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SERVICE MANUAL

2009.07
Ver. 1.0
THEORY OF OPERATION
i
THEORY OF OPERATION TOTAL CONTENTS
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS ..............................................................S-1
IMPORTANT NOTICE ................................................................................................S-1
DESCRIPTION ITEMS FOR DANGER, WARNING AND CAUTION .........................S-1
SAFETY WARNINGS .................................................................................................S-2
WARNING INDICATIONS ON THE MACHINE ........................................................S-18
MEASURES TO TAKE IN CASE OF AN ACCIDENT ....................................................S-20
Composition of the service manual ................................................................................. C-1
Notation of the service manual ....................................................................................... C-2
bizhub C360/C280/C220 Main body
OUTLINE ........................................................................................................................ 1
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION .................................................................................. 15
DF-617
OUTLINE ........................................................................................................................ 1
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION .................................................................................... 7
PC-107/PC-207
OUTLINE ........................................................................................................................ 1
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION .................................................................................... 3
PC-408
OUTLINE ........................................................................................................................ 1
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION .................................................................................... 3
JS-505
OUTLINE ........................................................................................................................ 1
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION .................................................................................... 5
FS-527
OUTLINE ........................................................................................................................ 1
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION .................................................................................... 7
PK-517
OUTLINE ........................................................................................................................ 1
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION .................................................................................... 5
ii
SD-509
OUTLINE........................................................................................................................ 1
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION.................................................................................... 3
JS-603
OUTLINE........................................................................................................................ 1
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION.................................................................................... 3
FS-529
OUTLINE........................................................................................................................ 1
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION.................................................................................... 5
EK-604/605/SC-507
EK-604............................................................................................................................ 1
EK-605............................................................................................................................ 2
SC-507 ........................................................................................................................... 4
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-1
Read carefully the safety and important warning items described below to understand them
before doing service work.
Because of possible hazards to an inexperienced person servicing this product as well as
the risk of damage to the product, KONICA MINOLTA BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
(hereafter called the KMBT) strongly recommends that all servicing be performed only by
KMBT-trained service technicians.
Changes may have been made to this product to improve its performance after this Service
Manual was printed. Accordingly, KMBT does not warrant, either explicitly or implicitly, that
the information contained in this service manual is complete and accurate.
The user of this service manual must assume all risks of personal injury and/or damage to
the product while servicing the product for which this service manual is intended.
Therefore, this service manual must be carefully read before doing service work both in the
course of technical training and even after that, for performing maintenance and control of
the product properly.
Keep this service manual also for future service.
In this Service Manual, each of three expressions DANGER, WARNING, and
CAUTION is defined as follows together with a symbol mark to be used in a limited
meaning.
When servicing the product, the relevant works (disassembling, reassembling, adjustment,
repair, maintenance, etc.) need to be conducted with utmost care.
Symbols used for safety and important warning items are defined as follows:
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
IMPORTANT NOTICE
DESCRIPTION ITEMS FOR DANGER,
WARNING AND CAUTION
DANGER: Action having a high possibility of suffering death or serious injury
WARNING: Action having a possibility of suffering death or serious injury
CAUTION: Action having a possibility of suffering a slight wound, medium
trouble, and property damage
:Precaution when servicing the
product.
General
precaution
Electric hazard High temperature
:Prohibition when servicing the
product.
General
prohibition
Do not touch
with wet hand
Do not
disassemble
:Direction when servicing the
product.
General
instruction
Unplug Ground/Earth
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-2
[1] MODIFICATIONS NOT AUTHORIZED BY KONICA MINOLTA
BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
KONICA MINOLTA brand products are renowned for their high reliability. This reliability is
achieved through high-quality design and a solid service network.
Product design is a highly complicated and delicate process where numerous mechanical,
physical, and electrical aspects have to be taken into consideration, with the aim of arriving
at proper tolerances and safety factors. For this reason, unauthorized modifications involve
a high risk of degradation in performance and safety. Such modifications are therefore
strictly prohibited. the points listed below are not exhaustive, but they illustrate the reason-
ing behind this policy.
SAFETY WARNINGS
Prohibited Actions
DANGER
Using any cables or power cord not specified by KMBT.
Using any fuse or thermostat not specified by KMBT.
Safety will not be assured, leading to a risk of fire and
injury.
Disabling fuse functions or bridging fuse terminals with
wire, metal clips, solder or similar object.
Disabling relay functions (such as wedging paper between
relay contacts).
Disabling safety functions (interlocks, safety circuits, etc.).
Safety will not be assured, leading to a risk of fire and
injury.
Making any modification to the product unless instructed
by KMBT.
Using parts not specified by KMBT.
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-3
[2] POWER PLUG SELECTION
In some countries or areas, the power plug provided with the product may not fit wall outlet
used in the area. In that case, it is obligation of customer engineer (hereafter called the CE)
to attach appropriate power plug or power cord set in order to connect the product to the
supply.
Power Cord Set or Power Plug
WARNING
Use power supply cord set which meets the following
criteria:
- provided with a plug having configuration intended for
the connection to wall outlet appropriate for the prod-
ucts rated voltage and current, and
- the plug has pin/terminal(s) for grounding, and
- provided with three-conductor cable having enough cur-
rent capacity, and
- the cord set meets regulatory requirements for the area.
Use of inadequate cord set leads to fire or electric shock.
Attach power plug which meets the following criteria:
- having configuration intended for the connection to wall
outlet appropriate for the products rated voltage and
current, and
- the plug has pin/terminal(s) for grounding, and
- meets regulatory requirements for the area.
Use of inadequate cord set leads to the product connect-
ing to inadequate power supply (voltage, current capacity,
grounding), and may result in fire or electric shock.
Conductors in the power cable must be connected to ter-
minals of the plug according to the following order:
Black or Brown:L (line)
White or Light Blue:N (neutral)
Green/Yellow:PE (earth)
Wrong connection may cancel safeguards within the
product, and results in fire or electric shock.
kw
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-4
[3] CHECKPOINTS WHEN PERFORMING ON-SITE SERVICE
KONICA MINOLTA brand products are extensively tested before shipping, to ensure that all
applicable safety standards are met, in order to protect the customer and customer engi-
neer (hereafter called the CE) from the risk of injury. However, in daily use, any electrical
equipment may be subject to parts wear and eventual failure. In order to maintain safety
and reliability, the CE must perform regular safety checks.
1. Power Supply
Connection to Power Supply
WARNING
Check that mains voltage is as specified.
Connection to wrong voltage supply may result in fire or
electric shock.
Connect power plug directly into wall outlet having same
configuration as the plug.
Use of an adapter leads to the product connecting to
inadequate power supply (voltage, current capacity,
grounding), and may result in fire or electric shock.
If proper wall outlet is not available, advice the customer
to contact qualified electrician for the installation.
Plug the power cord into the dedicated wall outlet with a
capacity greater than the maximum power consumption.
If excessive current flows in the wall outlet, fire may
result.
If two or more power cords can be plugged into the wall
outlet, the total load must not exceed the rating of the wall
outlet.
If excessive current flows in the wall outlet, fire may
result.
Make sure the power cord is plugged in the wall outlet
securely.
Contact problems may lead to increased resistance,
overheating, and the risk of fire.
Check whether the product is grounded properly.
If current leakage occurs in an ungrounded product, you
may suffer electric shock while operating the product.
Connect power plug to grounded wall outlet.
kw
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-5
Power Plug and Cord
WARNING
When using the power cord set (inlet type) that came with
this product, make sure the connector is securely inserted
in the inlet of the product.
When securing measure is provided, secure the cord with
the fixture properly.
If the power cord (inlet type) is not connected to the prod-
uct securely, a contact problem may lead to increased
resistance, overheating, and risk of fire.
Check whether the power cord is not stepped on or
pinched by a table and so on.
Overheating may occur there, leading to a risk of fire.
Check whether the power cord is damaged. Check
whether the sheath is damaged.
If the power plug, cord, or sheath is damaged, replace
with a new power cord (with plug and connector on each
end) specified by KMBT. Using the damaged power cord
may result in fire or electric shock.
Do not bundle or tie the power cord.
Overheating may occur there, leading to a risk of fire.
Check whether dust is collected around the power plug
and wall outlet.
Using the power plug and wall outlet without removing
dust may result in fire.
Do not insert the power plug into the wall outlet with a wet
hand.
The risk of electric shock exists.
When unplugging the power cord, grasp the plug, not the
cable.
The cable may be broken, leading to a risk of fire and
electric shock.
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-6
2. Installation Requirements
Wiring
WARNING
Never use multi-plug adapters to plug multiple power cords
in the same outlet.
If used, the risk of fire exists.
When an extension cord is required, use a specified one.
Current that can flow in the extension cord is limited, so
using a too long extension cord may result in fire.
Do not use an extension cable reel with the cable taken
up. Fire may result.
Prohibited Installation Places
WARNING
Do not place the product near flammable materials or vola-
tile materials that may catch fire.
A risk of fire exists.
Do not place the product in a place exposed to water such
as rain.
A risk of fire and electric shock exists.
When not Using the Product for a long time
WARNING
When the product is not used over an extended period of
time (holidays, etc.), switch it off and unplug the power
cord.
Dust collected around the power plug and outlet may
cause fire.
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-7
Ventilation
CAUTION
The product generates ozone gas during operation, but it
will not be harmful to the human body.
If a bad smell of ozone is present in the following cases,
ventilate the room.
a. When the product is used in a poorly ventilated room
b. When taking a lot of copies
c. When using multiple products at the same time
Stability
CAUTION
Be sure to lock the caster stoppers.
In the case of an earthquake and so on, the product may
slide, leading to a injury.
Inspection before Servicing
CAUTION
Before conducting an inspection, read all relevant docu-
mentation (service manual, technical notices, etc.) and
proceed with the inspection following the prescribed pro-
cedure in safety clothes, using only the prescribed tools.
Do not make any adjustment not described in the docu-
mentation.
If the prescribed procedure or tool is not used, the prod-
uct may break and a risk of injury or fire exists.
Before conducting an inspection, be sure to disconnect
the power plugs from the product and options.
When the power plug is inserted in the wall outlet, some
units are still powered even if the POWER switch is
turned OFF. A risk of electric shock exists.
The area around the fixing unit is hot.
You may get burnt.
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-8
Work Performed with the Product Powered On
WARNING
Take every care when making adjustments or performing
an operation check with the product powered.
If you make adjustments or perform an operation check
with the external cover detached, you may touch live or
high-voltage parts or you may be caught in moving gears
or the timing belt, leading to a risk of injury.
Take every care when servicing with the external cover
detached.
High-voltage exists around the drum unit. A risk of elec-
tric shock exists.
Safety Checkpoints
WARNING
Check the exterior and frame for edges, burrs, and other
damage.
The user or CE may be injured.
Do not allow any metal parts such as clips, staples, and
screws to fall into the product.
They can short internal circuits and cause electric shock
or fire.
Check wiring for squeezing and any other damage.
Current can leak, leading to a risk of electric shock or
fire.
Carefully remove all toner remnants and dust from electri-
cal parts and electrode units such as a charging corona
unit.
Current can leak, leading to a risk of product trouble or
fire.
Check high-voltage cables and sheaths for any damage.
Current can leak, leading to a risk of electric shock or
fire.
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-9
Check electrode units such as a charging corona unit for
deterioration and sign of leakage.
Current can leak, leading to a risk of trouble or fire.
Before disassembling or adjusting the write unit (P/H unit)
incorporating a laser, make sure that the power cord has
been disconnected.
The laser light can enter your eye, leading to a risk of
loss of eyesight.
Do not remove the cover of the write unit. Do not supply
power with the write unit shifted from the specified mount-
ing position.
The laser light can enter your eye, leading to a risk of
loss of eyesight.
When replacing a lithium battery, replace it with a new lith-
ium battery specified in the Parts Guide Manual. Dispose
of the used lithium battery using the method specified by
local authority.
Improper replacement can cause explosion.
After replacing a part to which AC voltage is applied (e.g.,
optical lamp and fixing lamp), be sure to check the installa-
tion state.
A risk of fire exists.
Check the interlock switch and actuator for loosening and
check whether the interlock functions properly.
If the interlock does not function, you may receive an
electric shock or be injured when you insert your hand in
the product (e.g., for clearing paper jam).
Make sure the wiring cannot come into contact with sharp
edges, burrs, or other pointed parts.
Current can leak, leading to a risk of electric shock or
fire.
Safety Checkpoints
WARNING
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-10
Make sure that all screws, components, wiring, connec-
tors, etc. that were removed for safety check and mainte-
nance have been reinstalled in the original location. (Pay
special attention to forgotten connectors, pinched cables,
forgotten screws, etc.)
A risk of product trouble, electric shock, and fire exists.
Safety Checkpoints
WARNING
Handling of Consumables
WARNING
Toner and developer are not harmful substances, but care
must be taken not to breathe excessive amounts or let the
substances come into contact with eyes, etc. It may be
stimulative.
If the substances get in the eye, rinse with plenty of water
immediately. When symptoms are noticeable, consult a
physician.
Never throw the used cartridge and toner into fire.
You may be burned due to dust explosion.
Handling of Service Materials
CAUTION
Unplug the power cord from the wall outlet.
Drum cleaner (isopropyl alcohol) and roller cleaner (ace-
tone-based) are highly flammable and must be handled
with care. A risk of fire exists.
Do not replace the cover or turn the product ON before
any solvent remnants on the cleaned parts have fully
evaporated.
A risk of fire exists.
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-11
Use only a small amount of cleaner at a time and take
care not to spill any liquid. If this happens, immediately
wipe it off.
A risk of fire exists.
When using any solvent, ventilate the room well.
Breathing large quantities of organic solvents can lead to
discomfort.
Handling of Service Materials
CAUTION
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-12
[4] Used Batteries Precautions
ALL Areas
CAUTION
Danger of explosion if battery is incorrectly replaced.
Replace only with the same or equivalent type recommended by the manufacturer.
Dispose of used batteries according to the manufacturers instructions.
Germany
VORSICHT!
Explosionsgefahr bei unsachgemem Austausch der Batterie.
Ersatz nur durch denselben oder einen vom Hersteller empfohlenen gleichwertigen Typ.
Entsorgung gebrauchter Batterien nach Angaben des Herstellers.
France
ATTENTION
Il y a danger dexplosion sil y a remplacement incorrect de la batterie.
Remplacer uniquement avec une batterie du mme type ou dun type quivalent recom-
mand par le constructeur.
Mettre au rebut les batteries usages conformment aux instructions du fabricant.
Denmark
ADVARSEL!
Lithiumbatteri - Eksplosionsfare ved fejlagtig hndtering.
Udskiftning m kun ske med batteri af samme fabrikat og type.
Levr det brugte batteri tilbage til leverandren.
Finland, Sweden
VAROlTUS
Paristo voi rjht, jos se on virheellisesti asennettu.
Vaihda paristo ainoastaan laitevalmistajan suosittelemaan tyyppiin.
Hvit kytetty paristo valmistajan ohjeiden mukaisesti.
VARNING
Explosionsfara vid felaktigt batteribyte.
Anvnd samma batterityp eller en ekvivalent typ som rekommenderas av apparat-
tillverkaren.
Kassera anvnt batteri enligt fabrikantens instruktion.
Norway
ADVARSEL
Eksplosjonsfare ved feilaktig skifte av batteri.
Benytt samme batteritype eller en tilsvarende type anbefalt av apparatfabrikanten.
Brukte batterier kasseres i henhold til fabrikantens instruksjoner.
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-13
[5] Laser Safety
This is a digital machine certified as a Class 1 laser product. There is no possibility of
danger from a laser, provided the machine is serviced according to the instruction in this
manual.
5.1 Internal Laser Radiation
*at laser aperture of the Print Head Unit
This product employs a Class 3B laser diode that emits an invisible laser beam. The
laser diode and the scanning polygon mirror are incorporated in the print head unit.
The print head unit is NOT A FIELD SERVICEABLE ITEM. Therefore, the print head unit
should not be opened under any circumstances.
semiconductor laser
Maximum power of the laser diode 15 mW
Maximum average radiation power (*)
bizhub C360/C280 8.0 W
bizhub C220 5.3 W
Wavelength 770-800 nm
A0EDP0C501DA
Laser Aperture
of the Print Head
Unit
Print Head Unit
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-14
U.S.A., Canada
(CDRH Regulation)
This machine is certified as a Class 1 Laser product under Radiation Performance Stan-
dard according to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1990. Compliance is mandatory
for Laser products marketed in the United States and is reported to the Center for
Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration of
the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). This means that the device
does not produce hazardous laser radiation.
The label shown on page S-16 indicates compliance with the CDRH regulations and
must be attached to laser products marketed in the United States.
.
All Areas
Denmark
CAUTION
Use of controls, adjustments or performance of procedures other than those
specified in this manual may result in hazardous radiation exposure.
semiconductor laser
Maximum power of the laser diode 15 mW
Wavelength 770-800 nm
CAUTION
Use of controls, adjustments or performance of procedures other than those
specified in this manual may result in hazardous radiation exposure.
semiconductor laser
Maximum power of the laser diode 15 mW
Wavelength 770-800 nm
ADVARSEL
Usynlig laserstrling ved bning, nr sikkerhedsafbrydere er ude af funktion.
Undg udsttelse for strling. Klasse 1 laser produkt der opfylder IEC60825-1
sikkerheds kravene.
halvlederlaser
Laserdiodens hjeste styrke 15 mW
blgelngden 770-800 nm
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-15
Finland, Sweden
Norway
LUOKAN 1 LASERLAITE
KLASS 1 LASER APPARAT
VAROITUS!
Laitteen kyttminen muulla kuin tss kyttohjeessa mainitulla tavalla saat-
taa altistaa kyttjn turvallisuusluokan 1 ylittvlle nkymttmlle laser-
steilylle.
puolijohdelaser
Laserdiodin suurin teho 15 mW
aallonpituus 770-800 nm
VARNING!
Om apparaten anvnds p annat stt n i denna bruksanvisning specificerats,
kan anvndaren utsttas fr osynlig laserstrlning, som verskrider grnsen
fr laserklass 1.
halvledarlaser
Den maximala effekten fr laserdioden 15 mW
vglngden 770-800 nm
VARO!
Avattaessa ja suojalukitus ohitettaessa olet alttiina nkymttomlle laser-
steilylle. l katso steeseen.
VARNING!
Osynlig laserstrining nr denna del r ppnad och sprren r urkopplad.
Betrakta ej strien.
ADVERSEL
Dersom apparatet brukes p annen mte enn spesifisert i denne bruksanvisn-
ing, kan brukeren utsettes fr unsynlig laserstrlning, som overskrider grensen
for laser klass 1.
halvleder laser
Maksimal effekt till laserdiode 15 mW
blgelengde 770-800 nm
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-16
5.2 Laser Safety Label
A laser safety label is attached to the inside of the machine as shown below.
5.3 Laser Caution Label
A laser caution label is attached to the outside of the machine as shown below.
A0EDP0E505DA
* Only for the U.S.A.
A0EDP0C503DA
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-17
5.4 PRECAUTIONS FOR HANDLING THE LASER EQUIPMENT
When laser protective goggles are to be used, select ones with a lens conforming to the
above specifications.
When a disassembly job needs to be performed in the laser beam path, such as when
working around the printerhead and PC drum, be sure first to turn the printer OFF.
If the job requires that the printer be left ON, take off your watch and ring and wear laser
protective goggles.
A highly reflective tool can be dangerous if it is brought into the laser beam path. Use
utmost care when handling tools on the users premises.
The Print head is not to be disassembled or adjusted in the field. Replace the unit or
Assembly including the control board. Therefore, remove the laser diode, and do not per-
form control board trimmer adjustment.
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-18
Caution labels shown are attached in some areas on/in the machine.
When accessing these areas for maintenance, repair, or adjustment, special care should
be taken to avoid burns and electric shock.
WARNING INDICATIONS ON THE MACHINE
A0EDP0E506DA
Do not burn used toner cartridges.
Toner expelled from the fire is
dangerous.
WARNING
The area around the fusing unit is
extremely hot.
Touching any part other than those
indicated may result in burns.
CAUTION
It is illegal to copy certain
types of documents.
Never copy such documents.
CAUTION
Do not position the used waste toner
box so that it is standing on end or
tilted, otherwise toner may spill.
CAUTION
Do not burn the used waste toner
box. Toner expelled from the fire is
dangerous.
WARNING
SAFETY AND IMPORTANT WARNING ITEMS
S-19
CAUTION:
A0EDP0E508DA
This area generates high voltage.
Be careful not to touch here when the power is turned
ON to avoid getting an electric shock.
High voltage
This area generates high voltage.
Be careful not to touch here when the power is turned
ON to avoid getting an electric shock.
High voltage
You may be burned or injured if you touch any area that you are advised not to
touch by any caution label. Do not remove caution labels. If any caution label has
come off or soiled and therefore the caution cannot be read, contact our service
office.
MEASURES TO TAKE IN CASE OF AN ACCIDENT
S-20
1. If an accident has occurred, the distributor who has been notified first must immediately
take emergency measures to provide relief to affected persons and to prevent further
damage.
2. If a report of a serious accident has been received from a customer, an on-site evalua-
tion must be carried out quickly and KMBT must be notified.
3. To determine the cause of the accident, conditions and materials must be recorded
through direct on-site checks, in accordance with instructions issued by KMBT.
4. For reports and measures concerning serious accidents, follow the regulations speci-
fied by every distributor.
MEASURES TO TAKE IN CASE OF AN
ACCIDENT
C-1
Composition of the service manual
This service manual consists of Theory of Operation section and Field Service section to
explain the main machine and its corresponding options.
Theory of Operation section gives, as information for the CE to get a full understanding of
the product, a rough outline of the object and role of each function, the relationship
between the electrical system and the mechanical system, and the timing of operation of
each part.
Field Service section gives, as information required by the CE at the site (or at the cus-
tomers premise), a rough outline of the service schedule and its details, maintenance
steps, the object and role of each adjustment, error codes and supplementary information.
The basic configuration of each section is as follows. However some options may not be
applied to the following configuration.
<Theory of Operation section>
<Field service section>
OUTLINE: Explanation of system configuration,
product specifications, unit configuration, and paper path
CONFIGURATION/
OPERATION:
Explanation of configuration of each unit,
operating system, and control system
OUTLINE: Explanation of system configuration, and product
specifications
MAINTENANCE: Explanation of service schedule, maintenance steps, ser-
vice tools, removal/reinstallation methods of major parts,
and firmware version up method etc.
ADJUSTMENT/SETTING: Explanation of utility mode, service mode, and mechanical
adjustment etc.
TROUBLESHOOTING: Explanation of lists of jam codes and error codes, and
their countermeasures etc.
APPENDIX: Parts layout drawings, connector layout drawings, timing
chart, overall layout drawing are attached.
C-2
Notation of the service manual
A. Product name
In this manual, each of the products is described as follows:
B. Brand name
The company names and product names mentioned in this manual are the brand name or
the registered trademark of each company.
C. Feeding direction
When the long side of the paper is parallel with the feeding direction, it is called short
edge feeding. The feeding direction which is perpendicular to the short edge feeding is
called the long edge feeding.
Short edge feeding will be identified with [S (abbreviation for Short edge feeding)] on the
paper size. No specific notation is added for the long edge feeding.
When the size has only the short edge feeding with no long edge feeding, [S] will not be
added to the paper size.
<Sample notation>
(1)
bizhub C360/C280/C220: Main body
(2) Microsoft Windows 98: Windows 98
Microsoft Windows Me: Windows Me
Microsoft Windows NT 4.0: Windows NT 4.0 or Windows NT
Microsoft Windows 2000: Windows 2000
Microsoft Windows XP: Windows XP
Microsoft Windows Vista: Windows Vista
When the description is made in combination of the OSs mentioned above:
Windows 98/Me
Windows NT 4.0/2000
Windows NT/2000/XP/Vista
Windows 98/Me/ NT/2000/XP/Vista
Paper size Feeding direction Notation
A4
Long edge feeding A4
Short edge feeding A4S
A3 Short edge feeding A3
SERVICE MANUAL
2009.07
Ver. 1.0
THEORY OF OPERATION
Revision history
After publication of this service manual, the parts and mechanism may be subject to change for
improvement of their performance.
Therefore, the descriptions given in this service manual may not coincide with the actual machine.
When any change has been made to the descriptions in the service manual, a revised version will be
issued with a revision mark added as required.
Revision mark:
To indicate clearly a section revised, is shown at the left margin of the revised section.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
To indicate clearly a page that contains the revision, is shown near the page number of the
