-08 Eq. (10-3) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
From ACI-08 Eq. (10-3):
For f
c
= 4,000 psi, 3 ' 190 200
c
f = s so use 200
2 2
,min
3 '
200
12 in 17.5 in 0.70 in 3.80 in
60, 000 psi
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = = < OK

3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
First, an iterative procedure must be used to determine the depth of the neutral axis. Following the
procedure shown in Chapter 4, c = 4.2 in.
From Eq. (4-18):
- 17.5 in - 4.2 in
0.003 0.010 0.005
4.2 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.

4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (5-15):
As a result of the iterations used to determine c, the following forces were determined:
2
3.8 in 60 ksi 228 k
s y
T A f = = =
1
0.85 ' 0.85 4.2 in 0.85 4 ksi 12 in 145 k
c c w
C c f b | = = =
2
' 4.2 in 2.5 in
' 0.003 0.003 29, 000 ksi 2.37 in 83 k
4.2 in
s s s
c d
C E A
c
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .


9 . 0 = |
9 . 0 = |
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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5-43
So, the nominal moment capacity of the section is:
( ) ' '
2
n c s
a
M C d C d d | |
(
| |
= +
| (
\ .


( )
0.85 4.2 in
0.9 145 kip 17.5 in 83 k 17.5 in 2.5 in
2
n
M |
( | |
= +
| (
\ .


3170 k-in 264 k-ft 250 k-ft
n u
M M | = = > =

Therefore, this design is sufficient without being too conservative.



Fig. S5-16 Cross-section of final design for negative bending region



Note that other selections of b, h, and A
s
may also be correct. If all checks are satisfied, without
being unreasonably conservative, the design may be considered adequate. Also note that all flange
reinforcement that is considered to contribute to the negative bending capacity of this section is
placed within two flange depths of the web.

20in.
90in.
3 #8 bars
2.5in.
12in.
3 #9 bars and 4 #4 bars
12in.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
5-44
5-17 For the one-was slab shown in Fig. P5-7, assume the maximum negative moment at
support c is -3.3 kip-ft/ft, and the maximum factored positive moment at midspan
point b is 2.4 kip-ft/ft.

(a) Using the given slab thickness of 6 in, determine the required reinforcement
size and spacing at both of these locations to satisfy ACI Code flexural
strength requirements. Be sure to check the ACI Code requirements for
minimum flexural reinforcement in slabs.

Negative Moment 3.3 k-ft 39.6 k-in
u
M = = :

Assume 0.75 in of cover will be provided. This results in a d = 5 in.
From Eq. (5-16):
( )
2
39.6 k-in
ft ft
0.16 in
ft
ft 0.9 60 ksi 0.9 5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= ~ =
| |

|
\ .


With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (5-17):
2
0.16 in 60 ksi
0.24 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =



From Eq. (5-16):
2
39.6 k-in
ft ft
in
0.15
ft
0.24 in ft
0.9 60 ksi 5 in -
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= = =
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

Minimum reinforcement:
2
,min
in
0.0018 0.0018 12 in 6 in 0.13
ft ft
s
A
bh = = =
Strength requirements govern here.

Maximum reinforcement spacing is limited to3hor 18 in, which is the same value for this 6 in deep
slab. Also, we must check reinforcement spacing for crack control. Since f
y
and c
c
are the same
here as in Example 5-7, the maximum spacing for crack control is 12 in. This governs.

If we select #3 bars at 8 in, the result is:
2 2
2
12 in
in in
0.11 in 0.165 0.15
ft ft ft
8 in
s
A
= = > OK

Check that strength is satisfied:
2
0.24 in
0.9 0.165 in 60 ksi 5 in 43.5 k-in
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d | |
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .

k-ft k-ft
3.62 3.3
ft ft
n u
M M | = > = OK


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
5-45
Remember to calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming
is valid.
- 5 in - 0.24 / 0.85 in
0.003 0.050 0.005
0.24 / 0.85 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.


Positive Moment 2.4 k-ft 28.8 k-in
u
M = = :

Assume 0.75 in of cover will be provided. This results in a d = 5 in.
From Eq. (5-16):
( )
2
28.8 k-in
ft ft
0.12 in
ft
ft 0.9 60 ksi 0.9 5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= ~ =
| |

|
\ .


With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (5-17):
2
0.12 in 60 ksi
0.17 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =



From Eq. (5-16):
2
28.8 k-in
ft ft
in
0.11
ft
0.17 in ft
0.9 60 ksi 5 in -
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= = =
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .


Minimum reinforcement:
2
,min
in
0.0018 0.0018 12 in 6 in 0.13
ft ft
s
A
bh = = =
Minimum requirements govern here.

Maximum reinforcement spacing is limited to3 h or 18 in, which is the same value for this 6 in
deep slab. Also, we must check reinforcement spacing for crack control. Since f
y
and c
c
are the
same here as in Example 5-7, the maximum spacing for crack control is 12 in. This governs.

If we select #3 bars at 10 in, the result is:
2 2
2
12 in
in in
0.11 in 0.132 0.13
ft ft ft
10 in
s
A
= = > OK

Check that strength is satisfied:
2
0.17 in
0.9 0.132 in 60 ksi 5 in 35.0 k-in
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d | |
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .

k-ft k-ft
2.9 2.4
ft ft
n u
M M | = > = OK



9 . 0 = |
9 . 0 = |
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
5-46
Remember to calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming
is valid.
- 5 in - 0.17 / 0.85 in
0.003 0.072 0.005
0.17 / 0.85 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.

(b) At both locations, determine the required bar size and spacing to be provided
in the transverse direction to satisfy ACI Code section 7.12.2 requirements for
minimum shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.

Since the positive flexural region was controlled by temperature and shrinkage reinforcement, the
reinforcement specified there would suffice in the transverse direction at all locations.

So, use #3 bars at 10 in. Placement near the top or bottom of the slab makes no difference here, so
specify that bars are to be placed wherever is easiest.

(c) For both locations provide a sketch of the final design of the slab section.




Fig. S5-17 Cross-section of final design for negative and positive bending regions, respectively

Note that other selections of A
s
may also be correct. If all checks are satisfied, without being
unreasonably conservative, the design may be considered adequate.
9 . 0 = |
9 . 0 = |
12in.
6in.
#3@8in.
12in.
6in.
#3@10in.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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6-1
Chapter 6

6-1 For the rectangular beam shown in Fig P6-1:
(a) Draw a shear force diagram.

7
.
3
V, kips 0
.
2
-
9
.
8
1
6
.
0
-
1
7
.
7
1
0



(b) Assuming the beam is uncracked, show the direction of the principal tensile
stresses at middepth at points A, B, and C.
A B C



(c) On a drawing of the beam sketch the inclined cracks that would develop at
A, B, and C.

A B C














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6-2
6-2, 6-3, 6-4 and 6-5 Compute

for the cross sections shown in Figs. P6-2, P6-3, P6-4


and P6-5. In each case use

and



6-2

[( ) ]

( )

6-3

[( ) ]

( )

6-4

[( ) ]

( )

6-5

( )

[( ) ]

( )

6-6 ACI Sec. 11.4.5.1 sets the maximum spacing of vertical stirrups at . Explain
why.

Every inclined crack must be crossed by at least one stirrup. The assumed horizontal
projection of the crack is d so every crack will be crossed by at least one stirrup.

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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6-3
6-7 Figure P6-7 shows a simply supported beam. The beam has No. 3 Grade 40 double-
leg stirrups with

and 4 No.8 Grade 60 longitudinal bars with

. The plastic truss model for the beam is shown in the figure.
Assuming that the stirrups are all loaded to

.

(a) Use the method of joints to compute the forces in each panel of the
compression and tension chords and plot them. The force in member

is

.

Assume all stirrups yield. 8.8
s yt
A f = kips

Joint
11
L : Vertical force in stirrup = 8.8 kips
0 V =

at Joint
11
L gives vertical component in strut
12 11
U L as 8.8
kips downward (compression in
12 11
U L ).
Horizontal component in
12 11
12 in.
8.8
20 in.
U L = kips = 5.28 kips acting
to the left on Joint
11
L .

Joint
12
U : Each inclined strut has a vertical component of 8.8 kips, therefore 6
struts are needed to equilibrate 52.8 kips force at Joint
12
U as shown.

Joint
8
U : Total downward load is 26.4 kips applied load plus 8.8 kips in stirrup
8 8
U L , therefore 4 struts are needed to equilibrate 35.2 kips force at
8
U as shown.

Forces in Inclined Struts in Web

Member
Vertical
Component
(kips)
Horizontal
Projection
(in.)
Horizontal
Component
(kips)
12 11
U L 8.8 12 5.28
12 10
U L 8.8 24 10.56
12 9
U L 8.8 36 15.84
11 8
U L 8.8 36 15.84
10 7
U L 8.8 30 13.20
9 6
U L 8.8 24 10.56
8 5
U L 8.8 18 7.92
8 4
U L 8.8 24 10.56
8 3
U L 8.8 30 13.20
8 2
U L 8.8 36 15.84
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6-4
7 1
U L 8.8 36 15.84
Member (contd)
Vertical
Component
(kips)
Horizontal
Projection
(in.)
Horizontal
Component
(kips)
6 0
U L 8.8 36 15.84
5 0
U L 8.8 30 13.20
4 0
U L 8.8 24 10.56
3 0
U L 8.8 18 7.92
2 0
U L 8.8 12 5.28
1 0
U L 8.8 6 2.64


Compute Forces in Lower Chord

Maximum moment = 52.8 8 26.4 4 316.8 = ft-kips
Force in
11 13
316.8 12
190.0
20
M
L L
jd

= = = kips (in tension)
H

at Joint
11
L gives force in
10 11
190.0 5.28 184.7 L L = = kips


Force in Lower Chords

Member Joint
Horizontal
Force in Strut
(kips)
Lower Chord
Force
(kips)
11 13
L L - - 190.0 tension
10 11
L L
11
L 5.28 184.7
9 10
L L
10
L 10.56 174.2
8 9
L L
9
L 15.84 158.3
7 8
L L
8
L 15.84 142.5
6 7
L L
7
L 13.20 129.3
5 6
L L
6
L 10.56 118.7
4 5
L L
5
L 7.92 110.8
3 4
L L
4
L 10.56 100.2
2 3
L L
3
L 13.20 87.0
1 2
L L
2
L 15.84 71.2
0 1
L L
1
L 15.84 55.4

0
L 15.84
+13.20
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6-5
+10.56
+7.92
Member (contd) Joint
Horizontal
Force in Strut
(kips)
Lower Chord
Force
(kips)
+5.28
+2.64
Total: 55.4

The force in
0 1
L L is 55.4 kips. This must be anchored in Joint
0
L . The sum of the
horizontal forces in the struts at Joint
0
L is 55.4 kips and 0 H =

at Joint
0
L .


Forces in Upper Chords:

Joint
1
U : There is no force in the compression chord to the right of
1
U .

Member Joint
Horizontal Force
in Struts
(kips)
Lower Chord
Force
(kips)
1 2
U U
1
U 2.64
2.64
compression
2 3
U U
2
U 5.28 7.92
3 4
U U
3
U 7.92 15.84
4 5
U U
4
U 10.56 26.4
5 6
U U
5
U 13.20 39.8
6 7
U U
6
U 15.84 55.4
7 8
U U
7
U 15.84 71.3
8 9
U U
8
U 15.84
+13.20
+10.56
+7.92 118.8
9 10
U U
9
U 10.56 129.4
10 11
U U
10
U 13.20 142.6
11 12
U U
11
U 15.84 158.4
Compression at Midspan
12
U 15.84
+10.56
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6-6
+5.28 190.0


Plot of Forces in Upper Chords:



Plot of Forces in Lower Chords:





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6-7



(b) Plot

on the diagram from part (a) and compare the bar forces
from the truss model to those computed from .

The bar forces in the lower chords provided by /
s s
A f M jd = appear to be less
than the values provided by the truss model throughout the span except at the
midspan where the two values match.

(c) Compute the compression stress in the diagonal member

(see Eq. (6-


11)). The beam width,

, is 12 in.

Slope of
1 7
L L : tan 20/ 36 0.556 29.05 u u = = =
1 52800 1
tan 0.556 518
tan 12 20 0.556
cd
w
V
f
b jd
u
u
| | | |
= + = + =
| |

\ . \ .
psi

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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6-8
6-8 The beam shown in Fig. P6-8 supports the unfactored loads shown. The dead load
includes the weight of the beam.

(a) Draw shearing force diagram for

1.2 1.4 1.68
Du
w = = k/ft
1.6 1.5 2.4
Lu
w = = k/ft

(1) factored dead and live load on the entire beam.

At the left support:
( ) 1.68 2.4 25
51.0 kips
2
u
V
+
= =

5
1
.
0
-

5
1
.
0
Case (1)
, kips
u
V


(2) factored dead load on the entire beam plus factored live load on the
left haft-span.

At the right support:
2 2
25 12.5
1.68 2.4
2 2
28.5 kips
25
u
V
+
= =
At the right support: 1.68 25 2.4 12.5 28.5 43.5 kips
u
V = + =
At the midspan: ( ) 43.5 1.68 2.4 12.5 7.5 kips
u
V = + =
-
2
8
.
5
-
7
.
5
Case (2)
, kips
u
V

(3) factored dead load on the entire beam plus factored live load on the
right haft-span.

Due to the asymmetry of loadings Case (3) to loadings Case (2), the shear
diagram of Case (3) is asymmetric to that of Case (2).

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6-9
2
8
.
5
-

4
3
.
5
7
.
5
Case (3)
, kips
u
V

(b) Superimpose the diagram to get a shear force envelope. Compare the shear
at midspan to that from Eq. 6-26.

Eq. 6-26:
2.4 25
(midspan) 7.5
8 8
Lu
u
w
V

= = = kips

5
1
.
0
-
7
.
5
7
.
5
-

5
1
.
0
, kips
u
V


(c) Design stirrups. Use

and No.3 double-leg stirrups with

.

6
8
.
0
-

1
0
.
0
1
0
.
0
-

6
8
.
0
, kips
u
V
|
0.75 | =


Are stirrups required?
2 4500 12 17.5/ 1000 28.2 68.0
u
c
V
V
|
= = < = kips
Stirrups are required.

Check stirrups anchorage
Use No. 3 Grade 40 stirrups. ACI code Sec. 12.13.2.1. allows these to be anchored by a
hook around a top bar.

Maximum spacing
d/2 = 8.75 in.
u
V
|
6 82.1
c w
f b d ' < = kips Maximum spacing of / 4 d is not required.
0.22 40000
14.6
50.3 12 0.75
v y
c w
A f
f b

= =
'
in. (note 0.75 50.3 psi 50 psi, use 50.3 psi
c
f ' = > )
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6-10
Maximum spacing
max
8.5 s = in.





Compute spacing to resist shear forces
- At d from supports:
( )
( )
68 10 17.5
68 61.2
12.5 12
u
V
|

= =

kips
( )
max
0.22 40 17.5
4.5 in. 8.5 in.
/ 61.4 27.4
v yt
u c
A f d
s s
V V |

= = = < =


Use s = 4.0 in.

- Change this to 6 in. where
0.22 40 17.5
27.4 53.1
6
u
V
|

= + = kips.
This occurs at
( )
68 53.1
12.5 12 38.5
68 10
x

= =

in. from end.



- Change this to 8 in. where
0.22 40 17.5
27.4 46.7
8
u
V
|

= + = kips.
This occurs at
( )
68 46.7
12.5 12 55.1
68 10
x

= =

in. from end.



- Terminate stirrups where
28.2
14.1
2 2
u c
V V
|
= = = kips.
This occurs at
( )
68 14.1
12.5 12
68 10
x

=

= 139 in.

Compute the number of stirrups

From the center of the support, use 1 @ 2 in.
Required number of stirrups at the spacing of 4 in.:
38.5 2
9.1
4

= , use 10 @ 4 in.
Required no. of stirrups at the spacing of 6 in.:
( ) 55.1 2 10 4
2.2
6
+
= , use 3 @ 6 in.
Required number of stirrups at the spacing of 8 in.:
( ) 139 2 10 4 3 6
9.9
8
+ +
= , use
10 @ 8 in.

Provide No.3 U stirrups Grade 40 steel. Starting from the center of the support,
use 1 @ 2 in., 10 @ 4 in., 3 @ 6 in., and 10 @ 8 in. from each end.

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6-11
(Note that
0.22 40 17.5
(max) 38.5 kips < 8 113 kips
4
s c w
V f b d

' = = = , OK)




6-9 The beam shown in Fig. P6-9 supports the unfactored loads shown in the figure. The
dead load includes the weight of the beam.

(a) Draw shearing force diagrams for
(1) factored dead and live load on the entire length of beam.
(2) factored dead load on the entire beam plus factored live load
between B and C.
(3) factored dead load on the entire beam plus factored live load
between A and B and between C and D.

Loadings (2) and (3) will give the maximum positive and negative shears at B.
2.4
Du
w = k/ft
2.4
Lu
w = k/ft
4.8
u
w = k/ft

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6-12
3
3
.
0
V, kips
-
5
.
4
2
8
.
8
-
4
3
.
8
2
1
.
3
2
.
1
1
4
.
4
-
3
6
.
3
2
8
.
2
-
1
0
.
2
2
8
.
8
-
2
9
.
4
(a1)
(a2)
(a3)



(b) Draw the factored shear force envelope. The shear at B should be the
factored dead load shear plus or minus the shear from Eq. 6-26.

Eq. 6-26:
2.4 16
(midspan) 4.8
8
u
V

= = kips

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6-13
3
3
.
0
-
1
0
.
2
2
8
.
8
-
4
3
.
8
2
.
1
3
3
.
0
-4.8-2.7 = -7.5
2
8
.
8
-
4
3
.
8
4.8-2.7 = 2.1
Envelope from Part (a)
Envelope from Eq. 6-26


Eq. 6-26 is correct for s simple beam without overhangs. It is an approximation for all
other cases. However, we shall assume it is close enough and use it for the rest of this
example.


(c) Design stirrups. Use

and

.

Are stirrups required?


Stirrups are required.

Check anchorage
Use No. 3 stirrups. These can be anchored by a hook around a top bar.

Maximum spacing
d/2 = 10.8 in.



Maximum spacing of / 4 d is not required.
0.22 40000
14.7
50 50 12
v y
w
A f
b

= =

in. (note

)
Maximum spacing
max
10.8 s = in.

Compute spacing to resist shear forces Part AB
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6-14
- At d from support A:

( )
( )
44 2.8 21.5
44 34.8
8 12
u
V
|

= =

kips

( )
max
0.22 40 21.5
86 in. 10.8 in.
34.8 32.6
s s

= = > =


Use s = 10 in.


- Terminate stirrups where:



This occurs at:





Part A-B: Provide No.3 stirrups Grade 40 steel. Starting from A use 1 @ 5 in., 7
@ 10 in.


Compute spacing to resist shear forces Part BC
- At d from support C

( ) 58.4 10 21.5
58.4 47.6
8 12
u
V
|

= =

kips

( )
max
0.22 40 21.5
12.6 in. 10.8 in.
47.6 32.6
s s

= = > =


Use s = 10 in.

- Terminate stirrups where:



This occurs at:





Part BC: Provide No.3 stirrups Grade 40 steel. Starting from C use 1 @ 5 in., 9
@ 10 in.



Compute spacing to resist shear forces Part CD
- At d from support C


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6-15
Can terminate stirrups where
2
u c
V V
|
< . However, place minimum shear reinforcement
throughout part CD.

Part CD: Use No. 3 U stirrups, Grade 40. Starting from C use 1 @ 5 in., 7 @ 10
in.


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6-16
6-10 Fig. P6-10 shows an interior span of a continuous beam. The shears at the ends are

. The shear at midspan is from Eq. (6-26).



(a) Draw a shear force envelope.

1.2 1.5 1.8
Du
w = = k/ft
1.6 1.8 2.88
Lu
w = = k/ft
4.68
u
w = k/ft
End shears = 4.68 22/ 2 51.5 = kips
Midspan shears = 2.88 22/ 8 7.92 = kips

6
8
.
7
-

1
0
.
6
1
0
.
6
-

6
8
.
7
, kips
u
V
|
0.75 | =


(b) Design stirrups using

and

.

Are stirrups required?
2 4000 12 17.5/1000 26.6
c
V = = kips
Stirrups are required.

Check anchorage
Use No. 3 stirrups. These can be anchored by a bend around a top bar.

Maximum spacing
d/2 = 8.8 in.

u
V
|
6 79.8
c w
f b d ' < = kip Maximum spacing of / 4 d is not required.

0.22 40000
14.7
50 50 12
v y
w
A f
b

= =

in. (note 0.75 47.4 psi < 50 psi, use 50 psi


c
f ' = )
Maximum spacing
max
8.8 s = in.

Computing spacing to resist shear forces

- At d from face of column:
( )
( )
68.7 10.6 17.5
68.7 61.0
11 12
u
V
|

= =

kips
( )
0.22 40 17.5
4.5
61.0 26.6
s

= =

in.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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6-17
Use s = 4 in.
- Changing stirrup spacing to 6 in. where
0.22 40 17.5
26.6 52.3
6
u
V
|

= + = kips
This occurs at
( )
68.7 52.3
11 12 37.3 in.
68.7 10.6
x

= =



- Changing stirrup spacing to 8 in. where
0.22 40 17.5
26.6 45.9
8
u
V
|

= + = kips
This occurs at
( )
68.7 45.9
11 12 51.8 in.
68.7 10.6
x

= =



- Terminate stirrups when
26.6
13.3
2 2
u c
V V
|
= = = kips
This occurs at
( )
68.7 13.3
11 12 126 in.
68.7 10.6
x

= =



Use No.3 Grade 40 U stirrups. Starting from face of column at each end, use 1 @
2 in., 9@ 4 in., 3 @ 6in., and 9 @ 8in.











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6-18
6-11 Design shear reinforcement for the C1-C2 span of the girder designed in Example 5-
6 (final section given in Fig. 5-32). From the structural analysis discussed in
Example 5-6, the factored design end shears for this girder are 28.9 kips at the face
of column C1 and 39.2 kips at the face of column C2. Use

and

.

Are stirrups required?


Stirrups are required.

Check anchorage
Select No. 3 stirrups. These can be anchored by a bend around a top bar.

Maximum spacing


Maximum spacing of is not required.

)

Maximum spacing



Compute the spacing of stirrups required to resist shear forces
It is desirable to have the most efficient design of stirrups possible, so stirrup size and
spacing should be adjusted over the span length whenever possible to account for the
changing shear demand. Likewise, it is advantageous to use the factored shear demand at
from the face of the column rather than directly at the face of the column to design
stirrups. However, for a girder loaded like this one, the majority of shear comes from the
point load at midspan. Therefore, it is reasonable to select only two different stirrup
spacing, one for each half of the girder, based on the factored shear demand at the face of
the columns.

- At the exterior column face (C1):

The maximum spacing controls, so select s = 8 in.




- At the interior column face (C2):

The strength requirement controls, so select s = 6 in.




Use No.3 Grade 40 U stirrups. Starting from face of C2 column, use s = 6 in. until
past the point load, then use s = 8 in.
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6-19
6-12 Fig. P6-12 shows a rigid frame and the factored loads acting on the frame. The 7-kip
horizontal load can act from the left or the right.

and

.

(a) Design stirrups in the beam

-27.2
-34.9
27.2
34.9
4
6
.
5
-3.85
3.85
4
4
.
1
3
8
.
0
d from face
of column
face of column
5.1
-5.1
C
L
C
L
Wind from right
Wind from left
C
L
, kips
u
V
, kips
u
V
|



Are stirrups required?
Assume d = 20 2.5 = 17.5 in.


Stirrups are required.

Maximum spacing
Use No. 3
d/2 = 8.8 in.


Maximum spacing of / 4 d is not required.

)
Maximum spacing
max
s = 8.8 in.
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6-20
Compute spacing required to resist shear
- At d from face of column, 38
u
V
|
= kip



- Terminate stirrups when:


This occurs at:





Provide No. 3, Grade 40 U stirrups. Starting at face of column from each end, use
1 @ 4 in., 11@ 8 in.

(b) Are stirrups required in the columns? If so, design the stirrups for the
columns.

Maximum shear is 8
u
V = kips in leeward column.

(
( )

) ( )



Are stirrups required?


Stirrups are not required. Use minimum amount of shear reinforcement.


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7-1
Chapter 7

7-1 A cantilever beam 8 ft long and 18 in wide supports its own dead load plus a
concentrated load located 6 in from the end of the beam and 4.5 in away from the
vertical axis of the beam. The concentrated load is 15 kips dead load and 20 kips live
load. Design reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion. Use f
y
= 60,000 psi for all
steel and f
c
= 3750 psi.

Design for moment:

Since wide sections are desirable for torsion, estimate that = 0.8, so 18 in / 0.8 22.5 in d = = .
Therefore, the dead load due to the weight of the beam is:

3
2 2
(22.5 in 2.5 in) 18 in
0.15 k/ft 0.469 k/ft
144 in /ft
DL
+
= =
So, the moment demand due to factored loads is:

( )
( )
2
0.469 k/ft 8 ft
1.2 1.2 15 k 1.6 20 k 7.5 ft 393 k-ft 4720 k-in
2
u
M

= + + = =
Select and corresponding R-factor, assuming the desirable strain diagram shown in Fig. 5-27b,
which leads to 9 . 0 = | .
1
' 0.85 3, 750 psi
0.0133
4 4 60, 000 psi
c
y
f
f
|


~ = =

Note:
1
= 0.85 for f
c
= 3,750 psi
0.0133 60, 000 psi
0.213
' 3, 750 psi
y
c
f
f

e

= = =
' (1 0.59 ) 0.213 3.75 ksi (1 0.59 0.213) 0.698 ksi
c
R f e e = = =
(Note that this R-factor is reasonable based on values given in Table A-3)

Now select h with b = 18 in:
2 3
4720 k-in
7500 in
0.9 0.698 ksi
u
M
bd
R |
= = ~


Since the width of the beam is given as 18 in, we can directly solve for a reasonable d value.
4720 k-in
20.4 in 21.5 in
0.9 18 in 0.698 ksi
u
M
d
bR |
= = = ~


2.5 in 24 in h d = + =
18 in b =
Note that both h and b are rounded up to the nearest even inch value for constructability.

Finally, determine A
s
required for resisting this applied moment by first going back and
recalculating the weight of the beam with the final selected dimensions:
2 2 3 2 2 3
k 18 in 24 in k k
0.15 0.15 0.45
144 in /ft ft 144 in /ft ft ft
bh
DL

~ = =
So 393 k-ft 4720 k-in
u
M = =
Calculate the required area of steel, assuming 0.9 jd d = :
( )
2
4720 k-in
4.52 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 21.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= ~ =
| |

|
\ .

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7-2
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd .
2
4.52 in 60 ksi
4.73 in
0.85 ' 0.85 3.75 ksi 18 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =


2
4720 k-in
4.57 in
4.73 in
0.9 60 ksi 21.5 in -
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
= = =
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .


No further iterations are necessary, since the estimated lever arm was very reasonable. Use
b = 18 in, h = 24 in, and A
s
= 4.57 in
2
. Bars will be selected later.

Use ACI-08 Eq. (10-3) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 3,750 psi, 3 ' 184 200
c
f = s so use 200 psi
2 2
,min
200 200 psi
18 in 21.5 in 1.29 in 4.57 in
60, 000 psi
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = s OK

Also, calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming 9 . 0 = | is
valid.
2
4.57 in 60 ksi
4.78 in
0.85 ' 0.85 3.75 ksi 18 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =


We know that
1
0.85 | = .
1
4.78 in
5.62 in
0.85
a
c
|
= = =

- 21.5 in - 5.62 in
0.003 0.0085 0.005
5.62 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use 9 . 0 = | for this beam design.


Now design for torsion and shear:
At d = 21.5 in away from the face, the factored torsion is:
( )
4.5 in
1.2 15 k 1.6 20 k 18.8 k-ft
12 in/ft
u
T = + =
At d = 21.5 in away from the face, the factored shear is:

21.5
1.2 15 k 1.2 (8 ft ft) 0.45 k/ft 1.6 20 k 53.4 k
12
u
V = + + =

Should torsion be considered in this design?

2
18 in 24 in 432 in
cp
A = =
(18 in 24 in) 2 84 in
cp
P = + =
From Eq. (7-18b):

( )
2
2
2
432 in
' 0.75 1.0 3, 750 psi 102, 000 lb-in 8.5 k-ft
84 in
cp
th c
cp
A
T f
P
|
| |
| |
|
= = ~ = |
| |
\ .
\ .

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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7-3
Since
u th
T T > , torsion must be considered. Also, since we are dealing with a statically determinate
system, we have a case of equilibrium torsion, in which the full factored torsion must be sustained
by our beam. Therefore, the design torsion cannot be reduced.

Check whether the section dimensions are sufficient to withstand the combined stresses due to
shear and torsion.
From Eq. (7-33):

2 2
2
8 '
1.7
u u h c
c
w oh w
V T P V
f
b d A b d
|
| | | | | |
+ s +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

Assuming #4 stirrups,
( ) 2 24 in 2 1.5 in 2 0.25 in 18 in 2 1.5 in 2 0.25 in 70 in
h
P = + =
( ) ( )
2
24 in 2 1.5 in 2 0.25 in 18 in 2 1.5 in 2 0.25 in 297 in
oh
A = =
( )
2
2
2
2
2 3, 750 psi 18 in 21.5 in 53.4 k 18.8 k-ft 70 in
0.75 8 3, 750 psi
18 in 21.5 in 18 in 21.5 in
1.7 297 in
| |
| |
| |
|
+ s + |
|
| |

\ .

\ .
\ .

0.174 ksi 0.459 ksi s
The section is sufficiently large.


Now determine the area of stirrups required to resist V
u
:
2 ' 2 3, 750 psi 18 in 21.5 in 47.4 k
c c w
V f b d = = =

53.4 k
47.4 k 23.8 k
0.75
u
s c
V
V V
|
= = =

2
23.8 k in
0.018
60 ksi 21.5 in in
v s
yt
A V
s f d
= = =



Determine the additional area of stirrups required to resist T
u
:

18.8 k-ft
25.1 k-ft
0.75 0.75
u
n
T
T = = =

From Eq. (7-24), using 0.85
o oh
A A = :

( )
2
2
25.1 k-ft 12 in/ft in
0.0099
2 cot in 2 0.85 297 in 60 ksi cot 45
t n
o yt
A T
s A f u

> = =



So, evaluate the total required area of stirrups:
For strength:
2 2 2
in in in
0.018 2 0.0099 0.0378
in in in
+ =
Minimum required:
2
50 50 18 in in
0.015
60, 000 psi in
w
yt
b
f

= =
The strength requirement governs here.


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7-4
Now determine stirrup size and spacing:

max
12 in
/ 8 70 / 8 8.75 in
/ 2 10.75 in (for shear)
h
s P
d

s = =


If we select #3 stirrups,
2
2
2 0.11 in
5.82 in
in
0.0378
in
s

s =
If we select #4 stirrups,
2
2
2 0.20 in
10.6 in
in
0.0378
in
s

s =
Although it is a tight spacing, select to use closed #3 stirrups at 5 in spacing.

Determine the need for longitudinal reinforcement resisting torsion:
For strength:
2
2 2
in
cot 0.00990 70 in 1.0 1.0 0.693 in
in
yt
t
l h
yl
f
A
A P
s f
u
| |
| |
| |
= = = |
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
\ .

Minimum required:
,min
5 '
c cp yt
t
l h
yl yl
f A f
A
A P
f s f
=
Since
2 2
25 in in
0.022 0.0075
in in
t w
yt
A b
s f
= > = , we must use
2
in
0.022
in


2 2
2
,min
5 3, 750 psi 432 in in
0.022 70 in 1.0 0.66 in
60 ksi in
l
A

= =
Use
2
0.693 in
l
A =

Longitudinal bars are required in the corner of each stirrup. Also, longitudinal bars must be spaced
no more than 12 in apart around the perimeter of the section, so a bar is needed in the middle of
each face. So 8 bars are required.


2 2
/ 0.693 in / 8 bars 0.0866 in /bar Area bar = =

Select #3 bars along bottom and sides of the cantilevered section.

The reinforcement required along the top of the beam for resisting moment and torsion is:

2 2 2
4.56 in 3 0.0866 in 4.82 in
s
A = + =

Select 5#8 bars along the top of the beam such that
2 2 2
5 5 1.0 in 5 in 4.82 in
s b
A A = = = > .
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7-5
7-2 Explain why the torsion in the edge beam A-B in Fig. 7-21a is called equilibrium
torsion, while the torsion in the edge beam A1-B1 in Fig. P7-3 is called
compatibility torsion.

If the edge beam A-B in Fig. 7-21c did not resist torsion, the beam would rotate,
uninhibited, about its longitudinal axis and fail to resist the action of load P. Essentially, the
torsional resistance of the beam is required for equilibrium to be satisfied.

On the contrary, if beam A1-B1 in Fig. P7-3 did not resist torsion, the beam would rotate
only slightly before the floors weight and superimposed loads would be redistributed to other
elements, thereby satisfying equilibrium through the redundancy of the system. The torsion in A1-
B1 only arises from the need to maintain compatibility of deformations between the ends of the
joists and the twisting of the edge beam.


7-3 The two parts of this problem refer to the floor plan shown in Fig. P7-3. Assume that
the entire floor system is constructed with normal-weight concrete that has a
compressive strength, f
c
= 4,500 psi. Also, assume that the longitudinal steel has a
yield strength of f
y
= 60 ksi and that the transverse steel has a yield strength of
f
yt
= 40 ksi.

a) Design the spandrel beam between columns B1 and C1 for bending, shear,
and torsion. Check all of the appropriate ACI Code requirements for
strength, minimum reinforcement area, and reinforcement spacing are
satisfied.

Step 1: Determine M
u
, V
u
, and T
u
:

Dead weight from beam, per foot of beam:

2 3
2
12 in 18 in lb lb
150 225
in ft ft
144
ft

=
If we assume that the slab dimensions given in the figure are measured center to center of the
beams, we need to account for half the width of the beam in addition the span length given when
calculating loads. Therefore the dead weight from slab, per foot of beam, is:

3
6 in 6.5 ft lb lb
150 488
in
ft ft
12
ft

=
Superimposed dead load, per foot of beam:

2
lb lb
6.5 ft 20 130
ft ft
=
To simplify the design, we will not reduce the live load. Therefore, the live load per foot of beam:
2
lb lb
6.5 ft 50 325
ft ft
=
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored load is, per foot of beam:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.488 k/ft 0.130 k/ft 1.6 0.325 k/ft 1.53 k/ft
u
w = + + + =




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7-6
With that, we can determine the design moments using ACI Moment Coefficients:

At columns:


()



At midspan:

()



Note that
n
is taken as the average of the adjoining clear spans for calculating the negative
moment at the columns.

The design shear is:

At midspan:



At d away from the column face:

)

Note that
n
is taken as the clear span length of the interior span when calculating the shear
acting on the face of the support. Do not reduce this value to the
n
used for calculating
the negative moment at column B-1.

To calculate the design torsion, we first have to determine the moment and shear that the slab is
applying to the edge of the beam.
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.075 k/ft 0.020 k/ft 1.6 0.050 k/ft 0.194 k/ft
u
w = + + =
12 ft -12 in 11 ft
n
= =

( )
2
2
0.194 k/ft 11 ft
0.978 k-ft
24 24
u n
u
w
M

= = =

0.194 k/ft 11 ft
1.07 k
2 2
u n
u
w
V

= = =
Therefore, the torsion applied to our beam by the slab is:

6 in
0.978 k-ft 1.07 k 1.51 k-ft/ft
12 in/ft
t = + =

And thus our design torsion, at d away from the ends of our beam, is:

( )





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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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7-7

Step 2: Determining the area of longitudinal steel required for flexure.

At the column:



Refer to Table A-3. For f
c
= 4,500 psi, and R = 229 psi, . So, at the
column,



At midspan:



Refer to Table A-3. There are no R values below 190 psi, which corresponds to the
minimum reinforcement ratio. Therefore,



Step 3: Determine whether torsion must be considered in the design of this beam. Begin by
determining the dimensions of the beam section active in torsion, and calculate the threshold
torsion.

height of beam below slab 18 in
4 24 in
f
f
h
=

s

=

, where
f
is the length of flange active in torsion.
Therefore,

2
24 in 12 in 6 in 18 in 396 in
cp
A = + =
24 in 12 in 18 in 18 in 6 in 30 in 108 in
cp
P = + + + + + =

( )
2
2
2
396 in
' 0.75 1.0 4,500 psi 73, 000 lb-in 6.09 k-ft
108 in
cp
th c
cp
A
T f
P
|
| |
| |
|
= = ~ = |
| |
\ .
\ .

Since
u th
T T > , torsion must be considered in this design.

Step 4: Since the torsion resisted by this edge beam is not required to maintain equilibrium of the
structure, we have a case of compatibility torsion. Therefore we can likely reduce our T
u
to the
following:
( )
2
2
2
,
396 in
4 ' 0.75 4 1.0 4,500 psi 292, 000 lb-in 24.4 k-ft
108 in
cp
u comp c
cp
A
T f
P
|
| |
| |
|
= = = = |
| |
\ .
\ .

Unfortunately, since
, u u comp
T T s , we cannot reduce our design torsion. Since our design torsion is
not being reduced, no redistribution of design moments is required in the adjoining slab.

Step 5: Determine whether the section is large enough to resist the combined actions of shear and
torsion. First assume that a closed #4 stirrup will be used in the web of this beam.
( ) ( )
2
24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 174 in
oh
A = =
( ) 2 24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 58 in
h
P = + =

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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7-8

From Eq. (7-33):

(


)

The section is sufficiently large.

Step 6: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist V
u
:
2 ' 2 4,500 psi 12 in 21.5 in 34.6 k
c c w
V f b d = = =



Step 7: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist T
u
:


From Eq. (7-24), using 0.85
o oh
A A = :


()



Step 8: Evaluate the total required area of stirrups, and select spacing:

For strength:



Minimum required:
2
0.75 4500 50.31 psi 12 in in
0.015
40, 000 psi in
w
yt
b
f

= =
The strength requirement governs here.

Now determine stirrup size and spacing:

max
12 in
/ 8 58 in / 8 7.25 in
/ 2 10.75 in (for shear)
h
s P
d

s = =


If we select #3 stirrups,


If we select #4 stirrups,





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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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7-9
Select closed #3 stirrups at 5 in. spacing at the ends of the beam. It is also possible that stirrups are
not required along the full length of this beam. For torsion, determine where /
u th
T T | s . By
similar triangles, this occurs at 66.5 in. away from the face of the column. However, torsional
reinforcement must be continued for ( ) (21.5 in 12 in) 33.5 in
t
d b + = + = past this theoretical point.
Therefore, no torsional reinforcement is required beyond 100 in. away from the face of the column.
Since / 2
u c
V V | s at this point, no shear reinforcement is required beyond this point either.

