Chapter 3
31 What is the significance of the critical stress?
(a) with respect to the structure of the concrete?
A continuous pattern of mortar cracks begins to form. As a result there are few undamaged portions
to carry load and the stressstrain curve is highly nonlinear.
(b) with respect to spiral reinforcement?
At the critical stress the lateral strain begins to increase rapidly. This causes the concrete core within
the spiral to expand, stretching the spiral. The tension in the spiral is equilibrated by a radial
compression in the core. This in turn, biaxially compresses the core, and thus strengthens it.
(c) with respect to strength under sustained loads?
When concrete is subjected to sustained loads greater than the critical stress, it will eventually fail.
32 A group of 45 tests on a given type of concrete had a mean strength of 4780 psi and a
standard deviation of 525 psi. Does this concrete satisfy the requirements of ACI Code
Section 5.3.2 for 4000psi concrete?
From Eq. 33a:
Using
(for design)
From Eq. 33b:
Using
(for design)
Because both of these exceed 4000 psi, the concrete satisfies the requirements of ACI Code
Section 5.3.2 for 4000 psi concrete.
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32
33 The concrete containing Type I cement in a structure is cured for 3 days at 70 F
followed by 6 days at 40 F. Use the maturity concept to estimate its strength as a
fraction of the 28day strength under standard curing.
Note:
( )
5
32
9
C F = , so 70 F = 21.1 C and 40 F = 4.4 C
From Eq. 36:
1
( 10)( )
(21.1 10)(3) (4.4 10)(6) 180 C days
n
i i
i
M T t
=
= +
= + + + =
From Fig. 38 the compressive strength will be between 0.60 and 0.70 times the 28day strength
under standard curing conditions.
34 Use Fig. 312a to estimate the compressive strength o
2
for biaxially loaded concrete
subject to:
(a) o
1
= 0.0, o
2
= f
c
'
(b) o
1
= 0.75 f
t
' in tension, o
2
= 0.5 f
c
'
(c) o
1
= 0.5 f
c
' in compression, o
2
= 1.2 f
c
'
35 The concrete in the core of a spiral is subjected to a uniform confining stress o
3
of 750
psi. What will the compressive strength, o
1
be? Assume
.
From Eq. 316:
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33
36 What factors affect the shrinkage of concrete?
(a) Relative humidity. Shrinkage increases as the relative humidity decreases, reaching a
maximum at RH 40%.
(b) The fraction of the total volume made up of paste. As this fraction increases,
shrinkage increases.
(c) The modulus of elasticity of the aggregate. As this increases, shrinkage decreases.
(d) The water/cement ratio. As the water content increases, the aggregate fraction
decreases, causing an increase in shrinkage.
(e) The fineness of the cement. Shrinkage increases for finely ground cement that has
more surface area to attract and absorb water.
(f) The effective thickness or volume to surface ratio. As this ratio increases, the
shrinkage occurs more slowly and the total shrinkage is likely reduced.
(g) Exposure to carbon dioxide tends to increase shrinkage.
37 What factors affect the creep of concrete?
(a) The ratio of sustained stress to the strength of the concrete. The creep coefficient, ,
is roughly constant up to a stress of 0.5 f
c
', but increases above that value.
(b) The humidity of the environment. The amount of creep decreases as the RH increases
above 40%.
(c) As the effective thickness or volume to surface ratio increases, the rate at which creep
develops decreases.
(d) Concretes with a high paste content creep more that concretes with a large aggregate
fraction because only the paste creeps.
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34
38 A structure is made from concrete containing Type 1 cement. The average ambient
relative humidity is 70 percent. The concrete was moistcured for 7 days. f
c
' = 4000 psi.
(a) Compute the unrestrained shrinkage strain of a rectangular beam with cross
sectional dimensions of 8 in. x 20 in. at 2 years after the concrete was placed.
1. Compute the humidity modification factor from Eq. (330a):
2. Use Eq. (331) to compute the volume/surface area ratio modification factor:
( ) ( )
3. Use Eq. (329) to compute the ultimate shrinkage strain:
(
4. Use Eq. (328) to compute the shrinkage strain after 2 years:
(
(b) Compute the stress dependent (creep) strain in the concrete of a 20 in. x 20 in. x
12 ft column at age 3 years. A compression load of 400 kips was applied to the
column at 30 days.
1. Compute the ultimate shrinkage strain coefficient,
,
Where:
[
]
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35
2. Compute the creep coefficient for the time since loading,
3. Compute the total stressdependent strain,
()
()
Then, calculate the initial strain when the load is applied:
()
Thus,
()
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41
Chapter 4
41 Figure P41 shows a simply supported beam and the crosssection at midspan. The
beam supports a uniform service (unfactored) dead load consisting of its own weight
plus 1.4 kips/ft and a uniform service (unfactored) live load of 1.5 kip/ft. The
concrete strength is 3500 psi, and the yield strength of the reinforcement is 60,000
psi. The concrete is normalweight concrete. Use load and strength reduction factors
from ACI Code Sections 9.2 and 9.3. For the midspan section shown in part (b) of
Fig. P41, compute
.
1. Calculate the dead load of the beam.
Weight/ft =
24 12
0.15 0.3
144
= kips/ft
2. Compute the factored moment,
u
M :
Factored load/ft:
u
w = 1.2(0.30 + 1.40) + 1.6(1.50) = 4.44 k/ft
2 2
8 4.44 20 8 222
u u
M w = = = kipft
3. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor,  .
Tension steel area: A
s
= 3 No. 9 bars = 3 1.00 in.
2
= 3.00 in.
2
Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding. From equilibrium (using Eq. (414)):
3.00 60000
5.04
1
'
0.85 3500 12
0.85
A f
s y
c
f b
c
o 
= = = =
in.
For
'
3500
c
f = psi,
1
0.85  = . Therefore,
1
5.04
5.93
0.85
c
o

= = = in.
Check whether tension steel is yielding:
Using Eq.(418)
( )
21.5 5.93
0.003 0.00788
5.93
d c
s t cu
c
c c c
   
= = = =
 
\ . \ .
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).
Compute the nominal moment strength, using Eq. (421):
5.04
3.00 60000 21.5
2
285
2 12000
M A f d
n s y
o
 

 
\ .
= = =

\ .
kipft
Since, 0.00788 0.005
t
c = > the section is clearly tensioncontrolled and  =0.9. Then,
0.9 285
n
M  = kipft 256 = kipft. Clearly,
n u
M M  >
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42
42 A cantilever beam shown in Fig. P42. The beam supports a uniform service
(unfactored) dead load of 1 kip/ft plus its own dead load and it supports a
concentrated service (unfactored) live load of 12 kips as shown. The concrete is
normalweight concrete with
.
1. Calculate the dead load of the beam.
Weight/ft =
30 18
0.15 0.563
144
= kips/ft
2. Compute the factored moment,
u
M .
Factored distributed load/ft:
u
w = 1.2(0.563 + 1.0) = 1.88 k/ft
Factored live load is a concentrated load: 1.6 12 19.2
u
P = = kips
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 1.88 10 2 267 1 19.2 9
u u u
M w P = = = kipft
3. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor,  .
Tension steel area: A
s
= 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.
2
=4.74 in.
2
Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding. From equilibrium (using Eq. (414)):
4.74 60000
2.79
1
'
0.85 4000 30
0.85
A f
s y
c
f b
c
o 
= = = =
in.
For
'
4000
c
f = psi,
1
0.85  = . Therefore,
1
2.79
3.28
0.85
c
o

= = = in.
Check whether tension steel is yielding:
Using. Eq.(418)
( )
15.5 3.28
0.003 0.011
3.28
d c
s t cu
c
c c c
   
= = = =
 
\ . \ .
> 0.0021
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).
Compute the nominal moment strength, using Eq. (421):
2.79
4.74 60000 15.5
2
334
2 12000
M A f d
n s y
o
 

 
\ .
= = =

\ .
kipft
Since, 0.011 0.005
t
c = > the section is clearly tensioncontrolled and  =0.9. Then,
0.9 334 301
n
M  = = kipft 267 = kipft. Clearly,
n u
M M  >
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43
43 (a) Compare
For
,
1
0.85  = . Therefore,
) (
)
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).
Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is tensioncontrolled and  =0.9.
)
(
For Beam 1,

Beam No.2
Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding.
( )
For
,
1
0.85  = . Therefore,
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44
) (
)
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( ).
Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is clearly tensioncontrolled and  =0.9.
)
( ) (
For Beam 2,

Beam No.3
Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding.
For
,
1
0.85  = . Therefore,
) (
)
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).
Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is clearly tensioncontrolled and  =0.9.
)
(
For Beam 3,

Beam No.4
Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding.
For
. Therefore,
) (
)
s y
f f =
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45
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).
Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is tensioncontrolled and  =0.9.
)
(
For Beam 4,

Beam No.5
Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding.
For
,
1
0.85  = . Therefore,
) (
)
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).
Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is tensioncontrolled and  =0.9.
)
(
For Beam 5,

(b) Taking beam 1 as the reference point, discuss the effects of changing
and d on
.
1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor,  .
Tension steel area:
s
A = 4 No. 7 bars = 4 0.60 in.
2
=2.40 in.
2
Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, o , assuming that tension steel is
yielding. From equilibrium (using Eq. (414)):
2.4 60000
2.65
1
'
0.85 4000 16
0.85
A f
s y
c
f b
c
o 
= = = =
in.
For
'
4000
c
f = psi,
1
0.85  = . Therefore,
1
2.65
3.1
0.85
c
o

= = = in.
Check whether tension steel is yielding:
Using Eq.(418)
( )
15.5 3.1
0.003 0.012
3.1
d c
s t cu
c
c c c
   
= = = =
 
\ . \ .
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).
Compute the nominal moment strength, using Eq. (421):
2.65
2.4 60000 15.5
2
170
2 12000
M A f d
n s y
o
 

 
\ .
= = =

\ .
kipft
Since, 0.012 0.005
t
c = > the section is clearly tensioncontrolled and,
0.9 170
n
M  = kipft = 153 kipft
2. Compute Live Load
Set 153
u n
M M  = = kipft
Weight/ft of beam =
16 18
0.15 0.3
144
= kips/ft
Factored dead load = ( ) 1.2 0.3 0.5 0.96 + = kips/ft
Factored dead load moment =
2 2
2 0.96 12 2 69.1 wl = = kipft
Therefore the maximum factored live load moment is: 153 kipft 69.1 kipft = 83.9 kipft
Maximum factored load at 1 ft from the tip = 83.9 kipft / 11 ft = 7.63 kips
Maximum concentrated service live load = 7.63 kips / 1.6 = 4.77 kips
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48
3. Check of
,min s
A
The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this section, so we
should use
w
b in Eq. (411). Also,
'
3
c
f is equal to 189 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:
,min
200 200
16 15.5 0.82
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)
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49
45 Compute
and check
psi and
psi.
1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor,  .
Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.
2
=4.74 in.
2
The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers, where the distance from the
tension edge to the centroid of the total tension reinforcement is given as d = 19 in.
Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the
compression flange,
( )
f
h o s and that the tension steel is yielding,
( )
s y
c c > , using Eq. (416):
4.74 60000
1.55
'
0.85 4500 48
0.85
e
A f
s y
f b
c
o
= = =
in. 6
f
h < = in. (o.k.)
For
'
4500
c
f = psi,
1
0.825  = . Therefore,
1
1.55
1.88
0.825
c
o

= = = in.
Comparing the calculated depth to the neutral axis, c , to the values for d and
t
d , it is clear that
the tension steel strain,
s
c , easily exceeds the yield strain (0.00207) and the strain at the level of
the extreme layer of tension reinforcement,
t
c , exceeds the limit for tensioncontrolled sections
(0.005). Thus,  =0.9 and we can use Eq. (421) to calculate
n
M :
1.55
4.74 60000 19
2
432
2 12000
M A f d
n s y
o
 

 
\ .
= = =

\ .
kipft
0.9 432
n
M  = kipft = 389 kipft
2. Check of
,min s
A
The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this section, so we
should use
w
b in Eq. (411). Also,
'
3
c
f is equal to 201 psi, so use
'
3
c
f in the numerator:
'
,min
3
201
12 19 0.76
60, 000
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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410
46 Compute
and check
psi and
psi.
1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor,  .
Tension steel area:
s
A = 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.
2
=4.74 in.
2
The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers, where the distance from the
tension edge to the centroid of the total tension reinforcement is given as d = 18.5 in.
Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the
compression flange,
( )
f
h o s and that the tension steel is yielding,
( )
s y
c c > , using Eq. (416):
4.74 60000
4.18
'
0.85 4000 20
0.85
e
A f
s y
f b
c
o
= = =
in. 5
f
h < = in. (o.k.)
For
'
4000
c
f = psi,
1
0.85  = . Therefore,
1
4.18
4.92
0.85
c
o

= = = in.
Check whether tension steel is yielding:
Using Eq.(418)
18.5 4.95
0.003 0.0082
4.95
d c
s cu
c
c c
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and it is clear that the steel is yielding in both layers of reinforcement.
It is also clear that the section is tensioncontrolled ( =0.9), but just for illustration the value of
t
c can be calculated as:
19.5 4.92
0.003 0.0089
4.92
t
d c
t cu
c
c c
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
We can use Eq. (421) to calculate
n
M :
4.18
4.74 60000 18.5
2
389
2 12000
M A f d
n s y
o
 

 
\ .
= = =

\ .
kipft
0.9 389
n
M  = kipft = 350 kipft
2. Check of
,min s
A
The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this section, so we
should use
w
b in Eq. (411). Also,
'
3
c
f is equal to 190 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:
,min
200 200
12 18.5 0.74
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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411
47 Compute the negativemoment capacity,
, and check
psi and
psi.
1. Calculation of
n
M 
This section is subjected to negative bending, so tension will develop in the top flange and the
compression zone is at the bottom of the section. ACI Code Section 10.6.6 requires that a portion
of the tension reinforcement be distributed in the flange, so assuming that the No. 6 bars in the
flange are part of the tension reinforcement: 6 0.44 2.64
s
A = = in.
2
The depth of the Whitney stress block can be calculated using Eq. (416), using 12 b = in., since
the compression zone is at the bottom of the section:
For
,
1
0.85  = . Therefore,
)
The steel is yielding
( )
0.00207
s y
c c > = and it is tensioncontrolled ( ) 0.005
t
c > so = 0.9.
)
(
2. Check of
,min s
A
The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension because the beam is subjected to negative
bending. Therefore, the value of
,min s
A will depend on whether the beam is statically determinate.
Assuming that the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate floor system, the
minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using
w
b in Eq. (411). Also,
'
3
c
f is
equal to 189 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:
()
However, for a statically determinate beam,
w
b should be replaced by the smaller of
( ) 2 24 in.
w
b = or
e
b . Given that
e
b is 48 in. for this beam section,
()
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412
48 For the beam shown in Fig. P48,
psi and
psi.
(a) Compute the effective flange width at midspan.
The limits given in ACI Code Section 8.12 for determining the effective compression flange,
e
b ,
for a flanged section that is part of a continuous floor system are:
4
2(8 )
2(clear trans. distance)/2
e w f
w
b b h
b
s +
`
+
)
Assuming that the columns are 18 in. 18 in. , the longitudinal span is approximated as:
18 in.
21 ft ft 22.5 ft
in.
12
ft
 

= + =

\ .
The clear transverse distance for the 9 ft.6 in. span is:
12 in.
9.5 ft 8.5 ft
in.
12
ft
 

=

\ .
and for the 11 ft. span is:
1 12 in. 18 in.
11 ft 9.75 ft
in. in.
2
12 12
ft ft
 

+ =

\ .
So, the average clear transverse distance is 9.125 ft
The effective compression flange can now be computed as:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
22.5 ft 12 in./ft
67.5 in.
4
12 in. 2 8 6 in. 108 in.
12 in. 2 9.125 ft 12 in./ft /2=122 in.
e
b
=
s + =
`
+
)
The first limit governs for this section, so 67.5 in.
e
b =
(b) Compute
for both sections. At the supports, the bottom bars are in one layer; at
midspan, the No. 8 bars are in the bottom, the No. 7 bars in a second layer.
Positive moment region
1. Calculation of
n
M 
Tension steel area:
s
A = 3 No. 8 bars + 2 No. 7 bars = 3 0.79 2 0.60 3.57 + = in.
2
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413
The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers. Assuming the section will
include a No. 3 or No. 4 stirrup, it is reasonable to assume that the distance from the extreme
tension edge of the section to the centroid of the lowest layer of steel is approximately 2.5 in.
Thus the distance from the top of the section to the extreme layer of tension reinforcement,
t
d ,
can be calculated to be:
t
d = 21 in. 2.5 in. =18.5 in.
The minimum spacing required between layers of reinforcement is 1 in. (ACI Code Section
7.6.2). Thus the spacing between the centers of the layers is approximately 2 in. So the distance
from the tension edge to the centroid of the total tension reinforcement is:
( ) ( ) 3 0.79 2.5 2 0.60 4.5
3.17
3.57
+
= in.
Therefore, the effective flexural depth, d , is:
d = 21 in. 3.17 in. =17.8 in.
Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the
compression flange,
( )
6 in.
f
h o s = and that the tension steel is yielding,
( )
s y
c c > ; using Eq.(4
16) we have:
3.57 60000
1.07
'
0.85 3500 67.5
0.85
e
A f
s y
f b
c
o
= = =
in. 6
f
h < = in. (o.k.)
For
'
3500
c
f = psi,
1
0.85  = . Therefore,
1
1.07
1.26
0.85
c
o

= = = in.
Comparing the calculated depth to the neutral axis, c , to the values for d and
t
d , it is clear that
the tension steel strain,
s
c , easily exceeds the yield strain (0.00207) and the strain at the level of
the extreme layer of tension reinforcement,
t
c , exceeds the limit for tensioncontrolled sections
(0.005). Thus,  =0.9 and we can use Eq. (421) to calculate
n
M :
1.07
3.57 60000 17.8
2
308
2 12000
M A f d
n s y
o
 

 
\ .
= = =

\ .
kipft
0.9 308
n
M  = kipft = 277 kipft
Check of
,min s
A : The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this
section, so we should use
w
b in Eq. (411).
'
3
c
f is equal to 177 psi, so use 200 psi in the
numerator.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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414
,min
200 200
12 17.8 0.71
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)
Negative moment region
The tension and compression reinforcement for this section is provided in single layers.
Assuming the section will include a No. 3 or No. 4 stirrup, it is reasonable to assume that the
distance from the extreme tension or compression edge of the section to the centroid of the
tension or compression layer of steel is approximately 2.5 in.
s
A = 7 No. 7 bars = 7 0.60 4.2 = in.
2
, d = 18.5 in.
'
s
A = = 2 No. 8 bars = 2 0.79 1.58 = in.
2
,
'
2.5 d = in.
Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will initially assume the tension steel is yielding
and use the trial and error procedure described in Section 47 to find the neutral axis depth, c.
Try 4 4.5 in. c d = ~
'
'
4.5 2.5
0.003 0.00133
4.5
s cu
c d
c
c c
 
 
= = =


\ .
\ .
( )
' '
29, 000 ksi 0.00133 38.6 ksi
s s s y
f E f c = = = s
( ) ( )
' ' ' 2
' 0.85 1.58 in. 38.6 ksi 2.98 ksi 56.3 kips
s s s c
C A f f = = =
'
1
0.85 0.85 3.5 ksi 12 in. 0.85 4.5 in.=137 kips
c c
C f b c  = =
2
4.20 in. 60 ksi 252 kips
s y
T A f = = =
Because '
c s
T C C > + , we should increase c for the second trial.
Try 5.9 in. c =
'
0.00173
s
c =
( )
'
50.2 ksi
s y
f f = s
' 74.6 kips
s
C =
179 kips
c
C =
254 kips 254 kips
c s
T C C = ~ + =
With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is
yielding.
using Eq.(418)
18.5 5.9
0.003 0.0064
5.9
d c
s cu
c
c c
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
Thus, the steel is yielding
( )
0.00207
s
c > and it is a tensioncontrolled section ( ) 0.0102
t s
c c > = .
So, using
1
0.85 5.9 in. 5.0 in. c o  = = = , use Eq. (421) to calculate
n
M .
( )
'
' 179 kips 16 in. 74.6 kips 16 in.
2
2865 kin. 1195 kin 4060 kin 338 kft
c s
M C d C d d
n
M
n
o  
= + = +

\ .
= + = =
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415
0.9 338
n
M  = kipft = 304 kipft
Check of
,min s
A : The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension and the value of
,min s
A will
depend on the use of that beam. Since the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate
floor system, the minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using
w
b in Eq. (411).
Also,
'
3
c
f is equal to 177 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator.
,min
200 200
12 18.5 0.74
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)
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any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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416
49 Compute
and check
psi and
psi, and
(a) the reinforcement is six No. 8 bars.
1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor,  .
Tension steel area:
s
A = 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.
2
= 4.74 in.
2
Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the
top flange, ( ) 5 in. o s and that the tension steel is yielding,
( )
s y
c c > , using Eq. (416) with
30 in. b = :
()
For
,
1
0.85  = . Therefore,
) (
)
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).
Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is tensioncontrolled and  =0.9.
We can use Eq. (421) to calculate
n
M :
)
(
2. Check of
,min s
A
The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension and the value of
,min s
A will depend on the
use of that beam. Assuming that the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate floor
system, the minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using 2 5 10 in.
w
b = = in Eq.
(411). Also,
'
3
c
f is equal to 189 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:
,min
200 200
10 32.5 1.08
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)
However, for a statically determinate beam,
w
b should be replaced by the smaller of
( ) 2 20 in.
w
b = or
e
b . Given that
e
b is 30 in. for this beam section,
,min
200 200
20 32.5 2.17
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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417
(b) the reinforcement is nine No. 8 bars.
1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor,  .
Tension steel area: As = 9 No. 8 bars = 9 0.79 in.
2
=7.11 in.
2
Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the
compression flange,
( )
5 in.
f
h o s = and that the tension steel is yielding,
( )
s y
c c > , using Eq. (4
16) with 30 in. b = :
()
For
,
1
0.85  = . Therefore,
) (
)
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).
Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is tensioncontrolled and  =0.9.
We can use Eq. (421) to calculate
n
M :
)
(
2. Check of
,min s
A
,min s
A is the same as in part (a).
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418
410 Compute
and check
psi and
psi.
1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam,
n
M and the strength reduction factor,  .
Tension steel area: As = 8 No. 7 bars = 8 0.60 in.
2
=4.8 in.
2
Tension will develop in the bottom flange and the compression zone is at the top of the section.
Thus, assuming that the tension steel is yielding,
( )
s y
c c > , in Eq. (416) we should use
2 6 12 in. b = = and we find the depth of the Whitney stress block as:
4.8 60000
5.65
'
0.85 5000 12
0.85
A f
s y
f b
c
o
= = =
in.
For
'
5000
c
f = psi,
1
0.80  = . Therefore,
1
5.65
7.06
0.80
c
o

= = = in.
Check whether tension steel is yielding:
using Eq.(418) ( )
23.5 7.06
0.003 0.007
7.06
t
d c
s cu
c
c c c
   
= = = =
 
\ . \ .
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).
Since, 0.005
t
c > the section is tensioncontrolled and  =0.9.
We can use Eq. (421) to calculate
n
M :
5.65
4.8 60000 23.5
2
496
2 12000
M A f d
n s y
o
 

 
\ .
= = =

\ .
kipft
0.9 496
n
M  = kipft = 446 kipft
2. Check of
,min s
A
The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension and the value of
,min s
A will depend on the
use of that beam.
Assuming that the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate floor system, the
minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using 2 6 12 in.
w
b = = in Eq. (411). Also,
note that
'
3
c
f is equal to 212 psi:
,min
212 212
12 23.5 1.00
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)
However, for a statically determined beam,
w
b should be replaced by the smaller of
( ) 2 24 in.
w
b = or
e
b . Given that
e
b is 42 in. for this beam section,
,min
212 212
24 23.5 1.99
60, 000
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = in.
2
<
s
A (o.k.)
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
419
411 (a) Compute
psi and
ksi,
Beam No. 1
Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 9 bars = 6 1.00 in.
2
=6.00 in.
2
The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers. Assuming the section will
include a No. 3 or No. 4 stirrup, it is reasonable to assume that the distance from the extreme
tension edge of the section to the centroid of the lowest layer of steel is approximately 2.5 in.
Thus the distance from the top of the section to the extreme layer of tension reinforcement,
t
d ,
can be calculated to be:
t
d =36 in. 2.5 in. =33.5 in.
The effective flexural depth, d , is given as : d =32.5 in.
Assuming that the tension steel is yielding,
( )
s y
c c > , using Eq. (416):
For
. Therefore,
)
Thus,
s
c > 0.002 and the steel is yielding (
s y
f f = ).
Also, 0.005
t
c > , the section is tensioncontrolled and  =0.9.
We can use Eq. (421) to calculate
n
M :
)
(
Beam No. 2
Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 9 bars = 6 1.00 in.
2
=6.00 in.
2
Compression steel area:
'
s
A = 2 No. 9 bars = 2 1.00 in.
2
=2.00 in.
2
As was discussed for beam No. 1, d =32 in.,
t
d =33.5 in. and
'
d is given as
'
2.5 d = in.
Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will initially assume the tension steel is yielding
and use the trial and error procedure described in Section 47 to find the neutral axis depth, c.
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420
Try 4 8 in. c d = ~
) ( )
Because '
c s
T C C < + , we should decrease c for the second trial.
Try
With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is
yielding.
)
Clearly, the steel is yielding
( )
0.00207
s
c > and it is a tensioncontrolled section.
So, using
)+ [(
) ( )]
Beam No. 3
Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 9 bars = 6 1.00 in.
2
=6.00 in.
2
Compression steel area:
'
s
A = 4 No. 9 bars = 4 1.00 in.
2
=4.00 in.
2
As was discussed for beam No. 1, d =32.5 in., and
t
d =33.5 in.
The compression reinforcement for this beam section is provided in two layers and
'
d is given as
3.5 in.
Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will the same procedure as for beam No. 2
(assuming that the tension steel is yielding).
The depth of the neutral axis for this section should be smaller compared with beam section No.
2, since the compression reinforcement is increased for this section.
Try (Note that both layers of the compression steel will be in the compression zone)
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421
Because '
c s
T C C < + , we should decrease c for the second trial.
Try
With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is
yielding.
)
Clearly, the steel is yielding
( )
0.00207
s
c > and it is a tensioncontrolled section.
So, using
)+ [(
) ( )]
(b) From the results of part (a), comment on whether adding compression
reinforcement is a costeffective way of increasing the strength,
, of a beam.
Comparing the values of
n
M  for the three beams, it is clear that for a given amount of tension
reinforcement, the addition of compression steel has little effect on the nominal moment capacity,
as long as the tension steel yields in the beam without compression reinforcement. As a result,
adding compression reinforcement in not a cost effective way of increasing the nominal moment
capacity of a beam. However, adding compression reinforcement improves the ductility and
might be necessary when large amounts of tension reinforcement are used to change the behavior
from compression controlled to tension controlled.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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422
412 Compute
psi and
psi. Does the compression steel yield in this beam at nominal strength?
s
A = 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.
2
= 4.74 in.
2
, 25 in. 2.5 in. 22.5 in. d = =
'
s
A = 2 No. 7 bars = 2 0.60 in.
2
=1.2 in.
2
,
'
2.5 in. d =
Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will initially assume the tension steel is yielding
and use the trial and error procedure described in Section 47 to find the neutral axis depth, c.
Try
For
psi,
. Thus,
Since the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than 5.0 in. , ( ) 5.0 in. o < , the width of the
compression zone is constant and equal to 10 in., i.e. 10 in. b =
) ( )
Because
) ( )
Since , the width of the compression zone is not constant. Using a similar
reasoning as in the case of flanged sections, where the depth of the Whitney stress block is in the
web of the section, the compression force can be calculated from the following equations (refer to
Fig. S412):
( )( )
With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is
yielding.
)
Thus, the tension steel is yielding
( )
0.00207
s
c > and it is a tensioncontrolled section.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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423
Summing the moments about the level of the tension reinforcement:
)]
[(
) (
) ( )]
The strain in the compression steel at nominal moment capacity is 0.00185, the compression steel
has not yielded at nominal strength.
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424
0.85f'c
a
fs=fy
d
h
d
h
f's
d
h
a/2
Ccw
Cs d'
T1
bw
b
bw
b
bw
b
Ccf
T2
ht
ht
ht
(a+ht)/2
a) total beam section and stress distribution
b) Part 1: web of section and corresponding internal forces
c) Part 2: overhanging flanges and corresponding internal forces
f
F
F
a
a
(assumed)
Fig. S412.1 Beam section and internal forces for the case of
t
h o > .
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51
Chapter 5
51 Give three reasons for the minimum cover requirements in the ACI code.
 To ensure enough concrete is present to develop the reinforcement.
 To protect reinforcement from corrosive agents.
 To insulate reinforcement in case of fire.
Under what circumstances are larger covers used?
 Highly corrosive environments.
 Situations where abrasion to the concrete surface may result in a reduction in cover provided.
Note: See Section 5.3 Concrete Cover and Bar Spacing for further discussion.
52 Give three reasons for using compression reinforcement in beams.
 To reduce longterm deflections (i.e. creep).
 It tends to lead to a more ductile failure mode.
 Some compression reinforcement is always required for fabrication of rebar cages.
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52
53 Design a rectangular beam section, i.e. select b, d, h, and the required tension
reinforcement, at midspan for a 22 ftspan simply supported rectangular beam that
supports its own dead load, a superimposed service dead load of 1.25 kip/ft, and a
uniform service load of 2 kip/ft. Use the procedure in Section 5.3 for the design of
beam sections where the dimensions are unknown. Use
and f
y
= 60 ksi.
Step 1: Estimate the dead load due to selfweight of the beam:
Method 1: 0.10 to 0.15 ( ) DL SDL LL ~ +
0.10 to 0.15 (1.25 k/ft 2 k/ft ) DL ~ +
325 lb/ft to 490 lb/ft DL ~
Method 2: / 18 / 12, so estimate 22 in h h s s ~
0.8 18 in b h ~ ~
2 2 3 2 2 3
lb 18 in 22 in lb lb
150 150 413
144 in /ft ft 144 in /ft ft ft
bh
DL
~ = =
Therefore, DL = 410 lb/ft seems like a good first estimate of the weight of the beam.
Step 2: Compute the total factored load and factored design moment, M
u
:
From ACI08 Chapter 9:
1.2 1.6 , 1.4
u D L D
w w w or w = +
1.2 (0.41 k/ft 1.25 k/ft) 1.6 (2 k/ft), or 1.4 (0.41 k/ft 1.25 k/ft)
u
w = + + +
5.20 k/ft, or 2.35 k/ft
u
w =
For this simply supported span,
2 2
5.20 k/ft (22 ft)
315 kft 3775 kin
8 8
u
u
w
M
= = = =
Step 3: Select and the corresponding Rfactor:
Assume the desirable strain diagram shown in Fig. 527b, which leads to .
From Eq. (519):
1
' 0.825 4,500 psi
0.0154
4 4 60, 000 psi
c
y
f
f

~ = =
Note:
1
= 0.825 for f
c
= 4,500 psi
From Eq. (521):
0.0154 60, 000 psi
0.205
' 4,500 psi
y
c
f
f
e
= = =
From Eq. (522):
' (1 0.59 ) 0.205 4.5 ksi (1 0.59 0.205) 0.811 ksi
c
R f e e = = =
(Note that this Rfactor is reasonable based on values given in Table A3)
9 . 0 = 
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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53
Step 4: Select section dimensions, b and h:
From Eq. (523):
2 3
3775 kin
5170 in
0.9 0.811 ksi
u
M
bd
R 
= = =
Since no column dimensions are given which control the width of the beam, the designer can
assume any reasonable value. Here we assume = 0.7
1 1
3 3
3775 kin
19.5 in
0.7 0.9 0.811 ksi
u
M
d
R o
   
> = =
 
\ . \ .
2.5 in 22 in h d = + =
0.7 19.5 in 13.65 in 14 in b d o = = = ~
Note that both h and b are rounded up to the nearest even inch value for constructability.
Step 5: Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars:
First, go back and recalculate the weight of the beam with the final selected dimensions:
2 2 3 2 2 3
lb 14 in 22 in lb lb
150 150 321
144 in /ft ft 144 in /ft ft ft
bh
DL
~ = =
So, 5.09 k/ft
u
w = and 308 kft 3695 kin
u
M = =
Calculate the required area of steel, assuming 0.9 jd d = :
From Eq. (516):
( )
2
3695 kin
3.90 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 19.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= ~ =
 

\ .
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd .
From Eq. (517):
2
3.90 in 60 ksi
4.37 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4.5 ksi 14 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
From Eq. (516):
2
3695 kin
3.95 in
4.37 in
0.9 60 ksi 19.5 in 
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= = =
   
 
\ . \ .
No further iterations are necessary, since the estimated lever arm was very reasonable. Select 4#9
bars as bottom reinforcement at the critical section of the beam.
2 2 2
4 4 1.0 in 4.0 in 3.95 in
s b
A A = = = > OK
Step 6: Required Checks:
1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A5, to verify that b = 14 in is sufficiently
wide for 4 #9 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK
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54
2) Use ACI08 Eq. (103) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 4,500 psi, 3 ' 201 200
c
f = > so use 3 '
c
f
2 2
,min
3 '
3 4500
14 in 19.5 in 0.92 in 4.0 in
60, 000 psi
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = = s OK
3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (517):
2
4.0 in 60 ksi
4.48 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4.5 ksi 14 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
We know that
1
0.825  = (see above).
1
4.48 in
5.43 in
0.825
a
c

= = =
From Eq. (418):
 19.5 in  5.43 in
0.003 0.0078 0.005
5.43 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.
4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (515):
2
4.48 in
0.9 4.0 in 60 ksi 19.5 in 3725 kin
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d  
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
310 kft 308 kft
n u
M M  = > =
Therefore, this design is sufficient without being too conservative.
Note that other combinations of b, h, and A
s
may also be correct if different assumptions were
made by the designer. If all checks listed in Step 6 are satisfied, without being unreasonably
conservative, the design may be considered adequate.
Fig. S54 Crosssection of final design at midspan
9 . 0 = 
9 . 0 = 
22in.
14in.
4 #9 bars
2.5in.
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55
54 The rectangular beam shown in Fig. P54 carries its own dead load (you must guess
values for b and h) plus an additional uniform service load of 0.5 kip/ft and a uniform
service live load of 1.5 kip/ft. The dead load acts on the entire beam, of course, but
the live load can act on parts of the span. Three possible loading cases are shown in
Fig. P54. Use load and strength reduction factors from ACI Code sections 9.2 and
9.3.
a) Draw factored bendingmoment diagrams for the three loading cases shown
and superimpose them to draw a bendingmoment envelope.
Begin by estimating the dead load due to selfweight of the beam:
Method 1: 0.10 to 0.15 ( ) DL SDL LL ~ +
0.10 to 0.15 (0.5 k/ft 1.5 k/ft ) DL ~ +
200 lb/ft to 300 lb/ft DL ~
Method 2: / 18 / 12, so estimate 22 in h h s s ~
0.8 18 in b h ~ ~
2 2 3 2 2 3
lb 18 in 22 in lb lb
150 150 413
144 in /ft ft 144in /ft ft ft
bh
DL
~ = =
We select DL = 350 lb/ft as a first estimate of the weight of the beam.
So, using 1.2 1.6
u D L
w w w = + from ACI 31808, Chapter 9, the bendingmoment envelope is as
follows:
Fig. S55a Bending moment envelope
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56
b) Design a rectangular beam section for the maximum positive bending moment
between the supports, selecting b, d, h, and the reinforcing bars. Use the
procedure in Section 5.3 for the design of beam sections where the dimensions
are unknown. Use f
c
= 5000 psi and f
y
= 60 ksi.
It is necessary to design this beam section for both negative and positive bending. The
need for a practical design makes it reasonable to assume that the outer dimensions of the beam
will be constant along the length, and that these dimensions will be controlled by the design of the
section subjected to the largest absolute value of moment. As seen in Part (a), the largest expected
moment is a positive moment of 226 kipft (2715 kin). Therefore, it is reasonable to begin the
beam design by designing the beam at this location.
Step 1: Select and the corresponding Rfactor:
Assume the strain diagram shown in Fig. 527b, which leads to .
From Eq. (519):
1
' 0.80 5, 000 psi
0.0167
4 4 60, 000 psi
c
y
f
f

~ = =
Note:
1
=0.80 for f
c
= 5,000 psi
From Eq. (521):
0.0167 60, 000 psi
0.20
' 5, 000 psi
y
c
f
f
e
= = =
From Eq. (522):
' (1 0.59 ) 0.20 5 ksi (1 0.59 0.20) 0.882 ksi
c
R f e e = = =
(Note that this Rfactor is reasonable based on values given in Table A3)
Step 2: Select section dimensions, b and h:
From Eq. (523):
2 3
2715 kin
3420 in
0.9 0.882 ksi
u
M
bd
R 
= = =
Since no column dimensions are given which control the width of the beam, the designer can
assume any reasonable value. Here we assume = 0.7
1 1
3 3
2715 kin
17.0 in 17.5 in
0.7 0.9 0.882 ksi
u
M
d
R o
   
> = = ~
 
\ . \ .
2.5 in 20 in h d = + =
0.7 17.5 in 12.5 in 14 in b d o = = = ~
Note that both h and b are rounded up to the nearest even inch value for constructability.
Step 3: Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars:
First, go back and recalculate the weight of the beam with the final selected dimensions:
2 2 3 2 2 3
lb 14 in 20 in lb lb
150 150 292
144 in /ft ft 144 in /ft ft ft
bh
DL
~ = =
So, using pattern loading again, the maximum positive moment is: 222 kft 2670 kin
u
M = =
9 . 0 = 
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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57
Now calculate the required area of steel, assuming 0.9 jd d = :
From Eq. (516):
( )
2
2670 kin
3.14 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 17.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= ~ =
 

\ .
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (517):
2
3.14 in 60 ksi
3.16 in
0.85 ' 0.85 5 ksi 14 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
From Eq. (516):
2
2670 kin
3.11 in
3.16 in
0.9 60 ksi 17.5 in 
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= = =
   
 
\ . \ .
No further iterations are necessary, since the estimated lever arm was very reasonable. Select 4#8
bars as bottom reinforcement at the critical section of the beam.
2 2 2
4 4 0.79 in 3.16 in 3.11 in
s b
A A = = = > OK
Step 4: Required Checks:
1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A5, to verify that b = 14 in is sufficiently
wide for 4 #8 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK
2) Use ACI08 Eq. (103) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 5,000 psi, 3 ' 212 200
c
f = > so use 3 '
c
f
2 2
,min
3 '
3 5000
14 in 17.5 in 0.87 in 3.16 in
60, 000 psi
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = = s OK
3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (517):
2
3.16 in 60 ksi
3.19 in
0.85 ' 0.85 5 ksi 14 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
We know that
1
0.80  = (see above).
1
3.19 in
3.99 in
0.80
a
c

= = =
From Eq. (418):
 17.5 in  3.99 in
0.003 0.0102 0.005
3.99 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.
9 . 0 = 
9 . 0 = 
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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58
4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (515):
2
3.19 in
0.9 3.16 in 60 ksi 17.5 in 2715 kin
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d  
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
226 kft 222 kft
n u
M M  = > =
Therefore, this design for positive bending is sufficient without being too conservative.
c) Using the beam section from part (b), design flexural reinforcement for the
maximum negative moment over the roller support.
Since the outer dimensions are selected, the design for negative bending follows the method for
designing a rectangular section where the section dimensions are known. The maximum expected
negative moment, considering pattern loading, is
 
Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars for negative bending:
Assume :
From Eq. (516):
( )
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (517):
From Eq. (516):
No further iterations are necessary since the solution has essentially converged. Select 2#9 bars as
top reinforcement at the critical section of the beam.
Required Checks:
1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A5, to verify that b = 14 in is sufficiently
wide for 2 #9 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK
2) Use ACI08 Eq. (103) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 5,000 psi,
so use
2 2
,min
3 '
3 5000
14 in 17.5 in 0.87 in 2.0 in
60, 000 psi
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = = s
OK
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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59
3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (517):
2
2.0 in 60 ksi
2.02 in
0.85 ' 0.85 5 ksi 14 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
We know that
1
0.80  = (see above).
1
2.02 in
2.53 in
0.80
a
c

= = =
From Eq. (418):
 17.5 in  2.53 in
0.003 0.0178 0.005
2.53 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = >
OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.
4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (515):
2
2.02 in
0.9 2.0 in 60 ksi 17.5 in 1780 kin
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d  
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
Therefore, this design is sufficient without being too conservative.
The crosssections of the beam design at maximum positive and negative bending moments is
shown below.
Fig. S55b Crosssections of final designs for positive and negative bending respectively
Note that other combinations of b, h, and A
s
may also be correct if different assumptions were
made by the designer. If all checks listed in Steps 4 and 6 are satisfied, without being unreasonably
conservative, the design may be considered adequate.
9 . 0 = 
9 . 0 = 
20in.
14in.
4 #8 bars
2.5in.
20in.
14in.
2 #9 bars
2.5in.
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510
55 Design three rectangular beam sections, i.e. select b and d and the tension steel area
A
s
, to resist a factored design moment, M
u
= 260 kipft. For all three cases select a
section with b = 0.5d and use f
c
= 4000 psi and f
y
= 60 ksi.
a) Start your design by assuming that
t
= 0.0075 (as was done in Section 5.3)
The equations presented in section 5.3 initially assumed that
t
= 0.0075. So, while no changes
need to be made, their derivation will briefly be shown to easy comparisons with the solutions to
parts (b) and (c).
0.003
0.286
0.003 0.0075
cu
cu s
c d d d
c
c c
= = =
+ +
1 1 1
0.85 ' 0.85 ' 0.286 0.24 '
c c c c
C f bc f b d f bd    = = =
Now, enforce equilibrium:
c
C T =
1
0.24 '
c s y
f bd A f  =
Thus we have an expression for the initial value when
t
= 0.0075 is assumed, from Eq. 519:
1
0.24 ' 0.24 0.85 4, 000 psi
0.0136
60, 000 psi
c
initial
y
f
f

= = =
From Eq. (521):
0.0136 60, 000 psi
0.204
' 4, 000 psi
y
c
f
f
e
= = =
From Eq. (522):
' (1 0.59 ) 0.204 4 ksi (1 0.59 0.204) 0.718 ksi
c
R f e e = = =
(Note that this Rfactor is reasonable based on values given in Table A3)
From Eq. (523):
2 3
3120 kin
4830 in
0.9 0.718 ksi
u
M
bd
R 
= = =

\ .
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd .
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
511
From Eq. (517):
2
2.99 in 60 ksi
4.40 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
From Eq. (516):
2
3120 kin
3.00 in
4.4 in
0.9 60 ksi 21.5 in 
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= = =
   
 
\ . \ .
No further iterations are necessary, since the estimated lever arm was very reasonable. Select 3#9
bars as bottom reinforcement at the critical section of the beam.
2 2 2
3 3 1.0 in 3.0 in 3.0 in
s b
A A = = = > OK
Now do the required checks:
1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A5, to verify that b = 12 in is sufficiently
wide for 3 #9 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK
2) Use ACI08 Eq. (103) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 4,000 psi, 3 ' 190 200
c
f = s so use 200.
2 2
,min
200 psi 200 psi
12 in 21.5 in 0.86 in 3.0 in
60, 000 psi
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = s OK
3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (517):
2
3.0 in 60 ksi
4.41 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
We know that
1
0.85  = .
1
4.41 in
5.19 in
0.85
a
c

= = =
From Eq. (418):
 21.5 in  5.19 in
0.003 0.0094 0.005
5.19 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.
4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (515):
2
4.41 in
0.9 3.0 in 60 ksi 21.5 in 3125 kin
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d  
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
260 kft 260 kft
n u
M M  = > =
Therefore, this design is sufficient without being too conservative.
b) Start your design by assuming that
t
= 0.005
9 . 0 = 
9 . 0 = 
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
512
We need to rederive an expression for , using the same approach used in part (a).
0.003
0.375
0.003 0.005
cu
cu s
c d d d
c
c c
= = =
+ +
1 1 1
0.85 ' 0.85 ' 0.375 0.319 '
c c c c
C f bc f b d f bd    = = =
Now, enforce equilibrium:
c
C T =
1
0.319 '
c s y
f bd A f  =
Thus we have an expression for the initial value when
t
= 0.005 is assumed:
1
0.319 ' 0.319 0.85 4, 000 psi
0.0181
60, 000 psi
c
initial
y
f
f