corresponding page.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
NOTE
Revision marks shown in a page are restricted only to the latest ones with the old ones deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 3.0 only are shown with those for Ver. 2.0 deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has not been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 2.0 are left as they are.
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
i
CONTENTS
bizhub C360/C280/C220 Main body
OUTLINE
1. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION................................................................................... 1
2. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................ 3
2.1 Type ...................................................................................................................... 3
2.2 Functions .............................................................................................................. 4
2.3 Paper .................................................................................................................... 6
2.4 Materials ............................................................................................................... 7
2.5 Print volume.......................................................................................................... 8
2.6 Machine specifications.......................................................................................... 9
2.7 Operating environment ......................................................................................... 9
2.8 Print functions....................................................................................................... 9
2.9 Scan functions .................................................................................................... 12
3. SECTION CONFIGURATION................................................................................ 13
4. PAPER PATH......................................................................................................... 14
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
5. OVERALL CONFIGURATION............................................................................... 15
5.1 Control block diagram......................................................................................... 15
6. IMAGE CREATION PROCESS............................................................................. 16
6.1 Image forming control ......................................................................................... 18
6.2 Process speed.................................................................................................... 18
7. INTERFACE SECTION ......................................................................................... 19
7.1 Configuration ...................................................................................................... 19
7.1.1 Rear side..................................................................................................... 19
7.1.2 Right side.................................................................................................... 20
8. SCANNER SECTION............................................................................................ 25
8.1 Configuration ...................................................................................................... 25
8.2 Drive ................................................................................................................... 26
8.3 Operation............................................................................................................ 27
8.3.1 When the power is ON................................................................................ 27
8.3.2 Control when the Start key is pressed ........................................................ 28
8.3.3 Original scanning area................................................................................ 30
8.3.4 Original size detection control ..................................................................... 31
8.3.5 Image processing........................................................................................ 33
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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9. WRITE SECTION (PH SECTION) ........................................................................ 34
9.1 Configuration...................................................................................................... 34
9.2 Operation............................................................................................................ 35
9.2.1 Outline ........................................................................................................ 35
9.2.2 Laser exposure process.............................................................................. 36
9.2.3 Laser emission timing................................................................................. 37
9.2.4 Laser emission stop.................................................................................... 38
9.2.5 Laser emission area ................................................................................... 39
9.2.6 Color registration control (color shift correction) system............................. 40
9.2.7 Color skew correction control...................................................................... 44
9.2.8 Skew adjustment/skew adjustment reset .................................................... 46
9.2.9 PH unit temperature detection control ........................................................ 46
9.2.10 PH window cleaning ................................................................................... 47
9.2.11 Image processing ....................................................................................... 48
10. PHOTO CONDUCTOR SECTION........................................................................ 49
10.1 Configuration...................................................................................................... 49
10.2 Drive................................................................................................................... 50
10.3 Operation............................................................................................................ 51
10.3.1 Photo conductor drive mechanism ............................................................. 51
10.3.2 Photo conductor phase control ................................................................... 53
10.3.3 Photo conductor small amount rotation control .......................................... 54
10.3.4 Erase lamp control ...................................................................................... 55
10.3.5 Photo conductor cleaning ........................................................................... 56
10.3.6 Charge corona control ................................................................................ 58
10.3.7 Charge corona cleaning.............................................................................. 59
10.3.8 Ozone filter ................................................................................................. 60
10.3.9 Drum unit detection..................................................................................... 61
10.3.10 Drum unit life detection............................................................................... 63
10.3.11 Number of field standard printed pages...................................................... 67
10.3.12 Ozone filter new article detection................................................................ 67
10.3.13 Ozone filter life detection ............................................................................ 68
11. DEVELOPING SECTION...................................................................................... 70
11.1 Configuration...................................................................................................... 70
11.2 Drive................................................................................................................... 71
11.3 Operation............................................................................................................ 75
11.3.1 Developing roller pressure mechanism....................................................... 75
11.3.2 Developer flow............................................................................................ 76
11.3.3 Auto refining developing system................................................................. 78
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
iii
11.3.4 Developing bias........................................................................................... 79
11.3.5 Toner scattering prevention......................................................................... 81
11.3.6 Developing cooling...................................................................................... 82
11.3.7 Toner density control ................................................................................... 83
11.3.8 Developing unit detection............................................................................ 84
11.3.9 Developing unit life detection ...................................................................... 86
11.3.10 Number of field standard printed pages...................................................... 87
12. TONER SUPPLY SECTION.................................................................................. 88
12.1 Configuration ...................................................................................................... 88
12.2 Drive ................................................................................................................... 89
12.2.1 Toner cartridge drive ................................................................................... 89
12.2.2 Toner hopper drive ...................................................................................... 90
12.3 Operation............................................................................................................ 91
12.3.1 Toner replenishing overview........................................................................ 91
12.3.2 Toner flow.................................................................................................... 92
12.3.3 Toner replenishing to toner hopper ............................................................. 93
12.3.4 Toner replenishing to developing unit.......................................................... 94
12.3.5 Control of toner replenishing for toner hopper ............................................ 96
12.3.6 Auxiliary toner replenishing control for toner hopper................................... 97
12.3.7 Control of toner replenishing for developing unit......................................... 97
12.3.8 Auxiliary toner replenishing control for developing unit ............................... 98
12.3.9 Toner level detection control ....................................................................... 99
12.3.10 Toner cartridge detection .......................................................................... 103
12.3.11 Toner spillage prevention shutter .............................................................. 106
12.3.12 Front door mechanism.............................................................................. 108
13. 1ST IMAGE TRANSFER SECTION.................................................................... 110
13.1 Configuration .................................................................................................... 110
13.2 Drive ................................................................................................................. 111
13.3 Operation.......................................................................................................... 112
13.3.1 Transfer belt drive...................................................................................... 112
13.3.2 1st image transfer roller control................................................................. 113
13.3.3 Pressure/retraction control by print mode ................................................. 115
13.3.4 1st image transfer control.......................................................................... 121
13.3.5 Transfer belt cleaning................................................................................ 122
13.3.6 Waste toner spillage prevention shutter .................................................... 124
13.3.7 Transfer belt cooling.................................................................................. 125
13.3.8 Cleaning blade foreign matter removal control.......................................... 126
13.3.9 Transfer belt new article detection............................................................. 126
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
iv
13.3.10 Transfer belt life detection......................................................................... 127
14. 2ND IMAGE TRANSFER SECTION................................................................... 131
14.1 Configuration.................................................................................................... 131
14.2 Drive................................................................................................................. 132
14.3 Operation.......................................................................................................... 133
14.3.1 2nd image transfer control ........................................................................ 133
14.3.2 Control of toner application to 2nd image transfer roller ........................... 134
14.3.3 2nd image transfer roller cleaning............................................................. 135
14.3.4 Charge neutralization and separation of paper......................................... 136
14.3.5 Paper winding prevention guide (Standard for Japan market only) .......... 137
14.3.6 IDC registration sensor protection ............................................................ 138
14.3.7 2nd image transfer roller new article detection......................................... 139
14.3.8 2nd image transfer roller life detection...................................................... 139
15. TONER COLLECTING SECTION....................................................................... 142
15.1 Configuration.................................................................................................... 142
15.2 Drive................................................................................................................. 143
15.3 Operation.......................................................................................................... 145
15.3.1 Waste toner box drive mechanism............................................................ 145
15.3.2 Toner collection path................................................................................. 145
15.3.3 Control of waste toner conveyance through waste toner box ................... 146
15.3.4 Waste toner box-in-position detection....................................................... 148
15.3.5 Waste toner box full detection................................................................... 150
15.3.6 Waste toner box new article detection...................................................... 153
15.3.7 Waste toner spillage prevention shutter.................................................... 153
16. PAPER FEED SECTION (MANUAL TRAY) ........................................................ 156
16.1 Configuration.................................................................................................... 156
16.2 Drive................................................................................................................. 157
16.3 Operation.......................................................................................................... 158
16.3.1 Up/down control ........................................................................................ 158
16.3.2 Paper feed control..................................................................................... 161
16.3.3 Paper size detection control...................................................................... 164
16.3.4 Paper empty detection.............................................................................. 167
16.3.5 Remaining paper detection control ........................................................... 168
17. PAPER FEED SECTION..................................................................................... 170
17.1 Configuration.................................................................................................... 170
17.1.1 Tray1 ......................................................................................................... 170
17.1.2 Tray2 ......................................................................................................... 171
17.2 Drive................................................................................................................. 172
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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17.2.1 Layout of sensors and rollers .................................................................... 173
17.3 Operation.......................................................................................................... 174
17.3.1 Up/down control ........................................................................................ 174
17.3.2 Paper feed control ..................................................................................... 177
17.3.3 Paper size detection control ...................................................................... 189
17.3.4 Remaining paper detection control ........................................................... 191
17.3.5 Paper feed tray locking mechanism.......................................................... 194
18. VERTICAL TRANSPORT SECTION................................................................... 195
18.1 Configuration .................................................................................................... 195
18.2 Drive ................................................................................................................. 196
18.3 Operation.......................................................................................................... 197
18.3.1 Vertical transport control ........................................................................... 197
18.3.2 Transport clutch control ............................................................................. 197
18.3.3 Operation timing........................................................................................ 197
18.3.4 Right door mechanism.............................................................................. 198
19. REGISTRATION SECTION................................................................................. 201
19.1 Configuration .................................................................................................... 201
19.2 Drive ................................................................................................................. 202
19.3 Operation.......................................................................................................... 203
19.3.1 Registration control ................................................................................... 203
19.3.2 Registration unit mechanism..................................................................... 205
19.3.3 Fusing drive release mechanism.............................................................. 206
20. FUSING SECTION.............................................................................................. 207
20.1 Configuration .................................................................................................... 207
20.2 Drive ................................................................................................................. 209
20.3 Operation.......................................................................................................... 210
20.3.1 Fusing drive release mechanism.............................................................. 210
20.3.2 Fusing speed correction............................................................................ 210
20.3.3 Fusing pressure/retraction control............................................................. 212
20.3.4 Fusing paper transport control .................................................................. 215
20.3.5 Paper separation mechanism ................................................................... 215
20.3.6 Fusing temperature control ....................................................................... 216
20.3.7 Protection from abnormal temperatures ................................................... 224
20.3.8 Fusing speed control................................................................................. 225
20.3.9 Fusing unit new article detection............................................................... 226
20.3.10 Fusing unit life detection ........................................................................... 227
20.3.11 Fusing cooling control ............................................................................... 229
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
vi
21. PAPER EXIT/SWITCHBACK SECTION ............................................................. 230
21.1 Configuration.................................................................................................... 230
21.2 Drive................................................................................................................. 231
21.3 Operation.......................................................................................................... 232
21.3.1 Transport control ....................................................................................... 232
22. DUPLEX SECTION............................................................................................. 233
22.1 Configuration.................................................................................................... 233
22.2 Drive................................................................................................................. 234
22.3 Operation.......................................................................................................... 235
22.3.1 Paper transport control ............................................................................. 235
22.3.2 Duplex print control ................................................................................... 236
23. IMAGE STABILIZATION CONTROL ................................................................... 240
23.1 Overview .......................................................................................................... 240
23.2 Description of control........................................................................................ 241
23.2.1 IDC registration sensor adjustment control............................................... 241
23.2.2 Max. density adjustment control ............................................................... 241
23.2.3 LD (laser diode) intensity adjustment control............................................ 241
23.2.4 Gamma correction control ........................................................................ 241
23.3 Operation sequence......................................................................................... 242
23.4 Operation timing............................................................................................... 244
24. IMAGE PROCESSING........................................................................................ 249
24.1 Scanner section image processing block diagram........................................... 249
24.2 Write section image processing block diagram................................................ 250
25. POWER SUPPLY SECTION............................................................................... 253
25.1 Parts energized when the main power switch is turned ON............................. 253
25.1.1 Configuration ............................................................................................ 253
25.1.2 Operation.................................................................................................. 253
25.2 Parts energized when the sub power switch is turned ON............................... 254
25.2.1 Configuration ............................................................................................ 254
25.2.2 Operation.................................................................................................. 254
25.3 Power cables .................................................................................................... 255
25.3.1 Configuration ............................................................................................ 255
25.3.2 Operation.................................................................................................. 255
26. FAN CONTROL................................................................................................... 256
26.1 Configuration.................................................................................................... 256
26.2 Operation.......................................................................................................... 257
27. COUNTER CONTROL........................................................................................ 260
27.1 Configuration.................................................................................................... 260
27.2 Operation.......................................................................................................... 260
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 1. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
1
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OUTLINE
1. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
1/2 System front view
[1] bizhub C360/C280/C220 [13] Mount kit MK-713
* Except for Europe area
[2] Reverse automatic document feeder DF-617 [14] Desk DK-507
* Except for Europe area
[3] Assist handle AH-101 [15] Paper feed cabinet PC-107
[4] Original cover OC-509 [16] Paper feed cabinet PC-207
[5] Authentication unit (biometric type) AU-101 [17] Paper feed cabinet PC-408
[6] Authentication unit (biometric type) AU-102 [18] Saddle stitcher SD-509
[7] Authentication unit (IC card type) AU-201 [19] Finisher FS-527
[8] Working table WT-507
* North America area only
[20] Punch kit PK-517
[9] Working table WT-506 [21] Job separator JS-603
[10] Local interface kit EK-604 [22] Finisher FS-529
[11] Local interface kit EK-605
Optional setting only for bizhub C280 in China area.
[23] Job separator JS-505
[12] Keyboard holder KH-101 [24] Stamp unit SP-501
[5] [2] [4] [6]
[8] [9]
[13]
[12]
[14] [15] [16] [17] [18]
[19]
[20]
[23]
[24]
[3]
[21]
[7]
A0EDF1E503DA
[1]
[22]
[10]
[11]
1. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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NOTE
Use the desk or the paper feed cabinet without fail when installing on the floor in
order to keep the function and quality of the unit.
2/2 System rear view
[1] bizhub C360/C280/C220 [6] Mount kit MK-720
[2] Fax kit FK-502 [7] Key counter kit KIT-1
[3] Image controller IC-412
* bizhub C360/C280 only
[8] i-Option LK-101 v2/102/103 v2/105
[4] Security kit SC-507 [9] Upgrade kit UK-203
[5] Video interface kit VI-505
* bizhub C360/C280 only
[1]
[2]
[3]
[7]
[8] [9]
[5]
[6]
[4]
A0EDF1E504DA
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 2. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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2. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
2.1 Type
*1: Only when the optional paper feed cabinet/desk is installed.
Type Desktop/console *1 scanner/printer
Printing process Laser electrostatic printing system
PC drum type OPC drum: KM-12 (OPC with high mold releasability)
Scanning density 600 dpi
Exposure lamp White rare-gas fluorescent lamp 30 W
Platen Stationary (mirror scan)
Original scanning Mirror scanning CCD optical system
* Sheet through system when DF-617 is used
Registration Rear left edge
Paper feeding
separation system
Manual bypass : Small roller separation system with torque limiter
Tray 1 : Roller separation system with pick-up mechanism
Tray 2 : Roller separation system with pick-up mechanism
Exposure system 1 beam LD exposing system
Polygon mirror scan system
Exposure density Equivalent to 1800 dpi in main scanning direction
600 dpi in sub scanning direction
Developing system Dry 2 components developing method, HMT developing system
Charging system DC comb electrode scorotron system with electrode cleaning function
(manual)
Neutralizing system Red LED system
Image transfer system Belt image transfer system (1st)/roller image transfer system (2nd)
Paper separating
system
Combination of curvature, separating claws, and neutralization needle system
Fusing system Belt fusing
Heating system Halogen lamp
2. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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2.2 Functions
Types of original Sheets, books, and three-dimensional objects
Max. original size A3 or 11 x 17
Max. original weight Max. 2 kg
Multiple copies 1 to 999
Warm-up time
(at ambient tempera-
ture of 23 C/73.4 F
and rated source volt-
age)
When the sub power switch is turned ON at any timing while the main power
switch remains ON for a predetermined period of time or more.
bizhub C360/C280 27 sec. or less (Black print)
35 sec. or less (Color print)
bizhub C220 22 sec. or less (Black print)
27 sec. or less (Color print)
When the main power switch is turned ON during the sub power switch being
ON.
bizhub C360/C280/
C220
45 sec. or less (Black print, Color print)
Image loss Copy Leading edge: 4.2 mm (3/16 inch),
Trailing edge: 3 mm (1/8 inch),
Rear edge: 3 mm (1/8 inch),
Front edge: 3 mm (1/8 inch)
PC print Leading edge: 4.2 mm (3/16 inch),
Trailing edge: 4.2 mm (3/16 inch),
Rear edge: 4.2 mm (3/16 inch),
Front edge: 4.2 mm (3/16 inch)
First copy time (Tray1/2 A4 or 8
1
/
2
x 11, full size)
bizhub C360/C280 5.8 sec. or less (Black print)
7.7 sec. or less (Color print)
bizhub C220 7.5 sec. or less (Black print)
11.0 sec. or less (Color print)
Processing speed Plain paper
(black, full color),
OHP film *2
bizhub C362/C280: 166.6 mm/s
bizhub C220: 111.0 mm/s
Thick 1, Thick 2,
Thick 3, Thick 4,
Post card, Envelope,
Label sheet
Plain paper
(glossy mode)
bizhub C360/C280/C220: 55.5 mm/s
Copying/printing
speed for multi-copy/
print cycle (A4 or 8
1
/
2