Final design of transverse reinforcement:
Using closed #3 stirrups,
One stirrup at 2.5 in from either column face, followed by stirrups spaced at 5 in. until beyond 100
in. from the face of the column.


Step 9: Finalize the design of the longitudinal reinforcement:
Determine the need for longitudinal reinforcement resisting torsion:

For strength:



Minimum required:
,min
5 '
c cp yt
t
l h
yl yl
f A f
A
A P
f s f
=
Since
2 2
,min
25 in in
0 0.0075
in in
t w
yt
A b
s f
| |
= s =
|
\ .
, we must use
2
in
0.0075
in


2 2
2
,min
5 4,500 psi 396 in in 2
0.0075 58 in 1.92 in
60 ksi in 3
l
A

= =
Use
2
1.92 in
l
A =

Longitudinal bars are required in the corner of each stirrup. Also, longitudinal bars must be spaced
no more than 12 in apart around the perimeter of the section, so a bar is needed in the middle of
each vertical face. So 6 bars are required.


2 2
/ 1.92 in / 6 bars 0.32 in / bar Area bar = =

-At the columns, use #6 bars in the bottom corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam.
As top reinforcement,

( )

, so specify 3 #7 bars along the


top of the section.
-At midspan, use #6 bars in the top corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam. As
bottom reinforcement,

( )

, so specify 3 #7 bars along the


bottom of the section.






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7-10
b) Design the spandrel beam between columns A1 and A2 for bending, shear,
and torsion. Check that all of the appropriate ACI Code requirements for
strength, minimum reinforcement area, and reinforcement spacing are
satisfied.

Step 1: Determine M
u
, V
u
, and T
u
:
Dead weight from spandrel beam, per foot of beam:

3
2
2
12 in 24 in lb
lb
150 300
ft
in ft
144
ft

=
Superimposed dead load, per foot of spandrel beam:

2
lb
1 ft 20 20 lb/ft
ft
=
To simplify the design, we will not reduce the live load. Therefore, the live load per foot of beam:
2
lb
1 ft 50 50 lb/ft
ft
=
Dead weight from joist, applied as a point load at midspan:

3
2
2
12 in 18 in
lb
150 14.5 ft 3.26 k
ft
in
144
ft

=
Dead weight from slab, applied as a point load at midspan:

3
6 in 12 ft
lb
150 14.5 ft 13.1 k
ft in
12
ft

=
Superimposed dead load, applied as a point load at midspan:

2
lb
12 ft 14.5 ft 20 3.48 k
ft
=
Since the live load is not reduced, the live load per foot of beam is:
2
lb
12 ft 14.5 ft 50 8.7 k
ft
=
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored load is:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.300 k/ft 0.02 k/ft 1.6 0.05 k/ft 0.464 k/ft
u
w = + + = , per foot of beam
( ) ( )
, int
1.2 3.26 k 13.1 k 3.48 k 1.6 8.7 k 37.7 k
u po
w = + + + = , applied as a point load
24 ft -16 in 22.67 ft
n
= =

With that, we can determine the design moments, but structural analysis software must be used
since the ACI Moment Coefficients cannot be applied when not all loads are distributed. Input the
structural model and applied loads using the appropriate pattern loading for the live loads.
At column A-1: 102 k-ft
u
M =
At midspan: 128 k-ft
u
M =
At column A-2: 139 k-ft
u
M =

The design shear at d away from the supports is:
At column A-1:

( ) ( )
, int
2 0.464 k/ft 22.67 ft 2 21.5 in
37.7 k
23.3 k
2 2 2 2
u po u n
u
w w d
V

= + = + =
At midspan: 0 k
u
V =
At column A-2:
, 1
1.15 26.8 k
u u A
V V

= =
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7-11
To calculate the design torsion, we first have to determine the moment and shear that the joist is
applying to the edge of the spandrel beam.
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.900 k/ft 0.240 k/ft 1.6 0.600 k/ft 2.60 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
30 ft -12 in 29 ft
n
= =

( )
2
2
2.6 k/ft 29 ft
91.1 k-ft
24 24
u n
u
w
M

= = =

, int
37.7 k
u u po
V w = =
Thus our design torsion, at d away from the ends of our beam, is:

6 in 6 in
91.1 k-ft 37.7 k 110 k-ft
12 in/ft 12 in/ft
u u u
T M V = + = + =

Step 2: Determining the area of longitudinal steel required for flexure.
At column A-1:
( )
2 2
102 k-ft 12 in/ft
245 psi
0.9 12 in 21.5 in
u
M
R
bd |

= = =


Refer to Table A-3. For f
c
= 4,500 psi, and R = 245 psi, 0.0042 = . So, at
column A-1,
2
0.0042 12 in 21.5 in 1.08 in
s
A bd = = = .
At midspan:
( )
2 2
128 k-ft 12 in/ft
308 psi
0.9 12 in 21.5 in
u
M
R
bd |

= = =


Refer to Table A-3. For f
c
= 4,500 psi, and R = 308 psi, 0.0054 = . So, at
midspan,
2
0.0054 12 in 21.5 in 1.39 in
s
A bd = = = .
At column A-2:
( )
2 2
139 k-ft 12 in/ft
334 psi
0.9 12 in 21.5 in
u
M
R
bd |

= = =


Refer to Table A-3. For f
c
= 4,500 psi, and R = 334 psi, 0.0058 = . So, at
column A-2,
2
0.0058 12 in 21.5 in 1.50 in
s
A bd = = = .


Step 3: Determine whether torsion must be considered in the design of this beam. Begin by
determining the dimensions of the beam section active in torsion, and calculate the threshold
torsion.

height of beam below slab 18 in
4 24 in
f
f
h
=

s

=

, where
f
is the length of flange active in torsion.
Therefore,

2
24 in 12 in 6 in 18 in 396 in
cp
A = + =
24 in 12 in 18 in 18 in 6 in 30 in 108 in
cp
P = + + + + + =

( )
2
2
2
396 in
' 0.75 1.0 4,500 psi 73, 000 lb-in 6.09 k-ft
108 in
cp
th c
cp
A
T f
P
|
| |
| |
|
= = = = |
| |
\ .
\ .

Since
u th
T T > , torsion must be considered in this design.


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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7-12
Step 4: Since the torsion resisted by this edge beam is not required to maintain equilibrium of the
structure, we have a case of compatibility torsion. Therefore we can likely reduce our T
u
to the
following:
( )
2
2
2
,
396 in
4 ' 0.75 4 1.0 4,500 psi 292, 000 lb-in 24.4 k-ft
108 in
cp
u comp c
cp
A
T f
P
|
| |
| |
|
= = = = |
| |
\ .
\ .

Since
, u u comp
T T > , we can reduce our design torsion to 24.4 k-ft. Since our design torsion for the
spandrel beam is being reduced, it is necessary to redistribute the design moments for the joist that
frames into the spandrel beam. See chapter 7 for further discussion of why this is required.

Step 5: Determine whether the section is large enough to resist the combined actions of shear and
torsion. First assume that a closed #4 stirrup will be used in the web of this beam.
( ) ( )
2
24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 174 in
oh
A = =
( ) 2 24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 58 in
h
P = + =
From Eq. (7-33):
2 2
2
8 '
1.7
u u h c
c
w oh w
V T P V
f
b d A b d
|
| | | | | |
+ s +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

( )
2
2
2
2
2 4,500 psi 12 in 21.5 in 25.6 k 24.4 k-ft 58 in
0.75 8 4,500 psi
12 in 21.5 in 12 in 21.5 in
1.7 174 in
| |
| |
| |
|
+ s + |
|
| |

\ .

\ .
\ .

0.344 ksi 0.503 ksi s
The section is sufficiently large.

Step 6: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist V
u
:
2 ' 2 4,500 psi 12 in 21.5 in 34.6 k
c c w
V f b d = = =
At column A-1: 0 k
s
V =
At column A-2:
25.6 k
34.6 k 0 k
0.75
u
s c
V
V V
|
= = <

Step 7: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist T
u
:

24.4 k-ft
32.5 k-ft
0.75 0.75
u
n
T
T > = =
From Eq. (7-24), using 0.85
o oh
A A = :

( )
2
2
32.5 k-ft 12 in/ft in
0.0330
2 cot in 2 0.85 174 in 40 ksi cot 45
t n
o yt
A T
s A f u

> = =



Step 8: Evaluate the total required area of stirrups, and select spacing:
For strength:
2 2
in in
2 0.0330 0.066
in in
=
Minimum required:
'
2
0.75
50.3 psi 12 in in
0.015
40, 000 psi in
c w
yt
f b
f


= =
The strength requirement governs here.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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7-13
Now determine stirrup size and spacing:

max
12 in
/ 8 58 in / 8 7.25 in
/ 2 10.75 in (for shear)
h
s P
d

s = =


If we select #4 stirrups,
2
2
2 0.2 in
6.1 in
in
0.066
in
s

s =
If we select #5 stirrups,
2
2
2 0.31 in
9.4 in
in
0.066
in
s

s =
Select closed #4 stirrups at 6.0 in spacing at the ends of the beam. While in some cases it is
possible that stirrups are not required along the full length of the beam, the torsion in this case is
constant along the length of the beam, as is the shear. Therefore, closed #4 stirrups are required
along the full length of the beam.

Step 9: Finalize the design of the longitudinal reinforcement:
Determine the need for longitudinal reinforcement resisting torsion:
For strength:
2
2 2
in 2
cot 0.0330 58 in 1.0 1.28 in
in 3
yt
t
l h
yl
f
A
A P
s f
u
| |
| |
| |
= = = |
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
\ .

Minimum required:
,min
5 '
c cp yt
t
l h
yl yl
f A f
A
A P
f s f
=
Since
2 2
,min
25 in in
0.0330 0.0075
in in
t w
yt
A b
s f
| |
= > =
|
\ .
, we must use
2
in
0.0330
in


2 2
2
,min
5 4,500 psi 396 in in 2
0.0330 58 in 0.94 in
60 ksi in 3
l
A

= =
Use
2
1.28 in
l
A =
Longitudinal bars are required in the corner of each stirrup. Also, longitudinal bars must be spaced
no more than 12 in apart around the perimeter of the section, so a bar is needed in the middle of
each vertical face. So 6 bars are required.


2 2
/ 1.28 in / 6 bars 0.21 in / bar Area bar = =

-At column A-1, use #5 bars in the bottom corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam.
As top reinforcement,
( )
2 2 2 2
/ 1.08 in 2 0.21 in / 3 1.50 in / 3 0.50 in
s
A bar > + = = , so specify 3 #7
bars along the top of the section.
-At midspan, use #5 bars in the top corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam. As
bottom reinforcement,
( )
2 2 2 2
/ 1.39 in 2 0.21 in / 3 1.81 in / 3 0.60 in
s
A bar > + = = , so specify 3 #8
bars along the bottom of the section.
-At column A-2, use #5 bars in the bottom corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam.
As top reinforcement,
( )
2 2 2 2
/ 1.50 in 2 0.21 in / 3 1.92 in / 3 0.64 in
s
A bar > + = = , so specify 3 #8
bars along the top of the section.


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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7-14
7-4 The two parts of this problem refer to the floor plan shown in Fig. P7-3. Assume that
the entire floor system is constructed with sand light-weight concrete that has a
compressive strength, f
c
= 4,000 psi. Also assume that the longitudinal steel has a
yield strength of f
y
= 60 ksi and that the transverse steel has a yield strength of
f
yt
= 60 ksi.

a) Design the spandrel beam between columns B1 and C1 for bending, shear,
and torsion. Check all of the appropriate ACI Code requirements for
strength, minimum reinforcement area, and reinforcement spacing are
satisfied.

Step 1: Determine M
u
, V
u
, and T
u
:

Note that this problem is very similar to the previous problem. One noticeable change is the use of
lightweight concrete, which will affect the dead weight used in the calculation of the design loads.
Although no guidance is given on the density of the sand-lightweight concrete used in this
problem, any reasonable assumption would be acceptable. Here a density of
3
120 lb/ft is assumed.

Dead weight from beam, per foot of beam:

2 3
2
12 in 18 in lb lb
120 180
in ft ft
144
ft

=
Dead weight from slab, per foot of beam:

3
6 in 6.5 ft lb lb
120 390
in
ft ft
12
ft

=
Superimposed dead load, per foot of beam:

2
lb lb
6.5 ft 20 130
ft ft
=
To simplify the design, we will not reduce the live load. Therefore, the live load per foot of beam:
2
lb lb
6.5 ft 50 325
ft ft
=
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored load is, per foot of beam:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.180 k/ft 0.390 k/ft 0.130 k/ft 1.6 0.325 k/ft 1.36 k/ft
u
w = + + + =

With that, we can determine the design moments using ACI Moment Coefficients:

At columns:


()



At midspan:

()



Note that
n
is taken as the average of the adjoining clear spans for calculating the negative
moment at the columns.


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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7-15
The design shear is:

At midspan:



At d away from the column face:

)

Note that
n
is taken as the clear span length of the interior span when calculating the shear
acting on the face of the support. Do not reduce this value to the
n
used for calculating
the negative moment at column B-1.

To calculate the design torsion, we first have to determine the moment and shear that the slab is
applying to the edge of the beam.
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.060 k/ft 0.020 k/ft 1.6 0.050 k/ft 0.176 k/ft
u
w = + + =
12 ft -12 in 11 ft
n
= =

( )
2
2
0.176 k/ft 11 ft
0.887 k-ft
24 24
u n
u
w
M

= = =

0.176 k/ft 11 ft
0.968 k
2 2
u n
u
w
V

= = =
Therefore, the torsion applied to our beam by the slab is:

6 in
0.887 k-ft 0.968 k 1.37 k-ft/ft
12 in/ft
t = + =
And thus our design torsion, at d away from the ends of our beam, is:

( )



Step 2: Determining the area of longitudinal steel required for flexure.

At the column:



Refer to Table A-3. For f
c
= 4,000 psi and R = 204 psi, . So, at the column,



At midspan:



Refer to Table A-3. There are no R values below 190 psi, which corresponds to the
minimum reinforcement ratio. Therefore,


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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7-16
Step 3: Determine whether torsion must be considered in the design of this beam. Begin by
determining the dimensions of the beam section active in torsion, and calculate the threshold
torsion.

height of beam below slab 18 in
4 24 in
f
f
h
=

s

=

, where
f
is the length of flange active in torsion.
Therefore,

2
24 in 12 in 6 in 18 in 396 in
cp
A = + =
24 in 12 in 18 in 18 in 6 in 30 in 108 in
cp
P = + + + + + =

( )
2
2
2
396 in
' 0.75 0.85 4, 000 psi 58,500 lb-in 4.88 k-ft
108 in
cp
th c
cp
A
T f
P
|
| |
| |
|
= = = = |
| |
\ .
\ .

Since
u th
T T > , torsion must be considered in this design.

Step 4: Since the torsion resisted by this edge beam is not required to maintain equilibrium of the
structure, we have a case of compatibility torsion. Therefore we can likely reduce our T
u
to the
following:
( )
2
2
2
,
396 in
4 ' 0.75 4 0.85 4, 000 psi 234, 000 lb-in 19.5 k-ft
108 in
cp
u comp c
cp
A
T f
P
|
| |
| |
|
= = = = |
| |
\ .
\ .

Unfortunately, since
, u u comp
T T s , we cannot reduce our design torsion. Since our design torsion is
not being reduced, no redistribution of design moments is required in the adjoining slab.

Step 5: Determine whether the section is large enough to resist the combined actions of shear and
torsion. First assume that a closed #4 stirrup will be used in the web of this beam.
( ) ( )
2
24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 174 in
oh
A = =
( ) 2 24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 58 in
h
P = + =


From Eq. (7-33):

(


)

The section is sufficiently large.

Step 6: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist V
u
:





2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
7-17
Step 7: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist T
u
:


From Eq. (7-24), using 0.85
o oh
A A = :


()



Step 8: Evaluate the total required area of stirrups, and select spacing:
For strength:



Minimum required:



The strength requirement governs here.

Now determine stirrup size and spacing:

max
12 in
/ 8 58 in / 8 7.25 in
/ 2 10.75 in (for shear)
h
s P
d

s = =


If we select #3 stirrups,


If we select #4 stirrups,



Select closed #3 stirrups at 7 in. spacing at the ends of the beam. It is also possible that stirrups are
not required along the full length of this beam. For torsion, determine where /
u th
T T | s . By
similar triangles, this occurs at 75 in. away from the face of the column. However, torsional
reinforcement must be continued for ( ) (21.5 in 12 in) 33.5 in
t
d b + = + = past this theoretical point.
Therefore, no torsional reinforcement is required beyond 108.5 in. away from the face of the
column. Since / 2
u c
V V | s at this point, no shear reinforcement is required beyond this point either.

Final design of transverse reinforcement:
Using closed #3 stirrups,
One stirrup at 3.5 in from either column face, followed by stirrups spaced at 7 in. until beyond 109
in. from the face of the column.








2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
7-18
Step 9: Finalize the design of the longitudinal reinforcement:
Determine the need for longitudinal reinforcement resisting torsion:

For strength:



Minimum required:
,min
5 '
c cp yt
t
l h
yl yl
f A f
A
A P
f s f
=
Since
2 2
,min
25 in in
0 0.0075
in in
t w
yt
A b
s f
| |
= s =
|
\ .
, we must use
2
in
0.0075
in


2 2
2
,min
5 4, 000 psi 396 in in
0.0050 58 in 1.0 1.80 in
60 ksi in
l
A

= =
Use
2
1.80 in
l
A =

Longitudinal bars are required in the corner of each stirrup. Also, longitudinal bars must be spaced
no more than 12 in apart around the perimeter of the section, so a bar is needed in the middle of
each vertical face. So 6 bars are required.


2 2
/ 1.80 in / 6 bars 0.30 in / bar Area bar = =

-At the columns, use #5 bars in the bottom corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam.
As top reinforcement,

( )

, so specify 3 #7 bars along the


top of the section.
-At midspan, use #5 bars in the top corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam. As
bottom reinforcement,

( )

, so specify 3 #7 bars along the


bottom of the section.


















2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
7-19
b) Design the spandrel beam between columns A1 and A2 for bending, shear,
and torsion. Check that all of the appropriate ACI Code requirements for
strength, minimum reinforcement area, and reinforcement spacing are
satisfied.

Step 1: Determine M
u
, V
u
, and T
u
:
Again, assume the density of the concrete is
3
120 lb/ft .
Dead weight from beam, per foot of beam:

2 3
2
12 in 24 in lb lb
120 240
in ft ft
144
ft

=
Superimposed dead load, per foot of spandrel beam:

2
lb
1 ft 20 20 lb/ft
ft
=
To simplify the design, we will not reduce the live load. Therefore, the live load per foot of beam:
2
lb
1 ft 50 50 lb/ft
ft
=
Dead weight from joist, applied as a point load at midspan:

2 3
2
12 in 18 in lb
120 14.5 ft 2.61 k
in ft
144
ft

=
Dead weight from slab, applied as a point load at midspan:

3
6 in 12 ft lb
120 14.5 ft 10.4 k
in
ft
12
ft

=
Superimposed dead load, applied as a point load at midspan:

2
lb
12 ft 14.5 ft 20 3.48 k
ft
=
To simplify the design, we will not reduce the live load. Therefore, the live load per foot of beam:
2
lb
12 ft 14.5 ft 50 8.7 k
ft
=
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored load is:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.240 k/ft 0.02 k/ft 1.6 50 k/ft 0.392 k/ft
u
w = + + = , per foot of beam
( ) ( )
, int
1.2 2.61 k 10.4 k 3.48 k 1.6 8.7 k 33.7 k
u po
w = + + + = , applied as a point load
24 ft -16 in 22.67 ft
n
= =
With that, we can determine the design moments, but structural analysis software must be used
since the ACI Moment Coefficients cannot be applied when not all loads are distributed.
At column A-1: 90.4 k-ft
u
M =
At midspan: 114 k-ft
u
M =
At column B-1: 123 k-ft
u
M =
The design shear at d away from the supports is:
At column A-1:

( ) ( )
, int
2 0.392 k/ft 22.67 ft 2 21.5 in
33.7 k
20.6 k
2 2 2 2
u po u n
u
w w d
V

= + = + =
At midspan: 0 k
u
V =
At column B-1:
, 1
1.15 23.7 k
u u A
V V

= =
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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7-20
To calculate the design torsion, we first have to determine the moment and shear that the beam is
applying to the edge of the beam.
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.180 k/ft 0.720 k/ft 0.240 k/ft 1.6 0.600 k/ft 2.33 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
30 ft -12 in 29 ft
n
= =

( )
2
2
2.33 k/ft 29 ft
81.6 k-ft
24 24
u n
u
w
M

= = =

, int
33.7 k
u u po
V w = =
Thus our design torsion, at d away from the ends of our beam, is:

6 in 6 in
81.6 k-ft 33.7 k 98.5 k-ft
12 in/ft 12 in/ft
u u u
T M V = + = + =

Step 2: Determining the area of longitudinal steel required for flexure.
At column A-1:
( )
2 2
90.4 k-ft 12 in/ft
217 psi
0.9 12 in 21.5 in
u
M
R
bd |

= = =


Refer to Table A-3. For f
c
= 4,000 psi, and R = 217 psi, 0.0037 = . So, at
column A-1,
2
0.0037 12 in 21.5 in 0.95 in
s
A bd = = = .
At midspan:
( )
2 2
114 k-ft 12 in/ft
274 psi
0.9 12 in 21.5 in
u
M
R
bd |

= = =


Refer to Table A-3. For f
c
= 4,000 psi, and R = 274 psi, 0.0048 = . So, at
midspan,
2
0.0048 12 in 21.5 in 1.24 in
s
A bd = = = .
At column A-2:
( )
2 2
123 k-ft 12 in/ft
296 psi
0.9 12 in 21.5 in
u
M
R
bd |

= = =


Refer to Table A-3. For f
c
= 4,000 psi, and R = 296 psi, 0.0052 = . So, at
column A-2,
2
0.0052 12 in 21.5 in 1.34 in
s
A bd = = = .


Step 3: Determine whether torsion must be considered in the design of this beam. Begin by
determining the dimensions of the beam section active in torsion, and calculate the threshold
torsion.

height of beam below slab 18 in
4 24 in
f
f
h
=

s

=

, where
f
is the length of flange active in torsion.
Therefore,

2
24 in 12 in 6 in 18 in 396 in
cp
A = + =
24 in 12 in 18 in 18 in 6 in 30 in 108 in
cp
P = + + + + + =

( )
2
2
2
396 in
' 0.75 0.85 4, 000 psi 58,500 lb-in 4.88 k-ft
108 in
cp
th c
cp
A
T f
P
|
| |
| |
|
= = = = |
| |
\ .
\ .

Since
u th
T T > , torsion must be considered in this design.


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7-21
Step 4: Since the torsion resisted by this edge beam is not required to maintain equilibrium of the
structure, we have a case of compatibility torsion. Therefore we can likely reduce our T
u
to the
following:
( )
2
2
2
,
396 in
4 ' 0.75 4 0.85 4, 000 psi 234, 000 lb-in 19.5 k-ft
108 in
cp
u comp c
cp
A
T f
P
|
| |
| |
|
= = = = |
| |
\ .
\ .

Since
, u u comp
T T > , we can reduce our design torsion to 19.5 k-ft. Since our design torsion for the
spandrel beam is being reduced, it is necessary to redistribute the design moments for the joist that
frames into the spandrel beam. See chapter 7 for further discussion of why this is required.

Step 5: Determine whether the section is large enough to resist the combined actions of shear and
torsion. First assume that a closed #4 stirrup will be used in the web of this beam.
( ) ( )
2
24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 174 in
oh
A = =
( ) 2 24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 58 in
h
P = + =
From Eq. (7-33):

(


)

The section is sufficiently large.

Step 6: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist V
u
:



At column A-1:



At column A-2:



Step 7: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist T
u
:

19.5 k-ft
26.0 k-ft
0.75 0.75
u
n
T
T > = =
From Eq. (7-24), using 0.85
o oh
A A = :

( )
2
2
26.0 k-ft 12 in/ft in
0.0176
2 cot in 2 0.85 174 in 60 ksi cot 45
t n
o yt
A T
s A f u

> = =






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7-22
Step 8: Evaluate the total required area of stirrups, and select spacing:
For strength:


Minimum required:
2
50 50 12 in in
0.010
60, 000 psi in
w
yt
b
f

= =
The strength requirement governs here.

Now determine stirrup size and spacing:

max
12 in
/ 8 58 in / 8 7.25 in
/ 2 10.75 in (for shear)
h
s P
d

s = =


If we select #3 stirrups,


If we select #4 stirrups,



Select closed #3 stirrups at 5 in. spacing for the full length of the beam. While in some cases it is
possible that stirrups are not required along the full length of the beam, the torsion in this case is
constant along the length of the beam, as is the shear. Therefore, closed #3 stirrups are required
along the full length of the beam.

Final design of transverse reinforcement:
Using closed #3 stirrups,
One stirrup at 2.5 in from either column face, followed by stirrups spaced at 5 in.


Step 9: Finalize the design of the longitudinal reinforcement:
Determine the need for longitudinal reinforcement resisting torsion:
For strength:
2
2 2
in
cot 0.0176 58 in 1.0 1.0 1.02 in
in
yt
t
l h
yl
f
A
A P
s f
u
| |
| |
| |
= = = |
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
\ .

Minimum required:
,min
5 '
c cp yt
t
l h
yl yl
f A f
A
A P
f s f

=
Since
2 2
,min
25 in in
0.0176 0.0050
in in
t w
yt
A b
s f
| |
= > =
|
\ .
, we must use
2
in
0.0176
in


2 2
2
,min
5 4, 000 psi 396 in in
0.0176 58 in 1.0 1.07 in
60 ksi in
l
A

= =
Use
2
1.07 in
l
A =





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7-23
Longitudinal bars are required in the corner of each stirrup. Also, longitudinal bars must be spaced
no more than 12 in apart around the perimeter of the section, so a bar is needed in the middle of
each vertical face. So 6 bars are required.


2 2
/ 1.07 in / 6 bars 0.18 in / bar Area bar = =

-At column A-1, use #4 bars in the bottom corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam.
As top reinforcement,
( )
2 2 2 2
/ 0.95 in 2 0.18 in / 3 1.31 in / 3 0.437 in
s
A bar > + = = , so specify 3
#6 bars along the top of the section.
-At midspan, use #4 bars in the top corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam. As
bottom reinforcement,
( )
2 2 2 2
/ 1.24 in 2 0.18 in / 3 1.60 in / 3 0.53 in
s
A bar > + = = , so specify 3
#7 bars along the bottom of the section.
-At column A-2, use #4 bars in the bottom corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam.
As top reinforcement,
( )
2 2 2 2
/ 1.34 in 2 0.18 in / 3 1.7 in / 3 0.57 in
s
A bar > + = = , so specify 3 #7
bars along the top of the section.
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8-1
Chapter 8

8-1 Figure P8-1 shows a cantilever beam with containing three No. 7 bars
that are anchored in the column by standard

hooks.

(normal-
weight) and

. If the steel is stressed to

at the face of the column,


can these bars:

(a) be anchored by hooks into the column? The clear cover to the side of the
hook is 2 in. The clear cover to the bar extension beyond the bend is 2 in.
The joint is enclosed by ties at 6 in. o.c.

Except for the side cover of 2 in., a clear cover of 2 in. is assumed throughout the beam
and joint. See Fig. S8-1 below.

18 in.
18 in.
2 in. 7.5 in. 2 in. (clear cover)
48 in.
6 in.
2 in. (clear cover)
Side cover = 2 in. for columns and 2 in. for beams;
Beam width = 12 in.
3 #7
#3, double legs

Fig. S8-1

1. Check if a 90 standard hook can be used
- Length of the hook tail including the bend:
12 3 0.5 15.5 15.5 0.875 in. 13.6 in.
b b b b
d d d d + + = = =
- Available vertical room for the hook tail:
18 in. 2 2 in. 14 in. 13.6 in. = > , OK.

2. Required development length of 90 standard hooks:
- Basic development length of 90 standard hooks:
0.02
0.02 1 60000
0.875 14.8 in.
1 5000
e y
hb b
c
f
d
f


= = =
'

Note: Coating factor 1
e
= for uncoated reinforcement (assumed)
Lightweight-aggregate-concrete factor 1 = for normal-weight
concrete


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8-2
- Applicable factors:
ACI Code Section 12.5.3(a) applies (factor of 0.7) because:

bar size smaller than bar No. 11
side cover: 2 3/4 in. 2 1/2 in.
tail cover: 2 in. 2 in.

>

>


ACI Code Section 12.5.3(b) does not apply because:
tie spacing: 6 in. 3 2.6 in.
b
d > =
ACI Code Section 12.5.3(d) does not apply because 60000 psi
y
f =
0.7 14.8 in. 0.7 10.4 in.
dh hb
= = =
- Minimum development length
, min max(8 ,6 in.) max(8 0.875 in., 6 in.) 7 in. 10.4 in.
dh b
d = = = < , OK.

3. Available horizontal room for 90 standard hook:
18 in. 2 in. 16 in. 10.4 in. = > , OK.

Conclusion: The bars can be anchored in the column by using 90 standard hook.

(b) be developed in the beam? The bar ends 2 in. from the end of the beam. The
beam has No. 3 double-leg stirrups at 7.5 in.

1. Available room in the beam for straight anchorage:
48 in. 2 in. 46 in. =

2. Required development length of straight anchorage conforming to ACI Code Section
12.2.2.:
- Determine which formulas to use in the Table 8-1
12 in. 2 2 in. 3 0.875 in.
Clear spacing: 2.7 in. 2 1.75 in.
2
Clear cover: 2 in. 0.875 in.
Bar #7
b
b
d
d

= > =

> =



1.3 1 60000
0.875 48.3 in. 46 in.
20 20 1 5000
e t y
hb b
c
f
d
f


= = = >
'
, NG.
Note: Bar-location factor 1.3
t
= is used because the bars are top
reinforcement with a depth of fresh concrete below:
18 in. 2 in. 0.875 in. 15.1 in. 12 in. = >
Per ACI Code Section 12.2.2, the bars cannot be developed in the beam by
using straight anchorage. This problem can be solved by reducing the bar size.
However, ACI Code Section 12.2.3 allows another method to calculate the
development length which is likely to yield a shorter development length. Let try
this.

3. Required development length of straight bars conforming to ACI Code Section
12.2.3.
- Bar-size factor 1
s
= for #7 bars

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8-3
- Bar-spacing factor
b
c
One-half center-to-center spacing of the bars:
12 in. 2 2 in. 0.875 in.
0.5 1.78 in.
2

=
Smallest distance from beam surface to centers of bars:
0.875 in.
2 in. 2.44 in.
2
+ =
min(1.78 in., 2.44 in.) 1.78 in.
b
c = =
- Transverse reinforcement index
( )
2
40 2 0.11 in.
40
0.39 in.
7.5in. 3
tr
tr
A
K
sn

= = =


- Required development length per ACI Code Section 12.2.3
3
3 60000 1.3 1 1
0.875 29.2 in.<46 in.
1.78 0.39
40 40 1 5000
0.875
y
t e s
d b
b tr
c
b
f
d
c K
f
d


= = =
+ +
'

(Note that 2.48 2.5, OK.
b tr
b
c K
d
+
= < )
Per ACI Code 12.2.3, the bars can be developed in the beam by using straight
anchorage.


8-2 Give two reasons why the tension development length is longer than the
compression development length.

1. A bar stressed in compression transfers some of its force to the concrete by bearing
on the end of the bars.
2. A bar stressed in tension transfers its tensile stress into concrete. As a result the
concrete is cracked and in-and-out bond stresses exist. In such a case there are
localized bond stresses which are several times greater the average bond stress. A bar
stressed in compression transfers its stress into concrete which is compressed and
hence un-cracked. There are no in-and-out bond stresses in such a case.


8-3 Why do bar spacing and cover to the surface of the bar affect bond strength?

The lugs on deformed bars transfer forces to the concrete. The radial component of these
lug forces causes a tensile stress in an annulus of concrete around the bar. The thicker the
wall of this annulus the lower the tensile stresses are in it. The thickness of the wall is
governed by the minimum distance to the surface of the concrete or to the next bar. Thus,
the larger the cover and bar spacing are, the larger the bond stresses can be developed.

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8-4
8-4 A simply supported rectangular beam with and and No. 3
Grade 40 stirrups at , spans 14 ft and supports a total factored uniform
load of 6.5 kips/ft, including its own dead load. It is built of 4000 psi light-weight
concrete and contains 2 No. 10 Grade 60 bars that extend 5 in. past the centers of
the supports at each end. Does this beam satisfy ACI Section 12.11.3? If not, what is
the largest size bars which can be used?

The question asks to check if
n
d a
u
M
V
s + at the support.
1. Calculation of
d
.
- Bar-location factor 1
t
= for bottom bars
- Coating factor 1
e
= for uncoated reinforcement (assumed)
- Bar-size factor 1
s
= for #10 bars
- Lightweight-aggregate-concrete factor for light-weight concrete
- Bar-spacing factor ( ) min 2.5 in., 0.5 14 in. 2 2.5 in. 2.5 in.
b
c = ( =


- Transverse reinforcement index
tr
K .

( )


- Calculate the development length
3
3 60000 1 1 1
1.27 50.2 in.
2.5 0.55
40 40 0.75 4000
1.27
y
t e s
d b
b tr
c
b
f
d
c K
f
d


= = =
+ +
'

(Note that 2.4 2.5, OK.
b tr
b
c K
d
+
= < )

2. Calculation of
n
a
u
M
V
+ .

( ) ( )
6.5 k/ft 14 ft
45.5 kips
2
u
V

= =



n
d a
u
M
V
s + So, the use of 2 #10 bars satisfies ACI Code Section 12.11.3.


8-5 Why do ACI Section 12.10.3 and 12.12.3 require that bars extend past their cut-
off points?

Inclined cracking due to shear increases the tension in the flexural reinforcement at all
points except the points of maximum moments. As a result, the tensile force in the
flexural reinforcement computed from the moment at a given section actually exists at a
point about 0.75d to d from that point in the direction of decreasing moment.
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8-5

8-6 Why does ACI Section 12.10.2 define points within the span where adjacent
reinforcement terminates as critical sections for development of reinforcement in
flexural members?

If flexural reinforcement is cut off according to the moment diagram, the flexural cut-off
point is the point in the beam where the remaining steel not cut off is just adequate for the
moment if stressed to
y
f . Due to the effect of shear, this point actually occurs about d
farther away and hence this point is critical.


8-7 A rectangular beam with cross section , , and
supports a total factored load of 3.9 kips/ft, including its own dead load. The beam is
simply supported with a 22-ft span. It is reinforced with 6 No. 6 Grade 60 bars, two
of which are cut off between midspan and the support and four of which extend 10
in. past the centers of the supports.

. The beam has No. 3 stirrups


satisfying ACI Code Sections 11.4.5 and 11.4.6.
C
L
cut-off point
4 bars #6 6 bars #6
d =21.7 in. h = 24 in.
11 ft. 12 in.
M

=

2
3
6

k
-
f
t
.
M
n
= 238 k-ft.
M

=

1
6
3

k
-
f
t
.
M
n
= 163 k-ft.

d
= 28.5 in.
d
= 28.5 in.
21.7 in. 37 in.
factored moment
diagram M
12 in.
cut-off point
flexural
cut-off point

Fig. S8-2
(a) Plot to scale the factored moment diagram. ()

( ), where x is
the distance from the support and

is the span.
Maximum moment at the midspan: ( ) ( )
3.9 11 ft
/ 2 22 ft 11 ft 236 k-ft
2
M x

= = =
The factored moment diagram is shown in Fig. S8-2.



10 in.
10 in. 35.6 in. 21.5 in.
236 k-ft
160 k-ft
21.5 in.
1
6
0

k
-
f
t

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8-6
(b) Plot a resisting moment diagram and locate the cut-off point for the two cut-
off bars.

1. Moment capacity of beam sections with 6 #6 bars
( )
2
6 0.44 in. 60000 psi
3.3 in.
0.85 0.85 4000 psi 14 in.
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =
'

()

( ) ( )
1
3.3 in.
3.9 in.
0.85
a
c
|
= = = (
1
0.85 | = for 4000 psi
c
f ' = )

()

2. Moment capacity of beam sections with 4 #6 bars
( )
2
4 0.44 in. 60000 psi
2.2 in.
0.85 0.85 4000 psi 14 in.
s y
c
A f
a
f b

= = =
'

()

( ) ( )
1
2.2 in.
2.6 in.
0.85
a
c
|
= = = (
1
0.85 | = for 4000 psi
c
f ' = )

()


3. Development length for straight bars. ACI Code Section 12.2.2 will be used to
determine the development length.
- Minimum clear spacing between bars:
14 in. 2 2.3 in. 5 0.75 in.
1.1 in. 0.75 in.
5
b
d

= > =
- Since the shear reinforcement is provided such that ACI Code Sections 11.5.4
and 11.5.5.3 will be satisfied, shear reinforcement is not less than the minimum
code requirement.
- Bars used are #6

1 1 60000
0.75 28.5 in.
25 25 1 4000
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f


= = =
'


4. Locate the cut-off point of the 2 #6 bars (see Fig. S8-2.)
- Determine the flexural cut-off point of the 2 #6 bars. This point is the intersection
of the factored moment diagram and the line of moment capacity (4#6)
n
M | ,
i.e.:
( ) (4#6)
n
M x M | =

( )


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8-7
- Extend the flexural cut-off point a distance d toward the left support to take into
account the shear effect. The distance from the left support to the cut-off point is


The resisting moment diagram is shown in Fig. S8-2.


8-8 Why does ACI Code Section 12.10.5 require extra stirrups at bar cut-off points in
some cases?

A severe discontinuity in longitudinal bar stresses exists in the region of a cut-off point in
a zone of flexural tension. This causes a reduction in the inclined cracking load in that
region. To compensate, more stirrups are required.


The beam shown in Fig. P8-9 is built of 4000 psi normal-weight concrete and Grade 60 steel.
The effective depth The beam supports a total factored uniform load of 5.25
kips/ft, including its own dead load. The frame is not part of the lateral load-resisting
system for the building. Use Figs. A-1 to A-4 to select cut-off points in Problems 8-9 to 8-11.

8-9 Select cut-off points for span A-B based on the following requirements:
(a) Cut off two No. 6 positive moment bars when no longer needed at each end.
Extend the remaining bars into the columns.

1. Development length for bottom #6 and #7 bars
From the effective depth of 18.5 in, assume a concrete cover of 2.5 in. to centers of the
bars.
- Clear spacing:


- Shear reinforcement:
2
2 2
min
50 0.22 in. 50 12
0.028 in. /in. 0.015 in. /in.
8 in. 40000
v v w
yt
A A b
s s f
| |
= = > = = =
|
\ .