= = =
From Eq. (521):
0.0181 60, 000 psi
0.271
' 4, 000 psi
y
c
f
f
e
= = =
From Eq. (522):
' (1 0.59 ) 0.271 4 ksi (1 0.59 0.271) 0.911 ksi
c
R f e e = = =
(Note that this Rfactor is reasonable based on values given in Table A3)
From Eq. (523):
2 3
3120 kin
3805 in
0.9 0.911 ksi
u
M
bd
R 
= = =

\ .
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd .
From Eq. (517):
2
3.29 in 60 ksi
5.81 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 10 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
From Eq. (516):
2
3120 kin
3.48 in
5.81 in
0.9 60 ksi 19.5 in 
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= = =
   
 
\ . \ .
Iterate once more to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd .
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
513
From Eq. (517):
2
3.48 in 60 ksi
6.14 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 10 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
From Eq. (516):
2
3120 kin
3.52 in
6.14 in
0.9 60 ksi 19.5 in 
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= = =
   
 
\ . \ .
No further iterations are necessary, since the solution has converged. Select 3#10 bars as bottom
reinforcement at the critical section of the beam.
2 2 2
3 3 1.27 in 3.81 in 3.52 in
s b
A A = = = > OK
Now do the required checks:
1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A5, to verify that b = 10 in is sufficiently
wide for 3 #10 bars to be placed in a single layer. NOT OK
So, either different bars must be selected, or the beam must be widened. Here we choose to widen
the beam so that b = 12 in.
2) Use ACI08 Eq. (103) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 4,000 psi, 3 ' 190 200
c
f = s so use 200.
2 2
,min
200 psi 200 psi
12 in 19.5 in 0.78 in 3.81 in
60, 000 psi
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = s OK
3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (517):
2
3.81 in 60 ksi
5.60 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
We know that
1
0.85  = .
1
5.60 in
6.59 in
0.85
a
c

= = =
From Eq. (418):
 19.5 in  6.59 in
0.003 0.0059 0.005
6.59 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.
4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (515):
2
5.60 in
0.9 3.81 in 60 ksi 19.5 in 3435 kin
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d  
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
286 kft 260 kft
n u
M M  = > =
9 . 0 = 
9 . 0 = 
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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514
Therefore, this design is sufficient. Since
n
M  is 10% larger than
u
M , this design is perhaps too
conservative. Options for optimizing this design might be selecting different bars, or slightly
resizing the element. Notice that the design in part (a) was more efficient, so different initial
assumptions can lead to different designs.
c) Start your design by assuming that
t
= 0.0035. You will probably need to add
compression reinforcement to make this a tensioncontrolled section.
We need to rederive an expression for , using the same approach used in part (a).
Now, enforce equilibrium:
c
C T =
Thus we have an expression for the initial value when
t
= 0.0035 is assumed:
From Eq. (521):
From Eq. (522):
( ) ( )
(Note that this Rfactor is reasonable based on values given in Table A3)
Before we can estimate the dimensions of the beam with Eq. (523), we need to determine .
Although we began by assuming that
t
= 0.0035, tension controlled sections are so desirable that
we will ensure that the section is tension controlled. Compression reinforcement might be required.
Set .
From Eq. (523):
We are told to assume = 0.5. Also, since we had difficulty placing all the steel required in part
(b) due to insufficient beam width, and part (c) requires a higher reinforcement ratio to limit the
tensile strains, we will begin by assuming that two layers of reinforcement will be required.
(
(
)
Recall that we use 3.5 in. instead of 2.5 in. to account for the effect the second layer of steel has on
the location of the centroid of the tension reinforcement.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
515
Note that both h and b are rounded to even inch values for constructability.
Now, Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars, assuming 0.9 jd d = :
From Eq. (516):
( )
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd .
From Eq. (517):
From Eq. (516):
Iterate once more to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd .
From Eq. (517):
From Eq. (516):
No further iterations are necessary, since the solution has converged. Select 5#8 bars as bottom
reinforcement at the critical section of the beam.
OK
Check whether the section is tensioned controlled:
1
6.97 in
8.2 in
0.85
a
c

= = =
Compression steel must be added to have a tensioncontrolled section.
Try adding 2 #8 bars in the compression zone, which is approximately
, with
Try
) ( )
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516
Try
Now do the required checks:
1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A5, to verify that b = 10 in is sufficiently
wide for 3 #8 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK
2) Use ACI08 Eq. (103) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 4,000 psi, 3 ' 190 200
c
f = s so use 200.
2 2
,min
200 psi 200 psi
10 in 20.5 in 0.68 in 3.95 in
60, 000 psi
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = s OK
3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (418):
Ok, .
4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (515):
)+ [(
) ( )]
 
Therefore, this design is sufficient. Again, since
n
M  is 10% larger than
u
M , this design is perhaps
too conservative. Options for optimizing this design might be selecting different bars, or slightly
resizing the element. Notice that the design in part (a) was more efficient, so different initial
assumptions can lead to different designs.
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517
d) Compare and discuss your three section designs.
Fig S56 Cross sections of section designs from parts (a), (b), and (c), respectively
Note that the area of reinforcement provided is higher in the third design compared to
either of the first two, even though the section size is smaller. The design for part (c) also required
compression steel to ensure a tension controlled section, whereas the sections in parts (a) and (b)
were tension controlled as singlyreinforced sections.
24in.
12in.
3 #9 bars
2.5in.
22in.
12in.
3 #10 bars
2.5in.
22in.
10in.
5 #8 bars
3.5in.
2 #8 bars
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518
56 You are to design a rectangular beam section to resist a negative bending moment of
275 kipft. Architectural requirements will limit your beam dimensions to a width of
12 in. and a total depth of 18 in. Using those maximum permissible dimensions, select
reinforcement to provide the required moment strength following the ACI Code
provisions for the strength reduction factor, . Use
and
.
Begin by trying to design the section as singly reinforced, with one layer of tension steel.
Set
( )
Either 5 #9 bars of 6 #8. To fit within the 12 in. beam width, 2 layers of bars are required.
Try 5 #9 bars:
Check whether the tension steel has yielded, and whether the section is tension controlled.
Add compression steel so that
By iteration,
Check whether the section is tension controlled.
Calculate the nominal moment capacity:
)+ [(
) ( )]
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519
Now do the required checks:
1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A5, to verify that b = 12 in. is sufficiently
wide for 3 #9 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK
2) Use ACI08 Eq. (103) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 5,000 psi,
so use 212.
Already verified that is OK, and calculated the nominal moment capacity.
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520
57 For column line 2, use the ACI Moment Coefficients given in ACI Code section 8.3.3
to determine the maximum positive and negative factored moments at the support
faces for columns A2 and B2, and at the midspan of an exterior span and the
interior span.
First, confirm that the ACI moment coefficients can be used.
a) Two or more spans OK
b) Longer span length within 20% of shorter OK
c) Loads are uniformly distributed OK
d) Unfactored LL load does not exceed 3 times DL OK
e) Members are prismatic OK
Now, estimate the dead load supported by column line 2:
Dead load from beam, per foot of beam:
2 3
2
12 in 18 in lb lb
150 225
in ft ft
144
ft
=
Dead load from slab, per foot of beam:
( )
3
12 ft 11 ft
6 in
2
lb lb
150 863
in
ft ft
12
ft
  +

\ .
=
Superimposed dead load, per foot of beam:
2
12 ft 11 ft lb lb
20 230
2 ft ft
+
=
Can the live load be reduced? From Eq. (53):
At column A2 and midspan of exterior beam:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.041 k/ft
2 11.5 ft 30 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(
(
At column B2:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.034 k/ft
2 11.5 ft 55 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(
(
At midspan of interior span:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.044 k/ft
2 11.5 ft 25 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(
(
Live load, per foot of beam:
At column A2 and midspan of exterior beam:
2
12 ft 11 ft lb lb
41 472
2 ft ft
+
=
At column B2:
2
12 ft 11 ft lb lb
34 391
2 ft ft
+
=
At midspan of interior span:
2
12 ft 11 ft lb lb
44 506
2 ft ft
+
=
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521
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored loads are:
At column A2 and midspan of exterior beam:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.863 k/ft 0.230 k/ft 1.6 0.472 k/ft 2.34 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
At column B2:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.863 k/ft 0.230 k/ft 1.6 0.391 k/ft 2.21 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
At midspan of interior span:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.863 k/ft 0.230 k/ft 1.6 0.506 k/ft 2.39 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
Calculate the clear span length,
n
:
At column A2: 30 ft 16 in 28.67 ft
n
= =
At midspan of exterior span: 30 ft 16 in 28.67 ft
n
= =
At column B2 (exterior):
( )
30 ft 25 ft
16 in 26.17 ft
2
n
+
= =
At column B2 (interior):
( )
30 ft 25 ft
16 in 26.17 ft
2
n
+
= =
At midspan of interior span: 25 ft 16 in 23.67 ft
n
= =
Design Moments using ACI Moment Coefficients from section 8.3.3:
At column A2:
( )
2
2
2.34 k/ft 28.67 ft
120 kft
16 16
u n
u
w
M
= = =
At midspan of exterior span:
( )
2
2
2.34 k/ft 28.67 ft
137 kft
14 14
u n
u
w
M
= = =
At column B2 (exterior):
( )
2
2
2.21 k/ft 26.17 ft
151 kft
10 10
u n
u
w
M
= = =
At column B2 (interior):
( )
2
2
2.21 k/ft 26.17 ft
138 kft
11 11
u n
u
w
M
= = =
At midspan of interior span:
( )
2
2
2.39 k/ft 23.67 ft
83.7 kft
16 16
u n
u
w
M
= = =
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522
58 Repeat problem 57, but use structural analysis software to determine the maximum
positive and negative moments described in problem 57. The assumed beam, slab
and column dimensions are given in the figure. Assume 12 ft story heights above and
below this floor level. You must use appropriate live load patterns to maximize the
various factored moments. Use a table to compare the answers from Problems 57
and 58.
From Problem 57, the factored loads are:
At column A2 and midspan of exterior beam: 2.34 k/ft
u
w =
At column B2: 2.21 k/ft
u
w =
At midspan of interior span: 2.39 k/ft
u
w =
Properties of elements used for model:
Column:
2
16 in 16 in 256 in
g
A = =
( )
4
4
16 in / 12 5, 460 in
g
I = =
Beam (Use properties of the web as an approximation of the cracked properties):
2
12 in 24 in 288 in
g
A = =
( )
3
4
12 in 24 in / 12 13,800 in
g
I = =
We assume story heights of 12 ft above and below the continuous beam being modeled, and
include columns, fixed at their ends, in our model. Then we apply the appropriate load
combinations following Example 52, and the following design moments result:
Location ACI Design Moment
(From Problem 57)
Design Moment
(From software)
At column A2: 120 kipft 135 kipft
At midspan of exterior span: 137 kipft 93.0 kipft
At column B2 (exterior): 151 kipft 159 kipft
At column B2 (interior): 138 kipft 114 kipft
At midspan of interior span: 83.7 kipft 55.0 kipft
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523
59 Repeat problems 57 and 58 for column line 1.
First, confirm that the ACI moment coefficients can be used.
a) Two or more spans OK
b) Longer span length within 20% of shorter OK
c) Loads are uniformly distributed OK
d) Unfactored LL load does not exceed 3 times DL OK
e) Members are prismatic OK
Now, estimate the dead weight supported by column line 1:
Dead weight from beam, per foot of beam:
2 3
2
12 in 18 in lb lb
150 225
in ft ft
144
ft
=
Dead weight from slab, per foot of beam:
3
6 in 6.5 ft lb lb
150 488
in
ft ft
12
ft
=
Superimposed dead load, per foot of beam:
2
lb lb
6.5 ft 20 130
ft ft
=
Can the live load be reduced? From Eq. (53):
At column A1 and midspan of exterior beam:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.052 k/ft
2 6 ft 30 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(
(
since L
r
LL, no reduction is possible, so use LL = 0.050 k/ft
2
At column B1:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.042 k/ft
2 6 ft 55 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(
(
At midspan of interior span:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.056 k/ft
2 6 ft 25 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(
(
since L
r
LL, no reduction is possible, so use LL = 0.050 k/ft
2
Live load, per foot of beam:
At column A1 and midspan of exterior beam:
2
lb lb
6.5 ft 50 325
ft ft
=
At column B1:
2
lb lb
6.5 ft 42 273
ft ft
=
At midspan of interior span:
2
lb lb
6.5 ft 50 325
ft ft
=
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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524
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored loads are:
At column A1 and midspan of exterior beam:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.488 k/ft 0.130 k/ft 1.6 0.325 k/ft 1.53 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
At column B1:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.488 k/ft 0.130 k/ft 1.6 0.273 k/ft 1.45 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
At midspan of interior span:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.488 k/ft 0.130 k/ft 1.6 0.325 k/ft 1.53 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
Calculate the clear span length,
n
:
At column A1: 30 ft 16 in 28.67 ft
n
= =
At midspan of exterior span: 30 ft 16 in 28.67 ft
n
= =
At column B1 (exterior):
( )
30 ft 25 ft
16 in 26.17 ft
2
n
+
= =
At column B1 (interior):
( )
30 ft 25 ft
16 in 26.17 ft
2
n
+
= =
At midspan of interior span: 25 ft 16 in 23.67 ft
n
= =
Design Moments using ACI Moment Coefficients from section 8.3.3:
At column A1:
( )
2
2
1.53 k/ft 28.67 ft
78.6 kft
16 16
u n
u
w
M
= = =
At midspan of exterior span:
( )
2
2
1.53 k/ft 28.67 ft
89.8 kft
14 14
u n
u
w
M
= = =
At column B1 (exterior):
( )
2
2
1.45 k/ft 26.17 ft
99.3 kft
10 10
u n
u
w
M
= = =
At column B1 (interior):
( )
2
2
1.45 k/ft 26.17 ft
90.3 kft
11 11
u n
u
w
M
= = =
At midspan of interior span:
( )
2
2
1.53 k/ft 23.67 ft
53.6 kft
16 16
u n
u
w
M
= = =
Now, assemble a model using structural analysis software. Use the following properties:
Column:
2
16 in 16 in 256 in
g
A = =
( )
4
4
16 in / 12 5, 460 in
g
I = =
Beam (Use properties of the web as an approximation of the cracked properties):
2
12 in 24 in 288 in
g
A = =
( )
3
4
12 in 24 in / 12 13,800 in
cr
I ~ =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
525
We assume story heights of 12 ft above and below the continuous beam being modeled, and
include columns, fixed at their ends, in our model. Then we apply the appropriate load
combinations following Example 52, and the following design moments result:
Location ACI Design Moment Design Moment
(From software)
At column A1: 78.6 kipft 88.8 kipft
At midspan of exterior span: 89.8 kipft 60.9 kipft
At column B1 (exterior): 99.3 kipft 103 kipft
At column B1 (interior): 90.3 kipft 74.7 kipft
At midspan of interior span: 53.6 kipft 35.5 kipft
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526
510 Repeat problems 57 and 58 for the beam mnop in Fig. P57. Be sure to comment
on the factored design moment at the face of the spandrel beam support at point m.
First, confirm that the ACI moment coefficients can be used.
a) Two or more spans OK
b) Longer span length within 20% of shorter OK
c) Loads are uniformly distributed OK
d) Unfactored LL load does not exceed 3 times DL OK
e) Members are prismatic OK
Now, estimate the dead weight supported by beam mnop:
Dead weight from beam, per foot of beam:
2 3
2
12 in 18 in lb lb
150 225
in ft ft
144
ft
=
Dead weight from slab, per foot of beam:
3
6 in 12 ft lb lb
150 900
in
ft ft
12
ft
=
Superimposed dead load, per foot of beam:
2
lb lb
12 ft 20 240
ft ft
=
Can the live load be reduced? From Eq. (53):
At m and midspan of exterior beam:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.040 k/ft
2 12 ft 30 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(
(
At n:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.033 k/ft
2 12 ft 55 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(
(
At midspan of interior span:
2 2
15 15
0.25 0.050 k/ft 0.25 0.043 k/ft
2 12 ft 25 ft
r
LL T
L L
K A
(
(
= + = + = (
(
(
Live load, per foot of beam:
At m and midspan of exterior beam:
2
lb lb
12 ft 40 480
ft ft
=
At n:
2
lb lb
12 ft 33 396
ft ft
=
At midspan of interior span:
2
lb lb
12 ft 43 516
ft ft
=
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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527
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored loads are:
At m and midspan of exterior beam:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.900 k/ft 0.240 k/ft 1.6 0.480 k/ft 2.41 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
At n:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.900 k/ft 0.240 k/ft 1.6 0.396 k/ft 2.27 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
At midspan of interior span:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.900 k/ft 0.240 k/ft 1.6 0.516 k/ft 2.46 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
Calculate the clear span length,
n
:
At m: 30 ft 12 in 29 ft
n
= =
At midspan of exterior span: 30 ft 12 in 29 ft
n
= =
At n (exterior):
( )
30 ft 25 ft
12 in 26.5 ft
2
n
+
= =
At n (interior):
( )
30 ft 25 ft
12 in 26.5 ft
2
n
+
= =
At midspan of interior span: 25 ft 12 in 24 ft
n
= =
Design Moments using ACI Moment Coefficients from section 8.3.3:
At m:
( )
2
2
2.41 k/ft 29 ft
84.5 kft
24 24
u n
u
w
M
= = =
At midspan of exterior span:
( )
2
2
2.41 k/ft 29 ft
145 kft
14 14
u n
u
w
M
= = =
At n (exterior):
( )
2
2
2.27 k/ft 26.5 ft
159 kft
10 10
u n
u
w
M
= = =
At n (interior):
( )
2
2
2.27 k/ft 26.5 ft
145 kft
11 11
u n
u
w
M
= = =
At midspan of interior span:
( )
2
2
2.46 k/ft 24 ft
88.6 kft
16 16
u n
u
w
M
= = =
Now, assemble a model using structural analysis software. Use the following properties:
Beam (Use properties of the web as an approximation of the cracked properties):
2
12 in 24 in 288 in
g
A = =
( )
3
4
12 in 24 in / 12 13,800 in
g
I = =
Here we follow the recommendations from chapter 5 of the text, and assume that the beam is
pinned at m and supported by rollers (which are free to rotate) at n, o, and p. This neglects the
relatively small amount of moment transferred into the supporting beams due to their torsional
rigidity.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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528
Now apply the appropriate load combinations following Example 52, and the following design
moments result:
Location ACI Design Moment Design Moment
(From software)
At m: 84.5 kipft 14.6 kipft
At midspan of exterior span: 145 kipft 184 kipft
At n (exterior): 159 kipft 195 kipft
At n (interior): 145 kipft 200 kipft
At midspan of interior span: 88.6 kipft 23.5 kipft
The software model assumes that there is no torsional rigidity supplied by the supporting beams.
Therefore, the moment that is predicted by the software at m is only due to the fact that the beam is
offset from the centerline of the supporting spandrel beam. While neglecting the torsional rigidity
of the spandrel beams is not realistic, it is also unlikely that the spandrel beam is torsionally rigid
enough to result in a moment as high as the ACI Design Moments.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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529
511 Repeat problems 57 and 58 for the oneway slab strip shown in Fig. P57. For this
problem, find the factored design moments at all the points, a through i, indicated in
Fig. P57.
First, confirm that the ACI moment coefficients can be used.
a) Two or more spans OK
b) Longer span length within 20% of shorter OK
c) Loads are uniformly distributed OK
d) Unfactored LL load does not exceed 3 times DL OK
e) Members are prismatic OK
Now, estimate the dead load supported by slab strip ai:
Dead load from slab, per foot of slab:
2 3
2
6 in 12 in lb lb
150 75
in ft ft
144
ft
=
Superimposed dead load, per foot of slab:
2
lb lb
1 ft 20 20
ft ft
=
Live load, per foot of slab:
2
lb lb
1 ft 50 50
ft ft
=
This live load cannot be reduced due to the very small influence area of the slab strip.
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored loads are:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.075 k/ft 0.020 k/ft 1.6 0.050 k/ft 0.194 k/ft
u
w = + + =
Calculate the clear span lengths,
n
:
12 ft 12 in 11 ft
n
= =
11 ft 12 in 10 ft
n
= =
Also, assemble a model using structural analysis software. Use the following cracked properties:
Beam:
2
12 in 6 in 72 in
g
A = =
( )
3
4
0.5 0.5 12 in 6 in / 12 108 in
cr g
I I = = =
Here, we follow the recommendations from chapter 5 of the text, and assume that the slab strip is
pinned at a, and supported by rollers (which are free to rotate) at c, e, g, and i. Note that although i
is a point of geometrical symmetry, it cannot be modeled as fixed, since the pattern loads are not
necessarily symmetrical. Also note that pinning these supports neglects the relatively small
amount of moment transferred into the supporting beams due to their torsional rigidity.
Once the model is constructed, apply the appropriate load combinations following Example 52.
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530
Design Moments using ACI Moment Coefficients from section 8.3.3, compared to design moments
resulting from software model:
Location ACI Moment
Coefficient
ACI Design Moment Design Moment
(From Software)
a 1/24 0.978 kipft 0.423 kipft
b 1/14 1.68 kipft 2.14 kipft
c 1/11 2.13 kipft 2.86 kipft
d 1/16 1.47 kipft 1.29kipft
e 1/11 1.76 kipft 1.99 kipft
f 1/16 1.21 kipft 1.29 kipft
g 1/11 1.76 kipft 1.99 kipft
h 1/16 1.21 kipft 1.24 kipft
i 1/11 1.76 kipft 1.94 kipft
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531
512 Use structural analysis software to find the maximum factored moments for the
girder on column line C. Find the maximum factored positive moments at o and y,
and the maximum factored negative moments at columns C1, C2, and C3.
Estimate the loads supported by the beam along column line C:
Distributed dead load from beam, per foot of beam:
2 3
2
12 in 24 in lb lb
150 300
in ft ft
144
ft
=
The remaining loads are transferred to the girder as a point load at midspan. Loads transferring
from the adjacent interior span will transfer directly to the girder, whereas loads from the adjacent
exterior span must be amplified by 15% according to the ACI shear coefficient.
Dead load from beams and slab, applied at the midpoint of the girder between C1 and C2:
2 3
2
12 in 18 in 25 ft 6 in 6 in 12 ft 25 ft 6 in lb
150 13.5 k
in in in
in 2 2 ft
12 12 12
144
ft ft ft
ft
(
   
(
 
+ =
(
 
\ . \ . (
2 3
2
12 in 18 in 30 ft 6 in 6 in 12 ft 30 ft 6 in lb
1.15 150 18.8 k
in in in
in 2 2 ft
12 12 12
144
ft ft ft
ft
(
   
(
 
+ =
(
 
\ . \ . (
18.8 k 13.5 k 32.3 k + =
Dead load from beams and slab, applied at the midpoint of the girder at the interior spans:
2 3
2
12 in 18 in 25 ft 6 in 6 in 11 ft 25 ft 6 in lb
150 12.6 k
in in in
in 2 2 ft
12 12 12
144
ft ft ft
ft
(
   
(
 
+ =
(
 
\ . \ . (
2 3
2
12 in 18 in 30 ft 6 in 6 in 11 ft 30 ft 6 in lb
1.15 150 17.5 k
in in in
in 2 2 ft
12 12 12
144
ft ft ft
ft
(
   
(
 
+ =
(
 
\ . \ . (
12.6 k 17.5 k 30.1 k + =
Superimposed dead load, applied at the midpoint of the girder at the exterior spans:
2
25 ft lb
12 ft 20 3.0 k
2 ft
(
 
=
 (
\ .
3
30 ft lb
1.15 12 ft 20 4.14 k
2 ft
(
 
=
 (
\ .
3.00 k 4.14 k 7.14 k + =
Superimposed dead load, applied at the midpoint of the girder at the interior spans:
2
25 ft lb
11 ft 20 2.75 k
2 ft
(
 
=
 (
\ .
3
30 ft lb
1.15 11 ft 20 3.80 k
2 ft
(
 
=
 (
\ .
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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532
2.75 k 3.80 k 6.55 k + =
Live load, applied as a point load:
For negative moment at C1 and positive moment at o:
2 2
15 15
0.25 50 lb/ft 0.25 33 lb/ft
24 ft 55 ft
r
I
L L
A
(
(
= + = + = (
(
(
2
25 ft 30 ft
33 lb/ft 12 ft 1.15 12 ft 11.8 k
2 2
o
LL
(
   
= + =
  (
\ . \ .
For negative moment at C2:
2 2
15 15
0.25 50 lb/ft 0.25 27.4 lb/ft
46 ft 55 ft
r
I
L L
A
(
(
= + = + = (
(
(
2
25 ft 30 ft
27.4 lb/ft 12 ft 1.15 12 ft 9.78 k
2 2
o
LL
(
   
= + =
  (
\ . \ .
2
25 ft 30 ft
27.4 lb/ft 11 ft 1.15 11 ft 8.97 k
2 2
y
LL
(
   
= + =
  (
\ . \ .
For positive moment at y:
2 2
15 15
0.25 50 lb/ft 0.25 34 lb/ft
22 ft 55 ft
r
I
L L
A
(
(
= + = + = (
(
(
2
25 ft 30 ft
34 lb/ft 11 ft 1.15 11 ft 11.1 k
2 2
y
LL
(
   
= + =
  (
\ . \ .
For negative moment at C3:
2 2
15 15
0.25 50 lb/ft 0.25 27.7 lb/ft
44 ft 55 ft
r
I
L L
A
(
(
= + = + = (
(
(
2
25 ft 30 ft
27.7 lb/ft 11 ft 1.15 11 ft 9.06 k
2 2
y
LL
(
   
= + =
  (
\ . \ .
Calculate the clear span length,
n
:
Between C1 and C2: 24 ft 16 in 22.67 ft
n
= =
Between C2 and C3: 22 ft 16 in 20.67 ft
n
= =
Now assemble a model using structural analysis software. Use the following cracked properties:
Column:
2
16 in 16 in 256 in
g
A = =
( )
4
4
16 in / 12 5, 460 in
g
I = =
Beam (Use properties of the web as an approximation of the cracked properties):
2
12 in 24 in 288 in
g
A = =
( )
3
4
12 in 24 in / 12 13,800 in
cr
I ~ =
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533
We assume story heights of 12 ft above and below the continuous beam being modeled, and
include columns, fixed at their ends, in our model. Then we apply the appropriate load
combinations following Example 52, and the following design moments result:
Location Design Moment
(From Software)
Negative at C1 121 kipft
Positive at o 236 kipft
Negative at C2 (oside) 224 kipft
Negative at C2 (yside) 198 kipft
Positive at y 175 kipft
Negative at C3 164 kipft
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534
513 Assume the maximum factored positive moment near midspan of the floor beam
between columns A2 and B2 is 60 kipft. Using the beam dimensions given in
Fig. P57, determine the required area of tension reinforcement to satisfy all the ACI
Code requirements for strength and minimum reinforcement area. Select bars and
provide a sketch of your final section design.
The maximum expected positive moment is given as 60 kft 720 kin
u
M = =
Determine the effective flange width:
By ACI code section 8.12:
30 ft / 4 7.5 ft 90 in
f
b = = =
Check that:
2 8 6 in 12 in 108 in
11 ft 12 in
2 12 in 132 in
2
f
b
+ =
<
+ =
OK
Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars:
Assume 0.95 jd d = :
From Eq. (516):
( )
2
720 kin
0.65 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.95 21.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= ~ =
 

\ .
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (517):
2
0.65 in 60 ksi
0.13 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 90 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
From Eq. (516):
2
720 kin
0.62 in
0.13 in
0.9 60 ksi 21.5 in 
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= = =
   
 
\ . \ .
This seems like a very small area of required steel, so check minimum steel requirement before
selecting bars.
From ACI08 Eq. (103):
For f
c
= 4,000 psi, 3 ' 189 200
c
f = s so use 200
2
,min
3 '
200
12 in 21.5 in 0.86 in
60, 000 psi
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = =
The minimum steel requirement will govern here. Select 3 #5 bars.
2 2 2
3 3 0.31 in 0.93 in 0.86 in
s b
A A = = = > OK
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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535
Required Checks:
1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A5, to verify that b = 12 in is sufficiently
wide for 3 #5 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK
2) Use ACI08 Eq. (103) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required. Since this requirement governed our bar selection, this is satisfied by default. OK
3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (517):
2
0.93 in 60 ksi
0.182 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 90 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
We know that
1
0.85  = for f
c
= 4,000 psi
1
0.182 in
0.214 in
0.85
a
c

= = =
From Eq. (418):
 21.5 in  0.214 in
0.003 0.297 0.005
0.214 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.
4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (515):
2
0.182 in
0.9 0.93 in 60 ksi 21.5 in 1075 kin
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d  
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
89.6 kft 60 kft
n u
M M  = > =
Therefore, this design is sufficient. It seems too conservative, but that is because the minimum
area requirement governed bar selection.
Fig. S513 Crosssection of final design for positive bending region
Note that other selections A
s
may also be correct. If all checks are satisfied, without being
unreasonably conservative, the design may be considered adequate.
9 . 0 = 
9 . 0 = 
24in.
90in.
3 #5 bars
2.5in.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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536
514 Assume the maximum factored negative moment at the face of column B2 for the
floor beam along column line 2 is 120 kipft. Using the beam and slab dimensions
given in Fig. P57, determine the required area of tension reinforcement to satisfy all
the ACI Code requirements for strength and minimum reinforcement area. Select
bars and provide a sketch of your final section design.
The maximum expected negative moment is given as 120 kft 1440 kin
u
M = =
Although this is a Tsection, there is no need to determine the effective flange width since the
compression zone is located in the web of the beam.
Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars:
Assume 0.9 jd d = :
From Eq. (516):
( )
2
1440 kin
1.38 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 21.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= ~ =
 

\ .
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (517):
2
1.38 in 60 ksi
2.03 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
From Eq. (516):
2
1440 kin
1.30 in
2.03 in
0.9 60 ksi 21.5 in 
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= = =
   
 
\ . \ .
Select 3 #5 bars over the web, and 4 #3 bars in the flange. This will result in part of the
reinforcement (about 1/3) being spread into the flange, and most (2/3) remaining over the web.
2 2 2 2
1 2
3 4 3 0.31 in 4 0.11 in 1.37 in 1.30 in
s b b
A A A = + = + = > OK
Required Checks:
1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A5, to verify that b = 12 in is sufficiently
wide for 3 #5 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK
2) Use ACI08 Eq. (103) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
From ACI08 Eq. (103):
For f
c
= 4,000 psi, 3 ' 190 200
c
f = s so use 200 psi
2 2
,min
3 '
200 psi
12 in 21.5 in 0.86 in 1.37 in
60, 000 psi
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = = < OK
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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537
3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (517):
2
1.37 in 60 ksi
2.01 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
We know that
1
0.85  = for f
c
= 4,000 psi
1
2.01 in
2.36 in
0.85
a
c

= = =
From Eq. (418):
 21.5 in  2.36 in
0.003 0.024 0.005
2.36 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.
4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (515):
2
2.01 in
0.9 1.37 in 60 ksi 21.5 in 1515 kin
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d  
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
126 kft 120 kft
n u
M M  = > =
Therefore, this design is sufficient.
Fig. S514 Crosssection of final design for negative bending region
Note that other selections of A
s
may also be correct. If all checks are satisfied, without being
unreasonably conservative, the design may be considered adequate. Also note that all flange
reinforcement that is considered to contribute to the negative bending capacity of this section is
placed within two flange depths of the web.
9 . 0 = 
9 . 0 = 
24in.
90in.
12in.
3 #5 bars and 4 #3 bars
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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538
515 Assume the maximum factored negative moment at support n of the floor beam
mnop is 150 kipft. Using the design procedure for singly reinforced beam sections
given in Section 53 (design of beams when section dimensions are not known),
determine the beam dimensions and select the required area of tension reinforcement
to satisfy all the ACI Code requirements for strength and minimum reinforcement
area. Select bars and provide a sketch of your final section design.
The maximum expected negative moment is given as 150 kft 1800 kin
u
M = =
Although this is a Tsection, there is no need to determine the effective flange width since the
compression zone is located in the web of the beam.
Step 1: Select and the corresponding Rfactor:
Assume the desirable strain diagram shown in Fig. 527b, which leads to .
From Eq. (519):
1
' 0.85 4, 000 psi
0.0142
4 4 60, 000 psi
c
y
f
f

~ = =
Note:
1
=0.85 for f
c
= 4,000 psi
From Eq. (521):
0.0142 60, 000 psi
0.2125
' 4, 000 psi
y
c
f
f
e
= = =
From Eq. (522):
' (1 0.59 ) 0.2125 4 ksi (1 0.59 0.2125) 0.743 ksi
c
R f e e = = =
(Note that this Rfactor is reasonable based on values given in Table A3)
Step 2: Select section dimensions, b and h:
From Eq. (523):
2 3
1800 kin
2690 in
0.9 0.743 ksi
u
M
bd
R 
= = =
Since no column dimensions are given which control the width of the beam, the designer can
assume any reasonable value. Here we assume = 0.5
1 1
3 3
1800 kin
17.6 in 17.5 in
0.5 0.9 0.734 ksi
u
M
d
R o
   
> = = ~
 
\ . \ .
2.5 in 20 in h d = + =
0.5 17.5 in 8.75 in 10 in b d o = = = ~
Note that both h and b are rounded to the nearest even inch value for constructability.
Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars:
Assume 0.9 jd d = : From Eq. (516):
( )
2
1800 kin
2.12 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 17.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= ~ =
 

\ .
9 . 0 = 
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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539
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (517):
2
2.12 in 60 ksi
3.74 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 10 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
From Eq. (516):
2
1800 kin
2.13 in
3.74 in
0.9 60 ksi 17.5 in 
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= = =
   
 
\ . \ .
Since I am not satisfied that any of the possible bar combinations that fulfill this requirement are
not too conservative, I will choose to widen the beam slightly to help get a more efficient design.
Select b = 12 in.
Now redetermine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars:
Assume 0.9 jd d = :
From Eq. (516):
( )
2
1800 kin
2.12 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 17.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= ~ =
 

\ .
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (517):
2
2.12 in 60 ksi
3.12 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
From Eq. (516):
2
1800 kin
2.09 in
3.12 in
0.9 60 ksi 17.5 in 
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= = =
   
 
\ . \ .
Select 3 #6 bars over the web, and 4 #4 bars in the flange. This will result in part of the
reinforcement (about 1/3) being spread into the flange, and most (2/3) remaining over the web.
2 2 2 2
1 2
3 4 3 0.44 in 4 0.2 in 2.12 in 2.09 in
s b b
A A A = + = + = > OK
Required Checks:
1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A5, to verify that b = 12 in is sufficiently
wide for 3 #6 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK
2) Use ACI08 Eq. (103) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
From ACI08 Eq. (103):
For f
c
= 4,000 psi, 3 ' 190 200
c
f = s so use 200
2 2
,min
3 '
200 psi
12 in 17.5 in 0.70 in 2.12 in
60, 000 psi
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = = < OK
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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540
3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
From Eq. (517):
2
2.12 in 60 ksi
3.12 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
We know that
1
0.85  = for f
c
= 4,000 psi
1
3.12 in
3.67 in
0.85
a
c

= = =
From Eq. (418):
 17.5 in  3.67 in
0.003 0.011 0.005
3.67 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.
4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (515):
2
3.12 in
0.9 2.12 in 60 ksi 17.5 in 1820 kin
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d  
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
152 kft 150 kft
n u
M M  = > =
Therefore, this design is sufficient without being too conservative.
Fig. S515 Crosssection of final design for negative bending region
Note that other selections A
s
may also be correct. If all checks are satisfied, without being
unreasonably conservative, the design may be considered adequate. Also note that all flange
reinforcement that is considered to contribute to the negative bending capacity of this section is
placed within two flange depths of the web.
9 . 0 = 
9 . 0 = 
20in.
90in.
12in.
3 #6 bars and 4 #4 bars
12in.
6in.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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541
516 Assume the maximum factored negative moment at the face of column C2 for the
girder along column line C is 250 kipft. Using the design procedure given in
section 54 for the design of doubly reinforced sections, determine the beam
dimensions and select the required areas of tension and compression
reinforcement to satisfy all the ACI Code requirements for strength and minimum
reinforcement area. Select bars and provide a sketch of your final section design.
The maximum expected negative moment is given as 250 kft 3000 kin
u
M = =
Although this is a Tsection, there is no need to determine the effective flange width since the
compression zone is located in the web of the beam.
Select and the corresponding Rfactor:
Assume the desirable strain diagram shown in Fig. 527b, which leads to .
From Eq. (525):
1
0.36 ' 0.36 0.85 4, 000 psi
0.0204
60, 000 psi
c
y
f
f

~ = = Note:
1
=0.85 for f
c
= 4,000 psi
From Eq. (521):
0.0204 60, 000 psi
0.306
' 4, 000 psi
y
c
f
f
e
= = =
From Eq. (522):
' (1 0.59 ) 0.306 4 ksi (1 0.59 0.306) 1.0 ksi
c
R f e e = = =
(Note that this Rfactor is reasonable based on values given in Table A3)
Select section dimensions, b and h:
From Eq. (523):
2 3
3000 kin
3330 in
0.9 1.0 ksi
u
M
bd
R 
= = =
Since no column dimensions are given which control the width of the beam, the designer can
assume any reasonable value. Here we assume = 0.65
1 1
3 3
3000 kin
17.2 in 17.5 in
0.65 0.9 1.0 ksi
u
M
d
R o
   
> = = ~
 
\ . \ .
2.5 in 20 in h d = + =
0.65 17.5 in 11.4 in 12 in b d o = = = ~
Note that both h and b are rounded to the nearest even inch value for constructability.
Determine A
s
and select the reinforcing bars:
Assume 0.9 jd d = :
From Eq. (516):
( )
2
3000 kin
3.53 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 17.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= ~ =
 

\ .
9 . 0 = 
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542
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (517):
2
3.53 in 60 ksi
5.2 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
From Eq. (516):
2
3000 kin
3.73 in
5.2 in
0.9 60 ksi 17.5 in 
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= = =
   
 
\ . \ .
Select 3 #9 bars over the web, and 4 #4 bars in the flange. This will result in part of the
reinforcement (about 1/5) being spread into the flange, and most (4/5) remaining over the web.
2 2 2 2
1 2
3 4 3 1.0 in 4 0.2 in 3.80 in 3.73 in
s b b
A A A = + = + = > OK
Also, select compression reinforcement such that the area of compression reinforcement (A
s
) is
greater than one half of the tension steel. Here we select 3 #8 bars so that A
s
= 2.37 in
2
.
Required Checks:
1) Use minimum bar spacing and cover values, or Table A5, to verify that b = 12 in is sufficiently
wide for 3 #9 bars to be placed in a single layer. OK
2) Use ACI08 Eq. (103) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
From ACI08 Eq. (103):
For f
c
= 4,000 psi, 3 ' 190 200
c
f = s so use 200
2 2
,min
3 '
200
12 in 17.5 in 0.70 in 3.80 in
60, 000 psi
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
= = = < OK
3) Calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming is valid.
First, an iterative procedure must be used to determine the depth of the neutral axis. Following the
procedure shown in Chapter 4, c = 4.2 in.
From Eq. (418):
 17.5 in  4.2 in
0.003 0.010 0.005
4.2 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.
4) Finally, verify that the nominal flexural strength is sufficient for the applied loads.
From Eq. (515):
As a result of the iterations used to determine c, the following forces were determined:
2
3.8 in 60 ksi 228 k
s y
T A f = = =
1
0.85 ' 0.85 4.2 in 0.85 4 ksi 12 in 145 k
c c w
C c f b  = = =
2
' 4.2 in 2.5 in
' 0.003 0.003 29, 000 ksi 2.37 in 83 k
4.2 in
s s s
c d
C E A
c
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
9 . 0 = 
9 . 0 = 
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543
So, the nominal moment capacity of the section is:
( ) ' '
2
n c s
a
M C d C d d  
(
 
= +
 (
\ .
( )
0.85 4.2 in
0.9 145 kip 17.5 in 83 k 17.5 in 2.5 in
2
n
M 
(  
= +
 (
\ .
3170 kin 264 kft 250 kft
n u
M M  = = > =
Therefore, this design is sufficient without being too conservative.
Fig. S516 Crosssection of final design for negative bending region
Note that other selections of b, h, and A
s
may also be correct. If all checks are satisfied, without
being unreasonably conservative, the design may be considered adequate. Also note that all flange
reinforcement that is considered to contribute to the negative bending capacity of this section is
placed within two flange depths of the web.
20in.
90in.
3 #8 bars
2.5in.
12in.
3 #9 bars and 4 #4 bars
12in.
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544
517 For the onewas slab shown in Fig. P57, assume the maximum negative moment at
support c is 3.3 kipft/ft, and the maximum factored positive moment at midspan
point b is 2.4 kipft/ft.
(a) Using the given slab thickness of 6 in, determine the required reinforcement
size and spacing at both of these locations to satisfy ACI Code flexural
strength requirements. Be sure to check the ACI Code requirements for
minimum flexural reinforcement in slabs.
Negative Moment 3.3 kft 39.6 kin
u
M = = :
Assume 0.75 in of cover will be provided. This results in a d = 5 in.
From Eq. (516):
( )
2
39.6 kin
ft ft
0.16 in
ft
ft 0.9 60 ksi 0.9 5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= ~ =
 

\ .
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (517):
2
0.16 in 60 ksi
0.24 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
From Eq. (516):
2
39.6 kin
ft ft
in
0.15
ft
0.24 in ft
0.9 60 ksi 5 in 
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= = =
   
 
\ . \ .
Minimum reinforcement:
2
,min
in
0.0018 0.0018 12 in 6 in 0.13
ft ft
s
A
bh = = =
Strength requirements govern here.
Maximum reinforcement spacing is limited to3hor 18 in, which is the same value for this 6 in deep
slab. Also, we must check reinforcement spacing for crack control. Since f
y
and c
c
are the same
here as in Example 57, the maximum spacing for crack control is 12 in. This governs.
If we select #3 bars at 8 in, the result is:
2 2
2
12 in
in in
0.11 in 0.165 0.15
ft ft ft
8 in
s
A
= = > OK
Check that strength is satisfied:
2
0.24 in
0.9 0.165 in 60 ksi 5 in 43.5 kin
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d  
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
kft kft
3.62 3.3
ft ft
n u
M M  = > = OK
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545
Remember to calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming
is valid.
 5 in  0.24 / 0.85 in
0.003 0.050 0.005
0.24 / 0.85 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.
Positive Moment 2.4 kft 28.8 kin
u
M = = :
Assume 0.75 in of cover will be provided. This results in a d = 5 in.
From Eq. (516):
( )
2
28.8 kin
ft ft
0.12 in
ft
ft 0.9 60 ksi 0.9 5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= ~ =
 

\ .
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd
From Eq. (517):
2
0.12 in 60 ksi
0.17 in
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 12 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
From Eq. (516):
2
28.8 kin
ft ft
in
0.11
ft
0.17 in ft
0.9 60 ksi 5 in 
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= = =
   