x 11, plain paper)
Black, Full color bizhub C360:
1-sided: 36 copies/min *1, 2-sided: 34.9 copies/min
*1 manual paper feed of 8
1
/
2
x 11 : 35 copies/min
bizhub C280:
1-sided: 28.8 copies/min, 2-sided: 28.8 copies/min
bizhub C220:
1-sided: 22.7 copies/min, 2-sided: 22.7 copies/min
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 2. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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Fixed zoom ratios Full size x1.000
Reduction Metric area x0.500, x0.707, x0.816, x0.866
Inch area x0.500, x0.647, x0.733, x0.785
Enlargement Metric area x1.154, x1.224, x1.414, x2.000
Inch area x1.214, x1.294, x1.545, x2.000
Zoom ratios memory 3 memories
Variable zoom ratios 0.250 to 4.000 in 0.001 increments
Paper size Tray 1 Metric area A3 to B5/B5S, A5S, 16K, 8K
Inch area 11 x 17 to 8
1
/
2
x 11, 8
1
/
2
x 11S,
5
1
/
2
x 8
1
/
2
S, 8 x 13
Tray 2 Metric area A3 to B5/B5S, A3 wide,16K, 8K
Inch area 12 x 18 to 8
1
/
2
x 11, 8
1
/
2
x 11S,
5
1
/
2
x 8
1
/
2
S, 8 x 13
Manual bypass tray Metric area A3 to B6S, A6S, A3 wide, banner paper,
16K/16KS, 8K
Inch area 12 x 18 to 5
1
/
2
x 8
1
/
2
, 5
1
/
2
x 8
1
/
2
S,
4 x 6S, 8 x 13
Copy exit tray capacity Plain paper 250 sheets
Thick paper 10 sheets
OHP film 1 sheet
External memory
function
Supported external
memory devices
USB flash memory device that supports the USB
(1.1/2.0) interface
FAT32-formatted memory device
2. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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2.3 Paper
*1: Image is not guaranteed when thick paper 3/4 is used.
*2: Black print only.
Automatic duplex unit : Only the plain paper weighing 64 to 90 g/m
2
(17 to 24 lb) or thick
paper weighing 91 to 256 g/m
2
(24.25 to 68 lb) are reliably fed.
Type
Paper source (maximum tray capacity)
Tray 1 Tray 2 Manual bypass tray
Copy paper
type
Plain paper
(60 to 90 g/m
2
/ 16 to 24 lb)
(500 sheets) (500 sheets) (150 sheets)
Translucent paper
OHP film
(crosswise feeding only) *2