(Note that 0.75 47.4 psi 50 psi, use 50 psi
c
f ' = < )

The development length is computed following Case 1
( )
1 1 60000
#6, bottom 0.75 28.5 in.
25 25 1 4000
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f


= = =
'

( )
1 1 60000
#7, bottom 0.875 41.5 in.
20 20 1 4000
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f


= = =
'


2. Locate the cutoff point for the #6 bars
After the 2 #6 bars are cutoff, the remaining #7 bars will provide an

of

, which is 0.577 times

at midspan. Therefore, the #6 bars can be cutoff


when the moment demand is less than 0.577

at midspan. From Fig. A-2, this


occurs at

from the face of the exterior support. The actual


cutoff has to be the larger of and

beyond the theoretical cutoff point.


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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8-8
and

, so the actual cutoff is from


the face of the exterior support.

3. Verify that the distance from midspan to the actual cutoff point is larger than the
development length.


Therefore, the cutoff for the 2 #6 bars is 34 in. from the face of the exterior support.

4. Do the same calculations for the interior support (B) for this exterior span:
After the 2 #6 bars are cutoff, the remaining #7 bars will provide

,
which is 0.577 times

at midspan. Therefore, the #6 bars can be cutoff when the


moment demand is less than 0.577

at midspan. From Fig. A-2, this occurs at

from the face of the interior support. The actual cutoff has
to be the larger of and

beyond the theoretical cutoff point. and

, so the actual cutoff is from the face of the


interior support.

Verify that the distance from midspan to the actual cutoff point is larger than the
development length.


Therefore, the cutoff for the 2 #6 bars can be 36 in. from the face of the interior
support. To limit the potential for errors on the jobsite, given the very small
difference between exterior and interior support cutoff locations, we will select the
more conservative value for both supports of the exterior span. Cutoff 2 #6 bars at 34
in. from the face of the columns in the exterior span.

5. Verify that enough bars are extended into the column:

()

()


This requirement is satisfied. Also, specify that the #7 bars extend 6 in. into the
columns.

6. With the #7 bars extended 6 in. into the columns, verify that the #7 bars are
sufficiently developed. To check this, ensure that the continuous #7 bars extend more
than

past the theoretical cutoff point of the #6 bars.

()
This requirement is satisfied.

7. Check if
n
d a
u
M
V
s + at the positive moment point of inflection near end A.

( ) ( )



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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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8-9
From Fig. A-2, the positive moment point of inflection closest to end A is
0.1 2 ft 24 in.
n
= =
5.25 k/ft 20 ft
5.25k/ft 2 ft 42 kips
2
u
V

= =

{
(

)

}



8. Check if
n
d a
u
M
V
s + at the positive moment point of inflection near end B
Everything remains the same as for end A, except the point of inflection.
From Fig. A-2, the positive moment point of inflection closest to end B is
0.104 2.08 ft.
n
= The change is not significant, so
n
d a
u
M
V
s + is ensured.

9. Check whether ACI Code Section 12.10.5.1 is satisfied.

) ( )


Therefore, we must add stirrups near the point of termination for the #6 bars.
Additional stirrup area required is:


If we keep the same #3 U-shaped stirrups,

. Therefore,
Specify a stirrups spacing of 3 in. within d of the #6 bar termination
point.

(b) Extend all negative moment bars past the negative moment point of
inflection before cutting them off.

1. Development length for # 6 and #7 top bars
Note that the clear spacing of top #7 bars is:


The development length is computed following Case 1, with 1.3
t
= for top bars.
( )
1 1.3 60000
#6, top 0.75 37.0 in.
25 25 1 4000
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f


= = =
'

( )
1 1.3 60000
#7, top 0.875 54.0 in.
20 20 1 4000
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f


= = =
'

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8-10

2. Determine the cut-off point conforming to reinforcement continuity for negative
reinforcement near column A
- Since all reinforcement is required to extend past the point of inflection, the
requirement of greater than
(face)
3
s
A
to extend past the point of inflection is
automatically satisfied.
- All reinforcement has to extend past the inflection point a length:
{


}
- Negative moment point of inflection from face of column A is
0.164 3.28 ft = 39.4 in.
n
=
- Total length from face of column A to the reinforcement cut-off point is:

( ) Choose 58 in.

3. Determine the cut-off point conforming to reinforcement continuity for negative
reinforcement near column B
- Since all reinforcement is required to extend past the point of inflection, the
requirement of greater than
(face)
3
s
A
to extend past the point of inflection is
automatically satisfied.
- All reinforcement has to extend past the inflection point a length:
{


}
- Negative moment point of inflection from face of column B is
0.24 4.8 ft = 57.6 in.
n
=
- Total length from face of column B to the reinforcement cut-off point is:

( ) , so choose 78 in.

(c) Check the anchorage of the negative moment bars at A and modify the bar
size if necessary.

Reinforcement continuity and structural integrity require that all negative moment
reinforcement be fully anchored into column A. Note that the development length of
straight #6 bars is 37.1 in., which far exceeds the available column width of 18 in. A
hook must be used for anchorage.

- Development length for a standard 90 hook for #6 bars:
0.02
0.02 1 60000
0.75 14.2 in.
1 4000
e y
hb b
c
f
d
f


= = =
'

- Applicable factors. The problem does not give sufficient information to decide
if reduction factors per ACI Code Section 12.5.3 shall apply. To be
conservative, assume that no reduction of
hb
will be made.
14.2 in.
dh hb
= =
- Minimum development length
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8-11
, min max(8 ,6 in.) max(8 0.75 in., 6 in.) 6 in. 14.2 in.
dh b
d = = = < , OK.
- Available horizontal room for the 90 standard hook:
18 in. 2.4 in. 15.6 in. 14.2 in., OK = >
Extend the hook past the column face and to the other side of the column.


Fig. S8-3


8-10 Repeat Problem 8-9(a) and (b) for span B-C

(a) Cut off two No. 6 positive moment bars when no longer needed at each end.
Extend the remaining bars into the columns.
1. Development length for bottom #6 and #7 bars
From the effective depth of 18.5 in, assume a concrete cover of 2.5 in. to centers of the
bars.
- Clear spacing:


- Shear reinforcement:
2
2 2
min
50 0.22 in. 50 12
0.028 in. /in. 0.015 in. /in.
8 in. 40000
v v w
yt
A A b
s s f
| |
= = > = = =
|
\ .

(Note that 0.75 47.4 psi 50 psi, use 50 psi
c
f ' = < )

The development length is computed following Case 1
( )
1 1 60000
#6, bottom 0.75 28.5 in.
25 25 1 4000
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f


= = =
'

( )
1 1 60000
#7, bottom 0.875 41.5 in.
20 20 1 4000
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f


= = =
'


2. Locate the cutoff point for the #6 bars. Both supports are interior supports.
After the 2 #6 bars are cutoff, the remaining #7 bars will provide

,
which is 0.577 times

at midspan. Therefore, the #6 bars can be cutoff when the


moment demand is less than 0.577

at midspan. From Fig. A-1, this occurs at

from the face of the interior support. The actual cutoff has
to be the larger of and

beyond the theoretical cutoff point. and

, so the actual cutoff is from the face of the


interior support.

3. Verify that the distance from midspan to the actual cutoff point is larger than the
development length.
21 in.
58 in. 78 in. 15 in.
34 in. 6 in. 34 in. 6 in.
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8-12

Therefore, the cutoff for the 2 #6 bars can be 52 in. from the face of the support.
4. Verify that enough bars are extended into the column:

()

()


This requirement is satisfied. Also, specify that the #7 bars extend 6 in. into the
columns.

5. With the #7 bars extended 6 in. into the columns, verify that the #7 bars are
sufficiently developed. To check this, ensure that the continuous #7 bars extend more
than

past the theoretical cutoff point of the #6 bars.

()
This requirement is satisfied.
6. Check if
n
d a
u
M
V
s + at the positive moment point of inflection.

( ) ( )

From Fig. A-1, the positive moment point of inflection closest to end A is

{
(

)

}



7. Check whether ACI Code Section 12.10.5.1 is satisfied.

) ( )


Therefore, we must add stirrups near the point of termination for the #6 bars.
Additional stirrup area required is:


If we keep the same #3 U-shaped stirrups,

. Therefore,
Specify a stirrup spacing of 4 in. within d of the #6 bar termination point.

(b) Extend all negative moment bars past the negative moment point of
inflection before cutting them off.

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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8-13
1. Similar to Problem 8-9(b), extend all negative reinforcement past the negative
moment point of inflection a length of 18.5 in.
2. Negative moment point of inflection from face of column B and C is
0.24 5.04 ft = 60.5 in.
n
=

3. Total length from face of column B to the reinforcement cut-off point is

( ) Select 80 in.

See Fig. S8-4 for reinforcement details.


Fig. S8-4


8-11 Assume the beam is constructed with 4000 psi light-weight concrete. Select cut-off
points for span A-B based on the following requirements:

(a) Extend all negative moment bars at A past the negative moment point of
inflection.

1. Development length for #6 top bars
Note that the clear spacing of top #6 bars is:


The development length is computed following Case 1, with 1.3
t
= for top bars.

( )





2. Determine the cut-off point conforming to reinforcement continuity for negative
reinforcement near column A
- Since all reinforcement is required to extend past the point of inflection, the
requirement of greater than
(face)
3
s
A
to extend past the point of inflection is
automatically satisfied.
- All reinforcement has to extend past the inflection point a length:
{


}
- Negative moment point of inflection from face of column A is
0.164 3.28 ft = 39.4 in.
n
=
- Total length from face of column A to the reinforcement cut-off point is:

( ) Choose 58 in.
21 in.
80 in.
52 in. 6 in. 6 in.
80 in.
52 in.
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8-14

(b) Cut off the two No. 6 positive moment bars when no longer needed at each
end. Extend the remaining bars into the columns.

1. Development length for bottom #6 and #7 bars
From the effective depth of 18.5 in, assume a concrete cover of 2.5 in. to centers of the
bars.
- Clear spacing:


- Shear reinforcement:
2
2 2
min
50 0.22 in. 50 12
0.028 in. /in. 0.015 in. /in.
8 in. 40000
v v w
yt
A A b
s s f
| |
= = > = = =
|
\ .

(Note that 0.75 47.4 psi 50 psi, use 50 psi
c
f ' = < )

The development length is computed following Case 1

( )

( )





2. Locate the cutoff point for the #6 bars
After the 2 #6 bars are cutoff, the remaining #7 bars will provide an

of

, which is 0.577 times

at midspan. Therefore, the #6 bars can be cutoff


when the moment demand is less than 0.577

at midspan. From Fig. A-2, this


occurs at

from the face of the exterior support. The actual


cutoff has to be the larger of and

beyond the theoretical cutoff point.


and

, so the actual cutoff is from


the face of the exterior support.

3. Verify that the distance from midspan to the actual cutoff point is larger than the
development length.


Therefore, the cutoff for the 2 #6 bars is 34 in. from the face of the exterior support.

4. Do the same calculations for the interior support (B) for this exterior span:
After the 2 #6 bars are cutoff, the remaining #7 bars will provide

,
which is 0.577 times

at midspan. Therefore, the #6 bars can be cutoff when the


moment demand is less than 0.577

at midspan. From Fig. A-2, this occurs at

from the face of the interior support. The actual cutoff has
to be the larger of and

beyond the theoretical cutoff point. and

, so the actual cutoff is from the face of the


interior support.

Verify that the distance from midspan to the actual cutoff point is larger than the
development length.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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8-15

Therefore, the cutoff for the 2 #6 bars can be 36 in. from the face of the interior
support. To limit the potential for errors on the jobsite, given the very small
difference between exterior and interior support cutoff locations, we will select the
more conservative value for both supports of the exterior span. Cutoff 2 #6 bars at 34
in. from the face of the columns in the exterior span.

5. Verify that enough bars are extended into the column:

()

()


This requirement is satisfied. Also, specify that the #7 bars extend 6 in. into the
columns.

6. With the #7 bars extended 6 in. into the columns, verify that the #7 bars are
sufficiently developed. To check this, ensure that the continuous #7 bars extend more
than

past the theoretical cutoff point of the #6 bars.

()
This requirement is satisfied.

7. Check if
n
d a
u
M
V
s + at the positive moment point of inflection near end A.

( ) ( )

From Fig. A-2, the positive moment point of inflection closest to end A is
0.1 2 ft 24 in.
n
= =
5.25 k/ft 20 ft
5.25k/ft 2 ft 42 kips
2
u
V

= =

{
(

)

}



8. Check if
n
d a
u
M
V
s + at the positive moment point of inflection near end B
Everything remains the same as for end A, except the point of inflection.
From Fig. A-2, the positive moment point of inflection closest to end B is
0.104 2.08 ft.
n
= The change is not significant, so
n
d a
u
M
V
s + is ensured.
9. Check whether ACI Code Section 12.10.5.1 is satisfied.

) ( )
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8-16


Therefore, we must add stirrups near the point of termination for the #6 bars.
Additional stirrup area required is:


If we keep the same #3 U-shaped stirrups,

. Therefore,
Specify a stirrup spacing of 3 in. within d of the #6 bar termination point.

(c) Cut off two of the negative moment bars at B when no longer needed.
Extend the remaining bars past the point of inflection.

1. Calculate the development length of a #7 bar:

( )





2. Cut-off points for the remaining 3 #7 bars:
These bars need to be extended past the negative point of flexure. Problem 8-9(b)
shows that the required length is 76.2 in. Use 78 in. as before.

3. Cut-off points for 2 #7 bars:
- Ratio of remaining reinforcement area after cutting off the 2 #7 bars is 3/5 = 0.6
- 2 #7 bars can be cut off at the location x where
Moment at x
0.6
Maximum moment
= . This
occurs at 0.08 1.6 ft.=19.2 in.
n
x = = from B
- To consider the shear effect, extend 2 #7 bars a distance d past the flexural cut-
off point away from B. The distance from the face of column B to the cut-off point is

( ) , which is not OK. An option is to


specify a length of 72 in. However, to simplify construction, another option is to
extend all the bars a distance of 78 in. as in Item 1. Select a cutoff point of 78 in.
from the column face for all 5 #7 bars.

No bars are terminated within a flexural tension zone, so there is no need to check
shear at the cut off point.

2 #6
58 in. 78 in.
6 in. 6 in.
4 #6 5 #7
18 in.
240 in.
18 in.
12 in.
A B
2 #7
4 #3 @ 5 in. (extra)
4 #3 @ 5 in.(extra)
Cut-off points for
bars #6

58 in.
21 in.
#3 stirrups @ 3 in.
#3 stirrups @ 3 in.
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8-17
Fig. S8-5
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9-1
Chapter 9

9-1 Explain the differences in appearance of flexural cracks, shear cracks, and torsional
cracks.

Flexural cracks are approximately vertical cracks extending from the tensile face of the member
towards the level of the zero-strain axis (neutral axis).

Shear cracks are inclined to the axis of the element. Most often these cracks start at a flexural
crack on the tensile face of the member and extend diagonally through the member toward the
point of maximum moment.

Torsional cracks spiral around the member and, for pure torsion, are roughly 45 deg. on all faces.
For combined torsion and shear, the cracks tend to be pronounced on the face where the direct
shear stress and the shear stresses due to torsion add, and less pronounced (or even absent) on the
opposite face, where the stresses counteract.


9-2 Why is it necessary to limit the width of cracks?

Cracks are of concern for three main reasons:
- appearance: wide cracks are unsightly and sometimes lead to a concern by owners and
occupants;
- leakage of air or fluids through the crack: crack control is important in the design of liquid-
retaining structures;
- corrosion of reinforcement: traditionally corrosion of reinforcement has been related to crack
width, but more recent studies suggest that the factors governing the eventual development of
corrosion are independent of the crack width, although the period of time required for corrosion
to start is a function of crack width.


9-3 Does the beam shown in Fig. P9-3 satisfy the ACI Code crack control provisions
(Section 10.6.4)?

.
ACI Code Eq. (10-4) :
40, 000 40, 000
15 2.5 12
c
s s
s c
f f
| | | |
= s
| |
\ . \ .

using 1.5 in. (3/ 8) in. 1.875 in.
c
c = + =

2 2
60, 000 psi=40, 000 psi
3 3
s y
f f = = ,
(The value for
s
f can be also calculated as the stress in the reinforcement closest
to the tension face at service load based on the unfactored moment.)
So,
40, 000 40, 000
15 2.5 1.875 10.3 in.< 12 12 in. OK.
40, 000 40, 000
s
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .

From Fig. P9-3, bar spacing
( )
( )
1
3
12 2 1.5 1.128
8
2
2.37 in. < 10.3 in.
3
(
| |
+ +
| (
\ .

= =
Thus, the beam satisfies ACI Code Section 10.6.4.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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9-2
9-4 Compute the maximum spacing of No. 5 bars in a one-way slab with 1 in. of clear
cover that will satisfy the ACI Code crack-control provisions (Section 10.6.4).

.
ACI Code Eq. (10-4) :
40, 000 40, 000
15 2.5 12
c
s s
s c
f f
| | | |
= s
| |
\ . \ .

using 1.0 in..
c
c =

2 2
60, 000 psi=40, 000 psi
3 3
s y
f f = =
So,
40, 000 40, 000
15 2.5 1.0 12.5 in.> 12 12 in.
40, 000 40, 000
s
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .


Thus, the maximum spacing for the No. 5 bars that satisfies ACI Code Section 10.6.4 is 12 in.


9-5 and 9-6 For the cross sections shown in Figs. P9-5 and P9-6, compute:
(a) the gross moment of inertia,

;
(b) the location of the neutral axis of the cracked section and

; and
(c)

for

.
The beams have a 1.5 in. of clear cover and No. 3 stirrups. The concrete strength is
;

.

9-5 (a) the gross moment of inertia,

;
3
4
16 24
18432 in.
12
g
I

= = (ignoring the effect of reinforcement for simplicity)

(b) the location of the neutral axis of the cracked section and

;
The distance from the extreme tension edge of the section to the centroid of the lowest
layer of steel is
( ) ( )
1
3 8
1.5 in.+ in.+ in. 2.38 in.
8 8
2
| |
=
|
\ .
Assuming that the spacing between the
centers of the layers is 2 in., find:
Centroid =
( ) ( ) 4 0.79 2.38 2 0.79 4.38
3.05 in. above bottom
4.74
+
= and 20.95 in. d =
6
29 10 psi
8.04
57000 4000 psi
s
c
E
n
E

= = =
Transformed area of steel = ( )
2
8.04 6 0.79 38.11 in. =
Compute location of neutral axis
Let depth of neutral axis be c and sum moments about the neutral axis to zero.

Part Area, in.
2
y , in. Ay ,in.
3
Compression
zone
16c 2 c
2
8c
Tension steel 38.11 ( ) 20.95 c 38.11 798.4 c
2
8 38.11 798.4 0 and 7.89 in. Ay c c c = + = =
Thus, the neutral axis is 7.89 in. below the top of the beam
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9-3
Compute I
cr

Part Area, in.
2

y , in.
own
I
2
Ay ,in.
4

Compression
zone
126.2 3.94 654.9 1959.1
Tension steel 38.11 -13.06 6500

cr
I = 9114 in.
4

(c)

for


First calculate
n
M | for the beam:
4.74 60000
5.23 in.
1
'
0.85 4000 16
0.85
A f
s y
c
f b
c
o |

= = = =

and
5.23
6.15
0.85
c = = in.
20.95 6.15
0.003 0.00722 0.002 O.K.
6.15
d c
s cu
c
c c
| | | |
= = = >
| |
\ . \ .

and 0.005 0.90
t
c | > =
5.23
4.74 60000 20.95
2
5214 kips-in.
2 1000
a
M A f d
n s y
| |

|
| |
\ .
= = =
|
\ .

and 0.9 5214 4693 kips-in.
n
M | = =
Thus,

-

( )
4
7.5 4000 psi 18432 in.
728.6 kips-in.
lbs
12 in. 1000
kips
r g
cr
t
f I
M
y

= = =


So, using Eq. (9-10a) find

[ (

[ (




9-6 (a) the gross moment of inertia,

;

Part Area, in.
2
top
y , in.
top
Ay
own
I , in.
4
2
Ay ,in.
4
Web 288 12 3456 13824 2592
Flanges 144 3 432 432 5184
432 E = 3888 E =
g
I =
22032 in.
4

3888
9 in. 15 in.
432
top btm
y y = = =
4
22032 in.
g
I =



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9-4
(b) the location of the neutral axis of the cracked section and

;
6
29 10 psi
8.04
57000 4000 psi
s
c
E
n
E

= = =
Transformed area of steel = ( )
2
8.04 4 0.79 25.4 in. =
24 in. 2.5 in. 21.5 in. d = =

Assume that the neutral axis is less than 6 in.

Compute location of neutral axis.

Part Area, in.
2
y , in. Ay ,in.
3
Compression
zone
36c 2 c
2
18c
s
nA 25.4 ( ) 21.5 c 25.4 546 c
2
18 25.4 546 0 and 4.85 in. Ay c c c = + = =
Thus, the neutral axis is 4.85 in. below the top of the beam (i.e. the compression zone is
rectangular).

Compute I
cr

Part Area, in.
2

y , in.
own
I
2
Ay ,in.
4

Compression
zone
174.6 2.42 342 1022.5
s
nA 25.4 -16.65 7041

cr
I = 8405 in.
4

(c)

for


First calculate
n
M | for the beam:
3.16 60000
1.55 in.
1
'
0.85 4000 36
0.85
A f
s y
a c
f b
c
|

= = = =

and
1.55
1.82
0.85
c = = in.
The steel is yielding and it is a tension-controlled section ( ) 0.90 | = .
1.55
3.16 60000 21.5
2
3930 kips-in.
2 1000
a
M A f d
n s y
| |

|
| |
\ .
= = =
|
\ .

and 0.9 3930 3537 kips-in.
n
M | = =
Thus,

-
( )
4
7.5 4000 psi 22032 in.
697 kips-in.
lbs
15 in. 1000
kips
r g
cr
t
f I
M
y

= = =


So, using Eq. (9-10a) find

[ (

[ (


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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9-5
9-7 Why are deflections limited in design?

Deflections are limited for several reasons.

1. Deflections greater than 250

of the span are visible and may be unsightly.
2. Excessive deflections may cause cracking of partitions, malfunctioning of doors and windows
and similar damage to non-structural elements.
3. Excessive deflections may interfere with the use of the structure, particularly if the structure
supports machinery that must be carefully aligned.
4. Ponding of water on deflected roofs may overload the roofs.
5. Very large deflections may damage structural members and change the load path.


9-8 A simply supported beam with the cross section shown in Fig. P9-5 has a span of 25
ft and supports an unfactored dead load of 1.5 kips/ft, including its own self-weight
plus an unfactored live load of 1.5 kips/ft. The concrete strength is 4500 psi.
Compute
(a) the immediate dead load deflection.
(b) the immediate dead-plus-live load deflection.
(c) the deflection occurring after partitions are installed. Assume that the
partitions are installed one month after shoring for the beam is removed and
assume that 20 percent of the live load is sustained.

(a) the immediate dead load deflection.
From question 9-5 we found:
4
18432 in.
g
I = , 728.6 kips-in.
cr
M =
6
29 10 psi
7.58
57000 4500 psi
s
c
E
n
E

= = =
Transformed area of steel = ( )
2
7.58 6 0.79 35.93 in. =

Compute location of neutral axis

Let depth of neutral axis be c and sum moments about the neutral axis to zero.

Part Area, in.
2
y , in. Ay ,in.
3
Compression
zone
16c 2 c
2
8c
Tension steel 35.93 ( ) 20.95 c 35.93 752.7 c
2
8 35.93 752.7 0 and 7.71 in. Ay c c c = + = =
Thus, the neutral axis is 7.71 in. below the top of the beam

Compute I
cr

Part Area, in.
2

y , in.
own
I
2
Ay ,in.
4

Compression
zone
123.4 3.85 611 1829
Tension steel 35.93 -13.24 6298

cr
I = 8738 in.
4
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9-6
Unfactored dead load moment:
( ) ( )
2 2
1.5 kip ft 25 ft
117.2 kips-ft 1406 kips-in.
8
DL
M

= = =
Thus,
a cr
M M > cracked section and need to calculate
eff
I
3 3
3 3
4
728.6 728.6
1 18432 1 8738 10087 in.
1406 1406
cr cr
e g cr
a a
M M
I I I
M M
(
(
| | | |
| | | |
( = + = + = (
| |
| |
( \ . \ .
( \ . \ .




This is a simply supported beam with distributed loading, so using deflection Case 1 from Fig. 9-
13, the immediate dead load deflection can be calculated as:
( )
2
2
pos
iD
6
1406 1000 25 12
5 5
0.342 in.
48 48 3.824 10 10087
M
EI

A = = =



(b) the immediate dead-plus-live load deflection.
Unfactored dead plus live load moment:
( ) ( )
2 2
3.0 kip ft 25 ft
in.
12 2812 kips-in.
8 ft
D L
M
+

| |
= =
|
\ .

3 3
4
728.6 728.6
18432 1 8738 8907 in.
2812 2812
e
I
(
| | | |
= + = (
| |
\ . \ .
(


So using again the deflection Case 1 from Fig. 9-13, the immediate dead-plus-live-load deflection
can be calculated as:
( )
2
iD+L
6
2812 1000 25 12
5
0.774 in.
48 3.824 10 8907

A = =



(c) the deflection occurring after partitions are installed. Assume that the
partitions are installed one month after shoring for the beam is removed and
assume that 20 percent of the live load is sustained.
The deflection occurring after the partitions are installed can be calculated from Eq. (9-14):

( )
iL 0 iD iLS
, t

A = A + A + A

The immediate dead load deflection,
iD
A , was found from part (a) to be 0.342 in. However, after
the live load has been applied and the beam has cracked, the deflection due to dead load will be
increased by an amount equal to the ratio of the
e
I values used in part (a) and (b). Thus the
immediate dead load deflection on the structure which has been loaded to D+L will be calculated
and used in Eq. (9-14).

iD
10087
0.342 =0.387 in.
8907
A =

The immediate live load deflection,
iL
A , is found as:
iL i,L+D iD
0.774 in. 0.387 in. 0.387 in. A = A A = =
Twenty percent of this results from sustained live loads, so:
iLS
0.20 0.387 in. 0.077 in. A = =
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9-7
Since the beam has no compression reinforcement, and with the partitions installed 1 month after
removal of the shoring,





The deflection occurring after the partitions are installed is found as:



9-9 Repeat Problem 9-8 for the beam section in Fig. P9-6.

(a) the immediate dead load deflection.
From question 9-6 we found:

,
, and


The unfactored dead load moment:
( ) ( )
2 2
1.5 kip ft 25 ft
117.2 kips-ft 1406 kips-in.
8
DL
M

= = =
Thus,
a cr
M M > cracked section and need to calculate
eff
I

[ (

[ (


This is a simply supported beam with distributed loading, so using deflection Case 1 from Fig. 9-
13, the immediate dead load deflection can be calculated as:

( )




(b) the immediate dead-plus-live load deflection.
Unfactored dead plus live load moment:
( ) ( )
2 2
3.0 kip ft 25 ft
in.
12 2812 kips-in.
8 ft
D L
M
+

| |
= =
|
\ .

[ (


So using the deflection Case 1 from Fig. 9-13, the immediate dead-plus-live-load deflection can
be calculated as:

( )




(c) the deflection occurring after partitions are installed. Assume that the
partitions are installed one month after shoring for the beam is removed and
assume that 20 percent of the live load is sustained.
The deflection occurring after the partitions are installed can be calculated from Eq. (9-14):

( )
iL 0 iD iLS
, t

A = A + A + A

The immediate dead load deflection,
iD
A , was found from part (a) to be 0.342 in. However, after
the live load has been applied and the beam has cracked, the deflection due to dead load will be
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9-8
increased by an amount equal to the ratio of the
e
I values used in part (a) and (b). Thus the
immediate dead load deflection on the structure which has been loaded to D+L will be calculated
and used in Eq. (9-14).



The immediate live load deflection,
iL
A , is found as:



Twenty percent of this results from sustained live loads, so:



Since the beam has no compression reinforcement, and with the partitions installed 1 month after
removal of the shoring,





The deflection occurring after the partitions are installed is found as:



9-10 The beam shown in Fig. P9-10 is made of 4000-psi concrete and supports unfactored
dead and live loads of 1 kip/ft and 1.1 kips/ft. Compute:

(a) the immediate dead-load deflection.
Compute I
g
for the T-section (ignore the effect of the reinforcement for simplicity):

Assume flange width = effective flange width from ACI Code Section 8.12.2. = 72 in.
6
29 10 psi
8.04
57000 4000 psi
s
c
E
n
E

= = =

Part Area, in.
2
top
y , in.
top
Ay
own
I , in.
4
2
Ay ,in.
4
Web 240 10 2400 8000 4234
Flanges 360 3 1080 1080 2822
600 A=
3480 Ay =
g
I =
16136 in.
4
3480
5.8 in. 14.2 in.
600
top btm
y y = = =
Compute I
cr
at the left end:
The positive-moment reinforcement is not developed for compression at the support and will
therefore be neglected. The section is a rectangular section, with 3 No. 7 bars , 17.5 in. d ~ ,and
the following properties:
2 2
1.80 in. , 14.47 in.
1.80
0.0086, 0.069
12 17.5
s s
A nA
n
= =
= = =


Using Eq. (9-3): ( )
2
2 0.309 and 5.41 in. k n n n c kd = + = = =
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9-9
Part Area, in.
2

y , in.
own
I
2
Ay ,in.
4

Compression
zone
64.9 2.71 158 477
s
nA 14.47 ( ) 5.41 17.5 12.1 =
2119

cr
I = 2754 in.
4

Compute I
cr
at the right end:

2 2
3.16 in. , 25.41 in.
3.16
0.0150, 0.121
12 17.5
s s
A nA
n
= =
= = =



Using Eq. (9-3): ( )
2
2 0.386 and 6.75 in. k n n n c kd = + = = =

Part Area, in.
2

y , in.
own
I
2
Ay ,in.
4

Compression
zone
81 3.37 307.5 920
s
nA 25.41 ( ) 6.75 17.5 10.75 = 2936

cr
I = 4163 in.
4

Compute I
cr
at the midspan:

2 2
2.18 in. , 17.53 in.
s s
A nA = =

Assuming that c is less than 6 in.

Part Area, in.
2
y , in. Ay ,in.
3
Compression
zone
72c 2 c
2
36c
s
nA 17.53 ( ) 17.5 c 17.53 307 c

2
36 17.53 307 0 and 2.7 in. Ay c c c E = + = =


Part Area, in.
2

y , in.
own
I
2
Ay ,in.
4

Compression
zone
194 1.35 118 354
s
nA 17.53 ( ) 2.7 17.5 14.8 = 3840

cr
I = 4312 in.
4


The moment at the end and the midspan can be calculated using the ACI Moment Coefficients


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9-10
Unfactored dead load moments
Negative moment at left end =
( )
2
2 1
1 22.67 32.1 kips-ft
16 16
n
w
= =
Positive moment at midspan =
( )
2
2 1
1 22.67 36.7 kips-ft
14 14
n
w
= =
Negative moment at right end =
( )
2
2 1
1 22.67 51.4 kips-ft
10 10
n
w
= =

Cracking moments
7.5 4000 psi 474 psi
r
f = =
Ends:
474 16136
110 kips-ft
5.8 12, 000
cr
M

= =


Midspan:
474 16136
45 kips-ft
14.2 12, 000
cr
M

= =



Compute the average effective moment of inertia
for both ends and the midspan,
a cr
M M < and thus the sections are uncracked under dead loads
and
4
16136 in.
eff g
I I = =

Compute immediate dead-load deflection
This is an exterior beam span with a column as the exterior support. Therefore, the deflection can
be calculated using row 3 of Table 9-2, which requires a combination of Cases 2 and 8 from Fig.
9-13.
For deflection Case 2:
( )
( )
( )
4
4
6
1000
1 24 12
12
=0.0533 in.
185
185 3.6 10 16136
w
EI

A = =

(down)
For deflection Case 8:
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
6
32.1 12000 24 12
= 0.0343 in.
16
16 3.6 10 16136
M
EI

A = =

(up)
Thus,
iD
0.0533 0.0343 0.019 in. A = =

(b) the immediate dead-plus-live load deflection.
Unfactored dead plus live-load moments
Negative moment at left end =
( ) ( )
2
2 1
1 1.1 22.67 67.4 kips-ft
16 16
n
w
= + =
Positive moment at midspan =
( ) ( )
2
2 1
1 1.1 22.67 77.1 kips-ft
14 14
n
w
= + =
Negative moment at right end =
( ) ( )
2
2 1
1 1.1 22.67 107.9 kips-ft
10 10
n
w
= + =

Compute the average effective moment of inertia
left end:
a cr
M M <
4
16136 in.
e g
I I = =
midspan:
a cr
M M >
3 3
4
45 45
16136 1 4312 6663 in.
77.1 77.1
e
I
(
| | | |
= + = (
| |
\ . \ .
(


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9-11
right end:
a cr
M M <
4
16136 in.
e g
I I = =

Thus, the weighted average value of
eff
I using Eq. (9-11a) is:
4
( )
0.70 6663 0.30 16136 9505 in.
e avg
I = + =

Immediate plus live-load deflection
Using the same procedure as in part (a),
for deflection Case 2:
( )
( )
( )
4
4
6
1000
2.1 24 12
12
=0.190 in.
185
185 3.6 10 9505
w
EI

A = =

(down)
for deflection Case 8:
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
6
67.4 12000 24 12
= 0.122 in.
16
16 3.6 10 9505
M
EI

A = =

(up)
Thus,
iD+L
0.190 0.122 0.068 in. A = =

(c) the deflection occurring after partitions are installed. Assume that the
partitions are installed two months after the shoring is removed and
assumed that 15 percent of the live load is sustained.

The deflection occurring after the partitions are installed can be calculated from Eq. (9-14):
( )
iL 0 iD iLS
, t

A = A + A + A

The immediate dead load deflection,
iD
A , was found from part (a) to be 0.019 in. However, after
the live load has been applied and the beam has cracked, the deflection due to dead load will be
increased by an amount equal to the ratio of the
e
I values used in part (a) and (b). Thus the
immediate dead load deflection on the structure which has been loaded to D+L will be calculated
and used in Eq. (9-14).

iD
16136
0.019 =0.032 in.
9505
A =

The immediate live load deflection,
iL
A , is found as:
iL i,L+D iD
0.068 in. 0.032 in. 0.036 in. A = A A = =

Fifteen percent of this results from sustained live loads, so:



Since the beam has no compression reinforcement at midspan, and with the partitions installed 2
months after removal of the shoring,





The deflection occurring after the partitions are installed is found as:

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10-1
Chapter 10

10-1 A five-span one-way slab is supported on 12-in.-wide beam with center-to-center
spacing of 16 ft. The slab carries a superimposed dead load of 10 psf and a live load
of 60 psf. Using

and

, design the slab. Draw a cross


section showing the reinforcement. Use Fig. A-5 to locate the bar cut-off points.

slab design strip
Plan

12 in.
16 ft. 15 ft.
in.
12
ft
n
= =

Estimate slab thickness

Assume partitions are not sensitive to deflections. Will require recheck if sensitivity is
established later.

Table A-9:
End bay:
15 12
Min 7.50 in.
24 24
n
h

= = =
Interior bay:
15 12
Min 6.43 in.
28 28
n
h

= = =
Note that slab thickness was chosen on the basis of deflection control, since flexure and shear
probably wont govern the design (this will be checked later).

Try 7.0 in. h = (this may need to be checked for deflections in the end span).

Assuming a cover of 0.75 in. and No. 4 bars as the slab reinforcement,
( )
0.5
7.0 0.75 6.0 in.
2
d = + =

Compute factored loads

Considering a 1-ft wide strip of slab:
Slab self weight:
7.0
150 87.5 psf
12
Ds
w = =
Superimposed dead load: 10 psf
Di
w =
Total dead load: 87.5 10 97.5 psf
D
w = + =
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10-2
Live load:


Factored load:




Load per foot along design strip

3
L D
w w < , so we can use the ACI Moment coefficients for the calculation of the positive and the
negative moments.

Thickness for flexure

The maximum value for
u
M is at the first interior support since 15 ft.
n
= throughout. Using the
appropriate moment coefficient from ACI Code Section 8.3.3,

()


For a reinforcing ratio of 0.01 = , which is a reasonable upper limit for a slab, the reinforcing
index can be found from Eq. (5-21),
0.01 60000
0.15
4000
e

= =
From Eq. (5-22) calculate the flexural resistance factor, R.
( ) 0.15 4000 1 0.59 0.15 547 psi R = =
Using this value of R, the required value of
2
bd can be determined using Eq. (5-23a), assuming
that 0.9 | = (will check it later).


For ,


Therefore, the minimum d to keep 0.01 < is Actual 6 in. d = will be less
than 0.01 (O.K. for flexure).

Thickness for shear

The max shear
u
V is at the exterior face of the first interior support. Using the appropriate shear
coefficient from ACI Code Section 8.3.3,

) ( ) OK

So, use a 7 in. slab.

Flexural reinforcement

Max 4.8 kips-ft/ft
u
M =
Assuming that 0.95 and
2
s y
a
d d c c
| |
~ >
|
\ .
, find the required reinforcement for a 1-ft wide strip
of slab.


( )


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10-3

Iterate to find the depth of the compression stress block and recompute the value of the required
reinforcement:


Since the depth to the neutral axis, c, is less than3 8 of d , the section is tension controlled
( )
, 0.9
s y
c c | > = .

The minimum reinforcement required by ACI Code Section 10.5.4, is
2
,min
0.0018 0.0018 12 7 0.15 in. /ft
s
A bh = = =

The maximum spacing of the bars is, by ACI Code Section 7.6.5,
max
3 21 in.
18 in
h
s
=
=
`
)

Select No. 4 bars at 12 in.



Temperature and shrinkage steel as required by ACI Code Section 7.12.2,
2
,min
0.0018 0.15 in. /ft
s
A bh = = and
max
5 35 in.
18 in
h
s
=
=
`
)

So provide No. 4 bars at 16 in.
( )
2
2
0.2 in.
in.
12 0.15 in.
ft ft
16 in.
s
A
= =

The flexural reinforcement for the supports and the midspan for all the spans is calculated in the
following table.

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10-4
Calculation of reinforcement required in the slab.


1. ( ) ft.
n
15.0 15.0
2.
2
u n
w 47.9 47.9 47.9 47.9 47.9 47.9
3. Moment Coef. 1 24 1 14 1 10 1 11 1 16 1 11 1 16
4. ( ) kips-ft/ft
u
M 2.0 3.4 4.8 4.4 3.0 4.4 3.0
5.
( )
2
reqd. in. /ft
s
A 0.08 0.13 0.19 0.12 0.17 0.12
6.
( )
2
,min
in. /ft
s
A 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
7. Reinforcement
#4 @
16 in.
#4 @
16 in.
#4 @
12 in.
#4 @
16 in.
#4 @
12 in.
#4 @
16 in.
8.
( )
2
provided in. /ft
s
A

0.15 0.15 0.2 0.15 0.2 0.15

Fig. S10-1.1 shows a cross-section of the slab showing the reinforcement. The bar cut-off points
were located using Fig. A-5(c).