 
\ . \ .
Minimum reinforcement:
2
,min
in
0.0018 0.0018 12 in 6 in 0.13
ft ft
s
A
bh = = =
Minimum requirements govern here.
Maximum reinforcement spacing is limited to3 h or 18 in, which is the same value for this 6 in
deep slab. Also, we must check reinforcement spacing for crack control. Since f
y
and c
c
are the
same here as in Example 57, the maximum spacing for crack control is 12 in. This governs.
If we select #3 bars at 10 in, the result is:
2 2
2
12 in
in in
0.11 in 0.132 0.13
ft ft ft
10 in
s
A
= = > OK
Check that strength is satisfied:
2
0.17 in
0.9 0.132 in 60 ksi 5 in 35.0 kin
2 2
n s y
a
M A f d  
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
kft kft
2.9 2.4
ft ft
n u
M M  = > = OK
9 . 0 = 
9 . 0 = 
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any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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546
Remember to calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming
is valid.
 5 in  0.17 / 0.85 in
0.003 0.072 0.005
0.17 / 0.85 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use for this beam design.
(b) At both locations, determine the required bar size and spacing to be provided
in the transverse direction to satisfy ACI Code section 7.12.2 requirements for
minimum shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.
Since the positive flexural region was controlled by temperature and shrinkage reinforcement, the
reinforcement specified there would suffice in the transverse direction at all locations.
So, use #3 bars at 10 in. Placement near the top or bottom of the slab makes no difference here, so
specify that bars are to be placed wherever is easiest.
(c) For both locations provide a sketch of the final design of the slab section.
Fig. S517 Crosssection of final design for negative and positive bending regions, respectively
Note that other selections of A
s
may also be correct. If all checks are satisfied, without being
unreasonably conservative, the design may be considered adequate.
9 . 0 = 
9 . 0 = 
12in.
6in.
#3@8in.
12in.
6in.
#3@10in.
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61
Chapter 6
61 For the rectangular beam shown in Fig P61:
(a) Draw a shear force diagram.
7
.
3
V, kips 0
.
2

9
.
8
1
6
.
0

1
7
.
7
1
0
(b) Assuming the beam is uncracked, show the direction of the principal tensile
stresses at middepth at points A, B, and C.
A B C
(c) On a drawing of the beam sketch the inclined cracks that would develop at
A, B, and C.
A B C
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62
62, 63, 64 and 65 Compute
and
62
[( ) ]
( )
63
[( ) ]
( )
64
[( ) ]
( )
65
( )
[( ) ]
( )
66 ACI Sec. 11.4.5.1 sets the maximum spacing of vertical stirrups at . Explain
why.
Every inclined crack must be crossed by at least one stirrup. The assumed horizontal
projection of the crack is d so every crack will be crossed by at least one stirrup.
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63
67 Figure P67 shows a simply supported beam. The beam has No. 3 Grade 40 double
leg stirrups with
. The plastic truss model for the beam is shown in the figure.
Assuming that the stirrups are all loaded to
.
(a) Use the method of joints to compute the forces in each panel of the
compression and tension chords and plot them. The force in member
is
.
Assume all stirrups yield. 8.8
s yt
A f = kips
Joint
11
L : Vertical force in stirrup = 8.8 kips
0 V =
at Joint
11
L gives vertical component in strut
12 11
U L as 8.8
kips downward (compression in
12 11
U L ).
Horizontal component in
12 11
12 in.
8.8
20 in.
U L = kips = 5.28 kips acting
to the left on Joint
11
L .
Joint
12
U : Each inclined strut has a vertical component of 8.8 kips, therefore 6
struts are needed to equilibrate 52.8 kips force at Joint
12
U as shown.
Joint
8
U : Total downward load is 26.4 kips applied load plus 8.8 kips in stirrup
8 8
U L , therefore 4 struts are needed to equilibrate 35.2 kips force at
8
U as shown.
Forces in Inclined Struts in Web
Member
Vertical
Component
(kips)
Horizontal
Projection
(in.)
Horizontal
Component
(kips)
12 11
U L 8.8 12 5.28
12 10
U L 8.8 24 10.56
12 9
U L 8.8 36 15.84
11 8
U L 8.8 36 15.84
10 7
U L 8.8 30 13.20
9 6
U L 8.8 24 10.56
8 5
U L 8.8 18 7.92
8 4
U L 8.8 24 10.56
8 3
U L 8.8 30 13.20
8 2
U L 8.8 36 15.84
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64
7 1
U L 8.8 36 15.84
Member (contd)
Vertical
Component
(kips)
Horizontal
Projection
(in.)
Horizontal
Component
(kips)
6 0
U L 8.8 36 15.84
5 0
U L 8.8 30 13.20
4 0
U L 8.8 24 10.56
3 0
U L 8.8 18 7.92
2 0
U L 8.8 12 5.28
1 0
U L 8.8 6 2.64
Compute Forces in Lower Chord
Maximum moment = 52.8 8 26.4 4 316.8 = ftkips
Force in
11 13
316.8 12
190.0
20
M
L L
jd
= = = kips (in tension)
H
at Joint
11
L gives force in
10 11
190.0 5.28 184.7 L L = = kips
Force in Lower Chords
Member Joint
Horizontal
Force in Strut
(kips)
Lower Chord
Force
(kips)
11 13
L L   190.0 tension
10 11
L L
11
L 5.28 184.7
9 10
L L
10
L 10.56 174.2
8 9
L L
9
L 15.84 158.3
7 8
L L
8
L 15.84 142.5
6 7
L L
7
L 13.20 129.3
5 6
L L
6
L 10.56 118.7
4 5
L L
5
L 7.92 110.8
3 4
L L
4
L 10.56 100.2
2 3
L L
3
L 13.20 87.0
1 2
L L
2
L 15.84 71.2
0 1
L L
1
L 15.84 55.4
0
L 15.84
+13.20
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65
+10.56
+7.92
Member (contd) Joint
Horizontal
Force in Strut
(kips)
Lower Chord
Force
(kips)
+5.28
+2.64
Total: 55.4
The force in
0 1
L L is 55.4 kips. This must be anchored in Joint
0
L . The sum of the
horizontal forces in the struts at Joint
0
L is 55.4 kips and 0 H =
at Joint
0
L .
Forces in Upper Chords:
Joint
1
U : There is no force in the compression chord to the right of
1
U .
Member Joint
Horizontal Force
in Struts
(kips)
Lower Chord
Force
(kips)
1 2
U U
1
U 2.64
2.64
compression
2 3
U U
2
U 5.28 7.92
3 4
U U
3
U 7.92 15.84
4 5
U U
4
U 10.56 26.4
5 6
U U
5
U 13.20 39.8
6 7
U U
6
U 15.84 55.4
7 8
U U
7
U 15.84 71.3
8 9
U U
8
U 15.84
+13.20
+10.56
+7.92 118.8
9 10
U U
9
U 10.56 129.4
10 11
U U
10
U 13.20 142.6
11 12
U U
11
U 15.84 158.4
Compression at Midspan
12
U 15.84
+10.56
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66
+5.28 190.0
Plot of Forces in Upper Chords:
Plot of Forces in Lower Chords:
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67
(b) Plot
on the diagram from part (a) and compare the bar forces
from the truss model to those computed from .
The bar forces in the lower chords provided by /
s s
A f M jd = appear to be less
than the values provided by the truss model throughout the span except at the
midspan where the two values match.
(c) Compute the compression stress in the diagonal member
, is 12 in.
Slope of
1 7
L L : tan 20/ 36 0.556 29.05 u u = = =
1 52800 1
tan 0.556 518
tan 12 20 0.556
cd
w
V
f
b jd
u
u
   
= + = + =
 
\ . \ .
psi
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68
68 The beam shown in Fig. P68 supports the unfactored loads shown. The dead load
includes the weight of the beam.
(a) Draw shearing force diagram for
1.2 1.4 1.68
Du
w = = k/ft
1.6 1.5 2.4
Lu
w = = k/ft
(1) factored dead and live load on the entire beam.
At the left support:
( ) 1.68 2.4 25
51.0 kips
2
u
V
+
= =
5
1
.
0

5
1
.
0
Case (1)
, kips
u
V
(2) factored dead load on the entire beam plus factored live load on the
left haftspan.
At the right support:
2 2
25 12.5
1.68 2.4
2 2
28.5 kips
25
u
V
+
= =
At the right support: 1.68 25 2.4 12.5 28.5 43.5 kips
u
V = + =
At the midspan: ( ) 43.5 1.68 2.4 12.5 7.5 kips
u
V = + =

2
8
.
5

7
.
5
Case (2)
, kips
u
V
(3) factored dead load on the entire beam plus factored live load on the
right haftspan.
Due to the asymmetry of loadings Case (3) to loadings Case (2), the shear
diagram of Case (3) is asymmetric to that of Case (2).
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69
2
8
.
5

4
3
.
5
7
.
5
Case (3)
, kips
u
V
(b) Superimpose the diagram to get a shear force envelope. Compare the shear
at midspan to that from Eq. 626.
Eq. 626:
2.4 25
(midspan) 7.5
8 8
Lu
u
w
V
= = = kips
5
1
.
0

7
.
5
7
.
5

5
1
.
0
, kips
u
V
(c) Design stirrups. Use
.
6
8
.
0

1
0
.
0
1
0
.
0

6
8
.
0
, kips
u
V

0.75  =
Are stirrups required?
2 4500 12 17.5/ 1000 28.2 68.0
u
c
V
V

= = < = kips
Stirrups are required.
Check stirrups anchorage
Use No. 3 Grade 40 stirrups. ACI code Sec. 12.13.2.1. allows these to be anchored by a
hook around a top bar.
Maximum spacing
d/2 = 8.75 in.
u
V

6 82.1
c w
f b d ' < = kips Maximum spacing of / 4 d is not required.
0.22 40000
14.6
50.3 12 0.75
v y
c w
A f
f b
= =
'
in. (note 0.75 50.3 psi 50 psi, use 50.3 psi
c
f ' = > )
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610
Maximum spacing
max
8.5 s = in.
Compute spacing to resist shear forces
 At d from supports:
( )
( )
68 10 17.5
68 61.2
12.5 12
u
V

= =
kips
( )
max
0.22 40 17.5
4.5 in. 8.5 in.
/ 61.4 27.4
v yt
u c
A f d
s s
V V 
= = = < =
Use s = 4.0 in.
 Change this to 6 in. where
0.22 40 17.5
27.4 53.1
6
u
V

= + = kips.
This occurs at
( )
68 53.1
12.5 12 38.5
68 10
x
= =
= 139 in.
Compute the number of stirrups
From the center of the support, use 1 @ 2 in.
Required number of stirrups at the spacing of 4 in.:
38.5 2
9.1
4
= , use 10 @ 4 in.
Required no. of stirrups at the spacing of 6 in.:
( ) 55.1 2 10 4
2.2
6
+
= , use 3 @ 6 in.
Required number of stirrups at the spacing of 8 in.:
( ) 139 2 10 4 3 6
9.9
8
+ +
= , use
10 @ 8 in.
Provide No.3 U stirrups Grade 40 steel. Starting from the center of the support,
use 1 @ 2 in., 10 @ 4 in., 3 @ 6 in., and 10 @ 8 in. from each end.
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611
(Note that
0.22 40 17.5
(max) 38.5 kips < 8 113 kips
4
s c w
V f b d
' = = = , OK)
69 The beam shown in Fig. P69 supports the unfactored loads shown in the figure. The
dead load includes the weight of the beam.
(a) Draw shearing force diagrams for
(1) factored dead and live load on the entire length of beam.
(2) factored dead load on the entire beam plus factored live load
between B and C.
(3) factored dead load on the entire beam plus factored live load
between A and B and between C and D.
Loadings (2) and (3) will give the maximum positive and negative shears at B.
2.4
Du
w = k/ft
2.4
Lu
w = k/ft
4.8
u
w = k/ft
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612
3
3
.
0
V, kips

5
.
4
2
8
.
8

4
3
.
8
2
1
.
3
2
.
1
1
4
.
4

3
6
.
3
2
8
.
2

1
0
.
2
2
8
.
8

2
9
.
4
(a1)
(a2)
(a3)
(b) Draw the factored shear force envelope. The shear at B should be the
factored dead load shear plus or minus the shear from Eq. 626.
Eq. 626:
2.4 16
(midspan) 4.8
8
u
V
= = kips
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613
3
3
.
0

1
0
.
2
2
8
.
8

4
3
.
8
2
.
1
3
3
.
0
4.82.7 = 7.5
2
8
.
8

4
3
.
8
4.82.7 = 2.1
Envelope from Part (a)
Envelope from Eq. 626
Eq. 626 is correct for s simple beam without overhangs. It is an approximation for all
other cases. However, we shall assume it is close enough and use it for the rest of this
example.
(c) Design stirrups. Use
and
.
Are stirrups required?
Stirrups are required.
Check anchorage
Use No. 3 stirrups. These can be anchored by a hook around a top bar.
Maximum spacing
d/2 = 10.8 in.
Maximum spacing of / 4 d is not required.
0.22 40000
14.7
50 50 12
v y
w
A f
b
= =
in. (note
)
Maximum spacing
max
10.8 s = in.
Compute spacing to resist shear forces Part AB
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614
 At d from support A:
( )
( )
44 2.8 21.5
44 34.8
8 12
u
V

= =
kips
( )
max
0.22 40 21.5
86 in. 10.8 in.
34.8 32.6
s s
= = > =
Use s = 10 in.
 Terminate stirrups where:
This occurs at:
Part AB: Provide No.3 stirrups Grade 40 steel. Starting from A use 1 @ 5 in., 7
@ 10 in.
Compute spacing to resist shear forces Part BC
 At d from support C
( ) 58.4 10 21.5
58.4 47.6
8 12
u
V

= =
kips
( )
max
0.22 40 21.5
12.6 in. 10.8 in.
47.6 32.6
s s
= = > =
Use s = 10 in.
 Terminate stirrups where:
This occurs at:
Part BC: Provide No.3 stirrups Grade 40 steel. Starting from C use 1 @ 5 in., 9
@ 10 in.
Compute spacing to resist shear forces Part CD
 At d from support C
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615
Can terminate stirrups where
2
u c
V V

< . However, place minimum shear reinforcement
throughout part CD.
Part CD: Use No. 3 U stirrups, Grade 40. Starting from C use 1 @ 5 in., 7 @ 10
in.
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616
610 Fig. P610 shows an interior span of a continuous beam. The shears at the ends are
and
.
Are stirrups required?
2 4000 12 17.5/1000 26.6
c
V = = kips
Stirrups are required.
Check anchorage
Use No. 3 stirrups. These can be anchored by a bend around a top bar.
Maximum spacing
d/2 = 8.8 in.
u
V

6 79.8
c w
f b d ' < = kip Maximum spacing of / 4 d is not required.
0.22 40000
14.7
50 50 12
v y
w
A f
b
= =
kips
( )
0.22 40 17.5
4.5
61.0 26.6
s
= =
in.
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617
Use s = 4 in.
 Changing stirrup spacing to 6 in. where
0.22 40 17.5
26.6 52.3
6
u
V

= + = kips
This occurs at
( )
68.7 52.3
11 12 37.3 in.
68.7 10.6
x
= =
 Changing stirrup spacing to 8 in. where
0.22 40 17.5
26.6 45.9
8
u
V

= + = kips
This occurs at
( )
68.7 45.9
11 12 51.8 in.
68.7 10.6
x
= =
 Terminate stirrups when
26.6
13.3
2 2
u c
V V

= = = kips
This occurs at
( )
68.7 13.3
11 12 126 in.
68.7 10.6
x
= =
Use No.3 Grade 40 U stirrups. Starting from face of column at each end, use 1 @
2 in., 9@ 4 in., 3 @ 6in., and 9 @ 8in.
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618
611 Design shear reinforcement for the C1C2 span of the girder designed in Example 5
6 (final section given in Fig. 532). From the structural analysis discussed in
Example 56, the factored design end shears for this girder are 28.9 kips at the face
of column C1 and 39.2 kips at the face of column C2. Use
and
.
Are stirrups required?
Stirrups are required.
Check anchorage
Select No. 3 stirrups. These can be anchored by a bend around a top bar.
Maximum spacing
Maximum spacing of is not required.
)
Maximum spacing
Compute the spacing of stirrups required to resist shear forces
It is desirable to have the most efficient design of stirrups possible, so stirrup size and
spacing should be adjusted over the span length whenever possible to account for the
changing shear demand. Likewise, it is advantageous to use the factored shear demand at
from the face of the column rather than directly at the face of the column to design
stirrups. However, for a girder loaded like this one, the majority of shear comes from the
point load at midspan. Therefore, it is reasonable to select only two different stirrup
spacing, one for each half of the girder, based on the factored shear demand at the face of
the columns.
 At the exterior column face (C1):
and
.
(a) Design stirrups in the beam
27.2
34.9
27.2
34.9
4
6
.
5
3.85
3.85
4
4
.
1
3
8
.
0
d from face
of column
face of column
5.1
5.1
C
L
C
L
Wind from right
Wind from left
C
L
, kips
u
V
, kips
u
V

Are stirrups required?
Assume d = 20 2.5 = 17.5 in.
Stirrups are required.
Maximum spacing
Use No. 3
d/2 = 8.8 in.
Maximum spacing of / 4 d is not required.
)
Maximum spacing
max
s = 8.8 in.
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620
Compute spacing required to resist shear
 At d from face of column, 38
u
V

= kip
 Terminate stirrups when:
This occurs at:
Provide No. 3, Grade 40 U stirrups. Starting at face of column from each end, use
1 @ 4 in., 11@ 8 in.
(b) Are stirrups required in the columns? If so, design the stirrups for the
columns.
Maximum shear is 8
u
V = kips in leeward column.
(
( )
) ( )
Are stirrups required?
Stirrups are not required. Use minimum amount of shear reinforcement.
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71
Chapter 7
71 A cantilever beam 8 ft long and 18 in wide supports its own dead load plus a
concentrated load located 6 in from the end of the beam and 4.5 in away from the
vertical axis of the beam. The concentrated load is 15 kips dead load and 20 kips live
load. Design reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion. Use f
y
= 60,000 psi for all
steel and f
c
= 3750 psi.
Design for moment:
Since wide sections are desirable for torsion, estimate that = 0.8, so 18 in / 0.8 22.5 in d = = .
Therefore, the dead load due to the weight of the beam is:
3
2 2
(22.5 in 2.5 in) 18 in
0.15 k/ft 0.469 k/ft
144 in /ft
DL
+
= =
So, the moment demand due to factored loads is:
( )
( )
2
0.469 k/ft 8 ft
1.2 1.2 15 k 1.6 20 k 7.5 ft 393 kft 4720 kin
2
u
M
= + + = =
Select and corresponding Rfactor, assuming the desirable strain diagram shown in Fig. 527b,
which leads to 9 . 0 =  .
1
' 0.85 3, 750 psi
0.0133
4 4 60, 000 psi
c
y
f
f

~ = =
Note:
1
= 0.85 for f
c
= 3,750 psi
0.0133 60, 000 psi
0.213
' 3, 750 psi
y
c
f
f
e
= = =
' (1 0.59 ) 0.213 3.75 ksi (1 0.59 0.213) 0.698 ksi
c
R f e e = = =
(Note that this Rfactor is reasonable based on values given in Table A3)
Now select h with b = 18 in:
2 3
4720 kin
7500 in
0.9 0.698 ksi
u
M
bd
R 
= = ~
Since the width of the beam is given as 18 in, we can directly solve for a reasonable d value.
4720 kin
20.4 in 21.5 in
0.9 18 in 0.698 ksi
u
M
d
bR 
= = = ~
2.5 in 24 in h d = + =
18 in b =
Note that both h and b are rounded up to the nearest even inch value for constructability.
Finally, determine A
s
required for resisting this applied moment by first going back and
recalculating the weight of the beam with the final selected dimensions:
2 2 3 2 2 3
k 18 in 24 in k k
0.15 0.15 0.45
144 in /ft ft 144 in /ft ft ft
bh
DL
~ = =
So 393 kft 4720 kin
u
M = =
Calculate the required area of steel, assuming 0.9 jd d = :
( )
2
4720 kin
4.52 in
0.9 60 ksi 0.9 21.5 in
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= ~ =
 

\ .
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72
With this estimate, iterate once to have a better estimate of the lever arm jd .
2
4.52 in 60 ksi
4.73 in
0.85 ' 0.85 3.75 ksi 18 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
2
4720 kin
4.57 in
4.73 in
0.9 60 ksi 21.5 in 
2 2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
= = =
   
 
\ . \ .
No further iterations are necessary, since the estimated lever arm was very reasonable. Use
b = 18 in, h = 24 in, and A
s
= 4.57 in
2
. Bars will be selected later.
Use ACI08 Eq. (103) to check that the reinforcement provided is more than the minimum
required.
For f
c
= 3,750 psi, 3 ' 184 200
c
f = s so use 200 psi
2 2
,min
200 200 psi
18 in 21.5 in 1.29 in 4.57 in
60, 000 psi
s w
y
A b d
f
= = = s OK
Also, calculate the strain in the extreme layer of tension steel to verify that assuming 9 . 0 =  is
valid.
2
4.57 in 60 ksi
4.78 in
0.85 ' 0.85 3.75 ksi 18 in
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
We know that
1
0.85  = .
1
4.78 in
5.62 in
0.85
a
c

= = =
 21.5 in  5.62 in
0.003 0.0085 0.005
5.62 in
t cu
d c
c
c c = = = > OK
Therefore the designer is permitted to use 9 . 0 =  for this beam design.
Now design for torsion and shear:
At d = 21.5 in away from the face, the factored torsion is:
( )
4.5 in
1.2 15 k 1.6 20 k 18.8 kft
12 in/ft
u
T = + =
At d = 21.5 in away from the face, the factored shear is:
21.5
1.2 15 k 1.2 (8 ft ft) 0.45 k/ft 1.6 20 k 53.4 k
12
u
V = + + =
Should torsion be considered in this design?
2
18 in 24 in 432 in
cp
A = =
(18 in 24 in) 2 84 in
cp
P = + =
From Eq. (718b):
( )
2
2
2
432 in
' 0.75 1.0 3, 750 psi 102, 000 lbin 8.5 kft
84 in
cp
th c
cp
A
T f
P

 
 

= = ~ = 
 
\ .
\ .
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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73
Since
u th
T T > , torsion must be considered. Also, since we are dealing with a statically determinate
system, we have a case of equilibrium torsion, in which the full factored torsion must be sustained
by our beam. Therefore, the design torsion cannot be reduced.
Check whether the section dimensions are sufficient to withstand the combined stresses due to
shear and torsion.
From Eq. (733):
2 2
2
8 '
1.7
u u h c
c
w oh w
V T P V
f
b d A b d

     
+ s +
  
\ . \ . \ .
Assuming #4 stirrups,
( ) 2 24 in 2 1.5 in 2 0.25 in 18 in 2 1.5 in 2 0.25 in 70 in
h
P = + =
( ) ( )
2
24 in 2 1.5 in 2 0.25 in 18 in 2 1.5 in 2 0.25 in 297 in
oh
A = =
( )
2
2
2
2
2 3, 750 psi 18 in 21.5 in 53.4 k 18.8 kft 70 in
0.75 8 3, 750 psi
18 in 21.5 in 18 in 21.5 in
1.7 297 in
 
 
 

+ s + 

 
\ .
\ .
\ .
0.174 ksi 0.459 ksi s
The section is sufficiently large.
Now determine the area of stirrups required to resist V
u
:
2 ' 2 3, 750 psi 18 in 21.5 in 47.4 k
c c w
V f b d = = =
53.4 k
47.4 k 23.8 k
0.75
u
s c
V
V V

= = =
2
23.8 k in
0.018
60 ksi 21.5 in in
v s
yt
A V
s f d
= = =
Determine the additional area of stirrups required to resist T
u
:
18.8 kft
25.1 kft
0.75 0.75
u
n
T
T = = =
From Eq. (724), using 0.85
o oh
A A = :
( )
2
2
25.1 kft 12 in/ft in
0.0099
2 cot in 2 0.85 297 in 60 ksi cot 45
t n
o yt
A T
s A f u
> = =
So, evaluate the total required area of stirrups:
For strength:
2 2 2
in in in
0.018 2 0.0099 0.0378
in in in
+ =
Minimum required:
2
50 50 18 in in
0.015
60, 000 psi in
w
yt
b
f
= =
The strength requirement governs here.
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74
Now determine stirrup size and spacing:
max
12 in
/ 8 70 / 8 8.75 in
/ 2 10.75 in (for shear)
h
s P
d
s = =
If we select #3 stirrups,
2
2
2 0.11 in
5.82 in
in
0.0378
in
s
s =
If we select #4 stirrups,
2
2
2 0.20 in
10.6 in
in
0.0378
in
s
s =
Although it is a tight spacing, select to use closed #3 stirrups at 5 in spacing.
Determine the need for longitudinal reinforcement resisting torsion:
For strength:
2
2 2
in
cot 0.00990 70 in 1.0 1.0 0.693 in
in
yt
t
l h
yl
f
A
A P
s f
u
 
 
 
= = = 



\ .
\ .
\ .
Minimum required:
,min
5 '
c cp yt
t
l h
yl yl
f A f
A
A P
f s f
=
Since
2 2
25 in in
0.022 0.0075
in in
t w
yt
A b
s f
= > = , we must use
2
in
0.022
in
2 2
2
,min
5 3, 750 psi 432 in in
0.022 70 in 1.0 0.66 in
60 ksi in
l
A
= =
Use
2
0.693 in
l
A =
Longitudinal bars are required in the corner of each stirrup. Also, longitudinal bars must be spaced
no more than 12 in apart around the perimeter of the section, so a bar is needed in the middle of
each face. So 8 bars are required.
2 2
/ 0.693 in / 8 bars 0.0866 in /bar Area bar = =
Select #3 bars along bottom and sides of the cantilevered section.
The reinforcement required along the top of the beam for resisting moment and torsion is:
2 2 2
4.56 in 3 0.0866 in 4.82 in
s
A = + =
Select 5#8 bars along the top of the beam such that
2 2 2
5 5 1.0 in 5 in 4.82 in
s b
A A = = = > .
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75
72 Explain why the torsion in the edge beam AB in Fig. 721a is called equilibrium
torsion, while the torsion in the edge beam A1B1 in Fig. P73 is called
compatibility torsion.
If the edge beam AB in Fig. 721c did not resist torsion, the beam would rotate,
uninhibited, about its longitudinal axis and fail to resist the action of load P. Essentially, the
torsional resistance of the beam is required for equilibrium to be satisfied.
On the contrary, if beam A1B1 in Fig. P73 did not resist torsion, the beam would rotate
only slightly before the floors weight and superimposed loads would be redistributed to other
elements, thereby satisfying equilibrium through the redundancy of the system. The torsion in A1
B1 only arises from the need to maintain compatibility of deformations between the ends of the
joists and the twisting of the edge beam.
73 The two parts of this problem refer to the floor plan shown in Fig. P73. Assume that
the entire floor system is constructed with normalweight concrete that has a
compressive strength, f
c
= 4,500 psi. Also, assume that the longitudinal steel has a
yield strength of f
y
= 60 ksi and that the transverse steel has a yield strength of
f
yt
= 40 ksi.
a) Design the spandrel beam between columns B1 and C1 for bending, shear,
and torsion. Check all of the appropriate ACI Code requirements for
strength, minimum reinforcement area, and reinforcement spacing are
satisfied.
Step 1: Determine M
u
, V
u
, and T
u
:
Dead weight from beam, per foot of beam:
2 3
2
12 in 18 in lb lb
150 225
in ft ft
144
ft
=
If we assume that the slab dimensions given in the figure are measured center to center of the
beams, we need to account for half the width of the beam in addition the span length given when
calculating loads. Therefore the dead weight from slab, per foot of beam, is:
3
6 in 6.5 ft lb lb
150 488
in
ft ft
12
ft
=
Superimposed dead load, per foot of beam:
2
lb lb
6.5 ft 20 130
ft ft
=
To simplify the design, we will not reduce the live load. Therefore, the live load per foot of beam:
2
lb lb
6.5 ft 50 325
ft ft
=
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored load is, per foot of beam:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.488 k/ft 0.130 k/ft 1.6 0.325 k/ft 1.53 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
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76
With that, we can determine the design moments using ACI Moment Coefficients:
At columns:
()
At midspan:
()
Note that
n
is taken as the average of the adjoining clear spans for calculating the negative
moment at the columns.
The design shear is:
At midspan:
At d away from the column face:
)
Note that
n
is taken as the clear span length of the interior span when calculating the shear
acting on the face of the support. Do not reduce this value to the
n
used for calculating
the negative moment at column B1.
To calculate the design torsion, we first have to determine the moment and shear that the slab is
applying to the edge of the beam.
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.075 k/ft 0.020 k/ft 1.6 0.050 k/ft 0.194 k/ft
u
w = + + =
12 ft 12 in 11 ft
n
= =
( )
2
2
0.194 k/ft 11 ft
0.978 kft
24 24
u n
u
w
M
= = =
0.194 k/ft 11 ft
1.07 k
2 2
u n
u
w
V
= = =
Therefore, the torsion applied to our beam by the slab is:
6 in
0.978 kft 1.07 k 1.51 kft/ft
12 in/ft
t = + =
And thus our design torsion, at d away from the ends of our beam, is:
( )
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77
Step 2: Determining the area of longitudinal steel required for flexure.
At the column:
Refer to Table A3. For f
c
= 4,500 psi, and R = 229 psi, . So, at the
column,
At midspan:
Refer to Table A3. There are no R values below 190 psi, which corresponds to the
minimum reinforcement ratio. Therefore,
Step 3: Determine whether torsion must be considered in the design of this beam. Begin by
determining the dimensions of the beam section active in torsion, and calculate the threshold
torsion.
height of beam below slab 18 in
4 24 in
f
f
h
=
s
=
, where
f
is the length of flange active in torsion.
Therefore,
2
24 in 12 in 6 in 18 in 396 in
cp
A = + =
24 in 12 in 18 in 18 in 6 in 30 in 108 in
cp
P = + + + + + =
( )
2
2
2
396 in
' 0.75 1.0 4,500 psi 73, 000 lbin 6.09 kft
108 in
cp
th c
cp
A
T f
P

 
 

= = ~ = 
 
\ .
\ .
Since
u th
T T > , torsion must be considered in this design.
Step 4: Since the torsion resisted by this edge beam is not required to maintain equilibrium of the
structure, we have a case of compatibility torsion. Therefore we can likely reduce our T
u
to the
following:
( )
2
2
2
,
396 in
4 ' 0.75 4 1.0 4,500 psi 292, 000 lbin 24.4 kft
108 in
cp
u comp c
cp
A
T f
P

 
 

= = = = 
 
\ .
\ .
Unfortunately, since
, u u comp
T T s , we cannot reduce our design torsion. Since our design torsion is
not being reduced, no redistribution of design moments is required in the adjoining slab.
Step 5: Determine whether the section is large enough to resist the combined actions of shear and
torsion. First assume that a closed #4 stirrup will be used in the web of this beam.
( ) ( )
2
24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 174 in
oh
A = =
( ) 2 24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 58 in
h
P = + =
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78
From Eq. (733):
(
)
The section is sufficiently large.
Step 6: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist V
u
:
2 ' 2 4,500 psi 12 in 21.5 in 34.6 k
c c w
V f b d = = =
Step 7: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist T
u
:
From Eq. (724), using 0.85
o oh
A A = :
()
Step 8: Evaluate the total required area of stirrups, and select spacing:
For strength:
Minimum required:
2
0.75 4500 50.31 psi 12 in in
0.015
40, 000 psi in
w
yt
b
f
= =
The strength requirement governs here.
Now determine stirrup size and spacing:
max
12 in
/ 8 58 in / 8 7.25 in
/ 2 10.75 in (for shear)
h
s P
d
s = =
If we select #3 stirrups,
If we select #4 stirrups,
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79
Select closed #3 stirrups at 5 in. spacing at the ends of the beam. It is also possible that stirrups are
not required along the full length of this beam. For torsion, determine where /
u th
T T  s . By
similar triangles, this occurs at 66.5 in. away from the face of the column. However, torsional
reinforcement must be continued for ( ) (21.5 in 12 in) 33.5 in
t
d b + = + = past this theoretical point.
Therefore, no torsional reinforcement is required beyond 100 in. away from the face of the column.
Since / 2
u c
V V  s at this point, no shear reinforcement is required beyond this point either.
Final design of transverse reinforcement:
Using closed #3 stirrups,
One stirrup at 2.5 in from either column face, followed by stirrups spaced at 5 in. until beyond 100
in. from the face of the column.
Step 9: Finalize the design of the longitudinal reinforcement:
Determine the need for longitudinal reinforcement resisting torsion:
For strength:
Minimum required:
,min
5 '
c cp yt
t
l h
yl yl
f A f
A
A P
f s f
=
Since
2 2
,min
25 in in
0 0.0075
in in
t w
yt
A b
s f
 
= s =

\ .
, we must use
2
in
0.0075
in
2 2
2
,min
5 4,500 psi 396 in in 2
0.0075 58 in 1.92 in
60 ksi in 3
l
A
= =
Use
2
1.92 in
l
A =
Longitudinal bars are required in the corner of each stirrup. Also, longitudinal bars must be spaced
no more than 12 in apart around the perimeter of the section, so a bar is needed in the middle of
each vertical face. So 6 bars are required.
2 2
/ 1.92 in / 6 bars 0.32 in / bar Area bar = =
At the columns, use #6 bars in the bottom corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam.
As top reinforcement,
( )
( )
=
Superimposed dead load, per foot of spandrel beam:
2
lb
1 ft 20 20 lb/ft
ft
=
To simplify the design, we will not reduce the live load. Therefore, the live load per foot of beam:
2
lb
1 ft 50 50 lb/ft
ft
=
Dead weight from joist, applied as a point load at midspan:
3
2
2
12 in 18 in
lb
150 14.5 ft 3.26 k
ft
in
144
ft
=
Dead weight from slab, applied as a point load at midspan:
3
6 in 12 ft
lb
150 14.5 ft 13.1 k
ft in
12
ft
=
Superimposed dead load, applied as a point load at midspan:
2
lb
12 ft 14.5 ft 20 3.48 k
ft
=
Since the live load is not reduced, the live load per foot of beam is:
2
lb
12 ft 14.5 ft 50 8.7 k
ft
=
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored load is:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.300 k/ft 0.02 k/ft 1.6 0.05 k/ft 0.464 k/ft
u
w = + + = , per foot of beam
( ) ( )
, int
1.2 3.26 k 13.1 k 3.48 k 1.6 8.7 k 37.7 k
u po
w = + + + = , applied as a point load
24 ft 16 in 22.67 ft
n
= =
With that, we can determine the design moments, but structural analysis software must be used
since the ACI Moment Coefficients cannot be applied when not all loads are distributed. Input the
structural model and applied loads using the appropriate pattern loading for the live loads.
At column A1: 102 kft
u
M =
At midspan: 128 kft
u
M =
At column A2: 139 kft
u
M =
The design shear at d away from the supports is:
At column A1:
( ) ( )
, int
2 0.464 k/ft 22.67 ft 2 21.5 in
37.7 k
23.3 k
2 2 2 2
u po u n
u
w w d
V
= + = + =
At midspan: 0 k
u
V =
At column A2:
, 1
1.15 26.8 k
u u A
V V
= =
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711
To calculate the design torsion, we first have to determine the moment and shear that the joist is
applying to the edge of the spandrel beam.
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.225 k/ft 0.900 k/ft 0.240 k/ft 1.6 0.600 k/ft 2.60 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
30 ft 12 in 29 ft
n
= =
( )
2
2
2.6 k/ft 29 ft
91.1 kft
24 24
u n
u
w
M
= = =
, int
37.7 k
u u po
V w = =
Thus our design torsion, at d away from the ends of our beam, is:
6 in 6 in
91.1 kft 37.7 k 110 kft
12 in/ft 12 in/ft
u u u
T M V = + = + =
Step 2: Determining the area of longitudinal steel required for flexure.
At column A1:
( )
2 2
102 kft 12 in/ft
245 psi
0.9 12 in 21.5 in
u
M
R
bd 
= = =
Refer to Table A3. For f
c
= 4,500 psi, and R = 245 psi, 0.0042 = . So, at
column A1,
2
0.0042 12 in 21.5 in 1.08 in
s
A bd = = = .
At midspan:
( )
2 2
128 kft 12 in/ft
308 psi
0.9 12 in 21.5 in
u
M
R
bd 
= = =
Refer to Table A3. For f
c
= 4,500 psi, and R = 308 psi, 0.0054 = . So, at
midspan,
2
0.0054 12 in 21.5 in 1.39 in
s
A bd = = = .
At column A2:
( )
2 2
139 kft 12 in/ft
334 psi
0.9 12 in 21.5 in
u
M
R
bd 
= = =
Refer to Table A3. For f
c
= 4,500 psi, and R = 334 psi, 0.0058 = . So, at
column A2,
2
0.0058 12 in 21.5 in 1.50 in
s
A bd = = = .
Step 3: Determine whether torsion must be considered in the design of this beam. Begin by
determining the dimensions of the beam section active in torsion, and calculate the threshold
torsion.
height of beam below slab 18 in
4 24 in
f
f
h
=
s
=
, where
f
is the length of flange active in torsion.
Therefore,
2
24 in 12 in 6 in 18 in 396 in
cp
A = + =
24 in 12 in 18 in 18 in 6 in 30 in 108 in
cp
P = + + + + + =
( )
2
2
2
396 in
' 0.75 1.0 4,500 psi 73, 000 lbin 6.09 kft
108 in
cp
th c
cp
A
T f
P

 
 

= = = = 
 
\ .
\ .
Since
u th
T T > , torsion must be considered in this design.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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712
Step 4: Since the torsion resisted by this edge beam is not required to maintain equilibrium of the
structure, we have a case of compatibility torsion. Therefore we can likely reduce our T
u
to the
following:
( )
2
2
2
,
396 in
4 ' 0.75 4 1.0 4,500 psi 292, 000 lbin 24.4 kft
108 in
cp
u comp c
cp
A
T f
P

 
 

= = = = 
 
\ .
\ .
Since
, u u comp
T T > , we can reduce our design torsion to 24.4 kft. Since our design torsion for the
spandrel beam is being reduced, it is necessary to redistribute the design moments for the joist that
frames into the spandrel beam. See chapter 7 for further discussion of why this is required.
Step 5: Determine whether the section is large enough to resist the combined actions of shear and
torsion. First assume that a closed #4 stirrup will be used in the web of this beam.
( ) ( )
2
24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 174 in
oh
A = =
( ) 2 24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 58 in
h
P = + =
From Eq. (733):
2 2
2
8 '
1.7
u u h c
c
w oh w
V T P V
f
b d A b d

     
+ s +
  
\ . \ . \ .
( )
2
2
2
2
2 4,500 psi 12 in 21.5 in 25.6 k 24.4 kft 58 in
0.75 8 4,500 psi
12 in 21.5 in 12 in 21.5 in
1.7 174 in
 
 
 

+ s + 

 
\ .
\ .
\ .
0.344 ksi 0.503 ksi s
The section is sufficiently large.
Step 6: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist V
u
:
2 ' 2 4,500 psi 12 in 21.5 in 34.6 k
c c w
V f b d = = =
At column A1: 0 k
s
V =
At column A2:
25.6 k
34.6 k 0 k
0.75
u
s c
V
V V

= = <
Step 7: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist T
u
:
24.4 kft
32.5 kft
0.75 0.75
u
n
T
T > = =
From Eq. (724), using 0.85
o oh
A A = :
( )
2
2
32.5 kft 12 in/ft in
0.0330
2 cot in 2 0.85 174 in 40 ksi cot 45
t n
o yt
A T
s A f u
> = =
Step 8: Evaluate the total required area of stirrups, and select spacing:
For strength:
2 2
in in
2 0.0330 0.066
in in
=
Minimum required:
'
2
0.75
50.3 psi 12 in in
0.015
40, 000 psi in
c w
yt
f b
f
= =
The strength requirement governs here.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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713
Now determine stirrup size and spacing:
max
12 in
/ 8 58 in / 8 7.25 in
/ 2 10.75 in (for shear)
h
s P
d
s = =
If we select #4 stirrups,
2
2
2 0.2 in
6.1 in
in
0.066
in
s
s =
If we select #5 stirrups,
2
2
2 0.31 in
9.4 in
in
0.066
in
s
s =
Select closed #4 stirrups at 6.0 in spacing at the ends of the beam. While in some cases it is
possible that stirrups are not required along the full length of the beam, the torsion in this case is
constant along the length of the beam, as is the shear. Therefore, closed #4 stirrups are required
along the full length of the beam.
Step 9: Finalize the design of the longitudinal reinforcement:
Determine the need for longitudinal reinforcement resisting torsion:
For strength:
2
2 2
in 2
cot 0.0330 58 in 1.0 1.28 in
in 3
yt
t
l h
yl
f
A
A P
s f
u
 
 
 
= = = 



\ .
\ .
\ .
Minimum required:
,min
5 '
c cp yt
t
l h
yl yl
f A f
A
A P
f s f
=
Since
2 2
,min
25 in in
0.0330 0.0075
in in
t w
yt
A b
s f
 
= > =

\ .
, we must use
2
in
0.0330
in
2 2
2
,min
5 4,500 psi 396 in in 2
0.0330 58 in 0.94 in
60 ksi in 3
l
A
= =
Use
2
1.28 in
l
A =
Longitudinal bars are required in the corner of each stirrup. Also, longitudinal bars must be spaced
no more than 12 in apart around the perimeter of the section, so a bar is needed in the middle of
each vertical face. So 6 bars are required.
2 2
/ 1.28 in / 6 bars 0.21 in / bar Area bar = =
At column A1, use #5 bars in the bottom corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam.
As top reinforcement,
( )
2 2 2 2
/ 1.08 in 2 0.21 in / 3 1.50 in / 3 0.50 in
s
A bar > + = = , so specify 3 #7
bars along the top of the section.
At midspan, use #5 bars in the top corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam. As
bottom reinforcement,
( )
2 2 2 2
/ 1.39 in 2 0.21 in / 3 1.81 in / 3 0.60 in
s
A bar > + = = , so specify 3 #8
bars along the bottom of the section.
At column A2, use #5 bars in the bottom corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam.
As top reinforcement,
( )
2 2 2 2
/ 1.50 in 2 0.21 in / 3 1.92 in / 3 0.64 in
s
A bar > + = = , so specify 3 #8
bars along the top of the section.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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714
74 The two parts of this problem refer to the floor plan shown in Fig. P73. Assume that
the entire floor system is constructed with sand lightweight concrete that has a
compressive strength, f
c
= 4,000 psi. Also assume that the longitudinal steel has a
yield strength of f
y
= 60 ksi and that the transverse steel has a yield strength of
f
yt
= 60 ksi.
a) Design the spandrel beam between columns B1 and C1 for bending, shear,
and torsion. Check all of the appropriate ACI Code requirements for
strength, minimum reinforcement area, and reinforcement spacing are
satisfied.
Step 1: Determine M
u
, V
u
, and T
u
:
Note that this problem is very similar to the previous problem. One noticeable change is the use of
lightweight concrete, which will affect the dead weight used in the calculation of the design loads.
Although no guidance is given on the density of the sandlightweight concrete used in this
problem, any reasonable assumption would be acceptable. Here a density of
3
120 lb/ft is assumed.
Dead weight from beam, per foot of beam:
2 3
2
12 in 18 in lb lb
120 180
in ft ft
144
ft
=
Dead weight from slab, per foot of beam:
3
6 in 6.5 ft lb lb
120 390
in
ft ft
12
ft
=
Superimposed dead load, per foot of beam:
2
lb lb
6.5 ft 20 130
ft ft
=
To simplify the design, we will not reduce the live load. Therefore, the live load per foot of beam:
2
lb lb
6.5 ft 50 325
ft ft
=
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored load is, per foot of beam:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.180 k/ft 0.390 k/ft 0.130 k/ft 1.6 0.325 k/ft 1.36 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
With that, we can determine the design moments using ACI Moment Coefficients:
At columns:
()
At midspan:
()
Note that
n
is taken as the average of the adjoining clear spans for calculating the negative
moment at the columns.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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715
The design shear is:
At midspan:
At d away from the column face:
)
Note that
n
is taken as the clear span length of the interior span when calculating the shear
acting on the face of the support. Do not reduce this value to the
n
used for calculating
the negative moment at column B1.
To calculate the design torsion, we first have to determine the moment and shear that the slab is
applying to the edge of the beam.
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.060 k/ft 0.020 k/ft 1.6 0.050 k/ft 0.176 k/ft
u
w = + + =
12 ft 12 in 11 ft
n
= =
( )
2
2
0.176 k/ft 11 ft
0.887 kft
24 24
u n
u
w
M
= = =
0.176 k/ft 11 ft
0.968 k
2 2
u n
u
w
V
= = =
Therefore, the torsion applied to our beam by the slab is:
6 in
0.887 kft 0.968 k 1.37 kft/ft
12 in/ft
t = + =
And thus our design torsion, at d away from the ends of our beam, is:
( )
Step 2: Determining the area of longitudinal steel required for flexure.
At the column:
Refer to Table A3. For f
c
= 4,000 psi and R = 204 psi, . So, at the column,
At midspan:
Refer to Table A3. There are no R values below 190 psi, which corresponds to the
minimum reinforcement ratio. Therefore,
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
716
Step 3: Determine whether torsion must be considered in the design of this beam. Begin by
determining the dimensions of the beam section active in torsion, and calculate the threshold
torsion.
height of beam below slab 18 in
4 24 in
f
f
h
=
s
=
, where
f
is the length of flange active in torsion.
Therefore,
2
24 in 12 in 6 in 18 in 396 in
cp
A = + =
24 in 12 in 18 in 18 in 6 in 30 in 108 in
cp
P = + + + + + =
( )
2
2
2
396 in
' 0.75 0.85 4, 000 psi 58,500 lbin 4.88 kft
108 in
cp
th c
cp
A
T f
P