(20 sheets)
Thick paper 1
(91 to 150 g/m
2

/ 24.25 to 40 lb)
(150 sheets) (150 sheets)
Thick paper 2
(151 to 209 g/m
2

/ 40.25 to 55.5 lb)
Thick paper 3
(210 to 256 g/m
2

/ 55.75 to 68 lb) *1
Thick paper 4
(257 to 271 g/m
2

/ 68.25 lb to 72 lb) *1

Postcards
Envelopes (10 sheets)
Labels (20 sheets)
Long size paper
(127 to 210 g/m
2

/ 33.75 to 55.75 lb)
(10 sheets)
Copy paper
dimensions
Width 139.7 to 297 mm
5
1
/
2
to 11
3
/
4
inch
139.7 to 311.1 mm
5
1
/
2
to 12
1
/
4
inch
90 to 311.1 mm
3
1
/
2
to 12
1
/
4
inch
Length 182 to 431.8 mm
7
1
/
4
to 17 inch
182 to 457.2 mm
7
1
/
4
to 18 inch
139.7 to 457.2 mm
5
1
/
2
to 18 inch
Long size paper
(Width x Length)

210 to 297 mm x
457.3 to 1200 mm or
less
8
1
/
4
to 11
3
/
4
inch x 18
to 47
1
/
4
inch or less
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 2. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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2.4 Materials
*1: Specification value
*2: Field standard yield
This machine has the field standard yield which indicates the available print numbers
estimated by the quantities and usage of the unit in the market standard job mode.
Yields for each preventative maintenance unit will differ depending on actual usage.
The followings are the target unit.
Developing unit, drum unit, fusing unit, transfer belt unit
The market standard job modes for this unit are as follows.
Parts name Number of prints Type name
Toner cartridge/C bizhub C360 26,000 prints *1 TN319C
bizhub C280/C220 26,000 prints *1 TN216C
Toner cartridge/M bizhub C360 26,000 prints *1 TN319M
bizhub C280/C220 26,000 prints *1 TN216M
Toner cartridge/Y bizhub C360 26,000 prints *1 TN319Y
bizhub C280/C220 26,000 prints *1 TN216Y
Toner cartridge/K bizhub C360 29,000 prints *1 TN319K
bizhub C280/C220 29,000 prints *1 TN216K
Developing unit/C 114,000 prints *2 DV311C
Developing unit/M 114,000 prints *2 DV311M
Developing unit/Y 114,000 prints *2 DV311Y
Developing unit/K 570,000 prints *2 DV311K
Drum unit/Y,M,C bizhub C360 90,000 prints *2 DR311
bizhub C280 75,000 prints *2
bizhub C220 55,000 prints *2
Drum unit/K bizhub C360 120,000 prints *2 DR311K
bizhub C280 100,000 prints *2
bizhub C220 70,000 prints *2
Waste toner box 45,000 prints *1 Waste toner box
Market standard job modes
bizhub C360 bizhub C280 bizhub C220
Printing B/W 4 P/J 3 P/J 2 P/J
Color 2 P/J 1.5 P/J 1 P/J
Color mode [Full Color] or [Black] (apart from [Auto Color])
Paper size LEF: 87 %, SEF: 13 %
Color ratio 25 %
Total print volume/month (total) US: 6,700
EU: 8,700
US: 4,100
EU: 5,300
US: 2,400
EU: 3,200
No. of
image
stabiliza-
tion
operations
No. of times power
turned on
20 times/month
No. of returns from
sleep mode
0.2 time/day
Changes in surround-
ing environment
None
2. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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2.5 Print volume
bizhub C360
bizhub C280
bizhub C220
US Average Color print 1,700 prints/month
Black print 5,000 prints/month
Maximum Color print 5,000 prints/month
Black print 15,000 prints/month
EU Average Color print 2,200 prints/month
Black print 6,500 prints/month
Maximum Color print 6,000 prints/month
Black print 18,000 prints/month
US Average Color print 1,000 prints/month
Black print 3,000 prints/month
Maximum Color print 3,000 prints/month
Black print 9,000 prints/month
EU Average Color print 1,300 prints/month
Black print 4,000 prints/month
Maximum Color print 3,500 prints/month
Black print 10,500 prints/month
US Average Color print 600 prints/month
Black print 1,800 prints/month
Maximum Color print 2,000 prints/month
Black print 6,000 prints/month
EU Average Color print 800 prints/month
Black print 2,400 prints/month
Maximum Color print 2,250 prints/month
Black print 6,750 prints/month
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 2. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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2.6 Machine specifications
*1: Width when the manual bypass tray is closed
*2: Including the control panel.
*3: Height up to the original glass
*4: When the finisher is separated and the paper feed tray is slide out
2.7 Operating environment
2.8 Print functions
Power requirements Voltage: AC 100 V, 120 V, 127 V, 220-240 V
Current: 100 V 15 A
110 V 15 A
120 V 12 A
127 V 12 A
230 V 8 A
Frequency: 50/60 Hz 3 Hz
Max power consumption 1,500 W or less
Dimensions 643 mm *1 (W) x 842 mm *2 (D) x 770 mm (H) *3
25.25 inch *1 (W) x 33.2 inch *2 (D) x 30.25 inch (H) *3
Space requirements 1,649 mm (W) x 1,260 mm (D) x 1,588 mm (D) *4
65 inch (W) x 49.5 inch (D) x 62.5 inch (D) *4
Weight Machine Approx. 98 kg / 216 lb
(without drum unit and toner cartridge)
Temperature 10 to 30 C / 50 to 86 F (with a fluctuation of 10 C / 18 F or less per hour)
Humidity 15 to 85% (Relative humidity with a fluctuation of 10%/h)
Levelness Difference between front and back, right and left should be 1 degree or under.
Type Built-in printer controller
RAM 2 GB (shared with the main body)
HDD 250 GB (shared with the main body)
Interface Standard Ethernet (1000Base-T/100Base-TX/10Base-T)
USB2.0/1.1
Option USB 2.0
Frame type Ethernet 802.2, Ethernet 802.3, Ethernet II, Ethernet SNAP
Supported protocols TCP/IP (IPv4/IPv6), BOOTP, ARP, ICMP, DHCP, DHCPv6, AutoIP, SLP, SNMP,
FTP, LPR/LPD, RAW Socket, SMB over TCP/IP, IPP, HTTP, POP, SMTP, LDAP,
NTP, SSL, IPX/SPX, AppleTalk, Bonjour, NetBEUI, WebDAV, DPWS, S/MIME,
IPsec, DNS, DynamicDNS, LLMNR, LLTD
Printer language PCL5c/6 Emulation
PCL XL ver. 2.1 Emulation
PostScript 3 Emulation (3016)
XPS ver.1.0
Print resolution Equivalent to 1,800 dpi in main scanning direction
600 dpi in sub scanning direction
Printer fonts PCL Latin 80 Fonts Postscript 3 Emulation Latin 137 Fonts
2. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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Supported computer IBM PC/AT compatible machine,
Macintosh
(PowerPC/Intel processor: Only MacOS X 10.4/10.5 for Intel processor)
Printer driver PCL KONICAMINOLTA
driver (PCL driver)
Windows NT Workstation Version 4.0 (SP6 or later)
Windows NT Server Version 4.0 (SP6 or later)
Windows 2000 Professional (SP4 or later)
Windows 2000 Server (SP3 or later)
Windows XP Home Edition (SP1 or later)
Windows XP Professional (SP1 or later)
Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition
(SP1 or later)
Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition
(SP1 or later)
Windows Server 2003 R2, Standard Edition
Windows Server 2003 R2, Enterprise Edition
Windows XP Professional x64 Edition
Windows Server 2003, Standard x64 Edition
Windows Server 2003, Enterprise x64 Edition
Windows Server 2003 R2, Standard x64 Edition
Windows Server 2003 R2, Enterprise x64 Edition
Windows Vista Business *
Windows Vista Enterprise *
Windows Vista Home Basic *
Windows Vista Home Premium *
Windows Vista Ultimate *
Windows Server 2008 Standard *
Windows Server 2008 Enterprise *
* 32 bits (x86)/64 bits (x64) environment are
supported
PostScript KONICAMI-
NOLTA driver (PS driver)
Windows 2000 Professional (SP4 or later)
Windows 2000 Server (SP3 or later)
Windows XP Home Edition (SP1 or later)
Windows XP Professional (SP1 or later)
Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition
(SP1 or later)
Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition
(SP1 or later)
Windows Server 2003 R2, Standard Edition
Windows Server 2003 R2, Enterprise Edition
Windows XP Professional x64 Edition
Windows Server 2003, Standard x64 Edition
Windows Server 2003, Enterprise x64 Edition
Windows Server 2003 R2, Standard x64 Edition
Windows Server 2003 R2, Enterprise x64 Edition
Windows Vista Business *
Windows Vista Enterprise *
Windows Vista Home Basic *
Windows Vista Home Premium *
Windows Vista Ultimate *
Windows Server 2008 Standard *
Windows Server 2008 Enterprise *
* 32 bits (x86)/64 bits (x64) environment are
supported
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 2. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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Printer driver XPS KONICAMINOLTA
driver (XPS driver)
Windows Vista Business *
Windows Vista Enterprise *
Windows Vista Home Basic *
Windows Vista Home Premium *
Windows Vista Ultimate *
Windows Server 2008 Standard *
Windows Server 2008 Enterprise *
* 32 bits (x86)/64 bits (x64) environment are
supported
PostScript PPD driver
(PS-PPD)
Mac OS 9.2 or later
Mac OS X 10.2.8/10.3/10.4/10.5
Fax driver Windows NT Workstation Version 4.0 (SP6 or later)
Windows NT Server Version 4.0 (SP6 or later)
Windows 2000 Professional (SP4 or later)
Windows 2000 Server (SP3 or later)
Windows XP Home Edition (SP1 or later)
Windows XP Professional (SP1 or later)
Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition
(SP1 or later)
Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition
(SP1 or later)
Windows Server 2003 R2, Standard Edition
Windows Server 2003 R2, Enterprise Edition
Windows XP Professional x64 Edition
Windows Server 2003, Standard x64 Edition
Windows Server 2003, Enterprise x64 Edition
Windows Server 2003 R2, Standard x64 Edition
Windows Server 2003 R2, Enterprise x64 Edition
Windows Vista Business *
Windows Vista Enterprise *
Windows Vista Home Basic *
Windows Vista Home Premium *
Windows Vista Ultimate *
Windows Server 2008 Standard *
Windows Server 2008 Enterprise *
* 32 bits (x86)/64 bits (x64) environment are
supported
2. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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2.9 Scan functions
NOTE
These specifications are subject to change without notice.
Scanner Scannable range Same as the copier
(Max. 11 x 17: inch area, A3: metric area)
Scan speed
(A4 or 8 1/2 x 11,
Resolution 300 dpi)
70 pages/min
Functions Scan to E-mail, Scan to FTP, Scan to SMB, Scan to
WebDAV, Scan to BOX
Scanning resolution 200/300/400/600 dpi
TWAIN Driver TWAIN Driver, HDD TWAIN Driver
Supported operating
systems
Windows 2000 Professional (SP4)
Windows XP Home Edition (SP3)
Windows XP Professional (SP3)
Windows NT 4.0 (SP6a)
Windows Vista Home Basic (SP1)
Windows Vista Home Premium (SP1)
Windows Vista Business (SP1)
Windows Vista Enterprise (SP1)
Windows Vista Ultimate (SP1)
PC Conform to the specification of operating system
Required memory Conform to the specification of operating system
Network Computer to which TCP/IP protocol is correctly set
Hard disk Required 20 MB or more disk space
SMB Supported
operating
systems
Windows Windows NT4.0 Server/Workstation
Windows 2000 Server/Professional
Windows XP Home/Professional
Windows Server 2003 each edition
Windows Vista each edition
Windows Server 2008
DFS function is supported only in the environment
that structured with the following Windows server
operating systems.
Windows 2000 Server each edition
Windows Server 2003 each edition
Windows Server 2008
Direct hosting function apply to the following oper-
ating systems.
Windows 2000
Windows XP
Windows Vista
(IPv6 function is available only when the Windows
Vista is installed.)
Samba 2.2.x
3.x
Novell
Netware
Netware 6.5 (SP6 or later)
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 3. SECTION CONFIGURATION
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3. SECTION CONFIGURATION
A0EDT1C001DA
Scanner section
(IR section)
Fusing section
Image transfer section
Write section
(PH section)
Manual section
Paper feed section (Tray1)
Paper feed section (Tray2)
Toner collecting
section
Photo conductor
section
Toner supply
section Duplex section
Developing section
Paper exit/switchback
section
4. PAPER PATH Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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4. PAPER PATH
A0EDT1C002DA
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 5. OVERALL CONFIGURATION
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CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
5. OVERALL CONFIGURATION
5.1 Control block diagram
CCD board
R G B
R G B
Y M C K
Scanner
relay board
Inverter board
Control panel
Fusing unit
DC power supply unit
Service EEPROM
Developing
section
High voltage unit
Printer control
board
MFP board
PH relay board
PH section
Scanner
section
Main
body
Index board
Skew correction motor
HDD
USB board
Authentic
-ation unit
Image controller
Fax board
Video
interface
kit
Laser drive
board
Paper feed
section
Paper feed unit Finisher
Polygon motor
Duplex section
Bypass tray
section
Image transfer
section
Key counter
Total
counter
Reverse
automatic
document
feeder
Secret board
Photo
conductor
section
A0EDT2E264DA
PH thermister
Front
side
relay
board
6. IMAGE CREATION PROCESS Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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6. IMAGE CREATION PROCESS
[1]
Photoelectric
conversion
The light reflected off the surface of the original is separated into dif-
ferent colors using the color filters (R, G, and B); CCD then converts
it into a corresponding electric signal and outputs the signal to the IR
imaging processing section.
[2]
Printer image
processing
The electric signal is converted to digital image signals. After going
through some corrections, video signals (C, M, Y, and K) are output to
the printer image processing section.
D/A conversion will be performed after the VIDEO signals (Y, M, C, k)
are corrected. This data will control the emission of the laser diode.
[3] Photo conductor
The image of the original projected onto the surface of the photo con-
ductor is changed to a corresponding electrostatic latent image.
[4]
Photo conductor
charging
Supply DC ( - ) charge on the photo conductor.
[5] Laser exposure
Expose photo conductor to a laser beam to develop electrostatic
latent image.
[6] Developing
The toner, agitated and negatively charged in the developer mixing
chamber, is attracted onto the electrostatic latent image formed on
the surface of the photo conductor. It is thereby changed to a visible,
developed image.
AC and DC negative bias voltages are applied to the developing
roller, thereby preventing toner from sticking to the background image
portion.
[7] 1st image transfer
A DC positive voltage is applied to the backside of the transfer belt,
thereby allowing the visible, developed image on the surface of each
of the photo conductors (Y, M, C, and K) to be transferred onto the
transfer belt.
A0EDT2C132DA
[3] Photo
conductor
[4] Photo conductor
charging
[1] Photoelectric
conversion
[2] Printer image
processing
[5] Laser
exposure
[6] Developing
[7] 1st image transfer
[8] 2nd image
transfer
[10] Transfer belt cleaning
[11] Main erase
[12] Photo conductor
cleaning
[9] Paper
separation
Y M C K
[15] Paper exit
[13] Fusing
[14] Duplex
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[8] 2nd image transfer
A DC positive voltage is applied to the backside of the paper, thereby
allowing the visible, developed image on the surface of the transfer
belt to be transferred onto the paper.
[9] Paper separation
The paper, which has undergone the 2nd image transfer process, is
neutralized so that it can be properly separated from the transfer belt
by the paper separator claws.
[10] Transfer belt cleaning
Residual toner on the surface of the transfer belt is collected for
cleaning by cleaning blade.
[11] Main erase
The surface of the photo conductor is irradiated with light, which neu-
tralizes any surface potential remaining on the surface of the photo
conductor.
[12]
Photo conductor
cleaning
The residual toner left on the surface of the photo conductor is
scraped off.
[13] Fusing
The visible toner image transferred onto the surface of the paper is
melted by the heat of the fusing roller and fixed to the paper by pres-
sure.
[14] Duplex
The 1-sided printed paper, on which the image of the first page of the
original is printed, is turned over and fed back into the main body for
the print cycle of the second page of the original.
[15] Paper exit
The paper, for which the toner image has been properly fixed, is fed
out onto the exit tray.
For two-sided printing, the 1-sided printed paper is transported onto
the duplex unit.
6. IMAGE CREATION PROCESS Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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6.1 Image forming control
6.2 Process speed
A0EDT2E265DA
Developing bias DC Y/M/C
Developing bias DC K
Main erase lamp Y/M/C
Main erase lamp K
Color PC motor (M2)
Charge Y/M/C
Charge K
Color dev. unit engaged motor (M10)
Developing clutch/K (CL6)
Transfer belt retraction clutch (CL5)
Paper exit sensor (PS3)
Transfer belt retraction sensor (PS39)
Paper feed tray 1 paper feed sensor (PS23)
Sensor in front of tim. roller sensor (PS1)
IDC registration sensor shutter solenoid (SD2)
Fusing pressure roller home sensor (PS32)
Fusing pressure roller retraction sensor (PS38)
Image write start signal
Developing bias AC Y
Developing bias AC M
Developing bias AC C
Developing bias AC K
1st transfer Y
1st transfer M
1st transfer C
1st transfer K
2nd transfer
Neutralization
Registration roller clutch (CL4)
Transport motor (M1)
Paper feed tray 1 paper feed clutch (CL3)
Power supply cooling fan motor (FM1)
Fusing cooling fan motor/1 (FM4)
Fusing cooling fan motor/2 (FM5)
Cooling fan motor/3 (FM2)
Transfer belt cleaner cooling fan motor (FM6)
MFP board cooling fan motor (FM7)
Exhaust fan motor (FM3)
Polygon motor (M14)
Fusing pressure roller retraction motor (M11)
LD (Y)
LD (M)
LD (C)
LD (K)
Fusing motor (M3)
Paper type Plain paper
Thick paper1/2/3/4, Postcard,
Envelope, OHP, Label
Mode Monochrome Color Gloss mode Monochrome Color
C360
166.6 mm/s
55.5 mm/s 55.5 mm/s C280
C220 111 mm/s
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 7. INTERFACE SECTION
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7. INTERFACE SECTION
7.1 Configuration
7.1.1 Rear side
A0EDT2C504AA
Optional finisher connector
Optional reverse automatic
document feeder connector
7. INTERFACE SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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7.1.2 Right side
A0EDT2C134DA
Front side
Rear side
(upper)
Rear side
(lower)
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 7. INTERFACE SECTION
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A. Front side
Note
Use utmost care when unplugging or plugging the cable. If the USB cable
extended from the USB port at the rear (upper) portion is unplugged, the USB port
at the front side is no longer operational.
A0EDT2C136DA
A0EDT2C135DA
USB port (optional) USB port (standard)
Sub power switch
Audio output terminal
(optional)
7. INTERFACE SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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B. Rear side (upper)
Notes
The USB cable is extended up to the USB port at the front side. If the cable is
unplugged from the USB port, therefore, the USB port at the front side is no longer
operational. Use utmost care when unplugging or plugging the cable.
Sliding the USB port cover will reveal the USB port dedicated to firmware upgrad-
ing.
The USB port cover is provided with a USB cover sensor that detects that the
cover is opened or closed.
When the USB cover sensor is blocked, the machine determines that the cover is
closed.
Notes
For details of firmware upgrading, see Field Service.
Be sure to close the USB port cover after the firmware upgrading is completed.
A0EDT2C137DA
A0EDT2C005DA
USB port
(standard:
dedicated to local print)
Serial port
(standard: not used)
Network port
(standard: dedicated
to network print)
USB port (standard)
USB port for service
(standard: dedicated to
firmware upgrading)
USB extension cable
(standard: USB extension cable to
the USB board at the front side)
USB port cover
(with open/close detection system)
USB extension cable
USB port for service
(dedicated to firmware upgrading)
USB port cover
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 7. INTERFACE SECTION
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The USB cover sensor detects that the USB port cover is opened or closed.
A0EDT2C138DA
USB port cover
USB cover sensor
(PS47)
7. INTERFACE SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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C. Rear side (lower)
A0EDT2C140DA
A0EDT2C139DA
Fax kit
(optional)
TEL terminal
(optional)
TEL terminal
(optional)
LINE terminal
(optional)
LINE terminal
(optional)
Line extension kit
(optional)
* The second line is
on the outside.
Scanner section
connection connector
(standard)
Fax kit (optional)
Scanner section connection
connector (standard)
Image controller connection connector
(optional: when video interface kit is mounted)
Security kit
(optional)
Note: This illustration shows a system mounted with a fax kit, a video interface kit
and a security kit.
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 8. SCANNER SECTION
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8. SCANNER SECTION
8.1 Configuration
A0EDT2E143DA
A0EDT2C141DA
Angle sensor
(PS202)
Scanner relay board
(REYB/SCAN)
Scanner motor
(M201)
Lens
CCD unit
USB board (USBB)
Mirror unit
Exposure unit
Scanner home
sensor (PS201)
Inverter board (INVB)
Original size detection
sensor 2 (PS205) : Option
Status display
board (MCMB)
Fax speaker (SP)
Original cover sensor
(RS201)
Original size detection
sensor 1 (PS204)
8. SCANNER SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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/
O
P
E
R
A
T
I
O
N
8.2 Drive
A0EDT2C144DA
Scanner drive cable/R
Mirror unit
Exposure unit
Scanner motor (M201)
Scanner drive
cable/F
Scanner home
sensor (PS201)
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8.3 Operation
8.3.1 When the power is ON
1. The exposure unit moves from the scanner standby position to the home position.
2. Exposure unit moves from the home position to the shading position (under the
shading correction sheet) and stops (in scanning direction).
3. The exposure lamp turns ON and the gain value of the CCD sensor output voltage
to R, G, and B is adjusted.
4. After adjusting the gain value, a shading correction is performed. The exposure
lamp goes out when the correction is completed.
5. The exposure unit moves in the return direction and stops at the home position.
6. The exposure unit moves in the scan direction and stops at the standby position.
A00JT2C004DA
Home position
Shading position
Scanning direction
Returning direction
Standby position
A0P0T2C001AA
Scanner movement
Shading position
Standby position
Home position
The exposure lamp (FL201) turns ON
and a gain adjustment and shading
correction are made.
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8.3.2 Control when the Start key is pressed
A. Original scanning mode
Original scanning mode has two types: Original cover mode and DF mode.
(1) Original cover mode
1. Turning the Start key ON will turn the exposure lamp ON (at the standby position).
2. The exposure unit moves in the return direction and stops at the shading position.
At the shading position, the gain adjustment is made.
3. The exposure unit moves in the return direction and stops at the scan start posi-
tion.
4. To start a scan, the exposure unit moves from the scan start position to the leading
edge of an original while performing shading correction. The exposure unit will start
reading the original image from the leading edge. The unit will finish reading the
image at the back edge of the image.
5. The exposure lamp will be OFF when the reading is complete.
6. The exposure unit moves in the return direction and stops at the home position.
Then the exposure unit moves in the scan direction and stops at the standby posi-
tion. It scans only once even for the color-copies, since R, G, and B data will all be
memorized in one scanning.
A0P0T2C002AA
A00JT2C005DA
Shading position
Home
position Standby position
Standby position
Scan start position
Scan start
position
Leading edge of the
image
Original
Back edge of the image
Scan
Return
Shading position
Home position
Leading edge of the image
Exposure lamp
(FL201) ON
Back edge of the image
Scanner
movement
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(2) DF mode
The original fed by the document feeder will be read at the original DF glass for. The
exposure unit will move to the reading position and stops. The document will be read as
the paper is transferred.
B. Original scanning control
The light reflected off the exposed original reaches the CCD sensor via the lens.
The CCD sensor outputs an electric signal (analog) that varies according to the intensity
of the light.
One CCD sensor has a photoreceiver that individually responds to each of the three pri-
mary colors of R, G, and B.
The electric signal is converted to digital data for each of R, G, and B by the board,
becoming individual digital signals.
Analog-to-digital conversion is made according to an instruction given by the MFP board.
(1) Calibration
The following adjustment and correction (calibration) are made before the original is
scanned, so that the image of the original can be adequately read. For details, see 24.
Image processing.
See P.249
Gain adjustment
Shading correction
A0P0T5C109DA
DF original glass
Reading position
R
G
B
4.7 m
4.7 m
A0EDT2C505AA
CCD sensor
Scanning direction
S
u
b