Fig. S10-1.1 Slab reinforcement detailing.
16
12
12
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10-5
10-2 A four-span one-way slab is supported on 12-in.-wide beams with center-to-center
spacing of 14, 16, 16, and 14 ft. The slab carries a superimposed dead load of 20 psf
and a live load of 100 psf. Design the slab, using

and

. Select bar cut-off points using Fig. A-5 and draw a cross-section
showing the reinforcement.


slab design strip
Plan


Short span clear length:
12 in.
14 ft. 13 ft.
in.
12
ft
n
= =
Long span clear length:
12 in.
16 ft. 15 ft.
in.
12
ft
n
= =
Average clear span length for first interior support:
( )
,
13 ft. 15 ft.
14 ft.
2
n avg
+
= =

Estimate slab thickness

Assume partitions are not sensitive to deflections. Will require recheck if sensitivity is established
later.

Table A-9:
End bay:
13 12
Min 6.50 in.
24 24
n
h

= = =
Interior bay:
15 12
Min 6.43 in.
28 28
n
h

= = =
Note that slab thickness is chosen on basis of deflection control, since flexure and shear probably
wont govern the design (will be checked later).

Try 6.5 in. h =

Assuming a cover of 0.75 in. and No. 4 bars as the slab reinforcement,
( )
0.5
6.5 0.75 5.5 in.
2
d = + =


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10-6
Compute factored loads

Considering a 1-ft wide strip of slab:
Slab self weight:
6.5
150 81.25 psf
12
Ds
w = =
Superimposed dead load: 20 psf
Di
w =
Total dead load: 81.25 20 101.25 psf
D
w = + =
Live load:


Factored load:


Load per foot along design strip =

3
L D
w w <
,
so we can use the ACI Moment coefficients for the calculation of the positive and the
negative moments (ACI Code Section 8.3.3).

Thickness for flexure

The maximum moment will occur at either:
(1) exterior face of the first interior support, or
(2) face of the middle support
For negative moments at the face of an interior support, ACI Code Section 8.0 defines
n
as the
average of the clear spans of the two adjacent spans. Using the appropriate moment coefficient
from ACI Code Section 8.3.3,

()

()



For a reinforcing ratio of 0.01 = , which is a reasonable upper limit for a slab, the reinforcing
index can be found from Eq. (5-21),
0.01 60000
0.171
3500
e

= =
From Eq. (5-22) calculate the flexural resistance factor, R.
( ) 0.171 3500 1 0.59 0.171 538 psi R = =
Using this value of R, the required value of
2
bd can be determined using Eq. (5-23a), assuming
that 0.9 | = (will check it later).


For ,


i.e., min d to keep 0.01 < is Actual 5.5 in. d = will be less than 0.01 (O.K. for
flexure).

Thickness for shear

The max shear
u
V will occur in one of the two locations discussed for the maximum moments.
Using the appropriate shear coefficient from ACI Code Section 8.3.3,
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10-7


( ) ( )
'
0.75 2 0.75 2 3500 12 5.5 5860 lbs/ft ok for shear
c c w
V f b d | = = =

Flexural reinforcement

Max

-

Assuming that 0.95 and
2
s y
a
d d c c
| |
~ >
|
\ .
, find the required reinforcement for a 1-ft wide strip
of slab.


( )



Iterate to find the depth of the compression stress block and recompute the value of the required
reinforcement:



Since the depth to the neutral axis, c, is less than3 8 of d , the section is tension controlled
( )
, 0.9
s y
c c | > = .

The minimum reinforcement required by ACI Code Section 10.5.4, is
2
,min
0.0018 0.0018 12 6.5 0.14 in. /ft
s
A bh = = =

The maximum spacing of the bars is, by ACI Code Section 7.6.5,
max
3 19.5 in.
18 in
h
s
=
=
`
)


Select No. 4 bars at 9 in.



Temperature and shrinkage steel as required by ACI Code Section 7.12.2,
2
,min
0.0018 0.14 in. /ft
s
A bh = = and
max
5 32.5 in.
18 in
h
s
=
=
`
)

So provide No. 4 bars at 16 in.
( )
2
2
0.2 in.
in.
12 0.15 in.
ft ft
16 in.
s
A
= =

The flexural reinforcement for the supports and the midspan for all the spans is calculated in the
following table.
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10-8
Calculation of reinforcement required in the slab.






1.
n
13.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 15.0 15.0
2. ( )
2
kips-ft
u n
w 47.7 47.7 55.3 63.5 63.5 63.5
3. Moment Coef. 1 24 1 14 1 10 1 11 1 16 1 11 1 16
4. ( ) kips-ft/ft
u
M 2.0 3.4 5.5 5.0 4.0 5.8 4.0
5.
( )
2
reqd. in. /ft
s
A 0.09 0.14 0.23 0.17 0.25 0.17
6.
( )
2
,min
in. /ft
s
A 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14
7. Reinforcement
#4 @
16 in.
#4 @
16 in.
#4 @
9 in.
#4 @
11 in.
#4 @
9 in.
#4 @
11 in.
8.
( )
2
provided in. /ft
s
A 0.15 0.15 0.27 0.18 0.27 0.18

Fig. S10-2.1 shows a cross-section of the slab showing the reinforcement. The bar cut-off points
were located using Fig. A-5(c).



Fig. S10-2.1 Slab reinforcement detailing.
16
9
11
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10-9
10-3 A three span continuous beam supports 6-in.-thick one-way slabs that span 20 ft
center-to-center of beams. The beams have clear spans, face-to-face of 16-in.-square
columns, of 27, 30, and 27 ft. The floor supports ceiling, ductwork, and lighting
fixtures weighing a total of 8 psf, ceramic floor tile weighting 16 psf, partitions
equivalent to a uniform deal load of 20 psf, and a live load of 100 psf. Design the
beam, using

. Use

for flexural reinforcement and

for shear reinforcement. Calculate cut-off points, extending all


reinforcement past points of inflection. Draw an elevation view of the beam and
enough cross-sections to summarize the design.




1. Compute the trial factored load on the beam

(a) Dead load

slab self-weight:
6 in.
150 pcf 75 psf
in.
12
ft.
=
ceiling, tile, partitions: 8 psf 16 psf 20 psf 44 psf + + =

The beam size is not known at this stage, so it must be estimated for preliminary design purposes.
Once the size of the beam has been established, the factored load will be corrected and then used
in subsequent calculations. The beam size will be estimated in step 2.

(b) Live Load

The ASCE/SEI 7-10 recommendations allow live-load reductions based on tributary area
multiplied by a live-load element factor, 2
LL
K = , to convert the tributary area to an influence
area.

- Positive moment at span AB and negative moment at exterior support, A.

2
15 ft. 27 ft. 405 ft.
T
A ~ =
15 15
0.25 100 0.25 100 0.777 77.7 psf > 0.5 100 psf
2 405
o
LL T
L L
K A
| |
| |
= + = + = = |
|
|

\ .
\ .

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10-10
Note that L shall not be less than 0.50
o
L for members supporting one floor (O.K.)

- Negative moment at interior support, B.

( )
2
15 ft. 27 30 ft. 855 ft.
T
A ~ + =
-
15 15
0.25 100 0.25 100 0.613 61.3 psf > 0.5 100 psf (O.K.)
2 855
o
LL T
L L
K A
| |
| |
= + = + = = |
|
|

\ .
\ .

Positive moment at span BC.
2
15 ft. 30 ft. 450 ft.
T
A ~ =
15 15
0.25 100 0.25 100 0.75 75.0 psf > 0.5 100 psf (O.K.)
2 450
o
LL T
L L
K A
| |
| |
= + = + = = |
|
|

\ .
\ .


The size of the beam will be chosen on the basis of negative moment at the first interior support.
For this location, the factored load on the beam, not including the beam stem below the slab, is:
( ) 1.2 75 44 1.6 61.3 241 psf
u
w = + + =

The tributary width for the beam is 15 ft and the factored load from the slab per foot of beam is
kips
lbs
241 psf 15 ft. 3, 615 3.6
ft ft
= =

Two approximate methods can be used to estimate the weight of the beam stem:
(a) the factored dead load of the stem is taken as 12 to 20 percent of the other factored loads
on the beam. This gives 0.43 to 0.72 kip/ft.

(b) the overall depth of beam h is taken to be 1/18 to 1/12 of the larger span, , and
w
b is
taken to be 0.5h . This gives the overall h as 20 to 30 in., with the stem extending 14 to 24 in.
below the slab, and gives
w
b as 10 to 15 in. The factored load of such sizes ranges from 0.17 to
0.45 kip/ft.

As a first trial, assume the factored weight of the stem to be 0.50 kip/ft. Then, total trial load per
foot 3.6 0.5 4.1 kip/ft = + =

2. Estimate the size of the beam stem

(a) Calculate the minimum depth based on deflections.

ACI Table 9.5(a) (Table A-9) gives the minimum depths, unless deflections are checked. For
partitions flexible enough to undergo some deflection, minimum depth for beam BC is
min
18.5
h = , where =the span center-to-center of supports
16 in.
27 ft 28.3 ft
in.
12
ft
= + =
Thus,
min
28.3 12
18.4 in.
18.5
h

= =

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10-11
(b) Determine the minimum depth based on the negative moment at the exterior face of the
first interior support.

The beam fits the requirements in ACI Code Section 8.3.3 and can use the moment and shear
coefficients. For the support at B,

( )
2
2
4.1 28.5
333 kips-ft
10 10
u n
u
w
M

= = =
where
27 ft 30 ft
28.5 ft
2
n
+
= = (the average of the two adjacent spans).

Using the procedure developed in Chapter 5 for the design of singly reinforced beam sections, the
reinforcement ratio that will result in a tension-controlled section can be estimated from
Eq. (5-18) as,
( )
'
1
0.825 4.5
initial 0.0155
4 4 60
c
y
f
f
|


~ = =


For this reinforcement ratio, use Eq. (5-21), to find the reinforcing index,
0.0155 60
0.207
4.5
e

= =
From Eq. (5-22) calculate the flexural resistance factor, R.
( ) 0.207 4500 1 0.59 0.207 818 psi R = =
Using this value of R, the required value of
2
bd can be determined using Eq. (5-23a), assuming
that 0.9 | = (will check it later).
2 3
333
12, 000 5430 in.
0.9 818
bd > =


Since columns are 16 in., try a 14 or 16 in. wide stem. Lets try 14 in. b =
Then,
5428
19.7 in. 21.5 in.
14
d d = = =
With one layer of steel at supports, 21.5 2.5 24 in. h ~ + = (O.K. for deflections).
So, try a 14-in. wide-by-24-in. beam.

(c) Check the shear capacity of the beam

Maximum shear is at the exterior face at support B,
,max
1.15 1.15 4.1 27
63.6 kips
2 2
u n
u
w
V

= = =
From ACI Code Section 11.2.1.1,
( )
'
1
2 2 1 4500 14 21.5 40.4 kips
1000
c c w
V f b d = = =
ACI Code Section 11.4.7.9 sets the maximum nominal
s
V is
( )
'
1
8 8 4500 14 21.5 162 kips
1000
s c w
V f b d = = =

Thus, ( ) 0.75 40.4 161 151 kips
n
V | = + = (O.K. for shear)


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10-12
(d) Summary

Use : ( )
14 in.
24 in. 18 in. below slab
21.5 in.,assuming one layer of steel
b
h
d
=
=
=


3. Compute the dead load of the stem, and recompute the total load per foot.

Weight per foot of the stem below slab
18 14
0.15 0.26 kip/ft
144

= =
Corrected total factored load for 1
st
internal support moment: ( ) 3.6 1.2 0.26 3.9 kip/ft = + =
Since this is less that the 4.1 kip/ft used earlier to estimate the beam size, the section chosen will
be adequate.

Factored Total dead load:
( )
1
1.2 119 15 0.26 2.5 kips/ft
1000
D
w = + =

Factored total loads:

(a) Positive moment at span AB and negative moment at exterior support, A.
( )
1
2.5 1.6 77.7 15 4.4 kips/ft
1000
u
w = + =
(b) Negative moment at interior support, B.
( )
1
2.5 1.6 61.3 15 4.0 kips/ft
1000
u
w = + =
(c) Positive moment at span BC.
( )
1
2.5 1.6 75.0 15 4.3 kips/ft
1000
u
w = + =

4. Calculate the beam flange width for positive-moment regions

From ACI Code Section 8.12.2,

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
0.25 based on the shorter span for simplicity 0.25 27 12 in. 81 in.
2 8 6 14 2 8 6 110 in.
15 12 180 in.
n
e w
b b
| | = =
|
s + = + =
|
|
=
\ .


Therefore, the effective flange width is 81 in. and shown in Fig. S10-3.1

Fig. S10-3.1 Beam cross-section


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10-13
5. Can we use the ACI Code Moment Coefficients?

- Ratio of successive spans = 30 ft. / 27 ft. = 1.11<1.20 O.K. ;
-
Live load/ft 0.1 15
0.6 3.0 O.K.
Dead load/ft 2.5

= = < ;
- There are more than two spans;
- The loads are uniformly distributed.

Thus, we can use the ACI Code Moment Coefficients

6. Compute the beam moments









, ft.
n
27.0 27.0 28.5 30.0
, kip/ft.
u
w 4.4 4.4 4.0 4.3
2
, kips-ft
u n
w 3210 3210 3250 3870
m
C
1
16

1
14

1 1
and
10 11

1
16

2
, kips-ft
u m u n
M C w = -200 230 -325 242


7. Design the flexural reinforcement

(a) Max negative moment (first interior support)
Max
_
,max
325 kips-ft
u
M =
Because the beam acts as a rectangular beam with compression in the web, we can assume that
0.90
2
a
d d
| |
~
|
\ .
.For and =0.9
s y
c c | > , the required reinforcement for that section is,
( )
2
12, 000 325 12, 000
3.73 in.
0.90 60, 000 0.90 21.5
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |

~ = =
| |

|
\ .


Iterate to find the depth of the compression stress block and recompute the value of the required
reinforcement:
'
3.73 60000
4.18
4.18 in., 5.07 in.
0.825
0.85 4500 14 0.85
s y
c
A f
a c
f b

= = = = =


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10-14
Since the depth to the neutral axis, c, is less than 3 8 of d , clearly the section is tension
controlled
( )
, 0.9
s y
c c | > = , and
2
,
325 12, 000
3.72 in.
4.18
0.90 60, 000 21.5
2
s red
A

= =
| |

|
\ .

The other negative moment sections have a lower design moment, so it will be conservative to
use the ratio of
s
u
A
M
obtained here to quickly determine the area of tension steel required at
those other locations. That ratio is

( )
2
2
3.72 in.
0.0114 in. /kips-ft (eq. A)
325 kips-ft
s
u
A
M
= =

(b) Max positive moment
Max
,max
242 kips-ft
u
M
+
=

Because the beam acts as a T-shape beam with compression in the top flange, assume that the
compression zone is rectangular, i.e. 6 in.
f
a h < = , use 0.95
2
a
d d
| |
~
|
\ .
.For and =0.9
s y
c c | > ,
the required reinforcement that section is,

( )
2
12, 000 242 12, 000
2.63 in.
0.90 60, 000 0.95 21.5
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |

~ = =
| |

|
\ .


Iterate to find the depth of the compression stress block and recompute the value of the required
reinforcement:
'
2.63 60000
0.51
0.51 in., 0.62 in.
0.825
0.85 4500 81 0.85
s y
c e
A f
a c
f b

= = = = =


The section is tension controlled
( )
, 0.9
s y
c c | > = , and doing one iteration for the negative
moment section results in
2
2.53 in.
s
A =

The other positive moment section has a lower design moment, so it will be conservative to use
the ratio of
s
u
A
M
obtained here to quickly determine the area of tension steel required at those
other locations. That ratio is

( )
2
2
2.53 in.
0.0104 in. /kips-ft (eq. B)
242 kips-ft
s
u
A
M
= =





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10-15
(c) Calculate the minimum reinforcement

From ACI Code Section 10.5.1,
'
,min
3
200
and
c
w
s w
y y
f
b d
A b d
f f
= > .
For 4500 psi concrete,
'
3 201 psi
c
f = , thus
2
,min
3 4500
14 21.5=1.0 in.
60, 000
s
A =

(d) Calculate the area of steel and select the bars.

The remaining calculations are done in the following table.

, kips-ft
u
M -200 230 -325 242
s
A coef. Eq. A and B 0.0114 0.0104 0.0114 0.0104
2
( .)
,in.
s red
A 2.28 2.39 3.70 2.52
.min s s
A A > Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bars selected 4 No. 7 4 No. 7
2 No. 8 and
4 No. 7
3 No. 7 and
2 No.6
s
A provided,
2
in. 2.40 2.40 3.98 2.68
( )
min
14 in.
w
b b = >
Yes Yes


Note that in the negative moment regions some of the bars can be placed in the slab besides the
beam and it is not necessary to check whether they will fit into the web width.

8. Check the distribution of the reinforcement

(a) Positive moment region

From ACI Code Section 10.6.4, the maximum bar spacing is
40, 000 40, 000
15 2.5 12
c
s s
s c
f f
| | | |
= s
| |
\ . \ .
, where
2
40,000 psi and 1.5 in. cover 0.375 in. stirrups 1.875 in.
3
s y c
f f c = = = + =
Thus, 15 2.5 1.875 10.3 in. 12 in. s = = s

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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10-16
Bar spacing
( )
7
14 2 1.5 0.375
8
3.1 in. <10.3 in. OK.
3
(
+ +

= =

It was also clear that the bar spacing is smaller than 10.3 in., since there are four bars and
14 in.
w
b =


(b) Negative moment region

ACI Code Section 10.6.6 says part of the negative moment steel shall be distributed over a
width equal to the smaller of the effective flange width (81 in.) and 10 34.2 in.
n
= At the
interior supports, there are 6 top bars. Place the two No. 8 bars at the corners of the stirrups, two
No. 7 bars over the beam web, and the other two No. 7 bars in the slab. Within a width of 34.2
in. we must place six bars. These cannot be further apart than 10.3 in. (as calculated in part a).
We shall arbitrarily place two bars at 5 in. outside the web of the beam.
ACI Code Section 10.6.6 requires some longitudinal reinforcement in the slab outside this
band. We shall assume that the shrinkage and temperature steel in the slab will satisfy this
requirement.

9. Design the shear reinforcement

The shear force diagrams are calculated in the following table and shown at the bottom of the
table. The shear coefficients for the supports are from ACI Code Section 8.3.3 and the coefficient
fro the midspan of the beam is based on Eq. (6-26).






, ft
n
27 30
, kips/ft
u
w 4.4 4.3
, kips/ft
Lu
w 1.9 1.8
v
C at support and
midpsan
1.0 0.125 1.15 1.0 0.125 1.0
2
u n
w 59.4 59.4 64.5 64.5
Lu n
w 51.3 54
, kips
u
V 59.4 6.4 68.3 64.5 6.7 64.5
n u
V V | = 79.2 8.5 91.1 86.0 8.9 86.0







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10-17
(a) Exterior end of beam AB

Because the beam is supported by a column, the critical section is located at d away from the face
of the support.

Equation for
u
V | : ( ) ( ) kips 5.24 ft 79.2
u
V x | = +
( )
21.5 in.
@ from A 5.24 79.2 69.8 kips
in.
12
ft
u
V d |
| |
|
= + =
|
\ .

( )
1
2 1 4500 14 21.5 40.4 kips
1000
c
V = = , 20.2 kips
2
c
V
=
Because 69.8 kips
u
V
|
= exceeds 20.2 kips
2
c
V
= , stirrups are required.
Try No. 3 Grade 40 stirrups double-leg stirrups with a 90
o
hook
( )
2
2 0.11 0.22 in.
v
A = =
- Max spacing:
'
4
u
c c w
V
V f b d
|
s and from ACI Code Section 11.4.5.1,
max
10.75 in.
10.75 in.
2
24 in.
d
s
| |
=
|
s
|
|
\ .


- To satisfy the minimum stirrup requirement in ACI Code Section 11.4.6.3, the stirrup spacing
must be,
max
0.22 40, 000
12.6 in.
50 50 14
v yt
w
A f
s
b

s = =


Note that 0.75 4500 50.3 psi > 50 psi, so use 50 psi in ACI Code Eq. (11-13) = .

Thus, use 10.5 in. as maximum stirrup spacing.


- The spacing required to support the shear force at the support is,
( ) 0.22 40 21.5
6.45 in.-say 6 in. on centers
69.8 40.4
s

= =



We can change the stirrup spacing to 10.5 in. when
0.22 40 21.5
40.4 58.4 kips
10.5
u
V


= + =
This occurs at about 4 ft from face of support A.
We can stop the stirrups when 11.3 ft
2
u c
V V
x

= = from face of support A.


Place the first stirrup at 3 in. from support A, then 9 stirrups at 6 in. and 9 stirrups at 10.5 in.






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10-18
(b) Interior end of beam AB

Equation for
u
V | : ( ) ( ) kips 6.12 ft 91.1
u
V x | = +
( )
21.5 in.
@ from B 6.12 91.1 80.1 kips > ,stirrups required
in.
2
12
ft
c
u
V
V d |
| |
|
= + =
|
\ .

The spacing required to at this point is,
( ) 0.22 40 21.5
4.8 in.-say 4.5 in. on centers
80.1 40.4
s

= =


Change the stirrup spacing to 10.5 in. when 58.4 kips
u
V

= .
This occurs at 5.3 ft from face of support B.
We can stop the stirrups at 11.6 ft from face of support B.

Place the first stirrup at 2 in. from support B, then 15 stirrups at 4.5 in. and 9 stirrups at 10.5 in.

(c) Ends of beam BC

Equation for
u
V | : ( ) ( ) kips 5.14 ft 86.0
u
V x | = +
( )
21.5 in.
@ from C 5.14 86 76.8 kips > ,stirrups required
in.
2
12
ft
c
u
V
V d |
| |
|
= + =
|
\ .

The spacing required to at this point is,
( ) 0.22 40 21.5
5.2 in.-say 5.0 in. on centers
76.8 40.4
s

= =


Change the stirrup spacing to 10.5 in. when 58.4 kips
u
V

= .
This occurs at 5.4 ft from face of support.
We can stop the stirrups at 12.8 ft from face of support.

Place the first stirrup at 2.5 in. from support B, then 14 stirrups at 4.5 in. and 9 stirrups at 10.5 in.


10. Bar cutoffs

(a) Detailing requirements:
21.5 in.
12 12 in. for No. 8 bar
20.25 in. for 27 ft span, 22.5 in. for 30 ft span
16
b
n
d
d
=
=
=

Thus, d exceeds 12 and
16
n
b
d for AB span, while
16
n
governs for span BC.

The bottom and top bars have clear spacing and cover of at least
b
d and are enclosed by at least
minimum stirrups. Therefore, this is Case 1 in Table 8-1 (ACI Code Section 12.2.2).

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10-19
'
33.5 in. for No. 6
60, 000 1.0 1.0
44.7 39.1 in. for No. 7
20 1 4500
20
44.7 in. for No. 8
y t e
b
d b b
c
f
d
d d
f



= = =
`


)

(b) Cutoffs for bottom steel

Span AB
4 No. 7-Extend 2 full length into each support, cut off the other two at the positive moment point
of inflection so that extra stirrups are not required.

Exterior end: From Fig. A-2, inflection point at ( ) 0.10 27 12 32.4 in. = from face of column.
Rule 3-a - Extend 21.5 in. d = past the flexural cutoff point, i.e. 32.4 in.-21.5 in = 10.9 in. from
face of column at A. Say 10 in.
Rule 4-a - Distance from midspan to cutoff point greater than
d
.
Rule 1-b - This is an interior beam with open stirrups. Since this is a discontinuous end use 90
deg. standard hooks on 2 No. 7 bars.
Rule 4-d At the inflection point, the remaining steel is two No. 7,
2
1.2 in.
s
A = Thus,
1.2 60
1.57 in.
0.85 4.5 12
a

= =


1.57
1.2 60 21.5 =1490 kip-in=124 kip-ft
2
n
M
| |
=
|
\ .

The shear at 32.4 in. from the exterior end is,
32.4
5.24 79.2 65 kips
12
u
V
| |
= + =
|
\ .

21.5 in.
a
=
Thus,
1490
21.5 44.4 in.
65
n
a
u
M
V
+ = + =
This exceeds
d
- therefore, OK.

Interior end: From Fig. A-2, inflection point at ( ) 0.104 27 12 33.7 in. = from face of column
Rule 3-a - Extend bars to 33.7 in.- 21.5 in. = 12.2 in. from face of column. Use 10 in. to match
other end.
Rule 4-a - Satisfied
Rule 1-b - This is an interior beam with open stirrups. Rule 1-b applies. Lap splice 2#7 bars from
the exterior span with 2 No. 7 bars from the interior span with a Class A tension lap splice
1.0 39.1 in. 3 ft - 2 in. = =
Rule 4-d
1490 kip-in=124 kip-ft
n
M =
The shear at 33.7 in. from the exterior end is,
33.7
6.12 91.1 73.9 kips
12
u
V
| |
= + =
|
\ .

21.5 in.
a
=
Thus,
1490
21.5 41.7 in.
73.9
n
a
u
M
V
+ = + =
This exceeds
d
- therefore, OK.
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10-20
Span BC
2 No. 8 and 3 No. 7 at midspan Extend 2 No. 7 into supports. Cutoff 2 No. 8 and 1 No. 7 bars at
the positive moment point of inflection so that extra stirrups are not required. Inflection point at
( ) 0.146 30 12 52.6 in. = from face of column
Rule 3-a - Extend 22.5 in.
16
n
= past the flexural cutoff point, i.e. 52.6 in.-22.5 in. = 30.1 in.
from face of column. Say 30 in.
Rule 4-a - Satisfied.
Rule 1-b Lap splice 2#7 bars 3 ft - 2 in at support
Rule 4-d
2650 kip-in=221 kip-ft
n
M =
The shear at 52.6 in. from the exterior end is,
52.6
5.14 86 63.5 kips
12
u
V
| |
= + =
|
\ .

21.5 in.
a
=
Thus,
2650
21.5 63.3 in.
63.5
n
a
u
M
V
+ = + =
This exceeds
d
- therefore, OK.

Cutoffs for top steel
Span AB, exterior end, 4 No. 7
Use standard hook, ( )
0.02 1.0 60, 000
0.75 13.4 in.
1.0 4500
dh

= =


Set tail cover = 2 in., then 0.7 13.4 9.4 in.
dh
= = . This is OK in a 16 in. column.
Negative moment point of inflection at ( ) 0.164 27 12 53.1 in. =
Rule 3-b - Extend d to 53.1+21.5 = 74.6 in. Cutoff at 75 in. = 6 ft-3 in. from face of column.
Rule 4-b - Since 75 in. > 39.1 in. Rule 2 is satisfied.

Span AB, interior end, 2 No. 8 and 4 No. 7 bars
Point of inflection at ( ) 0.24 27 12 77.8 in. =
Rule 3-b - Extend d to 77.8+21.5 = 99.3 in. Say 8 ft.-4 in. from face of column
Rule 4-b Since 100 in. > 44.7 in. Rule 2 is satisfied.

Span BC, 2 No. 8 and 4 No. 7 bars
Negative moment point of inflection at ( ) 0.24 30 12 86.4 in. =
Rule 3-b Extend to 108.9 in. Say 9 ft- 1 in, from face of column
Rule 4-b OK

Since all cutoffs are past points of inflection, they are not in zones of flexural tension, therefore
extra stirrups are not needed.

Provide 2 No. 4 top bars as stirrup support, lab splice with negative moment steel.
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10-21

















Fig. S10-3.2 Beam reinforcing detailing.
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10-22
10-4 Repeat Problem 10-3, but cut off up to 50 percent of the negative- and positive-
moment bars in each span where they are no longer required.

Bat cutoff for positive moment steel in AB span

Flexural reinforcement: 4#7 bars

Extend two bars full length and into each support, cutoff the other two where they no longer
required ( ) 50% of
u
M .
From Fig. A-2, flexural cutoff point is at ( ) 0.21 0.21 27 12 68 in.
n
= = from exterior end
(support A), and ( ) 0.22 0.22 27 12 71 in.
n
= = from interior end (support B).

Rule 3-a: Extend 21.5 in. d = past the flexural cutoff point
68 in. 21.5 in. 46.5 in. = from exterior end
71 in. 21.5 in. 49.5 in. = from interior end

Rule 4-a: Distance between midspan to cutoff point =

46.5 115.5
13.5 12 in. in. in.
49.5 112.5

= =
` `
) )


d
for #7 bar
115.5
39.1 in. in.
112.5

= <
`
)

Bar cutoff for negative moment steel

Flexural reinforcement: 2#8 and 4#7 bars

AB span, interior end
From Fig. A-2, flexural cutoff point is at ( ) 0.104 0.104 27 12 34 in.
n
= =
Rule 3-b: Extend 21.5 in. d = past the flexural cutoff point
34 in.+ 21.5 in. 55.5 in. =
Rule 4-b:
d
for #7 top bar 39.1 in.< 55.5 in. =
Therefore, use 55.5 in. for cutoff point.

BC span
From Fig. A-1, flexural cutoff point is at ( ) 0.1 0.1 30 12 36 in.
n
= =
Rule 3-b: Extend 22.5 in. d = past the flexural cutoff point
36 in.+ 22.5 in. 58.5 in. =
Rule 4-b:
d
for #7 top bar 39.1 in.< 58.5 in. =
Therefore, use 58.5 in. for cutoff point.


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any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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11-1
Chapter 11

11-1 The column shown in Fig. P11-1 is made of 4000 psi concrete and Grade-60 steel.

a) Compute the theoretical capacity of the column for pure axial load.

First compute the gross area of the section, and the area of steel in the column.

2
18 in 18 in 324 in
g
A = =

2 2
6 6 1.0 in 6 in
st b
A A = = =
Now we can compute the theoretical capacity of the column.

( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 324 in 6 in 60 ksi 6 in 1440 k
o c g st y st
P f A A f A = + = + =

b) Compute the maximum permissible
n
P | for the column.


,max
0.80 0.80 0.65 1440 k 749 k
n o
P P | | = = =
Note that the factors 0.80 and 0.65 would change to 0.85 and 0.75 for spiral columns.


11-2 Why does a spiral improve the behavior of a column?

As any column is loaded, and thus shortened, the concrete will expand laterally. When this
expansion occurs, transverse reinforcement is engaged and will tend to react against any further
expansion of the concrete within the core. This results in a state of tri-axial compression within the
core of the column, which significantly improves both strength and ductility.
The circular spiral is much more effective than tied reinforcement at confining this
expansion for two reasons. First, spirals are often spaced more closely together than tied stirrups,
so the confinement is more uniformly applied to the core. Second, the confinement stresses are
transformed directly into hoop stresses in the spiral, which is a much more efficient mechanism for
reacting to the cores expansion than the straight legs of tied stirrups can provide (see section 11-2).


11-3 Why are tension splices required in some columns?

Even when columns are subjected to axial loads, reinforcing bars can still often be stressed
in tension when moments are concurrently applied to the section. When this is the case, tension
splices (either Class A or Class B) are required for those bars expected to be resisting tension.
However, since it is most practical from a construction standpoint to use the same length of lap
splices on all bars within a section, all splices should be specified as tension splices when some of
the bars are expected to be in tension.









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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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11-2

11-4 Compute the balanced axial load and moment capacity of the column shown in
Fig. P11-1. Use

and

.

Assume bending around an axis parallel to the two layers of steel. To calculate the
balanced point of the interaction diagram, set the extreme compression fiber strain to 0.003
c
c = and
the extreme steel tensile strain to / 60 ksi / 29,000 ksi 0.00207
y y
f E c = = = .

Begin by calculating the depth of the compression zone:

c
c y
c d
c
c c
=



( )
0.003 1.128 in
18 in 1.5 in 0.375 in
0.003 0.00207 2
c
| |
=
|

\ .

9.21 in c =

1
0.85 9.21 in 7.83 in a c | = = =
Now calculate the strain and stress in each layer of steel:

1
0.00207
s
c =

1
60 ksi
s
f =
Fig. S11-3

( )
2
9.21 in 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2
'
0.003 0.00221
9.21 in
s c
c d
c
c c
+ +

= = =

2
2
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00221 64.1 ksi
s
s
f
Ec

=

= =



Calculate the force in the concrete and in each layer of steel:
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 7.83 in 18 in 479 k
c c
C f ab = = =

2
1 1 1
3 in 60 ksi 180 k
s s s
F A f = = =
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
0.85 ' 3 in 60 ksi 0.85 4 ksi 170 k
s s s c
F A f f = = =

Now we can calculate the nominal axial load and moment at the balanced point:

2 1
479 k 170 k 180 k 469 k
n c s s
P C F F = + + = + =

1 2
'
2 2 2 2
n c s s
h a h h
M C F d F d
| | | | | |
= + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .


18 in 7.83 in 18 in 18 in
479 k 180 k 15.56 in 170 k 2.44 in
2 2 2 2
n
M
| | | | | |
= +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

4730 k-in 394 k-ft
n
M = =

And, since
1 s y
c c = , the section is compression controlled, and 0.65 | = .
0.65 469 k 305 k
n
P | = =
0.65 394 k-ft 256 k-ft
n
M | = =


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11-3
11-5 For the column shown in Fig. P11-5, use a strain-compatibility solution to compute
five points on the interaction diagram corresponding to points 1 to 5 in Fig. 11-22.
Plot the interaction diagram. Use

and

.

Begin by calculating the depth and area of each layer of steel, and other constants.

1
18 in 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2 15.56 in d = =

2 2
1
3 3 1.0 in 3.0 in
b
A A = = =

2
/ 2 18 in / 2 9.0 in d h = = =
2 2
2
2 2 1.0 in 2.0 in
b
A A = = =

3
1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2 2.44 in d = + + =
2 2
3
3 3 1.0 in 3.0 in
b
A A = = =

2
18 in 18 in 324 in
g
A hb = = =
2 2
8 8 1.0 in 8.0 in
st b
A A = = =

1
0.80 | =

Point 1: Pure Axial Load:

2 2 2
0.85 ' ( ) 0.85 5 ksi (324 in 8 in ) 60 ksi 8 in 1830 k
o c g st y st
P f A A f A = + = + =
Note that this 0.85 is k
3
, not
1
.
Since the column is compression controlled, 0.65 | = .
0.65 1830 k 1190 k
n
P | = =

,max
0.80 0.65 1830 k 949 k
n
P | = =
0.65 0 k-ft 0 k-ft
n
M | = =

Point 2: Zero tension on one face:
Begin by calculating the depth of the compression zone:
18 in c h = =

1
0.80 18 in 14.4 in a c | = = =

Now calculate the strain and stress in each layer of steel:

1
1
18 in 15.56 in
0.003 0.00041
18 in
s c
c d
c
c c

= = =

1
1
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00041 11.9 ksi
s
s
f
Ec

=

= =



2
2
18 in 9 in
0.003 0.00150
18 in
s c
c d
c
c c

= = =

2
2
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00150 43.5 ksi
s
s
f
Ec

=

= =



3
3
18 in 2.44 in
0.003 0.00259
18 in
s c
c d
c
c c

= = =

3
3
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00259 75.1 ksi
s
s
f
Ec

=

= =



Calculate the force in the concrete and in each layer of steel:
0.85 ' 0.85 5 ksi 14.4 in 18 in 1100 k
c c
C f ab = = =
( ) ( )
2
1 1 1
0.85 ' 3 in 11.9 ksi 0.85 5 ksi 23.0 k
s s s c
F A f f = = =
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11-4
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
0.85 ' 2 in 43.5 ksi 0.85 5 ksi 78.5 k
s s s c
F A f f = = =
and, since
3
d a > ,

2
3 3 3
3 in 60 ksi 180 k
s s s
F A f = = =

Now we can calculate the nominal axial load and moment:

1 2 3
1100 k 23.0 k 78.5 k 180 k 1380 k
n c s s s
P C F F F = + + + = + + + =

1 1 2 2 1 3
2 2 2 2 2
n c s s s
h a h h h
M C F d F d F d
| | | | | | | |
= + + +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

( ) ( ) ( )
14.4 in
1100 k 9 in 23.0 k 9 in 15.56 in 78.5 k 9 in 9 in 180 k 9 in 2.44 in
2
n
M
| |
= + + +
|
\ .
3010 k-in 251 k-ft
n
M = =
And, since
1 s
c is in compression, the section is compression controlled, and 0.65 | = .
0.65 1380 k 897 k
n
P | = =
0.65 251 k-ft 163 k-ft
n
M | = =

Point 3: Balanced Point:
Begin by calculating the depth of the compression zone:

( )
1
0.003
15.56 in 9.21 in
0.003 0.00207
c
c y
c d
c
c c
= = =



1
0.80 9.21 in 7.37 in a c | = = =

Now calculate the strain and stress in each layer of steel:

1
1
9.21 in 15.56 in
0.003 0.00207
9.21 in
s c
c d
c
c c

= = =

1
1
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00207 60 ksi
s
s
f
Ec

=

= =



2
2
9.21 in 9 in
0.003 0.00007
9.21 in
s c
c d
c
c c

= = =

2
2
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00007 1.98 ksi
s
s
f
Ec

=

= =



3
3
9.21 in 2.44 in
0.003 0.00221
9.21 in
s c
c d
c
c c

= = =

3
3
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00221 64.1 ksi
s
s
f
Ec

=

= =



Calculate the force in the concrete and in each layer of steel:
0.85 ' 0.85 5 ksi 7.37 in 18 in 564 k
c c
C f ab = = =

2
1 1 1
3 in 60 ksi 180 k
s s s
F A f = = =
and, since
2
d a > ,

2
2 2 2
2 in 1.98 ksi 3.96 k
s s s
F A f = = =
( ) ( )
2
3 3 3
0.85 ' 3 in 60 ksi 0.85 5 ksi 167 k
s s s c
F A f f = = =

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
11-5
Now we can calculate the nominal axial load and moment at the balanced point.

1 2 3
564 k 180 k 3.96 k 167 k 555 k
n c s s s
P C F F F = + + + = + + =

1 1 2 2 1 3
2 2 2 2 2
n c s s s
h a h h h
M C F d F d F d
| | | | | | | |
= + + +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

( ) ( ) ( )
7.37 in
564 k 9 in 180 k 9 in 15.56 in 3.96 k 9 in 9 in 167 k 9 in 2.44 in
2
n
M
| |
= + +
|
\ .
5280 k-in 440 k-ft
n
M = =

And, since
1 s y
c c = , the section is compression controlled, and 0.65 | = .
0.65 546 k 355 k
n
P | = =
0.65 440 k-ft 286 k-ft
n
M | = =

Point 4: Tension control limit
Begin by calculating the depth of the compression zone:

( )
1
1
0.003
15.56 in 5.84 in
0.003 0.005
c
c s
c d
c
c c
= = =



1
0.80 5.84 in 4.67 in a c | = = =

Now calculate the strain and stress in each layer of steel:

1
1
5.84 in 15.56 in
0.003 0.00500
5.84 in
s c
c d
c
c c

= = =

1
1
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00500 145 ksi
s
s
f
Ec

=

= =



2
2
5.84 in 9 in
0.003 0.00162
5.84 in
s c
c d
c
c c

= = =

2
2
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00162 47.1 ksi
s
s
f
Ec

=

= =



3
3
5.84 in 2.44 in
0.003 0.00175
5.84 in
s c
c d
c
c c

= = =

2
2
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00175 50.8 ksi
s
s
f
Ec

=

= =



Calculate the force in the concrete and in each layer of steel:
0.85 ' 0.85 5 ksi 4.67 in 18 in 357 k
c c
C f ab = = =

2
1 1 1
3 in 60 ksi 180 k
s s s
F A f = = =

2
2 2 2
2 in 47.1 ksi 94.2 k
s s s
F A f = = =
( ) ( )
2
3 3 3
0.85 ' 3 in 50.8 ksi 0.85 5 ksi 140 k
s s s c
F A f f = = =

Now we can calculate the nominal axial load and moment at the balanced point.