 
 

= = = = 
 
\ .
\ .
Since
u th
T T > , torsion must be considered in this design.
Step 4: Since the torsion resisted by this edge beam is not required to maintain equilibrium of the
structure, we have a case of compatibility torsion. Therefore we can likely reduce our T
u
to the
following:
( )
2
2
2
,
396 in
4 ' 0.75 4 0.85 4, 000 psi 234, 000 lbin 19.5 kft
108 in
cp
u comp c
cp
A
T f
P

 
 

= = = = 
 
\ .
\ .
Unfortunately, since
, u u comp
T T s , we cannot reduce our design torsion. Since our design torsion is
not being reduced, no redistribution of design moments is required in the adjoining slab.
Step 5: Determine whether the section is large enough to resist the combined actions of shear and
torsion. First assume that a closed #4 stirrup will be used in the web of this beam.
( ) ( )
2
24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 174 in
oh
A = =
( ) 2 24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 58 in
h
P = + =
From Eq. (733):
(
)
The section is sufficiently large.
Step 6: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist V
u
:
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
717
Step 7: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist T
u
:
From Eq. (724), using 0.85
o oh
A A = :
()
Step 8: Evaluate the total required area of stirrups, and select spacing:
For strength:
Minimum required:
The strength requirement governs here.
Now determine stirrup size and spacing:
max
12 in
/ 8 58 in / 8 7.25 in
/ 2 10.75 in (for shear)
h
s P
d
s = =
If we select #3 stirrups,
If we select #4 stirrups,
Select closed #3 stirrups at 7 in. spacing at the ends of the beam. It is also possible that stirrups are
not required along the full length of this beam. For torsion, determine where /
u th
T T  s . By
similar triangles, this occurs at 75 in. away from the face of the column. However, torsional
reinforcement must be continued for ( ) (21.5 in 12 in) 33.5 in
t
d b + = + = past this theoretical point.
Therefore, no torsional reinforcement is required beyond 108.5 in. away from the face of the
column. Since / 2
u c
V V  s at this point, no shear reinforcement is required beyond this point either.
Final design of transverse reinforcement:
Using closed #3 stirrups,
One stirrup at 3.5 in from either column face, followed by stirrups spaced at 7 in. until beyond 109
in. from the face of the column.
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718
Step 9: Finalize the design of the longitudinal reinforcement:
Determine the need for longitudinal reinforcement resisting torsion:
For strength:
Minimum required:
,min
5 '
c cp yt
t
l h
yl yl
f A f
A
A P
f s f
=
Since
2 2
,min
25 in in
0 0.0075
in in
t w
yt
A b
s f
 
= s =

\ .
, we must use
2
in
0.0075
in
2 2
2
,min
5 4, 000 psi 396 in in
0.0050 58 in 1.0 1.80 in
60 ksi in
l
A
= =
Use
2
1.80 in
l
A =
Longitudinal bars are required in the corner of each stirrup. Also, longitudinal bars must be spaced
no more than 12 in apart around the perimeter of the section, so a bar is needed in the middle of
each vertical face. So 6 bars are required.
2 2
/ 1.80 in / 6 bars 0.30 in / bar Area bar = =
At the columns, use #5 bars in the bottom corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam.
As top reinforcement,
( )
( )
=
Superimposed dead load, per foot of spandrel beam:
2
lb
1 ft 20 20 lb/ft
ft
=
To simplify the design, we will not reduce the live load. Therefore, the live load per foot of beam:
2
lb
1 ft 50 50 lb/ft
ft
=
Dead weight from joist, applied as a point load at midspan:
2 3
2
12 in 18 in lb
120 14.5 ft 2.61 k
in ft
144
ft
=
Dead weight from slab, applied as a point load at midspan:
3
6 in 12 ft lb
120 14.5 ft 10.4 k
in
ft
12
ft
=
Superimposed dead load, applied as a point load at midspan:
2
lb
12 ft 14.5 ft 20 3.48 k
ft
=
To simplify the design, we will not reduce the live load. Therefore, the live load per foot of beam:
2
lb
12 ft 14.5 ft 50 8.7 k
ft
=
So, using 1.2 1.6
u
w DL LL = + , the factored load is:
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.240 k/ft 0.02 k/ft 1.6 50 k/ft 0.392 k/ft
u
w = + + = , per foot of beam
( ) ( )
, int
1.2 2.61 k 10.4 k 3.48 k 1.6 8.7 k 33.7 k
u po
w = + + + = , applied as a point load
24 ft 16 in 22.67 ft
n
= =
With that, we can determine the design moments, but structural analysis software must be used
since the ACI Moment Coefficients cannot be applied when not all loads are distributed.
At column A1: 90.4 kft
u
M =
At midspan: 114 kft
u
M =
At column B1: 123 kft
u
M =
The design shear at d away from the supports is:
At column A1:
( ) ( )
, int
2 0.392 k/ft 22.67 ft 2 21.5 in
33.7 k
20.6 k
2 2 2 2
u po u n
u
w w d
V
= + = + =
At midspan: 0 k
u
V =
At column B1:
, 1
1.15 23.7 k
u u A
V V
= =
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720
To calculate the design torsion, we first have to determine the moment and shear that the beam is
applying to the edge of the beam.
( ) ( ) 1.2 0.180 k/ft 0.720 k/ft 0.240 k/ft 1.6 0.600 k/ft 2.33 k/ft
u
w = + + + =
30 ft 12 in 29 ft
n
= =
( )
2
2
2.33 k/ft 29 ft
81.6 kft
24 24
u n
u
w
M
= = =
, int
33.7 k
u u po
V w = =
Thus our design torsion, at d away from the ends of our beam, is:
6 in 6 in
81.6 kft 33.7 k 98.5 kft
12 in/ft 12 in/ft
u u u
T M V = + = + =
Step 2: Determining the area of longitudinal steel required for flexure.
At column A1:
( )
2 2
90.4 kft 12 in/ft
217 psi
0.9 12 in 21.5 in
u
M
R
bd 
= = =
Refer to Table A3. For f
c
= 4,000 psi, and R = 217 psi, 0.0037 = . So, at
column A1,
2
0.0037 12 in 21.5 in 0.95 in
s
A bd = = = .
At midspan:
( )
2 2
114 kft 12 in/ft
274 psi
0.9 12 in 21.5 in
u
M
R
bd 
= = =
Refer to Table A3. For f
c
= 4,000 psi, and R = 274 psi, 0.0048 = . So, at
midspan,
2
0.0048 12 in 21.5 in 1.24 in
s
A bd = = = .
At column A2:
( )
2 2
123 kft 12 in/ft
296 psi
0.9 12 in 21.5 in
u
M
R
bd 
= = =
Refer to Table A3. For f
c
= 4,000 psi, and R = 296 psi, 0.0052 = . So, at
column A2,
2
0.0052 12 in 21.5 in 1.34 in
s
A bd = = = .
Step 3: Determine whether torsion must be considered in the design of this beam. Begin by
determining the dimensions of the beam section active in torsion, and calculate the threshold
torsion.
height of beam below slab 18 in
4 24 in
f
f
h
=
s
=
, where
f
is the length of flange active in torsion.
Therefore,
2
24 in 12 in 6 in 18 in 396 in
cp
A = + =
24 in 12 in 18 in 18 in 6 in 30 in 108 in
cp
P = + + + + + =
( )
2
2
2
396 in
' 0.75 0.85 4, 000 psi 58,500 lbin 4.88 kft
108 in
cp
th c
cp
A
T f
P

 
 

= = = = 
 
\ .
\ .
Since
u th
T T > , torsion must be considered in this design.
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721
Step 4: Since the torsion resisted by this edge beam is not required to maintain equilibrium of the
structure, we have a case of compatibility torsion. Therefore we can likely reduce our T
u
to the
following:
( )
2
2
2
,
396 in
4 ' 0.75 4 0.85 4, 000 psi 234, 000 lbin 19.5 kft
108 in
cp
u comp c
cp
A
T f
P

 
 

= = = = 
 
\ .
\ .
Since
, u u comp
T T > , we can reduce our design torsion to 19.5 kft. Since our design torsion for the
spandrel beam is being reduced, it is necessary to redistribute the design moments for the joist that
frames into the spandrel beam. See chapter 7 for further discussion of why this is required.
Step 5: Determine whether the section is large enough to resist the combined actions of shear and
torsion. First assume that a closed #4 stirrup will be used in the web of this beam.
( ) ( )
2
24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 174 in
oh
A = =
( ) 2 24 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 12 in 2 1.5 in 0.5 in 58 in
h
P = + =
From Eq. (733):
(
)
The section is sufficiently large.
Step 6: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist V
u
:
At column A1:
At column A2:
Step 7: Determine the area of stirrups required to resist T
u
:
19.5 kft
26.0 kft
0.75 0.75
u
n
T
T > = =
From Eq. (724), using 0.85
o oh
A A = :
( )
2
2
26.0 kft 12 in/ft in
0.0176
2 cot in 2 0.85 174 in 60 ksi cot 45
t n
o yt
A T
s A f u
> = =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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722
Step 8: Evaluate the total required area of stirrups, and select spacing:
For strength:
Minimum required:
2
50 50 12 in in
0.010
60, 000 psi in
w
yt
b
f
= =
The strength requirement governs here.
Now determine stirrup size and spacing:
max
12 in
/ 8 58 in / 8 7.25 in
/ 2 10.75 in (for shear)
h
s P
d
s = =
If we select #3 stirrups,
If we select #4 stirrups,
Select closed #3 stirrups at 5 in. spacing for the full length of the beam. While in some cases it is
possible that stirrups are not required along the full length of the beam, the torsion in this case is
constant along the length of the beam, as is the shear. Therefore, closed #3 stirrups are required
along the full length of the beam.
Final design of transverse reinforcement:
Using closed #3 stirrups,
One stirrup at 2.5 in from either column face, followed by stirrups spaced at 5 in.
Step 9: Finalize the design of the longitudinal reinforcement:
Determine the need for longitudinal reinforcement resisting torsion:
For strength:
2
2 2
in
cot 0.0176 58 in 1.0 1.0 1.02 in
in
yt
t
l h
yl
f
A
A P
s f
u
 
 
 
= = = 



\ .
\ .
\ .
Minimum required:
,min
5 '
c cp yt
t
l h
yl yl
f A f
A
A P
f s f
=
Since
2 2
,min
25 in in
0.0176 0.0050
in in
t w
yt
A b
s f
 
= > =

\ .
, we must use
2
in
0.0176
in
2 2
2
,min
5 4, 000 psi 396 in in
0.0176 58 in 1.0 1.07 in
60 ksi in
l
A
= =
Use
2
1.07 in
l
A =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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723
Longitudinal bars are required in the corner of each stirrup. Also, longitudinal bars must be spaced
no more than 12 in apart around the perimeter of the section, so a bar is needed in the middle of
each vertical face. So 6 bars are required.
2 2
/ 1.07 in / 6 bars 0.18 in / bar Area bar = =
At column A1, use #4 bars in the bottom corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam.
As top reinforcement,
( )
2 2 2 2
/ 0.95 in 2 0.18 in / 3 1.31 in / 3 0.437 in
s
A bar > + = = , so specify 3
#6 bars along the top of the section.
At midspan, use #4 bars in the top corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam. As
bottom reinforcement,
( )
2 2 2 2
/ 1.24 in 2 0.18 in / 3 1.60 in / 3 0.53 in
s
A bar > + = = , so specify 3
#7 bars along the bottom of the section.
At column A2, use #4 bars in the bottom corners and halfway up the vertical face of the beam.
As top reinforcement,
( )
2 2 2 2
/ 1.34 in 2 0.18 in / 3 1.7 in / 3 0.57 in
s
A bar > + = = , so specify 3 #7
bars along the top of the section.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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81
Chapter 8
81 Figure P81 shows a cantilever beam with containing three No. 7 bars
that are anchored in the column by standard
hooks.
(normal
weight) and
= = =
'
Note: Coating factor 1
e
= for uncoated reinforcement (assumed)
Lightweightaggregateconcrete factor 1 = for normalweight
concrete
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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82
 Applicable factors:
ACI Code Section 12.5.3(a) applies (factor of 0.7) because:
bar size smaller than bar No. 11
side cover: 2 3/4 in. 2 1/2 in.
tail cover: 2 in. 2 in.
>
>
ACI Code Section 12.5.3(b) does not apply because:
tie spacing: 6 in. 3 2.6 in.
b
d > =
ACI Code Section 12.5.3(d) does not apply because 60000 psi
y
f =
0.7 14.8 in. 0.7 10.4 in.
dh hb
= = =
 Minimum development length
, min max(8 ,6 in.) max(8 0.875 in., 6 in.) 7 in. 10.4 in.
dh b
d = = = < , OK.
3. Available horizontal room for 90 standard hook:
18 in. 2 in. 16 in. 10.4 in. = > , OK.
Conclusion: The bars can be anchored in the column by using 90 standard hook.
(b) be developed in the beam? The bar ends 2 in. from the end of the beam. The
beam has No. 3 doubleleg stirrups at 7.5 in.
1. Available room in the beam for straight anchorage:
48 in. 2 in. 46 in. =
2. Required development length of straight anchorage conforming to ACI Code Section
12.2.2.:
 Determine which formulas to use in the Table 81
12 in. 2 2 in. 3 0.875 in.
Clear spacing: 2.7 in. 2 1.75 in.
2
Clear cover: 2 in. 0.875 in.
Bar #7
b
b
d
d
= > =
> =
1.3 1 60000
0.875 48.3 in. 46 in.
20 20 1 5000
e t y
hb b
c
f
d
f
= = = >
'
, NG.
Note: Barlocation factor 1.3
t
= is used because the bars are top
reinforcement with a depth of fresh concrete below:
18 in. 2 in. 0.875 in. 15.1 in. 12 in. = >
Per ACI Code Section 12.2.2, the bars cannot be developed in the beam by
using straight anchorage. This problem can be solved by reducing the bar size.
However, ACI Code Section 12.2.3 allows another method to calculate the
development length which is likely to yield a shorter development length. Let try
this.
3. Required development length of straight bars conforming to ACI Code Section
12.2.3.
 Barsize factor 1
s
= for #7 bars
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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83
 Barspacing factor
b
c
Onehalf centertocenter spacing of the bars:
12 in. 2 2 in. 0.875 in.
0.5 1.78 in.
2
=
Smallest distance from beam surface to centers of bars:
0.875 in.
2 in. 2.44 in.
2
+ =
min(1.78 in., 2.44 in.) 1.78 in.
b
c = =
 Transverse reinforcement index
( )
2
40 2 0.11 in.
40
0.39 in.
7.5in. 3
tr
tr
A
K
sn
= = =
 Required development length per ACI Code Section 12.2.3
3
3 60000 1.3 1 1
0.875 29.2 in.<46 in.
1.78 0.39
40 40 1 5000
0.875
y
t e s
d b
b tr
c
b
f
d
c K
f
d
= = =
+ +
'
(Note that 2.48 2.5, OK.
b tr
b
c K
d
+
= < )
Per ACI Code 12.2.3, the bars can be developed in the beam by using straight
anchorage.
82 Give two reasons why the tension development length is longer than the
compression development length.
1. A bar stressed in compression transfers some of its force to the concrete by bearing
on the end of the bars.
2. A bar stressed in tension transfers its tensile stress into concrete. As a result the
concrete is cracked and inandout bond stresses exist. In such a case there are
localized bond stresses which are several times greater the average bond stress. A bar
stressed in compression transfers its stress into concrete which is compressed and
hence uncracked. There are no inandout bond stresses in such a case.
83 Why do bar spacing and cover to the surface of the bar affect bond strength?
The lugs on deformed bars transfer forces to the concrete. The radial component of these
lug forces causes a tensile stress in an annulus of concrete around the bar. The thicker the
wall of this annulus the lower the tensile stresses are in it. The thickness of the wall is
governed by the minimum distance to the surface of the concrete or to the next bar. Thus,
the larger the cover and bar spacing are, the larger the bond stresses can be developed.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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84
84 A simply supported rectangular beam with and and No. 3
Grade 40 stirrups at , spans 14 ft and supports a total factored uniform
load of 6.5 kips/ft, including its own dead load. It is built of 4000 psi lightweight
concrete and contains 2 No. 10 Grade 60 bars that extend 5 in. past the centers of
the supports at each end. Does this beam satisfy ACI Section 12.11.3? If not, what is
the largest size bars which can be used?
The question asks to check if
n
d a
u
M
V
s + at the support.
1. Calculation of
d
.
 Barlocation factor 1
t
= for bottom bars
 Coating factor 1
e
= for uncoated reinforcement (assumed)
 Barsize factor 1
s
= for #10 bars
 Lightweightaggregateconcrete factor for lightweight concrete
 Barspacing factor ( ) min 2.5 in., 0.5 14 in. 2 2.5 in. 2.5 in.
b
c = ( =
 Transverse reinforcement index
tr
K .
( )
 Calculate the development length
3
3 60000 1 1 1
1.27 50.2 in.
2.5 0.55
40 40 0.75 4000
1.27
y
t e s
d b
b tr
c
b
f
d
c K
f
d
= = =
+ +
'
(Note that 2.4 2.5, OK.
b tr
b
c K
d
+
= < )
2. Calculation of
n
a
u
M
V
+ .
( ) ( )
6.5 k/ft 14 ft
45.5 kips
2
u
V
= =
n
d a
u
M
V
s + So, the use of 2 #10 bars satisfies ACI Code Section 12.11.3.
85 Why do ACI Section 12.10.3 and 12.12.3 require that bars extend past their cut
off points?
Inclined cracking due to shear increases the tension in the flexural reinforcement at all
points except the points of maximum moments. As a result, the tensile force in the
flexural reinforcement computed from the moment at a given section actually exists at a
point about 0.75d to d from that point in the direction of decreasing moment.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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85
86 Why does ACI Section 12.10.2 define points within the span where adjacent
reinforcement terminates as critical sections for development of reinforcement in
flexural members?
If flexural reinforcement is cut off according to the moment diagram, the flexural cutoff
point is the point in the beam where the remaining steel not cut off is just adequate for the
moment if stressed to
y
f . Due to the effect of shear, this point actually occurs about d
farther away and hence this point is critical.
87 A rectangular beam with cross section , , and
supports a total factored load of 3.9 kips/ft, including its own dead load. The beam is
simply supported with a 22ft span. It is reinforced with 6 No. 6 Grade 60 bars, two
of which are cut off between midspan and the support and four of which extend 10
in. past the centers of the supports.
d
= 28.5 in.
d
= 28.5 in.
21.7 in. 37 in.
factored moment
diagram M
12 in.
cutoff point
flexural
cutoff point
Fig. S82
(a) Plot to scale the factored moment diagram. ()
( ), where x is
the distance from the support and
is the span.
Maximum moment at the midspan: ( ) ( )
3.9 11 ft
/ 2 22 ft 11 ft 236 kft
2
M x
= = =
The factored moment diagram is shown in Fig. S82.
10 in.
10 in. 35.6 in. 21.5 in.
236 kft
160 kft
21.5 in.
1
6
0
k

f
t
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86
(b) Plot a resisting moment diagram and locate the cutoff point for the two cut
off bars.
1. Moment capacity of beam sections with 6 #6 bars
( )
2
6 0.44 in. 60000 psi
3.3 in.
0.85 0.85 4000 psi 14 in.
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
'
()
( ) ( )
1
3.3 in.
3.9 in.
0.85
a
c

= = = (
1
0.85  = for 4000 psi
c
f ' = )
()
2. Moment capacity of beam sections with 4 #6 bars
( )
2
4 0.44 in. 60000 psi
2.2 in.
0.85 0.85 4000 psi 14 in.
s y
c
A f
a
f b
= = =
'
()
( ) ( )
1
2.2 in.
2.6 in.
0.85
a
c

= = = (
1
0.85  = for 4000 psi
c
f ' = )
()
3. Development length for straight bars. ACI Code Section 12.2.2 will be used to
determine the development length.
 Minimum clear spacing between bars:
14 in. 2 2.3 in. 5 0.75 in.
1.1 in. 0.75 in.
5
b
d
= > =
 Since the shear reinforcement is provided such that ACI Code Sections 11.5.4
and 11.5.5.3 will be satisfied, shear reinforcement is not less than the minimum
code requirement.
 Bars used are #6
1 1 60000
0.75 28.5 in.
25 25 1 4000
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f
= = =
'
4. Locate the cutoff point of the 2 #6 bars (see Fig. S82.)
 Determine the flexural cutoff point of the 2 #6 bars. This point is the intersection
of the factored moment diagram and the line of moment capacity (4#6)
n
M  ,
i.e.:
( ) (4#6)
n
M x M  =
( )
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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87
 Extend the flexural cutoff point a distance d toward the left support to take into
account the shear effect. The distance from the left support to the cutoff point is
The resisting moment diagram is shown in Fig. S82.
88 Why does ACI Code Section 12.10.5 require extra stirrups at bar cutoff points in
some cases?
A severe discontinuity in longitudinal bar stresses exists in the region of a cutoff point in
a zone of flexural tension. This causes a reduction in the inclined cracking load in that
region. To compensate, more stirrups are required.
The beam shown in Fig. P89 is built of 4000 psi normalweight concrete and Grade 60 steel.
The effective depth The beam supports a total factored uniform load of 5.25
kips/ft, including its own dead load. The frame is not part of the lateral loadresisting
system for the building. Use Figs. A1 to A4 to select cutoff points in Problems 89 to 811.
89 Select cutoff points for span AB based on the following requirements:
(a) Cut off two No. 6 positive moment bars when no longer needed at each end.
Extend the remaining bars into the columns.
1. Development length for bottom #6 and #7 bars
From the effective depth of 18.5 in, assume a concrete cover of 2.5 in. to centers of the
bars.
 Clear spacing:
 Shear reinforcement:
2
2 2
min
50 0.22 in. 50 12
0.028 in. /in. 0.015 in. /in.
8 in. 40000
v v w
yt
A A b
s s f
 
= = > = = =

\ .
(Note that 0.75 47.4 psi 50 psi, use 50 psi
c
f ' = < )
The development length is computed following Case 1
( )
1 1 60000
#6, bottom 0.75 28.5 in.
25 25 1 4000
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f
= = =
'
( )
1 1 60000
#7, bottom 0.875 41.5 in.
20 20 1 4000
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f
= = =
'
2. Locate the cutoff point for the #6 bars
After the 2 #6 bars are cutoff, the remaining #7 bars will provide an
of
,
which is 0.577 times
from the face of the interior support. The actual cutoff has
to be the larger of and
()
()
This requirement is satisfied. Also, specify that the #7 bars extend 6 in. into the
columns.
6. With the #7 bars extended 6 in. into the columns, verify that the #7 bars are
sufficiently developed. To check this, ensure that the continuous #7 bars extend more
than
()
This requirement is satisfied.
7. Check if
n
d a
u
M
V
s + at the positive moment point of inflection near end A.
( ) ( )
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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89
From Fig. A2, the positive moment point of inflection closest to end A is
0.1 2 ft 24 in.
n
= =
5.25 k/ft 20 ft
5.25k/ft 2 ft 42 kips
2
u
V
= =
{
(
)
}
8. Check if
n
d a
u
M
V
s + at the positive moment point of inflection near end B
Everything remains the same as for end A, except the point of inflection.
From Fig. A2, the positive moment point of inflection closest to end B is
0.104 2.08 ft.
n
= The change is not significant, so
n
d a
u
M
V
s + is ensured.
9. Check whether ACI Code Section 12.10.5.1 is satisfied.
) ( )
Therefore, we must add stirrups near the point of termination for the #6 bars.
Additional stirrup area required is:
If we keep the same #3 Ushaped stirrups,
. Therefore,
Specify a stirrups spacing of 3 in. within d of the #6 bar termination
point.
(b) Extend all negative moment bars past the negative moment point of
inflection before cutting them off.
1. Development length for # 6 and #7 top bars
Note that the clear spacing of top #7 bars is:
The development length is computed following Case 1, with 1.3
t
= for top bars.
( )
1 1.3 60000
#6, top 0.75 37.0 in.
25 25 1 4000
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f
= = =
'
( )
1 1.3 60000
#7, top 0.875 54.0 in.
20 20 1 4000
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f
= = =
'
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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810
2. Determine the cutoff point conforming to reinforcement continuity for negative
reinforcement near column A
 Since all reinforcement is required to extend past the point of inflection, the
requirement of greater than
(face)
3
s
A
to extend past the point of inflection is
automatically satisfied.
 All reinforcement has to extend past the inflection point a length:
{
}
 Negative moment point of inflection from face of column A is
0.164 3.28 ft = 39.4 in.
n
=
 Total length from face of column A to the reinforcement cutoff point is:
( ) Choose 58 in.
3. Determine the cutoff point conforming to reinforcement continuity for negative
reinforcement near column B
 Since all reinforcement is required to extend past the point of inflection, the
requirement of greater than
(face)
3
s
A
to extend past the point of inflection is
automatically satisfied.
 All reinforcement has to extend past the inflection point a length:
{
}
 Negative moment point of inflection from face of column B is
0.24 4.8 ft = 57.6 in.
n
=
 Total length from face of column B to the reinforcement cutoff point is:
( ) , so choose 78 in.
(c) Check the anchorage of the negative moment bars at A and modify the bar
size if necessary.
Reinforcement continuity and structural integrity require that all negative moment
reinforcement be fully anchored into column A. Note that the development length of
straight #6 bars is 37.1 in., which far exceeds the available column width of 18 in. A
hook must be used for anchorage.
 Development length for a standard 90 hook for #6 bars:
0.02
0.02 1 60000
0.75 14.2 in.
1 4000
e y
hb b
c
f
d
f
= = =
'
 Applicable factors. The problem does not give sufficient information to decide
if reduction factors per ACI Code Section 12.5.3 shall apply. To be
conservative, assume that no reduction of
hb
will be made.
14.2 in.
dh hb
= =
 Minimum development length
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811
, min max(8 ,6 in.) max(8 0.75 in., 6 in.) 6 in. 14.2 in.
dh b
d = = = < , OK.
 Available horizontal room for the 90 standard hook:
18 in. 2.4 in. 15.6 in. 14.2 in., OK = >
Extend the hook past the column face and to the other side of the column.
Fig. S83
810 Repeat Problem 89(a) and (b) for span BC
(a) Cut off two No. 6 positive moment bars when no longer needed at each end.
Extend the remaining bars into the columns.
1. Development length for bottom #6 and #7 bars
From the effective depth of 18.5 in, assume a concrete cover of 2.5 in. to centers of the
bars.
 Clear spacing:
 Shear reinforcement:
2
2 2
min
50 0.22 in. 50 12
0.028 in. /in. 0.015 in. /in.
8 in. 40000
v v w
yt
A A b
s s f
 
= = > = = =

\ .
(Note that 0.75 47.4 psi 50 psi, use 50 psi
c
f ' = < )
The development length is computed following Case 1
( )
1 1 60000
#6, bottom 0.75 28.5 in.
25 25 1 4000
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f
= = =
'
( )
1 1 60000
#7, bottom 0.875 41.5 in.
20 20 1 4000
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f
= = =
'
2. Locate the cutoff point for the #6 bars. Both supports are interior supports.
After the 2 #6 bars are cutoff, the remaining #7 bars will provide
,
which is 0.577 times
from the face of the interior support. The actual cutoff has
to be the larger of and
()
()
This requirement is satisfied. Also, specify that the #7 bars extend 6 in. into the
columns.
5. With the #7 bars extended 6 in. into the columns, verify that the #7 bars are
sufficiently developed. To check this, ensure that the continuous #7 bars extend more
than
()
This requirement is satisfied.
6. Check if
n
d a
u
M
V
s + at the positive moment point of inflection.
( ) ( )
From Fig. A1, the positive moment point of inflection closest to end A is
{
(
)
}
7. Check whether ACI Code Section 12.10.5.1 is satisfied.
) ( )
Therefore, we must add stirrups near the point of termination for the #6 bars.
Additional stirrup area required is:
If we keep the same #3 Ushaped stirrups,
. Therefore,
Specify a stirrup spacing of 4 in. within d of the #6 bar termination point.
(b) Extend all negative moment bars past the negative moment point of
inflection before cutting them off.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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813
1. Similar to Problem 89(b), extend all negative reinforcement past the negative
moment point of inflection a length of 18.5 in.
2. Negative moment point of inflection from face of column B and C is
0.24 5.04 ft = 60.5 in.
n
=
3. Total length from face of column B to the reinforcement cutoff point is
( ) Select 80 in.
See Fig. S84 for reinforcement details.
Fig. S84
811 Assume the beam is constructed with 4000 psi lightweight concrete. Select cutoff
points for span AB based on the following requirements:
(a) Extend all negative moment bars at A past the negative moment point of
inflection.
1. Development length for #6 top bars
Note that the clear spacing of top #6 bars is:
The development length is computed following Case 1, with 1.3
t
= for top bars.
( )
2. Determine the cutoff point conforming to reinforcement continuity for negative
reinforcement near column A
 Since all reinforcement is required to extend past the point of inflection, the
requirement of greater than
(face)
3
s
A
to extend past the point of inflection is
automatically satisfied.
 All reinforcement has to extend past the inflection point a length:
{
}
 Negative moment point of inflection from face of column A is
0.164 3.28 ft = 39.4 in.
n
=
 Total length from face of column A to the reinforcement cutoff point is:
( ) Choose 58 in.
21 in.
80 in.
52 in. 6 in. 6 in.
80 in.
52 in.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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814
(b) Cut off the two No. 6 positive moment bars when no longer needed at each
end. Extend the remaining bars into the columns.
1. Development length for bottom #6 and #7 bars
From the effective depth of 18.5 in, assume a concrete cover of 2.5 in. to centers of the
bars.
 Clear spacing:
 Shear reinforcement:
2
2 2
min
50 0.22 in. 50 12
0.028 in. /in. 0.015 in. /in.
8 in. 40000
v v w
yt
A A b
s s f
 
= = > = = =

\ .
(Note that 0.75 47.4 psi 50 psi, use 50 psi
c
f ' = < )
The development length is computed following Case 1
( )
( )
2. Locate the cutoff point for the #6 bars
After the 2 #6 bars are cutoff, the remaining #7 bars will provide an
of
,
which is 0.577 times
from the face of the interior support. The actual cutoff has
to be the larger of and
()
()
This requirement is satisfied. Also, specify that the #7 bars extend 6 in. into the
columns.
6. With the #7 bars extended 6 in. into the columns, verify that the #7 bars are
sufficiently developed. To check this, ensure that the continuous #7 bars extend more
than
()
This requirement is satisfied.
7. Check if
n
d a
u
M
V
s + at the positive moment point of inflection near end A.
( ) ( )
From Fig. A2, the positive moment point of inflection closest to end A is
0.1 2 ft 24 in.
n
= =
5.25 k/ft 20 ft
5.25k/ft 2 ft 42 kips
2
u
V
= =
{
(
)
}
8. Check if
n
d a
u
M
V
s + at the positive moment point of inflection near end B
Everything remains the same as for end A, except the point of inflection.
From Fig. A2, the positive moment point of inflection closest to end B is
0.104 2.08 ft.
n
= The change is not significant, so
n
d a
u
M
V
s + is ensured.
9. Check whether ACI Code Section 12.10.5.1 is satisfied.
) ( )
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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816
Therefore, we must add stirrups near the point of termination for the #6 bars.
Additional stirrup area required is:
If we keep the same #3 Ushaped stirrups,
. Therefore,
Specify a stirrup spacing of 3 in. within d of the #6 bar termination point.
(c) Cut off two of the negative moment bars at B when no longer needed.
Extend the remaining bars past the point of inflection.
1. Calculate the development length of a #7 bar:
( )
2. Cutoff points for the remaining 3 #7 bars:
These bars need to be extended past the negative point of flexure. Problem 89(b)
shows that the required length is 76.2 in. Use 78 in. as before.
3. Cutoff points for 2 #7 bars:
 Ratio of remaining reinforcement area after cutting off the 2 #7 bars is 3/5 = 0.6
 2 #7 bars can be cut off at the location x where
Moment at x
0.6
Maximum moment
= . This
occurs at 0.08 1.6 ft.=19.2 in.
n
x = = from B
 To consider the shear effect, extend 2 #7 bars a distance d past the flexural cut
off point away from B. The distance from the face of column B to the cutoff point is
.
ACI Code Eq. (104) :
40, 000 40, 000
15 2.5 12
c
s s
s c
f f
   
= s
 
\ . \ .
using 1.5 in. (3/ 8) in. 1.875 in.
c
c = + =
2 2
60, 000 psi=40, 000 psi
3 3
s y
f f = = ,
(The value for
s
f can be also calculated as the stress in the reinforcement closest
to the tension face at service load based on the unfactored moment.)
So,
40, 000 40, 000
15 2.5 1.875 10.3 in.< 12 12 in. OK.
40, 000 40, 000
s
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
From Fig. P93, bar spacing
( )
( )
1
3
12 2 1.5 1.128
8
2
2.37 in. < 10.3 in.
3
(
 
+ +
 (
\ .
= =
Thus, the beam satisfies ACI Code Section 10.6.4.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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92
94 Compute the maximum spacing of No. 5 bars in a oneway slab with 1 in. of clear
cover that will satisfy the ACI Code crackcontrol provisions (Section 10.6.4).
.
ACI Code Eq. (104) :
40, 000 40, 000
15 2.5 12
c
s s
s c
f f
   
= s
 
\ . \ .
using 1.0 in..
c
c =
2 2
60, 000 psi=40, 000 psi
3 3
s y
f f = =
So,
40, 000 40, 000
15 2.5 1.0 12.5 in.> 12 12 in.
40, 000 40, 000
s
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
Thus, the maximum spacing for the No. 5 bars that satisfies ACI Code Section 10.6.4 is 12 in.
95 and 96 For the cross sections shown in Figs. P95 and P96, compute:
(a) the gross moment of inertia,
;
(b) the location of the neutral axis of the cracked section and
; and
(c)
for
.
The beams have a 1.5 in. of clear cover and No. 3 stirrups. The concrete strength is
;
.
95 (a) the gross moment of inertia,
;
3
4
16 24
18432 in.
12
g
I
= = (ignoring the effect of reinforcement for simplicity)
(b) the location of the neutral axis of the cracked section and
;
The distance from the extreme tension edge of the section to the centroid of the lowest
layer of steel is
( ) ( )
1
3 8
1.5 in.+ in.+ in. 2.38 in.
8 8
2
 
=

\ .
Assuming that the spacing between the
centers of the layers is 2 in., find:
Centroid =
( ) ( ) 4 0.79 2.38 2 0.79 4.38
3.05 in. above bottom
4.74
+
= and 20.95 in. d =
6
29 10 psi
8.04
57000 4000 psi
s
c
E
n
E
= = =
Transformed area of steel = ( )
2
8.04 6 0.79 38.11 in. =
Compute location of neutral axis
Let depth of neutral axis be c and sum moments about the neutral axis to zero.
Part Area, in.
2
y , in. Ay ,in.
3
Compression
zone
16c 2 c
2
8c
Tension steel 38.11 ( ) 20.95 c 38.11 798.4 c
2
8 38.11 798.4 0 and 7.89 in. Ay c c c = + = =
Thus, the neutral axis is 7.89 in. below the top of the beam
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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93
Compute I
cr
Part Area, in.
2
y , in.
own
I
2
Ay ,in.
4
Compression
zone
126.2 3.94 654.9 1959.1
Tension steel 38.11 13.06 6500
cr
I = 9114 in.
4
(c)
for
First calculate
n
M  for the beam:
4.74 60000
5.23 in.
1
'
0.85 4000 16
0.85
A f
s y
c
f b
c
o 
= = = =
and
5.23
6.15
0.85
c = = in.
20.95 6.15
0.003 0.00722 0.002 O.K.
6.15
d c
s cu
c
c c
   
= = = >
 
\ . \ .
and 0.005 0.90
t
c  > =
5.23
4.74 60000 20.95
2
5214 kipsin.
2 1000
a
M A f d
n s y
 

 
\ .
= = =

\ .
and 0.9 5214 4693 kipsin.
n
M  = =
Thus,

( )
4
7.5 4000 psi 18432 in.
728.6 kipsin.
lbs
12 in. 1000
kips
r g
cr
t
f I
M
y
= = =
So, using Eq. (910a) find
[ (
[ (
96 (a) the gross moment of inertia,
;
Part Area, in.
2
top
y , in.
top
Ay
own
I , in.
4
2
Ay ,in.
4
Web 288 12 3456 13824 2592
Flanges 144 3 432 432 5184
432 E = 3888 E =
g
I =
22032 in.
4
3888
9 in. 15 in.
432
top btm
y y = = =
4
22032 in.
g
I =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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94
(b) the location of the neutral axis of the cracked section and
;
6
29 10 psi
8.04
57000 4000 psi
s
c
E
n
E
= = =
Transformed area of steel = ( )
2
8.04 4 0.79 25.4 in. =
24 in. 2.5 in. 21.5 in. d = =
Assume that the neutral axis is less than 6 in.
Compute location of neutral axis.
Part Area, in.
2
y , in. Ay ,in.
3
Compression
zone
36c 2 c
2
18c
s
nA 25.4 ( ) 21.5 c 25.4 546 c
2
18 25.4 546 0 and 4.85 in. Ay c c c = + = =
Thus, the neutral axis is 4.85 in. below the top of the beam (i.e. the compression zone is
rectangular).
Compute I
cr
Part Area, in.
2
y , in.
own
I
2
Ay ,in.
4
Compression
zone
174.6 2.42 342 1022.5
s
nA 25.4 16.65 7041
cr
I = 8405 in.
4
(c)
for
First calculate
n
M  for the beam:
3.16 60000
1.55 in.
1
'
0.85 4000 36
0.85
A f
s y
a c
f b
c

= = = =
and
1.55
1.82
0.85
c = = in.
The steel is yielding and it is a tensioncontrolled section ( ) 0.90  = .
1.55
3.16 60000 21.5
2
3930 kipsin.
2 1000
a
M A f d
n s y
 

 
\ .
= = =

\ .
and 0.9 3930 3537 kipsin.
n
M  = =
Thus,

( )
4
7.5 4000 psi 22032 in.
697 kipsin.
lbs
15 in. 1000
kips
r g
cr
t
f I
M
y
= = =
So, using Eq. (910a) find
[ (
[ (
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
95
97 Why are deflections limited in design?
Deflections are limited for several reasons.
1. Deflections greater than 250
of the span are visible and may be unsightly.
2. Excessive deflections may cause cracking of partitions, malfunctioning of doors and windows
and similar damage to nonstructural elements.
3. Excessive deflections may interfere with the use of the structure, particularly if the structure
supports machinery that must be carefully aligned.
4. Ponding of water on deflected roofs may overload the roofs.
5. Very large deflections may damage structural members and change the load path.
98 A simply supported beam with the cross section shown in Fig. P95 has a span of 25
ft and supports an unfactored dead load of 1.5 kips/ft, including its own selfweight
plus an unfactored live load of 1.5 kips/ft. The concrete strength is 4500 psi.
Compute
(a) the immediate dead load deflection.
(b) the immediate deadpluslive load deflection.
(c) the deflection occurring after partitions are installed. Assume that the
partitions are installed one month after shoring for the beam is removed and
assume that 20 percent of the live load is sustained.
(a) the immediate dead load deflection.
From question 95 we found:
4
18432 in.
g
I = , 728.6 kipsin.
cr
M =
6
29 10 psi
7.58
57000 4500 psi
s
c
E
n
E
= = =
Transformed area of steel = ( )
2
7.58 6 0.79 35.93 in. =
Compute location of neutral axis
Let depth of neutral axis be c and sum moments about the neutral axis to zero.
Part Area, in.
2
y , in. Ay ,in.
3
Compression
zone
16c 2 c
2
8c
Tension steel 35.93 ( ) 20.95 c 35.93 752.7 c
2
8 35.93 752.7 0 and 7.71 in. Ay c c c = + = =
Thus, the neutral axis is 7.71 in. below the top of the beam
Compute I
cr
Part Area, in.
2
y , in.
own
I
2
Ay ,in.
4
Compression
zone
123.4 3.85 611 1829
Tension steel 35.93 13.24 6298
cr
I = 8738 in.
4
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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96
Unfactored dead load moment:
( ) ( )
2 2
1.5 kip ft 25 ft
117.2 kipsft 1406 kipsin.
8
DL
M
= = =
Thus,
a cr
M M > cracked section and need to calculate
eff
I
3 3
3 3
4
728.6 728.6
1 18432 1 8738 10087 in.
1406 1406
cr cr
e g cr
a a
M M
I I I
M M
(
(
   
   
( = + = + = (
 
 
( \ . \ .
( \ . \ .
This is a simply supported beam with distributed loading, so using deflection Case 1 from Fig. 9
13, the immediate dead load deflection can be calculated as:
( )
2
2
pos
iD
6
1406 1000 25 12
5 5
0.342 in.
48 48 3.824 10 10087
M
EI
A = = =
(b) the immediate deadpluslive load deflection.
Unfactored dead plus live load moment:
( ) ( )
2 2
3.0 kip ft 25 ft
in.
12 2812 kipsin.
8 ft
D L
M
+
 
= =

\ .
3 3
4
728.6 728.6
18432 1 8738 8907 in.
2812 2812
e
I
(
   
= + = (
 
\ . \ .
(
So using again the deflection Case 1 from Fig. 913, the immediate deadplusliveload deflection
can be calculated as:
( )
2
iD+L
6
2812 1000 25 12
5
0.774 in.
48 3.824 10 8907
A = =
(c) the deflection occurring after partitions are installed. Assume that the
partitions are installed one month after shoring for the beam is removed and
assume that 20 percent of the live load is sustained.
The deflection occurring after the partitions are installed can be calculated from Eq. (914):
( )
iL 0 iD iLS
, t
A = A + A + A
The immediate dead load deflection,
iD
A , was found from part (a) to be 0.342 in. However, after
the live load has been applied and the beam has cracked, the deflection due to dead load will be
increased by an amount equal to the ratio of the
e
I values used in part (a) and (b). Thus the
immediate dead load deflection on the structure which has been loaded to D+L will be calculated
and used in Eq. (914).
iD
10087
0.342 =0.387 in.
8907
A =
The immediate live load deflection,
iL
A , is found as:
iL i,L+D iD
0.774 in. 0.387 in. 0.387 in. A = A A = =
Twenty percent of this results from sustained live loads, so:
iLS
0.20 0.387 in. 0.077 in. A = =
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97
Since the beam has no compression reinforcement, and with the partitions installed 1 month after
removal of the shoring,
The deflection occurring after the partitions are installed is found as:
99 Repeat Problem 98 for the beam section in Fig. P96.
(a) the immediate dead load deflection.
From question 96 we found:
,
, and
The unfactored dead load moment:
( ) ( )
2 2
1.5 kip ft 25 ft
117.2 kipsft 1406 kipsin.
8
DL
M
= = =
Thus,
a cr
M M > cracked section and need to calculate
eff
I
[ (
[ (
This is a simply supported beam with distributed loading, so using deflection Case 1 from Fig. 9
13, the immediate dead load deflection can be calculated as:
( )
(b) the immediate deadpluslive load deflection.
Unfactored dead plus live load moment:
( ) ( )
2 2
3.0 kip ft 25 ft
in.
12 2812 kipsin.
8 ft
D L
M
+
 