s
c
a
n
n
i
n
g

d
i
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c
t
i
o
n
Main scanning
direction
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8.3.3 Original scanning area
Original scanning areas vary depending on a scanning mode.
A. Original cover mode
Main scanning direction: Max. 297.0 mm
Sub scanning direction: Max. 431.8 mm
B. DF mode
Main scanning direction: Max. 297.0 mm
Sub scanning direction: Max. 1,000.0 mm
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8.3.4 Original size detection control
A. Detection method
For detection of the original size, the reflective size sensors detect the length of the orig-
inal while the CCD detects the width of the original.
For the original of an irregular size, the nearest standard size on the large side is applied
to it.
A0EDT2E153DA
A0EDT2C141DA
4037T2E597AA
Automatic document feeder or Original cover
Angle sensor (PS202)
CCD unit Exposure unit
Original standard
position
Original read
position
Exposure unit
313.5 mm
Original size
detection
sensor 1 (PS204)
Original size detection sensor 1
(PS204)
Original size detection sensor 2 (PS205) *
Original size
detection
sensor 2 (PS205) *
346.1 mm
*: Option
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B. Original size judgement
NOTE
Table 1 or 2 can be selected in the service mode.
Criterion
Metric area & china areas
Table 1
Table 2
*: Option
Inch areas
Table 1
Table 2
*: Option
Original
size
detection
sensor 1
Main scanning width (mm)
0~130.0 ~153.0 ~187.0 ~200.0 ~215.0 ~225.0 ~261.5 ~275.0 275.1~
OFF
No
original
A5S B5S 16KS A4S B5 B5 16K A4
ON A3 - - - - FLS B4 8K A3
Original
size
detection
sensor
Main scanning width (mm)
1 2* 0~130 ~143.9 ~153 ~187 ~200 ~213 ~220.9 ~225 ~261.5 ~274.7 ~284.4 284.5~
OFF OFF
No
origi-
nal
5
1
/
2

8
1
/
2
S
A5S B5S
16K
S
A4S
8
1
/
2

11 S
- B5 16K
8
1
/
2

11
A4
ON OFF A3 - - - - FLS FLS FLS - - - -
- ON A3 - - - - - 8
1
/
2
14 - B4 8K 11 17 A3
Original size
detection
sensor 1
Main scanning width (mm)
0~130.0 ~144.7 ~220.9 ~221.0
OFF No original 5
1
/
2
8
1
/
2
S 8
1
/
2
11 S 8
1
/
2
11
ON 11 17 - 8
1
/
2
14 11 17
Original size
detection
sensor
Main scanning width (mm)
1 2* 0~130 ~143.9 ~153 ~187 ~213 ~220.9 ~225 ~262 ~284.4 284.5~
OFF OFF
No
original
5
1
/
2
8
1
/
2
S A5S B5S A4S 8
1
/
2
11 S - B5 8
1
/
2
11 A4
ON OFF A3 - - - FLS FLS FLS - - -
- ON A3 - - - - 8
1
/
2
14 - B4 11 17 A3
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C. Detection timing
8.3.5 Image processing
The image processing has following items. For details, see 24. Image processing.
See P.249
Scanner section image processing block diagram
Photoelectric conversion
Analog-to-digital conversion
A00JT2C004AA
Original size detection sensor/1 (PS204)
Angle sensor (PS202)
Exposure lamp (FL201)
Validates the original length Validates the original size
Original cover sensor (RS201)
9. WRITE SECTION (PH SECTION) Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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9. WRITE SECTION (PH SECTION)
9.1 Configuration
A0EDT2C282DA
A0EDT2C167DA
PH unit
Return mirror (light source)
Cylindrical lens
Index mirror
Index lens
Polygon mirror
Laser drive board/C
(LASDB/C)
Laser drive board/Y
(LASDB/Y)
Laser drive board/M
(LASDB/M)
G1 lens
G2 lens
G3 lens
Synthetic mirror (Y,M,C)
Laser drive board/K
(LASDB/K)
Index board (INDEXB)
PH thermister (TH2)
Skew correction motor/
Y,M,C (M15,M16,M17)
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9.2 Operation
9.2.1 Outline
The surface of the photo conductor is irradiated with a laser light and an electrostatic
latent image is thereby formed.
The PH unit has a single-piece configuration. A semiconductor laser is provided for each
of four different colors. A single polygon motor is used to make a scan.
The polygon mirror has seven faces.
A rotating polygon mirror is irradiated with a laser light emitted from the laser diode on
the laser drive board to let the laser light scan.
A0EDT2C168DA
Transfer belt
Photo conductor Y
Y M C K
Photo
conduc-
tor
Return mirror/2
Return mirror/1
G3 lens
G1 lens
Polygon
mirror
Laser diode
Photo conductor surface
One line
One scan
Photo
conductor
rotatory
direction
G2 lens
Beam
Return
mirror/3
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9.2.2 Laser exposure process
A. Operation
1. The K laser light enters the cylindrical lens via the return mirror (light source). The
Y, M, and C laser light enter the cylindrical lens via the synthetic mirror and return
mirror (light source).
2. At the cylindrical lens, each laser light is condensed in the vicinity of the polygon
mirror.
3. Since the angle of incidence for each color of laser light varies, the laser light
reflected by the polygon mirror is reflected in a different angle for each color.
4. The condensing angle of each color of laser light is corrected by the G1 and G2
lenses and then reaches each return mirror.
5. The K laser light is condensed on the photo conductor surface via the G3 lens and
return mirror/1. The Y laser light is condensed on the photo conductor surface via
the return mirror/1, G3 lens, and return mirror/2. The M laser light is condensed on
the photo conductor surface via the return mirror/1, return mirror/2, G3 lens, and
return mirror/3. The C laser light is condensed on the photo conductor surface via
the return mirror/1, G3 lens, return mirror/2, and return mirror/3.
A0EDT2C169DA
Index lens
Index board (INDEXB)
Polygon mirror
Laser drive board/K
(LASDB/K)
Laser drive board/Y
(LASDB/Y)
Laser drive board/M
(LASDB/M)
Laser drive board/C
(LASDB/C)
Cylindrical lens
Synthetic mirror (Y,M,C)
Return mirror (light source)
G1 lens G2 lens
G1 lens
Y M C K
G2 lens
Return
mirror/1
Return mirror/1
G3 lens G3 lens G3 lens
G3 lens
Return
mirror/2
Return mirror/2
Return mirror/3
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9.2.3 Laser emission timing
After a print cycle has been started, when the stable rotation signals of photo conductor
and polygon motor are detected, a laser ON signal is output from the printer control
board.
The laser ON signal causes each laser diode to turn ON and emit a laser beam.
After passing through the return mirror (light source), cylindrical lens, polygon mirror, G1
lens, G2 lens, index mirror, and index lens, the K laser light is applied to the index board.
This generates an index signal.
This index signal has a function of keeping the same laser light emission timing per every
one line in the main scanning direction.
The index signal is generated with the K laser light only. The laser light emission timing
for other colors is determined with reference to K.
If the index signal is not detected within a predetermined period of time, the machine
determines that it is a laser emission fault, displaying trouble code: C4501 laser mal-
function.
The machine continuously monitors the index signal. If the index signal cannot be
detected at regular intervals, the machine determines that it is a laser emission fault, dis-
playing trouble code: C4501 laser malfunction.
A0EDT2C170DA
Index board (INDEXB)
Polygon mirror
Laser drive board/K
(LASDB/K)
Laser drive board/Y
(LASDB/Y)
Laser drive board/M
(LASDB/M)
Laser drive board/C
(LASDB/C)
G1 lens
G2 lens
Index mirror
Index lens
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9.2.4 Laser emission stop
Emission of the laser beam is stopped if any of the following conditions is encountered dur-
ing printing:
End of a print job
Laser emission of Y, M, and C is stopped if the print mode is changed from color to black
during printing.
The front door or any other door is opened.
A misfeed occurs.
A malfunction occurs.
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9.2.5 Laser emission area
A. Main scanning direction
The print start position in the main scanning direction is determined by the main scan-
ning print start signal (/HSYNC) that is output from the printer control board and the
width of the paper.
The laser emission area is determined by the paper size. The area of 3 mm/0.118 inch
on both edges of the paper is, however, the void image area. (With the long size paper,
the area of 4.2 mm/0.165 inches on both edges of paper is the void image area.)
B. Sub scanning direction
The print start position in the sub scanning direction is determined by the image write
start signal (/TOD) that is output from the printer control board and the length of the
paper.
The laser emission area is determined by the paper size. However, there are void areas
that are 4.2 mm/0.165 inch from the leading edge and 3 mm/0.118 inch from the trailing
edge of paper. (With the long size paper, the area of 4.2 mm/0.165 inches on both the
leading and trailing edges of paper is the void image area.)
4138to2595c0
Void width: 3 mm/0.118
(4.2 mm/0.165 *)
Void width: 4.2 mm/0.165
Void width: 3 mm/0.118
(4.2 mm/0.165 *)
Void width: 3mm/0.118
(4.2 mm/0.165 *)
*: for long size paper
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9.2.6 Color registration control (color shift correction) system
A. Overview of the registration control
In a tandem engine, each four different color has an independent image reproduction
process. Color shift may occur because of variations in part accuracy. The color registra-
tion control system automatically detects color shift and correct color shift in the main
and sub scanning directions.
The color shift detection sequence proceeds as follows. A detection pattern each in the
main scanning direction is produced at the front and rear on the transfer belt. Each of
IDC registration sensor/YC and /MK at the front and rear reads the corresponding pat-
tern. The amount of color shift in the sub scanning direction is then calculated and stored
in memory. A detection pattern each in the sub scanning direction is next produced at the
front and rear on the transfer belt. Each of IDC registration sensor/YC and /MK at the
front and rear reads the corresponding pattern. The amount of color shift in the main
scanning direction is then calculated and stored in memory. Based on the data repre-
senting the amounts of color shift, the machine calculates how much each of the different
colors should be corrected. The correction data is further stored in memory. Based on
the data stored in memory, the machine controls each dot during production of image
outputs, thereby correcting the color shift.
A0EDT2C171DA
4038T2C007AA
Transfer belt
IDC registration sensor/MK
(IDCS/MK)
IDC registration sensor/YC
(IDCS/YC)
Drum unit
Print head unit
Developing unit
Detection pattern for sub
scanning direction
Detection pattern for main
scanning direction
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B. Types of color shift
Color shift is misalignment of the images of three different colors, yellow (Y), magenta
(M), and cyan (C), with respect to the image of black (K).
Four different types of color shift can occur: color shift in the main scan direction, color
shift due to overall scaling error in the main scan direction, color shift in the sub scan
direction, and image skew.
C. Correction of color shift in the main scan direction
If the image of each color (Y, M, C) is misaligned with respect to the image of black (K) in
the main scan direction, changing the write start timing in the main scan direction can
correct the color shift. Color shift correction needs to be performed separately for the
respective colors (Y, M, C).
Color shift correction control is activated when the image stabilization sequence is
started.
A02ET2C630AA
Rotational
direction of the
transfer belt
Color shift
Before correction
After correction
Transfer belt
Black (K) Magenta (M)
No color shift
* When the image of magenta is misaligned with respect to the image of black (K)
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D. Correction of color shift due to overall scaling error in the main scan direction
If the image of each color (Y, M, C) and the image of black (K) vary in length in the main
scan direction, changing the clock frequency of the laser diode can correct the length dif-
ference in the main scan direction. Color shift correction needs to be performed sepa-
rately for the respective colors (Y, M, C).
Color shift correction control is activated when the image stabilization sequence is
started.
E. Correction of color shift in the sub scan direction
If the image of each color (Y, M, C) is misaligned with respect to the image of black (K) in
the sub scan direction, changing the write start timing in the sub scan direction can cor-
rect the color shift. Color shift correction needs to be performed separately for the
respective colors (Y, M, C).
Color shift correction control is activated when the image stabilization sequence is
started.
A02ET2C631AA
Rotational
direction of the
transfer belt
Color shift
Before correction
After correction
Transfer belt
No color shift
Black (K)
Magenta (M)
* When the image of magenta is longer than the image of black (K)
Color shift
A02ET2C632AA
Rotational
direction of the
transfer belt
Color shift
Before correction
After correction
Transfer belt
No color shift
Black (K)
Magenta (M)
* When the image of magenta is misaligned with respect to the image of black (K) in the sub scan
direction
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F. Skew (image skew)
If the image of each color (Y, M, C) is tilted against the image of black (K) in the sub-
scanning direction, the image skew can be corrected by tilting the G3 lens of the print
head unit. Image skew correction needs to be performed separately for the respective
colors (Y, M, C).
Image skew is adjusted at timing when the image stabilization sequence is started.
A02ET2C633AA
Rotational
direction of the
transfer belt
Color shift
Before correction
After correction
Transfer belt
No color shift
Black (K)
Magenta (M)
* When the image of magenta is tilted against the image of black (K)
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9.2.7 Color skew correction control
Temperature may change inside the print head unit and the components can change
over time. This may cause color skew problems. To prevent the problems, individual G3
lenses that correspond to Y, M, and C respectively have a color skew auto adjustment
mechanism.
When the skew correction motor runs, the G3 lenses moves up and down to perform an
automatic color skew correction.
A0EDT2C283DA
A0EDT2C173DA
G3 lens:
The lens is tilted to correct
color skew.
Drive gear
G3 lens drive cam
G3 lens tilting shaft
A0EDT2C172DA
Skew correction motor/C (M17)
Drive gear
G3 lens drive cam G3 lens tilting shaft
G3 lens
Skew correction motor
Print head unit
Skew correction motor/Y,M (M15,M16)
G3 lens:
The lens is tilted to correct
color skew.
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 9. WRITE SECTION (PH SECTION)
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A. Skew adjustment method
The following describe the direction in which the beam moves when the skew correction
motor/Y, M, C is rotated in the clockwise direction.
When the skew correction motor/Y, M, C rotates clockwise, the G3 lens moves, so that
the beam moves.
Only cyan uses a greater number of mirrors, one more than yellow or magenta does,
which results in the direction in which the beam moves being different from that of yellow
and magenta.
B. Skew correction motor adjustment value panel display
C. Operation timing
The color registration control (color shift correction) and the color skew correction control
operate at one time.
The color skew amount is calculated for each color using the numeric value calculated
with the sub-scanning registration pattern detected and based on the previous correction
data.
A0EDT2C174DA
C M Y K
Skew adjustment direction:
Direction in which the beam moves when the skew correction motor/Y, M, C
rotates clockwise
A0EDT2E293DA
Select [Service Mode] [Machine]
[Skew adjustment] and call
[Adjust value] (default adjustment
value unique to the print head) to
the screen, in steps.
Shows the skew correction
value after the image stabili-
zation process, in steps.
Shows the skew correction
value after the image stabili-
zation process relative to that
of the last image stabilization
process, in steps.
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9.2.8 Skew adjustment/skew adjustment reset
Certain specific conditions require that a skew adjustment be performed manually. There
may also be cases where the color skew correction control cannot be executed for
some reason.
The machine provides functions that allow you to make skew adjustments manually
and to reset the skew adjustment data against these situations.
Instead of making an automatic adjustment using color skew correction control, the ref-
erence position of the skew correction motor can be manually set by entering Skew
value in Skew adjustment of the Service Mode. For details of the Service Mode, see
Skew adjustment and skew adjustment reset of Service Mode in Field Service.
A. Possible conditions and causes
The print head unit is replaced with a new one.
The alarm code P-14: skew correction trouble is displayed.
A door is opened or the main power switch is turned OFF during color skew correction
control, causing the skew correction sequence to be halted; as a result, the current posi-
tion of the skew correction motor is unknown.
The skew correction motor position information set and backed up in the main body is
lost when, for example, the service EEPROM board is replaced with a new one.
9.2.9 PH unit temperature detection control
The temperature inside the PH unit is measured at intervals of 1 min. by the PH ther-
mistor mounted in the PH unit.
The detected temperature data is recorded to form part of the environmental information
data and used for controlling, for example, color registration, 1st image transfer output
determination, and image transfer roller cleaning.
A0EDT2C175DA
PH thermistor (TH2)
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9.2.10 PH window cleaning
The PH window, if contaminated, blocks the path of the laser beam and the surface of the
photo conductor can no longer be exposed properly. This could result in image problems,
including white bands or white lines on the print image.
The PH window is provided with a cleaning mechanism that prevents any image problem
caused by a dirty PH window from occurring.
A. PH window cleaning procedures
Slowly pull to the front the PH window cleaning tool provided for the PH window of each
color and push it back into the original position. This allows the cleaning material
mounted on the PH window cleaning tool to remove any foreign matter from the surface
of the PH window.
The machine is not equipped with any mechanism that automatically cleans the PH win-
dow. This makes it necessary to clean the PH window manually at regular intervals.
B. PH window cleaning timing
Clean the PH window of each color when the drum unit/K is replaced with a new one.
A0EDT2C176DA
PH window cleaning tool
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9.2.11 Image processing
The following image processing procedures relating to the write section are available. For
details, see 24. IMAGE PROCESSING.
See P.249
Write section image processing block diagram
Resolution conversion processing in the main scanning direction/movement processing
Resolution conversion processing in the sub scanning direction
Main scanning position correction
Speed conversion
Modulation
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10. PHOTO CONDUCTOR SECTION
10.1 Configuration
A0EDT2C284DA
A0EDT2C008DA
Photo conductor
A0EDT2C009DA
Color PC drive gear/C
Transport motor (M1)
PC drive gear/K
Color PC drive gear/M
Drum unit/M
Color PC drive gear/Y
Drum unit/C
Drum unit/K
Erase lamp/Y (EL/Y)
Exhaust fan motor (FM3)
Drum unit/Y
Electrode
cleaning tool/K
Electrode
cleaning tool/C
Ozone filter
Electrode
cleaning tool/M
Electrode
cleaning tool/Y
Color PC motor (M2)
Erase lamp/M (EL/M)
Erase lamp/K (EL/K)
Erase lamp/C (EL/C)
1st image transfer roller
Erase lamp
(mounted on the machine
frame side)
Photo
conductor
Cleaning blade
Toner
collecting
screw
Drum unit
Charge corona control
plate (grid mesh)
Comb
electrode
Developing
unit
Transfer belt
Drum unit new article
detect board/Y
(DR NDTB-/Y)
Exhaust duct
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10.2 Drive
A0EDT2C010DA
Photo conductor/K
Photo conductor/C
Photo conductor/M
Color PC motor (M2)
Photo conductor/Y
Transport motor (M1)
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10.3 Operation
10.3.1 Photo conductor drive mechanism
Two independent photo conductor motors (for color and black) are used for the drive
mechanism to suppress incorrect color registration and uneven pitch.
A. Photo conductor/K drive mechanism
The transport motor drives the photo conductor/K.
The transport motor is the common source that provides drive to manual feed, paper tray
feed, timing roller, transfer belt, and others.
Drive is transmitted to each of the photo conductors when the triangular-prism-shaped
shaft is engaged with the mating coupling part.
A0EDT2C012DA
A0EDT2C011DA
Shaft Coupling
Transport motor (M1)
Photo conductor/K
Photo conductor/K drive gear
Transfer belt drive gear
Developing unit drive
coupling
Developing clutch/K (CL6)
Paper feed drive gear
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B. Photo conductor/Y, M, C drive mechanism
The photo conductors/Y, M, C are driven by the color PC motor.
Drive is transmitted to each of the photo conductors when the triangular-prism-shaped
shaft is engaged with the mating coupling part.
A0EDT2C013DA
Shaft
Color PC motor (M2)
Coupling
Photo conductor/C
Photo conductor/M Photo conductor/Y
A0EDT2C014DA
Color photo conductor
drive gear/Y
Color photo conductor
drive gear/M
Color photo conductor
drive gear/C
Color PC motor (M2)
Triangular-prism-shaped
coupling part
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10.3.2 Photo conductor phase control
The drive source of the photo conductor/K is the transport motor. The drive source of the
color photo conductors/Y, M, C is the color PC motor. The three photo conductor drive
gears/Y, M, C are connected by gears to each other and the photo conductors/Y, M, C is
always in the same phase.
The photo conductor/K and the photo conductors/Y, M, C use a different drive source to
rotate themselves.
Drive to the photo conductors is provided by photo conductor drive gears/Y, M, C and the
photo conductor drive gear/K. If these eccentric gears can not synchronize with each
other in their eccentric rotation, rotational speed variations between the photo conduc-
tors may happen. By synchronizing the eccentric rotation of the photo conductor drive
gears/Y, M, C with that of the photo conductor drive gear/K, rotational speed variations
between the photo conductors/Y, M, C and the photo conductor/K can be eliminated.
The photo conductor phase control system synchronizes the phase of all photo conduc-
tor drive gears by adjusting the rotation start timing of the drive gears/Y, M, C and the
photo conductor drive gear/K when the photo conductors start rotating.
The phases of the gears are detected by color PC sensor (Main/Sub) and the mono-
chrome PC sensor (Main/Sub) which are located on the photo conductor drive gear/C
and photo conductor drive gear/ K, respectively.
A0EDT2C015DA
* Back view
Photo conductor drive gear/K
Photo conductor drive gear/C
Color PC main sensor (PS33)
Color PC sub-sensor (PS35) Monochrome PC main sensor
(PS34)
Monochrome PC sub-sensor
(PS36)
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10.3.3 Photo conductor small amount rotation control
To prevent the same surface of the photo conductor from being left to stand for a long
time, the photo conductor is rotated through a small amount so that its surface sensitivity
can be kept uniform.
The following image problems can be prevented by letting the photo conductor rotate:
A difference in sensitivity among different areas of the photo conductor produced as a
result of humidity around the drum unit can cause a black band to occur in the image.
Ozone that stagnates near the charge corona can reduce sensitivity of the photo con-
ductor, resulting in a white band occurring in the image.
Nitrogen oxides produced near the charge corona can cause light foggy background to
occur.
A. Start timing
The control is started under any of the following conditions:
Upon completion of a print cycle
Upon completion of image stabilization control
Upon completion of the TCR automatic adjustment operation
Upon completion of the auxiliary toner replenishing operation
Upon completion of predrive performed when the power is turned ON (only if an image
stabilization sequence does not follow)
A0EDT2C016DA
Photo conductor
12 mm
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10.3.4 Erase lamp control
The toner image on the photo conductor is transferred to the transfer belt (1st image
transfer).
The potential left on the photo conductor after the toner image is transferred is neutral-
ized by turning ON the erase lamp and any potential left on the surface of the photo con-
ductor is neutralized.
The neutralization of any residual potential on the photo conductor helps improve clean-
ing performance of toner left on the surface of the photo conductor.
A. Erase lamp ON timing
The erase lamp is turned ON when the photo conductor starts rotating.
B. Erase lamp OFF timing
The erase lamp is turned OFF at timing when the surface of the photo conductor that
faces the charge corona control plate (grid mesh) as the corona charge output is turned
OFF moves past the erase lamp (that is, the erase lamp is turned OFF after all charge
left on the surface of the photo conductor is neutralized).
A0EDT2C195DA
Erase lamp
Drum unit
Developing unit
Transfer belt
Position irradiated
with erase lamp light
Light blocking mylar
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10.3.5 Photo conductor cleaning
The toner image on the photo conductor is transferred to the transfer belt (1st image
transfer).
Part of the toner image that is not transferred is left on the surface of the photo conduc-
tor. The residual toner is scraped off by the cleaning blade.
Toner, which has been scraped off the surface of the photo conductor, is conveyed by the
toner collecting screw toward to the front of the machine. It is discharged in the waste
toner box.
The waste toner collected in the waste toner box is disposed of when a waste toner box
which is detected to be full of waste toner is replaced with a new one and the used waste
toner box is discarded.
A. Cleaning blade
The cleaning blade is pressed up against the surface of the photo conductor at all times.
No cleaning blade retraction mechanism is provided.
The cleaning blade scrapes residual toner off the surface of the photo conductor as the
photo conductor is rotated.
The toner collecting screw conveys the toner scraped off the surface of the photo con-
ductor.
A0EDT2C196DA
Photo conductor
Cleaning blade
Toner collecting
screw
Drum unit
Developing unit
Transfer belt
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B. Toner conveyance/collection mechanism
The toner collecting screw is rotated by the driving force transmitted from the photo con-
ductor (The toner collecting screw rotates in time with the rotation of the photo conduc-
tor.)
Rotation of the toner collecting screw conveys toner scraped off the surface of the photo
conductor toward the front of the machine.
A caking-of-toner prevention blade is provided to prevent toner from caking at the toner
collecting screw section.
The toner conveyed to the front of the machine is discharged via the toner collecting port
into the waste toner box.
The toner collecting port is provided with a shutter mechanism.
Mounting the waste toner box pushes the shutter at the toner collecting port, opening the
toner collecting port. Removing the waste toner box, on the other hand, closes the shut-
ter and toner is thereby prevented from spilling from the toner collecting port.
A0EDT2C018DA
Toner collecting port shutter
A0EDT2C017DA
Toner collecting screw
Caking-of-toner prevention blade
Close Open
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10.3.6 Charge corona control
A high voltage DC negative charge is applied to the comb electrode and charge corona
control plate (grid mesh) inside the charge corona. Charge discharged from the comb
electrode causes the surface of the photo conductor to become uniformly charged via
the charge corona control plate.
The charge applied to the charge corona control plate is called the grid voltage (Vg)
which is adjusted to an optimum valve through image stabilization control.
The comb electrode is used for the electrode. The electrode of the comb electrode type
can discharge in one direction only, which helps reduce the amount of ozone produced
as compared with the wire electrode.
The charge corona voltage supplied from the high voltage unit is applied to the comb
electrode and charge corona control plate of each color.
A. Charge application start timing
Charge is applied to the comb electrode and the charge corona control plate when the
drive motor of the photo conductor (transport motor and color PC motor) starts rotating at
a steady speed stably.
A0EDT2C196DA
Drum unit
Developing unit
Transfer belt
Photo conductor
Charge corona control plate (grid mesh)
Comb electrode
Charge corona
A0EDT2C198DA
High voltage unit (HV)
Charge corona control
plate charge corona
application terminal
Comb electrode charge corona application terminal
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B. Charge application end timing
Application of the charge to the comb electrode and charge corona control plate is termi-
nated at timing when the surface of the photo conductor that faces the transfer belt as the
1st image transfer output (see the 1st image transfer section for more details) is turned
OFF moves past the charge corona control plate (that is, the application of charge is ter-
minated after effect on the surface of the photo conductor from the 1st image transfer is
removed).
10.3.7 Charge corona cleaning
If the comb electrode becomes contaminated, the surface of the photo conductor can no
longer be charged uniformly, so that uneven charge occurs. Uneven charge of the photo
conductor results in irregular streaks or other print image defects.
The comb electrode is provided with a cleaning mechanism to prevent uneven charge of
the photo conductor from occurring.
A. Electrode cleaning procedures
Slowly pull to the front the electrode cleaning tool provided for the drum unit of each color
and push it back into the original position. This allows the cleaning material mounted on
the electrode cleaning tool to remove any foreign matter from the leading edge portion of
the comb electrode.
The machine is not equipped with any mechanism that automatically cleans the elec-
trode. This makes it necessary to clean the comb electrode manually at regular intervals.
B. Electrode cleaning timing
Clean the electrode of the drum unit of each color when the toner cartridge/K is replaced
with a new one.
A0EDT2C019DA
Electrode cleaning tool (cleaning portion)
Comb electrode
Electrode cleaning tool
(handle portion)
Charge corona control plate (grid mesh)
Charge corona
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10.3.8 Ozone filter
A high voltage DC negative charge is applied to the comb electrode and charge corona
control plate (grid mesh) inside the charge corona. Charge discharged from the comb
electrode causes the surface of the photo conductor to become uniformly charged via
the charge corona control plate. (Charge corona control)
The comb electrode generates ozone as it discharges.
When the photo conductor is exposed to a predetermined amount of ozone for a prede-
termined period of time, the sensitivity of the surface of the photo conductor becomes no
longer uniform, resulting in uneven sensitivity. Uneven sensitivity on the surface of the
photo conductor results in white bands or other print image defects.
To prevent the photo conductor from developing the uneven sensitivity problem, the
exhaust fan motor is provided with an ozone filter that removes ozone from the area
around the photo conductor.
A. Exhaust path
Air is drawn through the air inlet port disposed at the front side of the photo conductor
charge corona.
The air that contains ozone in it flows through the path near the comb electrode and is
discharged from the air exhaust port located at the back side of the photo conductor
charge corona into the exhaust duct.
The air containing ozone flows through the exhaust duct. The ozone filter located at the
distal end of the exhaust duct decomposes the ozone in the exhaust into oxygen.
The air, which is now harmless, is discharged out of the machine.
B. Exhaust fan motor rotation start timing
The exhaust fan motor rotates at full speed under any of the following conditions:
During a print cycle
During predrive after the power is turned ON
During execution of image stabilization control
C. Exhaust fan motor rotation stop timing
The exhaust fan motor stops rotating five seconds after it has started rotating.
A0EDT2C020DA
Exhaust path
Exhaust duct
Exhaust fan motor (FM3)
Air exhaust port
Air inlet port
Ozone filter
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D. Exhaust fan motor rotation time setting (Service Mode)
Rotation time of the exhaust fan motor can be adjusted to fall within the range of between
5 sec. and 15 min. using the Service Mode (default value 5 sec.).
The rotation time of the exhaust fan motor can be extended, which may improve a white
band problem that occurs due to ozone.
E. Ozone filter replacement timing
Replace the ozone filter with a new one at the same time that the image transfer belt unit
is replaced. The replacement image transfer belt unit is shipped with a replacement
ozone filter.
10.3.9 Drum unit detection
The drum unit of each color of toner is provided with a drum unit new article detect board.
The board detects different states of the corresponding drum unit.
A0EDT2C021DA
A0EDT2C003DA
Drum unit new article detect board
Unit mounting
detection control
New article
detection control
Life counter zero
reset (only for a
new article)
Life detection
control
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A. Unit mounting detection
The drum unit new article detect board detects the mounting condition of the drum unit.
When a drum unit is detected in the mounted condition, control now proceeds to the
new article detection control.
(1) Detection timing
The unit mounting detection control is performed under any of the following conditions:
The power switch is turned ON (with the front door and right door are closed)
The front door or right door is opened and closed with the power switch in ON position
Operation when it is detected that no units are mounted
The message Drum Unit Installation Error appears on the control panel and the
machine prohibits initiation of any new print cycle.
The message Drum Unit Installation Error disappears as soon as a drum unit is
mounted.
B. New article detection
The drum unit new article detect board detects whether the drum unit is new or not.
(1) Detection timing
The new article detection control is performed if it is determined through the unit mount-
ing detection control that the drum unit is correctly mounted in place.
(2) Operation when the drum unit is determined not to be new
The new article detection control is terminated.
(3) Operation when the drum unit is determined to be new
The life counter of the drum unit is reset to zero and the control proceeds to the life
detection control.
The result of the new article detection is recorded in the service EEPROM board of the
machine.
The life counter is available for the drum unit of each color. The counter value is recorded
in the service EEPROM board of the machine.
A0EDT2E294DA
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C. New article detection-disabled mode
The new article detection-disabled mode is used when a new drum unit is temporarily
used for performing troubleshooting procedures of a machine.
No new article detection control is performed for the drum unit when the new article
detection-disabled mode is used.
The new article detection-disabled mode should be used only for troubleshooting pur-
poses.
NOTE
See Field Service for more detailed operating precautions.
10.3.10 Drum unit life detection
The life counter of the drum unit controls detection of life of the drum unit.
The life counter is available for the drum unit of each color. The counter value is recorded
in the service EEPROM board of the machine.
*1: M represents a code that denotes the drum unit rotation time.
A. Printed counter life determination
Each of the printed counter and the drum rotation time counter has its own threshold
value to determine its own life. If the printed counter value reaches the threshold, the
machine determines that the drum unit has reached a new state.
(1) Drum unit printed counter life criteria
*1: For life stop, the Service Mode can be used to turn OFF print prohibited (No life stop);
however, print image quality is not guaranteed.
For more details, see Service Mode, Field Service.
Controlled item Counting unit
Printed page count Count
PC drum rotation time
M
*1
A0EDT2C023DA
Outside image
guaranteed range
Life stop display
(life stop threshold value)
Drum unit
(life end)
Drum unit
(new article)
Image guaranteed range
Reaching life display
(reaching life threshold value)
State Display Criteria
Normal
Normal
(print enabled: within image guaranteed range)
Less than life threshold
Reaching life
Reaching life display
(print enabled: outside image guaranteed range)
Equal to or more than life threshold
and less than life stop threshold
Life stop
*1
Life stop display
(print prohibited)
Equal to or more than life stop
threshold
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B. Drum rotation time counter life determination
Each of the printed counter and the drum rotation time counter has its own threshold
value to determine its own life. If the drum rotation time counter value reaches the thresh-
old, the machine determines that the drum unit has reached a new state.
(1) Drum rotation time counter life criteria
*1: Appears only if Service is selected for any of the units in System 2/ Unit Change of
the Service Mode.
*2: For life stop, the Service Mode can be used to turn OFF print prohibited (No life stop);
however, print image quality is not guaranteed.
For more details, see Service Mode, Field Service.
C. Drum unit life determination timing
The life determination control is performed under any of the following conditions:
The power switch is turned ON (with the front door and right door are closed)
The machine exits the sleep mode
The front door or right door is opened and closed with the power switch in ON position
A0EDT2C024DA
Outside image
guaranteed range
Life stop display
(life stop threshold
value)
Drum unit
(life end)
Drum unit
(new article)
Image guaranteed range
Reaching life display
(drum unit threshold
value)
L code screen
*1