1 2 3
357 k 180 k 94.2 k 140 k 223 k
n c s s s
P C F F F = + + + = + =

1 1 2 2 1 3
2 2 2 2 2
n c s s s
h a h h h
M C F d F d F d
| | | | | | | |
= + + +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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11-6
( ) ( ) ( )
4.67 in
357 k 9 in 180 k 9 in 15.56 in 94.2 k 9 in 9 in 140 k 9 in 2.44 in
2
n
M
| |
= +
|
\ .
4480 k-in 373 k-ft
n
M = =

And, since
1
0.005
s
c = , the section is tension controlled, and 0.9 | = .
0.9 223 k 201 k
n
P | = =
0.9 373 k-ft 336 k-ft
n
M | = =

Point 5: Pure Tension

2
8in 60 ksi 480 k
n st y
P A f = = =
0 k-ft
n
M =

And, since the section is in pure tension, it is tension controlled, and 0.9 | = .
0.9 480 k 432 k
n
P | = =
0.9 0 k-ft 0 k-ft
n
M | = =

Fig. S11-4











-500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
0 100 200 300 400 500
A
x
i
a
l

L
o
a
d

(
k
i
p
)

Moment (k-ft)
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
11-7
11-6 Use the interaction diagrams in Appendix A to compute the maximum moment, M
u
,
that can be supported by the column shown in Fig. P11-1 if (Use

and

):

(a) P
u
= 583 kips.

Calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams:

2
6 1.0 in
0.0185
18 in 18 in
st
g
g
A
A


= = =



( ) ( ) 18 in 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2
'
0.729
18 in
d d
h

+ +

= = =

583 k
1.80 ksi
18 in 18 in
n u
P P
bh bh
|
= = =



Now go to the interaction diagrams:
From Fig. A-7a:
2
0.46 ksi
n
M
bh
|
= for 0.60 =
From Fig. A-7b:
2
0.50 ksi
n
M
bh
|
= for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.729 = ,
2
0.49 ksi
n
M
bh
|
=

Finally, we can compute the maximum moment carried by this section:
( )
2
2
0.49 0.49 18 in 18 in 2860 k-in 238 k-ft
u n
M M bh | = = = = =

(b) P
u
= 130 kips.

Calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams:

2
6 1.0 in
0.0185
18 in 18 in
st
g
g
A
A


= = =



( ) ( ) 18 in 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2
'
0.729
18 in
d d
h

+ +

= = =

130 k
0.40 ksi
18 in 18 in
n u
P P
bh bh
|
= = =



Now go to the interaction diagrams:
From Fig. A-7a:
2
0.48 ksi
n
M
bh
|
= for 0.60 =
From Fig. A-7b:
2
0.55 ksi
n
M
bh
|
= for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.729 = ,
2
0.54 ksi
n
M
bh
|
=

Finally, we can compute the maximum moment carried by this section:
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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11-8
( )
2
2
0.54 0.54 18 in 18 in 3150 k-in 262 k-ft
u n
M M bh | = = = = =
(c) e= 4 in.

Calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams:

2
6 1.0 in
0.0185
18 in 18 in
st
g
g
A
A


= = =


( ) ( ) 18 in 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2
'
0.729
18 in
d d
h

+ +

= = =

4 in
0.222
18 in
e
h
= =

Now go to the interaction diagrams:
From Fig. A-7a:
2
0.42 ksi
n
M
bh
|
= for 0.60 =
From Fig. A-7b:
2
0.44 ksi
n
M
bh
|
= for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.729 = ,
2
0.44 ksi
n
M
bh
|
=

Finally, we can compute the maximum moment carried by this section:
( )
2
2
0.44 0.44 18 in 18 in 2570 k-in 214 k-ft
u n
M M bh | = = = = =


11-7 Use the interaction diagrams in Appendix A to select tied-column cross sections to
support the loads given in the accompanying list. In each case, use

and

. Design the ties and calculate the required splice lengths, assuming
that the bars extending up from the column below are the same diameter as in the
column you have designed. Draw a typical cross section of the column showing the
bars and ties.

(a) P
u
= 390 kips, M
u
= 220 k-ft, square column with bars in two faces.

First estimate the size of the section required. For the first iteration, assume 0.02
g
= .

( )
( )
2
,
390 k
188 in 13.7 in 13.7 in
0.40 4 ksi 60 ksi 0.02 0.40 '
u
g trial
c y g
P
A
f f
> = = =
+ +

So try a 14 in square column, assuming #3 stirrups and #8 bars.

Then calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select
an appropriate reinforcement ratio:

( ) 14 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.66
14 in

+ +
= =

390 k
1.99 ksi
14 in 14 in
n u
P P
bh bh
|
= = =


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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11-9

( )
2 2 2
220 k-ft 12 in/ft
0.962 ksi
14 in 14 in
n u
M M
bh bh
|
= = =


From Figs. A-6a and A-6b, the section would require

, so a larger section is
required.
Therefore, we will try a square column with 18 in sides. Re-calculate the parameters required to
use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select an appropriate reinforcement ratio:

( ) 18 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.736
18 in

+ +
= =

390 k
1.20 ksi
18 in 18 in
n u
P P
bh bh
|
= = =



( )
2 2 2
220 k-ft 12 in/ft
0.453 ksi
18 in 18 in
n u
M M
bh bh
|
= = =


From Fig. A-6a: 0.021
g
= for 0.60 =
From Fig. A-6b: 0.016
g
= for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.736 = , 0.017
g
=

Finally, we can compute the area of steel required to reinforce this section:

2
,
0.017 0.017 18 in 18 in 5.51 in
s required
A bh = = =

Now select the bars:

2
8#8 bars 6.32 in = fits in an 18 in section

2
10#7 bars 6.00 in = fits in an 18 in section

2
14#6 bars 6.16 in = fits in an 18 in section
Select #7 bars, placing 5 along the top and bottom faces.

As indicated on the interaction diagrams, 0.5
s y
f f > in the extreme tensile layer of steel. Therefore,
Class B tension splices are required. From Table A-13, the splice length must be 54 in.

As transverse reinforcement we are permitted to use #3 bars since the longitudinal bars are not
larger than #10s. Now select the vertical spacing of the ties:

16 16 0.875 in 14 in
48 48 0.375 in 18 in
min( , ) min(18 in,18 in) 18 in
b
bt
d
s d
b h
= =

s = =

= =


Select #3 stirrups spaced at 14 in o.c.

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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11-10

Fig. S11-7a

(b) P
u
= 710 kips, M
u
= 50 k-ft, square column with bars in four faces.

First estimate the size of the section required. For the first iteration, set 0.02
g
= :

( )
( )
2
,
710 k
341 in 18.5 in 18.5 in
0.40 4 ksi 60 ksi 0.02 0.40 '
u
g trial
c y g
P
A
f f
> = = =
+ +

So try a 20 in square column, assuming #3 stirrups and #8 bars.

Then calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select
an appropriate reinforcement ratio:

( ) 20 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.76
20 in

+ +
= =

710 k
1.78 ksi
20 in 20 in
n u
P P
bh bh
|
= = =



( )
2 2 2
50 k-ft 12 in/ft
0.075 ksi
20 in 20 in
n u
M M
bh bh
|
= = =


From Figs. A-9a and A-9b, the section would require 0.01
g
, so a smaller section
would be desirable. Try a square column with 18 in sides.

Re-calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select
an appropriate reinforcement ratio:

( ) 18 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.736
18 in

+ +
= =

710
2.19 ksi
18 in 18 in
n u
P P k
bh bh
|
= = =



( )
2 2 2
50 k-ft 12 in/ft
0.103 ksi
18 in 18 in
n u
M M
bh bh
|
= = =


From Fig. A-9a: 0.016
g
= for 0.60 =
From Fig. A-9b: 0.015
g
= for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.736 = , 0.015
g
=

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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11-11
Finally, we can compute the area of steel required to reinforce this section:

2
,
0.015 0.015 18 in 18 in 4.86 in
s required
A bh = = =

Now select the bars:

2
12#6 bars 5.28 in = fits in an 18 in. section
Select #6 bars, placing 4 along each face.

From the interaction diagrams, the extreme tensile layer of steel is under compression. Therefore,
from Table A-13, a splice of length 0.83 23 in 19.1 in 20 in = ~ is required.




As transverse reinforcement, we have selected #3 bars since the longitudinal bars are not larger
than #10 bars. Now select the vertical spacing of the ties:

16 16 0.75 in 12 in
48 48 0.375 in 18 in
min( , ) min(18 in,18 in) 18 in
b
bt
d
s d
b h
= =

s = =

= =



Select #3 stirrups spaced at 12 in o.c.

Fig. S11-7b



(c) P
u
= 200 kips, M
u
= 240 k-ft, square column with bars in four faces.

First estimate the size of the section required. For the first iteration, set 0.02
g
= :

( )



However, since the moment is relatively high, try a 16 in square column, assuming #3
stirrups and #8 bars.

Then calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select
an appropriate reinforcement ratio:
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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11-12

( ) 16 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.70
16 in

+ +
= =





( )
2 2 2
240 k-ft 12 in/ft
0.70 ksi
16 in 16 in
n u
M M
bh bh
|
= = =


From Figs. A-9a and A-9b, the section would require a very high

, so a larger section is
required. Try a square column with 18 in sides.

Re-calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select
an appropriate reinforcement ratio:

( ) 18 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.736
18 in

+ +
= =



( )
2 2 2
240 k-ft 12 in/ft
0.49 ksi
18 in 18 in
n u
M M
bh bh
|
= = =


From A-9a:

for 0.60 =
From A-9b:

for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.736 = ,



Finally, we can compute the area of steel required to reinforce this section:



Now select the bars:

2
8#8 bars 6.32 in = fits in an 18 in section
Select #8 bars, placing 3 along the each face.

From the interaction diagrams, 0.5
s y
f f > in the extreme tensile layer of steel. Therefore, Class B
tension splices are required. From Table A-13, the splice length must be 62 in.

As transverse reinforcement, we have selected #3 bars since the longitudinal bars are not larger
than #10 bars. Now select the vertical spacing of the ties:

16 16 1.00 in 16 in
48 48 0.375 in 18 in
min( , ) min(18 in,18 in) 18 in
b
bt
d
s d
b h
= =

s = =

= =



So we must use #3 stirrups spaced at 16 in o.c.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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11-13

Fig. S11-7c






11-8 Use the interaction diagrams in Appendix A to select spiral-column cross sections to
support the loads given in the accompanying list. In each case, use

and

. Design the spirals and calculate the required splice lengths. Draw a
typical cross section of the column showing the bars and spiral.

(a) P
u
= 600 kips, M
u
= 65 k-ft.

First estimate the size of the section required. For the first iteration, set 0.02
g
= .

( )
( )
2
,
600 k
194 in 15.7 in dia.
0.50 5 ksi 60 ksi 0.02 0.50 '
u
g trial
c y g
P
A
f f
> = = =
+ +

Try a 16 in diameter column, assuming #3 spiral and #8 bars.

Then calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select
an appropriate reinforcement ratio:

( ) 16 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.703
16 in

+ +
= =

2
600 k
2.99 ksi
201 in
n u
g g
P P
A A
|
= = =

2
65 k-ft 12 in/ft
0.243 ksi
16 in 201 in
n u
g g
M M
hA hA
|
= = =


From Fig. A-13a: 0.015
g
= for 0.60 =
From Fig. A-13b: 0.012
g
= for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.703 = , 0.013
g
=

Finally, we can compute the area of steel required to reinforce this section:
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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11-14

( )
2
2
2
,
16 in
0.013 0.013 2.61 in
4 4
s required
d
A t t = = =

Now select the bars:

2
6#6 bars 2.64 in =
Select #6 bars, spaced evenly around the column.

From the interaction diagrams, the extreme tensile layer of steel is under compression. Therefore,
from Table A-13, a splice of length 0.75 23 in 17.3 in 18 in = ~ is required.

As transverse reinforcement, we have selected a #3 spiral since the longitudinal bars are not larger
than #10 bars. Now select the pitch of the spiral:
( )
2
2
2 2
3 in
0.375 in 60 ksi
1.81 in
0.45 ' / 1 0.45 13 in 5 ksi 201 in / 134 in 1
sp yt
c c g ch
d f s
D f A A
t t

s

= =

( (



Use a 16 in diameter column reinforced with 6 #6 bars. Use 18 in lap splices, and #3
spirals with a pitch of 1.75 in as transverse reinforcement.

(b) P
u
= 200 kips, M
u
= 150 k-ft.

First estimate the size of the section required. For the first iteration, set 0.02
g
= :

( )


Since there is also a moment applied, try an 18 in diameter column, assuming #3 spiral and
#8 bars.

Then calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select
an appropriate reinforcement ratio:

( ) 18 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.736
18 in

+ +
= =

2
200
0.79 ksi
18
2
n u
g g
P P
A A
|
t
= = =
| |
|
\ .

2
150 k-ft 12 in/ft
0.394 ksi
18 in 254 in
n u
g g
M M
hA hA
|
= = =


From Fig. A-13a: 0.016
g
= for 0.60 =
From Fig. A-13b: 0.012
g
= for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.74 = , 0.012
g
=

Finally, we can compute the area of steel required to reinforce this section:

( )
2
2
2
,
18 in
0.012 0.012 3.05 in
4 4
s required
d
A t t = = =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
11-15

Now select the bars:

2
8#6 bars 3.52 in =

2
6#7 bars 3.6 in =
Select #6 bars, spaced evenly around the column.

From the interaction diagrams, the extreme tensile layer of steel is in tension, but only requires a
Class A splice as long as not all of the bars are spliced at the same location. Since, in reality, it is
likely that all bars will be spliced in the same plane, specify a Class B splice regardless. Therefore,
from Table A-13, a splice of length33 in is required.

As transverse reinforcement, we have selected a #3 spiral since the longitudinal bars are not larger
than #10 bars. Now select the pitch of the spiral:
( )
2
2
2 2
3 in
0.375 in 60 ksi
1.81 in
0.45 ' / 1 0.45 15 in 5 ksi 254 in / 177 in 1
sp yt
c c g ch
d f s
D f A A
t t

s

= =

( (



Use an 18 in diameter column reinforced with 8 #6 bars. Use 33 in lap splices, and #3 spirals with
a pitch of 1.75 in as transverse reinforcement.


11-9 Design a cross section and reinforcement to supports P
u
= 450 kips, M
ux
= 100 k-ft,
and M
uy
= 130 k-ft. Use

and

.

Although the strain compatibility method (shown in example 11-5) is the most
theoretically correct method for designing columns for biaxial loading, it is seldom used in design.
Here we will use two more common methods for designing a column, the equivalent eccentricity
method and the Bresler reciprocal load method. Any method outlined in section 11-7 is
appropriate for the solution to this problem.

Equivalent eccentricity method:
First select the dimensions of the trial section, assuming 0.015 = :

( )
( )
2
,
450 k
230 in 15.2 in by 15.2 in
0.40 4 ksi 60 ksi 0.015 0.40 '
u
g trial
c y g
P
A
f f
> = = =
+ +

Since biaxial moments are also applied to the section, select an 18 in square section.
Assuming
#
3 ties and
#
9 bars:

( ) 18 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.56 in
0.73
18 in

+ +
= =

Now compute e
x
, e
y
, and e
ox
.

130 k-ft 12 in/ft
3.47 in
450 k
uy
x
u
M
e
P

= = =

100 k-ft 12 in/ft
2.67 in
450 k
ux
y
u
M
e
P

= = =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
11-16
Since our trial section is square,
y
x
x y
e
e
>

( )
2
450 k
0.347 0.4
'
4 ksi 18 in
u
c g
P
f A
= = <



40, 000 psi
0.5
' 100, 000 psi
y
u
c g
f
P
f A
o
| | + | |
= + |
|
|
\ .
\ .


( )
2
450 k 60, 000 psi 40, 000 psi
0.5 0.847
100, 000 psi
4 ksi 18 in
o
| |
| | +
| = + =
|
|
\ .
\ .


0.847 2.67 in 18 in
3.47 in 5.73 in
18 in
y x
ox x
y
e
e e
o

= + = + =

Therefore, we can design our column for:
450 k
u
P = , and
450 k 5.73 in 2580 k-in 215 k-ft
oy u ox
M Pe = = = =
Now use the interaction diagrams in Appendix A to determine
g
.

2
450 k
1.39 ksi
324 in
n u
g g
P P
A A
|
= = =

2
2580 k-in
0.442 ksi
18 in 324 in
oy
n
g g
M
M
hA hA
|
= = =


Since 0.73 0.75 = ~ we can use Fig A-9b without interpolating for this design.
So use 0.023
g
=
Finally, we can compute the area of steel required to reinforce this section, and select the bars:

2 2
0.023 324 in 7.45 in
st g g
A A = = =
Select 8 #9 bars, with 3 bars along each face. Select ties and splice lengths as appropriate.

We can check this solution using the Bresler reciprocal load method. Remember that we have an
18 in square column reinforced with 8 #9 bars.

2
2
8 in
0.0247
324 in
st
g
g
A
A
= = =

( ) 18 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.56 in
0.73
18 in

+ +
= =
Compute
nx
P | , the factored load capacity corresponding to and
x g
e .

130 k-ft 12 in/ft
3.47 in
450 k
uy
x
u
M
e
P

= = = , and
3.47 in
0.193
18 in
x
x
e
= = .
From Fig. A-9b, 1.9 ksi
nx
P
bh
|
=
Therefore 616 k
nx
P | =
Compute
ny
P | , the factored load capacity corresponding to and
y g
e .
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
11-17

100 k-ft 12 in/ft
2.67 in
450 k
ux
y
u
M
e
P

= = = , and
2.67 in
0.148
18 in
x
x
e
= = .
From Fig. A-9b, 2.2 ksi
nx
P
bh
|
=
Therefore 713 k
ny
P | =
From equ. 11-7 calculate
no
P :
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 2
3
' 0.85 4 ksi 324 in 8 in 60 ksi 8 in 1560 k
no c g st y st
P k f A A f A = + = + =

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
616 k 713 k 0.65 1560 k
u n nx ny no
P P P P P | | | |
> = + = +


490 k
u
P s , so our section is sufficient for the loading defined here.
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12-1

Chapter 12

12-1 A hinged end column 18-ft tall supports unfactored loads of 100 kips dead load and
60 kips live load. These loads are applied at an eccentricity of 3 in. at bottom and 5
in. at the top. Both eccentricities are on the same side of the centerline of the
column. Design a tied column with at least three bars per face using


and

.

Factored loads and moments

1.2 100 kips +1.6 60 kips 216 kips
u
P = =



1 2
/ 0.6 M M = + (Note that the column is bent in single curvature)

Estimate column size
Assume 0.015
g
=
( )
( )
2 u
P 216 kips
(trial ) = 110 in.
0.4 4 ksi + 60 ksi 0.015 0.4
g
c y g
A
f f
= =
' +

Choose a column cross section of 12 in. x 12 in.

Check whether the column is slender
1.0 (18 12) in.
60
(0.3 12 in.)
u
k
r

= =


1
2
34 12 34 12 0.6 26.8
M
M
| |
= =
|
\ .

60
u
k
r
= >
1
2
34 12 26.8
M
M
| |
=
|
\ .

The column is quite slender, increase column size to 16 in. x 16 in.

Are moments greater than the minimum?
( )
2,min 2
(0.6 0.03h) =216 kips 0.6 in. 0.03 16 in. 233 k-in. <
u
M P M = + + =

2
use M

Compute EI
0.4
1
c g
d
E I
EI
|
=
+

3
57,000 4000 3605 10 psi
c
E = =
( )
4
4
16 in.
5460 in.
12
g
I = =
factored dead load 1.2 100 kips
0.56
all factored load 216 kips
d
|

= = =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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12-2

( )
3 4
9 2
0.4 3605 10 psi 5460 in.
5.05 10 lb-in.
1 0.56
EI

= =
+


Magnified moment
2 c ns
M M o =
1.0
1
m
ns
u
c
C
P
P
o
|
= >


1
2
0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.84
m
M
C
M
= + = + =
( )
( )
( )
2 9 2
2
3
2 2
2
5.05 10 lb-in.
1070 10 lb =1070 kips
1.0 18 12 in.
c
EI
P
k
t
t

= = =
(


0.84
1.15
216 kips
1
0.75 1070 kips
ns
o = =



Select reinforcement
Assume # 8 bars for longitudinal reinforcement, # 3 bars for the ties, and a clear concrete
cover of 1.5 in.
16 in. 2 1.5 in. 2 0.375 in. 1 in.
0.70
16 in.


= =
2
216 kips
0.84 ksi
(16 in.)
n u
P P
bh bh
|
= = =


Assume E-type reinforcement
Fig.A-9a shows


Fig.A-9b shows

. Use

.
2
0.01 2.56 in.
st g
A A = =
Use 6 bars # 6
( )
2
2.64 in.
st
A = for the column of 16 in. 16 in.


12-2 Repeat Problem 12-1, but with the top eccentricity to the right of the centerline and
the bottom eccentricity to the left.

Factored loads and moments
216 kips
u
P =



1 2
/ 0.6 M M = (Note that the column is bent in double curvature)


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
12-3

Estimate column size
Assume 0.015
g
=
2
110 in.
g
A =
Choose a column cross section of 14 in. x 14 in.

Check if the column is slender
1.0 (18 12) in.
51.4
(0.3 14 in.)
u
k
r

= =


1
2
34 12 34 12 ( 0.6) 41.2 40 (40 governs)
M
M
| |
= = s
|
\ .

51.4
u
k
r
= >
1
2
34 12 40
M
M
| |
=
|
\ .

The column is slender.

Are moments greater than the minimum?
( )
2,min 2
(0.6 0.03h) =216 kips 0.6 in. 0.03 14 in. 220 k-in. <
u
M P M = + + =

2
use M

Compute EI
0.4
1
c g
d
E I
EI
|
=
+

3
3605 10 psi
c
E =
( )
4
4
14 in.
3200 in.
12
g
I = =
0.56
d
| =
( )
3 4
9 2
0.4 3605 10 psi 3200 in.
2.96 10 lb-in.
1 0.56
EI

= =
+


Magnified moment

2 c ns
M M o =
1.0
1
m
ns
u
c
C
P
P
o
|
= >


1
2
0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 ( 0.6) 0.36
m
M
C
M
= + = + =
( )
( )
( )
2 9 2
2
3
2 2
2
2.96 10 lb-in.
P 626 10 lb =626 kips
1.0 18 12 in.
cr
EI
k
t
t

= = =
(


0.36
0.67 1, use 1
216 kips
1
0.75 626 kips
ns ns
o o = = < =


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
12-4

Select reinforcement
Assume
#
8 bars for longitudinal reinforcement,
#
3 bars for ties, and a clear concrete
cover of 1.5 in.
14 in. 2 1.5 in. 2 0.375 in. 1 in.
0.66
14 in.


= =

2
216 kips
1.10 ksi
(14 in.)
n u
P P
bh bh
|
= = =



Assume R-type reinforcement
Fig.A-9a shows


Fig.A-9b shows


Use 8
#
6 bars (

) for the column of 14 in. 14 in.




12-3 Figure P12-3 shows an exterior column in a multistory frame. The dimensions are
center-to-center of the joints. The beams are 12 in. wide by 18 in. in over-all depth.
The floor slab is 6 in. thick. The building includes a service core which resists the
majority of the lateral loads. Use
c
f ' = 5000 psi and
y
f = 60,000 psi. The loads and
moments on column AB are:

Factored dead load:
Axial force = 260 kips
Moment at top = 60 kip-ft
Moment at bottom = -80 kip-ft

Factored live load:
Axial force = 200 kips
Moment at top = 50 kip-ft
Moment at bottom = -75 kip-ft

Design column A-B using a square cross section with at least three bars per face.

Since the building has a service core which resists the majority of the lateral loads, the
frame is braced, or non-sway.

Factored loads and moments


The column is in double curvature.


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12-5

C
A
B
D
22 ft
12 ft
24 ft
12 ft

Fig. P12-3


Estimate column size
Assume 0.015
g
=

( )


Choose a column cross section of 16 in. x 16 in.

Check if the column is slender
From Table 12-2, 0.90 k ~
( ) 24 12 in. 18 in. 270 in.
u
= =
0.9 270 in.
50.6
(0.3 16 in.)
u
k
r

= =

) ()
50.6
u
k
r
= > 42.5
Column is slender.

Are moments greater than the minimum?

( ) ( )


2
use M
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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12-6

Compute k
Assume the columns CA and BD also have a cross section of 16 in. x 16 in.
( ) ( )
( )
4
4
16 in.
column 0.7 column 0.7 3820 in.
12
g
I I = = =
( ) ( )
( )
3
4
12 in. 18 in.
beam 0.35 (beam) 0.35 2 0.7 4080 in.
12
g web
I I I

= = = =

( )
3820
26.5
12 12
c
c
c
CA
E EI
E
| |
= =
|

\ .


( )
3820
13.3
12 24
c
c
c
AB
E EI
E
| |
= =
|

\ .

( )
4080
15.5
12 22
b
beams
c
c
E EI
E
| |
= = |
|

\ .

( ) ( )
26.5 13.3
top joint 2.57 bottom joint
15.5
c c
c
E E
E

+
= = =
From nomograph, read 0.87 k =

Compute EI
2.5(1 )
c g
d
E I
EI
|
=
+

3
57,000 5000 4030 10 psi
c
E = =
4
5460 in.
g
I =
260
0.57
460
d
| = =
3 4
9 2
4030 10 psi 5460 in.
5.61 10 lb-in.
2.5 (1 0.57)
EI

= =
+


Magnified moment
2 c ns
M M o =
1.0
1
m
ns
u
c
C
P
P
o
|
= >


1
2
0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 ( 0.71) 0.32
m
M
C
M
= + = + =
( )
( )
| |
2 9 2
2
3
2 2
5.61 10 lb-in.
1000 10 lb =1000 kips
0.87 270 in.
c
u
EI
P
k
t
t

= = =

0.32
0.83 1, use 1
460 kips
1
0.75 1000 kips
ns ns
o o = = < =


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
12-7

Select reinforcement
Assume # 8 bars for longitudinal reinforcement, # 3 bars for ties, and a clear concrete
cover of 1.5 in.
16 in. 2 1.5 in. 2 0.375 in. 1 in.
0.70
16 in.


= =



Assume E-type reinforcement
Fig. A-10a yields


Fig. A-10b yields


Use 8 #8 bars (

) for the column of 16 in. 16 in.




12-4 Use the ACI moment-magnifier method to redesign the columns in the main floor of
Example 12-3 assuming that the floor-to-floor height of the first story is 16 ft 0 in.
rather than 18 ft 0 in. Also, assume the lateral wind forces are 15 percent larger
than those used in Example 12-3.

The floor plan and elevation is shown in Fig. S12-1

The following design shall be performed for a typical interior frame, for instance the fram
along line 2. The design of the columns will follow the following steps:

A. Calculate loads
B. Calculate the beam and column properties and modulus of elasticity
C. Select preliminary column size
D. Check with gravity load case
E. Check with gravity plus wind load case
F. Finalize the design of column reinforcement

A. Calculate loads for a typical interior frame

Dead load from roof
Distributed loads on beams

( )
3 2 3
2 2
18 in. 24 in.
6 in.
0.150 k/ft 0.025 k/ft 10 0.150 k/ft
12 in/ft 144 in /ft
1.45 k/ft
DL

(
= + +
(

=

Distributed load on girders (beams supporting other beams)
2 2
18 in. 18 in. 30 in
0.025 0.150 0.6 k/ft
12 in./ft 144 in /ft
DL
| | | |
= + =
| |
\ . \ .

Concentrated on the interior columns

)
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12-8





A B C D
1
2
3
4
5
6
32' 30' 32'
20'
20'
20'
20'
20'
11' 6"
11' 6"
11' 6"
11' 6"
11' 6"
16' 0"
Roof
5
th
floor
4
th
floor
3
th
floor
2
th
floor
Ground
floor
Slab thickness: 6"; Column size: 18" x 18"; Beam size: 18" x 30"
a) Plan
b) Section 1-1
1 1
N

Fig. S12-1


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12-9

Concentrated on the exterior columns

)

Dead load from other floors
Distributed loads on beams

( )
3 2 3
2 2
18 in. 24 in.
6 in.
0.150 k/ft 0.020 k/ft 10 0.150 k/ft
12 in/ft 144 in /ft
1.40 k/ft
DL

(
= + +
(

=

Distributed load on girders (beams supporting other beams)
2 2
18 in. 18 in. 30 in
0.020 0.150 0.593 k/ft
12 in./ft 144 in /ft
DL
| | | |
= + =
| |
\ . \ .


Concentrated on the interior columns

)

Concentrated on the exterior columns

)

For each column of 11.5 ft, a weight of 3.88 kips is added for the column self-weight.
For each column of 16.0 ft, a weight of 5.40 kips is added for the column self-weight.


Live load from roof
Concentrated live load on the interior columns
(

)
Concentrated live load on the exterior columns
(

)


Live load from other floors
Concentrated live load on the interior columns
(

)
Concentrated live load on the exterior columns
(

)


B. Calculate the beam and column properties and modulus of elasticity
Column:
2
18 in. 18 in. 324 in. A= =
( )
4
4
18 in.
0.7 0.7 6120 in
12
c g
I I = = =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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12-10

Beam:
Effective flange width
18 in. 8 6 in. 66 in. + =
2
6 66 18 24 828 in A= + =
( )
( )
3
4
18 in. 30 in.
0.7 beam-web 0.7 28350 in.
12
b g
I I

= = =
Note that the selection of rigid end zones follows Example 12-3.
Modulus of elasticity
3
57000 4000 3600 10 psi E = =


C. Select preliminary column size

Columns are sized based on the gravity load ( ) 1.2 1.6 0.5
r
D L L + + . In this load combination, live
load can be reduced. From separate analyses of dead load, live load from the roof floor, and live
load from the other floors, the axial loads of the columns in the ground floor are shown in the
Table P12-1.

The axial load in the exterior column from the live load from the other floors then can be reduced
with a reduction factor as follows:
( )
15
0.25 0.46
4 4 16.75 20
+ =



The axial load in the interior column from the live load from the other floors then can be reduced
with a reduction factor as follows:
( )
15
0.25 0.40
4 4 31 20
+ =



The calculation of reduced axial live load and factored load is shown in Table P12-1.

Table P12-1
All unit are in kips
Exterior
column
Interior
column
Dead load 285 487
Live load from the roof floor 10.0 18.5
Live load from the other floors 107 198
Reduced live load from the other floors 48.8 79.2
Total factored load 425 720


Assume 0.015
g
=

Exterior column

()

( )


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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12-11

Interior column

()

( )



Based on the result of Example 12-3, select a column cross section of 18 in. 18 in.

(
2
324 in.
g
A = ) for both exterior and interior columns.

D. Check with gravity load case 1.2 1.6 0.5
r
D L L + +

1. Is the story being designed sway or non-sway? In order to answer this question, we need
to calculate the stability index
u oh
us c
P
Q
V
E A
=

.In order to have the terms from the same


analysis, we need to analyze a frame with an arbitrary lateral load of 20 kips applied at
the 2
nd
floor level in conjunction with the factored dead load and live load as shown in
Fig. S12-2. In order to take into account the live load reduction, an average of live load
reduction factor for exterior and interior columns (0.43) is multiplied with the live load
factor 1.6, yielding 0.69. Therefore, the load combination used is:
1.2 0.69 0.5 20 k lateral load
r
D L L + + + .

A structural analysis gives the following results:

0.127 in.
oh
A =

414 722 723 418 2277 kips
u
P E = + + + =

16 ft 192 in.
c
= =


2277 kips 0.127 in.
0.075 0.05
20 kips 192 in.
Q

= = >



The first story is a sway story.
Note that the 2277 kips
u
P E = does not differ significantly from

( )

2. Are the columns slender?
1.2 (192 30) in.
36 22
(0.3 18 in.)
u
k
r

= = >


The columns are slender.

3. Compute the factored axial loads and moments from a first-order frame analysis. As
explained in Example 12-3, the unfactored moments for exterior columns can be
determined based on the live load pattern shown in Fig. S12-3 while those for interior
columns based on the live load pattern shown Fig. S12-4. After a structural analysis is
made, live load reduction factors will be applied. All results and calculation are shown in
Table P12-2.

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
12-12

Factored dead load and live load plus arbitrary lateral load to evaluate stability index, Q
20 kips

Fig. S12-2

All span loaded with live load

Fig. S12-3
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12-13


Staggered live load pattern

Fig. S12-4

Table P12-2
(Forces in kips Moments in k-ft) Exterior Column Interior Column
D
P 285 487
( ) reduced
L
P 48.8

79.9

Lr
P 10 18.5
( ) top
D
M 37.0 -4.9
( ) bottom
D
M -36.2 5.5
( ) top, reduced
L
M 20.9 0.67 14 = 18.2 0.46 8.4 =
( ) bottom, reduced
L
M 20.5 0.67 13.7 = 2.8 0.46 1.3 =


The factored load on exterior and interior columns are as follows:

Exterior column


( )
2
top 1.2 37 1.6 14 66.8 k-ft M M = + = =
( ) ( ) ( )
1
bottom 1.2 36.2 1.6 13.7 65.4 k-ft M M = + = =




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12-14

Interior column


( ) ( ) ( )
2
top 1.2 4.9 1.6 8.4 19.3 k-ft M M = + = =
( ) ( ) ( )
1
bottom 1.2 5.5 1.6 1.3 8.68 k-ft M M = + = =

4. Find
ns
o for the exterior and interior column?
1.0
1
m
ns
u
c
C
P
P
o
|
= >


Exterior column
1
2
65.4
0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 ( ) 0.21
66.8
m
M
C
M
= + = + =


( )
2
2
P
c
EI
k
t
=

0.2
1
c g s se
dns
E I E I
EI
|
+
=
+


4
8750 in.
g
I =
3600 ksi
c
E =

4
150 in.
se
I =

()


6 2
5.88 10 kip-in EI =

( )
( )
| |
2 6 2
2
2 2
5.88 10 kip-in
2210 kips
1.0 162 in.
c
EI
P
k
t
t

= = =


66.8 k-ft
c
M =

Interior column
1
2
8.68
0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 ( ) 0.42
19.3
m
M
C
M
= + = + =

()


Since (int)
dns
| does not change significantly, EI and P
c
will
remain essentially the same.


67.8 k-ft
c
M =



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12-15

5. Check initial column sections for gravity load case
Exterior column



1.9
0.11
18
e
h
= =
0.015
g
=
Fig. A-9b yields


Interior column


0.015
g
=


Because reading from the graph may not be accurate given the two
values are so close, we need to select reinforcement for the column and
check its capacity against the demand. Select 8 bars #8, Example 12-3
shows

, OK.

E. Check with gravity plus wind load case ( ) 1.2 1.6 0.5
r
D W L L + + +

Wind loads are given in Fig. S12-5

1. Calculation of the stability index
u oh
us c
P
Q
V
E A
=


Similar to the gravity load case, we need to do one single analysis with the wind load plus
gravity load case. To take into account of the live load reduction, an average live load
reduction factor of 0.43 will be multiplied with the live load factor 0.5, yielding 0.22.
Therefore, the load combination becomes 1.2 1.6 0.215 0.5 D W Lr L + + + . A structural
analysis yields the following results:

0.357 in.
oh
A =
352 635 633 385 2005 kips
u
P E = + + + =
16 ft 192 in.
c
= =
4.46 3 6.61 8.49 32.9
us
V = + + = kips

2005 kips 0.357 in.
0.113 0.05
32.9 kips 192 in.
Q

= = >



1 1
1.13
1 1 0.113
s
Q
o = = =


The first story is a sway story.

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12-16

Wind load
4.46 kips
6.61 kips
6.61 kips
6.61 kips
8.49 kips
Fig. S12-5


2. Factored axial loads and moments

A structural analysis of the frame subjected to the wind load (without the load factor) yields
the following results, as shown in Table P12-3.

Table P12-3
Forces in kips
Moments in k-ft
Exterior Column Interior Column
W
P 10.4 0.5
( ) top
W
M 46.2 65
( ) bottom
W
M -46 -64.6

Exterior column

)
2 2 2 ns s s
M M M o = +

2
1.2 0.5 1.2 37 0.5 14 51.4 k-ft
ns D L
M M M = + = + =

2
1.6 1.6 46.2 73.9 k-ft
s W
M M = = =

2
51.4 1.13 73.9 135 M = + = k-ft


Interior column
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12-17

)
2 2 2 ns s s
M M M o = +

2
1.2 0.5 1.2 4.9 0.5 8.4 10.1
ns D L
M M M = + = + = k-ft

2
1.6 1.6 65 104 k-ft
s W
M M = = =

2
10.1 1.13 104 128 M = + = k-ft

Note that the 2005 kips
u
P E = does not differ significantly from
( ) 2 387 632 2038 kips
u
P E = + =

3. Check column sections for axial loads and moments
Exterior column


0.01
g
=
Fig. A-9b yields



At this point, we can select 8 bars #6 (
2
3.52 in. , 0.011
st g
A = = ) for the exterior columns.
Interior column


0.02
g
=



Conclusion: The cross section of exterior and interior columns is 18 in. x 18 in. Use 8 bars #6 for
exterior columns, and 8 bars #8 for interior columns.




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13-1
Chapter 13

13-1 Compute

for the edge beam shown in Fig. P13-1. The concrete for the slab and
beam was placed in one pour.

Because the slab and the beam have the same elastic modulus, Eq. (13-9) reduces to
b
f
s
I
I
o =
1. Compute
b
I . The cross section of the beam is shown in Fig. S13-1.1 and
b
I is computed for the
shaded area.


Fig. S13-1.1 Section through edge of slab.


Part Area, in.
2
top
y , in.
top
Ay
own
I , in.
4
2
Ay ,in.
4
Web 320 10 3200 10,670 663
Flanges 91 3.5 319 372 2331
411 E = 3519 E =
b
I =
14,030 in.
4

3519
8.56 in.
411
top
y = =
4
14, 030 in.
g
I =

2. Compute
s
I . The cross section of the slab is shown in Fig. S13-1.2 and
s
I is computed for the
shaded portion of the slab.