= =

\ .
[ (
So using the deflection Case 1 from Fig. 913, the immediate deadplusliveload deflection can
be calculated as:
( )
(c) the deflection occurring after partitions are installed. Assume that the
partitions are installed one month after shoring for the beam is removed and
assume that 20 percent of the live load is sustained.
The deflection occurring after the partitions are installed can be calculated from Eq. (914):
( )
iL 0 iD iLS
, t
A = A + A + A
The immediate dead load deflection,
iD
A , was found from part (a) to be 0.342 in. However, after
the live load has been applied and the beam has cracked, the deflection due to dead load will be
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98
increased by an amount equal to the ratio of the
e
I values used in part (a) and (b). Thus the
immediate dead load deflection on the structure which has been loaded to D+L will be calculated
and used in Eq. (914).
The immediate live load deflection,
iL
A , is found as:
Twenty percent of this results from sustained live loads, so:
Since the beam has no compression reinforcement, and with the partitions installed 1 month after
removal of the shoring,
The deflection occurring after the partitions are installed is found as:
910 The beam shown in Fig. P910 is made of 4000psi concrete and supports unfactored
dead and live loads of 1 kip/ft and 1.1 kips/ft. Compute:
(a) the immediate deadload deflection.
Compute I
g
for the Tsection (ignore the effect of the reinforcement for simplicity):
Assume flange width = effective flange width from ACI Code Section 8.12.2. = 72 in.
6
29 10 psi
8.04
57000 4000 psi
s
c
E
n
E
= = =
Part Area, in.
2
top
y , in.
top
Ay
own
I , in.
4
2
Ay ,in.
4
Web 240 10 2400 8000 4234
Flanges 360 3 1080 1080 2822
600 A=
3480 Ay =
g
I =
16136 in.
4
3480
5.8 in. 14.2 in.
600
top btm
y y = = =
Compute I
cr
at the left end:
The positivemoment reinforcement is not developed for compression at the support and will
therefore be neglected. The section is a rectangular section, with 3 No. 7 bars , 17.5 in. d ~ ,and
the following properties:
2 2
1.80 in. , 14.47 in.
1.80
0.0086, 0.069
12 17.5
s s
A nA
n
= =
= = =
Using Eq. (93): ( )
2
2 0.309 and 5.41 in. k n n n c kd = + = = =
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99
Part Area, in.
2
y , in.
own
I
2
Ay ,in.
4
Compression
zone
64.9 2.71 158 477
s
nA 14.47 ( ) 5.41 17.5 12.1 =
2119
cr
I = 2754 in.
4
Compute I
cr
at the right end:
2 2
3.16 in. , 25.41 in.
3.16
0.0150, 0.121
12 17.5
s s
A nA
n
= =
= = =
Using Eq. (93): ( )
2
2 0.386 and 6.75 in. k n n n c kd = + = = =
Part Area, in.
2
y , in.
own
I
2
Ay ,in.
4
Compression
zone
81 3.37 307.5 920
s
nA 25.41 ( ) 6.75 17.5 10.75 = 2936
cr
I = 4163 in.
4
Compute I
cr
at the midspan:
2 2
2.18 in. , 17.53 in.
s s
A nA = =
Assuming that c is less than 6 in.
Part Area, in.
2
y , in. Ay ,in.
3
Compression
zone
72c 2 c
2
36c
s
nA 17.53 ( ) 17.5 c 17.53 307 c
2
36 17.53 307 0 and 2.7 in. Ay c c c E = + = =
Part Area, in.
2
y , in.
own
I
2
Ay ,in.
4
Compression
zone
194 1.35 118 354
s
nA 17.53 ( ) 2.7 17.5 14.8 = 3840
cr
I = 4312 in.
4
The moment at the end and the midspan can be calculated using the ACI Moment Coefficients
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910
Unfactored dead load moments
Negative moment at left end =
( )
2
2 1
1 22.67 32.1 kipsft
16 16
n
w
= =
Positive moment at midspan =
( )
2
2 1
1 22.67 36.7 kipsft
14 14
n
w
= =
Negative moment at right end =
( )
2
2 1
1 22.67 51.4 kipsft
10 10
n
w
= =
Cracking moments
7.5 4000 psi 474 psi
r
f = =
Ends:
474 16136
110 kipsft
5.8 12, 000
cr
M
= =
Midspan:
474 16136
45 kipsft
14.2 12, 000
cr
M
= =
Compute the average effective moment of inertia
for both ends and the midspan,
a cr
M M < and thus the sections are uncracked under dead loads
and
4
16136 in.
eff g
I I = =
Compute immediate deadload deflection
This is an exterior beam span with a column as the exterior support. Therefore, the deflection can
be calculated using row 3 of Table 92, which requires a combination of Cases 2 and 8 from Fig.
913.
For deflection Case 2:
( )
( )
( )
4
4
6
1000
1 24 12
12
=0.0533 in.
185
185 3.6 10 16136
w
EI
A = =
(down)
For deflection Case 8:
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
6
32.1 12000 24 12
= 0.0343 in.
16
16 3.6 10 16136
M
EI
A = =
(up)
Thus,
iD
0.0533 0.0343 0.019 in. A = =
(b) the immediate deadpluslive load deflection.
Unfactored dead plus liveload moments
Negative moment at left end =
( ) ( )
2
2 1
1 1.1 22.67 67.4 kipsft
16 16
n
w
= + =
Positive moment at midspan =
( ) ( )
2
2 1
1 1.1 22.67 77.1 kipsft
14 14
n
w
= + =
Negative moment at right end =
( ) ( )
2
2 1
1 1.1 22.67 107.9 kipsft
10 10
n
w
= + =
Compute the average effective moment of inertia
left end:
a cr
M M <
4
16136 in.
e g
I I = =
midspan:
a cr
M M >
3 3
4
45 45
16136 1 4312 6663 in.
77.1 77.1
e
I
(
   
= + = (
 
\ . \ .
(
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911
right end:
a cr
M M <
4
16136 in.
e g
I I = =
Thus, the weighted average value of
eff
I using Eq. (911a) is:
4
( )
0.70 6663 0.30 16136 9505 in.
e avg
I = + =
Immediate plus liveload deflection
Using the same procedure as in part (a),
for deflection Case 2:
( )
( )
( )
4
4
6
1000
2.1 24 12
12
=0.190 in.
185
185 3.6 10 9505
w
EI
A = =
(down)
for deflection Case 8:
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
6
67.4 12000 24 12
= 0.122 in.
16
16 3.6 10 9505
M
EI
A = =
(up)
Thus,
iD+L
0.190 0.122 0.068 in. A = =
(c) the deflection occurring after partitions are installed. Assume that the
partitions are installed two months after the shoring is removed and
assumed that 15 percent of the live load is sustained.
The deflection occurring after the partitions are installed can be calculated from Eq. (914):
( )
iL 0 iD iLS
, t
A = A + A + A
The immediate dead load deflection,
iD
A , was found from part (a) to be 0.019 in. However, after
the live load has been applied and the beam has cracked, the deflection due to dead load will be
increased by an amount equal to the ratio of the
e
I values used in part (a) and (b). Thus the
immediate dead load deflection on the structure which has been loaded to D+L will be calculated
and used in Eq. (914).
iD
16136
0.019 =0.032 in.
9505
A =
The immediate live load deflection,
iL
A , is found as:
iL i,L+D iD
0.068 in. 0.032 in. 0.036 in. A = A A = =
Fifteen percent of this results from sustained live loads, so:
Since the beam has no compression reinforcement at midspan, and with the partitions installed 2
months after removal of the shoring,
The deflection occurring after the partitions are installed is found as:
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101
Chapter 10
101 A fivespan oneway slab is supported on 12in.wide beam with centertocenter
spacing of 16 ft. The slab carries a superimposed dead load of 10 psf and a live load
of 60 psf. Using
and
Factored load:
Load per foot along design strip
3
L D
w w < , so we can use the ACI Moment coefficients for the calculation of the positive and the
negative moments.
Thickness for flexure
The maximum value for
u
M is at the first interior support since 15 ft.
n
= throughout. Using the
appropriate moment coefficient from ACI Code Section 8.3.3,
()
For a reinforcing ratio of 0.01 = , which is a reasonable upper limit for a slab, the reinforcing
index can be found from Eq. (521),
0.01 60000
0.15
4000
e
= =
From Eq. (522) calculate the flexural resistance factor, R.
( ) 0.15 4000 1 0.59 0.15 547 psi R = =
Using this value of R, the required value of
2
bd can be determined using Eq. (523a), assuming
that 0.9  = (will check it later).
For ,
Therefore, the minimum d to keep 0.01 < is Actual 6 in. d = will be less
than 0.01 (O.K. for flexure).
Thickness for shear
The max shear
u
V is at the exterior face of the first interior support. Using the appropriate shear
coefficient from ACI Code Section 8.3.3,
) ( ) OK
So, use a 7 in. slab.
Flexural reinforcement
Max 4.8 kipsft/ft
u
M =
Assuming that 0.95 and
2
s y
a
d d c c
 
~ >

\ .
, find the required reinforcement for a 1ft wide strip
of slab.
( )
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103
Iterate to find the depth of the compression stress block and recompute the value of the required
reinforcement:
Since the depth to the neutral axis, c, is less than3 8 of d , the section is tension controlled
( )
, 0.9
s y
c c  > = .
The minimum reinforcement required by ACI Code Section 10.5.4, is
2
,min
0.0018 0.0018 12 7 0.15 in. /ft
s
A bh = = =
The maximum spacing of the bars is, by ACI Code Section 7.6.5,
max
3 21 in.
18 in
h
s
=
=
`
)
Select No. 4 bars at 12 in.
Temperature and shrinkage steel as required by ACI Code Section 7.12.2,
2
,min
0.0018 0.15 in. /ft
s
A bh = = and
max
5 35 in.
18 in
h
s
=
=
`
)
So provide No. 4 bars at 16 in.
( )
2
2
0.2 in.
in.
12 0.15 in.
ft ft
16 in.
s
A
= =
The flexural reinforcement for the supports and the midspan for all the spans is calculated in the
following table.
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104
Calculation of reinforcement required in the slab.
1. ( ) ft.
n
15.0 15.0
2.
2
u n
w 47.9 47.9 47.9 47.9 47.9 47.9
3. Moment Coef. 1 24 1 14 1 10 1 11 1 16 1 11 1 16
4. ( ) kipsft/ft
u
M 2.0 3.4 4.8 4.4 3.0 4.4 3.0
5.
( )
2
reqd. in. /ft
s
A 0.08 0.13 0.19 0.12 0.17 0.12
6.
( )
2
,min
in. /ft
s
A 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
7. Reinforcement
#4 @
16 in.
#4 @
16 in.
#4 @
12 in.
#4 @
16 in.
#4 @
12 in.
#4 @
16 in.
8.
( )
2
provided in. /ft
s
A
0.15 0.15 0.2 0.15 0.2 0.15
Fig. S101.1 shows a crosssection of the slab showing the reinforcement. The bar cutoff points
were located using Fig. A5(c).
Fig. S101.1 Slab reinforcement detailing.
16
12
12
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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105
102 A fourspan oneway slab is supported on 12in.wide beams with centertocenter
spacing of 14, 16, 16, and 14 ft. The slab carries a superimposed dead load of 20 psf
and a live load of 100 psf. Design the slab, using
and
. Select bar cutoff points using Fig. A5 and draw a crosssection
showing the reinforcement.
slab design strip
Plan
Short span clear length:
12 in.
14 ft. 13 ft.
in.
12
ft
n
= =
Long span clear length:
12 in.
16 ft. 15 ft.
in.
12
ft
n
= =
Average clear span length for first interior support:
( )
,
13 ft. 15 ft.
14 ft.
2
n avg
+
= =
Estimate slab thickness
Assume partitions are not sensitive to deflections. Will require recheck if sensitivity is established
later.
Table A9:
End bay:
13 12
Min 6.50 in.
24 24
n
h
= = =
Interior bay:
15 12
Min 6.43 in.
28 28
n
h
= = =
Note that slab thickness is chosen on basis of deflection control, since flexure and shear probably
wont govern the design (will be checked later).
Try 6.5 in. h =
Assuming a cover of 0.75 in. and No. 4 bars as the slab reinforcement,
( )
0.5
6.5 0.75 5.5 in.
2
d = + =
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106
Compute factored loads
Considering a 1ft wide strip of slab:
Slab self weight:
6.5
150 81.25 psf
12
Ds
w = =
Superimposed dead load: 20 psf
Di
w =
Total dead load: 81.25 20 101.25 psf
D
w = + =
Live load:
Factored load:
Load per foot along design strip =
3
L D
w w <
,
so we can use the ACI Moment coefficients for the calculation of the positive and the
negative moments (ACI Code Section 8.3.3).
Thickness for flexure
The maximum moment will occur at either:
(1) exterior face of the first interior support, or
(2) face of the middle support
For negative moments at the face of an interior support, ACI Code Section 8.0 defines
n
as the
average of the clear spans of the two adjacent spans. Using the appropriate moment coefficient
from ACI Code Section 8.3.3,
()
()
For a reinforcing ratio of 0.01 = , which is a reasonable upper limit for a slab, the reinforcing
index can be found from Eq. (521),
0.01 60000
0.171
3500
e
= =
From Eq. (522) calculate the flexural resistance factor, R.
( ) 0.171 3500 1 0.59 0.171 538 psi R = =
Using this value of R, the required value of
2
bd can be determined using Eq. (523a), assuming
that 0.9  = (will check it later).
For ,
i.e., min d to keep 0.01 < is Actual 5.5 in. d = will be less than 0.01 (O.K. for
flexure).
Thickness for shear
The max shear
u
V will occur in one of the two locations discussed for the maximum moments.
Using the appropriate shear coefficient from ACI Code Section 8.3.3,
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107
( ) ( )
'
0.75 2 0.75 2 3500 12 5.5 5860 lbs/ft ok for shear
c c w
V f b d  = = =
Flexural reinforcement
Max

Assuming that 0.95 and
2
s y
a
d d c c
 
~ >

\ .
, find the required reinforcement for a 1ft wide strip
of slab.
( )
Iterate to find the depth of the compression stress block and recompute the value of the required
reinforcement:
Since the depth to the neutral axis, c, is less than3 8 of d , the section is tension controlled
( )
, 0.9
s y
c c  > = .
The minimum reinforcement required by ACI Code Section 10.5.4, is
2
,min
0.0018 0.0018 12 6.5 0.14 in. /ft
s
A bh = = =
The maximum spacing of the bars is, by ACI Code Section 7.6.5,
max
3 19.5 in.
18 in
h
s
=
=
`
)
Select No. 4 bars at 9 in.
Temperature and shrinkage steel as required by ACI Code Section 7.12.2,
2
,min
0.0018 0.14 in. /ft
s
A bh = = and
max
5 32.5 in.
18 in
h
s
=
=
`
)
So provide No. 4 bars at 16 in.
( )
2
2
0.2 in.
in.
12 0.15 in.
ft ft
16 in.
s
A
= =
The flexural reinforcement for the supports and the midspan for all the spans is calculated in the
following table.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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108
Calculation of reinforcement required in the slab.
1.
n
13.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 15.0 15.0
2. ( )
2
kipsft
u n
w 47.7 47.7 55.3 63.5 63.5 63.5
3. Moment Coef. 1 24 1 14 1 10 1 11 1 16 1 11 1 16
4. ( ) kipsft/ft
u
M 2.0 3.4 5.5 5.0 4.0 5.8 4.0
5.
( )
2
reqd. in. /ft
s
A 0.09 0.14 0.23 0.17 0.25 0.17
6.
( )
2
,min
in. /ft
s
A 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14
7. Reinforcement
#4 @
16 in.
#4 @
16 in.
#4 @
9 in.
#4 @
11 in.
#4 @
9 in.
#4 @
11 in.
8.
( )
2
provided in. /ft
s
A 0.15 0.15 0.27 0.18 0.27 0.18
Fig. S102.1 shows a crosssection of the slab showing the reinforcement. The bar cutoff points
were located using Fig. A5(c).
Fig. S102.1 Slab reinforcement detailing.
16
9
11
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
109
103 A three span continuous beam supports 6in.thick oneway slabs that span 20 ft
centertocenter of beams. The beams have clear spans, facetoface of 16in.square
columns, of 27, 30, and 27 ft. The floor supports ceiling, ductwork, and lighting
fixtures weighing a total of 8 psf, ceramic floor tile weighting 16 psf, partitions
equivalent to a uniform deal load of 20 psf, and a live load of 100 psf. Design the
beam, using
. Use
~ = =
For this reinforcement ratio, use Eq. (521), to find the reinforcing index,
0.0155 60
0.207
4.5
e
= =
From Eq. (522) calculate the flexural resistance factor, R.
( ) 0.207 4500 1 0.59 0.207 818 psi R = =
Using this value of R, the required value of
2
bd can be determined using Eq. (523a), assuming
that 0.9  = (will check it later).
2 3
333
12, 000 5430 in.
0.9 818
bd > =
Since columns are 16 in., try a 14 or 16 in. wide stem. Lets try 14 in. b =
Then,
5428
19.7 in. 21.5 in.
14
d d = = =
With one layer of steel at supports, 21.5 2.5 24 in. h ~ + = (O.K. for deflections).
So, try a 14in. wideby24in. beam.
(c) Check the shear capacity of the beam
Maximum shear is at the exterior face at support B,
,max
1.15 1.15 4.1 27
63.6 kips
2 2
u n
u
w
V
= = =
From ACI Code Section 11.2.1.1,
( )
'
1
2 2 1 4500 14 21.5 40.4 kips
1000
c c w
V f b d = = =
ACI Code Section 11.4.7.9 sets the maximum nominal
s
V is
( )
'
1
8 8 4500 14 21.5 162 kips
1000
s c w
V f b d = = =
Thus, ( ) 0.75 40.4 161 151 kips
n
V  = + = (O.K. for shear)
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1012
(d) Summary
Use : ( )
14 in.
24 in. 18 in. below slab
21.5 in.,assuming one layer of steel
b
h
d
=
=
=
3. Compute the dead load of the stem, and recompute the total load per foot.
Weight per foot of the stem below slab
18 14
0.15 0.26 kip/ft
144
= =
Corrected total factored load for 1
st
internal support moment: ( ) 3.6 1.2 0.26 3.9 kip/ft = + =
Since this is less that the 4.1 kip/ft used earlier to estimate the beam size, the section chosen will
be adequate.
Factored Total dead load:
( )
1
1.2 119 15 0.26 2.5 kips/ft
1000
D
w = + =
Factored total loads:
(a) Positive moment at span AB and negative moment at exterior support, A.
( )
1
2.5 1.6 77.7 15 4.4 kips/ft
1000
u
w = + =
(b) Negative moment at interior support, B.
( )
1
2.5 1.6 61.3 15 4.0 kips/ft
1000
u
w = + =
(c) Positive moment at span BC.
( )
1
2.5 1.6 75.0 15 4.3 kips/ft
1000
u
w = + =
4. Calculate the beam flange width for positivemoment regions
From ACI Code Section 8.12.2,
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
0.25 based on the shorter span for simplicity 0.25 27 12 in. 81 in.
2 8 6 14 2 8 6 110 in.
15 12 180 in.
n
e w
b b
  = =

s + = + =


=
\ .
Therefore, the effective flange width is 81 in. and shown in Fig. S103.1
Fig. S103.1 Beam crosssection
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1013
5. Can we use the ACI Code Moment Coefficients?
 Ratio of successive spans = 30 ft. / 27 ft. = 1.11<1.20 O.K. ;

Live load/ft 0.1 15
0.6 3.0 O.K.
Dead load/ft 2.5
= = < ;
 There are more than two spans;
 The loads are uniformly distributed.
Thus, we can use the ACI Code Moment Coefficients
6. Compute the beam moments
, ft.
n
27.0 27.0 28.5 30.0
, kip/ft.
u
w 4.4 4.4 4.0 4.3
2
, kipsft
u n
w 3210 3210 3250 3870
m
C
1
16
1
14
1 1
and
10 11
1
16
2
, kipsft
u m u n
M C w = 200 230 325 242
7. Design the flexural reinforcement
(a) Max negative moment (first interior support)
Max
_
,max
325 kipsft
u
M =
Because the beam acts as a rectangular beam with compression in the web, we can assume that
0.90
2
a
d d
 
~

\ .
.For and =0.9
s y
c c  > , the required reinforcement for that section is,
( )
2
12, 000 325 12, 000
3.73 in.
0.90 60, 000 0.90 21.5
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
~ = =
 

\ .
Iterate to find the depth of the compression stress block and recompute the value of the required
reinforcement:
'
3.73 60000
4.18
4.18 in., 5.07 in.
0.825
0.85 4500 14 0.85
s y
c
A f
a c
f b
= = = = =
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1014
Since the depth to the neutral axis, c, is less than 3 8 of d , clearly the section is tension
controlled
( )
, 0.9
s y
c c  > = , and
2
,
325 12, 000
3.72 in.
4.18
0.90 60, 000 21.5
2
s red
A
= =
 

\ .
The other negative moment sections have a lower design moment, so it will be conservative to
use the ratio of
s
u
A
M
obtained here to quickly determine the area of tension steel required at
those other locations. That ratio is
( )
2
2
3.72 in.
0.0114 in. /kipsft (eq. A)
325 kipsft
s
u
A
M
= =
(b) Max positive moment
Max
,max
242 kipsft
u
M
+
=
Because the beam acts as a Tshape beam with compression in the top flange, assume that the
compression zone is rectangular, i.e. 6 in.
f
a h < = , use 0.95
2
a
d d
 
~

\ .
.For and =0.9
s y
c c  > ,
the required reinforcement that section is,
( )
2
12, 000 242 12, 000
2.63 in.
0.90 60, 000 0.95 21.5
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d 
~ = =
 

\ .
Iterate to find the depth of the compression stress block and recompute the value of the required
reinforcement:
'
2.63 60000
0.51
0.51 in., 0.62 in.
0.825
0.85 4500 81 0.85
s y
c e
A f
a c
f b
= = = = =
The section is tension controlled
( )
, 0.9
s y
c c  > = , and doing one iteration for the negative
moment section results in
2
2.53 in.
s
A =
The other positive moment section has a lower design moment, so it will be conservative to use
the ratio of
s
u
A
M
obtained here to quickly determine the area of tension steel required at those
other locations. That ratio is
( )
2
2
2.53 in.
0.0104 in. /kipsft (eq. B)
242 kipsft
s
u
A
M
= =
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1015
(c) Calculate the minimum reinforcement
From ACI Code Section 10.5.1,
'
,min
3
200
and
c
w
s w
y y
f
b d
A b d
f f
= > .
For 4500 psi concrete,
'
3 201 psi
c
f = , thus
2
,min
3 4500
14 21.5=1.0 in.
60, 000
s
A =
(d) Calculate the area of steel and select the bars.
The remaining calculations are done in the following table.
, kipsft
u
M 200 230 325 242
s
A coef. Eq. A and B 0.0114 0.0104 0.0114 0.0104
2
( .)
,in.
s red
A 2.28 2.39 3.70 2.52
.min s s
A A > Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bars selected 4 No. 7 4 No. 7
2 No. 8 and
4 No. 7
3 No. 7 and
2 No.6
s
A provided,
2
in. 2.40 2.40 3.98 2.68
( )
min
14 in.
w
b b = >
Yes Yes
Note that in the negative moment regions some of the bars can be placed in the slab besides the
beam and it is not necessary to check whether they will fit into the web width.
8. Check the distribution of the reinforcement
(a) Positive moment region
From ACI Code Section 10.6.4, the maximum bar spacing is
40, 000 40, 000
15 2.5 12
c
s s
s c
f f
   
= s
 
\ . \ .
, where
2
40,000 psi and 1.5 in. cover 0.375 in. stirrups 1.875 in.
3
s y c
f f c = = = + =
Thus, 15 2.5 1.875 10.3 in. 12 in. s = = s
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1016
Bar spacing
( )
7
14 2 1.5 0.375
8
3.1 in. <10.3 in. OK.
3
(
+ +
= =
It was also clear that the bar spacing is smaller than 10.3 in., since there are four bars and
14 in.
w
b =
(b) Negative moment region
ACI Code Section 10.6.6 says part of the negative moment steel shall be distributed over a
width equal to the smaller of the effective flange width (81 in.) and 10 34.2 in.
n
= At the
interior supports, there are 6 top bars. Place the two No. 8 bars at the corners of the stirrups, two
No. 7 bars over the beam web, and the other two No. 7 bars in the slab. Within a width of 34.2
in. we must place six bars. These cannot be further apart than 10.3 in. (as calculated in part a).
We shall arbitrarily place two bars at 5 in. outside the web of the beam.
ACI Code Section 10.6.6 requires some longitudinal reinforcement in the slab outside this
band. We shall assume that the shrinkage and temperature steel in the slab will satisfy this
requirement.
9. Design the shear reinforcement
The shear force diagrams are calculated in the following table and shown at the bottom of the
table. The shear coefficients for the supports are from ACI Code Section 8.3.3 and the coefficient
fro the midspan of the beam is based on Eq. (626).
, ft
n
27 30
, kips/ft
u
w 4.4 4.3
, kips/ft
Lu
w 1.9 1.8
v
C at support and
midpsan
1.0 0.125 1.15 1.0 0.125 1.0
2
u n
w 59.4 59.4 64.5 64.5
Lu n
w 51.3 54
, kips
u
V 59.4 6.4 68.3 64.5 6.7 64.5
n u
V V  = 79.2 8.5 91.1 86.0 8.9 86.0
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1017
(a) Exterior end of beam AB
Because the beam is supported by a column, the critical section is located at d away from the face
of the support.
Equation for
u
V  : ( ) ( ) kips 5.24 ft 79.2
u
V x  = +
( )
21.5 in.
@ from A 5.24 79.2 69.8 kips
in.
12
ft
u
V d 
 

= + =

\ .
( )
1
2 1 4500 14 21.5 40.4 kips
1000
c
V = = , 20.2 kips
2
c
V
=
Because 69.8 kips
u
V

= exceeds 20.2 kips
2
c
V
= , stirrups are required.
Try No. 3 Grade 40 stirrups doubleleg stirrups with a 90
o
hook
( )
2
2 0.11 0.22 in.
v
A = =
 Max spacing:
'
4
u
c c w
V
V f b d

s and from ACI Code Section 11.4.5.1,
max
10.75 in.
10.75 in.
2
24 in.
d
s
 
=

s


\ .
 To satisfy the minimum stirrup requirement in ACI Code Section 11.4.6.3, the stirrup spacing
must be,
max
0.22 40, 000
12.6 in.
50 50 14
v yt
w
A f
s
b
s = =
Note that 0.75 4500 50.3 psi > 50 psi, so use 50 psi in ACI Code Eq. (1113) = .
Thus, use 10.5 in. as maximum stirrup spacing.
 The spacing required to support the shear force at the support is,
( ) 0.22 40 21.5
6.45 in.say 6 in. on centers
69.8 40.4
s
= =
We can change the stirrup spacing to 10.5 in. when
0.22 40 21.5
40.4 58.4 kips
10.5
u
V
= + =
This occurs at about 4 ft from face of support A.
We can stop the stirrups when 11.3 ft
2
u c
V V
x
Change the stirrup spacing to 10.5 in. when 58.4 kips
u
V
= .
This occurs at 5.3 ft from face of support B.
We can stop the stirrups at 11.6 ft from face of support B.
Place the first stirrup at 2 in. from support B, then 15 stirrups at 4.5 in. and 9 stirrups at 10.5 in.
(c) Ends of beam BC
Equation for
u
V  : ( ) ( ) kips 5.14 ft 86.0
u
V x  = +
( )
21.5 in.
@ from C 5.14 86 76.8 kips > ,stirrups required
in.
2
12
ft
c
u
V
V d 
 

= + =

\ .
The spacing required to at this point is,
( ) 0.22 40 21.5
5.2 in.say 5.0 in. on centers
76.8 40.4
s
= =
Change the stirrup spacing to 10.5 in. when 58.4 kips
u
V
= .
This occurs at 5.4 ft from face of support.
We can stop the stirrups at 12.8 ft from face of support.
Place the first stirrup at 2.5 in. from support B, then 14 stirrups at 4.5 in. and 9 stirrups at 10.5 in.
10. Bar cutoffs
(a) Detailing requirements:
21.5 in.
12 12 in. for No. 8 bar
20.25 in. for 27 ft span, 22.5 in. for 30 ft span
16
b
n
d
d
=
=
=
Thus, d exceeds 12 and
16
n
b
d for AB span, while
16
n
governs for span BC.
The bottom and top bars have clear spacing and cover of at least
b
d and are enclosed by at least
minimum stirrups. Therefore, this is Case 1 in Table 81 (ACI Code Section 12.2.2).
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1019
'
33.5 in. for No. 6
60, 000 1.0 1.0
44.7 39.1 in. for No. 7
20 1 4500
20
44.7 in. for No. 8
y t e
b
d b b
c
f
d
d d
f
= = =
`
)
(b) Cutoffs for bottom steel
Span AB
4 No. 7Extend 2 full length into each support, cut off the other two at the positive moment point
of inflection so that extra stirrups are not required.
Exterior end: From Fig. A2, inflection point at ( ) 0.10 27 12 32.4 in. = from face of column.
Rule 3a  Extend 21.5 in. d = past the flexural cutoff point, i.e. 32.4 in.21.5 in = 10.9 in. from
face of column at A. Say 10 in.
Rule 4a  Distance from midspan to cutoff point greater than
d
.
Rule 1b  This is an interior beam with open stirrups. Since this is a discontinuous end use 90
deg. standard hooks on 2 No. 7 bars.
Rule 4d At the inflection point, the remaining steel is two No. 7,
2
1.2 in.
s
A = Thus,
1.2 60
1.57 in.
0.85 4.5 12
a
= =
1.57
1.2 60 21.5 =1490 kipin=124 kipft
2
n
M
 
=

\ .
The shear at 32.4 in. from the exterior end is,
32.4
5.24 79.2 65 kips
12
u
V
 
= + =

\ .
21.5 in.
a
=
Thus,
1490
21.5 44.4 in.
65
n
a
u
M
V
+ = + =
This exceeds
d
 therefore, OK.
Interior end: From Fig. A2, inflection point at ( ) 0.104 27 12 33.7 in. = from face of column
Rule 3a  Extend bars to 33.7 in. 21.5 in. = 12.2 in. from face of column. Use 10 in. to match
other end.
Rule 4a  Satisfied
Rule 1b  This is an interior beam with open stirrups. Rule 1b applies. Lap splice 2#7 bars from
the exterior span with 2 No. 7 bars from the interior span with a Class A tension lap splice
1.0 39.1 in. 3 ft  2 in. = =
Rule 4d
1490 kipin=124 kipft
n
M =
The shear at 33.7 in. from the exterior end is,
33.7
6.12 91.1 73.9 kips
12
u
V
 
= + =

\ .
21.5 in.
a
=
Thus,
1490
21.5 41.7 in.
73.9
n
a
u
M
V
+ = + =
This exceeds
d
 therefore, OK.
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1020
Span BC
2 No. 8 and 3 No. 7 at midspan Extend 2 No. 7 into supports. Cutoff 2 No. 8 and 1 No. 7 bars at
the positive moment point of inflection so that extra stirrups are not required. Inflection point at
( ) 0.146 30 12 52.6 in. = from face of column
Rule 3a  Extend 22.5 in.
16
n
= past the flexural cutoff point, i.e. 52.6 in.22.5 in. = 30.1 in.
from face of column. Say 30 in.
Rule 4a  Satisfied.
Rule 1b Lap splice 2#7 bars 3 ft  2 in at support
Rule 4d
2650 kipin=221 kipft
n
M =
The shear at 52.6 in. from the exterior end is,
52.6
5.14 86 63.5 kips
12
u
V
 
= + =

\ .
21.5 in.
a
=
Thus,
2650
21.5 63.3 in.
63.5
n
a
u
M
V
+ = + =
This exceeds
d
 therefore, OK.
Cutoffs for top steel
Span AB, exterior end, 4 No. 7
Use standard hook, ( )
0.02 1.0 60, 000
0.75 13.4 in.
1.0 4500
dh
= =
Set tail cover = 2 in., then 0.7 13.4 9.4 in.
dh
= = . This is OK in a 16 in. column.
Negative moment point of inflection at ( ) 0.164 27 12 53.1 in. =
Rule 3b  Extend d to 53.1+21.5 = 74.6 in. Cutoff at 75 in. = 6 ft3 in. from face of column.
Rule 4b  Since 75 in. > 39.1 in. Rule 2 is satisfied.
Span AB, interior end, 2 No. 8 and 4 No. 7 bars
Point of inflection at ( ) 0.24 27 12 77.8 in. =
Rule 3b  Extend d to 77.8+21.5 = 99.3 in. Say 8 ft.4 in. from face of column
Rule 4b Since 100 in. > 44.7 in. Rule 2 is satisfied.
Span BC, 2 No. 8 and 4 No. 7 bars
Negative moment point of inflection at ( ) 0.24 30 12 86.4 in. =
Rule 3b Extend to 108.9 in. Say 9 ft 1 in, from face of column
Rule 4b OK
Since all cutoffs are past points of inflection, they are not in zones of flexural tension, therefore
extra stirrups are not needed.
Provide 2 No. 4 top bars as stirrup support, lab splice with negative moment steel.
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1021
Fig. S103.2 Beam reinforcing detailing.
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1022
104 Repeat Problem 103, but cut off up to 50 percent of the negative and positive
moment bars in each span where they are no longer required.
Bat cutoff for positive moment steel in AB span
Flexural reinforcement: 4#7 bars
Extend two bars full length and into each support, cutoff the other two where they no longer
required ( ) 50% of
u
M .
From Fig. A2, flexural cutoff point is at ( ) 0.21 0.21 27 12 68 in.
n
= = from exterior end
(support A), and ( ) 0.22 0.22 27 12 71 in.
n
= = from interior end (support B).
Rule 3a: Extend 21.5 in. d = past the flexural cutoff point
68 in. 21.5 in. 46.5 in. = from exterior end
71 in. 21.5 in. 49.5 in. = from interior end
Rule 4a: Distance between midspan to cutoff point =
46.5 115.5
13.5 12 in. in. in.
49.5 112.5
= =
` `
) )
d
for #7 bar
115.5
39.1 in. in.
112.5
= <
`
)
Bar cutoff for negative moment steel
Flexural reinforcement: 2#8 and 4#7 bars
AB span, interior end
From Fig. A2, flexural cutoff point is at ( ) 0.104 0.104 27 12 34 in.
n
= =
Rule 3b: Extend 21.5 in. d = past the flexural cutoff point
34 in.+ 21.5 in. 55.5 in. =
Rule 4b:
d
for #7 top bar 39.1 in.< 55.5 in. =
Therefore, use 55.5 in. for cutoff point.
BC span
From Fig. A1, flexural cutoff point is at ( ) 0.1 0.1 30 12 36 in.
n
= =
Rule 3b: Extend 22.5 in. d = past the flexural cutoff point
36 in.+ 22.5 in. 58.5 in. =
Rule 4b:
d
for #7 top bar 39.1 in.< 58.5 in. =
Therefore, use 58.5 in. for cutoff point.
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111
Chapter 11
111 The column shown in Fig. P111 is made of 4000 psi concrete and Grade60 steel.
a) Compute the theoretical capacity of the column for pure axial load.
First compute the gross area of the section, and the area of steel in the column.
2
18 in 18 in 324 in
g
A = =
2 2
6 6 1.0 in 6 in
st b
A A = = =
Now we can compute the theoretical capacity of the column.
( ) ( )
2 2 2
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 324 in 6 in 60 ksi 6 in 1440 k
o c g st y st
P f A A f A = + = + =
b) Compute the maximum permissible
n
P  for the column.
,max
0.80 0.80 0.65 1440 k 749 k
n o
P P   = = =
Note that the factors 0.80 and 0.65 would change to 0.85 and 0.75 for spiral columns.
112 Why does a spiral improve the behavior of a column?
As any column is loaded, and thus shortened, the concrete will expand laterally. When this
expansion occurs, transverse reinforcement is engaged and will tend to react against any further
expansion of the concrete within the core. This results in a state of triaxial compression within the
core of the column, which significantly improves both strength and ductility.
The circular spiral is much more effective than tied reinforcement at confining this
expansion for two reasons. First, spirals are often spaced more closely together than tied stirrups,
so the confinement is more uniformly applied to the core. Second, the confinement stresses are
transformed directly into hoop stresses in the spiral, which is a much more efficient mechanism for
reacting to the cores expansion than the straight legs of tied stirrups can provide (see section 112).
113 Why are tension splices required in some columns?
Even when columns are subjected to axial loads, reinforcing bars can still often be stressed
in tension when moments are concurrently applied to the section. When this is the case, tension
splices (either Class A or Class B) are required for those bars expected to be resisting tension.
However, since it is most practical from a construction standpoint to use the same length of lap
splices on all bars within a section, all splices should be specified as tension splices when some of
the bars are expected to be in tension.
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112
114 Compute the balanced axial load and moment capacity of the column shown in
Fig. P111. Use
and
.
Assume bending around an axis parallel to the two layers of steel. To calculate the
balanced point of the interaction diagram, set the extreme compression fiber strain to 0.003
c
c = and
the extreme steel tensile strain to / 60 ksi / 29,000 ksi 0.00207
y y
f E c = = = .
Begin by calculating the depth of the compression zone:
c
c y
c d
c
c c
=
( )
0.003 1.128 in
18 in 1.5 in 0.375 in
0.003 0.00207 2
c
 
=

\ .
9.21 in c =
1
0.85 9.21 in 7.83 in a c  = = =
Now calculate the strain and stress in each layer of steel:
1
0.00207
s
c =
1
60 ksi
s
f =
Fig. S113
( )
2
9.21 in 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2
'
0.003 0.00221
9.21 in
s c
c d
c
c c
+ +
= = =
2
2
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00221 64.1 ksi
s
s
f
Ec
=
= =
Calculate the force in the concrete and in each layer of steel:
0.85 ' 0.85 4 ksi 7.83 in 18 in 479 k
c c
C f ab = = =
2
1 1 1
3 in 60 ksi 180 k
s s s
F A f = = =
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
0.85 ' 3 in 60 ksi 0.85 4 ksi 170 k
s s s c
F A f f = = =
Now we can calculate the nominal axial load and moment at the balanced point:
2 1
479 k 170 k 180 k 469 k
n c s s
P C F F = + + = + =
1 2
'
2 2 2 2
n c s s
h a h h
M C F d F d
     
= + +
  
\ . \ . \ .
18 in 7.83 in 18 in 18 in
479 k 180 k 15.56 in 170 k 2.44 in
2 2 2 2
n
M
     
= +
  
\ . \ . \ .
4730 kin 394 kft
n
M = =
And, since
1 s y
c c = , the section is compression controlled, and 0.65  = .
0.65 469 k 305 k
n
P  = =
0.65 394 kft 256 kft
n
M  = =
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113
115 For the column shown in Fig. P115, use a straincompatibility solution to compute
five points on the interaction diagram corresponding to points 1 to 5 in Fig. 1122.
Plot the interaction diagram. Use
and
.
Begin by calculating the depth and area of each layer of steel, and other constants.
1
18 in 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2 15.56 in d = =
2 2
1
3 3 1.0 in 3.0 in
b
A A = = =
2
/ 2 18 in / 2 9.0 in d h = = =
2 2
2
2 2 1.0 in 2.0 in
b
A A = = =
3
1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2 2.44 in d = + + =
2 2
3
3 3 1.0 in 3.0 in
b
A A = = =
2
18 in 18 in 324 in
g
A hb = = =
2 2
8 8 1.0 in 8.0 in
st b
A A = = =
1
0.80  =
Point 1: Pure Axial Load:
2 2 2
0.85 ' ( ) 0.85 5 ksi (324 in 8 in ) 60 ksi 8 in 1830 k
o c g st y st
P f A A f A = + = + =
Note that this 0.85 is k
3
, not
1
.
Since the column is compression controlled, 0.65  = .
0.65 1830 k 1190 k
n
P  = =
,max
0.80 0.65 1830 k 949 k
n
P  = =
0.65 0 kft 0 kft
n
M  = =
Point 2: Zero tension on one face:
Begin by calculating the depth of the compression zone:
18 in c h = =
1
0.80 18 in 14.4 in a c  = = =
Now calculate the strain and stress in each layer of steel:
1
1
18 in 15.56 in
0.003 0.00041
18 in
s c
c d
c
c c
= = =
1
1
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00041 11.9 ksi
s
s
f
Ec
=
= =
2
2
18 in 9 in
0.003 0.00150
18 in
s c
c d
c
c c
= = =
2
2
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00150 43.5 ksi
s
s
f
Ec
=
= =
3
3
18 in 2.44 in
0.003 0.00259
18 in
s c
c d
c
c c
= = =
3
3
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00259 75.1 ksi
s
s
f
Ec
=
= =
Calculate the force in the concrete and in each layer of steel:
0.85 ' 0.85 5 ksi 14.4 in 18 in 1100 k
c c
C f ab = = =
( ) ( )
2
1 1 1
0.85 ' 3 in 11.9 ksi 0.85 5 ksi 23.0 k
s s s c
F A f f = = =
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114
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
0.85 ' 2 in 43.5 ksi 0.85 5 ksi 78.5 k
s s s c
F A f f = = =
and, since
3
d a > ,
2
3 3 3
3 in 60 ksi 180 k
s s s
F A f = = =
Now we can calculate the nominal axial load and moment:
1 2 3
1100 k 23.0 k 78.5 k 180 k 1380 k
n c s s s
P C F F F = + + + = + + + =
1 1 2 2 1 3
2 2 2 2 2
n c s s s
h a h h h
M C F d F d F d
       
= + + +
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
( ) ( ) ( )
14.4 in
1100 k 9 in 23.0 k 9 in 15.56 in 78.5 k 9 in 9 in 180 k 9 in 2.44 in
2
n
M
 
= + + +

\ .
3010 kin 251 kft
n
M = =
And, since
1 s
c is in compression, the section is compression controlled, and 0.65  = .
0.65 1380 k 897 k
n
P  = =
0.65 251 kft 163 kft
n
M  = =
Point 3: Balanced Point:
Begin by calculating the depth of the compression zone:
( )
1
0.003
15.56 in 9.21 in
0.003 0.00207
c
c y
c d
c
c c
= = =
1
0.80 9.21 in 7.37 in a c  = = =
Now calculate the strain and stress in each layer of steel:
1
1
9.21 in 15.56 in
0.003 0.00207
9.21 in
s c
c d
c
c c
= = =
1
1
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00207 60 ksi
s
s
f
Ec
=
= =
2
2
9.21 in 9 in
0.003 0.00007
9.21 in
s c
c d
c
c c
= = =
2
2
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00007 1.98 ksi
s
s
f
Ec
=
= =
3
3
9.21 in 2.44 in
0.003 0.00221
9.21 in
s c
c d
c
c c
= = =
3
3
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00221 64.1 ksi
s
s
f
Ec
=
= =
Calculate the force in the concrete and in each layer of steel:
0.85 ' 0.85 5 ksi 7.37 in 18 in 564 k
c c
C f ab = = =
2
1 1 1
3 in 60 ksi 180 k
s s s
F A f = = =
and, since
2
d a > ,
2
2 2 2
2 in 1.98 ksi 3.96 k
s s s
F A f = = =
( ) ( )
2
3 3 3
0.85 ' 3 in 60 ksi 0.85 5 ksi 167 k
s s s c
F A f f = = =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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115
Now we can calculate the nominal axial load and moment at the balanced point.
1 2 3
564 k 180 k 3.96 k 167 k 555 k
n c s s s
P C F F F = + + + = + + =
1 1 2 2 1 3
2 2 2 2 2
n c s s s
h a h h h
M C F d F d F d
       
= + + +
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
( ) ( ) ( )
7.37 in
564 k 9 in 180 k 9 in 15.56 in 3.96 k 9 in 9 in 167 k 9 in 2.44 in
2
n
M
 