(replacement alarm
threshold value)
Normal display
(less that the drum
rotation time threshold)
State Display Criteria
Normal
Normal
(print enabled: within image guaranteed range)
Less that the drum rotation time
threshold
Drum rotation
time excess
(Reaching life)
Reaching life display
(print enabled: outside image guaranteed range)
Equal to or more than the drum rota-
tion time threshold and less than the
life stop threshold
L code screen
*1

(print enabled: outside image guaranteed range)
Equal to or more than the drum rota-
tion time threshold and less than the
replacement alarm threshold
Replacement
alarm
Reaching life display
(print enabled: outside image guaranteed range)
Equal to or more than the replace-
ment alarm threshold and less than
the life stop threshold
Life stop
*2
Life stop display (print prohibited)
Equal to or more than life stop
threshold
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D. Drum unit life display
The life reaching screen appears when the count of the printed counter or the drum rota-
tion time counter reaches the life threshold (print enabled, outside image guaranteed
range).
The life reaching screen appears when the count of the drum rotation time counter
reaches the drum rotation time threshold (print enabled, within image guaranteed range).
The L code screen appears if Service is selected for any of the units in System 2/ Unit
Change of the Service Mode (print enabled, outside image guaranteed range).
In that case, the life reaching screen appears when the count of the drum rotation time
counter reaches the replacement alarm threshold (print enabled, outside image guaran-
teed range).
The life stop screen appears when the count of the printed counter or the drum rotation
time counter reaches the life stop threshold (print prohibited).
NOTES
The contents of the L code screen and life reaching display vary depending on the
settings made in Consumable Life Reminder and Unit Change of the Service Mode
and life stop of the security mode.
If the color drum unit reaches the life stop condition and the machine prohibits ini-
tiation of any new print cycle, touching the Continue key on the screen allows a
black print cycle to be initiated.
A0EDT2C291DA
A0EDT2E295DA
Life stop
Image guaranteed range
Reaching life New article
Life stop
display
Normal display
Reaching
life display
L code
screen
Replacement alarm
User
Service
Outside image
guaranteed range
Life stop
display
Normal display Reaching life display
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(1) Life reaching display (typical)
(2) L code screen (typical)
(3) Life stop display (typical)
A0EDT2E296DA
A0EDT2E297DA
L code Target unit
L-1 Drum unit C
L-2 Drum unit M
L-3 Drum unit Y
L-4 Drum unit K
L-5 Image transfer belt unit
A0EDT2E298DA
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10.3.11 Number of field standard printed pages
The number of field standard printed pages is specified for this machine based on calcu-
lation made by assuming field standard job modes as determined using the print volume
and use conditions of the user. Note, however, that the number of printed pages of the
drum unit varies depending on how the user uses the machine.
For details, see Outline/ Materials of Field Service.
10.3.12 Ozone filter new article detection
The ozone filter is not provided with any new article detection mechanism. If the ozone
filter is replaced with a new one, therefore, the following setting must be made in
Counter/ Life of the Service Mode: perform New Release of Image Transfer Belt
Unit. The life counter of the ozone filter is reset to zero by performing New Release of
Image Transfer Belt Unit.
Model Drum unit
Number of field standard printed pages
(unit: pages)
Life reaching Life stop
C360
K 120,000 144,000
Y,M,C 90,000 108,000
C280
K 100,000 120,000
Y,M,C 75,000 90,000
C220
K 70,000 84,000
Y,M,C 55,000 66,000
A0EDT2E299DA
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10.3.13 Ozone filter life detection
The life counter of the ozone filter controls detection of life of the transfer belt (transport
motor).
The counter value is recorded in the service EEPROM board of the machine.
The ozone filter is shipped with the image transfer belt unit.
*1: M represents a code that denotes the motor rotation time.
A. Life determination
If the count of the transfer belt rotation time counter reaches the threshold, the machine
determines that the ozone filter has reached a new state.
(1) Exhaust fan rotation time counter life criteria
(2) Life determination timing
The life determination control is performed under any of the following conditions:
The power switch is turned ON (with the front door and right door are closed)
The machine exits the sleep mode
The front door or right door is opened and closed with the power switch in ON position
Controlled item Counting unit
Transfer belt (transport motor) rotation time
M
*1
A0EDT2C023DA
Outside image
guaranteed range
Life stop display
(life stop threshold value)
Ozone filter
(life end)
Ozone filter
(new article)
Image guaranteed range
Reaching life display
(reaching life threshold value)
State Display Criteria
Normal
Normal
(print enabled: within image guaranteed range)
Less than the transfer belt rotation
time alarm threshold
Reaching life
Reaching life display
(print enabled: outside image guaranteed range)
Equal to or more than life threshold
and less than life stop threshold
Life stop Life stop display (print prohibited)
Equal to or more than life stop
threshold
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B. Life display
NOTE
The contents of the life warning display and life reaching display vary depending on the
settings made in Consumable Life Reminder and Unit Change of the Service Mode and
life stop of the security mode.
(1) Life reaching display (typical)
(2) Life stop display (typical)
A0EDT2E300DA
A0EDT2E301DA
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11. DEVELOPING SECTION
11.1 Configuration
A0EDT2C034DA
A0EDT2C033DA
Doctor blade
Developing roller
Toner supply screw
PC drum
Color PC motor (M2)
Toner supply screw
Transport motor (M1)
Color dev. unit engaged motor (M10)
Developing roller/Y
Developing unit/Y,M,C,K
Developing clutch/K (CL6)
TCR sensor board
TCR sensor board
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11.2 Drive
A. Developing section/K drive mechanism
Drive force from the transport motor is transmitted to the developing clutch so that the
developing section/K is driven.
A0EDT2C036DA
A0EDT2C035DA
Developing clutch/K (CL6)
Developing roller
Toner supply screw
Transport motor (M1)
Transport motor (M1)
Developing clutch/K (CL6)
Developing unit/K
drive coupling
Developing drive coupling
Developing section/K
Photo conductor drive gear
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B. Developing section/Y, M, C drive mechanism
Drive force from the color PC motor is transmitted to the color dev. unit engaged gear so
that the developing section/Y, M, C is driven.
When the color dev. unit engaged motor starts running, the color dev. unit engaged gear
is engaged with the color dev. unit drive transmission gear and the drive force of the color
PC motor is transmitted to the developing section/Y, M, C.
The state of the coupling operated by the color dev. unit engaged motor is detected by
the color dev. unit engaged position sensor.
A0EDT2C038DA
A0EDT2C037DA
Color PC motor (M2)
Toner supply screw
Color dev. unit engaged
motor (M10)
Developing roller/Y
Developing section/Y,M,C
Color dev. unit engaged motor (M10)
Color PC motor (M2)
Color dev. unit engaged gear
Photo conductor
drive gear
Color developing drive gear/Y Color developing drive gear/M Color developing drive gear/C
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A0EDT2C039DA
Coupling released
Coupled
Color dev. unit engaged
motor (M10)
Color PC
motor (M2)
Developing drive coupling
Color dev.
unit
engaged
gear
Color drive
transmis-
sion gear
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C. Color dev. unit engaged position detection
The color PC motor is the drive source of the developing section/Y, M, C.
When the color dev. unit engaged motor lets the coupling detection gear rotate, the color
dev. unit engaged gear is pressed against the color drive transmission gear. As the
result, the drive from the color PC motor is transmitted to the color drive transmission
gear, and the developing section/Y, M, C can be rotated.
While the gears are engaged with each other, when the color dev. unit engaged motor
starts running again, the color dev. unit engaged gear is disengaged and the developing
section/Y, M, C stops rotating.
The coupling detection gear is equipped with a shield, which allows the color dev. unit
engaged position sensor to detect the gear coupling conditions.
A02ET2C528AA
A02ET2C525AA
A02ET2C527AA
A02ET2C526AA
*Back view
Unblocked
Color drive transmission gear
Coupling released
Coupled
Color dev. unit engaged position sensor (PS37)
Coupling
detection
gear
Blocked
Color dev. unit engaged motor (M10)
Color dev. unit engaged gear
Color dev. unit engaged gear
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11.3 Operation
11.3.1 Developing roller pressure mechanism
Generally, the Ds rollers are pressed up against the PC drum flanges, so that an opti-
mum distance is maintained between the PC drum and the developing roller. (The Ds
rollers are mounted coaxially with the developing roller and designed to be larger in
diameter than the developing roller. The developing roller therefore does not contact the
PC drum.)
A mechanism is provided that releases the Ds rollers (developing roller) from the PC
drum to prevent the photo conductor from being damaged when the drum unit is to be
removed.
Rotating the release lever clockwise will rotate the drum unit about the pivot, so that the
Ds rollers are pressed against the drum unit.
Rotating the release lever counterclockwise will rotate the drum unit about the pivot, so
that the Ds rollers are released from the drum unit.
NOTE
Whenever operating the release lever, be sure to place the PH window cleaning
tool in its home position (pushed in position). A PH window cleaning tool, with-
drawn from its home position, interferes with the release lever and can therefore
be damaged.
A0EDT2C041DA
A0EDT2C040DA
PC drum
Ds roller
Release lever
Pivot
Ds roller
Developing
roller
Release lever
Developing unit/K
Developing roller
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11.3.2 Developer flow
1. Toner replenished via the toner replenishing port located at the front side of the
machine is fed to the toner supply screw/lower. It is then mixed with carrier by the
toner supply screw/lower. The state of toner mixed with the carrier is called the
developer.
2. The developer is conveyed toward the rear of the unit, while being agitated and
electrically charged, by the toner supply screw/lower.
3. The TCR sensor installed on the underside of the developing unit detects toner-to-
carrier (T/C) ratio during this time. If the T/C ratio is lower than a predetermined
value, toner is replenished.
4. The developer, fed to the rear of the developing unit, is conveyed further onto the
toner supply screw/upper.
5. The developer fed to the toner supply screw/upper is conveyed onto the developing
roller because of the magnetic pole positioning of the developing roller.
6. The doctor blade then controls the height of the developer brush to ensure that the
developer on the developing roller levels out.
7. Only the toner contained in the developer sticks to the electrostatic latent image on
the surface of the photo conductor. The developer that is left on the developing
roller is returned to the toner supply screw/upper by the magnetic pole positioning
of the developing roller. With these operations repeatedly performed, the developer
is circulated through the developing unit.
8. With only the developing unit/K, part of the circulating developer is collected in the
waste toner box through the toner collecting port located at the front side of the
toner supply screw/upper. The toner collecting port is provided with a shutter mech-
anism. Mounting the waste toner box pushes the shutter at the toner collecting
port, opening the toner collecting port. Removing the waste toner box, on the other
hand, closes the shutter and toner is thereby prevented from spilling from the toner
collecting port. (For more details, see the paragraphs that describe the auto refin-
ing developing system and toner collecting section.)
NOTES
The toner replenishing port of the developing unit is not provided with a shutter
mechanism (but the toner hopper section is provided with a shutter).
When removing the developing unit, the developing unit must be held in a horizon-
tal position with care not to allow toner to spill from the toner replenishing port.
A0EDT2C199DA
Developing roller
Doctor blade
TCR sensor board
Toner replenishing port
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A0EDT2C044DA
A0EDT2C043DA
A0EDT2C042DA
Discharge port
Toner supply screw/lower
Toner supply screw/upper
Doctor blade
Developing roller
Color developer circulation diagram
Black developer circulation diagram
Toner replenished
(including carrier)
Developer being
discharged
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11.3.3 Auto refining developing system
Only the developing unit/K incorporates the auto refining developing system.
The toner cartridge/K is packed with both toner and carrier and the developing unit/K is
replenished with fresh carrier at the same time that it is replenished with toner.
Excess carrier in the developing unit/K is discharged, thereby inhibiting carrier left in the
developing unit/K from being deteriorated and maintaining stable image quality for an
extended period of time.
A0P0T2J609AA
Toner cartridge
Toner
New carrier
Low degree of deterioration
of entire carrier
Circulation and agitation Developing unit
Waste toner box
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11.3.4 Developing bias
The developing bias voltage (Vdc) is applied to the developing roller so that an adequate
amount of toner is attracted onto the surface of the photo conductor.
In addition to the negative DC component, AC voltage is applied during development to
help toner to be attracted more easily to the surface of the PC drum. This AC component
is applied only while development is taking place. At any other timing, only the DC (-) Vdc
is applied.
The developing bias (Vdc) is supplied from high voltage unit.
The developing bias voltage supplied from the high voltage unit is applied to the develop-
ing roller of each color of toner via the metal shaft of the developing drive gear.
For the application timing of bias voltage, see Image forming control.
A0EDT2C045DA
Photo conductor
Developing roller
A0EDT2C046DA
Developing bias voltage
application terminal/Y
Developing bias voltage application
terminal/C
Developing bias voltage application
terminal/M
Developing bias voltage application
terminal/K
Black developing drive gear shaft
Color developing drive gear shaft
Developing roller/Y
Developing roller/M
Developing roller/C
Developing roller/K
Developing bias application
terminal
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A. Service Mode
(1) Development AC Voltage Choice
The Development AC Voltage can be changed by changing the setting of Imaging Pro-
cess Adjustment/ Development AC Voltage Choice of the Service Mode. This provides
development performance that responds to various types of environment of the users.
Turning ON the Development AC Voltage Choice allows the Development AC Voltage
to be decreased down to a voltage value lower than the ordinary specified value.
With the ordinary specified value set for the Development AC Voltage in low atmo-
spheric pressure environments, such as at high altitudes, leak could occur, resulting in
white dots. Leak, and thus white dots on the image, can be prevented from occurring by
lowering the Development AC Voltage.
For details of the Service Mode, see Field Service.
A0EDT2E302DA
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11.3.5 Toner scattering prevention
The toner scattering prevention plate and toner scattering prevention sheet are installed
in an area around the developing roller, functioning to prevent toner from scattering.
A0EDT2C048DA A0EDT2C047DA
A0EDT2C287DA
Toner scattering
prevention plate
Drum unit rail (machine frame side)
Toner scattering
prevention sheet
Toner scattering
prevention sheet
Toner scattering
prevention sheet
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11.3.6 Developing cooling
The transfer belt cleaner cooling fan motor is provided to circulate air through the inside
of the machine, so that the areas around the developing unit, drum unit, toner hopper,
and the image transfer belt unit can be cooled.
A. Air flow path
Air around the developing unit and drum unit is drawn in.
The air drawn in flows between the toner cartridge and the image transfer belt unit and is
blown against the toner cartridge/K.
B. Transfer belt cleaner cooling fan motor rotation start timing
The transfer belt cleaner cooling fan motor rotates at full speed under any of the following
conditions:
During a print cycle
During predrive after the power is turned ON
During execution of image stabilization control
C. Transfer belt cleaner cooling fan motor rotation stop timing
The transfer belt cleaner cooling fan motor stops rotating under any of the following con-
ditions:
Upon completion of a print cycle
Upon completion of predrive performed when the power is turned ON
Upon completion of image stabilization control
A0EDT2C050DA
A0EDT2C049DA
Transfer belt cleaner cooling
fan motor (FM6)
Toner cartridge
Developing unit
Image transfer belt unit
Drum unit
Transfer belt cleaner cooling fan motor (FM6)
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11.3.7 Toner density control
The TCR sensor is mounted on the underside of each of the developing sections. The
TCR sensor for C, M, Y and K is a non-contact magnetic type. Each of these sensors
detects toner-to-carrier ratio (T/C) of the developer. The reading is used for determining
the amount of toner supplied.
Only when a new developing unit is installed in the machine, an automatic adjustment
(calibration) is made of each of these TCR sensors. The automatic adjustment of TCR
sensors cannot be done at your own discretion.
The target T/C ratio is 6.5 1.5%.
The magnetic permeability (powder density) of the carrier in the developer is measured
to determine the T/C.
The TCR sensor is integrated with the developing unit. When the TCR sensor is to be
replaced with a new one, the entire developing unit must be replaced.
For replenishment of toner to the developing unit, see Auxiliary toner replenishing con-
trol for developing unit of Toner supply section.
A0EDT2C197DA A0EDT2C288DA
TCR sensor board
Magnetic TCR sensor
Toner supply screw/lower
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11.3.8 Developing unit detection
The developing unit of each color of toner is provided with a TCR sensor board. The
board detects different states of the corresponding developing unit.
A. Unit mounting detection
The TCR sensor board detects the mounting condition of the developing unit.
When developing unit is detected in the mounted condition, control now proceeds to the
new article detection control.
(1) Detection timing
The unit mounting detection control is performed under any of the following conditions:
The power switch is turned ON (with the front door and right door are closed)
The front door or right door is opened and closed with the power switch in ON position
(2) Operation when it is detected that no units are mounted
The message Developing Unit Installation Error appears on the control panel and the
machine prohibits initiation of any new print cycle.
The message Developing Unit Installation Error disappears as soon as a developing
unit is mounted.
A0EDT2C004DA
TCR sensor
automatic
adjustment
control
(calibration)
Image
stabilization
control
Unit mounting
detection
control
New article
detection
control
Life counter
zero reset
(only for a
new article)
Life detection
control
A0EDT2E303DA
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B. New article detection
The TCR sensor board detects whether the developing unit is new or not.
(1) Detection timing
The new article detection control is performed if it is determined through the unit mount-
ing detection control that the developing unit is correctly mounted in place.
(2) Operation when the developing unit is determined not to be new
The new article detection control is terminated.
(3) Operation when the developing unit is determined to be new
The TCR sensor automatic adjustment control (calibration) is performed.
The image stabilization control is performed.
The life counter of the developing unit is reset to zero.
After the above controls are performed, the operation proceeds to the life detection con-
trol.
The result of the new article detection is recorded in the service EEPROM board of the
machine.
The life counter is available for the developing unit of each color. The counter value is
recorded in the service EEPROM board of the machine.
C. New article detection-disabled mode
The new article detection-disabled mode is used when a new developing unit is tempo-
rarily used for performing troubleshooting procedures of a machine.
No new article detection control is performed for the developing unit when the new article
detection-disabled mode is used.
The new article detection-disabled mode should be used only for troubleshooting pur-
poses.
NOTE
See Field Service for more detailed operating precautions.
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11.3.9 Developing unit life detection
The life counter of the developing unit controls detection of life of the developing unit.
The life counter is available for the developing unit of each color. The counter value is
recorded in the service EEPROM board of the machine.
A. Life determination
If the count of either one of these counters reaches the threshold, the machine deter-
mines that the developing unit has reached a new state.
(1) Life determination threshold
*1: For life stop, the Service Mode can be used to turn OFF print prohibited (No life stop);
however, print image quality is not guaranteed.
For more details, see Service Mode, Field Service.
(2) Life determination timing
The life determination control is performed under any of the following conditions:
The power switch is turned ON (with the front door and right door are closed)
The machine exits the sleep mode
The front door or right door is opened and closed with the power switch in ON position
Controlled item Counting unit
Printed page count Count
A0EDT2C023DA
Outside image
guaranteed range
Life stop display
(life stop threshold value)
Developing unit
(life end)
Developing unit
(new article)
Image guaranteed range
Reaching life display
(reaching life threshold value)
State Display Criteria
Normal
Normal
(print enabled: within image guaranteed range)
Less than life threshold
Reaching life
Reaching life display
(print enabled: outside image guaranteed range)
Equal to or more than life threshold
and less than life stop threshold
Life stop
*1
Life stop display (print prohibited)
Equal to or more than life stop
threshold
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B. Life display
NOTES
The contents of the life warning display and life reaching display vary depending
on the settings made in Consumable Life Reminder and Unit Change of the Ser-
vice Mode and life stop of the security mode.
If the color developing unit reaches the life stop condition and the machine prohib-
its initiation of any new print cycle, touching the Continue key on the screen
allows a black print cycle to be initiated.
(1) Life reaching display (typical)
(2) Life stop display (typical)
11.3.10 Number of field standard printed pages
The number of field standard printed pages is specified for this machine based on calcu-
lation made by assuming field standard job modes as determined using the print volume
and use conditions of the user. Note, however, that the number of printed pages of the
developing unit varies depending on how the user uses the machine.
For details, see Outline/ Materials of Field Service.
A0EDT2E304DA
A0EDT2E305DA
Model Developing unit
Number of field standard printed pages
(unit: pages)
Life reaching Life stop
C360/C280/C220
K 570,000 519,000
Y,M,C 114,000 105,000
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12. TONER SUPPLY SECTION
12.1 Configuration
A0EDT2C267DA
A0EDT2C177DA
Toner cartridge
Toner cartridge/K
Toner cartridge/Y
Toner cartridge/M
Toner cartridge/C
Cooling fan motor/3 (FM2)
Toner cartridge motor/CK (M7)
Toner supply motor/YM (M8)
Toner cartridge
motor/YM (M6)
Toner supply motor/CK (M9)
Toner near empty switch/Y
(RS4)
Toner near empty switch/M
(RS5)
Toner near empty switch/C
(RS6)
Toner near empty switch/K
(RS7)
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12.2 Drive
12.2.1 Toner cartridge drive
A0EDT2C178DA
Toner cartridge motor/
YM (M6)
Toner cartridge
drive gear/M
Toner cartridge
drive gear/Y
Toner cartridge
motor/CK (M7)
Toner cartridge
drive gear/K
Toner cartridge
drive gear/C
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12.2.2 Toner hopper drive
A. Toner conveying screw
B. Toner agitating blade
A0EDT2C179DA
Toner supply
motor/YM (M8)
Toner conveying
screw/Y
Toner conveying
screw/M
Toner conveying
screw/C
Toner conveying
screw/K
Toner supply
motor/CK (M9)
A0EDT2C180DA
Toner conveying screw/M
Toner conveying screw/K
Toner conveying screw/C
Toner conveying screw/Y
Toner agitating blade/K
Toner agitating blade/C
Toner agitating blade/M
Toner agitating blade/Y
Toner agitating blade/Y
Toner agitating blade/M Toner agitating
blade/C
Toner agitating blade/K
Toner conveying screw/K
Toner conveying screw/C
Toner conveying screw/M
Toner conveying screw/Y
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12.3 Operation
12.3.1 Toner replenishing overview
The toner replenishing mechanism incorporated in this machine has a two-step replen-
ishing structure, one replenishing the toner hopper with toner from the toner cartridge
and the other replenishing the developing unit with toner from the toner hopper.
Only the toner cartridge/K incorporates the auto refining developing system. The toner
cartridge/K is packed with both toner and carrier and the developing unit/K is replenished
with fresh carrier at the same time that it is replenished with toner. Excess carrier in the
developing unit/K is discharged, thereby inhibiting carrier left in the developing unit/K
from being deteriorated and maintaining stable image quality for an extended period of
time.
For details of the auto refining developing system, see Developing section.
A0EDT2C181DA
Toner cartridge
Toner hopper
Drum unit
Toner replenishing
pipe
Developing unit
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12.3.2 Toner flow
A. Toner cartridge
When the toner cartridge is mounted in the machine, the shutter opens, so that the toner
hopper can be replenished with toner.
Rotation of the toner cartridge motor causes the toner cartridge to rotate. The interior of
the toner cartridge is in spiral form. As the toner cartridge rotates, toner inside the toner
cartridge is conveyed toward the toner replenishing port located at the front side, so that
the toner hopper is replenished with toner from the toner cartridge.
The toner cartridge is not provided with any mechanism that detects the amount of toner
left in it. No means is available to detect the amount of toner left inside the toner car-
tridge.
B. Toner hopper
Rotation of the toner supply motor causes the toner agitating blade and toner conveying
screw inside the toner hopper to rotate.
Toner conveyed into the toner hopper is agitated by the toner agitating blade.
As the toner conveying screw rotates, toner is conveyed onto the toner replenishing port
located at the front side inside the toner hopper, so that the toner is fed into the develop-
ing unit via the toner replenishing pipe.
The toner hopper is provided with a toner empty sensor that detects the amount of toner
left in the toner hopper.
A0EDT2C240DA
Toner hopper
The toner hopper is replenished
with toner from the toner cartridge.
The developing unit is replenished
with toner from the toner hopper.
Toner
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12.3.3 Toner replenishing to toner hopper
A. Toner replenishing mechanism
Two toner cartridge motors rotate the toner cartridges of four different colors of toner.
The direction of rotation is switched between the toner cartridge motor/YM and toner car-
tridge motor/CK, which allows the toner cartridge of only one color of toner Y/M or C/K to
be rotated to replenish the toner hopper with toner.
* The direction of motor rotation is as viewed from the front of the machine.
(1) Toner cartridge rotating mechanism
1. Drive of the toner cartridge motor is transmitted through a gear train to the toner
cartridge drive gears for two different colors. The shaft of the drive gears has a one
way clutch that turns only in one direction. Depending on whether the toner car-
tridge motor turns right or left, only one corresponding drive gear turns. Structurally,
the two colors of toner cartridge (Y and M or C and K) cannot be turned at one
time.
2. Rotation of the drive gear causes the toner cartridge to rotate. The interior of the
toner cartridge is in spiral form. As the toner cartridge rotates, toner inside the
toner cartridge is conveyed toward the toner replenishing port located at the front
side, so that the toner hopper is replenished with toner from the toner cartridge.
Toner cartridge
motor/YM (M6)
Toner
cartridge/Y
Toner
cartridge/M
Toner cartridge
motor/CK (M7)
Toner
cartridge/C
Toner
cartridge/K
Right turn Not turned Turned Right turn Not turned Turned
Left turn Turned Not turned Left turn Turned Not turned
A0EDT2C183DA
One way clutch
Toner cartridge motor/CK (M7)
Toner cartridge motor/YM (M6)
Toner cartridge/K
drive gear
Toner cartridge/C
drive gear
Toner cartridge/M
drive gear
Toner cartridge/Y drive gear
One way clutch
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12.3.4 Toner replenishing to developing unit
Two toner supply motors drive the toner conveying screws and the toner agitating blades
provided in the toner hoppers of four different colors of toner.
The direction of rotation is switched between the toner supply motor/YM and toner sup-
ply motor/CK, which allows the toner conveying screw and the toner agitating blade of
only one color of toner Y/M or C/K to be driven.
The toner agitating blade rotates to agitate toner in the toner hopper.
The toner conveying screw rotates to replenish the developing unit with toner.
* The direction of motor rotation is as viewed from the front of the machine.
Toner supply
motor/YM (M8)
Toner convey-
ing screw/Y
Toner convey-
ing screw/M
Toner supply
motor/CK (M9)
Toner convey-
ing screw/C
Toner convey-
ing screw/K
Right turn Not turned Turned Right turn Not turned Turned
Left turn Turned Not turned Left turn Turned Not turned
A0EDT2C179DA
Toner supply
motor/YM (M8)
Toner conveying
screw/Y
Toner conveying
screw/M
Toner conveying
screw/C
Toner conveying
screw/K
Toner supply
motor/CK (M9)
Toner agitating blade/Y
Toner agitating blade/M
Toner agitating blade/C
Toner agitating blade/K
One way clutch
One way clutch
One way clutch
One way clutch
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A. Toner conveying screw drive
1. Drive of the toner supply motor is transmitted to the toner conveying screws of two
colors of toner. A one-way clutch is mounted coaxially with the toner conveying
screw. Clockwise or counterclockwise rotation of the toner supply motor rotates the
toner conveying screw of only one color of toner. Mechanically, the toner conveying
screws of two colors of toner (Y and M, or C and K) cannot be rotated at the same
time.
2. The rotation of the toner conveying screw allows the developing unit to be replen-
ished with toner.
B. Toner agitating blade drive
1. Drive of the toner supply motor is transmitted to the toner conveying screws of two
colors of toner, so that the toner conveying screws can be rotated.
2. The rotation of the toner conveying screw is transmitted to the toner agitating blade
drive gear, which results in the toner agitating blade being rotated. The toner agitat-
ing blade rotates to agitate toner in the toner hopper.
3. The cam mounted coaxially with the toner agitating blade moves the actuator of the
toner near empty switch up and down.
*: For details of the toner near empty switch, see Toner level detection control.
A0EDT2C185DA
Magnet (fixed to actuator)
Toner near empty switch
(magnetic type)
Actuator
Cam
(operatively connected
to toner agitating blade
shaft)
Toner agitating
blade shaft
Toner conveying screw
Agitating blade
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12.3.5 Control of toner replenishing for toner hopper
The toner near empty switch (magnetic type) provided for the toner hopper of each color
of toner is used to determine the amount of toner still available for use in the toner hop-
per.
The actuator of the toner near empty switch is moved up and down by the cam mounted
coaxially with the toner agitating blade. A magnet is fixed to the actuator. The toner near
empty switch detects the vertical movement of the magnet.
Since the toner agitating blade is driven by the toner supply motor, the toner replenishing
control is performed only during the toner supply motor is energized.
A. Detection timing
The toner replenishing control is started when the drive of the toner supply motor is
started.
The output of the toner near empty switch is monitored for a predetermined period of
time. If the toner near empty switch is turned ON from the OFF state, during the prede-
termined period of time, the machine determines that the toner hopper runs out of toner
(or there is only a small amount of toner left in the toner hopper) and increments the
near empty counter by one. The toner cartridge motor is then rotated for a predetermined
period of time (15 sec.), so that toner is supplied from the toner cartridge to the toner
hopper.
If the toner near empty switch remains OFF, the machine determines that toner is still
available for use in the toner hopper, resetting the near empty counter to zero.
These operations are repeated and, when the near empty counter reaches 4 or more,
the machine determines that the toner hopper is in the near empty condition.
For details of the near empty, see Toner level detection control.
A0EDT2C186DA A0EDT2C187DA
Toner near empty switch: OFF Toner near empty switch: ON
Toner
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12.3.6 Auxiliary toner replenishing control for toner hopper
If the amount of toner available in the toner hopper is likely to be decreasing, control is
performed to supply toner forcibly from the toner cartridge to the toner hopper.
The machine prohibits initiation of any new print cycle while the auxiliary toner replenish-
ing control is being executed.
A. Toner hopper auxiliary toner replenishing control execution timing
The toner cartridge motor is rotated for 15 sec. to supply toner from the toner cartridge to
the toner hopper under any of the following conditions:
The toner cartridge is replaced with a new one after a toner empty condition is detected
in the toner cartridge (toner empty reset control is performed)
The developing unit is replaced with a new one (developing unit new article detection
control is performed)
B. Toner hopper auxiliary toner replenishing control end timing
The auxiliary toner replenishing control is terminated under any of the following condi-
tions:
A 15-sec. period elapses after the toner cartridge motor is started
The front door is opened and closed
An error or malfunction occurs
The machine enters the power save or sleep mode
12.3.7 Control of toner replenishing for developing unit
Control of replenishing the developing unit with toner is performed only when the devel-
oping unit is driven.
The toner replenishing time (the amount of toner supplied) during the toner replenishing
control is determined based on the T/C ratio detected by the TCR sensor (noncontact
magnetic type) and the amount of toner consumed calculated by the dot counter.
If replenishing is interrupted by a paper misfeed, the front door opened or closed, or any
similar event, the required replenishing time is carried forward to the next replenishing
control sequence.
For details of the TCR sensor, see Toner density control of developing section.
A. Detection timing
The toner replenishing control is started when the drive of the developing unit is started.
The toner replenishing time is determined based on the T/C ratio detected by the TCR
sensor and the amount of toner consumed calculated by the dot counter.
The toner supply motor is rotated for the period of time equivalent to the toner replenish-
ing time to thereby replenish the developing unit with toner from the toner hopper.
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12.3.8 Auxiliary toner replenishing control for developing unit
If the T/C ratio detected by the TCR sensor is equal to, or lower than, a predetermined
value at the start of a print cycle, initiation of the print cycle is prohibited and the develop-
ing unit is replenished with toner from the toner hopper until the T/C value reaches the
predetermined value (for a period of about 4 min. maximum).
The auxiliary toner replenishing control for developing unit is terminated as soon as the
predetermined T/C ratio is recovered.
It is also terminated if the auxiliary toner replenishing control for developing unit is
repeated ten sets. The control is also terminated when a toner empty condition is
detected in the toner cartridge.
Description Operation time
Initial developing unit agitation time 10 sec.
Toner replenishing time 0.7 sec.
T/C ratio detection time 1.3 sec.
Developing unit agitation time during replenishing 2.7 sec.
Developing unit agitation time after replenishing 10 sec.
Number of times replenishing control (replenish + agitation) is
repeated per one set of auxiliary toner replenishing control
3 times
Max. number of sets the auxiliary toner replenishing control for
developing unit is repeated
10 sets
A0EDT2E329DA
One set (Max: ten sets)