3
4
(108 8) 7
3316 in.
12
s
I
+
= =

Fig. S13-1.2 Edge beam.


16 in.
7 in.
20 in.
13 in.
45
28 in.
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13-2
3. Compute
f
o .
14, 030
4.23
3316
b
f
s
I
I
o = = =


13-2 Compute the column-strip and middle-strip moments in the long-span direction for
an interior panel of the flat-slab shown in Fig. 13-25. Assume the slab is 6 in. thick,
the design live load is 40 psf and the superimposed dead load is 5 psf for ceiling,
flooring, and so on, plus 25 psf for the partitions. The columns are 10 in. 12 in., as
shown in Fig. 13-25.

1. Compute the factored load.


6
1.2 150 5 25 1.6 40 190 psf
12
u
q
| |
= + + + =
|
\ .

Note: if the local building code allows a live-load reduction, the 40-psf live load could be
multiplied by the appropriate reduction factor.

2. Compute the static moment in the long span of the slab.


12
14.5 13.5 ft
12
n
= =

2
13.2 ft =

The column strip extends the smaller of
2 1
4 or 4 on each side of the column centerline
(ACI Code Section 13.2.1). Thus, the column strip extends 13.2 4 3.3 ft = on each side of column
centerlines. The total width of the column strip is 6.6 ft. Each half-middle strip extends from the
edge of the column strip to the centerline of the panel. The total width of two half-middle strips is
13.2 6.6 6.6 ft =

The static moment
o
M can be calculated from Eq. (13-5),

( )
2 2
2
190 13.2 13.5
1
57 kip-ft
1000
8 8
u n
o
q
M

= = =

3. Divide
o
M into negative and positive moments.

From ACI Code Section 13.6.3.2, for an interior span, the total moment is divided as follows:

Negative moment = 0.65 0.65 57 37 kip-ft
o
M = =
Positive moment = 0.35 0.35 57 20 kip-ft
o
M = =

4. Divide the moments between the column and middle strips.

Negative moments
From Table 13-3 for
1 2 1
0
f
o = (since there are no beam between the columns).
Column-strip negative moment = ( ) 0.75 37 27.8 kip-ft =
Middle-strip negative moment = ( ) 0.25 37 9.3 kip-ft =
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13-3

Half of the middle-strip negative moment, -4.7 kip-ft, goes to each of the adjacent half-middle
strip. Because the adjacent bays have the same width,
2
, a similar moment will be assigned to
the other half of each middle strip so that the total middle-strip negative moment is 9.3 kip-ft.
Positive moments
From Table 13-4 for
1 2 1
0
f
o = ,
Column-strip positive moment = 0.60 20 12 kip-ft =
Middle-strip positive moment = 0.40 20 8 kip-ft =


13-3 Use the direct-design method to compute the moments for the column-strip and
middle-strip spanning perpendicular to the edge of the exterior bay of the flat-plate
shown in Fig. P13-3. Assume the slab is 7.5 in. thick and supports a superimposed
dead load of 25 psf and a live load of 50 psf. There is no edge beam. The columns are
all 18 in. square.

1. Compute the factored load.


7.5
1.2 150 25 1.6 50 223 psf
12
u
q
| |
= + + =
|
\ .

Note: if the local building code allows a live-load reduction, the 50-psf live load could be
multiplied by the appropriate factor.

2. Compute the static moment for the span perpendicular to the edge of the exterior bay

18
20 18.5 ft
12
n
= =

2
19 ft =

The column strip extends the smaller of
2 1
4 or 4 on each side of the column centerline
(ACI Code Section 13.2.1). Thus, the column strip extends 19 4 4.75 ft = on each side of column
centerlines. The total width of the column strip is 9.5ft. Each half-middle strip extends from the
edge of the column strip to the centerline of the panel. The total width of two half-middle strips is
19 9.5 9.5 ft =

The static moment
o
M can be calculated from Eq. (13-5),

( )
2 2
2
223 19.0 18.5
1
181 kip-ft
1000
8 8
u n
o
q
M

= = =

3. Divide
o
M into negative and positive moments.

From ACI Code Section 13.6.3.3, for a slab without beams between interior supports and
without edge beam, the total moment is divided as follows:

Interior negative moment = 0.70 0.70 181 127 kip-ft
o
M = =
Positive moment = 0.52 0.52 181 94 kip-ft
o
M = =
Exterior negative moment = 0.26 0.26 181 47 kip-ft
o
M = =

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13-4




4. Divide the moments between the column and middle strips.

Interior negative moments
From Table 13-3 for
1 2 1
0
f
o = (since there are no beam between the columns),
Interior column-strip negative moment = ( ) 0.75 127 95 kip-ft =
Interior middle-strip negative moment = ( ) 0.25 127 32 kip-ft =

Half of the middle-strip negative moment, -16 kip-ft, goes to each of the adjacent half-middle
strip. Because the adjacent bays have the same width,
2
,a similar moment will be assigned to
the other half of each middle strip so that the total middle-strip negative moment is 32 kip-ft.

Positive moments
From Table 13-4 for
2 1
0
f
o = ,
Column-strip positive moment = 0.60 94 56 kip-ft =
Middle-strip positive moment = 0.40 94 38 kip-ft =

Exterior negative moment
From Table 13-5, for
1 2 1
0
f
o = (since there is no beam parallel to
1
) and for 0
t
| = (since
there is no edge beam),
Exterior column-strip negative moment = 1.0 47 47 kip-ft =
Exterior middle-strip negative moment = 0 47 0 kip-ft =


13-4 For the slab configuration and loading conditions in P13-3, use the direct-design
method to compute moments for the edge-column strip and the middle strip
spanning parallel to the edge of the slab.


1. Compute the factored loads.


7.5
1.2 150 25 1.6 50 223 psf
12
u
q
| |
= + + =
|
\ .

Note: if the local building code allows a live-load reduction, the 50-psf live load could be
multiplied by the appropriate factor.

2. Compute the static moment for the span parallel to the edge of the slab.

18
19 17.5 ft
12
n
= =
For the definition of
2
refer to Fig. 13-22 in the textbook.
Edge frame:
2,
20 9
10.8 ft
2 12
e
= + =
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13-5
Interior frame:
2,
20 ft
i
=

Generally, the column strip extends the smaller of
2 1
4 or 4 on each side of the column
centerline (ACI Code Section 13.2.1).Thus; the width of the edge-column strip is
19 9
5.5 ft
4 12
+ =
The half-middle strip extends from the edge of the column strip to the centerline of the panel. The
total width of two half-middle strips is 20 9.5 10.5 ft = .
The static moment
o
M can be calculated from Eq. (13-5).
Edge frame:
( )
2
2
2,
223 10.8 17.5
1
92.2 kip-ft
1000
8 8
u e n
o
q
M

= = =
Interior frame:
( )
2
2
2,
223 20 17.5
1
171 kip-ft
1000
8 8
u i n
o
q
M

= = =

3. Divide
o
M into negative and positive moments.

From ACI Code Section 13.6.3.2, for the edge frame, the total moment is divided as follows:

Negative moment =
,
0.65 0.65 92.2 60 kip-ft
o e
M = =
Positive moment =
,
0.35 0.35 92.2 32 kip-ft
o e
M = =

For the interior frame, the total moment is divided as follows:

Negative moment =
,
0.65 0.65 171 111 kip-ft
o i
M = =
Positive moment =
,
0.35 0.35 171 59.9 kip-ft
o i
M = =



4. Divide the moments between the edge-column and middle strips.

Exterior negative moment
From Table 13-3, for
1 2 1
0
f
o = (since there is no beam between the columns),
Edge column-strip negative moment = 0.875 60 52.5 kip-ft =
Middle-strip negative moment =
( )
1
0.25 60 0.25 111 =21.4 kip-ft
2
+
Note that
1
0.25 0.875 1.0
2
| |
+ =
|
\ .


Positive moments
From Table 13-4 for
2 1
0
f
o = ,
Edge column-strip positive moment = 0.80 32 25.6 kip-ft =
Middle-strip positive moment =
( )
1
0.40 32 0.40 59.9 =18.4 kip-ft
2
+
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13-6
Note that
1
0.40 0.80 1.0
2
| |
+ =
|
\ .


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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13-7
13-5 A 7-in. thick flat-plate slab with spans of 20 ft in each direction is supported on 16
in. 16 in. columns. The average effective depth is 5.6 in. Assume the slab supports
its own dead load, plus 25 psf superimposed dead load and 40 psf live load. The
concrete strength is 4000 psf. Check two-way shear at a typical interior support.
Assume unbalanced moments are negligible.

1. Compute the factored uniform load.

)

2. Check one-way shear.

One-way shear is critical at a distance from the face of the column. Thus, the critical
sections for one-way shear are A-A and B-B in Fig. S13-5.1. The loaded areas causing shear on
these sections are cross hatched. Their outer boundaries are lines of symmetry on which 0
u
V = .
We will only check the shear for section A-A, since the check for section B-B is the same.


Fig. S13-5.1 Critical section for one-way shear at interior column.





(a) Compute
u
V at section A-A.
6
6 6
6
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13-8

)

(b) Compute
c
V | for one-way shear.

Because there is no shear reinforcement, we have
n c
V V | | = and from Eq. (13-27),

) ( )




Thus, the slab is OK for one-way shear.


3. Check two-way shear

Punching shear is critical on a rectangular section located at 2 d away from the column face, as
shown in Fig. S13-5.2. The critical perimeter is 21.6 in. by 21.6 in. The average d value for
determining the shear strength of the slab is 5.6 in. d =



Fig. S13-5.2 Critical section for two-way shear at interior column.


(a) Compute
u
V on the critical perimeter for two-way shear.

)




(b) Compute
c
V | for the critical section.

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13-9
The length of the critical perimeter is ( ) 2 21.6 21.6 86.4 in.
o
b = + =
Now,
c
V | is to be taken as the smallest of the following. From Eq. (13-24),

( )
'
1
4 4 1 4000 86.4 5.6 122 kips
1000
c c o
V f b d = = =

For Eq. (13-25), 1.0 | = (since column is square). Therefore,
( )
( )
'
4
1
2 2 4 1 4000 86.4 5.6 184 kips
1000
c c o
V f b d
|
| |
= + = + =
|
\ .


For Eq. (13-26), 40
s
o = for this interior column. Therefore,

( )
'
40 5.6
1
2 2 1 4000 86.4 5.6 140 kips
1000
86.4
s
c c o
o
d
V f b d
b
o

| | | |
= + = + =
|
|
\ .
\ .


Therefore, the smallest values is 122 kips
c
V = , so 0.75 122 91.5 kips > V
c u
V | = = and the slab
is OK in two-way shear.


13-6 Assume the slab described in Problem 13-5 is supported on 10 in. 24 in. columns.
Check two-way shear at a typical interior support. Assume unbalanced moments
are negligible.

1. Compute the factored uniform load.

)

2. See the solution to problem 13-5 for one-way shear calculations.

3. Check two-way shear

Punching shear is critical on a rectangular section located at 2 d away from the column face, as
shown in Fig. S13-6.2. The critical perimeter is 29.6 in. by 15.6 in. The average d value for
determining the shear strength of the slab is 5.6 in. d =


(a) Compute
u
V on the critical perimeter for two-way shear.

)

(b) Compute
c
V | for the critical section.

The length of the critical perimeter is ( ) 2 29.6 15.6 90.4 in.
o
b = + =
Now,
c
V | is to be taken as the smallest of the following. From Eq. (13-24),

( )
'
1
4 4 1 4000 90.4 5.6 128 kips
1000
c c o
V f b d = = =

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13-10



Fig. S13-6.2 Critical section for two-way shear at interior column.

For Eq. (13-25),
24
2.4
10
| = = (since column is 10 in. by 24 in.). Therefore,

( )
'
4 4
1
2 2 1 4000 90.4 5.6 117 kips
1000
2.4
c c o
V f b d
|
| | | |
= + = + =
| |
\ . \ .


For Eq. (13-26), 40
s
o = for this interior column. Therefore,

( )
'
40 5.6
1
2 2 1 4000 90.4 5.6 143 kips
1000
90.4
s
c c o
o
d
V f b d
b
o

| | | |
= + = + =
|
|
\ .
\ .


Therefore, the smallest values is 117 kips
c
V = , so 0.75 117 88 kips > V
c u
V | = = and the slab is
OK in two-way shear.


13-7 The slab shown in Fig. P13-7 supports a superimposed dead load of 25 psf and a live
load of 60 psf. The slab extends 4 in. past the exterior face of the column to support
an exterior wall that weighs 400 lbs/ft of length of wall. The story-to-story height is
9.5 ft. Use 4500-psi concrete and Grade-60 reinforcement.

(a) Select slab thickness.

- Determine the thickness to limit deflections.

From Table 13-1, the minimum thicknesses of the four typical slab panels are as follows:

Panel 1-2-A-B (corner; treat as exterior), and panels 2-3-A-B and 1-2-B-C (exterior)
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13-11
Maximum ( ) 20 12 16 224 in.
n
= =
Minimum
224
7.47 in.
30 30
n
h = = =

Panel 2-3-B-C (interior)
Maximum 224 in.
n
=
Minimum
224
6.78 in.
33 33
n
h = = =

Try 8.0 in. h =

- Check the thickness for shear. We should check the shear at columns A2 and B2

The tributary area for column A2 is cross-hatched in Fig. S 13-7.1 The factored uniform load can
be calculated as:
8
1.2 150 25 1.6 60 246 psf
12
u
q
| |
= + + =
|
\ .

Note that if the area of any of the panels exceeded
2
400 ft , it would be possible to reduce the live
load before factoring it.


Fig. S 13-7.1 Initial critical shear perimeters and tributary areas for column A2.

The critical shear perimeter is located at 2 d away from the interior column face and 4 in. from
the exterior column face, as shown in Fig. S 13-7.1. In the following calculation for the factored
shear force transmitted to column A2, the shear force multiplier of 1.15 required for the first
interior support will be applied directly to the appropriate tributary lengths. Then,
8 0.75 0.5 6.75 in.
avg
d ~ = (assuming
3
4
in. clear cover and No. 4 bars as slab
reinforcement).
22.75 2 23.38 69.5 in.
o
b = + =
( ) ( )
12 22.75 23.38
246 9 1.15 9 10 1.2 400 9 1.15 9 60700 lbs 61 kips
12 144
u
V
( | | | |
( = + + + + = ~
| | (
\ . \ .


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13-12
From Eq.(13-25),

16
1
16
| = =

4
2 6.0 4
|
| |
+ = >
|
\ .
(does not govern)
From Eq. (13-26),
30
s
o = , for an exterior slab-column connection

30 6.75
2 2 4.91 4.0
69.5
s
o
d
b
o | | | |
+ = + = >
|
|
\ .
\ .
(does not govern)

Thus, using Eq. (13-24):
( )
'
1
4 0.75 4 1 4500 69.5 6.75 94.4 kips > V
1000
c c o u
V f b d | | = = =
Note: 0.65 0.75
u c
V V | = <
For this ratio, ACI Code Section permits modification of
f
for moment transfer about an axis
parallel to the edge of the slab. With that information and because this ratio is below 0.8, the slab
thickness at this connection should be sufficient for checking shear and moment transfer about an
axis perpendicular to the edge of the column. Shear check for column B2 follows the same
procedure as for column A2. Thus, use an 8-in. slab. Final shear checks will be made in part (c)
after completing the flexural design of the slab.

(b) Use the direct design method to compute moments, and then design the
reinforcement for the column and middle strips associated with column line
2.

Because there is no edge beams, 0
f
o =

- Compute moments in the slab strip along column line 2

A2 B2 C2
1
(ft)
20.0 20.0
(ft)
n

18.67 18.67
2
(ft)
18.0 18.0
(ksf)
u
q
0.25 0.25
2
2

(kip-ft)
8
u n
o
q
M = 196 196
Moment Coef. -0.26 0.52 -0.70 -0.65 0.35 -0.65
Moments (kip-ft) -51 +102 -137 -127 +69 -127








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13-13
- Compute moments in the slab strip along column line 1

A1 B1 C1
1
(ft)
20.0 20.0
(ft)
n

18.67 18.67
2
(ft)
10.0 10.0
(ksf)
u
q
0.25 0.25
2
2

(kip-ft)
8
u n
o
q
M = 109 109
Moment Coef. -0.26 0.52 -0.70 -0.65 0.35 -0.65
Moments (kip-ft) -28 +57 -76 -71 +38 -71
Wall load (kip/ft) 0.48 0.48
Wall
2
8
wall n
o
q
M

= 21 21
Moments from wall
(kip-ft)
-5.5 11 -15 -14 +7 -14

- Distribute the negative and positive moments to the column and middle strips and design the
reinforcement.

In each panel, the column strip extends ( ) ( )
1 2
0.25 min , 0.25 18 12 54 in. = = on each side
of the column lines. The total width of the column strip is 2 54 in.= 108 in. 9 ft = . The width of
the middle strip is 9 ft. The edge strip has a width of 54 in. 12 in. 66 in. 5.5 ft + = = .

Place the steel in the long direction close to the surface of the slab. Try No. 4 bars. Thus,
8 0.75 0.25 7.0 in. d ~ =

Compute trial
s
A required at the section of maximum moment (column strip at B2). The largest
u
M is 102.3 kip-ft. Assuming that ( ) 0.95 jd = ,

2
102.3 12, 000
(trial) 3.42 in.
0.9 60, 000 0.95 7.0
s
A

= =


Compute a and check whether the section is tension controlled:

( )
3.42 60, 000
0.82 in.
0.85 4500 5.5 12
a

= =



0.82
1.00 in.
0.825
c = =
Clearly, the section is tension-controlled; therefore, 0.9 | = .
Compute the value of jd :
0.82
7.0 6.59 in.
2
jd = =
Assuming that a is constant for all sections (conservative assumption), compute a constant for
computing
s
A :


2
12, 000
(in. ) 0.0337 (kip-ft)
0.9 60, 000 6.59
u
s u
M
A M

= =

(Eq. A)

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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13-14
The values of
s
A required in the following table are computed from Eq. (A).
From ACI Code Section 13.3.1,

,min
0.0018
s
A bh = for Grade-60 reinforcement. Maximum bar spacing is 2h (ACI Code
Section 13.3.2), but not more than 18 in. (ACI Code Section 7.12.2.2). Therefore maximum is
16 in.

Edge column strip:
( )
2
,min
0.0018 5.5 12 8 0.95 in.
s
A = =
Minimum number of bar spaces
5.5 12
4.1
16

= =
Therefore, the minimum number of bars is 5.
Other strips:
( )
2
,min
0.0018 9 12 8 1.56 in.
s
A = =
The minimum number of bars is 8.


Division of moment to column and middle strip: north-south strips


Edge
Column Strip
Middle
Strip
Column
Strip
Middle
Strip
Column
Strip
Strip Width, ft 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 5.5
Exterior Negative Moments A1 A2 A3
Slab moment (kip-ft) -28 -51 -51
Moment Coef. 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0
Distributed moments to
strips
-28 0.0 0.0 -51 0.0 0.0 -51
Wall moment (kip-ft) -5.5
Total strip moment (kip-ft) -33.5 0.0 -51 0.0 -51
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 1.13 0.0 1.72 0.0 1.56
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 6 #4 9 #4 9 #4 9 #4 9 #4
2
(in. )
s
A provided 1.20 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80
End Span Positive
Moments

Slab moment (kip-ft) 57 102 102
Moment Coef. 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.6
Distributed moments to
strips
34.2 22.8 20.4 61.2 20.4 20.4 61.2
Wall moment (kip-ft) 11
Total strip moment
(kip-ft)
45.2 43.2 61.2 40.8 61.2
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 1.52 1.45 2.06 1.37 2.06
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 8 #4 10 #4 10 #4 10 #4 10 #4
2
(in. )
s
A provided 1.60 2.00 2.00* 2.00 2.00*
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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13-15
First Interior Negative
Moments
B1 B2 B3
Slab moment (kip-ft) -76 -137 -137
Moment Coef. 0.75 0.25 0.125 0.75 0.125 0.125 0.75
Distributed moments to
strips
-57 -19 -17.1 -102.3 -17.1 -17.1 -102.3
Wall moment (kip-ft) -15
Total strip moment
(kip-ft)
-72 -36.1 -102.3 -34.2 -102.3
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 2.43 1.22 3.45 1.15 3.45
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 8 #5 9 #4 11 #5 9 #4 11 #5
2
(in. )
s
A provided 2.48 1.80 3.41* 1.80 3.41*
Interior Positive Moments
Slab moment (kip-ft) 38 69 69
Moment Coef. 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.6
Distributed moments to
strips
22.8 15.2 13.8 41.1 13.8 13.8 41.1
Wall moment (kip-ft) 7
Total strip moment (kip-
ft)
29.8 29 41.1 27.6 41.1
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 1.00 0.98 1.36 1.04 1.36
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 6 #4 9 #4 9 #4 9 #4 9 #4
2
(in. )
s
A provided 1.20 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80
Interior Negative Moments C1 C2 C3
Slab moment (kip-ft) -71 -127 -127
Moment Coef. 0.75 0.25 0.125 0.75 0.125 0.125 -0.75
Distributed moments to
strips
-53.2 -17.8 -15.9 -95.2 -15.9 -15.9 -95.2
Wall moment (kip-ft) -14
Total strip moment (kip-
ft)
67.2 -33.7 -95.2 -31.8 -95.2
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 2.26 1.14 3.21 1.07 3.21
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 8 #5 9 #4 11 #5 9 #4 11 #5
2
(in. )
s
A provided 2.48 1.80 3.41 1.80 3.41
*
A
s
(provided) < A
s
(required) is o.k. because adjacent positive moment regions are over-designed
and some moment redistribution can occur in ductile slabs.

(c) Check two-way shear and moment transfer at columns A2 and B2. Neglect
unbalanced moments about column line 2.

Column A2
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13-16
The critical perimeter is at 2 d from the face of the column, where d is the average depth. At all
exterior ends, the reinforcement is No. 4 bars and 6.75 in.
avg
d = The shortest perimeter results
from the section shown in Fig. S13-7.2 and the perimeter dimensions are,

1
2
20 in. 2 23.38 in.
16 in. 22.75 in.
b d
b d
= + =
= + =

For moments about the z z axis,

( )
( ) ( )
2 23.38 5.69 23.38 2
7.86 in.
2 23.38 5.69 22.75 5.69
AB
y

= =
+

Therefore, 7.86 in. and 15.52 in.
AB CD
c c = =
For moments about the w w axis,
22.75
11.38 in.
2
CB AD
c c = = =

As calculated in part (a), 61 kips
u
V = .

For slabs designed by the direct-design method, the moment transferred from the slab to the
column axis z-z is 0.3
o
M , and using the moments calculated from part (b),

0.3 0.3 196 58.8 kip-ft
o
M = = (acting about the centroid of the shear perimeter).



Fig. S 13-7.2 Critical section- ColumnA2


From part (b), we found that the unbalanced moment due to the wall moments is 7 kip-ft and
assuming that the loads acts at 2 in. from the edge of the slab,
23.38 2.0 7.86 13.52 in. = = from centroid

The total moment to be transferred is,

13.52
58.8 7 50.9 kip-ft
12
z z
M

= =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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13-17
Note that the unbalanced moment about column line 2 ( )
w w
M

is neglected as stated in the
problem.



From Eq. (13-32), calculate the fraction of moment transferred by flexure,

1 2
1 1
0.60
2 2
1 1 23.38 22.75
3 3
f
b b
= = =
+ +

ACI Code Section 13.5.3.3 allows
f
to be increased to 1.0 if
u c
V V | and the resulting is less
than 0.375
b
within a width of
2
3 c h + centered in the column. From part (a), 0.65
u c
V V | = .
Therefore, take 1.0
f
= and check the reinforcement required.

Width effective for flexure
2
3 16 3 8 40 in. c h = + = + =
Effective width
2 2 1
2 2
t
c c c c s + s + (second expression governs)
Effective width 16 2 16 48 in. s + =

Assume that ( ) 0.95 jd d = , with 7.0 in. d =

2
50.9 12, 000
1.70 in.
0.9 60, 000 0.95 7.0
s
A

= =


The steel provided is 9 No. 4 in a column strip width of 9 ft 108 in. = , or roughly 13.5 on centers.
The bars within the 40 in. effective width can be used for the moment transfer. Place four
column-strip bars into this region and add 5 No. 4 bars, giving
2
1.8 in.
s
A = in the effective width.
Recompute
s
A ,

1.80 60, 000
0.71 in.
0.85 4500 40
a

= =




2
50.9 12, 000
(in. ) 1.70 kip-ft
0.71
0.9 60, 000 7
2
s
A

= =
| |

|
\ .
(steel chosen OK)
The reinforcement ratio is,

1.8
0.0064
40 7
s
A
bd
= = =


and from Eq. (4-24),

0.85 0.825 4500 0.003
0.0311
60, 000 0.003 0.00207
b

| |
= =
|
+
\ .
,
and thus, 0.375 0.0117 0.0064
b
= > and we can use 1.0
f
= . As a result, it is not necessary to
transfer any of the moment about z-z axis by eccentric shear stresses.

Column B2
The critical perimeter is shown in Fig. S 13-7.3 and the centroidal axes pass through the centers
of the sides.
( ) 2 22.75 22.75 91 in.
o
b = + =


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13-18
The factored shear force transmitted to column B2 is,
( )( )
22.75 22.75
246 9 1.15 9 10 1.15 10 101500 lbs 102 kips
144
u
V
( | |
= + + = ~
| (
\ .



Fig. S 13-7.3 Critical section- Column B2

From Eq.(13-25),

4
2 6.0 4
|
| |
+ = >
|
\ .
(does not govern)
From Eq. (13-26),
40
s
o = , for an interior slab-column connection

40 6.75
2 2 4.97 4.0
91
s
o
d
b
o | | | |
+ = + = >
|
|
\ .
\ .
(does not govern)

Thus, using Eq. (13-24):
( )
'
1
4 0.75 4 1 4500 91 6.75 124 kips > V
1000
c c o u
V f b d | | = = =
Since, 0.82 0.4
u c
V V | = > no adjustment will be permitted in the ratio of unbalanced moment
resisted by eccentric shear.
The moment about x-x axis to be transferred comes from part (b) and is the difference between
the negative moments on the two sides of column B2, i.e.
,
137 127 10 kip-ft
u x x
M

= = .

From Eq. (13-32), calculate the fraction of moment transferred by flexure (x-x axis),

1 2
1 1
0.6
2 2
1 1 1
3 3
f
b b
= = =
+ +

The torsional moment of inertia can be calculated from Eq. (13-34),
( )
2
3 3
1 1 1
2
2 2
12 12 2
c
b d db b
J b d
| |
| |
= + +
|
|
\ .
\ .

Where
1 2
6.75 in. and 22.75 in. d b b = = = Thus,
4
54150 in.
c
J =

By inspection, the reinforcement that is already in the slab is adequate for moment transfer.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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13-19

From Eq. (13-30) and neglecting unbalanced moment about column line 2 (i.e. about axis y-y),
( )
(shear transfer)
1 0.6 10 4 kip-ft 48,000 lb-in.
u u
M M
u
= = = =

Then,

48, 000 11.38
12.1 psi
45,150
u
c
M c
J
u

= =
So,

102, 000 124, 000
(max) 12.1 166 psi 12.1 psi=178 psi 202 psi
91 6.75 91 6.75
u c
u |u = + = + < = =


Thus, the shear is OK at this column.

13-8 Refer to the slab shown in Fig. P13-7 and the loadings and material strengths given
in Problem 13-7.

(a) Select slab thickness.
Problems 13-7 and 13-8 refer to the same flat-slab. As a result, the thickness of the slab was
chosen in part (a) of problem 13-7. Thus, use an 8 in. thick slab.

(b) Use the direct design method to compute moments, and then design the
reinforcement for the column and middle strips associated with column line
A.

Because there is no edge beams, 0
f
o =
- Compute moments in the slab strip along column line A
A1 A2 A3
1
(ft)
18.0 18.0
(ft)
n

16.67 16.67
2
(ft)
11.0 11.0
(ksf)
u
q
0.25 0.25
2
2

(kip-ft)
8
u n
o
q
M = 96 96
Moment Coef. -0.26 0.52 -0.70 -0.65 0.35 -0.65
Moments (kip-ft) -25 +50 -67 -62 +34 -62
Wall load (kip/ft) 0.48 0.48
Wall
2
8
wall n
o
q
M

=
16.7 16.7
Moments from wall
(kip-ft)
-4.3 8.7 -11.7 -10.9 +5.8 -10.9

- Compute moments in the slab strip along column line B
B1 B2 B3
1
(ft)
18.0 18.0
(ft)
n

16.67 16.67
2
(ft)
20.0 20.0
(ksf)
u
q
0.25 0.25
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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13-20
2
2

(kip-ft)
8
u n
o
q
M = 174 174
Moment Coef. -0.26 0.52 -0.70 -0.65 0.35 -0.65
Moments (kip-ft) -45 +90 -122 -113 +61 -113
- Distribute the negative and positive moments to the column and middle strips and design the
reinforcement.

In each panel, the column strip extends ( ) ( )
1 2
0.25 min , 0.25 18 12 54 in. = = on each side
of the column lines. The total width of the column strip is 2 54 in.= 108 in. 9 ft = . The width of
the middle strip is 9 ft. The edge strip has a width of 54 in. 12 in. 66 in. 5.5 ft + = = .

Place the steel in the long direction close to the surface of the slab. Try No. 4 bars. Thus,
8 0.75 0.25 7.0 in. d ~ =

Compute trial
s
A required at the section of maximum moment (column strip at B2). The largest
u
M is 91.5 kip-ft. Assuming that ( ) 0.95 jd = ,


Compute a and check whether the section is tension controlled:





The section is tension-controlled; therefore, 0.9 | = .
Compute the value of jd :

Assuming that a is constant for all sections (conservative assumption), compute a constant for
computing
s
A (Eq. A):



The values of
s
A required in the following table are computed from Eq. (A).

From ACI Code Section 13.3.1,

,min
0.0018
s
A bh = for Grade-60 reinforcement. Maximum bar spacing is 2h (ACI Code
Section 13.3.2), but not more than 18 in. (ACI Code Section 7.12.2.2). Therefore maximum is
16 in.

Edge column strip:
( )
2
,min
0.0018 5.5 12 8 0.95 in.
s
A = =
Minimum number of bar spaces
5.5 12
4.1
16

= =
Therefore, the minimum number of bars is 5.

Other strips:
( )
2
,min
0.0018 9 12 8 1.56 in.
s
A = =
The minimum number of bars is 8.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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13-21

Division of moment to column and middle strip: east-west strips


Edge
Column Strip
Middle
Strip
Column
Strip
Strip Width, ft 9.0 9.0 9.0
Exterior Negative Moments A1 B1
Slab moment (kip-ft) -25 -45
Moment Coef. 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0
Distributed moments to
strips
-25 0.0 0.0 -45
Wall moment (kip-ft) -4.3
Total strip moment (kip-
ft)
-29.3 0.0 -45
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 0.99 0.0 1.52
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 5 #4 8 #4 8 #4
2
(in. )
s
A provided 1.00 1.60 1.60
End Span Positive Moments
Slab moment (kip-ft) 50 90
Moment Coef. 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6
Distributed moments to
strips
30 20 18 54
Wall moment (kip-ft) 8.7
Total strip moment (kip-
ft)
38.7 38 54
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 1.31 1.28 1.82
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 7 #4 8 #4 10 #4
2
(in. )
s
A provided 1.40 1.60 2.00
First Interior Negative
Moments
A2 B2
Slab moment (kip-ft) -67 -122
Moment Coef. 0.75 0.25 0.125 0.75
Distributed moments to
strips
-50 -17 -15 -91.5
Wall moment (kip-ft) -11.7
Total strip moment (kip-
ft)
-51.7 -32 -91.5
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 1.75 1.08 3.09
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 9 #4 8 #4 10 #5
2
(in. )
s
A provided 1.80 1.60 3.10



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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
13-22

Interior Positive Moments
Slab moment (kip-ft) 34 61
Moment Coef. 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6
Distributed moments to
strips
20.4 13.6 12.2 36.6
Wall moment (kip-ft) 5.8
Total strip moment (kip-ft) 26.2 25.8 36.6
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 0.89 0.87 1.24
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 5 #4 8 #4 8 #4
2
(in. )
s
A provided 1.00 1.60 1.60


13-9 For the corner column (A1) in Fig. P13-7 and the loadings and material strengths
given in Problem 13-7, select a slab thickness to satisfy ACI Code strength
requirements for two-way shear and moment transfer, and deflection control.

(a) Make the check for moment transfer in only one principal direction (use the
more critical direction).

First determine the thickness to limit deflections:
From Table 13-1, the minimum thicknesses of the corner panel is (treat it as an exterior
column):
Maximum
in
20 ft 12 16 in 224 in
ft
n
| |
= =
|
\ .

Minimum
224 in
7.47 in
30 30
n
h = = =
Like Problem 13-8, try 8.0 in h =

Now check whether this thickness is OK for shear at column A1, considering moment transfer in
the more critical direction:
Note that if the area of any of the panels exceeded
2
400 ft , it would be possible to
reduce the live load before factoring it, but this is not the case for column A1. Therefore the
factored uniform load acting on the corner panel is:
3
8 in lb
1.2 150 25 psf 1.6 60 psf 246 psf
in
ft
12
ft
u
q
| |
|
= + + =
|
|
|
\ .


Although the shear force acting on the first interior column face is amplified by 1.15, the ACI
Code does not permit reducing the tributary shear area for an exterior column to below0.5 in
either principal direction. Also note that the critical shear perimeter is located at 2 d away from
the interior column faces.
Therefore,
8 in 0.75 in 0.5 in 6.75 in
avg
d ~ =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
13-23
( ) 2 16 in 4 in 6.75 in / 2 46.8 in
o
b = + + =
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
23.4 in
246 psf 10 ft 1 ft 9 ft 1 ft 26100 lb 26.1 k
in
144
ft
u
V
(
| |
( |
( | = + + = ~
( |
|
(
\ .


Now calculate the ultimate shear stress given this V
u
and moment transfer in the more critical
direction.

u v u
u
o c
V M c
v
b d J

= +
where:

1 2
1 1
1 1 0.4
2 2
1 / 1 1
3 3
v
b b
= = =
+ +


1 2
23.4 in b b = =
16 in c =

( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
1
1 2
6.75 in 23.4 in
5.85 in
2 4 23.4 in 6.75 in
AB
d b
c
b d b d

= = =
+


( ) ( )
2
3 3
2 1 1 1
1 2
3 3
2
12 12 2
23.4 in 6.75 in 6.75 in 23.4 in
23.4 in
23.4 in 6.75 in 5.85 in
12 12 2

c AB AB
c
b d db b
J b d c b dc
J
(
| |
= + + + (
|
\ .
(

(

| |
( = + +
|
\ . (

( )
2
4
23.4 in 6.75 in 5.85 in
18, 600 in
c
J
+
=

And, the more critical moment transfer axis is along column line 1, which is presented in the
solution to Problem 13-7.
28 k-ft
u
M =

Finally, we can calculate the maximum combined shear stress considering moment transfer in the
more critical direction as follows:
( )
4
in
0.4 28 k-ft 12 16 in
26.1 k
ft
0.198 ksi 198 psi
46.8 in 6.75 in 18, 600 in
u v u
u
o c
V M c
v
b d J


= = = =



Now compare compute v
n
to check whether this level of shear stress is acceptable.

'
'
'
4 0.75 4 1 4500 psi 201 psi
4 4
2 0.75 2 4500 psi 302 psi
1
20 6.75 in
2 0.75 2 4500 psi 246 psi
46.8 in
c
n c
s
c
o
f
v f
d
f
b
|
| |
|
o
|

= =

| | | |
s + = + =
| |
\ . \ .

| | | |

+ = + =
|
|

\ .
\ .


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13-24
Therefore,
201 psi 198 psi
n u
v v | = > = OK
(b) Make the check for moment transfer in both principal directions, but permit
a 20 percent increase in the maximum permissible shear stress calculated at
the corner of the critical shear perimeter.

From part (a),
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
23.4 in
246 psf 10 ft 1 ft 9 ft 1 ft 26100 lb 26.1 k
in
144
ft
u
V
(
| |
( |
( | = + + = ~
( |
|
(
\ .



1
28 k-ft
u
M =
Following the same procedure shown in Problem 13-7, the moment in the E-W direction is:

2
25 k-ft
u
M =

Now we can calculate the maximum combined shear stress considering moment transfer in both
principal directions as follows:

( ) ( )
1 2
4 4
in in
0.4 28 k-ft 12 16 in 0.4 25 k-ft 12 16 in
26.1 k
ft ft
46.8 in 6.75 in 18, 600 in 18, 600 in
0.301 ksi 301 psi
u v u v u
u
o c c
u
u
V M c M c
v
b d J J
v
v

=

=

= =


Now compare compute v
n
to check whether this level of shear stress is acceptable.

'
'
'
4 0.75 4 1 4500 psi 201 psi
4 4
2 0.75 2 4500 psi 302 psi
1
20 6.75 in
2 0.75 2 4500 psi 246 psi
46.8 in
c
n c
s
c
o
f
v f
d
f
b
|
| |
|
o
|

= =

| | | |
s + = + =
| |
\ . \ .

| | | |

+ = + =
|
|

\ .
\ .


Even allowing for a 20% increase in the maximum permissible shear stress, a slab thickness of 8
in does not seem to be deep enough to satisfy this shear check. Repeat with h = 9.5 in.
9.5 in 0.75 in 0.5 in 8.25 in
avg
d ~ =
( ) 2 16 in 4 in 8.25 in / 2 48.3 in
o
b = + + =
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
24.1 in
246 psf 10 ft 1 ft 9 ft 1 ft 26100 lb 26.1 k
in
144
ft
u
V
(
| |
( |
( | = + + = ~
( |
|
(
\ .



1 2
24.1 in b b = =

( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
1
1 2
8.25 in 24.1 in
6.03 in
2 4 24.1 in 8.25 in
AB
d b
c
b d b d

= = =
+

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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13-25

( ) ( )
2
3 3
2 1 1 1
1 2
3 3
2
12 12 2
24.1 in 8.25 in 8.25 in 24.1 in
24.1 in
24.1 in 8.25 in 6.03 in
12 12 2

c AB AB
c
b d db b
J b d c b dc
J
(
| |
= + + + (
|
\ .
(

(

| |
( = + +
|
\ . (

( )
2
4
24.1 in 8.25 in 6.03 in
25, 200 in
c
J
+
=

So, now the shear stress demand is:

( ) ( )
1 2
4 4
in in
0.4 28 k-ft 12 16 in 0.4 25 k-ft 12 16 in
26.1 k
ft ft
48.3 in 8.25 in 25, 200 in 25, 200 in
0.227 ksi 227 psi
u v u v u
u
o c c
u
u
V M c M c
v
b d J J
v
v

=

=

= =

If a 9.5 in deep slab is used, then 227 psi 1.2 241 psi
u n
v v | = s = .