= + +

\ .
5280 kin 440 kft
n
M = =
And, since
1 s y
c c = , the section is compression controlled, and 0.65  = .
0.65 546 k 355 k
n
P  = =
0.65 440 kft 286 kft
n
M  = =
Point 4: Tension control limit
Begin by calculating the depth of the compression zone:
( )
1
1
0.003
15.56 in 5.84 in
0.003 0.005
c
c s
c d
c
c c
= = =
1
0.80 5.84 in 4.67 in a c  = = =
Now calculate the strain and stress in each layer of steel:
1
1
5.84 in 15.56 in
0.003 0.00500
5.84 in
s c
c d
c
c c
= = =
1
1
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00500 145 ksi
s
s
f
Ec
=
= =
2
2
5.84 in 9 in
0.003 0.00162
5.84 in
s c
c d
c
c c
= = =
2
2
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00162 47.1 ksi
s
s
f
Ec
=
= =
3
3
5.84 in 2.44 in
0.003 0.00175
5.84 in
s c
c d
c
c c
= = =
2
2
60 ksi
smaller of
29, 000 ksi 0.00175 50.8 ksi
s
s
f
Ec
=
= =
Calculate the force in the concrete and in each layer of steel:
0.85 ' 0.85 5 ksi 4.67 in 18 in 357 k
c c
C f ab = = =
2
1 1 1
3 in 60 ksi 180 k
s s s
F A f = = =
2
2 2 2
2 in 47.1 ksi 94.2 k
s s s
F A f = = =
( ) ( )
2
3 3 3
0.85 ' 3 in 50.8 ksi 0.85 5 ksi 140 k
s s s c
F A f f = = =
Now we can calculate the nominal axial load and moment at the balanced point.
1 2 3
357 k 180 k 94.2 k 140 k 223 k
n c s s s
P C F F F = + + + = + =
1 1 2 2 1 3
2 2 2 2 2
n c s s s
h a h h h
M C F d F d F d
       
= + + +
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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116
( ) ( ) ( )
4.67 in
357 k 9 in 180 k 9 in 15.56 in 94.2 k 9 in 9 in 140 k 9 in 2.44 in
2
n
M
 
= +

\ .
4480 kin 373 kft
n
M = =
And, since
1
0.005
s
c = , the section is tension controlled, and 0.9  = .
0.9 223 k 201 k
n
P  = =
0.9 373 kft 336 kft
n
M  = =
Point 5: Pure Tension
2
8in 60 ksi 480 k
n st y
P A f = = =
0 kft
n
M =
And, since the section is in pure tension, it is tension controlled, and 0.9  = .
0.9 480 k 432 k
n
P  = =
0.9 0 kft 0 kft
n
M  = =
Fig. S114
500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
0 100 200 300 400 500
A
x
i
a
l
L
o
a
d
(
k
i
p
)
Moment (kft)
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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117
116 Use the interaction diagrams in Appendix A to compute the maximum moment, M
u
,
that can be supported by the column shown in Fig. P111 if (Use
and
):
(a) P
u
= 583 kips.
Calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams:
2
6 1.0 in
0.0185
18 in 18 in
st
g
g
A
A
= = =
( ) ( ) 18 in 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2
'
0.729
18 in
d d
h
+ +
= = =
583 k
1.80 ksi
18 in 18 in
n u
P P
bh bh

= = =
Now go to the interaction diagrams:
From Fig. A7a:
2
0.46 ksi
n
M
bh

= for 0.60 =
From Fig. A7b:
2
0.50 ksi
n
M
bh

= for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.729 = ,
2
0.49 ksi
n
M
bh

=
Finally, we can compute the maximum moment carried by this section:
( )
2
2
0.49 0.49 18 in 18 in 2860 kin 238 kft
u n
M M bh  = = = = =
(b) P
u
= 130 kips.
Calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams:
2
6 1.0 in
0.0185
18 in 18 in
st
g
g
A
A
= = =
( ) ( ) 18 in 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2
'
0.729
18 in
d d
h
+ +
= = =
130 k
0.40 ksi
18 in 18 in
n u
P P
bh bh

= = =
Now go to the interaction diagrams:
From Fig. A7a:
2
0.48 ksi
n
M
bh

= for 0.60 =
From Fig. A7b:
2
0.55 ksi
n
M
bh

= for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.729 = ,
2
0.54 ksi
n
M
bh

=
Finally, we can compute the maximum moment carried by this section:
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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118
( )
2
2
0.54 0.54 18 in 18 in 3150 kin 262 kft
u n
M M bh  = = = = =
(c) e= 4 in.
Calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams:
2
6 1.0 in
0.0185
18 in 18 in
st
g
g
A
A
= = =
( ) ( ) 18 in 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 1.128 in / 2
'
0.729
18 in
d d
h
+ +
= = =
4 in
0.222
18 in
e
h
= =
Now go to the interaction diagrams:
From Fig. A7a:
2
0.42 ksi
n
M
bh

= for 0.60 =
From Fig. A7b:
2
0.44 ksi
n
M
bh

= for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.729 = ,
2
0.44 ksi
n
M
bh

=
Finally, we can compute the maximum moment carried by this section:
( )
2
2
0.44 0.44 18 in 18 in 2570 kin 214 kft
u n
M M bh  = = = = =
117 Use the interaction diagrams in Appendix A to select tiedcolumn cross sections to
support the loads given in the accompanying list. In each case, use
and
. Design the ties and calculate the required splice lengths, assuming
that the bars extending up from the column below are the same diameter as in the
column you have designed. Draw a typical cross section of the column showing the
bars and ties.
(a) P
u
= 390 kips, M
u
= 220 kft, square column with bars in two faces.
First estimate the size of the section required. For the first iteration, assume 0.02
g
= .
( )
( )
2
,
390 k
188 in 13.7 in 13.7 in
0.40 4 ksi 60 ksi 0.02 0.40 '
u
g trial
c y g
P
A
f f
> = = =
+ +
So try a 14 in square column, assuming #3 stirrups and #8 bars.
Then calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select
an appropriate reinforcement ratio:
( ) 14 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.66
14 in
+ +
= =
390 k
1.99 ksi
14 in 14 in
n u
P P
bh bh

= = =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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119
( )
2 2 2
220 kft 12 in/ft
0.962 ksi
14 in 14 in
n u
M M
bh bh

= = =
From Figs. A6a and A6b, the section would require
, so a larger section is
required.
Therefore, we will try a square column with 18 in sides. Recalculate the parameters required to
use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select an appropriate reinforcement ratio:
( ) 18 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.736
18 in
+ +
= =
390 k
1.20 ksi
18 in 18 in
n u
P P
bh bh

= = =
( )
2 2 2
220 kft 12 in/ft
0.453 ksi
18 in 18 in
n u
M M
bh bh

= = =
From Fig. A6a: 0.021
g
= for 0.60 =
From Fig. A6b: 0.016
g
= for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.736 = , 0.017
g
=
Finally, we can compute the area of steel required to reinforce this section:
2
,
0.017 0.017 18 in 18 in 5.51 in
s required
A bh = = =
Now select the bars:
2
8#8 bars 6.32 in = fits in an 18 in section
2
10#7 bars 6.00 in = fits in an 18 in section
2
14#6 bars 6.16 in = fits in an 18 in section
Select #7 bars, placing 5 along the top and bottom faces.
As indicated on the interaction diagrams, 0.5
s y
f f > in the extreme tensile layer of steel. Therefore,
Class B tension splices are required. From Table A13, the splice length must be 54 in.
As transverse reinforcement we are permitted to use #3 bars since the longitudinal bars are not
larger than #10s. Now select the vertical spacing of the ties:
16 16 0.875 in 14 in
48 48 0.375 in 18 in
min( , ) min(18 in,18 in) 18 in
b
bt
d
s d
b h
= =
s = =
= =
Select #3 stirrups spaced at 14 in o.c.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
1110
Fig. S117a
(b) P
u
= 710 kips, M
u
= 50 kft, square column with bars in four faces.
First estimate the size of the section required. For the first iteration, set 0.02
g
= :
( )
( )
2
,
710 k
341 in 18.5 in 18.5 in
0.40 4 ksi 60 ksi 0.02 0.40 '
u
g trial
c y g
P
A
f f
> = = =
+ +
So try a 20 in square column, assuming #3 stirrups and #8 bars.
Then calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select
an appropriate reinforcement ratio:
( ) 20 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.76
20 in
+ +
= =
710 k
1.78 ksi
20 in 20 in
n u
P P
bh bh

= = =
( )
2 2 2
50 kft 12 in/ft
0.075 ksi
20 in 20 in
n u
M M
bh bh

= = =
From Figs. A9a and A9b, the section would require 0.01
g
, so a smaller section
would be desirable. Try a square column with 18 in sides.
Recalculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select
an appropriate reinforcement ratio:
( ) 18 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.736
18 in
+ +
= =
710
2.19 ksi
18 in 18 in
n u
P P k
bh bh

= = =
( )
2 2 2
50 kft 12 in/ft
0.103 ksi
18 in 18 in
n u
M M
bh bh

= = =
From Fig. A9a: 0.016
g
= for 0.60 =
From Fig. A9b: 0.015
g
= for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.736 = , 0.015
g
=
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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1111
Finally, we can compute the area of steel required to reinforce this section:
2
,
0.015 0.015 18 in 18 in 4.86 in
s required
A bh = = =
Now select the bars:
2
12#6 bars 5.28 in = fits in an 18 in. section
Select #6 bars, placing 4 along each face.
From the interaction diagrams, the extreme tensile layer of steel is under compression. Therefore,
from Table A13, a splice of length 0.83 23 in 19.1 in 20 in = ~ is required.
As transverse reinforcement, we have selected #3 bars since the longitudinal bars are not larger
than #10 bars. Now select the vertical spacing of the ties:
16 16 0.75 in 12 in
48 48 0.375 in 18 in
min( , ) min(18 in,18 in) 18 in
b
bt
d
s d
b h
= =
s = =
= =
Select #3 stirrups spaced at 12 in o.c.
Fig. S117b
(c) P
u
= 200 kips, M
u
= 240 kft, square column with bars in four faces.
First estimate the size of the section required. For the first iteration, set 0.02
g
= :
( )
However, since the moment is relatively high, try a 16 in square column, assuming #3
stirrups and #8 bars.
Then calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select
an appropriate reinforcement ratio:
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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1112
( ) 16 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.70
16 in
+ +
= =
( )
2 2 2
240 kft 12 in/ft
0.70 ksi
16 in 16 in
n u
M M
bh bh

= = =
From Figs. A9a and A9b, the section would require a very high
, so a larger section is
required. Try a square column with 18 in sides.
Recalculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select
an appropriate reinforcement ratio:
( ) 18 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.736
18 in
+ +
= =
( )
2 2 2
240 kft 12 in/ft
0.49 ksi
18 in 18 in
n u
M M
bh bh

= = =
From A9a:
for 0.60 =
From A9b:
for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.736 = ,
Finally, we can compute the area of steel required to reinforce this section:
Now select the bars:
2
8#8 bars 6.32 in = fits in an 18 in section
Select #8 bars, placing 3 along the each face.
From the interaction diagrams, 0.5
s y
f f > in the extreme tensile layer of steel. Therefore, Class B
tension splices are required. From Table A13, the splice length must be 62 in.
As transverse reinforcement, we have selected #3 bars since the longitudinal bars are not larger
than #10 bars. Now select the vertical spacing of the ties:
16 16 1.00 in 16 in
48 48 0.375 in 18 in
min( , ) min(18 in,18 in) 18 in
b
bt
d
s d
b h
= =
s = =
= =
So we must use #3 stirrups spaced at 16 in o.c.
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1113
Fig. S117c
118 Use the interaction diagrams in Appendix A to select spiralcolumn cross sections to
support the loads given in the accompanying list. In each case, use
and
. Design the spirals and calculate the required splice lengths. Draw a
typical cross section of the column showing the bars and spiral.
(a) P
u
= 600 kips, M
u
= 65 kft.
First estimate the size of the section required. For the first iteration, set 0.02
g
= .
( )
( )
2
,
600 k
194 in 15.7 in dia.
0.50 5 ksi 60 ksi 0.02 0.50 '
u
g trial
c y g
P
A
f f
> = = =
+ +
Try a 16 in diameter column, assuming #3 spiral and #8 bars.
Then calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select
an appropriate reinforcement ratio:
( ) 16 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.703
16 in
+ +
= =
2
600 k
2.99 ksi
201 in
n u
g g
P P
A A

= = =
2
65 kft 12 in/ft
0.243 ksi
16 in 201 in
n u
g g
M M
hA hA

= = =
From Fig. A13a: 0.015
g
= for 0.60 =
From Fig. A13b: 0.012
g
= for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.703 = , 0.013
g
=
Finally, we can compute the area of steel required to reinforce this section:
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1114
( )
2
2
2
,
16 in
0.013 0.013 2.61 in
4 4
s required
d
A t t = = =
Now select the bars:
2
6#6 bars 2.64 in =
Select #6 bars, spaced evenly around the column.
From the interaction diagrams, the extreme tensile layer of steel is under compression. Therefore,
from Table A13, a splice of length 0.75 23 in 17.3 in 18 in = ~ is required.
As transverse reinforcement, we have selected a #3 spiral since the longitudinal bars are not larger
than #10 bars. Now select the pitch of the spiral:
( )
2
2
2 2
3 in
0.375 in 60 ksi
1.81 in
0.45 ' / 1 0.45 13 in 5 ksi 201 in / 134 in 1
sp yt
c c g ch
d f s
D f A A
t t
s
= =
( (
Use a 16 in diameter column reinforced with 6 #6 bars. Use 18 in lap splices, and #3
spirals with a pitch of 1.75 in as transverse reinforcement.
(b) P
u
= 200 kips, M
u
= 150 kft.
First estimate the size of the section required. For the first iteration, set 0.02
g
= :
( )
Since there is also a moment applied, try an 18 in diameter column, assuming #3 spiral and
#8 bars.
Then calculate the parameters required to use the interaction diagrams, and reference them to select
an appropriate reinforcement ratio:
( ) 18 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.5 in
0.736
18 in
+ +
= =
2
200
0.79 ksi
18
2
n u
g g
P P
A A

t
= = =
 

\ .
2
150 kft 12 in/ft
0.394 ksi
18 in 254 in
n u
g g
M M
hA hA

= = =
From Fig. A13a: 0.016
g
= for 0.60 =
From Fig. A13b: 0.012
g
= for 0.75 =
By interpolation for 0.74 = , 0.012
g
=
Finally, we can compute the area of steel required to reinforce this section:
( )
2
2
2
,
18 in
0.012 0.012 3.05 in
4 4
s required
d
A t t = = =
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1115
Now select the bars:
2
8#6 bars 3.52 in =
2
6#7 bars 3.6 in =
Select #6 bars, spaced evenly around the column.
From the interaction diagrams, the extreme tensile layer of steel is in tension, but only requires a
Class A splice as long as not all of the bars are spliced at the same location. Since, in reality, it is
likely that all bars will be spliced in the same plane, specify a Class B splice regardless. Therefore,
from Table A13, a splice of length33 in is required.
As transverse reinforcement, we have selected a #3 spiral since the longitudinal bars are not larger
than #10 bars. Now select the pitch of the spiral:
( )
2
2
2 2
3 in
0.375 in 60 ksi
1.81 in
0.45 ' / 1 0.45 15 in 5 ksi 254 in / 177 in 1
sp yt
c c g ch
d f s
D f A A
t t
s
= =
( (
Use an 18 in diameter column reinforced with 8 #6 bars. Use 33 in lap splices, and #3 spirals with
a pitch of 1.75 in as transverse reinforcement.
119 Design a cross section and reinforcement to supports P
u
= 450 kips, M
ux
= 100 kft,
and M
uy
= 130 kft. Use
and
.
Although the strain compatibility method (shown in example 115) is the most
theoretically correct method for designing columns for biaxial loading, it is seldom used in design.
Here we will use two more common methods for designing a column, the equivalent eccentricity
method and the Bresler reciprocal load method. Any method outlined in section 117 is
appropriate for the solution to this problem.
Equivalent eccentricity method:
First select the dimensions of the trial section, assuming 0.015 = :
( )
( )
2
,
450 k
230 in 15.2 in by 15.2 in
0.40 4 ksi 60 ksi 0.015 0.40 '
u
g trial
c y g
P
A
f f
> = = =
+ +
Since biaxial moments are also applied to the section, select an 18 in square section.
Assuming
#
3 ties and
#
9 bars:
( ) 18 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.56 in
0.73
18 in
+ +
= =
Now compute e
x
, e
y
, and e
ox
.
130 kft 12 in/ft
3.47 in
450 k
uy
x
u
M
e
P
= = =
100 kft 12 in/ft
2.67 in
450 k
ux
y
u
M
e
P
= = =
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1116
Since our trial section is square,
y
x
x y
e
e
>
( )
2
450 k
0.347 0.4
'
4 ksi 18 in
u
c g
P
f A
= = <
40, 000 psi
0.5
' 100, 000 psi
y
u
c g
f
P
f A
o
  +  
= + 


\ .
\ .
( )
2
450 k 60, 000 psi 40, 000 psi
0.5 0.847
100, 000 psi
4 ksi 18 in
o
 
  +
 = + =


\ .
\ .
0.847 2.67 in 18 in
3.47 in 5.73 in
18 in
y x
ox x
y
e
e e
o
= + = + =
Therefore, we can design our column for:
450 k
u
P = , and
450 k 5.73 in 2580 kin 215 kft
oy u ox
M Pe = = = =
Now use the interaction diagrams in Appendix A to determine
g
.
2
450 k
1.39 ksi
324 in
n u
g g
P P
A A

= = =
2
2580 kin
0.442 ksi
18 in 324 in
oy
n
g g
M
M
hA hA

= = =
Since 0.73 0.75 = ~ we can use Fig A9b without interpolating for this design.
So use 0.023
g
=
Finally, we can compute the area of steel required to reinforce this section, and select the bars:
2 2
0.023 324 in 7.45 in
st g g
A A = = =
Select 8 #9 bars, with 3 bars along each face. Select ties and splice lengths as appropriate.
We can check this solution using the Bresler reciprocal load method. Remember that we have an
18 in square column reinforced with 8 #9 bars.
2
2
8 in
0.0247
324 in
st
g
g
A
A
= = =
( ) 18 in 2 1.5 in 0.375 in 0.56 in
0.73
18 in
+ +
= =
Compute
nx
P  , the factored load capacity corresponding to and
x g
e .
130 kft 12 in/ft
3.47 in
450 k
uy
x
u
M
e
P
= = = , and
3.47 in
0.193
18 in
x
x
e
= = .
From Fig. A9b, 1.9 ksi
nx
P
bh

=
Therefore 616 k
nx
P  =
Compute
ny
P  , the factored load capacity corresponding to and
y g
e .
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1117
100 kft 12 in/ft
2.67 in
450 k
ux
y
u
M
e
P
= = = , and
2.67 in
0.148
18 in
x
x
e
= = .
From Fig. A9b, 2.2 ksi
nx
P
bh

=
Therefore 713 k
ny
P  =
From equ. 117 calculate
no
P :
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 2
3
' 0.85 4 ksi 324 in 8 in 60 ksi 8 in 1560 k
no c g st y st
P k f A A f A = + = + =
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
616 k 713 k 0.65 1560 k
u n nx ny no
P P P P P    
> = + = +
490 k
u
P s , so our section is sufficient for the loading defined here.
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121
Chapter 12
121 A hinged end column 18ft tall supports unfactored loads of 100 kips dead load and
60 kips live load. These loads are applied at an eccentricity of 3 in. at bottom and 5
in. at the top. Both eccentricities are on the same side of the centerline of the
column. Design a tied column with at least three bars per face using
and
.
Factored loads and moments
1.2 100 kips +1.6 60 kips 216 kips
u
P = =
1 2
/ 0.6 M M = + (Note that the column is bent in single curvature)
Estimate column size
Assume 0.015
g
=
( )
( )
2 u
P 216 kips
(trial ) = 110 in.
0.4 4 ksi + 60 ksi 0.015 0.4
g
c y g
A
f f
= =
' +
Choose a column cross section of 12 in. x 12 in.
Check whether the column is slender
1.0 (18 12) in.
60
(0.3 12 in.)
u
k
r
= =
1
2
34 12 34 12 0.6 26.8
M
M
 
= =

\ .
60
u
k
r
= >
1
2
34 12 26.8
M
M
 
=

\ .
The column is quite slender, increase column size to 16 in. x 16 in.
Are moments greater than the minimum?
( )
2,min 2
(0.6 0.03h) =216 kips 0.6 in. 0.03 16 in. 233 kin. <
u
M P M = + + =
2
use M
Compute EI
0.4
1
c g
d
E I
EI

=
+
3
57,000 4000 3605 10 psi
c
E = =
( )
4
4
16 in.
5460 in.
12
g
I = =
factored dead load 1.2 100 kips
0.56
all factored load 216 kips
d

= = =
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122
( )
3 4
9 2
0.4 3605 10 psi 5460 in.
5.05 10 lbin.
1 0.56
EI
= =
+
Magnified moment
2 c ns
M M o =
1.0
1
m
ns
u
c
C
P
P
o

= >
1
2
0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.84
m
M
C
M
= + = + =
( )
( )
( )
2 9 2
2
3
2 2
2
5.05 10 lbin.
1070 10 lb =1070 kips
1.0 18 12 in.
c
EI
P
k
t
t
= = =
(
0.84
1.15
216 kips
1
0.75 1070 kips
ns
o = =
Select reinforcement
Assume # 8 bars for longitudinal reinforcement, # 3 bars for the ties, and a clear concrete
cover of 1.5 in.
16 in. 2 1.5 in. 2 0.375 in. 1 in.
0.70
16 in.
= =
2
216 kips
0.84 ksi
(16 in.)
n u
P P
bh bh

= = =
Assume Etype reinforcement
Fig.A9a shows
Fig.A9b shows
. Use
.
2
0.01 2.56 in.
st g
A A = =
Use 6 bars # 6
( )
2
2.64 in.
st
A = for the column of 16 in. 16 in.
122 Repeat Problem 121, but with the top eccentricity to the right of the centerline and
the bottom eccentricity to the left.
Factored loads and moments
216 kips
u
P =
1 2
/ 0.6 M M = (Note that the column is bent in double curvature)
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123
Estimate column size
Assume 0.015
g
=
2
110 in.
g
A =
Choose a column cross section of 14 in. x 14 in.
Check if the column is slender
1.0 (18 12) in.
51.4
(0.3 14 in.)
u
k
r
= =
1
2
34 12 34 12 ( 0.6) 41.2 40 (40 governs)
M
M
 
= = s

\ .
51.4
u
k
r
= >
1
2
34 12 40
M
M
 
=

\ .
The column is slender.
Are moments greater than the minimum?
( )
2,min 2
(0.6 0.03h) =216 kips 0.6 in. 0.03 14 in. 220 kin. <
u
M P M = + + =
2
use M
Compute EI
0.4
1
c g
d
E I
EI

=
+
3
3605 10 psi
c
E =
( )
4
4
14 in.
3200 in.
12
g
I = =
0.56
d
 =
( )
3 4
9 2
0.4 3605 10 psi 3200 in.
2.96 10 lbin.
1 0.56
EI
= =
+
Magnified moment
2 c ns
M M o =
1.0
1
m
ns
u
c
C
P
P
o

= >
1
2
0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 ( 0.6) 0.36
m
M
C
M
= + = + =
( )
( )
( )
2 9 2
2
3
2 2
2
2.96 10 lbin.
P 626 10 lb =626 kips
1.0 18 12 in.
cr
EI
k
t
t
= = =
(
0.36
0.67 1, use 1
216 kips
1
0.75 626 kips
ns ns
o o = = < =
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124
Select reinforcement
Assume
#
8 bars for longitudinal reinforcement,
#
3 bars for ties, and a clear concrete
cover of 1.5 in.
14 in. 2 1.5 in. 2 0.375 in. 1 in.
0.66
14 in.
= =
2
216 kips
1.10 ksi
(14 in.)
n u
P P
bh bh

= = =
Assume Rtype reinforcement
Fig.A9a shows
Fig.A9b shows
Use 8
#
6 bars (
The column is in double curvature.
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125
C
A
B
D
22 ft
12 ft
24 ft
12 ft
Fig. P123
Estimate column size
Assume 0.015
g
=
( )
Choose a column cross section of 16 in. x 16 in.
Check if the column is slender
From Table 122, 0.90 k ~
( ) 24 12 in. 18 in. 270 in.
u
= =
0.9 270 in.
50.6
(0.3 16 in.)
u
k
r
= =
) ()
50.6
u
k
r
= > 42.5
Column is slender.
Are moments greater than the minimum?
( ) ( )
2
use M
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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126
Compute k
Assume the columns CA and BD also have a cross section of 16 in. x 16 in.
( ) ( )
( )
4
4
16 in.
column 0.7 column 0.7 3820 in.
12
g
I I = = =
( ) ( )
( )
3
4
12 in. 18 in.
beam 0.35 (beam) 0.35 2 0.7 4080 in.
12
g web
I I I
= = = =
( )
3820
26.5
12 12
c
c
c
CA
E EI
E
 
= =

\ .
( )
3820
13.3
12 24
c
c
c
AB
E EI
E
 
= =

\ .
( )
4080
15.5
12 22
b
beams
c
c
E EI
E
 
= = 

\ .
( ) ( )
26.5 13.3
top joint 2.57 bottom joint
15.5
c c
c
E E
E
+
= = =
From nomograph, read 0.87 k =
Compute EI
2.5(1 )
c g
d
E I
EI

=
+
3
57,000 5000 4030 10 psi
c
E = =
4
5460 in.
g
I =
260
0.57
460
d
 = =
3 4
9 2
4030 10 psi 5460 in.
5.61 10 lbin.
2.5 (1 0.57)
EI
= =
+
Magnified moment
2 c ns
M M o =
1.0
1
m
ns
u
c
C
P
P
o

= >
1
2
0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 ( 0.71) 0.32
m
M
C
M
= + = + =
( )
( )
 
2 9 2
2
3
2 2
5.61 10 lbin.
1000 10 lb =1000 kips
0.87 270 in.
c
u
EI
P
k
t
t
= = =
0.32
0.83 1, use 1
460 kips
1
0.75 1000 kips
ns ns
o o = = < =
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127
Select reinforcement
Assume # 8 bars for longitudinal reinforcement, # 3 bars for ties, and a clear concrete
cover of 1.5 in.
16 in. 2 1.5 in. 2 0.375 in. 1 in.
0.70
16 in.
= =
Assume Etype reinforcement
Fig. A10a yields
Fig. A10b yields
Use 8 #8 bars (
)
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128
A B C D
1
2
3
4
5
6
32' 30' 32'
20'
20'
20'
20'
20'
11' 6"
11' 6"
11' 6"
11' 6"
11' 6"
16' 0"
Roof
5
th
floor
4
th
floor
3
th
floor
2
th
floor
Ground
floor
Slab thickness: 6"; Column size: 18" x 18"; Beam size: 18" x 30"
a) Plan
b) Section 11
1 1
N
Fig. S121
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129
Concentrated on the exterior columns
)
Dead load from other floors
Distributed loads on beams
( )
3 2 3
2 2
18 in. 24 in.
6 in.
0.150 k/ft 0.020 k/ft 10 0.150 k/ft
12 in/ft 144 in /ft
1.40 k/ft
DL
(
= + +
(
=
Distributed load on girders (beams supporting other beams)
2 2
18 in. 18 in. 30 in
0.020 0.150 0.593 k/ft
12 in./ft 144 in /ft
DL
   
= + =
 
\ . \ .
Concentrated on the interior columns
)
Concentrated on the exterior columns
)
For each column of 11.5 ft, a weight of 3.88 kips is added for the column selfweight.
For each column of 16.0 ft, a weight of 5.40 kips is added for the column selfweight.
Live load from roof
Concentrated live load on the interior columns
(
)
Concentrated live load on the exterior columns
(
)
Live load from other floors
Concentrated live load on the interior columns
(
)
Concentrated live load on the exterior columns
(
)
B. Calculate the beam and column properties and modulus of elasticity
Column:
2
18 in. 18 in. 324 in. A= =
( )
4
4
18 in.
0.7 0.7 6120 in
12
c g
I I = = =
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1210
Beam:
Effective flange width
18 in. 8 6 in. 66 in. + =
2
6 66 18 24 828 in A= + =
( )
( )
3
4
18 in. 30 in.
0.7 beamweb 0.7 28350 in.
12
b g
I I
= = =
Note that the selection of rigid end zones follows Example 123.
Modulus of elasticity
3
57000 4000 3600 10 psi E = =
C. Select preliminary column size
Columns are sized based on the gravity load ( ) 1.2 1.6 0.5
r
D L L + + . In this load combination, live
load can be reduced. From separate analyses of dead load, live load from the roof floor, and live
load from the other floors, the axial loads of the columns in the ground floor are shown in the
Table P121.
The axial load in the exterior column from the live load from the other floors then can be reduced
with a reduction factor as follows:
( )
15
0.25 0.46
4 4 16.75 20
+ =
The axial load in the interior column from the live load from the other floors then can be reduced
with a reduction factor as follows:
( )
15
0.25 0.40
4 4 31 20
+ =
The calculation of reduced axial live load and factored load is shown in Table P121.
Table P121
All unit are in kips
Exterior
column
Interior
column
Dead load 285 487
Live load from the roof floor 10.0 18.5
Live load from the other floors 107 198
Reduced live load from the other floors 48.8 79.2
Total factored load 425 720
Assume 0.015
g
=
Exterior column
()
( )
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1211
Interior column
()
( )
Based on the result of Example 123, select a column cross section of 18 in. 18 in.
(
2
324 in.
g
A = ) for both exterior and interior columns.
D. Check with gravity load case 1.2 1.6 0.5
r
D L L + +
1. Is the story being designed sway or nonsway? In order to answer this question, we need
to calculate the stability index
u oh
us c
P
Q
V
E A
=
The first story is a sway story.
Note that the 2277 kips
u
P E = does not differ significantly from
( )
2. Are the columns slender?
1.2 (192 30) in.
36 22
(0.3 18 in.)
u
k
r
= = >
The columns are slender.
3. Compute the factored axial loads and moments from a firstorder frame analysis. As
explained in Example 123, the unfactored moments for exterior columns can be
determined based on the live load pattern shown in Fig. S123 while those for interior
columns based on the live load pattern shown Fig. S124. After a structural analysis is
made, live load reduction factors will be applied. All results and calculation are shown in
Table P122.
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1212
Factored dead load and live load plus arbitrary lateral load to evaluate stability index, Q
20 kips
Fig. S122
All span loaded with live load
Fig. S123
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1213
Staggered live load pattern
Fig. S124
Table P122
(Forces in kips Moments in kft) Exterior Column Interior Column
D
P 285 487
( ) reduced
L
P 48.8
79.9
Lr
P 10 18.5
( ) top
D
M 37.0 4.9
( ) bottom
D
M 36.2 5.5
( ) top, reduced
L
M 20.9 0.67 14 = 18.2 0.46 8.4 =
( ) bottom, reduced
L
M 20.5 0.67 13.7 = 2.8 0.46 1.3 =
The factored load on exterior and interior columns are as follows:
Exterior column
( )
2
top 1.2 37 1.6 14 66.8 kft M M = + = =
( ) ( ) ( )
1
bottom 1.2 36.2 1.6 13.7 65.4 kft M M = + = =
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1214
Interior column
( ) ( ) ( )
2
top 1.2 4.9 1.6 8.4 19.3 kft M M = + = =
( ) ( ) ( )
1
bottom 1.2 5.5 1.6 1.3 8.68 kft M M = + = =
4. Find
ns
o for the exterior and interior column?
1.0
1
m
ns
u
c
C
P
P
o

= >
Exterior column
1
2
65.4
0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 ( ) 0.21
66.8
m
M
C
M
= + = + =
( )
2
2
P
c
EI
k
t
=
0.2
1
c g s se
dns
E I E I
EI

+
=
+
4
8750 in.
g
I =
3600 ksi
c
E =
4
150 in.
se
I =
()
6 2
5.88 10 kipin EI =
( )
( )
 
2 6 2
2
2 2
5.88 10 kipin
2210 kips
1.0 162 in.
c
EI
P
k
t
t
= = =
66.8 kft
c
M =
Interior column
1
2
8.68
0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 ( ) 0.42
19.3
m
M
C
M
= + = + =
()
Since (int)
dns
 does not change significantly, EI and P
c
will
remain essentially the same.
67.8 kft
c
M =
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1215
5. Check initial column sections for gravity load case
Exterior column
1.9
0.11
18
e
h
= =
0.015
g
=
Fig. A9b yields
Interior column
0.015
g
=
Because reading from the graph may not be accurate given the two
values are so close, we need to select reinforcement for the column and
check its capacity against the demand. Select 8 bars #8, Example 123
shows
, OK.
E. Check with gravity plus wind load case ( ) 1.2 1.6 0.5
r
D W L L + + +
Wind loads are given in Fig. S125
1. Calculation of the stability index
u oh
us c
P
Q
V
E A
=
Similar to the gravity load case, we need to do one single analysis with the wind load plus
gravity load case. To take into account of the live load reduction, an average live load
reduction factor of 0.43 will be multiplied with the live load factor 0.5, yielding 0.22.
Therefore, the load combination becomes 1.2 1.6 0.215 0.5 D W Lr L + + + . A structural
analysis yields the following results:
0.357 in.
oh
A =
352 635 633 385 2005 kips
u
P E = + + + =
16 ft 192 in.
c
= =
4.46 3 6.61 8.49 32.9
us
V = + + = kips
2005 kips 0.357 in.
0.113 0.05
32.9 kips 192 in.
Q
= = >
1 1
1.13
1 1 0.113
s
Q
o = = =
The first story is a sway story.
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1216
Wind load
4.46 kips
6.61 kips
6.61 kips
6.61 kips
8.49 kips
Fig. S125
2. Factored axial loads and moments
A structural analysis of the frame subjected to the wind load (without the load factor) yields
the following results, as shown in Table P123.
Table P123
Forces in kips
Moments in kft
Exterior Column Interior Column
W
P 10.4 0.5
( ) top
W
M 46.2 65
( ) bottom
W
M 46 64.6
Exterior column
)
2 2 2 ns s s
M M M o = +
2
1.2 0.5 1.2 37 0.5 14 51.4 kft
ns D L
M M M = + = + =
2
1.6 1.6 46.2 73.9 kft
s W
M M = = =
2
51.4 1.13 73.9 135 M = + = kft
Interior column
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1217
)
2 2 2 ns s s
M M M o = +
2
1.2 0.5 1.2 4.9 0.5 8.4 10.1
ns D L
M M M = + = + = kft
2
1.6 1.6 65 104 kft
s W
M M = = =
2
10.1 1.13 104 128 M = + = kft
Note that the 2005 kips
u
P E = does not differ significantly from
( ) 2 387 632 2038 kips
u
P E = + =
3. Check column sections for axial loads and moments
Exterior column
0.01
g
=
Fig. A9b yields
At this point, we can select 8 bars #6 (
2
3.52 in. , 0.011
st g
A = = ) for the exterior columns.
Interior column
0.02
g
=
Conclusion: The cross section of exterior and interior columns is 18 in. x 18 in. Use 8 bars #6 for
exterior columns, and 8 bars #8 for interior columns.
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131
Chapter 13
131 Compute
for the edge beam shown in Fig. P131. The concrete for the slab and
beam was placed in one pour.
Because the slab and the beam have the same elastic modulus, Eq. (139) reduces to
b
f
s
I
I
o =
1. Compute
b
I . The cross section of the beam is shown in Fig. S131.1 and
b
I is computed for the
shaded area.
Fig. S131.1 Section through edge of slab.
Part Area, in.
2
top
y , in.
top
Ay
own
I , in.
4
2
Ay ,in.
4
Web 320 10 3200 10,670 663
Flanges 91 3.5 319 372 2331
411 E = 3519 E =
b
I =
14,030 in.
4
3519
8.56 in.
411
top
y = =
4
14, 030 in.
g
I =
2. Compute
s
I . The cross section of the slab is shown in Fig. S131.2 and
s
I is computed for the
shaded portion of the slab.
3
4
(108 8) 7
3316 in.
12
s
I
+
= =
Fig. S131.2 Edge beam.
16 in.
7 in.
20 in.
13 in.
45
28 in.
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132
3. Compute
f
o .
14, 030
4.23
3316
b
f
s
I
I
o = = =
132 Compute the columnstrip and middlestrip moments in the longspan direction for
an interior panel of the flatslab shown in Fig. 1325. Assume the slab is 6 in. thick,
the design live load is 40 psf and the superimposed dead load is 5 psf for ceiling,
flooring, and so on, plus 25 psf for the partitions. The columns are 10 in. 12 in., as
shown in Fig. 1325.
1. Compute the factored load.
6
1.2 150 5 25 1.6 40 190 psf
12
u
q
 
= + + + =

\ .
Note: if the local building code allows a liveload reduction, the 40psf live load could be
multiplied by the appropriate reduction factor.
2. Compute the static moment in the long span of the slab.
12
14.5 13.5 ft
12
n
= =
2
13.2 ft =
The column strip extends the smaller of
2 1
4 or 4 on each side of the column centerline
(ACI Code Section 13.2.1). Thus, the column strip extends 13.2 4 3.3 ft = on each side of column
centerlines. The total width of the column strip is 6.6 ft. Each halfmiddle strip extends from the
edge of the column strip to the centerline of the panel. The total width of two halfmiddle strips is
13.2 6.6 6.6 ft =
The static moment
o
M can be calculated from Eq. (135),
( )
2 2
2
190 13.2 13.5
1
57 kipft
1000
8 8
u n
o
q
M
= = =
3. Divide
o
M into negative and positive moments.
From ACI Code Section 13.6.3.2, for an interior span, the total moment is divided as follows:
Negative moment = 0.65 0.65 57 37 kipft
o
M = =
Positive moment = 0.35 0.35 57 20 kipft
o
M = =
4. Divide the moments between the column and middle strips.
Negative moments
From Table 133 for
1 2 1
0
f
o = (since there are no beam between the columns).
Columnstrip negative moment = ( ) 0.75 37 27.8 kipft =
Middlestrip negative moment = ( ) 0.25 37 9.3 kipft =
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133
Half of the middlestrip negative moment, 4.7 kipft, goes to each of the adjacent halfmiddle
strip. Because the adjacent bays have the same width,
2
, a similar moment will be assigned to
the other half of each middle strip so that the total middlestrip negative moment is 9.3 kipft.
Positive moments
From Table 134 for
1 2 1
0
f
o = ,
Columnstrip positive moment = 0.60 20 12 kipft =
Middlestrip positive moment = 0.40 20 8 kipft =
133 Use the directdesign method to compute the moments for the columnstrip and
middlestrip spanning perpendicular to the edge of the exterior bay of the flatplate
shown in Fig. P133. Assume the slab is 7.5 in. thick and supports a superimposed
dead load of 25 psf and a live load of 50 psf. There is no edge beam. The columns are
all 18 in. square.
1. Compute the factored load.
7.5
1.2 150 25 1.6 50 223 psf
12
u
q
 
= + + =

\ .
Note: if the local building code allows a liveload reduction, the 50psf live load could be
multiplied by the appropriate factor.
2. Compute the static moment for the span perpendicular to the edge of the exterior bay
18
20 18.5 ft
12
n
= =
2
19 ft =
The column strip extends the smaller of
2 1
4 or 4 on each side of the column centerline
(ACI Code Section 13.2.1). Thus, the column strip extends 19 4 4.75 ft = on each side of column
centerlines. The total width of the column strip is 9.5ft. Each halfmiddle strip extends from the
edge of the column strip to the centerline of the panel. The total width of two halfmiddle strips is
19 9.5 9.5 ft =
The static moment
o
M can be calculated from Eq. (135),
( )
2 2
2
223 19.0 18.5
1
181 kipft
1000
8 8
u n
o
q
M
= = =
3. Divide
o
M into negative and positive moments.
From ACI Code Section 13.6.3.3, for a slab without beams between interior supports and
without edge beam, the total moment is divided as follows:
Interior negative moment = 0.70 0.70 181 127 kipft
o
M = =
Positive moment = 0.52 0.52 181 94 kipft
o
M = =
Exterior negative moment = 0.26 0.26 181 47 kipft
o
M = =
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134
4. Divide the moments between the column and middle strips.
Interior negative moments
From Table 133 for
1 2 1
0
f
o = (since there are no beam between the columns),
Interior columnstrip negative moment = ( ) 0.75 127 95 kipft =
Interior middlestrip negative moment = ( ) 0.25 127 32 kipft =
Half of the middlestrip negative moment, 16 kipft, goes to each of the adjacent halfmiddle
strip. Because the adjacent bays have the same width,
2
,a similar moment will be assigned to
the other half of each middle strip so that the total middlestrip negative moment is 32 kipft.
Positive moments
From Table 134 for
2 1
0
f
o = ,
Columnstrip positive moment = 0.60 94 56 kipft =
Middlestrip positive moment = 0.40 94 38 kipft =
Exterior negative moment
From Table 135, for
1 2 1
0
f
o = (since there is no beam parallel to
1
) and for 0
t
 = (since
there is no edge beam),
Exterior columnstrip negative moment = 1.0 47 47 kipft =
Exterior middlestrip negative moment = 0 47 0 kipft =
134 For the slab configuration and loading conditions in P133, use the directdesign
method to compute moments for the edgecolumn strip and the middle strip
spanning parallel to the edge of the slab.
1. Compute the factored loads.
7.5
1.2 150 25 1.6 50 223 psf
12
u
q
 
= + + =

\ .
Note: if the local building code allows a liveload reduction, the 50psf live load could be
multiplied by the appropriate factor.
2. Compute the static moment for the span parallel to the edge of the slab.
18
19 17.5 ft
12
n
= =
For the definition of
2
refer to Fig. 1322 in the textbook.
Edge frame:
2,
20 9
10.8 ft
2 12
e
= + =
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135
Interior frame:
2,
20 ft
i
=
Generally, the column strip extends the smaller of
2 1
4 or 4 on each side of the column
centerline (ACI Code Section 13.2.1).Thus; the width of the edgecolumn strip is
19 9
5.5 ft
4 12
+ =
The halfmiddle strip extends from the edge of the column strip to the centerline of the panel. The
total width of two halfmiddle strips is 20 9.5 10.5 ft = .
The static moment
o
M can be calculated from Eq. (135).
Edge frame:
( )
2
2
2,
223 10.8 17.5
1
92.2 kipft
1000
8 8
u e n
o
q
M
= = =
Interior frame:
( )
2
2
2,
223 20 17.5
1
171 kipft
1000
8 8
u i n
o
q
M
= = =
3. Divide
o
M into negative and positive moments.
From ACI Code Section 13.6.3.2, for the edge frame, the total moment is divided as follows:
Negative moment =
,
0.65 0.65 92.2 60 kipft
o e
M = =
Positive moment =
,
0.35 0.35 92.2 32 kipft
o e
M = =
For the interior frame, the total moment is divided as follows:
Negative moment =
,
0.65 0.65 171 111 kipft
o i
M = =
Positive moment =
,
0.35 0.35 171 59.9 kipft
o i
M = =
4. Divide the moments between the edgecolumn and middle strips.
Exterior negative moment
From Table 133, for
1 2 1
0
f
o = (since there is no beam between the columns),
Edge columnstrip negative moment = 0.875 60 52.5 kipft =
Middlestrip negative moment =
( )
1
0.25 60 0.25 111 =21.4 kipft
2
+
Note that
1
0.25 0.875 1.0
2
 
+ =

\ .
Positive moments
From Table 134 for
2 1
0
f
o = ,
Edge columnstrip positive moment = 0.80 32 25.6 kipft =
Middlestrip positive moment =
( )
1
0.40 32 0.40 59.9 =18.4 kipft
2
+
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136
Note that
1
0.40 0.80 1.0
2
 