Repleni-
shment
(0.7 sec.)
Repleni-
shment
(0.7 sec.)
Repleni-
shment
(0.7 sec.)
Repl eni shi ng control Repl eni shi ng control Repl eni shi ng control T/C ratio detection T/C ratio detection T/C ratio detection T/C ratio detection Initial developing unit agitation
Agi tati on
(2.7 sec.)
Agi tati on
(2.7 sec.)
Agi tati on
(2.7 sec.)
Devel opi ng uni t agi tati on
after repl eni shi ng (10 sec.)
10 sec. 1.3 sec. 20.2 sec. 1.3 sec. 20.2 sec. 1.3 sec. 20.2 sec. 1.3 sec.
20.2 sec.
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 12. TONER SUPPLY SECTION
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12.3.9 Toner level detection control
A. Toner near empty detection
The toner near empty switch (magnetic type) provided for the toner hopper of each color
of toner is used to determine the amount of toner still available for use in the toner hop-
per.
The actuator of the toner near empty switch is moved up and down by the cam mounted
coaxially with the toner agitating blade. A magnet is fixed to the actuator. The toner near
empty switch detects the vertical movement of the magnet.
If the near empty counter is incremented by 4 or more during control of replenishing the
toner hopper with toner, the machine determines that the toner hopper is in a toner near
empty condition and enters the toner empty control.
For details of the toner replenishing control, see toner replenishing control.
(1) Toner near empty detection timing
The toner replenishing control is started when the drive of the toner supply motor is
started.
The output of the toner near empty switch is monitored for a predetermined period of
time. If the toner near empty switch is turned ON from the OFF state, during the prede-
termined period of time, the machine determines that the toner hopper runs out of toner
(or there is only a small amount of toner left in the toner hopper) and increments the
near empty counter by one.
If the toner near empty switch remains OFF, the machine determines that toner is still
available for use in the toner hopper, resetting the near empty counter to zero.
If the near empty counter is incremented by 4 or more through the foregoing operations
repeatedly performed, the machine determines that the toner hopper is in a toner near
empty condition and gives the message Replace toner cartridge on the control panel.
(2) Toner near-empty display
The warning screen to be displayed when a toner near-empty is detected can be enabled
or disabled in the System 2/ Unit Change in the Service Mode.
When the warning screen display is set to Yes, the message notifying the user that the
toner cartridge needs replacing soon is displayed. (Replace toner cartridge)
Printing can be continued even after the message appears (Default setting).
When the warning screen display is set to No, the message notifying the user that the
toner cartridge needs replacing soon is not displayed. Printing can be continued without
having the message displayed.
A0EDT2C289DA
Magnet (fixed to actuator)
Toner near empty switch
(magnetic type)
Actuator
Cam
(operatively connected
to toner agitating blade
shaft)
Toner agitating
blade shaft
Toner conveying screw
Agitating blade
12. TONER SUPPLY SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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(3) Toner empty display (typical)
NOTE
A different toner hopper empty display appears if User is selected for Unit
Change in the Service Mode.
B. Toner empty detection
The machine determines a toner empty condition by using the toner near empty switch
provided for the toner hopper of each color of toner, the toner supply motor at the toner
hopper, and the TCR sensor provided for the developing unit of each color of toner.
(1) Toner empty detection timing
The machine determines a toner empty condition when any of the following conditions is
detected after a toner near empty condition has been detected. It then gives the mes-
sage Toner cartridge needs to be replaced. (snip) on the control panel.
1. The rotation time of the toner supply motor (amount of toner replenished) exceeds
the predetermined value. (Note, however, that the cumulative rotation time of the
toner supply motor is reset to zero, if the event that the toner hopper runs out of
toner (or there is only a small amount of toner left in the toner hopper)* is not
detected by the toner near empty switch within a predetermined period of time after
the toner near empty condition has been detected.)
2. The TCR sensor detects a T/C ratio that is lower than a predetermined value.
*: If the toner near empty switch is turned ON from the OFF state, during the predeter-
mined period of time, the machine determines that the toner hopper runs out of toner (or
there is only a small amount of toner left in the toner hopper).
A0EDT2E306DA
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(2) Toner empty display
The screen mode to be displayed when a toner empty is detected can be selected by
specifying the person who replaces the unit in the System 2/ Unit Change in the Ser-
vice Mode.
When User is selected as the person, the message requesting toner cartridge replace-
ment by user is displayed when a toner empty condition is detected. (Toner cartridge
needs to be replaced. Replace it following the instructions.)
When Service is selected as the person, the message prompting service engineer to
replace the toner cartridge is displayed. (There is no toner. Contact your service repre-
sentative.)
NOTE
A different toner hopper empty display appears if User is selected for Unit
Change in the Service Mode.
C. Number of printed pages
NOTES
The number of printed pages represents a value that is calculated based the
amount of toner consumed when the machine is used in the standard job mode. It
varies depending on how the machine is used by the user.
For details, see Outline/ Materials of Field Service.
A0EDT2E307DA
Toner cartridge
No. of printed pages (unit: pages)
Near empty Empty
K 28,000 29,000
Y,M,C 25,000 26,000
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D. Resetting the toner near empty and toner empty conditions
Either the auxiliary toner replenishing control for toner hopper or auxiliary toner replen-
ishing control for developing unit is performed (both may be performed in some cases)
after a toner near empty condition and a toner empty condition have been detected.
The toner near empty/empty display is reset when the control is normally terminated.
Initiation of a new print cycle is prohibited during execution of the auxiliary toner replen-
ishing control for toner hopper and auxiliary toner replenishing control for developing
unit.
See the relevant pages for more details of the auxiliary toner replenishing control for
toner hopper and auxiliary toner replenishing control for developing unit.
List of controls
Control details
(1) Toner empty condition resetting timing
The auxiliary toner replenishing control for toner hopper or auxiliary toner replenishing
control for developing unit is executed under any of the following conditions after a toner
near empty/toner empty condition has been detected:
The main power switch is turned ON
The sub-power switch is turned ON
The front door or the like is opened and closed
Control name Parts to be controlled Description
Auxiliary toner replenishing
control for developing unit
Developing unit
Recovers the T/C ratio of the developer in
the developing unit.
Auxiliary toner replenishing
control for toner hopper
Toner hopper
Recovers the amount of toner in the toner
hopper.
Condition
Toner in unit
Control to be
executed
Printing after the end of the
control
Developing unit Toner hopper
Near empty Available Decreasing
Auxiliary toner
replenishing control
for toner hopper
Empty display is reset if the
amount of toner in the toner
hopper is recovered.
Empty 1 Available Not available
Empty display stays put if the
amount of toner in the toner
hopper is not recovered.
Empty 2 Not available Not available
Auxiliary toner
replenishing control
for toner hopper +
auxiliary toner
replenishing control
for developing unit
Empty display is reset if the T/
C ratio is recovered.
Empty display stays put if the
T/C ratio is not recovered.
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12.3.10 Toner cartridge detection
A. Mounting detection
The toner cartridge mounting portion of each color of toner is provided with a toner car-
tridge detection lever with which mounting of the toner cartridge is detected. It prevents
the machine from being operated with the toner cartridge yet to be mounted.
When the toner cartridge is removed from the toner cartridge mounting portion, the toner
cartridge detection lever is raised to close the toner cartridge detection window.
When the toner cartridge is mounted in the toner cartridge mounting portion, the toner
cartridge detection lever is pushed down to open the toner cartridge detection window.
If the toner cartridge detection window is closed when the operator attempts to close the
front door, the protrusion located on the front door for detecting mounting of the toner
cartridge interferes with the toner cartridge detection window and the operator is unable
to close the front door. The front door can be closed when the toner cartridge is mounted
in place. It should also be noted that the front door can be closed only if the handle of the
toner cartridge is rotated to the toner replenishing position.
A0EDT2C188DA
Handle
Toner cartridge detection lever
(no toner cartridge mounted)
Toner cartridge detection window
Toner cartridge detection lever
(toner cartridge mounted)
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B. Mounting position detection
The front door is provided with the protrusion for detecting the toner cartridge mounting
position. The protrusion functions to detect the mounting condition of the toner cartridge.
It prevents the machine from being operated with the toner replenishing port of the toner
cartridge closed.
The toner replenishing port of the toner cartridge is opened when the handle of the toner
cartridge is rotated clockwise to the toner replenishing position after the toner cartridge
has been inserted into the toner cartridge mounting portion.
If the operator attempts to close the front door with the toner cartridge simply inserted in
the toner cartridge mounting portion, the protrusion of the front door for detecting the
toner cartridge mounting position interferes with the handle of the toner cartridge, so that
the front door cannot be closed. The front door can only be closed when the handle of
the toner cartridge is rotated to the toner replenishing position.
A0EDT2C190DA
A0EDT2C189DA
Shutter
Toner cartridge detection lever
(no toner cartridge mounted)
Toner cartridge detection lever
(toner cartridge mounted)
Toner cartridge Handle
Handle
(toner replenishing position)
Handle
(toner cartridge removal position)
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A0EDT2C191DA
Front door
Toner cartridge mounting
detection protrusion
Toner cartridge mounting
position detection protrusion
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12.3.11 Toner spillage prevention shutter
A. Toner cartridge
The toner replenishing port of the toner cartridge of each color of toner is provided with a
toner spillage prevention shutter that prevents toner from spilling during removal or rein-
stallation of the toner cartridge.
(1) Mounting
The shutter of the toner replenishing port is opened when the handle of the toner car-
tridge is rotated clockwise to the toner replenishing position after the toner cartridge has
been inserted into the toner cartridge mounting portion.
Rotation of the toner cartridge motor causes the toner cartridge to rotate.
As the toner cartridge rotates, toner inside the toner cartridge is conveyed toward the
toner replenishing port located at the front side, so that the toner hopper is replenished
with toner from the toner cartridge.
(2) Removal
The shutter at the toner replenishing port must be closed when the toner cartridge is to
be removed.
If the shutter of the toner replenishing port is open when the toner cartridge is to be
removed, the protrusion of the toner cartridge interferes with the toner cartridge mount-
ing portion and the toner cartridge cannot be removed.
Rotating the handle of the toner cartridge counterclockwise to the cartridge removal
position closes the shutter of the toner replenishing port. The toner cartridge can be
removed when the toner replenishing port of the toner cartridge is closed.
A0EDT2C192DA
Toner cartridge toner
replenishing port
(toner cartridge removal
position)
Toner cartridge removal
positioning protrusion
Toner cartridge toner spillage
prevention shutter
Toner hopper toner
replenishing port
Toner hopper toner spillage
prevention shutter
Toner replenishing port
(toner replenishing position)
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B. Toner hopper
The toner replenishing port of the toner hopper of each color of toner is provided with a
toner spillage prevention shutter that prevents toner from spilling during removal or rein-
stallation of the developing unit.
Mounting the developing unit pushes the shutter at the toner replenishing port, opening
the toner replenishing port. Removing the developing unit, on the other hand, closes the
shutter and toner is thereby prevented from spilling from the toner replenishing port.
NOTE
The toner replenishing port of the developing unit is not provided with a shutter
mechanism. When removing the developing unit, the developing unit must be held
in a horizontal position with care not to allow toner to spill from the toner replen-
ishing port.
A0EDT2C193DA
Toner cartridge removal
positioning protrusion
Toner cartridge toner replenishing
port (toner cartridge removal posi-
tion)
A0EDT2C194DA
Toner hopper toner spillage prevention
shutter (open: toner replenishing position)
Toner hopper toner spillage prevention shutter
(closed: developing unit removal position)
Toner replenishing port
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12.3.12 Front door mechanism
The front door permits easy access into the inside of the machine for replacement of
toner and performing other service jobs (the front door swings down about the lower piv-
otal axis).
The main power switch and total counter are mounted inside the front door.
A. Front door locking mechanism
The front door is provided with a locking mechanism.
(1) Unlocking the front door
Pulling the handles at the right and left sides of the front door to the front will release the
door lock magnets (two) provided at the upper portion of the front door.
(2) Locking the front door
Close the front door. When the front door is closed in its correct position, the door lock
magnets (two) provided at the upper portion of the front door lock the front door in place.
The front door is provided with a protrusion for detecting mounting of the toner cartridge.
It functions to detect the mounting condition of the toner cartridge, preventing the
machine from being operated with the toner replenishing port of the toner cartridge
closed. For details, see Toner cartridge detection.
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B. Front door open/close detection mechanism
The front door switch detects that the front door is opened or closed.
When the front door is closed, the open/close detection protrusion provided at the upper
portion on the left side of the front door presses the actuator of the front door switch. This
turns ON the front door switch and the machine determines that the front door is closed.
When the front door is opened, the front door switch actuator is released, which turns
OFF the front door switch. The machine then determines that the front door is open and
shows a message that prompts the operator to close the front door.
When it is determined that the front door is open, use of all jobs but the fax reception job
is prohibited. In addition, a paper misfeed results if the front door is opened during a print
job.
A0EDT2C269DA
Handle
Door lock magnet
Total counter
Main power switch
(SW1)
Door lock magnet
Handle
Front door switch
(MS1)
A0EDT2E308DA
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13. 1ST IMAGE TRANSFER SECTION
13.1 Configuration
A0EDT2C270DA
A0EDT2C056DA
A0EDT2C055DA
Cleaning blade
1st image
transfer roller/Y
1st image
transfer roller/M
1st image
transfer roller/C
1st image
transfer roller/K
Transfer belt
drive roller
Pressure cam
Transfer belt retraction
clutch (CL5)
Transfer belt retraction
sensor (PS39)
Fusing motor (M3)
Cleaning
mechanism
Transfer belt driven roller
Transfer belt
1st image transfer roller
pressure mechanism
PC drum/Y
(drum section)
1st image transfer roller
pressure mechanism
Transfer belt drive roller
Transfer belt driven roller
Transfer belt cleaner
cooling fan motor (FM6)
Transfer belt cleaner
cooling fan duct
Transport motor (M1)
PC drum/M
(drum section)
PC drum/C
(drum section)
PC drum/K
(drum section)
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13.2 Drive
A0EDT2C058DA
A0EDT2C057DA
Transfer belt
Transport motor (M1)
1st image transfer roller/K
1st image transfer roller/C
Transfer belt
retraction clutch (CL5)
1st image transfer roller/M
1st image transfer roller/Y
Transport motor (M1)
Fusing motor (M3)
Transfer belt retraction
sensor (PS39)
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13.3 Operation
13.3.1 Transfer belt drive
The transfer belt drive roller is rotated by the driving force of the transport motor. The
transfer belt is rotated counterclockwise.
Rotation of the transfer belt causes the transfer belt driven roller to rotate. The drive
transmission gear located at the transfer belt driven roller rotates the waste toner convey-
ing screw of the cleaning mechanism.
A0EDT2C059DA
Fusing motor (M3)
Transfer belt retraction
clutch (CL5)
Fusing drive
release gear
Fusing drive release lever
Transfer belt drive roller
Transport motor (M1)
1st image
transfer roller/K
Pressure
cam
1st image transfer roller/C
drive arm
1st image transfer roller/C
Slide plate
Transfer belt
A0EDT2C060DA
Waste toner conveying screw
1st image transfer roller/Y
Transfer belt
Slide plate
1st image transfer roller/Y
drive arm Transfer belt driven roller
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13.3.2 1st image transfer roller control
Pressure mechanism is equipped for pressing the 1st image transfer rollers (Y, M, C) to
inside the transfer belt at the 1st image tansfer.
The 1st image transfer roller (K) does not have pressure retraction mechanism. The 1st
image transfer roller (K) always presses the transfer belt to the PC drum (K).
The driving force of the fusing motor is transmitted to the fusing drive release gear and
transfer belt retraction clutch, thereby pressing the 1st image transfer roller. The fusing
drive release gear is moved to the drive coupling position when the right door is closed,
so that the driving force can be transmitted. For more details of the fusing drive release
mechanism, see Fusing section.
The transfer belt retraction sensor is installed to detect retracting position of the 1st
image transfer roller.
A. 1st image transfer roller pressure
Rotation of the fusing motor is transmitted to the transfer belt retraction clutch via the fus-
ing drive release gear.
When the transfer belt retraction clutch is turned ON, the rotation of the fusing motor is
transmitted to the drive gear.
Rotation of the drive gear rotates the pressure cam, so that the position of contact
between the slide plate and the cam is varied.
The 1st image transfer roller pressure spring provided for the slide plate causes the slide
plate to move to the pressure position (toward the transfer belt driven roller side).
The movement of the slide plate results in the 1st image transfer roller drive arm being
rotated. The rotation of the 1st image transfer roller drive arm lowers the 1st image trans-
fer roller (Y, M, C), so that the transfer belt is pressed against the PC drum.
When the slide plate moves to the pressure position, the leading edge of the slide plate
pushes the actuator of the transfer belt retraction sensor.
The actuator blocks the transfer belt retraction sensor and the slide plate movement is
detected.
The transfer belt retraction clutch is turned OFF.
The cam will stop rotating and the siding plate will stop.
The 1st image transfer roller (Y, M, and C) will stay being pressed.
A0EDT2C061DA
Transfer belt
(pressure position)
Slide plate
(pressure position)
Slide plate
(retraction
position)
Transfer belt
retraction
clutch (CL5)
1st image transfer roller/K
(always press)
Pressure cam
(retraction
position)
Pressure
cam
(pressure
position)
1st image transfer roller/C
drive arm (retraction position)
1st image transfer roller/C
drive arm (pressure position)
1st image transfer roller/C
(retraction position)
1st image transfer roller/Y
drive arm (retraction position)
1st image transfer
roller/Y (retraction
position)
1st image transfer roller/Y
(pressure position)
Transfer belt
(retraction
position)
1st image transfer roller/C
(pressure position)
1st image transfer roller/Y
drive arm (pressure position)
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B. 1st image transfer roller retraction
Rotation of the fusing motor is transmitted to the transfer belt retraction clutch via the fus-
ing drive release gear.
When the transfer belt retraction clutch is turned ON, rotation of the fusing motor is trans-
mitted to the drive gear.
Rotation of the drive gear rotates the pressure cam, so that the position of contact
between the slide plate and the cam is varied.
The pressure cam is pushed to move the slide plate to the retraction position (toward the
transfer belt drive roller side).
The movement of the slide plate results in the 1st image transfer roller drive arm being
rotated. The rotation of the 1st image transfer roller drive arm raises the 1st image trans-
fer roller (Y, M, C), so that the transfer belt is retracted from the PC drum.
When the slide plate moves to the pressure position, the actuator of the transfer belt
retraction sensor is moved to the retraction position by the spring provided for the actua-
tor.
The actuator unblocks the transfer belt retraction sensor and the slide plate movement is
detected.
The transfer belt retraction clutch is turned OFF.
The cam will stop rotating to stop the sliding plate.
The 1st image transfer roller (Y, M, and C) will keep their retraction position.
A0EDT2C062DA
Transfer belt retraction sensor actuator (retraction position)
Transfer belt retraction
sensor (PS39)
Transfer belt retraction sensor actuator (pressure position)
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13.3.3 Pressure/retraction control by print mode
To extend the service life of the PC drum/Y, M, C, the transfer belt is retracted from the
color PC drum in the black mode.
In the black mode, the 1st image transfer roller/Y, M, C is retracted and the color drum
unit and color developing unit are stopped.
The 1st image transfer roller/K is pressed against the PC drum/K at all times in both
black and color modes.
A. Color mode
In the color mode, the image transfer roller is where the PC drum is pressed against the
transfer belt for all four colors of toner
B. Black mode
In the black mode, the image transfer roller /Y, M, C is where the PC drum/Y, M, C leaves
the transfer belt, while the image transfer roller /K is where the PC drum/K is pressed
against the transfer belt. This allows the PC drum/Y, M, C to stop rotating in this mode.
A0EDT2C064DA
A0EDT2C063DA
Black mode
Color mode
Transfer belt (retraction position)
1st image transfer
roller/Y
Transfer belt
1st image
transfer roller/K
PC drum/K
PC drum/C PC drum/M PC drum/Y
1st image
transfer roller/C
1st image
transfer roller/M
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C. ACS mode
(1) ACS mode overview
When making a copy, any desired copy mode can be selected from the control panel.
(The default setting is the auto color mode.)
The auto color mode is called the ACS (auto color selection) mode. (In PC print job, auto
color as the setting item in the printer driver corresponds to the ACS.)
In ACS mode, the machine analyzes the image data of the original scanned by the scan-
ner section to determine whether the image data is colored or in black.
Determining that it is a color original, the machine presses the 1st image transfer roller
and runs a color print job.
Determining that it is a black original, the machine retracts the 1st image transfer roller
and runs a black print job.
(2) Control of 1st image transfer roller in ACS mode
The number of sheets of continuous series of black originals is counted when color origi-
nals are changed to black originals.
Pressure of the 1st image transfer roller is controlled according to the number of sheets
of continuous series of black originals during a multi-print cycle, thereby achieving both
high print productivity and extended service life of consumables.
Control of 1st image transfer roller in ACS mode is executed only when a copy is made
with Auto Color selected from the control panel. It is not executed when Full Color,
Black, 2 Color, or Single Color is selected.
The control is executed, for PC print, only if the print cycle is run with Auto Color
selected from the printer driver screen. It is not executed when Full Color or Grayscale
is selected.
The 1st image transfer roller /Y, M, C is in the pressed position (color mode) in its initial
state.
NOTE
The control of 1st image transfer roller in the ACS mode is enabled only after the
number of sheets of continuous series of black originals has been counted. It is
therefore not an effective control for a copy print job involving only one copy set/
stack. The control is effectively operable for the following print jobs:
Since on the first copy, the control can be performed only for where the original is
read and counted.
Copy print of the second copy set/stack and onward
Copy print from a registered job
PC print job
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(3) When the number of multi-copies is as specified or under
ACS control starts counting the number of multi-copies of the black original when
switched from the color original to the black original.
The black printing will start with color mode. (with the 1st image transfer roller /Y/M/C
being pressed)
Developing or image transfer does not take place with the developing unit (Y, M, C), but,
since the transfer belt is pressed, the PC drum and the developing roller are rotated as
the transfer belt rotates.
An advantage during pressure of the 1st image transfer roller/Y, M, C is that the loss time
produced as a result of retraction of the 1st image transfer roller can be reduced relative
to print productivity.
(4) When the number of multi-copies is as specified or over
The black printing will start when the color mode is complete and the 1st image transfer
roller /Y/M/C is retracted to be switched to the black mode.
An advantage during retraction of the 1st image transfer roller is that chance of the devel-
oping unit (Y, M, C) and drum unit (Y, M, C) being worn as a result of wasteful rotation
can be reduced.
4038T2C165AA
When printing in black with color mode
(effecting black printing with the four PC drums rotating)
Color mode Color mode
Switching to black mode
Color mode
Color mode
Black mode