(c) Check one-way shear for a critical diagonal section across the corner near
the corner column.

Assume that the critical section for one-way shear at this corner column occurs at a 45 degree
angle from either of the exterior edges, at a distance, d, from the most interior corner. If we
assume that d = 6.75 in, as in part (a), the length of the critical section is as follows:
( ) 2 4 in 16 in 2 6.75 in 70 in
(
= + + =



Therefore,
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
35.0 in
246 psf 10 ft 1 ft 9 ft 1 ft 25000 lb 25.0 k
in
144
ft
u
V
(
| |
( |
( | = + + = ~
( |
|
(
\ .



The capacity of the section is:
6.75 in 70.0 in 0.75 1.0 2 4,500 psi 6.75 in 70.0 in 47,500 lb 47.5 k
n c
V V | | = = = =

Therefore, a slab with h = 8 in will not fail in one-way shear along this diagonal failure plane.








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13-26
13-10 For the slab system shown in Fig. P13-7, assume the slab has four equal spans in the
north-south direction and three equal spans in the east-west direction. Use the
loading and material strengths given in Problem 13-7 and assume a slab thickness of
7.5 in.

(a) Use an equivalent-frame method to analyze the factored design moments
along column line 2 and compare the results with the moments used in part
(b) of Problem 13-7.

For this solution, structural analysis software is used to model an equivalent frame used
to represent the column line in question. Before this can be done, an appropriate equivalent frame
must be defined, which is done here following recommendations from the text.

Column properties:

2
16 in 16 in 256 in
g
A = =

( )
3
4
16 in 16 in
5460 in
12
g
I

= =

4
5460 in
e g
I I = =
Note that a full 9.5 ft of column will be modeled above and below the slab. These
elements will be fixed at their ends.

Beam properties:
In the positive bending regions and the negative bending regions near interior columns:
0.5 o = , 0.5 | =

( )
3
3 3
4 2
0.5 18 ft 12 in/ft 7.5 in
3800 in
12 12 12
g
h bh
I
o

= = = =

4
0.5 1900 in
e g g
I I I | = = =

In the negative bending regions near exterior columns (assumed to be
1
0.2 ft long):
0.2 o = , 0.33 | =

( )
3
3 3
4 2
0.2 18 ft 12 in/ft 7.5 in
1520 in
12 12 12
g
h bh
I
o

= = = =

4
0.33 500 in
e g g
I I I | = = =

Loads to be applied:

3 2
7.5 in lb lb lb k
18 ft 150 25 2140 2.14
in
ft ft ft ft
12
ft
D
q
| |
|
= + = =
|
|
|
\ .


2
lb lb k
18 ft 60 1080 1.08
ft ft ft
L
q
| |
= = =
|
\ .

use 1.2 1.6
U D L
q q q = + with appropriate pattern loading schemes for each location



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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
13-27
Location Equivalent Frame Analysis with
Software-Based Model
Direct Design Method
(From Problem 13-7)
Column A-2 -62.8 k-ft -51 k-ft
Midspan A-B 80.3 k-ft 102 k-ft
Exterior of col. B-2 -156 k-ft -137 k-ft
Interior of col. B-2 -130 k-ft -127 k-ft
Midspan B-C 64.5 k-ft 69 k-ft
Column C-2 -126 k-ft -127 k-ft
Note that the remaining locations along column line 2 are symmetrical across column C-2.

Some discussion should be presented in the solution, in addition to this table, commenting on the
relative precision of the two approaches, noting that neither is necessarily accurate nor correct,
although they are hopefully close to reality. It might be noted that similar discrepancies show up
when the results of a software analysis of a frame system are compared with the results from
using an ACI moment coefficient approach.


(b) Use an equivalent-frame method to analyze the factored design moments
along column line A and compare the results with the moments used in part
(b) of Problem 13-8.

For this solution, structural analysis software is used to model an equivalent frame used
to represent the column line in question. Before this can be done, an appropriate equivalent frame
must be defined, which is done here following recommendations from the text.

Column properties:

2
16 in 16 in 256 in
g
A = =

( )
3
4
16 in 16 in
5460 in
12
g
I

= =

4
5460 in
e g
I I = =
Note that a full 9.5 ft of column will be modeled above and below the slab. These
elements will be fixed at their ends.

Beam properties:
In the positive bending regions and the negative bending regions near interior columns:
0.5 o = , 0.5 | =



In the negative bending regions near exterior columns (assumed to be
1
0.2 ft long):
0.2 o = , 0.33 | =





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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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13-28
Loads to be applied:

( ) (

( ) (


use 1.2 1.6
U D L
q q q = + with appropriate pattern loading schemes for each location

Location Equivalent Frame Analysis with
Software-Based Model
Direct Design Method
(From Problem 13-7)
Column A-1 -52.5 k-ft -29.3 k-ft
Midspan A1-A2 46.9 k-ft 58.7 k-ft
Exterior of col. A-2 -89.6 k-ft -78.7 k-ft
Interior of col. A-2 -78.8 k-ft -72.9 k-ft
Midspan A2-A3 39.4 k-ft 39.8 k-ft
Note that the remaining locations along column line A are symmetrical across Midspan A2-A3.

Some discussion should be presented in the solution, in addition to this table, commenting on the
relative precision of the two approaches. It should be mentioned that neither is necessarily
accurate nor correct, although they are hopefully close to reality. It might be noted that similar
discrepancies show up when the results of a software analysis of a frame system are compared
with the results from using an ACI moment coefficient approach.


13-11 For the same floor system described in Problem 13-10 and the loading and material
strengths given in Problem 13-7, assume the slab thickness has been selected to be
6.5 in.

(a) For a typical interior floor panel, calculate the immediate deflection due to
live load and compare to the limit given in ACI Code Table 9.5 (b).

This solution will follow the approach shown in Example 13-16.

Step 1: Compute the immediate deflection of an interior column strip, which should be taken in
the N-S direction, as these are the longer span column strips. Take the span between columns B-
2 and C-2 as the interior span in question.

First compute M
a
. The loads we must consider for deflection calculations are:
Dead load: ( )
3
6.5 in lb
1.0 Dead Load 150 25 psf 106 psf
in
ft
12
ft
= + =
Service load: ( ) 1.0 Dead Live 106 psf 60 psf 166 psf + = + =
Construction load: ( ) ( ) 2.0 Slab Dead Load 2 81.3 psf 163 psf = =
Therefore, cracking will be governed by the service load. Since we know that the moments
calculated in Problem 13-7b are based on an area load of 246 psf, we can take M
a
to be 166/246 =
0.675 times the column strip moments calculated in Problem 13-7b, as follows:
Negative moment at B-2 and C-2: ( ) 0.675 95.2 k-ft 64.3 k-ft =
Positive moment at midspan: 0.675 41.1 k-ft 27.7 k-ft =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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13-29
Now compute M
cr
:

( )
3 in
1
7.5 4500 psi 9 ft 12 6.5 in
12
ft
383, 000 lb-in 31.9 k-ft
3.25 in
r g
cr
t
f I
M
y

= = = =
It is a safe bet that the slab will be cracked in both the positive and negative moment
regions regardless, due to temperature and shrinkage effects.

Next, we have to compute I
cr
and I
e
. For simplicity, we will assume that the reinforcement
selected in Problem 13-7 is used in this slab as well.
Negative moment region:

2
11 0.31 in
0.00486
in
9 ft 12 6.5 in
ft


= =



29, 000, 000 psi
7.58
57, 000 4500 psi
n = =
0.0368 n =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 0.0368 0.0368 0.0368 0.237 k n n n = + = + =

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 2
3 2
2 4
1
3
1 in
9 ft 12 0.237 5.4 in 3.41 in 7.58 5.4 in 0.237 5.4 in 514 in
3 ft
cr st
I b kd A n d kd = +
= + =


( ) ( )
3
3
4 4 4 4
31.9 k-ft
514 in 2470 in 514 in 753 in
64.3 k-ft
cr
e cr g cr
a
M
I I I I
M
| |
| |
= + = + =
|
|
\ .
\ .

Positive moment region:

4
2470 in
e g
I I ~ =
So, the weighted average value of I
e
is:
( ) ( )
4 4 4 4
( ) 1 2
0.7 0.15 0.7 2470 in 0.15 753 in 753 in 1950 in
e average em e e
I I I I = + + = + + =

Now we can calculate the immediate deflection due to live load. Using the same logic described
in Example 13-16, assume that 67.5% of the loads will be carried by the column strip.
60 psf 18 ft 0.675 0.729 k/ft 60.8 lb/in
L
w = = =
106 psf 18 ft 0.675 1.29 k/ft 107 lb/in
D
w = = =

4
4
(column strip max)
4
in
60.8 lb/in 20 ft 12
ft
0.0048 0.0048 0.130 in
57, 000 4500 psi 1950in
L
L
w
EI
| |

|
\ .
A = = =



4
4
(column strip max)
4
in
107 lb/in 20 ft 12
ft
0.0026 0.0026 0.124 in
57, 000 4500 psi 1950in
D
D
w
EI
| |

|
\ .
A = = =



Step 2: Compute the immediate deflection of an interior middle strip, which should be taken in
the E-W direction, as these are the shorter span middle strips. Take an interior span between
column lines 2 and 3.

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13-30
First compute M
a
. The loads we must consider for deflection calculations are:
Dead load: ( )
3
6.5 in lb
1.0 Dead Load 150 25 psf 106 psf
in
ft
12
ft
= + =
Service load: ( ) 1.0 Dead Live 106 psf 60 psf 166 psf + = + =
Construction load: ( ) ( ) 2.0 Slab Dead Load 2 81.3 psf 163 psf = =

Therefore, cracking will be governed by the service load. Since we know that the moments
calculated in Problem 13-7b are based on an area load of 246 psf, we can take M
a
to be 166/246 =
0.675 times the slab strip moments calculated using the loading described in Problem 13-7b.
Negative moment at B-2 and C-2: ( ) 0.675 28.3 k-ft 19.1 k-ft =
Positive moment at midspan: 0.675 24.4 k-ft 16.5 k-ft =

Now compute M
cr
:

( )
3 in
1
7.5 4500 psi 11 ft 12 6.5 in
12
ft
468, 000 lb-in 39.0 k-ft
3.25 in
r g
cr
t
f I
M
y

= = = =
It is unlikely that the middle strip will be significantly cracked given that the moments
which control the cracking state are so far below the cracking moment for the strip section.
Therefore, we can assume that:
Negative moment region:

4
3020 in
e g
I I ~ =
Positive moment region:

4
3020 in
e g
I I ~ =
And therefore the weighted average value of I
e
is obviously:

4
( )
3020 in
e average
I =

Now we can calculate the immediate deflection due to live load. Using the same logic described
in Example 13-16, assume that 32.5% of the loads will be carried by the middle strip.
60 psf 20 ft 0.325 0.390 k/ft 32.5 lb/in
L
w = = =
106 psf 20 ft 0.325 0.689 k/ft 57.4 lb/in
D
w = = =

4
4
(middle strip max)
4
in
32.5 lb/in 18 ft 12
ft
0.0048 0.0048 0.029 in
57, 000 4500 psi 3020in
L
L
w
EI
| |

|
\ .
A = = =


4
4
(middle strip max)
4
in
57.4 lb/in 18 ft 12
ft
0.0026 0.0026 0.028 in
57, 000 4500 psi 3020in
D
D
w
EI
| |

|
\ .
A = = =



Step 3: Compute the maximum immediate total deflection in the panel due to the live load, and
compare against allowable deflections according to ACI Code limits.

(max)
0.130 in 0.029 in 0.159 in
L
A = + =
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13-31

in
20 ft 12
ft
ACI Code Limit / 360 0.667 in
360

= = = We are OK.
(b) For the same floor panel, calculate the total deflection after the attachment
of partitions and compare to the limit given in ACI Code Table 9.5(b) for
partitions that are not likely to be damaged by long term deflections.
Assume that 85 percent of the dead load is acting when the partitions are
attached to the structure and assume that 25 percent of the live load will be
sustained for a period of one year.

We will assume that the total expected deflection after the attachment of partitions is a
sum of the following:

1. Dead load
Assuming that 85% of the dead load is already acting when the partitions are
attached, consider 15% of the immediate deflection due to dead load affects the
partitions.

Dead immediate
0.1 (0.124 in 0.028 in) 0.015 in A = + =

2. Live load
Assume that the total instantaneous deflection due to live load could occur at any
time once the partitions are attached, so include the full instantaneous deflection
due to live load.

Live immediate
0.159 in A =

3. Long term deflections
Assume that the full dead load acts plus 25% of the live load over the
course of a year. Use the suggested deflection coefficient of 3.0 to adjust
for long-term amplification effects.
( )
Long term
3.0 0.124 in 0.028 in 0.25 0.159 in 0.575 in A = + + =

Therefore, the total expected deflection felt by the partitions is:

partitions Dead immediate Live immediate Long term
partitions
0.015 in 0.159 in 0.575 in 0.749 in
A = A + A + A
A = + + =


Compare this to the ACI limit for slab systems supporting partitions which are not
likely to be damaged by large deflections:

in
20 ft 12
ft
ACI Code Limit / 240 1.0 in
240

= = = We are OK.


13-12 Repeat the questions in Problem 13-11 for the following panels.

(a) An exterior panel along the west side of the floor system.

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13-32
This solution will follow the same lines as the solution for Problem 13-11. The column
strip in question will still be taken along the N-S direction. The major change will lie in the
definition of moments acting in the column and middle strips.


(b) An exterior panel along the north side of the floor system.

This solution will follow the same lines as the solution for Problem 13-11. The column
strip in question will still be taken along the N-S direction. The major change will again lie in the
definition of moments acting in the column and middle strips.

(c) A corner panel.

This solution will again follow the same lines as the solution for Problem 13-11. The
column strip in question will still be taken along the N-S direction. The major change will still lie
in the definition of moments acting in the column and middle strips.



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14-1
Chapter 14

14-1 For the slab panel shown in Fig. P14-1, use the yield-line method to determine the
minimum value of the area load,

, at the formation of the critical yield-line


mechanism.

We may need to investigate two yield-line mechanisms to find the minimum q
f
.

1. Select first plastic mechanism.
















2. Assume a virtual displacement equal to along the positive yield line from A to B.



3. Compute the internal work. For slab segment I the internal work is:

( )


Similarly, the internal work for slab segment II is:

()


Therefore, the sum of the internal work is:
(

) (

)

4. Compute the external work. The two end regions outside of the points A and B are essentially two
half-pyramids that can be combined into a single pyramid with a base area 18 ft x 2 x 20 ft. The
central region between points A and B has a triangular cross-section and extends over a length of
20 ft x (1 2 ). Thus, the external work is:

( )

( )




18 ft.
L
1
= 22 ft.
Mechanism No. 1
9 ft.
| L
1
I
II
A B
L
1
= 20 ft
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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14-2
5. Equate the external and internal work. Set EW = and solve for q
f
.

)
( )


6. Solve for the minimum value of q
f
. The solution table below starts with = 0.5 and slowly
decreases .

Numerator, kips Denominator, ft
2
q
f
, ksf
0.50 57.4 120 0.478
0.48 59.1 122 0.482
0.46 60.8 125 0.488

From this table the minimum value of q
f
is 0.478 ksf and it occurs for a value of 0.50. Because of
this result, we should investigate a second possible yield-line mechanism.

7. Select a second possible plastic yield-line mechanism.














8. Assume a virtual displacement of along positive yield line C D.



9. Compute the internal work. For slab segment I the internal work is:

( )


Similarly, the internal work for slab segment II is:

()


Therefore, the sum of the internal work is:
(

) (

)

10. Compute the external work. The two end regions outside of the points C and D are essentially
two half-pyramids that can be combined into a single pyramid with a base area 20 ft x 2 x 18 ft.
L
2
= 18 ft.
22 ft.
Mechanism No. 2
11 ft
I
II
C
D
o L
2
20 ft
10 ft
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14-3
The central region between points C and D has a triangular cross-section and extends over a length of
18 ft x (1 2 ). Thus, the external work is:

( )

( )

11. Equate the external and internal work. Set EW = and solve for q
f
.

)
( )


12. Solve for the minimum value of q
f
. The solution table below starts with = 0.5 and slowly
decreases .

Numerator, kips Denominator, ft
2
q
f
, ksf
0.50 57.2 120 0.477
0.48 57.9 122 0.475
0.46 58.7 125 0.47
0.44 59.6 127 0.469
0.42 60.6 130 0.468
0.4 61.6 132 0.467
0.38 62.8 134 0.467

From this table the minimum value of q
f
is 0.467 ksf and it occurs for an value of approximately
0.47. In this case it was important for us to investigate this second possible yield-line mechanism.



















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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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14-4
14-2 For the slab panel shown in Fig. P14-2, use the yield-line method to determine the
minimum value of the area load,

, at the formation of the critical yield-line


mechanism.

1. Select plastic yield-line mechanism.


















2. Assume a virtual displacement equal to along the positive yield line from A to B.



3. Compute the internal work. For slab segment I the internal work is:

( )


Similarly, the internal work for slab segment II is:

()


Therefore, the sum of the internal work is:

() (

)

4. Compute the external work. The end region below the point A is essentially a half-pyramid with a
base area of 20 ft x x 20 ft. The region between points A and B has a triangular cross-section and
extends over a length of 20 ft x (1 ). Thus, the external work is:

( )

( )

5. Equate the external and internal work. Set EW = and solve for q
f
.

)
( )


L
1
= 20 ft.
20 ft.
Assumed yield-line mechanism
free edge
I
II
10 ft.
| L
1
A
B
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14-5
6. Solve for the minimum value of q
f
. The solution table below starts with = 0.75 and increase in
increments of 0.05.

Numerator, kips Denominator, ft
2
q
f
, ksf
0.75 34.7 150 0.231
0.80 33.6 147 0.229
0.85 32.7 143 0.228
0.90 31.9 140 0.228
0.95 31.2 137 0.228
1.00 30.5 133 0.229

From this table the minimum value of q
f
is 0.228 ksf and it occurs for a value of approximately
0.90.






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14-6
14-3 For the slab panel shown in Fig. P14-3, use the yield-line method to determine the
minimum value of the area load,

, at the formation of the critical yield-line


mechanism.

1. Select plastic yield-line mechanism.



















This is a complex mechanism with many potential variables. We will select values for some of the
distances shown in this figure as an initial trial. A few points should be noted regarding this
mechanism. As stated in the text, a positive yield line between two adjacent plate segments will
extend to or toward the intersection of the axes of rotation for those two plate segments. Thus, the
positive yield line A-D starts at the intersection between the axes of rotation for segments I and II (at
point A). Similarly, the other two positive yield lines branching out from point D aim toward the
points E (intersection of axes of rotation for segments I and III) and F (intersection of axes of rotation
for segments II and III). Experience with this particular mechanism indicates that the minimum value
of q
f
will occur when the point D is relatively close to the corner column support.

2. Select trial values for the assumed mechanism. The following values were selected for the
mechanism shown above.

B-E = 24 ft C-F = 18 ft Y = 15 ft X = 20 ft

With these values selected, geometry can be used to determine the additional values shown on the
following figure. It should be noted that the three lines extending from the slab to line E-F (the axes
of rotation for segment III) are all perpendicular to that line.

3. Assume a virtual displacement equal to occurs at the point D.
; , and
15 ft 20 ft 4.80 ft
I II III
o o o
u u u = = =



18 ft
24 ft
Assumed yield-line mechanism
A B
C
Y
X
L
III
D
E
F
I
II
III
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14-7



















4. Compute the internal work. For the three slab segments the internal work is:

( ) ( ) 24 ft
k-ft
(6 8) 24 ft (22.4 k)
ft 15 ft
( ) ( ) 18 ft
k-ft
(6 8) 18 ft (12.6 k)
k 20 ft
( )
k-ft
6 8.60 ft (10
k 4.80 ft
p n I
p n II
p III III
IW I m m
IW II m m
IW III m L
u
o
o
u
o
o
u
o
= +
= + =
= +
= + =
=
= = .8 k) o

Therefore, the sum of the internal work is:
( ) 45.8 k IW o =



5. Compute the external work. Rather than calculate a displaced volume, we will determine the
magnitude of load acting on each plate segment and then multiply that load times the displacement at
the centroid of the segment. If we did this directly for the defined segments, it would be difficult to
find the centroids of each segment. Thus, for plate segment I we will calculate the work done by the
distributed load acting on the triangular segment A-D-E, and then subtract to work for the triangular
piece outside the actual slab panel. So, for segment I:

(12.9 15)
( ) (total) (outside)
3 3
f
EW I A A q
o o (
=
(



2
1 1 1 12.9 15
( ) 48 15 24 12.9
2 3 2 3
(75.6 ft )
f
f
EW I q
q
o
o
(
' ' ' ' =
(

=

18 ft
24 ft
Assumed yield-line mechanism
A B
C
12.9'
17.1'
4
.
5
'
D
E
F
I
II
III 4
.
8
0
'
4
.
1
1
'
4
.
0
9
'
2
6
.
9
'
2
4
.
5
'
4
.
1
'
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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14-8

Similarly, for segment II:

2
1 1 1 17.1 20
( ) 36 20 18 17.1
2 3 2 3
(76.1 ft )
f
f
EW II q
q
o
o
(
' ' ' ' =
(

=

And for segment III, where some additional small triangles are used outside the slab panel:
2
1 1 1 4.11 4.80 1 4.09 4.80
( ) [ 60 4.80 26.9 4.11 24.5 4.09
2 3 2 3 2 3
1 4.11 4.80 1 4.09 4.80
3.10 4.11 5.5 4.09 ]
2 3 2 3
( ) (13.0 ft )
f
f
EW III
q
EW III q
o
o
' ' ' ' ' ' =
' ' ' '
=

Thus, the sum of external work is:

2
(165 ft )
f
EW q o =



6. Setting the sum of the internal work equal to the sum of the external work gives:


2
45.8 kips
(trial) 0.278 ksf
165 ft
f
q = =

7. Estimate for the minimum value of q
f
. Rather than doing several trials, we will assume that the
selected trial mechanism is reasonable and should give an answer within ten percent of the true
minimum value for q
f
. Thus, we can say:
(min) 0.9 0.278 0.250 ksf
f
q ~ =






















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14-9
14-4 For the slab panel shown in Fig. P14-4, use the yield-line method to determine the
minimum value of the area load,

, at the formation of the critical yield-line


mechanism.

1. Select a plastic yield-line mechanism. Try the mechanism shown below. Note that there is a single
variable for this mechanism, the value of .
















2. Assume a virtual displacement equal to occurs at the point A.

( )


3. Compute the internal work. For slab segment I the internal work is:

( ))

( ( ))

[
( )

]
Similarly, the internal work for slab segment II is:

( )

( )
[


]
Therefore, the sum of the internal work is:
[
( )



]

4. Compute the external work. The deflected shape is essentially a half-pyramid, with a combined
base area (18 ft x 24 ft)/2. Thus, the external work is:



5. Equate the external and internal work. Set EW = and solve for q
f
.

(
( )




Assumed yield-line mechanism
L
1
= 18 ft.
| L
2
A
I
II
L
2
= 24 ft.
| L
1
free edge
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14-10
6. Solve for the minimum value of q
f
. Because the denominator is constant, we need to minimize the
numerator. It is expected that 0.5.

Numerator, kips Denominator, ft
2
q
f
, ksf
0.48 29.0 72.0 0.403
0.50 28.5 72.0 0.396
0.52 28.1 72.0 0.390
0.54 27.7 72.0 0.385
0.56 27.5 72.0 0.382
0.58 27.4 72.0 0.381
0.60 27.5 72.0 0.382

From this table the minimum value of q
f
is 0.381 ksf and it occurs for a value of 0.58.
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14-11
14-5 The slab panel shown in Fig. P14-5 is 7.5 in. thick and is made of normal weight
concrete. The slab will need to support a superimposed dead load of 25 psf and a live
load of 60 psf. Assume that the slab will be designed with isotropic top and bottom
reinforcement.

(a) Find the critical yield-line mechanism and then use the appropriate load factors
and strength-reduction factors to determine the required sum of the nominal
negative- and positive-moment capacities (

) in units of - .

1. Determine the total factored load to be resisted.

Slab weight is (7.5/12) x 150 = 94 psf; Thus, the total dead load = 94 + 25 = 119 psf.
The live load can be reduced based on the panel area (20 x 26 = 520 ft
2
). Note: K
LL
= 1.0. For
this area, the reduced live load is equal to 54.5 psf.
So, the total factored load, q
u
= 1.2 x 119 + 1.6 x 54.5 = 230 psf = 0.230 ksf

2. Select a possible plastic yield-line mechanism. A couple items should be noted. First, in text
Example 14-4, the value of was close to 0.5, so having a virtual displacement of only at a single
point (point A) will give a relatively good answer. Also, because of the fixed supports at the support
edges for plate segments I and II, we would like to make the rotations of those plate segments smaller
than for plate segments III and IV. Thus, will be greater than 0.5.


















3. Assume a virtual displacement equal to at point A.

, and
20 ft 26 ft
, and
(1 ) 20 ft (1 ) 26 ft
I II
III IV
o o
u u
| |
o o
u u
| |
= =

= =






20 ft
26 ft
Assumed yield-line mechanism
A
| x 20 ft
| x 26 ft
II
III
IV
I
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14-12
3. Compute the internal work. For the four slab segments the internal work is:

1.3( )
( ) ( ) 26 ft
0.77( )
( ) ( ) 20 ft
n p
n p I
n p
n p II
m m
IW I m m
m m
IW II m m
u o
|
u o
|
+
= + =
+
= + =


1.3
( ) 26 ft
1
0.77
( ) 20 ft
1
p
p III
p
p IV
m
IW III m
m
IW IV m
u o
|
u o
|
= =

= =


From these, the sum of the internal work is:
[
(


]
At some point in the design process need to make a decision on the ratio between the flexural strength
of the bottom reinforcement, m
p
, vs. the strength of the top reinforcement, m
n
. Reading ahead to
problem 14.5(b), we are asked to assume that

. Thus, the internal work can be expressed


as a function of m
p
.
[
(


]

4. Compute the external work. In previous problems we have solved for the distributed load, q
f
, at the
development of a failure mechanism. In this case, q
f
is equivalent to q
u
divided by the strength
reduction factor, , which will be assume to be equal to 0.9. Thus,

2
0.230 ksf
20 ft 26 ft (173 ft ) (44.2 k)
3 0.9
u
q
EW
o
o o
|
(
= = =
(



5. Equate the external and internal work.
[
(


]


6. Solve for the minimum required value of

. The solution table below starts with = 0.5 and


increase in increments of 0.05.

Required

, kip-ft/ft
0.50 2.97
0.55 3.07
0.60 3.13
0.65 3.11

From this table the minimum required value of

is 3.13 kip-ft/ft. Assuming that

kip-ft/ft.
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14-13
(b) Start with

approximately equal to

, and then select top and bottom


isotropic reinforcement to provide the required combined flexural strength
calculated in part (a). Be sure to check reinforcement spacing requirements
given in ACI Code Section 13.3.2.

1. From part (a),

and

kip-ft/ft. Select top and bottom bars to provide the


required moment strength. Assume

and

. Also, assuming that #4 bars will


suffice, use



For negative bending,

()

( )


Using #4 bars,


Using #3 bars,



For positive bending,

()

( )


Using #4 bars,


Using #3 bars,



2. Check reinforcement detailing requirements and select reinforcement:
Minimum reinforcement area:

. This is easily satisfied by the top and


bottom reinforcement required for strength purposes.

Maximum spacing:

{


} To satisfy the strength requirements from step 1
and this maximum spacing requirement, select #3 bars for both top and bottom reinforcement. Bars
shall be spaced at 7.5 in. and 11 in. along the top and bottom faces of the slab, respectively, in both
orthogonal directions. Clear cover requirements of 0.75 in. shall be enforced. Proper anchorage shall
be provided for all slab reinforcement.

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15-1
Chapter 15

15-1 Design wall footings to be supported 3 ft below grade for the following conditions.
Assume a soil density of

and normal weight concrete for both problems.



Service dead load is 6 kips/ft, service live load is 8 kips/ft. Wall is 12 in. thick.
Allowable soil pressure,

, is 4000 psf.

and

.

The following design is done for a 1 ft length of footing. Although not included for simplicity, the
per foot notation applies to all units in the following solution.

1) Estimate size of footing and factored net pressure
The bottom face of the footing is 3 ft below the ground surface.
Assume the thickness of the footing is 12 in.
The soil density is 120
3
lb/ft
Allowable net soil pressure:
3 3
4 ksf (1.0 ft 0.15 k/ft 2.0 ft 0.12 k/ft ) 3.61 ksf
n
q = + =
Required footing area:
2
.
6 k 8 k
3.88 ft
3.61 ksf
req
A
+
= =
Try 4 ft wide strip footing.
Factored net pressure:
1.2 6 k 1.6 8 k
5 ksf
4 ft 1 ft
nu
q
+
= =



2) Check one-way shear
Assume a concrete cover of 3 in., and #8 bars being used.
12 in. 3 in. 0.5 in. 8.5 in. d = =
The distance the footing extends to each side from the column face:
( ) 48 in. 12 in. / 2 18 in. =
18 in. 8.5 in.
5 ksf 1 ft 3.96 k
12 in/ft
u
V
| |
= =
|
\ .

2 0.75 2 3500 12 8.5 9050 lb 9.05 k
c c w
V f b d | | ' = = = =
Since
c
V | is significantly greater than
u
V , we reduce the footing thickness to the
minimum allowable by ACI Section 15.7, i.e.:
6 in. + bar dia. + 3 in. cover. = 10 in.
10 in. 3 in. 0.5 in. 6.5 in. d = =
18 in. 6.5 in.
5 ksf 1 ft 4.79 k
12 in/ft
u
V
| |
= =
|
\ .


Use 10 in. thick footing




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15-2
3) Design reinforcement
( )
( )
2
1.5 ft
5 ksf 1ft 5.63 k-ft
2
u
M = =
Assume 0.90 j =
2
5.63 k-ft 12 in/ft
0.21 in.
0.9 60 ksi (0.9 6.5 in)
s
A

= =


2
,min
0.0018bh 0.0018 12 in. 10 in. 0.22 in.
s
A = = =
Use #4 bars at with a spacing of 10 in. (
2
0.24 in.
s
A = )
10 in. 3 in. 0.25 in. 6.75 in. d = =
2
0.24 in. 60 ksi
0.4 in.
0.85 3.5 psi 12 in.
a

= =


( ) 6.75 0.4/ 0.85
0.003 0.040 0.005, 0.9
0.4/ 0.85
t cm
d c
c
c c |

= = = > =
( )
2
0.9 0.24 in. 60 ksi 6.75 in. 0.4 in./2
84.9 k-in. 7.07 k-ft
n
u
M
M
| =
= = >


4) Check development
Bar spacing exceeds
b
2 and cover exceeds d
b
d This is Case 2 development.
1 1 60000 psi
0.5 in. 20 in. 18 in. 3 in., NG.
25 25 1 3500 psi
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f


= = = >
'

We shall use 90 standard hooks to anchor the bars. The required development length for
a 90 standard hook is:
0.02
0.02 1 60000 psi
0.5 in. 10 in. < 18 in. 3 in., OK.
1 3500 psi
e y
d b
c
f
d
f


= = =
'


5) Temperature requirement for longitudinal reinforcement:
2
, .
0.0018bh 0.0018 48 in. 10 in. 0.86 in.
s req
A = = =
Use 5 #4 bars for longitudinal reinforcement.

Use 10 in. thick by 4 ft. wide footing with #4 bars at 10 in. o.c. with 90 hooks at both ends in the
transverse direction, and 5 #4 bars in the longitudinal direction.


15-2 Design wall footings to be supported 3 ft below grade for the following conditions.
Assume a soil density of

and normal weight concrete for both problems.



Service dead load is 15 kips/ft, service live load is 8 kips/ft. Wall is 16 in. thick.
Allowable soil pressure,

, is 6000 psf.

and

.

1) Estimate size of footing and factored net pressure
The bottom face of the footing is 3 ft below the ground surface.
Assume the thickness of the footing is16 in.
The soil density is 120
3
lb/ft
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15-3
Allowable net soil pressure:

)
Required footing area:


Try 4.5 ft wide strip footing.
Factored net pressure:





2) Check one-way shear
Assume a concrete cover of 3 in., and #8 bars being used.
16 in. 3 in. 0.5 in. 12.5 in. d = =
The distance the footing extends to each side from the column face:
( ) 54 in. 16 in. / 2 19 in. =
19 in. 12.5 in.
6.84 ksf 1 ft 3.71 k
12 in/ft
u
V
| |
= =
|
\ .

2 0.75 2 3000 12 12.5 12.3 k
c c w
V f b d | | ' = = =
Since
c
V | is significantly greater than
u
V , we reduce the footing thickness to 12 in.:
12 in. 3 in. 0.5 in. 8.5 in. d = =
19 in. 8.5 in.
6.84 ksf 1 ft 5.99 k
12 in/ft
u
V
| |
= =
|
\ .


Use 12 in. thick footing

3) Design reinforcement
( )
( )
2
1.583 ft
6.84 ksf 1ft 8.58 k-ft
2
u
M = =
Assume 0.90 j =
2
8.58 k-ft 12 in/ft
0.25 in.
0.9 60 ksi (0.9 8.5 in)
s
A

= =


2
,min
0.0018bh 0.0018 12 in. 12 in. 0.26 in.
s
A = = =
Use #5 bars at with a spacing of 12 in. (
2
0.31 in.
s
A = )
12 in. 3 in. 0.31 in. 8.7 in. d = =
2
0.31 in. 60 ksi
0.61 in.
0.85 3.0 psi 12 in.
a

= =


( ) 8.7 0.61/ 0.85
0.003 0.033 0.005, 0.9
0.61/ 0.85
t cm
d c
c
c c |

= = = > =
( )
2
0.9 0.31 in. 60 ksi 8.7 in. 0.61/ 2 in.
141 k-in. 11.7 k-ft
n
u
M
M
| =
= = >



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15-4
4) Check development
Bar spacing exceeds
b
2 and cover exceeds d
b
d This is Case 2 development.
1 1 60000 psi
0.625 in. 27.4 in. 19 in. 3 in., NG.
25 25 1 3000 psi
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f


= = = >
'

We shall use 90 standard hooks to anchor the bars. The required development length for
a 90 standard hook is:
0.02
0.02 1 60000 psi
0.625 in. 14 in. < 19 in. 3 in., OK.
1 3000 psi
e y
hb b
c
f
d
f


= = =
'


5) Temperature requirement for longitudinal reinforcement:
2
, .
0.0018bh 0.0018 54 in. 12 in. 1.17 in.
s req
A = = =
Use 6 #4 bars for longitudinal reinforcement.

Use 12 in. thick by 4 ft 6 in. wide footing with #5 bars at 12 in. o.c. with 90 hooks at both ends
in the transverse direction, and 6 #4 bars in the longitudinal direction.


15-3 Design a square spread footing for the following conditions:

Service dead load is 350 kips, service live load is 275 kips. Soil density is

.
Allowable soil pressure is 4500 psf. Column is 18 in. square.



(normal
weight) and

. Place bottom of footing at 5 ft below floor level.



1) Estimate size of footing and factored net pressure
Estimate thickness between 18 and 36 in., say 30 in.
Assume the floor thickness is 6 in.
Allowable net soil pressure:
3 3
4.5 ksf (2.5 ft 0.5 ft) 0.15 k/ft 2.0 ft 0.13 k/ft 3.79 ksf
n
q = + =
Required footing area:
2
.
350 k 275 k
165 ft
3.79 ksf
req
A
+
= =
Try 13 ft square footing.
Factored net soil pressure:
2
1.2 350 k 1.6 275 k
5.09 ksf
169 ft
nu
q
+
= =


2) Check thickness for two-way shear
Assume a concrete cover of 3 in., and #8 bars being used. Average effective depth:
30 in. 3 in. 1 in. 26 in. d = =
2
2
18 in. 26 in.
5.09 ksf 169 ft 792 k
12 in./ft
u
V
(
+ | |
= =
(
|
\ .
(






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15-5
c
V is taken as the smaller of the following:
4 4
2 2 6
1
c c w c w c w
c
V f b d f b d f b d
|
| |
| |
' ' ' = + = + =
| |
\ .
\ .

(Note
c
| is the ratio of the column dimensions)
( )
40 26 in.
2 2 7.9
4 44 in.
s
c c w c w c w
o
d
V f b d f b d f b d
b
o

| | | |
' ' ' = + = + =
| |
|

\ . \ .

(Note 40
s
o = for a column placed at the center of its footing)
4
c c w
V f b d ' =



Use 30 in. thick footing.

3) Check one-way shear
The distance the footing extends to each side from the column face:
( ) 156 in. 18 in. / 2 69 in. =



4) Design reinforcement
( )
( )
2
5.75 ft
5.09 ksf 13 ft 1095 k-ft
2
u
M = =
Assume 0.90 j =


Use 18 #7 (
2
10.8 in.
s
A = )


( )



5) Check development
Bar spacing exceeds
b
2 and cover exceeds d
b
d This is a Case 2 development.
1 1 60000 psi
0.875 in. 35.5 in.<69 in. 3 in., OK.
25 25 1 3500 psi
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f


= = =
'

Use 13 ft square footing, 30 in. thick with 18 #7 bars each way.

6) Design footing-column joint
Factored load at base of column:
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15-6
1.2 350 1.6 275 860 kips + =
Allowable bearing on footing:
0.65 0.85 3.5 18 18 2 1250 k =
Allowable bearing on column (assume column 4000 psi
c
f ' = )
0.65 0.85 4 18 18 716 k =
2
860 716
Area of dowels required 3.7 in.
0.65 60

= =



Depending on how the column reinforcement is selected, the dowel bars will be selected
accordingly for construction simplicity.


15-4 Design a rectangular spread footing for the following conditions.

Service dead loads are: axial = 350 k, moment = 80 k-ft; service live loads are:
axial = 250 k, moment = 100 k-ft. The moments are acting about the strong axis of
the column section. Soil density is

. Allowable soil pressure is 5500 psf.


Place the bottom of the foundation at 4.5 ft below the basement floor. Assume the
basement floor is 6 in. thick and supports a total service load of 80 psf. Assume the
column section is 24 in. x 16 in., is constructed with 5000 psi normal-weight concrete
and contains 6 No. eight bars (Grade 60) placed to give maximum bending
resistance about the strong axis of the column section. Assume the footing will use



and

.

1) Select footing dimensions based on allowable soil pressure. Assume a footing thickness of 3
ft. The net permissible bearing pressure is:

( )
Consider only the axial loads to establish the width of the footing.



Use axial loads and moments to establish the length of the footing. Assume a linear
distribution of soil pressure as shown in Fig. 15-5(b). Thus,


Set

and .