+ =

\ .
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137
135 A 7in. thick flatplate slab with spans of 20 ft in each direction is supported on 16
in. 16 in. columns. The average effective depth is 5.6 in. Assume the slab supports
its own dead load, plus 25 psf superimposed dead load and 40 psf live load. The
concrete strength is 4000 psf. Check twoway shear at a typical interior support.
Assume unbalanced moments are negligible.
1. Compute the factored uniform load.
)
2. Check oneway shear.
Oneway shear is critical at a distance from the face of the column. Thus, the critical
sections for oneway shear are AA and BB in Fig. S135.1. The loaded areas causing shear on
these sections are cross hatched. Their outer boundaries are lines of symmetry on which 0
u
V = .
We will only check the shear for section AA, since the check for section BB is the same.
Fig. S135.1 Critical section for oneway shear at interior column.
(a) Compute
u
V at section AA.
6
6 6
6
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138
)
(b) Compute
c
V  for oneway shear.
Because there is no shear reinforcement, we have
n c
V V   = and from Eq. (1327),
) ( )
Thus, the slab is OK for oneway shear.
3. Check twoway shear
Punching shear is critical on a rectangular section located at 2 d away from the column face, as
shown in Fig. S135.2. The critical perimeter is 21.6 in. by 21.6 in. The average d value for
determining the shear strength of the slab is 5.6 in. d =
Fig. S135.2 Critical section for twoway shear at interior column.
(a) Compute
u
V on the critical perimeter for twoway shear.
)
(b) Compute
c
V  for the critical section.
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139
The length of the critical perimeter is ( ) 2 21.6 21.6 86.4 in.
o
b = + =
Now,
c
V  is to be taken as the smallest of the following. From Eq. (1324),
( )
'
1
4 4 1 4000 86.4 5.6 122 kips
1000
c c o
V f b d = = =
For Eq. (1325), 1.0  = (since column is square). Therefore,
( )
( )
'
4
1
2 2 4 1 4000 86.4 5.6 184 kips
1000
c c o
V f b d

 
= + = + =

\ .
For Eq. (1326), 40
s
o = for this interior column. Therefore,
( )
'
40 5.6
1
2 2 1 4000 86.4 5.6 140 kips
1000
86.4
s
c c o
o
d
V f b d
b
o
   
= + = + =


\ .
\ .
Therefore, the smallest values is 122 kips
c
V = , so 0.75 122 91.5 kips > V
c u
V  = = and the slab
is OK in twoway shear.
136 Assume the slab described in Problem 135 is supported on 10 in. 24 in. columns.
Check twoway shear at a typical interior support. Assume unbalanced moments
are negligible.
1. Compute the factored uniform load.
)
2. See the solution to problem 135 for oneway shear calculations.
3. Check twoway shear
Punching shear is critical on a rectangular section located at 2 d away from the column face, as
shown in Fig. S136.2. The critical perimeter is 29.6 in. by 15.6 in. The average d value for
determining the shear strength of the slab is 5.6 in. d =
(a) Compute
u
V on the critical perimeter for twoway shear.
)
(b) Compute
c
V  for the critical section.
The length of the critical perimeter is ( ) 2 29.6 15.6 90.4 in.
o
b = + =
Now,
c
V  is to be taken as the smallest of the following. From Eq. (1324),
( )
'
1
4 4 1 4000 90.4 5.6 128 kips
1000
c c o
V f b d = = =
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1310
Fig. S136.2 Critical section for twoway shear at interior column.
For Eq. (1325),
24
2.4
10
 = = (since column is 10 in. by 24 in.). Therefore,
( )
'
4 4
1
2 2 1 4000 90.4 5.6 117 kips
1000
2.4
c c o
V f b d

   
= + = + =
 
\ . \ .
For Eq. (1326), 40
s
o = for this interior column. Therefore,
( )
'
40 5.6
1
2 2 1 4000 90.4 5.6 143 kips
1000
90.4
s
c c o
o
d
V f b d
b
o
   
= + = + =


\ .
\ .
Therefore, the smallest values is 117 kips
c
V = , so 0.75 117 88 kips > V
c u
V  = = and the slab is
OK in twoway shear.
137 The slab shown in Fig. P137 supports a superimposed dead load of 25 psf and a live
load of 60 psf. The slab extends 4 in. past the exterior face of the column to support
an exterior wall that weighs 400 lbs/ft of length of wall. The storytostory height is
9.5 ft. Use 4500psi concrete and Grade60 reinforcement.
(a) Select slab thickness.
 Determine the thickness to limit deflections.
From Table 131, the minimum thicknesses of the four typical slab panels are as follows:
Panel 12AB (corner; treat as exterior), and panels 23AB and 12BC (exterior)
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1311
Maximum ( ) 20 12 16 224 in.
n
= =
Minimum
224
7.47 in.
30 30
n
h = = =
Panel 23BC (interior)
Maximum 224 in.
n
=
Minimum
224
6.78 in.
33 33
n
h = = =
Try 8.0 in. h =
 Check the thickness for shear. We should check the shear at columns A2 and B2
The tributary area for column A2 is crosshatched in Fig. S 137.1 The factored uniform load can
be calculated as:
8
1.2 150 25 1.6 60 246 psf
12
u
q
 
= + + =

\ .
Note that if the area of any of the panels exceeded
2
400 ft , it would be possible to reduce the live
load before factoring it.
Fig. S 137.1 Initial critical shear perimeters and tributary areas for column A2.
The critical shear perimeter is located at 2 d away from the interior column face and 4 in. from
the exterior column face, as shown in Fig. S 137.1. In the following calculation for the factored
shear force transmitted to column A2, the shear force multiplier of 1.15 required for the first
interior support will be applied directly to the appropriate tributary lengths. Then,
8 0.75 0.5 6.75 in.
avg
d ~ = (assuming
3
4
in. clear cover and No. 4 bars as slab
reinforcement).
22.75 2 23.38 69.5 in.
o
b = + =
( ) ( )
12 22.75 23.38
246 9 1.15 9 10 1.2 400 9 1.15 9 60700 lbs 61 kips
12 144
u
V
(    
( = + + + + = ~
  (
\ . \ .
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1312
From Eq.(1325),
16
1
16
 = =
4
2 6.0 4

 
+ = >

\ .
(does not govern)
From Eq. (1326),
30
s
o = , for an exterior slabcolumn connection
30 6.75
2 2 4.91 4.0
69.5
s
o
d
b
o    
+ = + = >


\ .
\ .
(does not govern)
Thus, using Eq. (1324):
( )
'
1
4 0.75 4 1 4500 69.5 6.75 94.4 kips > V
1000
c c o u
V f b d   = = =
Note: 0.65 0.75
u c
V V  = <
For this ratio, ACI Code Section permits modification of
f
for moment transfer about an axis
parallel to the edge of the slab. With that information and because this ratio is below 0.8, the slab
thickness at this connection should be sufficient for checking shear and moment transfer about an
axis perpendicular to the edge of the column. Shear check for column B2 follows the same
procedure as for column A2. Thus, use an 8in. slab. Final shear checks will be made in part (c)
after completing the flexural design of the slab.
(b) Use the direct design method to compute moments, and then design the
reinforcement for the column and middle strips associated with column line
2.
Because there is no edge beams, 0
f
o =
 Compute moments in the slab strip along column line 2
A2 B2 C2
1
(ft)
20.0 20.0
(ft)
n
18.67 18.67
2
(ft)
18.0 18.0
(ksf)
u
q
0.25 0.25
2
2
(kipft)
8
u n
o
q
M = 196 196
Moment Coef. 0.26 0.52 0.70 0.65 0.35 0.65
Moments (kipft) 51 +102 137 127 +69 127
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1313
 Compute moments in the slab strip along column line 1
A1 B1 C1
1
(ft)
20.0 20.0
(ft)
n
18.67 18.67
2
(ft)
10.0 10.0
(ksf)
u
q
0.25 0.25
2
2
(kipft)
8
u n
o
q
M = 109 109
Moment Coef. 0.26 0.52 0.70 0.65 0.35 0.65
Moments (kipft) 28 +57 76 71 +38 71
Wall load (kip/ft) 0.48 0.48
Wall
2
8
wall n
o
q
M
= 21 21
Moments from wall
(kipft)
5.5 11 15 14 +7 14
 Distribute the negative and positive moments to the column and middle strips and design the
reinforcement.
In each panel, the column strip extends ( ) ( )
1 2
0.25 min , 0.25 18 12 54 in. = = on each side
of the column lines. The total width of the column strip is 2 54 in.= 108 in. 9 ft = . The width of
the middle strip is 9 ft. The edge strip has a width of 54 in. 12 in. 66 in. 5.5 ft + = = .
Place the steel in the long direction close to the surface of the slab. Try No. 4 bars. Thus,
8 0.75 0.25 7.0 in. d ~ =
Compute trial
s
A required at the section of maximum moment (column strip at B2). The largest
u
M is 102.3 kipft. Assuming that ( ) 0.95 jd = ,
2
102.3 12, 000
(trial) 3.42 in.
0.9 60, 000 0.95 7.0
s
A
= =
Compute a and check whether the section is tension controlled:
( )
3.42 60, 000
0.82 in.
0.85 4500 5.5 12
a
= =
0.82
1.00 in.
0.825
c = =
Clearly, the section is tensioncontrolled; therefore, 0.9  = .
Compute the value of jd :
0.82
7.0 6.59 in.
2
jd = =
Assuming that a is constant for all sections (conservative assumption), compute a constant for
computing
s
A :
2
12, 000
(in. ) 0.0337 (kipft)
0.9 60, 000 6.59
u
s u
M
A M
= =
(Eq. A)
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1314
The values of
s
A required in the following table are computed from Eq. (A).
From ACI Code Section 13.3.1,
,min
0.0018
s
A bh = for Grade60 reinforcement. Maximum bar spacing is 2h (ACI Code
Section 13.3.2), but not more than 18 in. (ACI Code Section 7.12.2.2). Therefore maximum is
16 in.
Edge column strip:
( )
2
,min
0.0018 5.5 12 8 0.95 in.
s
A = =
Minimum number of bar spaces
5.5 12
4.1
16
= =
Therefore, the minimum number of bars is 5.
Other strips:
( )
2
,min
0.0018 9 12 8 1.56 in.
s
A = =
The minimum number of bars is 8.
Division of moment to column and middle strip: northsouth strips
Edge
Column Strip
Middle
Strip
Column
Strip
Middle
Strip
Column
Strip
Strip Width, ft 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 5.5
Exterior Negative Moments A1 A2 A3
Slab moment (kipft) 28 51 51
Moment Coef. 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0
Distributed moments to
strips
28 0.0 0.0 51 0.0 0.0 51
Wall moment (kipft) 5.5
Total strip moment (kipft) 33.5 0.0 51 0.0 51
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 1.13 0.0 1.72 0.0 1.56
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 6 #4 9 #4 9 #4 9 #4 9 #4
2
(in. )
s
A provided 1.20 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80
End Span Positive
Moments
Slab moment (kipft) 57 102 102
Moment Coef. 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.6
Distributed moments to
strips
34.2 22.8 20.4 61.2 20.4 20.4 61.2
Wall moment (kipft) 11
Total strip moment
(kipft)
45.2 43.2 61.2 40.8 61.2
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 1.52 1.45 2.06 1.37 2.06
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 8 #4 10 #4 10 #4 10 #4 10 #4
2
(in. )
s
A provided 1.60 2.00 2.00* 2.00 2.00*
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1315
First Interior Negative
Moments
B1 B2 B3
Slab moment (kipft) 76 137 137
Moment Coef. 0.75 0.25 0.125 0.75 0.125 0.125 0.75
Distributed moments to
strips
57 19 17.1 102.3 17.1 17.1 102.3
Wall moment (kipft) 15
Total strip moment
(kipft)
72 36.1 102.3 34.2 102.3
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 2.43 1.22 3.45 1.15 3.45
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 8 #5 9 #4 11 #5 9 #4 11 #5
2
(in. )
s
A provided 2.48 1.80 3.41* 1.80 3.41*
Interior Positive Moments
Slab moment (kipft) 38 69 69
Moment Coef. 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.6
Distributed moments to
strips
22.8 15.2 13.8 41.1 13.8 13.8 41.1
Wall moment (kipft) 7
Total strip moment (kip
ft)
29.8 29 41.1 27.6 41.1
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 1.00 0.98 1.36 1.04 1.36
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 6 #4 9 #4 9 #4 9 #4 9 #4
2
(in. )
s
A provided 1.20 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80
Interior Negative Moments C1 C2 C3
Slab moment (kipft) 71 127 127
Moment Coef. 0.75 0.25 0.125 0.75 0.125 0.125 0.75
Distributed moments to
strips
53.2 17.8 15.9 95.2 15.9 15.9 95.2
Wall moment (kipft) 14
Total strip moment (kip
ft)
67.2 33.7 95.2 31.8 95.2
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 2.26 1.14 3.21 1.07 3.21
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 8 #5 9 #4 11 #5 9 #4 11 #5
2
(in. )
s
A provided 2.48 1.80 3.41 1.80 3.41
*
A
s
(provided) < A
s
(required) is o.k. because adjacent positive moment regions are overdesigned
and some moment redistribution can occur in ductile slabs.
(c) Check twoway shear and moment transfer at columns A2 and B2. Neglect
unbalanced moments about column line 2.
Column A2
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1316
The critical perimeter is at 2 d from the face of the column, where d is the average depth. At all
exterior ends, the reinforcement is No. 4 bars and 6.75 in.
avg
d = The shortest perimeter results
from the section shown in Fig. S137.2 and the perimeter dimensions are,
1
2
20 in. 2 23.38 in.
16 in. 22.75 in.
b d
b d
= + =
= + =
For moments about the z z axis,
( )
( ) ( )
2 23.38 5.69 23.38 2
7.86 in.
2 23.38 5.69 22.75 5.69
AB
y
= =
+
Therefore, 7.86 in. and 15.52 in.
AB CD
c c = =
For moments about the w w axis,
22.75
11.38 in.
2
CB AD
c c = = =
As calculated in part (a), 61 kips
u
V = .
For slabs designed by the directdesign method, the moment transferred from the slab to the
column axis zz is 0.3
o
M , and using the moments calculated from part (b),
0.3 0.3 196 58.8 kipft
o
M = = (acting about the centroid of the shear perimeter).
Fig. S 137.2 Critical section ColumnA2
From part (b), we found that the unbalanced moment due to the wall moments is 7 kipft and
assuming that the loads acts at 2 in. from the edge of the slab,
23.38 2.0 7.86 13.52 in. = = from centroid
The total moment to be transferred is,
13.52
58.8 7 50.9 kipft
12
z z
M
= =
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1317
Note that the unbalanced moment about column line 2 ( )
w w
M
is neglected as stated in the
problem.
From Eq. (1332), calculate the fraction of moment transferred by flexure,
1 2
1 1
0.60
2 2
1 1 23.38 22.75
3 3
f
b b
= = =
+ +
ACI Code Section 13.5.3.3 allows
f
to be increased to 1.0 if
u c
V V  and the resulting is less
than 0.375
b
within a width of
2
3 c h + centered in the column. From part (a), 0.65
u c
V V  = .
Therefore, take 1.0
f
= and check the reinforcement required.
Width effective for flexure
2
3 16 3 8 40 in. c h = + = + =
Effective width
2 2 1
2 2
t
c c c c s + s + (second expression governs)
Effective width 16 2 16 48 in. s + =
Assume that ( ) 0.95 jd d = , with 7.0 in. d =
2
50.9 12, 000
1.70 in.
0.9 60, 000 0.95 7.0
s
A
= =
The steel provided is 9 No. 4 in a column strip width of 9 ft 108 in. = , or roughly 13.5 on centers.
The bars within the 40 in. effective width can be used for the moment transfer. Place four
columnstrip bars into this region and add 5 No. 4 bars, giving
2
1.8 in.
s
A = in the effective width.
Recompute
s
A ,
1.80 60, 000
0.71 in.
0.85 4500 40
a
= =
2
50.9 12, 000
(in. ) 1.70 kipft
0.71
0.9 60, 000 7
2
s
A
= =
 

\ .
(steel chosen OK)
The reinforcement ratio is,
1.8
0.0064
40 7
s
A
bd
= = =
and from Eq. (424),
0.85 0.825 4500 0.003
0.0311
60, 000 0.003 0.00207
b
 
= =

+
\ .
,
and thus, 0.375 0.0117 0.0064
b
= > and we can use 1.0
f
= . As a result, it is not necessary to
transfer any of the moment about zz axis by eccentric shear stresses.
Column B2
The critical perimeter is shown in Fig. S 137.3 and the centroidal axes pass through the centers
of the sides.
( ) 2 22.75 22.75 91 in.
o
b = + =
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1318
The factored shear force transmitted to column B2 is,
( )( )
22.75 22.75
246 9 1.15 9 10 1.15 10 101500 lbs 102 kips
144
u
V
(  
= + + = ~
 (
\ .
Fig. S 137.3 Critical section Column B2
From Eq.(1325),
4
2 6.0 4

 
+ = >

\ .
(does not govern)
From Eq. (1326),
40
s
o = , for an interior slabcolumn connection
40 6.75
2 2 4.97 4.0
91
s
o
d
b
o    
+ = + = >


\ .
\ .
(does not govern)
Thus, using Eq. (1324):
( )
'
1
4 0.75 4 1 4500 91 6.75 124 kips > V
1000
c c o u
V f b d   = = =
Since, 0.82 0.4
u c
V V  = > no adjustment will be permitted in the ratio of unbalanced moment
resisted by eccentric shear.
The moment about xx axis to be transferred comes from part (b) and is the difference between
the negative moments on the two sides of column B2, i.e.
,
137 127 10 kipft
u x x
M
= = .
From Eq. (1332), calculate the fraction of moment transferred by flexure (xx axis),
1 2
1 1
0.6
2 2
1 1 1
3 3
f
b b
= = =
+ +
The torsional moment of inertia can be calculated from Eq. (1334),
( )
2
3 3
1 1 1
2
2 2
12 12 2
c
b d db b
J b d
 
 
= + +


\ .
\ .
Where
1 2
6.75 in. and 22.75 in. d b b = = = Thus,
4
54150 in.
c
J =
By inspection, the reinforcement that is already in the slab is adequate for moment transfer.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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1319
From Eq. (1330) and neglecting unbalanced moment about column line 2 (i.e. about axis yy),
( )
(shear transfer)
1 0.6 10 4 kipft 48,000 lbin.
u u
M M
u
= = = =
Then,
48, 000 11.38
12.1 psi
45,150
u
c
M c
J
u
= =
So,
102, 000 124, 000
(max) 12.1 166 psi 12.1 psi=178 psi 202 psi
91 6.75 91 6.75
u c
u u = + = + < = =
Thus, the shear is OK at this column.
138 Refer to the slab shown in Fig. P137 and the loadings and material strengths given
in Problem 137.
(a) Select slab thickness.
Problems 137 and 138 refer to the same flatslab. As a result, the thickness of the slab was
chosen in part (a) of problem 137. Thus, use an 8 in. thick slab.
(b) Use the direct design method to compute moments, and then design the
reinforcement for the column and middle strips associated with column line
A.
Because there is no edge beams, 0
f
o =
 Compute moments in the slab strip along column line A
A1 A2 A3
1
(ft)
18.0 18.0
(ft)
n
16.67 16.67
2
(ft)
11.0 11.0
(ksf)
u
q
0.25 0.25
2
2
(kipft)
8
u n
o
q
M = 96 96
Moment Coef. 0.26 0.52 0.70 0.65 0.35 0.65
Moments (kipft) 25 +50 67 62 +34 62
Wall load (kip/ft) 0.48 0.48
Wall
2
8
wall n
o
q
M
=
16.7 16.7
Moments from wall
(kipft)
4.3 8.7 11.7 10.9 +5.8 10.9
 Compute moments in the slab strip along column line B
B1 B2 B3
1
(ft)
18.0 18.0
(ft)
n
16.67 16.67
2
(ft)
20.0 20.0
(ksf)
u
q
0.25 0.25
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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1320
2
2
(kipft)
8
u n
o
q
M = 174 174
Moment Coef. 0.26 0.52 0.70 0.65 0.35 0.65
Moments (kipft) 45 +90 122 113 +61 113
 Distribute the negative and positive moments to the column and middle strips and design the
reinforcement.
In each panel, the column strip extends ( ) ( )
1 2
0.25 min , 0.25 18 12 54 in. = = on each side
of the column lines. The total width of the column strip is 2 54 in.= 108 in. 9 ft = . The width of
the middle strip is 9 ft. The edge strip has a width of 54 in. 12 in. 66 in. 5.5 ft + = = .
Place the steel in the long direction close to the surface of the slab. Try No. 4 bars. Thus,
8 0.75 0.25 7.0 in. d ~ =
Compute trial
s
A required at the section of maximum moment (column strip at B2). The largest
u
M is 91.5 kipft. Assuming that ( ) 0.95 jd = ,
Compute a and check whether the section is tension controlled:
The section is tensioncontrolled; therefore, 0.9  = .
Compute the value of jd :
Assuming that a is constant for all sections (conservative assumption), compute a constant for
computing
s
A (Eq. A):
The values of
s
A required in the following table are computed from Eq. (A).
From ACI Code Section 13.3.1,
,min
0.0018
s
A bh = for Grade60 reinforcement. Maximum bar spacing is 2h (ACI Code
Section 13.3.2), but not more than 18 in. (ACI Code Section 7.12.2.2). Therefore maximum is
16 in.
Edge column strip:
( )
2
,min
0.0018 5.5 12 8 0.95 in.
s
A = =
Minimum number of bar spaces
5.5 12
4.1
16
= =
Therefore, the minimum number of bars is 5.
Other strips:
( )
2
,min
0.0018 9 12 8 1.56 in.
s
A = =
The minimum number of bars is 8.
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1321
Division of moment to column and middle strip: eastwest strips
Edge
Column Strip
Middle
Strip
Column
Strip
Strip Width, ft 9.0 9.0 9.0
Exterior Negative Moments A1 B1
Slab moment (kipft) 25 45
Moment Coef. 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0
Distributed moments to
strips
25 0.0 0.0 45
Wall moment (kipft) 4.3
Total strip moment (kip
ft)
29.3 0.0 45
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 0.99 0.0 1.52
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 5 #4 8 #4 8 #4
2
(in. )
s
A provided 1.00 1.60 1.60
End Span Positive Moments
Slab moment (kipft) 50 90
Moment Coef. 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6
Distributed moments to
strips
30 20 18 54
Wall moment (kipft) 8.7
Total strip moment (kip
ft)
38.7 38 54
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 1.31 1.28 1.82
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 7 #4 8 #4 10 #4
2
(in. )
s
A provided 1.40 1.60 2.00
First Interior Negative
Moments
A2 B2
Slab moment (kipft) 67 122
Moment Coef. 0.75 0.25 0.125 0.75
Distributed moments to
strips
50 17 15 91.5
Wall moment (kipft) 11.7
Total strip moment (kip
ft)
51.7 32 91.5
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 1.75 1.08 3.09
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 9 #4 8 #4 10 #5
2
(in. )
s
A provided 1.80 1.60 3.10
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1322
Interior Positive Moments
Slab moment (kipft) 34 61
Moment Coef. 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6
Distributed moments to
strips
20.4 13.6 12.2 36.6
Wall moment (kipft) 5.8
Total strip moment (kipft) 26.2 25.8 36.6
Required
2
(in. )
s
A 0.89 0.87 1.24
Minimum
2
(in. )
s
A 0.95 1.56 1.56
Selected Steel 5 #4 8 #4 8 #4
2
(in. )
s
A provided 1.00 1.60 1.60
139 For the corner column (A1) in Fig. P137 and the loadings and material strengths
given in Problem 137, select a slab thickness to satisfy ACI Code strength
requirements for twoway shear and moment transfer, and deflection control.
(a) Make the check for moment transfer in only one principal direction (use the
more critical direction).
First determine the thickness to limit deflections:
From Table 131, the minimum thicknesses of the corner panel is (treat it as an exterior
column):
Maximum
in
20 ft 12 16 in 224 in
ft
n
 
= =

\ .
Minimum
224 in
7.47 in
30 30
n
h = = =
Like Problem 138, try 8.0 in h =
Now check whether this thickness is OK for shear at column A1, considering moment transfer in
the more critical direction:
Note that if the area of any of the panels exceeded
2
400 ft , it would be possible to
reduce the live load before factoring it, but this is not the case for column A1. Therefore the
factored uniform load acting on the corner panel is:
3
8 in lb
1.2 150 25 psf 1.6 60 psf 246 psf
in
ft
12
ft
u
q
 

= + + =



\ .
Although the shear force acting on the first interior column face is amplified by 1.15, the ACI
Code does not permit reducing the tributary shear area for an exterior column to below0.5 in
either principal direction. Also note that the critical shear perimeter is located at 2 d away from
the interior column faces.
Therefore,
8 in 0.75 in 0.5 in 6.75 in
avg
d ~ =
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1323
( ) 2 16 in 4 in 6.75 in / 2 46.8 in
o
b = + + =
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
23.4 in
246 psf 10 ft 1 ft 9 ft 1 ft 26100 lb 26.1 k
in
144
ft
u
V
(
 
( 
(  = + + = ~
( 

(
\ .
Now calculate the ultimate shear stress given this V
u
and moment transfer in the more critical
direction.
u v u
u
o c
V M c
v
b d J
= +
where:
1 2
1 1
1 1 0.4
2 2
1 / 1 1
3 3
v
b b
= = =
+ +
1 2
23.4 in b b = =
16 in c =
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
1
1 2
6.75 in 23.4 in
5.85 in
2 4 23.4 in 6.75 in
AB
d b
c
b d b d
= = =
+
( ) ( )
2
3 3
2 1 1 1
1 2
3 3
2
12 12 2
23.4 in 6.75 in 6.75 in 23.4 in
23.4 in
23.4 in 6.75 in 5.85 in
12 12 2
c AB AB
c
b d db b
J b d c b dc
J
(
 
= + + + (

\ .
(
(
 
( = + +

\ . (
( )
2
4
23.4 in 6.75 in 5.85 in
18, 600 in
c
J
+
=
And, the more critical moment transfer axis is along column line 1, which is presented in the
solution to Problem 137.
28 kft
u
M =
Finally, we can calculate the maximum combined shear stress considering moment transfer in the
more critical direction as follows:
( )
4
in
0.4 28 kft 12 16 in
26.1 k
ft
0.198 ksi 198 psi
46.8 in 6.75 in 18, 600 in
u v u
u
o c
V M c
v
b d J
= = = =
Now compare compute v
n
to check whether this level of shear stress is acceptable.
'
'
'
4 0.75 4 1 4500 psi 201 psi
4 4
2 0.75 2 4500 psi 302 psi
1
20 6.75 in
2 0.75 2 4500 psi 246 psi
46.8 in
c
n c
s
c
o
f
v f
d
f
b

 

o

= =
   
s + = + =
 
\ . \ .
   
+ = + =


\ .
\ .
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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1324
Therefore,
201 psi 198 psi
n u
v v  = > = OK
(b) Make the check for moment transfer in both principal directions, but permit
a 20 percent increase in the maximum permissible shear stress calculated at
the corner of the critical shear perimeter.
From part (a),
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
23.4 in
246 psf 10 ft 1 ft 9 ft 1 ft 26100 lb 26.1 k
in
144
ft
u
V
(
 
( 
(  = + + = ~
( 

(
\ .
1
28 kft
u
M =
Following the same procedure shown in Problem 137, the moment in the EW direction is:
2
25 kft
u
M =
Now we can calculate the maximum combined shear stress considering moment transfer in both
principal directions as follows:
( ) ( )
1 2
4 4
in in
0.4 28 kft 12 16 in 0.4 25 kft 12 16 in
26.1 k
ft ft
46.8 in 6.75 in 18, 600 in 18, 600 in
0.301 ksi 301 psi
u v u v u
u
o c c
u
u
V M c M c
v
b d J J
v
v
=
=
= =
Now compare compute v
n
to check whether this level of shear stress is acceptable.
'
'
'
4 0.75 4 1 4500 psi 201 psi
4 4
2 0.75 2 4500 psi 302 psi
1
20 6.75 in
2 0.75 2 4500 psi 246 psi
46.8 in
c
n c
s
c
o
f
v f
d
f
b

 

o

= =
   
s + = + =
 
\ . \ .
   
+ = + =


\ .
\ .
Even allowing for a 20% increase in the maximum permissible shear stress, a slab thickness of 8
in does not seem to be deep enough to satisfy this shear check. Repeat with h = 9.5 in.
9.5 in 0.75 in 0.5 in 8.25 in
avg
d ~ =
( ) 2 16 in 4 in 8.25 in / 2 48.3 in
o
b = + + =
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
24.1 in
246 psf 10 ft 1 ft 9 ft 1 ft 26100 lb 26.1 k
in
144
ft
u
V
(
 
( 
(  = + + = ~
( 

(
\ .
1 2
24.1 in b b = =
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
1
1 2
8.25 in 24.1 in
6.03 in
2 4 24.1 in 8.25 in
AB
d b
c
b d b d
= = =
+
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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1325
( ) ( )
2
3 3
2 1 1 1
1 2
3 3
2
12 12 2
24.1 in 8.25 in 8.25 in 24.1 in
24.1 in
24.1 in 8.25 in 6.03 in
12 12 2
c AB AB
c
b d db b
J b d c b dc
J
(
 
= + + + (

\ .
(
(
 
( = + +

\ . (
( )
2
4
24.1 in 8.25 in 6.03 in
25, 200 in
c
J
+
=
So, now the shear stress demand is:
( ) ( )
1 2
4 4
in in
0.4 28 kft 12 16 in 0.4 25 kft 12 16 in
26.1 k
ft ft
48.3 in 8.25 in 25, 200 in 25, 200 in
0.227 ksi 227 psi
u v u v u
u
o c c
u
u
V M c M c
v
b d J J
v
v
=
=
= =
If a 9.5 in deep slab is used, then 227 psi 1.2 241 psi
u n
v v  = s = .
(c) Check oneway shear for a critical diagonal section across the corner near
the corner column.
Assume that the critical section for oneway shear at this corner column occurs at a 45 degree
angle from either of the exterior edges, at a distance, d, from the most interior corner. If we
assume that d = 6.75 in, as in part (a), the length of the critical section is as follows:
( ) 2 4 in 16 in 2 6.75 in 70 in
(
= + + =
Therefore,
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
35.0 in
246 psf 10 ft 1 ft 9 ft 1 ft 25000 lb 25.0 k
in
144
ft
u
V
(
 
( 
(  = + + = ~
( 

(
\ .
The capacity of the section is:
6.75 in 70.0 in 0.75 1.0 2 4,500 psi 6.75 in 70.0 in 47,500 lb 47.5 k
n c
V V   = = = =
Therefore, a slab with h = 8 in will not fail in oneway shear along this diagonal failure plane.
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1326
1310 For the slab system shown in Fig. P137, assume the slab has four equal spans in the
northsouth direction and three equal spans in the eastwest direction. Use the
loading and material strengths given in Problem 137 and assume a slab thickness of
7.5 in.
(a) Use an equivalentframe method to analyze the factored design moments
along column line 2 and compare the results with the moments used in part
(b) of Problem 137.
For this solution, structural analysis software is used to model an equivalent frame used
to represent the column line in question. Before this can be done, an appropriate equivalent frame
must be defined, which is done here following recommendations from the text.
Column properties:
2
16 in 16 in 256 in
g
A = =
( )
3
4
16 in 16 in
5460 in
12
g
I
= =
4
5460 in
e g
I I = =
Note that a full 9.5 ft of column will be modeled above and below the slab. These
elements will be fixed at their ends.
Beam properties:
In the positive bending regions and the negative bending regions near interior columns:
0.5 o = , 0.5  =
( )
3
3 3
4 2
0.5 18 ft 12 in/ft 7.5 in
3800 in
12 12 12
g
h bh
I
o
= = = =
4
0.5 1900 in
e g g
I I I  = = =
In the negative bending regions near exterior columns (assumed to be
1
0.2 ft long):
0.2 o = , 0.33  =
( )
3
3 3
4 2
0.2 18 ft 12 in/ft 7.5 in
1520 in
12 12 12
g
h bh
I
o
= = = =
4
0.33 500 in
e g g
I I I  = = =
Loads to be applied:
3 2
7.5 in lb lb lb k
18 ft 150 25 2140 2.14
in
ft ft ft ft
12
ft
D
q
 

= + = =



\ .
2
lb lb k
18 ft 60 1080 1.08
ft ft ft
L
q
 
= = =

\ .
use 1.2 1.6
U D L
q q q = + with appropriate pattern loading schemes for each location
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1327
Location Equivalent Frame Analysis with
SoftwareBased Model
Direct Design Method
(From Problem 137)
Column A2 62.8 kft 51 kft
Midspan AB 80.3 kft 102 kft
Exterior of col. B2 156 kft 137 kft
Interior of col. B2 130 kft 127 kft
Midspan BC 64.5 kft 69 kft
Column C2 126 kft 127 kft
Note that the remaining locations along column line 2 are symmetrical across column C2.
Some discussion should be presented in the solution, in addition to this table, commenting on the
relative precision of the two approaches, noting that neither is necessarily accurate nor correct,
although they are hopefully close to reality. It might be noted that similar discrepancies show up
when the results of a software analysis of a frame system are compared with the results from
using an ACI moment coefficient approach.
(b) Use an equivalentframe method to analyze the factored design moments
along column line A and compare the results with the moments used in part
(b) of Problem 138.
For this solution, structural analysis software is used to model an equivalent frame used
to represent the column line in question. Before this can be done, an appropriate equivalent frame
must be defined, which is done here following recommendations from the text.
Column properties:
2
16 in 16 in 256 in
g
A = =
( )
3
4
16 in 16 in
5460 in
12
g
I
= =
4
5460 in
e g
I I = =
Note that a full 9.5 ft of column will be modeled above and below the slab. These
elements will be fixed at their ends.
Beam properties:
In the positive bending regions and the negative bending regions near interior columns:
0.5 o = , 0.5  =
In the negative bending regions near exterior columns (assumed to be
1
0.2 ft long):
0.2 o = , 0.33  =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
1328
Loads to be applied:
( ) (
( ) (
use 1.2 1.6
U D L
q q q = + with appropriate pattern loading schemes for each location
Location Equivalent Frame Analysis with
SoftwareBased Model
Direct Design Method
(From Problem 137)
Column A1 52.5 kft 29.3 kft
Midspan A1A2 46.9 kft 58.7 kft
Exterior of col. A2 89.6 kft 78.7 kft
Interior of col. A2 78.8 kft 72.9 kft
Midspan A2A3 39.4 kft 39.8 kft
Note that the remaining locations along column line A are symmetrical across Midspan A2A3.
Some discussion should be presented in the solution, in addition to this table, commenting on the
relative precision of the two approaches. It should be mentioned that neither is necessarily
accurate nor correct, although they are hopefully close to reality. It might be noted that similar
discrepancies show up when the results of a software analysis of a frame system are compared
with the results from using an ACI moment coefficient approach.
1311 For the same floor system described in Problem 1310 and the loading and material
strengths given in Problem 137, assume the slab thickness has been selected to be
6.5 in.
(a) For a typical interior floor panel, calculate the immediate deflection due to
live load and compare to the limit given in ACI Code Table 9.5 (b).
This solution will follow the approach shown in Example 1316.
Step 1: Compute the immediate deflection of an interior column strip, which should be taken in
the NS direction, as these are the longer span column strips. Take the span between columns B
2 and C2 as the interior span in question.
First compute M
a
. The loads we must consider for deflection calculations are:
Dead load: ( )
3
6.5 in lb
1.0 Dead Load 150 25 psf 106 psf
in
ft
12
ft
= + =
Service load: ( ) 1.0 Dead Live 106 psf 60 psf 166 psf + = + =
Construction load: ( ) ( ) 2.0 Slab Dead Load 2 81.3 psf 163 psf = =
Therefore, cracking will be governed by the service load. Since we know that the moments
calculated in Problem 137b are based on an area load of 246 psf, we can take M
a
to be 166/246 =
0.675 times the column strip moments calculated in Problem 137b, as follows:
Negative moment at B2 and C2: ( ) 0.675 95.2 kft 64.3 kft =
Positive moment at midspan: 0.675 41.1 kft 27.7 kft =
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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1329
Now compute M
cr
:
( )
3 in
1
7.5 4500 psi 9 ft 12 6.5 in
12
ft
383, 000 lbin 31.9 kft
3.25 in
r g
cr
t
f I
M
y
= = = =
It is a safe bet that the slab will be cracked in both the positive and negative moment
regions regardless, due to temperature and shrinkage effects.
Next, we have to compute I
cr
and I
e
. For simplicity, we will assume that the reinforcement
selected in Problem 137 is used in this slab as well.
Negative moment region:
2
11 0.31 in
0.00486
in
9 ft 12 6.5 in
ft
= =
29, 000, 000 psi
7.58
57, 000 4500 psi
n = =
0.0368 n =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 0.0368 0.0368 0.0368 0.237 k n n n = + = + =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 2
3 2
2 4
1
3
1 in
9 ft 12 0.237 5.4 in 3.41 in 7.58 5.4 in 0.237 5.4 in 514 in
3 ft
cr st
I b kd A n d kd = +
= + =
( ) ( )
3
3
4 4 4 4
31.9 kft
514 in 2470 in 514 in 753 in
64.3 kft
cr
e cr g cr
a
M
I I I I
M
 
 
= + = + =


\ .
\ .
Positive moment region:
4
2470 in
e g
I I ~ =
So, the weighted average value of I
e
is:
( ) ( )
4 4 4 4
( ) 1 2
0.7 0.15 0.7 2470 in 0.15 753 in 753 in 1950 in
e average em e e
I I I I = + + = + + =
Now we can calculate the immediate deflection due to live load. Using the same logic described
in Example 1316, assume that 67.5% of the loads will be carried by the column strip.
60 psf 18 ft 0.675 0.729 k/ft 60.8 lb/in
L
w = = =
106 psf 18 ft 0.675 1.29 k/ft 107 lb/in
D
w = = =
4
4
(column strip max)
4
in
60.8 lb/in 20 ft 12
ft
0.0048 0.0048 0.130 in
57, 000 4500 psi 1950in
L
L
w
EI
 

\ .
A = = =
4
4
(column strip max)
4
in
107 lb/in 20 ft 12
ft
0.0026 0.0026 0.124 in
57, 000 4500 psi 1950in
D
D
w
EI
 

\ .
A = = =
Step 2: Compute the immediate deflection of an interior middle strip, which should be taken in
the EW direction, as these are the shorter span middle strips. Take an interior span between
column lines 2 and 3.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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1330
First compute M
a
. The loads we must consider for deflection calculations are:
Dead load: ( )
3
6.5 in lb
1.0 Dead Load 150 25 psf 106 psf
in
ft
12
ft
= + =
Service load: ( ) 1.0 Dead Live 106 psf 60 psf 166 psf + = + =
Construction load: ( ) ( ) 2.0 Slab Dead Load 2 81.3 psf 163 psf = =
Therefore, cracking will be governed by the service load. Since we know that the moments
calculated in Problem 137b are based on an area load of 246 psf, we can take M
a
to be 166/246 =
0.675 times the slab strip moments calculated using the loading described in Problem 137b.
Negative moment at B2 and C2: ( ) 0.675 28.3 kft 19.1 kft =
Positive moment at midspan: 0.675 24.4 kft 16.5 kft =
Now compute M
cr
:
( )
3 in
1
7.5 4500 psi 11 ft 12 6.5 in
12
ft
468, 000 lbin 39.0 kft
3.25 in
r g
cr
t
f I
M
y
= = = =
It is unlikely that the middle strip will be significantly cracked given that the moments
which control the cracking state are so far below the cracking moment for the strip section.
Therefore, we can assume that:
Negative moment region:
4
3020 in
e g
I I ~ =
Positive moment region:
4
3020 in
e g
I I ~ =
And therefore the weighted average value of I
e
is obviously:
4
( )
3020 in
e average
I =
Now we can calculate the immediate deflection due to live load. Using the same logic described
in Example 1316, assume that 32.5% of the loads will be carried by the middle strip.
60 psf 20 ft 0.325 0.390 k/ft 32.5 lb/in
L
w = = =
106 psf 20 ft 0.325 0.689 k/ft 57.4 lb/in
D
w = = =
4
4
(middle strip max)
4
in
32.5 lb/in 18 ft 12
ft
0.0048 0.0048 0.029 in
57, 000 4500 psi 3020in
L
L
w
EI
 

\ .
A = = =
4
4
(middle strip max)
4
in
57.4 lb/in 18 ft 12
ft
0.0026 0.0026 0.028 in
57, 000 4500 psi 3020in
D
D
w
EI
 