( )


Solving for the positive root,

Set

2) Calculate factored soil pressure:
Factored loads are:



With these values, the factored soil pressures are:
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15-7




3) Check footing thickness for two-way shear:

Dimension of the critical perimeter are:


Therefore,

() (

)
Calculate the two-way shear capacity, with
c
V taken as the smaller of:


(Note
c
| is the ratio of the column dimensions)


(Note 40
s
o = for a column placed at the center of its footing)
4
c c w
V f b d ' =


Use 36 in. thick footing.

4) Check for combined transfer of shear and moment:

) (

()



5) Check for one-way shear:




6) Design flexural reinforcement for long direction:
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15-8

( )


Assume jd = 0.95d, and use


Use 15 #7 (

( )



7) Check development:


The available length is 72 in., so this is ok.
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17-1
Chapter 17

17-1 The deep beam shown in Fig. P17-1 supports a factored load of 1450 kips. The beam
and columns are 24 in. wide. Draw a truss model neglecting the effects of stirrups
and the dead load of the wall. Check the strength of the nodes and struts, and design
the tension tie. Use

(normal weight concrete) and

.

1290 k
644 k
1450 k
1290 k
644 k
21.1 10.5
55.3
35.8
30 24
243
69 36
Note: Length units are in inches.
A
D
B C
Node 1
Node 2 Node 3

Fig. S17-1

1. Compute /
u
P | and reactions
To include | in calculations use / 1450 kips/0.75 1930 kips
u
P | = =
Sum moments about the center of the support at A, assuming the member acts as a simple
beam and all loads and reactions act along the axes of the columns.
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17-2
69 18 15
1930 kips 644 kips
243 12 15
D
R
+
= =


1930 kips 644 kips 1286 kips 1290 kips
A
R = = ~

2. Select size of beam
Assume
A
R is the maximum value of /
u
V | , and set this equal to ( 6 to 8 ) .
c
f bd ' For
24 in. b = , solve to find d values between 142 and 106 in. Try an overall beam height h
of 10 ft. and assume that d is approximately 9 ft. = 108 in.

3. Isolate D-regions
Because the distance between the load and the reactions is less than 2h at both ends, the
beam consists of two D-regions, one of each side of the load.

4. Draw a strut-and-tie model and establish base dimensions of the nodes
Use a truss with two inclined struts and a tie, as shown below.

Compute
cu
f

Node 1 (CCC node):
0.85 0.85 1.0 4000 psi 3400 psi
cu n c
f f | ' = = =
Node 2 and 3 (CCT nodes):
0.85 0.85 0.8 4000 psi 2720 psi
cu n c
f f | ' = = =
Strut 1-2 (assume sufficient web reinforcement is used to satisfy Eq. 17-10):
0.85 0.85 0.75 4000 psi 2550 psi
cu s c
f f | ' = = =
Select the sizes of the nodes assuming they are hydrostatic nodes with 2550 psi
cu
f =

Node 1

Divide the load into two components equal to the two reactions.
Width of left part of node 1290 k/(2.55 ksi 24 in.) = 21.1 in. =
Similarly, the width of the right part of the node = 10.5 in.
Total node width 21.1 10.5 31.6 in. < 36 in. = + = , OK.

Node 2

Width of node = 21.1 in. < 30 in. (assume reaction is at center of column)

Node 3

Width of node = 10.5 in. < 24 in. (assume reaction is at center of column)

5. Establish geometry of truss and forces in struts and tie:
Assume that 2 ft 10 ft. 2 ft. = 8 ft. = 96 in.
v
d h = =
Then, tan ( left part of span ) = 96 in./(69 18 15) in.; so, ( left )=53.1 u u +
Total span length = 243 12 15 216 in. =
Then, tan ( right part of span ) 96 in./(216 72)in.; so, ( right) 33.7 u u = =

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17-3
Strut 1-2
Axial force = 1290 kips/sin53.1 1610 kips =
Horizontal component = 1610 kips cos53.1 967 kips force in Tie 2-3 = =

Node 2 (Note that | was included in force calculations)
Node height = force in the Tie 2-3/( ) 967 k/(2.55 ksi 24 in.)
cu
f b =
Node height = 15.8 in.; this is also the height of Node 1.

At this point we must check the assumed value for
v
d
Revised: 2 (15.8 in./2)=120 in. 15.8 in. = 104.2 in.
v
d h = (should recycle)
Assume: 104 in.
v
d =
With this value: (left)= 55.3 and (right) = 35.8 u u
Axial forces: Strut 1-2 = 1570 kips and Tie 2-3 = 893 kip
Heights of nodes 1 and 2 = 14.6 in., and 120 in. 2 (14.6 in./2) 105.4 in.
v
d = ~ , OK.

Strut 1-3
Axial force: 644 kips/sin35.8 1100 kips =
Horizontal component: 1100 kips cos35.8 892 kips ( approx. 893 kips, OK.) =

6. Select reinforcement for Tie 2-3 (Note that | was included in force calculations)
2
893 k/ 60 ksi = 14.9 in.
s
A =
Use 16 #9 bars (
2
16.0 in.
s
A = )
Provide 4 layers of 4 No. 9 hooked bars. These must be anchored into the column at each
end with anchorage starting where the centroid of the tie first meets the inclined struts at
each end of the beam. The length required for a 90 standard hook is 21.4 in. for a No. 9
bar, which is less than the dimension of each support of column. Thus, this should be OK.
The centroid of the bars should be at about the mid-height of the nodal zones at each end,
i.e. about 7.5 in. above the bottom of the beam.

7. Minimum web reinforcement to control cracking inclined struts
Because 0.75
s
| = was used for the inclined struts in both the left and right spans,
minimum web reinforcement that satisfies Eq. 17-10 is required throughout the length of
the beam. For a deep beam, it is a good practice to also satisfy the reinforcement
requirements in ACI sections 11.8.4 and 11.8.5

Part of the beam to the left of the concentrated load:

For horizontal reinforcement, try #5 bars on the front and back faces at a vertical spacing
of 12 in.
2
2 0.31 in.
0.0022 0.0015 (OK.)
12 in. 24 in.
h


= = >


90 55.3 34.7
h
= =

For vertical reinforcement, try #5 two-legged stirrups at a spacing of 10 in.
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17-4
2
2 0.31 in.
0.0026 0.0025 (OK.)
10 in. 24 in.
v


= = >


55.3
v
=

Checking Eq. 17-10:
sin sin
(0.0022) (sin34.7 ) (0.0026) (sin55.3 ) 0.0034 0.003, OK.
si
i i i
si
A
b
=
= + = >



Part of the beam to the right of the concentrated load:
Use the same reinforcement. Here
h
35.8 and 90 35.8 54.2
v
= = =
sin 0.00174 0.00151 0.00325 0.003 (OK.)
i i
= + = >



Therefore, throughout the span use 2 #5 horizontal bars at a vertical spacing of 12 in. and use #5
two-legged stirrups as a spacing of 10 in.


17-2 Repeat Problem 17-1, but include the dead load of the wall. Assume that stirrups
crossing the lines AB and CD have a capacity

equal to one-third or more


of the shear due to the column load.

This problem is solved similarly to Problem 17-1. The factored dead load of the wall can
be added to the factored load applied on top of the beam. In this case, the vertical
reinforcement is designed such that the dead load of the wall portion below the lines AB
and CD can be transferred to the level at least above those lines.


17-3 Design a corbel to support a factored vertical load of 120 kips acting at 5 in. from
the face of a column. You should include a horizontal load equal to 20 percent of the
factored vertical load. The column and corbel are 14 in. wide. The concrete in the
column and corbel was cast monolithically. Use 5000-psi normal-weight concrete
and

.

Interface transfer shear stress is limited to the smallest of
0.2 1000 psi
c
f ' =
480 0.08 880 psi
c
f ' + = and
1600 psi
The transfer shear stress is taken as 880 psi.
Compute minimum effective depth:
120, 000
13 in.
0.75 880 14
d = =


Try 16 in. and 18 in. d h = =

Factored shear = 120 kips = 120,000 lbs.
Normal force 0.2 120 kips 24 kips 24000 lbs. = = =
Moment 120 5 24 2 648 k-in. = + =

(Note: 2-in. moment arm assumed between horizontal load and horizontal reinforcement)


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17-5

Shear Friction Steel
( )
2
120
1.90 in.
0.75 1.4 1.0 60
u
vf
y
V
A
f |
= = =


(Note that we have used 1.4 = for monolithic concrete and 1 = for normal-weight
concrete)

Flexural Steel
2
648
1.0 in.
0.75 60 (0.9 16)
f
A ~ =


1.0 60
1 in.
0.85 5 14
a

= =


2
648
0.93 in.
0.75 60(16 1/ 2)
f
A = =



Direct Tension Steel
2
24
0.53 in.
0.75 60
n
A = =



Area of Tension Tie will be taken as the largest of:
2
(0.93 0.53) 1.5 in.
f n
A A + = + =
2
2 / 2 2 1.90/ 3 0.53 1.8 in.
vf n
A A + = + =
2
,min
0.04 0.04 5
14 16 0.75 in.
60
c
sc w
y
f
A b d
f
'
= = =
Use 3 #7 bars (or 2 #9),
2 2
1.80 in. (or 2.00 in. )
s
A =

Horizontal Stirrups
Area required:
2
/ 3 0.63 in.
vf
A =
Use 2 #4 closed stirrups,
2
0.80 in.
s
A =

Anchor tension tie into column
Use 90 standard hooks to anchor the tension tie. Use #7 bars.
Also assume that the ties are inside the column cage; therefore a modification factor of
0.7 is multiplied to the basic development length per ACI Code Section 12.5.3(a):

0.02
0.02 1 60000
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.875 10.4 in.
1 5000
e y
dh b
c
f
d
f


= = =
'

Assume a column size of 14 in. 14 in. , #8 bars used for column longitudinal
reinforcement, and a concrete cover of 2.5 in. to the longitudinal bars. The available
space for anchorage is:
14 in. 2.5 in. 0.5 in. 12 in. 10.4 in. + = > , OK.

Fig. S17-2 shows the detailed reinforcement of the corbel.

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17-6
3 #7 welded
to the angle
plate
2 #4
closed ties
2 #4
bars
14 in. 8 in.
9

i
n
.
9

i
n
.

Fig. S17-2


17-4 Repeat Problem 17-3, but with a factored vertical load of 100 kips and a factored
horizontal load of 40 kips.

The problem is solved similar to Problem 17-3.


17-5 Figure P17-5 shows the dapped support region of a simple beam. The factored
vertical reaction is 100 kips, and you should include a horizontal reaction of 20 kips.
Use normal-weight concrete with

and reinforcement with

(weldable). The beam is 16 in. wide.


(a) Isolate the D-region.
(b) Draw a truss to support the reaction.
(c) Detail the reinforcement.

The factored load on the dap is 100 kips. To include | in the design we shall design the dap for
100/ 0.75 133 kips
n
V = =
In addition, design the dap for a horizontal force of
0.2 133 26.6 kips
n
H = =

(a) Isolate the D-region.

Fig S17-3(a) shows the D-region.








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17-7
3.5 16 10.5 6 4
10 30
1
5
1
5
1
0
.
5
1
4
.
5
2
.
5
2
.
5
120
147
147 203
1
3
3
1
3
3
1
3
3
1
7
9
1
9
8
D-region
A
B
C
F
D
E G
47.9
42.2
67.2
B
F
D
C E G
A
22
48
17
top reinforcement
bottom reinforcement
2 #5 U bars @ 3.8 in.
2 #4 U bars
@ 3.5 in.
4 #5 U-stirrups @ 3 in.
4 #5 U-stirrups @ 2 in.
4 #5 closed
double-leg stirrups
5 # 7 with left ends
welded to the angle plate
2 #8 U bar
(a) Truss model
(b) Reinforcement details
Note: Force units are in kips, length units are in inches.
1
4
4







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17-8
(b) Draw a truss to support the reaction.

1. Select a strut-and-tie model
There are two basic types of truss which can be drawn:
- Vertical stirrups at end of deeper part
- Inclined stirrups in the end
We shall use the former detail. Fig. S17-3(a) shows the assumed truss model.

2. Locate nodes at A, B, and C
( ) 0 133 kips
BC
B
V N E = =
2
,
133/ 60 2.22 in.
s required
A = =
Use 4 #5 closed double leg stirrups
2
( 2.48 in. ).
s
A = Place them as shown in Fig. S17-3(b)
because these must be as close to the end of the deeper part of the beam as possible.
The centroid of this group is at 1.5 (2 0.625) 0.75 3.5 in. + + = from the end of the
deeper section.

Assume 2.5 in. from the bottom of the beam to the centroid of the steel at C, 2 in. at A,
and assume the centroid of the compression force B-F is 2.5 in. below the top of the
beam.

4. Compute the strut and tie forces
Solve Join at A
10.5 in.
tan 1.11 47.9
9.5 in.
u u = = =
133/ sin47.9 179 kips ( )
AB
N = =
( )
9.5
133 26.6 147 kips
10.5
AD
N = + = +

Solve Joint at B
( ) 0 133 kips
BC
V N E = = +
( )
9.5
0 133 120 kips
10.5
BF
H N E = = =

Locate node at D
Strut CD is axially compressed by the horizontal tensile force in AD and the
vertical tensile force in DE. The horizontal distance from C to D is
147
14.5 16.0 in.
133
=

The axial force in CD is 198 kips.
The horizontal distance EG is 30 in. 3.5 in. 16 in. 10.5 in. =

Solve Joint at E
10.5
Horizontal component in EF 133 55.9 kips
25
= =
Axial force in EF = 144 kips
Force in EG = 147 + 55.9 = 203
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17-9
Joint F
Horizontal force to the right of F = 176 kips
As a check on the calculations, cut a section parallel to EF and sum moments
about F to calculate the force in EG
EF
133 36 in. +26.6 10.5 = T 25
203 kips OK
EF
T =

5. Compute strut widths and see if they will fit
0.85 0.85 0.75 5000 3190 psi
cu s c
f f | ' = = =
(Note that the struts are assumed to have confinement steel, hence 0.75
s
| = )

Strut AB
Assume the concrete outside the ties spalls at B. Remaining thickness of strut
16 2 1.5 13 in. = =
179
Width 4.32 in.
3.19 13
= =


Strut BF
120
Width 2.89 in.
3.19 13
= =


Strut CD
Use full thickness.
198
Width 3.88 in.
3.19 16
= =



Strut BE
144
Width 2.82 in.
3.19 16
= =



Struts having these approximate widths are shown in the drawing.

6. Select reinforcement for the ties
Tie BC
We have already chosen 4 #5 double leg closed stirrups in two groups of two
stirrups.

Ties DE and FG
Use 4 #5 double leg stirrups with 135 hooks spaced at 3 in. o.c. for tie DE and 4
#5 double-leg stirrups with 135 hooks spaced at 2-in. for tie FG.

Ties AD
2
147/ 60 2.45 in.
s
A = =
Use 5 #7 bars. Weld these to the angle at A.
We need to extend these bars past D a distance equal to the development length.
These bars are considered top bars, from Table A-6, 55.2 48.3 in.
d
| = = So,
extend the bars 50 in past D.




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17-10
Tie CE
2
2.45 in.
s
A =
Provide 2 #8 U bars spaced 1 in. clear above the bottom steel. Lap splice them
with the tension reinforcement in the bottom of the beam using a splice length of



7. Design confinement reinforcement:

Strut AB. Use only horizontal steel. Try 2 #4 U bars spaced equally at 3.5 in. o.c.
2
2 0.20 in.
0.0071
16 in. 3.5 in.
sh
h
v
A
bs


= = =


47.9
h
=
sin 0.0053 0.0030
h h
= > , OK.

Strut CD. Use only horizontal steel. Try 2 #5 U bars spaced equally at 3.83 in. o.c.

2
2 0.31 in.
0.0101
16 in. 3.83 in.
sh
h
v
A
bs


= = =


42.2
h
=
sin 0.0068 0.0030
h h
= > , OK.

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18-1
Chapter 18

18-1 Check moment and shear strength at the base of the structural wall shown in Fig. P18-
1. Also, show that the given horizontal and vertical reinforcement satisfies all of the ACI
Code requirements regarding minimum reinforcement percentage and maximum
spacing. The given lateral loads are equivalent wind forces, considering both direct
lateral forces and the effects of any torsion. Use a load factor of 1.6 for the wind load
effects. The given vertical loads represent dead loads, and you can assume that the
vertical live loads are equal to 60 percent of the dead loads. Assume the wall is
constructed with normal-weight concrete that has a compressive strength of 4500 psi.
Assume all of the steel is Grade-60.

1. Calculate factored loads at base of wall.
( )
,min
(base) 1.6 (7 k 15 ft 12 k 26 ft 18 k 37 ft 22 k 48 ft 20 k 59 ft)
5310 kip-ft
(base) 1.6 7 12 18 22 20 kips 126 kips
(base) 0.9 230 k 207 kips
u
u
u
M
V
N
= + + + +
=
= + + + + =
= =


2. Calculate flexural strength. The total area of vertical wall reinforcement is:

2 2 2
240 in.
2 0.20 in. 0.40 in. 8.00 in.
12 in.
w
st
A
s
= = =

From Eq. (18-26a), the percentage of vertical (longitudinal) reinforcement is:

2
8.00 in.
0.00333
10 in. 240 in.
st
w
A
h
= = =



From Eq. (18-26b), the vertical reinforcement index is:

60 ksi
0.00333 0.0444
4.5 ksi
y
c
f
f
e = = =
'


From Eq. (18-27), the axial load index is:

207 kips
0.0192
10 in. 240 in. 4.5 ksi
u
w c
N
h f
o = = =
'



For 4500 psi concrete, |
1
= 0.825. Then, from Eq. (18-28) the depth to the neutral axis is:

1
0.0192 0.0444
240 in. 19.3 in.
0.85 2 0.85 0.825 2 0.0444
w
c
o e
| e
| | + + | |
= = =
| |
+ +
\ .
\ .


This is very small compared to d (taken as 0.8
w
), so this is clearly a tension-controlled section
and | = 0.9. From Eq. (18-25a), the tension force in the vertical reinforcement is:

2
240 19.3
8.00 in. 60 ksi 441 kips
240
w
st y
w
c
T A f
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ .
\ .

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18-2
And, from Eq. (18-29) the nominal moment strength at the base of the wall is:

240 in. 240 in. 19.3 in.
441 k 207 k
2 2 2 2
53, 000 k-in. 22,800 k-in. 75,800 k-in. 6320 k-ft
w w
n u
c
M T N
| | | | | | | |
= + = +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
= + = =


Using the strength reduction factor, |, the design strength is:
0.9 6320 5690 k-ft (o.k.)
n u
M M | = = >

3. Check shear strength. Because the wall is subjected to compression, we are permitted to use
Eq. (18-41) to determine the concrete contribution to shear strength. For this calculation we will
assume d = 0.8 x
w
= 0.8 x 240 = 192 in., as permitted in ACI Code Section 11.9.4.

2 2 1 4500 psi 10 in. 192 in.
258, 000 lbs 258 kips
c c
V f hd
'
= =
= =


Using | = 0.75 for shear, the design strength contribution from the concrete is:
0.75 258 193 kips
c u
V V | = = >

Thus, no horizontal reinforcement is required for shear strength. However, because V
u
exceeds
one-half of |V
c
, the reinforcement requirements in ACI Code Section 11.9.9 must be satisfied.

Horizontal reinforcement:
From Eq. (18-45a), the percentage of horizontal reinforcement is:

2
,
2
2 0.20 in.
0.0025 0.0025 (o.k.)
10 in. 16 in.
v horiz
t
A
h s


= = = >



The maximum center-to-center spacing for the horizontal reinforcement is the smallest of
w
/5 (48
in.), 3h (30 in.) and 18 in. Thus, the spacing of 16 in. for the horizontal reinforcement is ok.

Vertical reinforcement:
Because the wall aspect ratio, h
w
/
w
= 59ft/20ft = 2.95, exceeds 2.5, the minimum required
percentage of vertical reinforcement is 0.0025. From step 2,

= 0.00333, which exceeds the


minimum value. The maximum center-to-center spacing for the vertical reinforcement is the
smallest of
w
/3 (80 in.), 3h (30 in.) and 18 in. Thus, the provided spacing of 12 in. for the
vertical reinforcement is ok.
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18-3
18-2 Design a uniform distribution of vertical and horizontal reinforcement for the
structural wall shown in Fig. P18-2. Your design must satisfy all of the ACI Code
requirements, as well as the requirements for minimum reinforcement percentage and
minimum spacing. The given lateral loads are equivalent wind forces, considering both
direct lateral forces and the effects of any torsion. Use a load factor of 1.6 for the wind
load effects. Assume the wall is constructed with normal-weight concrete that has a
compressive strength of 4000 psi. Assume all of the steel is Grade-60.

1. Calculate factored loads at base of wall.
( )
,min
(base) 1.6 (75 k 12 ft 100 k 24 ft) 5280 kip-ft
(base) 1.6 75 100 kips 280 kips
(base) 0.9 (70 40) kips 99.0 kips
u
u
u
M
V
N
= + =
= + =
= + =


2. Flexural design. Based on the results from Problem 18-1 (a wall with similar design base
moment and similar dimensions), select a trial value for

= 0.0035. Then, from Eq. (18-26b),



60 ksi
0.0035 0.0525
4 ksi
y
c
f
f
e = = =
'


From Eq. (18-27), the axial load index is:

99.0 kips
0.0103
10 in. 240 in. 4 ksi
u
w c
N
h f
o = = =
'



For 4000 psi concrete, |
1
= 0.85. Then, from Eq. (18-28) the depth to the neutral axis is:

1
0.0103 0.0525
240 in. 18.2 in.
0.85 2 0.85 0.85 2 0.0525
w
c
o e
| e
| | + + | |
= = =
| |
+ +
\ .
\ .


This is very small compared to d (taken as 0.8
w
), so this is clearly a tension-controlled section
and | = 0.9. The total area of vertical wall reinforcement is:
2
0.0035 10 in. 240 in. 8.40 in.
st w
A h = = =
From Eq. (18-25a), the tension force in the vertical reinforcement is:

2
240 18.2
8.40 in. 60 ksi 466 kips
240
w
st y
w
c
T A f
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ .
\ .


And, from Eq. (18-29) the nominal moment strength at the base of the wall is:

240 in. 240 in. 18.2 in.
466 k 99.0 k
2 2 2 2
55, 900 k-in. 11, 000 k-in. 66, 900 k-in. 5570 k-ft
w w
n u
c
M T N
| | | | | | | |
= + = +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
= + = =


Using the strength reduction factor, |, the design strength is:
0.9 5570 5020 k-ft (not o.k.)
n u
M M | = = <

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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18-4
For a wall with relatively low axial load, the nominal moment strength should increase approximately
linearly with increases in the percentage of vertical reinforcement. Thus,

5280
(req'd.) (trial) 0.0035 0.00368
(trial) 5020
u
n
M
M

|
~ = =

Round this up a little and try

= 0.0038. Then, redo the calculations to find:



2
0.0570, 19.3 in., 9.12 in. , 503 kips, and
5350 k-ft (o.k.)
st
n u
c A T
M M
e
|
= = = =
= >


Select vertical reinforcement as:
No. 4 bars at 10 in. spacing in each face (EF), results in

= 0.00400
No. 5 bars at 16 in. spacing in each face (EF), results in

= 0.00388
Either selection will work. To use less total bars, select No. 5 bars at 16 in. spacing, EF. It is good
practice to replace the pair of No. 5 bars at the edges of the wall with a pair of No. 6 bars.

3. Shear Design. The aspect ratio for this wall is, h
w
/
w
= 24/20 = 1.20. Thus, this is a short wall and
the shear strength contribution from the concrete is probably given by Eq. (18-43). Using d = 0.8 x
w

= 192 in., results in:

3.3
4
99, 000 lbs 192 in.
3.3 1 4000 psi 10 in. 192 in.
4 240 in.
(401, 000 19, 800) lbs 421, 000 lbs 421 kips
u
c c
w
N d
V f hd ' = +

= +

= + = =


Before accepting this value, we will check the value of V
c
from Eq. (18-44). For this flexural-shear
strength equation, we need to evaluate the ratio of M
u
/V
u
at the critical section above the base of the
wall, as defined in Fig. 18-19. For this wall,
w
/2 = 10 ft, governs. At that section the factored
moment is,

(crit. sect.) (base) (base)
2
5280 kip-ft 280 kip 10 ft 2480 kip-ft
w
u u u
M M V =
= =





Thus, the ratio of M
u
/V
u
= 2480/280 = 8.86 ft. Using this value, the denominator in the second term
of Eq. (18-43) is,
8.86 ft 10 ft 1.14 ft
2
u w
u
M
V
= =
Because this is a negative number, Eq. (18-44) is not valid for this wall. So, using | = 0.75 and the
value for V
c
from Eq. (18-43):
0.75 421 kips 316 kips
c u
V V | = = >

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18-5
Thus, no horizontal reinforcement is required for shear strength. However, because V
u
exceeds
one-half of |V
c
, the reinforcement requirements in ACI Code Section 11.9.9 must be satisfied.

Horizontal reinforcement:
Use 2 No. 4 bars at 16 in. spacing in each face. Then, from Eq. (18-45a), the percentage of
horizontal reinforcement is:

2
,
2
2 0.20 in.
0.0025 0.0025 (o.k.)
10 in. 16 in.
v horiz
t
A
h s


= = = >



The maximum center-to-center spacing for the horizontal reinforcement is the smallest of
w
/5 (48
in.), 3h (30 in.) and 18 in. Thus, the provided spacing of 16 in. for the horizontal reinforcement is
ok.

Vertical reinforcement:
Because
t
= 0.0025, the minimum value for

in Eq. (18-46) is 0.0025. From the flexural


design, the provided value for

= 0.00388, so it is o.k. Also, the selected spacing of 16 in. is less


than the smallest of
w
/3 (80 in.), 3h (30 in.) and 18 in. (o.k.)


18-3 The structural wall shown in Fig. P18-3 is subjected to gravity loads (
and ) and an equivalent, static, lateral earthquake load, )
(torsion effects included). Check the moment strength at the base of the structural
wall assuming that the distance, , from the base of the structure to the lateral force,
, is equal to two-thirds of the wall height. Use a capacity-design approach to check
the shear strength of the wall and assume the distance, , is equal to one-half of the
wall height for this check. Also, show that the given horizontal and vertical
reinforcement in the web of the structural wall satisfies all of the ACI Code
requirements regarding minimum reinforcement percentage and maximum spacing.
Assume the wall is constructed with normal-weight concrete that has a compressive
strength of 5000 psi. Assume all of the steel is Grade-60.

Use:
for the flexural strength check
for the capacity-based shear strength check

1. Calculate factored loads for flexural strength check at base of wall.

,min
(base) 1.0 150 k 2 3 60 ft 6000 kip-ft
(base) 0.9 150 k 135 kips
u
u
M
N
= =
= =


2. Flexural strength. For a boundary element in tension, use Eq. (18-30) to find:

2
12 0.79 in. 60 ksi 569 kips
s y
T A f = = =

Assuming that the depth of the compression stress block does not exceed the size of the boundary
element, use Eq. (18-32) to find:

569 k 135 k
8.28 in. ( 20 in., o.k.)
0.85 5 ksi 20 in.
0.85
u
c
T N
a
f b
+ +
= = = s
'

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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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18-6
Assume d =
w
20in./2 = 180 10 = 170 in. Then, from Eq. (18-33), the nominal moment
strength is:

2 2
8.28 in. 180 in. 8.28 in.
569 k 170 in. 135 k
2 2
(94, 400 11, 600)k-in. 8830 kip-ft
w
n u
a a
M T d N
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
= + =


With a = 8.28 in., it is clear that this is a tension-controlled section, and thus | = 0.9. So,
0.9 8830 7950 kip-ft
n u
M M | = =

The wall is substantially over-designed in flexure and we should reduce the steel in the boundary
element to reduce the shear required to develop the flexural strength. One possible redesign is to
use eight No. 9 bars in each boundary element. This leads to the final result of |M
n
= 6860 kip-ft.

3. Design shear (determine capacity-based design shear using original flexural design). Assume
that the probable axial load is:
150 k 100 k 250 kips
pr D L
N N N = + = + =

With this axial load the wall moment strength will be reevaluated and referred to as the probable
moment strength, M
pr
.
First, the depth of the compression stress block is,

569 k 250 k
9.64 in.
0.85 0.85 5 ksi 20 in.
u
c
T N
a
f b
+ +
= = =
'


This is larger than calculated previously, but it is still clear that the tension steel in the boundary
element will be yielding. With this value of a, the moment strength is:

2 2
94, 000 k-in. 21, 300 k-in.
115, 000 kip-in. 9610 kip-ft
w
pr pr
a a
M T d N
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
= +
= =


With this moment and assuming that x = 0.5 x 60 ft = 30 ft, the capacity-based design shear is,

9610 k-ft
(cap-based) 320 kips
0.5 0.5 60 ft
pr
u
w
M
V
h
= = =



4. Check shear strength. For this wall, the value of A
cv
in Eq. (18-48) is:

2
10 in. 180 in. 1800 in.
cv w
A h = = =

Because this is a slender wall, o
c
= 2.0. Eq. (18-45b) will be used to determine
t
for the distributed
horizontal reinforcement.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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18-7

2
,
2
2 0.20 in.
0.0025
10 in. 16 in.
v horiz
t
A
h s


= = =



Using the values calculated here, the nominal shear strength of the wall from Eq. (11-48) is,

( )
( )
( )
2
2
1800 in. 2 1 5000 psi 0.0025 60, 000 psi
1800 in. 141 psi 150 psi 524, 000 lbs 524 kips
n cv c c t y
V A f f o ' = +
= +
= + = =


Using | = 0.75 for shear,
0.75 524 k 393 kips (cap-based) (o.k.)
n u
V V | = = >

The vertical and horizontal steel percentages in the web of the wall (both 0.0025) and the bar spacing
(16 in. both horizontal and vertical) satisfy the requirements of ACI Code Section 11.9.9, which are
applicable for this wall.


18-4 The structural wall shown in Fig. P18-4 is subjected to gravity loads ( and
) and a single, equivalent, static, lateral earthquake load ( ) at the
top of the wall (at roof level). For the given uniform distribution of vertical and
horizontal reinforcement, check the moment strength at the base of the wall and use a
capacity-deisgn approach to check the shear strength of the wall. Also, show that the
given horizontal and vertical reinforcement in the structural wall satisfies all of the ACI
Code requirements regarding minimum reinforcement percentage and maximum
spacing. Assume the wall is constructed with normal-weight concrete that has a
compressive strength of 4000 psi. Assume all of the steel is Grade-60.

1. Calculate factored loads for flexural strength check at base of wall.

,min
(base) 1.0 220 k 15 ft 3300 kip-ft
(base) 0.9 80 k 72 kips
u
u
M
N
= =
= =


2. Flexural strength. From Eq. (18-454a) the vertical reinforcement percentage is:

2
,
1
2 0.31 in.
0.00388
10 in. 16 in.
v vert
A
h s


= = =



From Eq. (18-26b) the reinforcement ratio for the vertical reinforcement is:

60 ksi
0.00388 0.0582
4 ksi
y
c
f
f
e = = =
'


From Eq. (18-27) the axial load ratio is:

72 kips
0.00750
10 in. 240 in. 4 ksi
u
w c
N
h f
o = = =
'


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18-8
For 4000 psi concrete, |
1
= 0.85. Then, from Eq. (18-28), the depth to the neutral axis is:

1
0.0075 0.0582
240 in. 18.8 in.
0.85 2 0.85 0.85 2 0.0582
w
c
o e
| e
| | + + | |
= = =
| |
+ +
\ .
\ .


This is very small compared to d (0.8
w
= 192 in.), so this is clearly a tension-controlled section
and | = 0.9. For the longitudinal steel,

2 2
240 in.
2 0.31 in. 9.30 in.
16 in.
st
A = =

Then, from Eq. (18-25a), the flexural tension force is:

2
240 in. 18.8 in.
9.30 in. 60 ksi 514 kips
240 in.
w
st y
w
c
T A f
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ .
\ .


Finally, the nominal moment capacity is found using Eq. (18-29):

2 2
240 in. 240 in. 18.8 in.
514 k 72 k
2 2
(61, 700 7960)k-in. 5810 kip-ft
w w
n u
c
M T N
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
= + =


Applying the strength factor, the design flexural strength is,
0.9 5810 5230 kip-ft
n u
M M | = =

The wall is substantially over-designed in flexure and we should reduce the vertical
reinforcement in the wall to reduce the shear required to develop the flexural strength. One
possible redesign is to use two No. 4 bars at a 16 in. spacing in each face. For this reinforcement

= 0.0025 (the minimum value) and the design flexural strength, |M


n
= 3670 kip-ft.

3. Design shear (determine capacity-based design shear using original flexural design). Assume
that the probable axial load is:
80 k 40 k 120 kips
pr D L
N N N = + = + =

With this axial load, the axial load ratio is:

120 kips
0.0125
10 in. 240 in. 4 ksi
o = =



And, the depth to the neutral axis is:

0.0125 0.0581
240 in. 20.2 in.
0.85 0.85 2 0.0581
c
+ | |
= =
|
+
\ .





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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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18-9
Then, the flexural tension force is:

2
240 in. 20.2 in.
9.30 in. 60 ksi 511 kips
240 in.
w
st y
w
c
T A f
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ .
\ .


Finally, the probably moment capacity is:

240 in. 240 in. 20.2 in.
511 k 120 k
2 2
(61, 300 13, 200)k-in. 6210 kip-ft
pr
M
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
= + =




With this probable moment strength, the capacity-based design shear is,

6210 k-ft
(cap-based) 414 kips
15 ft
pr
u
w
M
V
h
= = =

4. Check shear strength. For this wall, Eq. (18-45b) will be used to determine
t
for the distributed
horizontal reinforcement.

2
,
2
2 0.20 in.
0.0025
10 in. 16 in.
v horiz
t
A
h s


= = =



The effective wall shear area from Eq. (18-48) is:

2
10 in. 240 in. 2400 in.
cv w
A h = = =

Because this is a squat wall (h
w
/
w
= 0.75), o
c
= 3.0. Thus, the nominal shear strength of the wall from
Eq. (11-48) is,

( )
( )
( )
2
2
2400 in. 3 1 4000 psi 0.0025 60, 000 psi
2400 in. 190 psi 150 psi 815, 000 lbs 815 kips
n cv c c t y
V A f f o ' = +
= +
= + = =


Using | = 0.75 for shear,
0.75 815 k 612 kips (cap-based) (o.k.)
n u
V V | = = >

The vertical and horizontal steel percentages in the web of the wall (both 0.0025) and the bar
spacing (16 in. both horizontal and vertical) satisfy the requirements of ACI Code Section 11.9.9,
which are applicable for this wall.


18-5 Design a uniform distribution of vertical and horizontal reinforcement for the first story
of the structural wall shown in Fig. P18-5. The given horizontal loads are strength-level
static equivalent earthquake forces, so use a load factor of 1.0. The vertical dead and
live loads are from the tributary area adjacent to the wall. Assume the given lateral
loads include the direct shear force and any torsional effects that need to be considered.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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18-10
Use a compressive strength of 4000 psi and Grade 60 reinforcement. Your final design
should satisfy all ACI Code requirements for minimum reinforcement percentages and
maximum spacing.

Try using

) . Use 2#4 bars at 16 in. both ways.

( )
{



Start with flexural design. Calculate

( ) ( )

) (



Calculate


()
( )

Therefore,

- -

, and the two curtains of #4 vertical bars spaced at 16


in. on-center are OK.


Continue with the shear design. Calculate
( )
based on the probable moment capacity of
the wall and assuming that the lateral force resultant is located at

( ) ( ) ( )

) (


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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
18-11

( )

( )


Calculate

) ( )

Therefore,


( )


The capacity and demand are approximately equal, so the horizontal reinforcement is adequate.


Final design:

Vertical Reinforcement: 2 curtains of #4 bars spaced at 16 in. on-center.
Horizontal Reinforcement: 2 curtains of #4 bars spaced at 16 in. on-center.

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
19-1
Chapter 19

19-1 Use Eq. (19-28) to check the need for specially confined boundary elements in the
structural wall described in Problem 18-3. Assume the design displacement,

, at the
top of the wall is 0.6 ft. Use all of the dimensions, loading information, and material
properties given in Problem 18-3. If a specially confined boundary element is required,
define the required vertical and horizontal dimensions for the boundary element.

1. Building drift ratio. The ratio, o
u
/h
w
, represents the building drift ratio due to the design
earthquake for the building in question. We are given a value for the design displacement, o
u
, at the
top of the building, so the building drift ratio is:

0.6 ft
Building drift ratio 0.010 (1%)
60 ft
u
w
h
o
= = =

2. Limit for neutral axis depth. Eq. (19-27) gives a limiting value for the neutral axis depth. For
larger values, the wall boundary elements must be confined.

( )
15 ft 12 in./ft
(limit) 30.0 in.
600 600 0.010
w
u w
c
h o

= = =



3. Calculated neutral axis depth. The depth of the neutral axis for this check should come from
the calculation of the probable moment strength of the wall, which was calculated in step 3 of
Problem 18-3. In that calculation the depth of the equivalent stress block, a, was found to be 9.64
in. Then, using |
1
= 0.80 for 5000 psi concrete, the corresponding neutral axis depth is:

1
9.64 in.
12.1 in. (limit)
0.80
a
c c
|
= = = <

Therefore, special confinement reinforcement is not required in the wall boundary elements.





2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
19-2
19-2 Use Eq. (19-29) to check the need for specially confined boundary elements in the
structural wall described in Problem 18-3. Use all of the dimensions, loading
information, and material properties given in Problem 18-3. If a specially confined
boundary element is required, define the required vertical and horizontal dimensions
for the boundary element.

1. Factored loads at base of wall. From step 1 of Problem 18-3:
,min
(base) 6000 kip-ft 72, 000 kip-in.
(base) 135 kips
u
u
M
N
= =
=

2. Wall section properties. To determine the gross area and moment of inertia of the wall, divide
the wall into rectangular pieces representing the web and the two boundary elements. Then,

( )
2
2
(web) 2 (boundary)
10 in. 140 in. 2 20 in. 2200 in.
A A A = +
= + =


And,

( )
3 3
2 2
6 4
10 140 20 20
0 2 20 20 80
12 12
7.43 10 in.
i i i
i
I I A y
| |
= + = + + +
|
\ .
=



Also,

180 in.
90 in.
2 2
w
y = = =

3. Combined stress in edge of wall at base of wall. Eq. (19-28) will be used to find the combined
stress at the edge of the wall at its base. If that stress exceeds the limit of 0.2f
c
', then we will need use
special confinement reinforcement in the wall boundary and continue that reinforcement up the wall
until we reach a section where the combined stress in the edge of the wall is less than 0.15f
c
'. Using
the values from steps 1 and 2:

2 6 4
135 k 72, 000 k-in. 90 in.

2200 in. 7.43 10 in.
0.061 ksi 0.872 ksi 0.934 ksi 0.2 5 ksi 1.0 ksi
u u
c
N M y
f
A I
= +

= +

= + = < =


Therefore, special confinement reinforcement is not required in the wall boundary elements.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.