\ .
A = = =
Step 3: Compute the maximum immediate total deflection in the panel due to the live load, and
compare against allowable deflections according to ACI Code limits.
(max)
0.130 in 0.029 in 0.159 in
L
A = + =
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1331
in
20 ft 12
ft
ACI Code Limit / 360 0.667 in
360
= = = We are OK.
(b) For the same floor panel, calculate the total deflection after the attachment
of partitions and compare to the limit given in ACI Code Table 9.5(b) for
partitions that are not likely to be damaged by long term deflections.
Assume that 85 percent of the dead load is acting when the partitions are
attached to the structure and assume that 25 percent of the live load will be
sustained for a period of one year.
We will assume that the total expected deflection after the attachment of partitions is a
sum of the following:
1. Dead load
Assuming that 85% of the dead load is already acting when the partitions are
attached, consider 15% of the immediate deflection due to dead load affects the
partitions.
Dead immediate
0.1 (0.124 in 0.028 in) 0.015 in A = + =
2. Live load
Assume that the total instantaneous deflection due to live load could occur at any
time once the partitions are attached, so include the full instantaneous deflection
due to live load.
Live immediate
0.159 in A =
3. Long term deflections
Assume that the full dead load acts plus 25% of the live load over the
course of a year. Use the suggested deflection coefficient of 3.0 to adjust
for longterm amplification effects.
( )
Long term
3.0 0.124 in 0.028 in 0.25 0.159 in 0.575 in A = + + =
Therefore, the total expected deflection felt by the partitions is:
partitions Dead immediate Live immediate Long term
partitions
0.015 in 0.159 in 0.575 in 0.749 in
A = A + A + A
A = + + =
Compare this to the ACI limit for slab systems supporting partitions which are not
likely to be damaged by large deflections:
in
20 ft 12
ft
ACI Code Limit / 240 1.0 in
240
= = = We are OK.
1312 Repeat the questions in Problem 1311 for the following panels.
(a) An exterior panel along the west side of the floor system.
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1332
This solution will follow the same lines as the solution for Problem 1311. The column
strip in question will still be taken along the NS direction. The major change will lie in the
definition of moments acting in the column and middle strips.
(b) An exterior panel along the north side of the floor system.
This solution will follow the same lines as the solution for Problem 1311. The column
strip in question will still be taken along the NS direction. The major change will again lie in the
definition of moments acting in the column and middle strips.
(c) A corner panel.
This solution will again follow the same lines as the solution for Problem 1311. The
column strip in question will still be taken along the NS direction. The major change will still lie
in the definition of moments acting in the column and middle strips.
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141
Chapter 14
141 For the slab panel shown in Fig. P141, use the yieldline method to determine the
minimum value of the area load,
3. Compute the internal work. For slab segment I the internal work is:
( )
Similarly, the internal work for slab segment II is:
()
Therefore, the sum of the internal work is:
(
) (
)
4. Compute the external work. The two end regions outside of the points A and B are essentially two
halfpyramids that can be combined into a single pyramid with a base area 18 ft x 2 x 20 ft. The
central region between points A and B has a triangular crosssection and extends over a length of
20 ft x (1 2 ). Thus, the external work is:
( )
( )
18 ft.
L
1
= 22 ft.
Mechanism No. 1
9 ft.
 L
1
I
II
A B
L
1
= 20 ft
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142
5. Equate the external and internal work. Set EW = and solve for q
f
.
)
( )
6. Solve for the minimum value of q
f
. The solution table below starts with = 0.5 and slowly
decreases .
Numerator, kips Denominator, ft
2
q
f
, ksf
0.50 57.4 120 0.478
0.48 59.1 122 0.482
0.46 60.8 125 0.488
From this table the minimum value of q
f
is 0.478 ksf and it occurs for a value of 0.50. Because of
this result, we should investigate a second possible yieldline mechanism.
7. Select a second possible plastic yieldline mechanism.
8. Assume a virtual displacement of along positive yield line C D.
9. Compute the internal work. For slab segment I the internal work is:
( )
Similarly, the internal work for slab segment II is:
()
Therefore, the sum of the internal work is:
(
) (
)
10. Compute the external work. The two end regions outside of the points C and D are essentially
two halfpyramids that can be combined into a single pyramid with a base area 20 ft x 2 x 18 ft.
L
2
= 18 ft.
22 ft.
Mechanism No. 2
11 ft
I
II
C
D
o L
2
20 ft
10 ft
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143
The central region between points C and D has a triangular crosssection and extends over a length of
18 ft x (1 2 ). Thus, the external work is:
( )
( )
11. Equate the external and internal work. Set EW = and solve for q
f
.
)
( )
12. Solve for the minimum value of q
f
. The solution table below starts with = 0.5 and slowly
decreases .
Numerator, kips Denominator, ft
2
q
f
, ksf
0.50 57.2 120 0.477
0.48 57.9 122 0.475
0.46 58.7 125 0.47
0.44 59.6 127 0.469
0.42 60.6 130 0.468
0.4 61.6 132 0.467
0.38 62.8 134 0.467
From this table the minimum value of q
f
is 0.467 ksf and it occurs for an value of approximately
0.47. In this case it was important for us to investigate this second possible yieldline mechanism.
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144
142 For the slab panel shown in Fig. P142, use the yieldline method to determine the
minimum value of the area load,
3. Compute the internal work. For slab segment I the internal work is:
( )
Similarly, the internal work for slab segment II is:
()
Therefore, the sum of the internal work is:
() (
)
4. Compute the external work. The end region below the point A is essentially a halfpyramid with a
base area of 20 ft x x 20 ft. The region between points A and B has a triangular crosssection and
extends over a length of 20 ft x (1 ). Thus, the external work is:
( )
( )
5. Equate the external and internal work. Set EW = and solve for q
f
.
)
( )
L
1
= 20 ft.
20 ft.
Assumed yieldline mechanism
free edge
I
II
10 ft.
 L
1
A
B
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145
6. Solve for the minimum value of q
f
. The solution table below starts with = 0.75 and increase in
increments of 0.05.
Numerator, kips Denominator, ft
2
q
f
, ksf
0.75 34.7 150 0.231
0.80 33.6 147 0.229
0.85 32.7 143 0.228
0.90 31.9 140 0.228
0.95 31.2 137 0.228
1.00 30.5 133 0.229
From this table the minimum value of q
f
is 0.228 ksf and it occurs for a value of approximately
0.90.
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146
143 For the slab panel shown in Fig. P143, use the yieldline method to determine the
minimum value of the area load,
5. Compute the external work. Rather than calculate a displaced volume, we will determine the
magnitude of load acting on each plate segment and then multiply that load times the displacement at
the centroid of the segment. If we did this directly for the defined segments, it would be difficult to
find the centroids of each segment. Thus, for plate segment I we will calculate the work done by the
distributed load acting on the triangular segment ADE, and then subtract to work for the triangular
piece outside the actual slab panel. So, for segment I:
(12.9 15)
( ) (total) (outside)
3 3
f
EW I A A q
o o (
=
(
2
1 1 1 12.9 15
( ) 48 15 24 12.9
2 3 2 3
(75.6 ft )
f
f
EW I q
q
o
o
(
' ' ' ' =
(
=
18 ft
24 ft
Assumed yieldline mechanism
A B
C
12.9'
17.1'
4
.
5
'
D
E
F
I
II
III 4
.
8
0
'
4
.
1
1
'
4
.
0
9
'
2
6
.
9
'
2
4
.
5
'
4
.
1
'
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148
Similarly, for segment II:
2
1 1 1 17.1 20
( ) 36 20 18 17.1
2 3 2 3
(76.1 ft )
f
f
EW II q
q
o
o
(
' ' ' ' =
(
=
And for segment III, where some additional small triangles are used outside the slab panel:
2
1 1 1 4.11 4.80 1 4.09 4.80
( ) [ 60 4.80 26.9 4.11 24.5 4.09
2 3 2 3 2 3
1 4.11 4.80 1 4.09 4.80
3.10 4.11 5.5 4.09 ]
2 3 2 3
( ) (13.0 ft )
f
f
EW III
q
EW III q
o
o
' ' ' ' ' ' =
' ' ' '
=
Thus, the sum of external work is:
2
(165 ft )
f
EW q o =
6. Setting the sum of the internal work equal to the sum of the external work gives:
2
45.8 kips
(trial) 0.278 ksf
165 ft
f
q = =
7. Estimate for the minimum value of q
f
. Rather than doing several trials, we will assume that the
selected trial mechanism is reasonable and should give an answer within ten percent of the true
minimum value for q
f
. Thus, we can say:
(min) 0.9 0.278 0.250 ksf
f
q ~ =
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149
144 For the slab panel shown in Fig. P144, use the yieldline method to determine the
minimum value of the area load,
( )
3. Compute the internal work. For slab segment I the internal work is:
( ))
( ( ))
[
( )
]
Similarly, the internal work for slab segment II is:
( )
( )
[
]
Therefore, the sum of the internal work is:
[
( )
]
4. Compute the external work. The deflected shape is essentially a halfpyramid, with a combined
base area (18 ft x 24 ft)/2. Thus, the external work is:
5. Equate the external and internal work. Set EW = and solve for q
f
.
(
( )
Assumed yieldline mechanism
L
1
= 18 ft.
 L
2
A
I
II
L
2
= 24 ft.
 L
1
free edge
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1410
6. Solve for the minimum value of q
f
. Because the denominator is constant, we need to minimize the
numerator. It is expected that 0.5.
Numerator, kips Denominator, ft
2
q
f
, ksf
0.48 29.0 72.0 0.403
0.50 28.5 72.0 0.396
0.52 28.1 72.0 0.390
0.54 27.7 72.0 0.385
0.56 27.5 72.0 0.382
0.58 27.4 72.0 0.381
0.60 27.5 72.0 0.382
From this table the minimum value of q
f
is 0.381 ksf and it occurs for a value of 0.58.
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1411
145 The slab panel shown in Fig. P145 is 7.5 in. thick and is made of normal weight
concrete. The slab will need to support a superimposed dead load of 25 psf and a live
load of 60 psf. Assume that the slab will be designed with isotropic top and bottom
reinforcement.
(a) Find the critical yieldline mechanism and then use the appropriate load factors
and strengthreduction factors to determine the required sum of the nominal
negative and positivemoment capacities (
) in units of  .
1. Determine the total factored load to be resisted.
Slab weight is (7.5/12) x 150 = 94 psf; Thus, the total dead load = 94 + 25 = 119 psf.
The live load can be reduced based on the panel area (20 x 26 = 520 ft
2
). Note: K
LL
= 1.0. For
this area, the reduced live load is equal to 54.5 psf.
So, the total factored load, q
u
= 1.2 x 119 + 1.6 x 54.5 = 230 psf = 0.230 ksf
2. Select a possible plastic yieldline mechanism. A couple items should be noted. First, in text
Example 144, the value of was close to 0.5, so having a virtual displacement of only at a single
point (point A) will give a relatively good answer. Also, because of the fixed supports at the support
edges for plate segments I and II, we would like to make the rotations of those plate segments smaller
than for plate segments III and IV. Thus, will be greater than 0.5.
3. Assume a virtual displacement equal to at point A.
, and
20 ft 26 ft
, and
(1 ) 20 ft (1 ) 26 ft
I II
III IV
o o
u u
 
o o
u u
 
= =
= =
20 ft
26 ft
Assumed yieldline mechanism
A
 x 20 ft
 x 26 ft
II
III
IV
I
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1412
3. Compute the internal work. For the four slab segments the internal work is:
1.3( )
( ) ( ) 26 ft
0.77( )
( ) ( ) 20 ft
n p
n p I
n p
n p II
m m
IW I m m
m m
IW II m m
u o

u o

+
= + =
+
= + =
1.3
( ) 26 ft
1
0.77
( ) 20 ft
1
p
p III
p
p IV
m
IW III m
m
IW IV m
u o

u o

= =
= =
From these, the sum of the internal work is:
[
(
]
At some point in the design process need to make a decision on the ratio between the flexural strength
of the bottom reinforcement, m
p
, vs. the strength of the top reinforcement, m
n
. Reading ahead to
problem 14.5(b), we are asked to assume that
]
4. Compute the external work. In previous problems we have solved for the distributed load, q
f
, at the
development of a failure mechanism. In this case, q
f
is equivalent to q
u
divided by the strength
reduction factor, , which will be assume to be equal to 0.9. Thus,
2
0.230 ksf
20 ft 26 ft (173 ft ) (44.2 k)
3 0.9
u
q
EW
o
o o

(
= = =
(
5. Equate the external and internal work.
[
(
]
6. Solve for the minimum required value of
, kipft/ft
0.50 2.97
0.55 3.07
0.60 3.13
0.65 3.11
From this table the minimum required value of
kipft/ft.
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1413
(b) Start with
approximately equal to
and
and
For negative bending,
()
( )
Using #4 bars,
Using #3 bars,
For positive bending,
()
( )
Using #4 bars,
Using #3 bars,
2. Check reinforcement detailing requirements and select reinforcement:
Minimum reinforcement area:
{
} To satisfy the strength requirements from step 1
and this maximum spacing requirement, select #3 bars for both top and bottom reinforcement. Bars
shall be spaced at 7.5 in. and 11 in. along the top and bottom faces of the slab, respectively, in both
orthogonal directions. Clear cover requirements of 0.75 in. shall be enforced. Proper anchorage shall
be provided for all slab reinforcement.
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151
Chapter 15
151 Design wall footings to be supported 3 ft below grade for the following conditions.
Assume a soil density of
, is 4000 psf.
and
.
The following design is done for a 1 ft length of footing. Although not included for simplicity, the
per foot notation applies to all units in the following solution.
1) Estimate size of footing and factored net pressure
The bottom face of the footing is 3 ft below the ground surface.
Assume the thickness of the footing is 12 in.
The soil density is 120
3
lb/ft
Allowable net soil pressure:
3 3
4 ksf (1.0 ft 0.15 k/ft 2.0 ft 0.12 k/ft ) 3.61 ksf
n
q = + =
Required footing area:
2
.
6 k 8 k
3.88 ft
3.61 ksf
req
A
+
= =
Try 4 ft wide strip footing.
Factored net pressure:
1.2 6 k 1.6 8 k
5 ksf
4 ft 1 ft
nu
q
+
= =
2) Check oneway shear
Assume a concrete cover of 3 in., and #8 bars being used.
12 in. 3 in. 0.5 in. 8.5 in. d = =
The distance the footing extends to each side from the column face:
( ) 48 in. 12 in. / 2 18 in. =
18 in. 8.5 in.
5 ksf 1 ft 3.96 k
12 in/ft
u
V
 
= =

\ .
2 0.75 2 3500 12 8.5 9050 lb 9.05 k
c c w
V f b d   ' = = = =
Since
c
V  is significantly greater than
u
V , we reduce the footing thickness to the
minimum allowable by ACI Section 15.7, i.e.:
6 in. + bar dia. + 3 in. cover. = 10 in.
10 in. 3 in. 0.5 in. 6.5 in. d = =
18 in. 6.5 in.
5 ksf 1 ft 4.79 k
12 in/ft
u
V
 
= =

\ .
Use 10 in. thick footing
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152
3) Design reinforcement
( )
( )
2
1.5 ft
5 ksf 1ft 5.63 kft
2
u
M = =
Assume 0.90 j =
2
5.63 kft 12 in/ft
0.21 in.
0.9 60 ksi (0.9 6.5 in)
s
A
= =
2
,min
0.0018bh 0.0018 12 in. 10 in. 0.22 in.
s
A = = =
Use #4 bars at with a spacing of 10 in. (
2
0.24 in.
s
A = )
10 in. 3 in. 0.25 in. 6.75 in. d = =
2
0.24 in. 60 ksi
0.4 in.
0.85 3.5 psi 12 in.
a
= =
( ) 6.75 0.4/ 0.85
0.003 0.040 0.005, 0.9
0.4/ 0.85
t cm
d c
c
c c 
= = = > =
( )
2
0.9 0.24 in. 60 ksi 6.75 in. 0.4 in./2
84.9 kin. 7.07 kft
n
u
M
M
 =
= = >
4) Check development
Bar spacing exceeds
b
2 and cover exceeds d
b
d This is Case 2 development.
1 1 60000 psi
0.5 in. 20 in. 18 in. 3 in., NG.
25 25 1 3500 psi
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f
= = = >
'
We shall use 90 standard hooks to anchor the bars. The required development length for
a 90 standard hook is:
0.02
0.02 1 60000 psi
0.5 in. 10 in. < 18 in. 3 in., OK.
1 3500 psi
e y
d b
c
f
d
f
= = =
'
5) Temperature requirement for longitudinal reinforcement:
2
, .
0.0018bh 0.0018 48 in. 10 in. 0.86 in.
s req
A = = =
Use 5 #4 bars for longitudinal reinforcement.
Use 10 in. thick by 4 ft. wide footing with #4 bars at 10 in. o.c. with 90 hooks at both ends in the
transverse direction, and 5 #4 bars in the longitudinal direction.
152 Design wall footings to be supported 3 ft below grade for the following conditions.
Assume a soil density of
, is 6000 psf.
and
.
1) Estimate size of footing and factored net pressure
The bottom face of the footing is 3 ft below the ground surface.
Assume the thickness of the footing is16 in.
The soil density is 120
3
lb/ft
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153
Allowable net soil pressure:
)
Required footing area:
Try 4.5 ft wide strip footing.
Factored net pressure:
2) Check oneway shear
Assume a concrete cover of 3 in., and #8 bars being used.
16 in. 3 in. 0.5 in. 12.5 in. d = =
The distance the footing extends to each side from the column face:
( ) 54 in. 16 in. / 2 19 in. =
19 in. 12.5 in.
6.84 ksf 1 ft 3.71 k
12 in/ft
u
V
 
= =

\ .
2 0.75 2 3000 12 12.5 12.3 k
c c w
V f b d   ' = = =
Since
c
V  is significantly greater than
u
V , we reduce the footing thickness to 12 in.:
12 in. 3 in. 0.5 in. 8.5 in. d = =
19 in. 8.5 in.
6.84 ksf 1 ft 5.99 k
12 in/ft
u
V
 
= =

\ .
Use 12 in. thick footing
3) Design reinforcement
( )
( )
2
1.583 ft
6.84 ksf 1ft 8.58 kft
2
u
M = =
Assume 0.90 j =
2
8.58 kft 12 in/ft
0.25 in.
0.9 60 ksi (0.9 8.5 in)
s
A
= =
2
,min
0.0018bh 0.0018 12 in. 12 in. 0.26 in.
s
A = = =
Use #5 bars at with a spacing of 12 in. (
2
0.31 in.
s
A = )
12 in. 3 in. 0.31 in. 8.7 in. d = =
2
0.31 in. 60 ksi
0.61 in.
0.85 3.0 psi 12 in.
a
= =
( ) 8.7 0.61/ 0.85
0.003 0.033 0.005, 0.9
0.61/ 0.85
t cm
d c
c
c c 
= = = > =
( )
2
0.9 0.31 in. 60 ksi 8.7 in. 0.61/ 2 in.
141 kin. 11.7 kft
n
u
M
M
 =
= = >
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154
4) Check development
Bar spacing exceeds
b
2 and cover exceeds d
b
d This is Case 2 development.
1 1 60000 psi
0.625 in. 27.4 in. 19 in. 3 in., NG.
25 25 1 3000 psi
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f
= = = >
'
We shall use 90 standard hooks to anchor the bars. The required development length for
a 90 standard hook is:
0.02
0.02 1 60000 psi
0.625 in. 14 in. < 19 in. 3 in., OK.
1 3000 psi
e y
hb b
c
f
d
f
= = =
'
5) Temperature requirement for longitudinal reinforcement:
2
, .
0.0018bh 0.0018 54 in. 12 in. 1.17 in.
s req
A = = =
Use 6 #4 bars for longitudinal reinforcement.
Use 12 in. thick by 4 ft 6 in. wide footing with #5 bars at 12 in. o.c. with 90 hooks at both ends
in the transverse direction, and 6 #4 bars in the longitudinal direction.
153 Design a square spread footing for the following conditions:
Service dead load is 350 kips, service live load is 275 kips. Soil density is
.
Allowable soil pressure is 4500 psf. Column is 18 in. square.
(normal
weight) and
\ . \ .
(Note 40
s
o = for a column placed at the center of its footing)
4
c c w
V f b d ' =
Use 30 in. thick footing.
3) Check oneway shear
The distance the footing extends to each side from the column face:
( ) 156 in. 18 in. / 2 69 in. =
4) Design reinforcement
( )
( )
2
5.75 ft
5.09 ksf 13 ft 1095 kft
2
u
M = =
Assume 0.90 j =
Use 18 #7 (
2
10.8 in.
s
A = )
( )
5) Check development
Bar spacing exceeds
b
2 and cover exceeds d
b
d This is a Case 2 development.
1 1 60000 psi
0.875 in. 35.5 in.<69 in. 3 in., OK.
25 25 1 3500 psi
e t y
d b
c
f
d
f
= = =
'
Use 13 ft square footing, 30 in. thick with 18 #7 bars each way.
6) Design footingcolumn joint
Factored load at base of column:
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156
1.2 350 1.6 275 860 kips + =
Allowable bearing on footing:
0.65 0.85 3.5 18 18 2 1250 k =
Allowable bearing on column (assume column 4000 psi
c
f ' = )
0.65 0.85 4 18 18 716 k =
2
860 716
Area of dowels required 3.7 in.
0.65 60
= =
Depending on how the column reinforcement is selected, the dowel bars will be selected
accordingly for construction simplicity.
154 Design a rectangular spread footing for the following conditions.
Service dead loads are: axial = 350 k, moment = 80 kft; service live loads are:
axial = 250 k, moment = 100 kft. The moments are acting about the strong axis of
the column section. Soil density is
and
.
1) Select footing dimensions based on allowable soil pressure. Assume a footing thickness of 3
ft. The net permissible bearing pressure is:
( )
Consider only the axial loads to establish the width of the footing.
Use axial loads and moments to establish the length of the footing. Assume a linear
distribution of soil pressure as shown in Fig. 155(b). Thus,
Set
and .
( )
Solving for the positive root,
Set
2) Calculate factored soil pressure:
Factored loads are:
With these values, the factored soil pressures are:
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157
3) Check footing thickness for twoway shear:
Dimension of the critical perimeter are:
Therefore,
() (
)
Calculate the twoway shear capacity, with
c
V taken as the smaller of:
(Note
c
 is the ratio of the column dimensions)
(Note 40
s
o = for a column placed at the center of its footing)
4
c c w
V f b d ' =
Use 36 in. thick footing.
4) Check for combined transfer of shear and moment:
) (
()
5) Check for oneway shear:
6) Design flexural reinforcement for long direction:
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158
( )
Assume jd = 0.95d, and use
Use 15 #7 (
( )
7) Check development:
The available length is 72 in., so this is ok.
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171
Chapter 17
171 The deep beam shown in Fig. P171 supports a factored load of 1450 kips. The beam
and columns are 24 in. wide. Draw a truss model neglecting the effects of stirrups
and the dead load of the wall. Check the strength of the nodes and struts, and design
the tension tie. Use
.
1290 k
644 k
1450 k
1290 k
644 k
21.1 10.5
55.3
35.8
30 24
243
69 36
Note: Length units are in inches.
A
D
B C
Node 1
Node 2 Node 3
Fig. S171
1. Compute /
u
P  and reactions
To include  in calculations use / 1450 kips/0.75 1930 kips
u
P  = =
Sum moments about the center of the support at A, assuming the member acts as a simple
beam and all loads and reactions act along the axes of the columns.
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172
69 18 15
1930 kips 644 kips
243 12 15
D
R
+
= =
1930 kips 644 kips 1286 kips 1290 kips
A
R = = ~
2. Select size of beam
Assume
A
R is the maximum value of /
u
V  , and set this equal to ( 6 to 8 ) .
c
f bd ' For
24 in. b = , solve to find d values between 142 and 106 in. Try an overall beam height h
of 10 ft. and assume that d is approximately 9 ft. = 108 in.
3. Isolate Dregions
Because the distance between the load and the reactions is less than 2h at both ends, the
beam consists of two Dregions, one of each side of the load.
4. Draw a strutandtie model and establish base dimensions of the nodes
Use a truss with two inclined struts and a tie, as shown below.
Compute
cu
f
Node 1 (CCC node):
0.85 0.85 1.0 4000 psi 3400 psi
cu n c
f f  ' = = =
Node 2 and 3 (CCT nodes):
0.85 0.85 0.8 4000 psi 2720 psi
cu n c
f f  ' = = =
Strut 12 (assume sufficient web reinforcement is used to satisfy Eq. 1710):
0.85 0.85 0.75 4000 psi 2550 psi
cu s c
f f  ' = = =
Select the sizes of the nodes assuming they are hydrostatic nodes with 2550 psi
cu
f =
Node 1
Divide the load into two components equal to the two reactions.
Width of left part of node 1290 k/(2.55 ksi 24 in.) = 21.1 in. =
Similarly, the width of the right part of the node = 10.5 in.
Total node width 21.1 10.5 31.6 in. < 36 in. = + = , OK.
Node 2
Width of node = 21.1 in. < 30 in. (assume reaction is at center of column)
Node 3
Width of node = 10.5 in. < 24 in. (assume reaction is at center of column)
5. Establish geometry of truss and forces in struts and tie:
Assume that 2 ft 10 ft. 2 ft. = 8 ft. = 96 in.
v
d h = =
Then, tan ( left part of span ) = 96 in./(69 18 15) in.; so, ( left )=53.1 u u +
Total span length = 243 12 15 216 in. =
Then, tan ( right part of span ) 96 in./(216 72)in.; so, ( right) 33.7 u u = =
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173
Strut 12
Axial force = 1290 kips/sin53.1 1610 kips =
Horizontal component = 1610 kips cos53.1 967 kips force in Tie 23 = =
Node 2 (Note that  was included in force calculations)
Node height = force in the Tie 23/( ) 967 k/(2.55 ksi 24 in.)
cu
f b =
Node height = 15.8 in.; this is also the height of Node 1.
At this point we must check the assumed value for
v
d
Revised: 2 (15.8 in./2)=120 in. 15.8 in. = 104.2 in.
v
d h = (should recycle)
Assume: 104 in.
v
d =
With this value: (left)= 55.3 and (right) = 35.8 u u
Axial forces: Strut 12 = 1570 kips and Tie 23 = 893 kip
Heights of nodes 1 and 2 = 14.6 in., and 120 in. 2 (14.6 in./2) 105.4 in.
v
d = ~ , OK.
Strut 13
Axial force: 644 kips/sin35.8 1100 kips =
Horizontal component: 1100 kips cos35.8 892 kips ( approx. 893 kips, OK.) =
6. Select reinforcement for Tie 23 (Note that  was included in force calculations)
2
893 k/ 60 ksi = 14.9 in.
s
A =
Use 16 #9 bars (
2
16.0 in.
s
A = )
Provide 4 layers of 4 No. 9 hooked bars. These must be anchored into the column at each
end with anchorage starting where the centroid of the tie first meets the inclined struts at
each end of the beam. The length required for a 90 standard hook is 21.4 in. for a No. 9
bar, which is less than the dimension of each support of column. Thus, this should be OK.
The centroid of the bars should be at about the midheight of the nodal zones at each end,
i.e. about 7.5 in. above the bottom of the beam.
7. Minimum web reinforcement to control cracking inclined struts
Because 0.75
s
 = was used for the inclined struts in both the left and right spans,
minimum web reinforcement that satisfies Eq. 1710 is required throughout the length of
the beam. For a deep beam, it is a good practice to also satisfy the reinforcement
requirements in ACI sections 11.8.4 and 11.8.5
Part of the beam to the left of the concentrated load:
For horizontal reinforcement, try #5 bars on the front and back faces at a vertical spacing
of 12 in.
2
2 0.31 in.
0.0022 0.0015 (OK.)
12 in. 24 in.
h
= = >
90 55.3 34.7
h
= =
For vertical reinforcement, try #5 twolegged stirrups at a spacing of 10 in.
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174
2
2 0.31 in.
0.0026 0.0025 (OK.)
10 in. 24 in.
v
= = >
55.3
v
=
Checking Eq. 1710:
sin sin
(0.0022) (sin34.7 ) (0.0026) (sin55.3 ) 0.0034 0.003, OK.
si
i i i
si
A
b
=
= + = >
Part of the beam to the right of the concentrated load:
Use the same reinforcement. Here
h
35.8 and 90 35.8 54.2
v
= = =
sin 0.00174 0.00151 0.00325 0.003 (OK.)
i i
= + = >
Therefore, throughout the span use 2 #5 horizontal bars at a vertical spacing of 12 in. and use #5
twolegged stirrups as a spacing of 10 in.
172 Repeat Problem 171, but include the dead load of the wall. Assume that stirrups
crossing the lines AB and CD have a capacity
.
Interface transfer shear stress is limited to the smallest of
0.2 1000 psi
c
f ' =
480 0.08 880 psi
c
f ' + = and
1600 psi
The transfer shear stress is taken as 880 psi.
Compute minimum effective depth:
120, 000
13 in.
0.75 880 14
d = =
Try 16 in. and 18 in. d h = =
Factored shear = 120 kips = 120,000 lbs.
Normal force 0.2 120 kips 24 kips 24000 lbs. = = =
Moment 120 5 24 2 648 kin. = + =
(Note: 2in. moment arm assumed between horizontal load and horizontal reinforcement)
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175
Shear Friction Steel
( )
2
120
1.90 in.
0.75 1.4 1.0 60
u
vf
y
V
A
f 
= = =
(Note that we have used 1.4 = for monolithic concrete and 1 = for normalweight
concrete)
Flexural Steel
2
648
1.0 in.
0.75 60 (0.9 16)
f
A ~ =
1.0 60
1 in.
0.85 5 14
a
= =
2
648
0.93 in.
0.75 60(16 1/ 2)
f
A = =
Direct Tension Steel
2
24
0.53 in.
0.75 60
n
A = =
Area of Tension Tie will be taken as the largest of:
2
(0.93 0.53) 1.5 in.
f n
A A + = + =
2
2 / 2 2 1.90/ 3 0.53 1.8 in.
vf n
A A + = + =
2
,min
0.04 0.04 5
14 16 0.75 in.
60
c
sc w
y
f
A b d
f
'
= = =
Use 3 #7 bars (or 2 #9),
2 2
1.80 in. (or 2.00 in. )
s
A =
Horizontal Stirrups
Area required:
2
/ 3 0.63 in.
vf
A =
Use 2 #4 closed stirrups,
2
0.80 in.
s
A =
Anchor tension tie into column
Use 90 standard hooks to anchor the tension tie. Use #7 bars.
Also assume that the ties are inside the column cage; therefore a modification factor of
0.7 is multiplied to the basic development length per ACI Code Section 12.5.3(a):
0.02
0.02 1 60000
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.875 10.4 in.
1 5000
e y
dh b
c
f
d
f
= = =
'
Assume a column size of 14 in. 14 in. , #8 bars used for column longitudinal
reinforcement, and a concrete cover of 2.5 in. to the longitudinal bars. The available
space for anchorage is:
14 in. 2.5 in. 0.5 in. 12 in. 10.4 in. + = > , OK.
Fig. S172 shows the detailed reinforcement of the corbel.
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176
3 #7 welded
to the angle
plate
2 #4
closed ties
2 #4
bars
14 in. 8 in.
9
i
n
.
9
i
n
.
Fig. S172
174 Repeat Problem 173, but with a factored vertical load of 100 kips and a factored
horizontal load of 40 kips.
The problem is solved similar to Problem 173.
175 Figure P175 shows the dapped support region of a simple beam. The factored
vertical reaction is 100 kips, and you should include a horizontal reaction of 20 kips.
Use normalweight concrete with
Strut BF
120
Width 2.89 in.
3.19 13
= =
Strut CD
Use full thickness.
198
Width 3.88 in.
3.19 16
= =
Strut BE
144
Width 2.82 in.
3.19 16
= =
Struts having these approximate widths are shown in the drawing.
6. Select reinforcement for the ties
Tie BC
We have already chosen 4 #5 double leg closed stirrups in two groups of two
stirrups.
Ties DE and FG
Use 4 #5 double leg stirrups with 135 hooks spaced at 3 in. o.c. for tie DE and 4
#5 doubleleg stirrups with 135 hooks spaced at 2in. for tie FG.
Ties AD
2
147/ 60 2.45 in.
s
A = =
Use 5 #7 bars. Weld these to the angle at A.
We need to extend these bars past D a distance equal to the development length.
These bars are considered top bars, from Table A6, 55.2 48.3 in.
d
 = = So,
extend the bars 50 in past D.
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1710
Tie CE
2
2.45 in.
s
A =
Provide 2 #8 U bars spaced 1 in. clear above the bottom steel. Lap splice them
with the tension reinforcement in the bottom of the beam using a splice length of
7. Design confinement reinforcement:
Strut AB. Use only horizontal steel. Try 2 #4 U bars spaced equally at 3.5 in. o.c.
2
2 0.20 in.
0.0071
16 in. 3.5 in.
sh
h
v
A
bs
= = =
47.9
h
=
sin 0.0053 0.0030
h h
= > , OK.
Strut CD. Use only horizontal steel. Try 2 #5 U bars spaced equally at 3.83 in. o.c.
2
2 0.31 in.
0.0101
16 in. 3.83 in.
sh
h
v
A
bs
= = =
42.2
h
=
sin 0.0068 0.0030
h h
= > , OK.
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181
Chapter 18
181 Check moment and shear strength at the base of the structural wall shown in Fig. P18
1. Also, show that the given horizontal and vertical reinforcement satisfies all of the ACI
Code requirements regarding minimum reinforcement percentage and maximum
spacing. The given lateral loads are equivalent wind forces, considering both direct
lateral forces and the effects of any torsion. Use a load factor of 1.6 for the wind load
effects. The given vertical loads represent dead loads, and you can assume that the
vertical live loads are equal to 60 percent of the dead loads. Assume the wall is
constructed with normalweight concrete that has a compressive strength of 4500 psi.
Assume all of the steel is Grade60.
1. Calculate factored loads at base of wall.
( )
,min
(base) 1.6 (7 k 15 ft 12 k 26 ft 18 k 37 ft 22 k 48 ft 20 k 59 ft)
5310 kipft
(base) 1.6 7 12 18 22 20 kips 126 kips
(base) 0.9 230 k 207 kips
u
u
u
M
V
N
= + + + +
=
= + + + + =
= =
2. Calculate flexural strength. The total area of vertical wall reinforcement is:
2 2 2
240 in.
2 0.20 in. 0.40 in. 8.00 in.
12 in.
w
st
A
s
= = =
From Eq. (1826a), the percentage of vertical (longitudinal) reinforcement is:
2
8.00 in.
0.00333
10 in. 240 in.
st
w
A
h
= = =
From Eq. (1826b), the vertical reinforcement index is:
60 ksi
0.00333 0.0444
4.5 ksi
y
c
f
f
e = = =
'
From Eq. (1827), the axial load index is:
207 kips
0.0192
10 in. 240 in. 4.5 ksi
u
w c
N
h f
o = = =
'
For 4500 psi concrete, 
1
= 0.825. Then, from Eq. (1828) the depth to the neutral axis is:
1
0.0192 0.0444
240 in. 19.3 in.
0.85 2 0.85 0.825 2 0.0444
w
c
o e
 e
  + +  
= = =
 
+ +
\ .
\ .
This is very small compared to d (taken as 0.8
w
), so this is clearly a tensioncontrolled section
and  = 0.9. From Eq. (1825a), the tension force in the vertical reinforcement is:
2
240 19.3
8.00 in. 60 ksi 441 kips
240
w
st y
w
c
T A f
   
= = =
 
\ .
\ .
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182
And, from Eq. (1829) the nominal moment strength at the base of the wall is:
240 in. 240 in. 19.3 in.
441 k 207 k
2 2 2 2
53, 000 kin. 22,800 kin. 75,800 kin. 6320 kft
w w
n u
c
M T N
       
= + = +
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
= + = =
Using the strength reduction factor, , the design strength is:
0.9 6320 5690 kft (o.k.)
n u
M M  = = >
3. Check shear strength. Because the wall is subjected to compression, we are permitted to use
Eq. (1841) to determine the concrete contribution to shear strength. For this calculation we will
assume d = 0.8 x
w
= 0.8 x 240 = 192 in., as permitted in ACI Code Section 11.9.4.
2 2 1 4500 psi 10 in. 192 in.
258, 000 lbs 258 kips
c c
V f hd
'
= =
= =
Using  = 0.75 for shear, the design strength contribution from the concrete is:
0.75 258 193 kips
c u
V V  = = >
Thus, no horizontal reinforcement is required for shear strength. However, because V
u
exceeds
onehalf of V
c
, the reinforcement requirements in ACI Code Section 11.9.9 must be satisfied.
Horizontal reinforcement:
From Eq. (1845a), the percentage of horizontal reinforcement is:
2
,
2
2 0.20 in.
0.0025 0.0025 (o.k.)
10 in. 16 in.
v horiz
t
A
h s
= = = >
The maximum centertocenter spacing for the horizontal reinforcement is the smallest of
w
/5 (48
in.), 3h (30 in.) and 18 in. Thus, the spacing of 16 in. for the horizontal reinforcement is ok.
Vertical reinforcement:
Because the wall aspect ratio, h
w
/
w
= 59ft/20ft = 2.95, exceeds 2.5, the minimum required
percentage of vertical reinforcement is 0.0025. From step 2,
= 0.00400
No. 5 bars at 16 in. spacing in each face (EF), results in
= 0.00388
Either selection will work. To use less total bars, select No. 5 bars at 16 in. spacing, EF. It is good
practice to replace the pair of No. 5 bars at the edges of the wall with a pair of No. 6 bars.
3. Shear Design. The aspect ratio for this wall is, h
w
/
w
= 24/20 = 1.20. Thus, this is a short wall and
the shear strength contribution from the concrete is probably given by Eq. (1843). Using d = 0.8 x
w
= 192 in., results in:
3.3
4
99, 000 lbs 192 in.
3.3 1 4000 psi 10 in. 192 in.
4 240 in.
(401, 000 19, 800) lbs 421, 000 lbs 421 kips
u
c c
w
N d
V f hd ' = +
= +
= + = =
Before accepting this value, we will check the value of V
c
from Eq. (1844). For this flexuralshear
strength equation, we need to evaluate the ratio of M
u
/V
u
at the critical section above the base of the
wall, as defined in Fig. 1819. For this wall,
w
/2 = 10 ft, governs. At that section the factored
moment is,
(crit. sect.) (base) (base)
2
5280 kipft 280 kip 10 ft 2480 kipft
w
u u u
M M V =
= =
Thus, the ratio of M
u
/V
u
= 2480/280 = 8.86 ft. Using this value, the denominator in the second term
of Eq. (1843) is,
8.86 ft 10 ft 1.14 ft
2
u w
u
M
V
= =
Because this is a negative number, Eq. (1844) is not valid for this wall. So, using  = 0.75 and the
value for V
c
from Eq. (1843):
0.75 421 kips 316 kips
c u
V V  = = >
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185
Thus, no horizontal reinforcement is required for shear strength. However, because V
u
exceeds
onehalf of V
c
, the reinforcement requirements in ACI Code Section 11.9.9 must be satisfied.
Horizontal reinforcement:
Use 2 No. 4 bars at 16 in. spacing in each face. Then, from Eq. (1845a), the percentage of
horizontal reinforcement is:
2
,
2
2 0.20 in.
0.0025 0.0025 (o.k.)
10 in. 16 in.
v horiz
t
A
h s
= = = >
The maximum centertocenter spacing for the horizontal reinforcement is the smallest of
w
/5 (48
in.), 3h (30 in.) and 18 in. Thus, the provided spacing of 16 in. for the horizontal reinforcement is
ok.
Vertical reinforcement:
Because
t
= 0.0025, the minimum value for
4. Check shear strength. For this wall, the value of A
cv
in Eq. (1848) is:
2
10 in. 180 in. 1800 in.
cv w
A h = = =
Because this is a slender wall, o
c
= 2.0. Eq. (1845b) will be used to determine
t
for the distributed
horizontal reinforcement.
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187
2
,
2
2 0.20 in.
0.0025
10 in. 16 in.
v horiz
t
A
h s
= = =
Using the values calculated here, the nominal shear strength of the wall from Eq. (1148) is,
( )
( )
( )
2
2
1800 in. 2 1 5000 psi 0.0025 60, 000 psi
1800 in. 141 psi 150 psi 524, 000 lbs 524 kips
n cv c c t y
V A f f o ' = +
= +
= + = =
Using  = 0.75 for shear,
0.75 524 k 393 kips (capbased) (o.k.)
n u
V V  = = >
The vertical and horizontal steel percentages in the web of the wall (both 0.0025) and the bar spacing
(16 in. both horizontal and vertical) satisfy the requirements of ACI Code Section 11.9.9, which are
applicable for this wall.
184 The structural wall shown in Fig. P184 is subjected to gravity loads ( and
) and a single, equivalent, static, lateral earthquake load ( ) at the
top of the wall (at roof level). For the given uniform distribution of vertical and
horizontal reinforcement, check the moment strength at the base of the wall and use a
capacitydeisgn approach to check the shear strength of the wall. Also, show that the
given horizontal and vertical reinforcement in the structural wall satisfies all of the ACI
Code requirements regarding minimum reinforcement percentage and maximum
spacing. Assume the wall is constructed with normalweight concrete that has a
compressive strength of 4000 psi. Assume all of the steel is Grade60.
1. Calculate factored loads for flexural strength check at base of wall.
,min
(base) 1.0 220 k 15 ft 3300 kipft
(base) 0.9 80 k 72 kips
u
u
M
N
= =
= =
2. Flexural strength. From Eq. (18454a) the vertical reinforcement percentage is:
2
,
1
2 0.31 in.
0.00388
10 in. 16 in.
v vert
A
h s
= = =
From Eq. (1826b) the reinforcement ratio for the vertical reinforcement is:
60 ksi
0.00388 0.0582
4 ksi
y
c
f
f
e = = =
'
From Eq. (1827) the axial load ratio is:
72 kips
0.00750
10 in. 240 in. 4 ksi
u
w c
N
h f
o = = =
'
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188
For 4000 psi concrete, 
1
= 0.85. Then, from Eq. (1828), the depth to the neutral axis is:
1
0.0075 0.0582
240 in. 18.8 in.
0.85 2 0.85 0.85 2 0.0582
w
c
o e
 e
  + +  
= = =
 
+ +
\ .
\ .
This is very small compared to d (0.8
w
= 192 in.), so this is clearly a tensioncontrolled section
and  = 0.9. For the longitudinal steel,
2 2
240 in.
2 0.31 in. 9.30 in.
16 in.
st
A = =
Then, from Eq. (1825a), the flexural tension force is:
2
240 in. 18.8 in.
9.30 in. 60 ksi 514 kips
240 in.
w
st y
w
c
T A f
   
= = =
 
\ .
\ .
Finally, the nominal moment capacity is found using Eq. (1829):
2 2
240 in. 240 in. 18.8 in.
514 k 72 k
2 2
(61, 700 7960)kin. 5810 kipft
w w
n u
c
M T N
   
= +
 
\ . \ .
   
= +
 
\ . \ .
= + =
Applying the strength factor, the design flexural strength is,
0.9 5810 5230 kipft
n u
M M  = =
The wall is substantially overdesigned in flexure and we should reduce the vertical
reinforcement in the wall to reduce the shear required to develop the flexural strength. One
possible redesign is to use two No. 4 bars at a 16 in. spacing in each face. For this reinforcement
= = =
The effective wall shear area from Eq. (1848) is:
2
10 in. 240 in. 2400 in.
cv w
A h = = =
Because this is a squat wall (h
w
/
w
= 0.75), o
c
= 3.0. Thus, the nominal shear strength of the wall from
Eq. (1148) is,
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2400 in. 3 1 4000 psi 0.0025 60, 000 psi
2400 in. 190 psi 150 psi 815, 000 lbs 815 kips
n cv c c t y
V A f f o ' = +
= +
= + = =
Using  = 0.75 for shear,
0.75 815 k 612 kips (capbased) (o.k.)
n u
V V  = = >
The vertical and horizontal steel percentages in the web of the wall (both 0.0025) and the bar
spacing (16 in. both horizontal and vertical) satisfy the requirements of ACI Code Section 11.9.9,
which are applicable for this wall.
185 Design a uniform distribution of vertical and horizontal reinforcement for the first story
of the structural wall shown in Fig. P185. The given horizontal loads are strengthlevel
static equivalent earthquake forces, so use a load factor of 1.0. The vertical dead and
live loads are from the tributary area adjacent to the wall. Assume the given lateral
loads include the direct shear force and any torsional effects that need to be considered.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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1810
Use a compressive strength of 4000 psi and Grade 60 reinforcement. Your final design
should satisfy all ACI Code requirements for minimum reinforcement percentages and
maximum spacing.
Try using
( )
{
Start with flexural design. Calculate
( ) ( )
) (
Calculate
()
( )
Therefore,
 
( ) ( ) ( )
) (
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
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1811
( )
( )
Calculate
) ( )
Therefore,
( )
The capacity and demand are approximately equal, so the horizontal reinforcement is adequate.
Final design:
Vertical Reinforcement: 2 curtains of #4 bars spaced at 16 in. oncenter.
Horizontal Reinforcement: 2 curtains of #4 bars spaced at 16 in. oncenter.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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191
Chapter 19
191 Use Eq. (1928) to check the need for specially confined boundary elements in the
structural wall described in Problem 183. Assume the design displacement,
, at the
top of the wall is 0.6 ft. Use all of the dimensions, loading information, and material
properties given in Problem 183. If a specially confined boundary element is required,
define the required vertical and horizontal dimensions for the boundary element.
1. Building drift ratio. The ratio, o
u
/h
w
, represents the building drift ratio due to the design
earthquake for the building in question. We are given a value for the design displacement, o
u
, at the
top of the building, so the building drift ratio is:
0.6 ft
Building drift ratio 0.010 (1%)
60 ft
u
w
h
o
= = =
2. Limit for neutral axis depth. Eq. (1927) gives a limiting value for the neutral axis depth. For
larger values, the wall boundary elements must be confined.
( )
15 ft 12 in./ft
(limit) 30.0 in.
600 600 0.010
w
u w
c
h o
= = =
3. Calculated neutral axis depth. The depth of the neutral axis for this check should come from
the calculation of the probable moment strength of the wall, which was calculated in step 3 of
Problem 183. In that calculation the depth of the equivalent stress block, a, was found to be 9.64
in. Then, using 
1
= 0.80 for 5000 psi concrete, the corresponding neutral axis depth is:
1
9.64 in.
12.1 in. (limit)
0.80
a
c c

= = = <
Therefore, special confinement reinforcement is not required in the wall boundary elements.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
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192
192 Use Eq. (1929) to check the need for specially confined boundary elements in the
structural wall described in Problem 183. Use all of the dimensions, loading
information, and material properties given in Problem 183. If a specially confined
boundary element is required, define the required vertical and horizontal dimensions
for the boundary element.
1. Factored loads at base of wall. From step 1 of Problem 183:
,min
(base) 6000 kipft 72, 000 kipin.
(base) 135 kips
u
u
M
N
= =
=
2. Wall section properties. To determine the gross area and moment of inertia of the wall, divide
the wall into rectangular pieces representing the web and the two boundary elements. Then,
( )
2
2
(web) 2 (boundary)
10 in. 140 in. 2 20 in. 2200 in.
A A A = +
= + =
And,
( )
3 3
2 2
6 4
10 140 20 20
0 2 20 20 80
12 12
7.43 10 in.
i i i
i
I I A y
 
= + = + + +

\ .
=
Also,
180 in.
90 in.
2 2
w
y = = =
3. Combined stress in edge of wall at base of wall. Eq. (1928) will be used to find the combined
stress at the edge of the wall at its base. If that stress exceeds the limit of 0.2f
c
', then we will need use
special confinement reinforcement in the wall boundary and continue that reinforcement up the wall
until we reach a section where the combined stress in the edge of the wall is less than 0.15f
c
'. Using
the values from steps 1 and 2:
2 6 4
135 k 72, 000 kin. 90 in.
2200 in. 7.43 10 in.
0.061 ksi 0.872 ksi 0.934 ksi 0.2 5 ksi 1.0 ksi
u u
c
N M y
f
A I
= +
= +
= + = < =
Therefore, special confinement reinforcement is not required in the wall boundary elements.
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permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write
to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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