Black mode

A0EDT2C001DA
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(5) C360 black original specified values
Number of multiple copies of black original when processing speed is 166.6 mm/s.
Number of multiple copies of black original when processing speed is 55.5 mm/s.
(6) C280/C220 black original specified values
Paper length Black printing in color mode
Black printing after switched to
black mode
216 mm or under 2 sheets or less 3 sheets or more
Over 216 mm up to 297 mm 2 sheets or less 3 sheets or more
Over 297 mm and up to 381 mm 1 sheet 2 sheets or more
Over 381 mm and up to 432 mm 1 sheet 2 sheets or more
Over 432mm and up to 457mm 1 sheet 2 sheets or more
Over 457 mm Switched to black mode
Paper length Black printing in color mode
Black printing after switched to
black mode
216 mm or under 2 sheets or less 3 sheets or more
over 216 mm up to 297 mm 2 sheets or less 3 sheets or more
Over 297 mm and up to 381 mm 1 sheet 2 sheets or more
Over 381 mm and up to 432 mm 1 sheet 2 sheets or more
Over 432mm and up to 457mm 1 sheet 2 sheets or more
over 457 mm Switched to black mode
Paper length Black printing in color mode
Black printing after switched to
black mode
216 mm or under 1 sheet 2 sheets or more
Over 216 mm up to 297 mm 1 sheet 2 sheets or more
Over 297 mm and up to 381 mm 1 sheet 2 sheets or more
Over 381 mm and up to 432 mm 1 sheet 2 sheets or more
Over 432mm and up to 457mm 1 sheet 2 sheets or more
Over 457 mm Switched to black mode
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D. ASC mode control change with the software SW
By changing the software SW 50 setting from HEX assignment 00 to HEX assignment
01, you can change the pressure control of the 1st image transfer rollers.
When the software SW 50 is set to HEX assignment 01, the 1st image transfer rollers
default position is changed to the black mode (retracted position). When the setting is
HEX assignment 00, the default position of the 1st image transfer roller/Y, M, C is at the
color mode (pressed position).
For users who mainly produce black prints, when HEX assignment 01 is selected, the
1st image transfer roller/Y, M, C can be at the retracted position more frequently, which
helps to reduce the wearing out of PC drums caused by unnecessary rotation of color
developing units and color drum units.
The disadvantage of the setting (HEX assignment 01) is that the first copy time
becomes longer for color print as the 1st image transfer roller/Y, M, C is moved from the
color mode to the black mode. Reduced productivity of the multi-print cycle could result
depending on the condition.
(1) Case 1
*1: After printing black originals in the color mode, if the machine judges there are black
originals more than a specified number, the 1st image transfer roller/Y, M, C are
switched to the black mode and black printing is resumed.
*2: The 1st image transfer rollers/Y, M, C remain in the black mode and black printing is
made.
A0EDT2C292DA
Originals
Copy (Setting: HEX assignment 00)*1
1st image transfer
roller pressure
and retraction
operation
(Printing is
interrupted)
Copy (Setting: HEX assignment 01)*2
Black
Color mode Black mode
Black mode
Black Black Black Black Black Black
Black Black Black Black Black Black Black
Black Black Black Black Black Black Black
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(2) Case 2
*1: The 1st image transfer roller/Y, M, C remains at the color mode and the color originals
are printed in the color mode. If a machine interprets that there are black originals more
than a predetermined number, the 1st image transfer roller/Y, M, C is switched to the
black mode and black printing is resumed.
*2: The 1st image transfer roller/Y, M, C is switched to the color mode and the color origi-
nals are printed in the color mode. If a machine interprets there are black originals
more than a predetermined number, the 1st image transfer roller/Y, M, C is switched to
the black mode and black printing is resumed.
A0EDT2C002DA
Originals
Color
Copy (Setting: HEX assignment 00)*1
1st image
transfer roller
pressure and
retraction
operation
(Printing is
interrupted.)
Copy (Setting: HEX assignment 01)*2
1st image
transfer
roller pres-
sure and
retraction
operation
1st image
transfer roller
pressure and
retraction
operation
Color mode
Color mode
Black mode
Black mode Black mode
Black Color Black Black Black Black
Color Color Black Black Black Black
Color Black Color Black Black
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13.3.4 1st image transfer control
To transfer the toner image formed on the surface of the PC drum onto the transfer belt,
the transfer current supplied from the high voltage unit is applied to the 1st image trans-
fer roller of each color.
For the 1st image transfer output current value, a fixed value is used for each process
speed (full speed, half speed).
A0EDT2C065DA
1st image transfer roller/M
1st image transfer roller/C
1st image transfer roller/K
1st image transfer roller/Y
1st image transfer current
application terminal/K
1st image transfer current
application terminal/C
1st image transfer current
application terminal/M
1st image transfer current
application terminal/Y
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13.3.5 Transfer belt cleaning
The toner image on the surface of the transfer belt is transferred onto the paper (2nd
image transfer).
Part of the toner image is left on the surface of the transfer belt after the 2nd image trans-
fer. A cleaning blade is provided on the transfer belt. It functions to remove the residual
toner (waste toner).
A. Cleaning blade
The cleaning blade, of a fixed blade type, is pressed up against the surface of the trans-
fer belt at all times. No cleaning blade retraction mechanism is provided.
The waste toner on the surface of the transfer belt is scraped off as the transfer belt is
rotated.
A0EDT2C066DA
Drive transmission gear
Toner collecting screw
Transfer belt driven roller
Caking-of-toner prevention blade
Cleaning blade
A0EDT2C071DA
Toner collecting screw
Transfer belt
Transfer belt
driven roller
Cleaning blade
Transfer belt rotative direction (forward rotation)
Transfer belt
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B. Waste toner conveying/collecting mechanism
Drive for the toner collecting screw comes from the transfer belt driven roller. (The toner
collecting screw rotates in time with rotation of the transfer belt.)
The rotation of the toner collecting screw conveys waste toner scraped off the surface of
the transfer belt toward the front of the machine.
There is a caking-of-toner prevention blade installed. It prevents waste toner from caking
at the toner collecting screw portion.
The waste toner is discharged through the toner collecting port into the waste toner box.
The waste toner is disposed of when a waste toner box which is detected to be full of
waste toner is replaced with a new one and the used waste toner box is discarded.
A0EDT2C067DA
A0EDT2C068DA
Toner collecting screw
Drive engaged gear
Transfer belt driven roller
Toner collecting screw
Transfer belt driven roller
Drive engaged gear
Transfer belt
Transfer belt
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13.3.6 Waste toner spillage prevention shutter
The toner collecting port is provided with a waste toner spillage prevention shutter that
prevents waste toner from spilling during removal or reinstallation of the waste toner box.
Mounting the waste toner box in place pushes the shutter at the toner collecting port,
thus opening the toner collecting port.
A0EDT2C069DA
A0EDT2C070DA
Toner collecting screw
Toner
collecting port
Shutter (open) Shutter (close)
Toner collecting screw
Shutter (open)
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13.3.7 Transfer belt cooling
The transfer belt cleaner cooling fan motor is provided to circulate air through the inside
of the machine, so that the areas around the developing unit, drum unit, toner hopper,
and the image transfer belt unit can be cooled.
A. Air flow path
Air around the developing unit and drum unit is drawn in.
The air drawn in flows between the toner cartridge and the image transfer belt unit and is
blown against the toner cartridge/K.
B. Transfer belt cleaner cooling fan motor rotation start timing
The transfer belt cleaner cooling fan motor rotates at full speed under any of the following
conditions:
During a print cycle
During predrive after the power is turned ON
During execution of image stabilization control
C. Transfer belt cleaner cooling fan motor rotation stop timing
The transfer belt cleaner cooling fan motor stops rotating under any of the following con-
ditions:
Upon completion of a print cycle
Upon completion of predrive performed when the power is turned ON
Upon completion of image stabilization control
A0EDT2C050DA
A0EDT2C049DA
Transfer belt cleaner cooling
fan motor (FM6)
Toner cartridge
Developing unit
Image transfer belt unit
Drum unit
Transfer belt cleaner cooling fan motor (FM6)
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13.3.8 Cleaning blade foreign matter removal control
The transfer belt is rotated backward to a small extent and then rotated forward to
remove foreign matter (dust, toner, etc.) wedged between the transfer belt and the edge
of the cleaning blade.
A. Operation timing
The backward rotation control is provided at the completion of every print job.
13.3.9 Transfer belt new article detection
The image transfer belt unit is not provided with any new article detection mechanism. If
the transfer belt is replaced with a new one, therefore, New Release must be performed
in Counter/ Life of the Service Mode. For detailed operating procedures, see Field Ser-
vice.
A0EDT2C072DA
Forward
rotation
Backward
rotation
Toner collecting screw
Transfer belt
Transfer belt
driven roller
Cleaning blade
A0EDT2E309DA
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13.3.10 Transfer belt life detection
The life counter of the transfer belt controls detection of life of the image transfer belt unit.
The counter value is recorded in the service EEPROM board of the machine.
*1: M represents a code that denotes the image transfer belt unit rotation time.
A. Printed counter life determination
Each of the printed counter and the transfer belt rotation time counter has its own thresh-
old value to determine its own life. If the printed counter reaches the threshold, the
machine determines that the image transfer belt unit has reached a new state.
(1) Image transfer belt unit printed counter life criteria
Controlled item Counting unit
Printed page count Count
Transfer belt rotation time
M
*1
A0EDT2C023DA
Outside image
guaranteed range
Life stop display
(life stop threshold value)
Image transfer belt unit
(life end)
Image transfer belt unit
(new article)
Image guaranteed range
Reaching life display
(reaching life threshold value)
State Display Criteria
Normal
Normal
(print enabled: within image guaranteed range)
Less than life threshold
Reaching life
Reaching life display
(print enabled: outside image guaranteed range)
Equal to or more than life threshold
and less than life stop threshold
Life stop Life stop display (print prohibited)
Equal to or more than life stop
threshold
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B. Transfer belt rotation time counter life determination
Each of the printed counter and the transfer belt rotation time counter has its own thresh-
old value to determine its own life. If the printed counter reaches the threshold, the
machine determines that the image transfer belt unit has reached a new state.
(1) Transfer belt rotation time counter life criteria
*1: Appears only if Service is selected for any of the units in System 2/ Unit Change of
the Service Mode
C. Transfer belt life determination timing
The life determination control is performed under any of the following conditions:
The power switch is turned ON (with the front door and right door are closed)
The machine exits the sleep mode
The machine exits the sleep mode
The front door or right door is opened and closed with the power switch in ON position
New Release of Image Transfer Belt Unit is performed in life counter of the service
mode
A0EDT2C024DA
Outside image
guaranteed range
Life stop display
(life stop threshold
value)
Image transfer belt unit
(life end)
Image transfer belt unit
(new article)
Image guaranteed range
Reaching life display
(transfer belt threshold
value)
L code screen *1
(replacement alarm
threshold value)
State Display Criteria
Normal
Normal
(print enabled: within image guaranteed range)
Less that the transfer belt rotation
time threshold
Transfer belt
rotation time
excess
(Reaching life)
Reaching life display
(print enabled: outside image guaranteed range)
Equal to or more than the transfer
belt rotation time threshold and less
than the life stop threshold
L code screen
*1

(print enabled: outside image guaranteed range)
Equal to or more than the transfer
belt rotation time threshold and less
than the replacement alarm thresh-
old
Replacement
alarm
Reaching life display
(print enabled: outside image guaranteed range)
Equal to or more than the replace-
ment alarm threshold and less than
the life stop threshold
Life stop Life stop display (print prohibited)
Equal to or more than life stop
threshold
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D. Image transfer belt unit life display
The life reaching screen appears when the count of the printed counter or the transfer
belt rotation time counter reaches the life threshold (print enabled, outside image guaran-
teed range).
The life reaching screen appears when the count of the transfer belt rotation time counter
reaches the transfer belt rotation time threshold (print enabled, within image guaranteed
range).
The L code screen appears if Service is selected for any of the units in System 2/ Unit
Change of the Service Mode (print enabled, outside image guaranteed range).
In that case, the life reaching screen appears when the count of the transfer belt rotation
time counter reaches the replacement alarm threshold (print enabled, outside image
guaranteed range). The CSRC informs CE of life reaching automatically.
The life stop screen appears when the count of the printed counter or the transfer belt
rotation time counter reaches the life stop threshold (print prohibited).
NOTE
The contents of the L code screen and life reaching display vary depending on the
settings made in Consumable Life Reminder of the Service Mode.
A0EDT2C291DA
A0EDT2E295DA
Life stop
Image guaranteed range
Reaching life New article
Life stop
display
Normal display
Reaching
life display
L code
screen
Replacement alarm
User
Service
Outside image
guaranteed range
Life stop
display
Normal display Reaching life display
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(1) Life reaching display (typical)
(2) L code screen (typical)
(3) Life stop display (typical)
A0EDT2E310DA
A0EDT2E311DA
L code Target unit
L-1 Drum unit C
L-2 Drum unit M
L-3 Drum unit Y
L-4 Drum unit K
L-5 Image transfer belt unit
A0EDT2E301DA
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14. 2ND IMAGE TRANSFER SECTION
14.1 Configuration
A0EDT2C271DA
A0EDT2C080DA
Temperature/humidity
sensor (TEM/HUM)
IDC registration sensor/MK
(IDCS/MK)
IDC registration sensor/YC
(IDCS/YC)
IDC registration sensor shutter solenoid (SD2)
IDC sensor shutter
2nd image transfer roller
Charge neutralizing needle
Transfer belt drive roller
Transport motor (M1)
A0EDT2C081DA
2nd image transfer roller
lock release lever
Transfer belt
Paper winding prevention guide
(Standard for Japan market only)
Separation claw
2nd image transfer
roller
Charge neutralizing
needle
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14.2 Drive
A0EDT2C082DA
A0EDT2C083DA
Transport motor (M1)
Transfer belt
2nd image transfer roller
Transport motor (M1)
Transfer belt drive roller
2nd image transfer
roller
Transfer belt drive roller
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14.3 Operation
14.3.1 2nd image transfer control
To transfer the toner image formed on the transfer belt onto the paper, the 2nd image
transfer voltage supplied from the high voltage unit is applied to the 2nd image transfer
roller.
Resistance of the 2nd image transfer roller changes with an environmental change, dura-
bility, and other factors. To maintain an optimum output voltage, fixed current is passed
through the 2nd image transfer roller and the voltage being outputted at that time is
detected. An appropriate 2nd image transfer voltage is determined based on the mea-
sured voltage and other information such as type of paper used, temperature and
humidity, color mode or black mode, and 1-sided/2-sided.
A. Execution timing
The 2nd image transfer control is executed when a print job is received under any of the
following conditions:
Main power switch is turned ON
Sub power switch is turned ON
The machine exits the sleep mode
The threshold value of a change in machine interior temperature is exceeded.
A0EDT2C084DA
2nd image transfer voltage
application terminal
2nd image transfer roller
2nd image transfer voltage
conductive plate
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B. 2nd image transfer control during image stabilization control
In this machine, the 2nd image transfer roller does not have a retraction mechanism, so
that the transfer belt and 2nd image transfer roller are pressed up against each other at
all times.
During image stabilization control, a toner image for adjustment purpose is formed on
the surface of the transfer belt. A negative voltage is therefore applied to the 2nd image
transfer roller during image stabilization control. The amount of toner sticking to the 2nd
image transfer roller is thereby reduced.
14.3.2 Control of toner application to 2nd image transfer roller
In this machine, the 2nd image transfer roller does not have a retraction mechanism, so
that the transfer belt and 2nd image transfer roller are pressed up against each other at
all times.
If a new 2nd image transfer roller that has replaced an old one is left to stand idle for a
long period of time, a substance contained in the new roller sticks to the surface of the
transfer belt, which could result in noise in the print image.
To prevent the substance contained in the 2nd image transfer roller from sticking to the
transfer belt, Y toner is applied to the surface of a new 2nd image transfer roller at the
time of replacement. (The Y toner image that corresponds to two complete revolutions of
the image transfer roller is formed on the surface of the transfer belt and is then trans-
ferred onto the surface of the 2nd image transfer roller.)
The Y toner that is less noticeable is used for the toner to be applied, in consideration of
back marking.
A. Execution timing
The control is executed when the life counter of the 2nd image transfer roller in the ser-
vice mode is reset to zero.
NOTE
The 2nd image transfer roller is not provided with any new article detection mech-
anism. If the 2nd image transfer roller is replaced with a new one, therefore, New
Release must be performed of the Image Transfer Belt Unit in life counter of the
Service Mode.
Performing New Release of the Image Transfer Belt Unit in life counter of the
service mode will also reset the life counter of the 2nd image transfer roller to
zero.
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14.3.3 2nd image transfer roller cleaning
In order to remove the remaining toner on the 2nd image transfer roller, -/+ (DC) charge
is applied alternately to transfer the remaining toner on the 2nd image transfer roller to
the transfer belt.
(The number of times that electrical charge is applied to the 2nd image transfer roller is
different depending on each situation.)
The cleaning blade then scrapes off the toner on the surface of the transfer belt.
4038T2C161AA
HV1
-
-
- - - -
-
-
-
-
+
Cleaning blade
Transfer belt
2nd image
transfer roller
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14.3.4 Charge neutralization and separation of paper
To neutralize any residual potential on the paper which has undergone the 2nd image
transfer process, there is a charge neutralizing needle mounted on the guide plate after
the 2nd image transfer roller. There is a resin guide that prevents the electrode from
directly contacting the paper.
The residual potential neutralized by the charge neutralizing needle is grounded via a
conductive plate.
In order to separate the paper from the transfer belt without fail after the 2nd image trans-
fer, a separation claw is mounted (center one point.)
A0EDT2C086DA
Charge neutralizing needle conductive plate (ground)
Image transfer paper guide conductive plate (ground)
Image transfer paper guide
A0EDT2C085DA
Resin guide
A0EDT2C081DA
Transfer belt
Paper winding prevention guide
(Standard for Japan market only)
Separation claw
Charge neutralizing
needle
2nd image transfer
roller
Charge neutralizing needle
Charge neutralizing needle
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14.3.5 Paper winding prevention guide (Standard for Japan market only)
The paper winding prevention guide prevents paper from being wound around the trans-
fer belt again after its being separated from the transfer belt by the separation claw.
A0EDT2C081DA
Transfer belt
Paper winding prevention guide
(Standard for Japan market only)
Separation claw
2nd image transfer
roller
A0EDT2C272DA
Paper winding prevention guide
(Standard for Japan market only)
Transfer belt
Charge neutralizing
needle
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14.3.6 IDC registration sensor protection
The IDC registration sensor can be contaminated with toner since it is located under the
transfer belt. There is a shutter mechanism provided for the sensor to prevent it from
being contaminated.
The shutter is opened or closed by the IDC registration sensor shutter solenoid.
IDC registration sensor shutter solenoid (SD2) Shutter
OFF Open
ON Closed
A0EDT2C088DA
A0EDT2C087DA
IDC sensor shutter (open position)
IDC sensor shutter (open position)
IDC registration sensor/YC
(IDCS/YC)
IDC registration sensor/MK
(IDCS/MK)
Actuator for shutter
IDC registration sensor
shutter solenoid (SD2)
IDC sensor shutter (close position)
IDC registration sensor
shutter solenoid: OFF
IDC registration sensor
shutter solenoid: ON
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14.3.7 2nd image transfer roller new article detection
The 2nd image transfer roller (hereinafter referred to as the transfer roller) is not pro-
vided with any new article detection mechanism. If the transfer roller is replaced with a
new one, therefore, New Release must be performed of the Image Transfer Belt Unit
in Counter/ Life of the Service Mode. Performing New Release of the Image Transfer
Belt Unit in life counter of the Service Mode will also reset the life counter of the transfer
roller to zero.
14.3.8 2nd image transfer roller life detection
The life counter of the transfer roller controls detection of life of the 2nd image transfer
roller (hereinafter referred to as the transfer roller).
The counter value is recorded in the service EEPROM board of the machine.
*1: M represents a code that denotes the transfer roller rotation time.
A0EDT2E309DA
Controlled item Counting unit
Transfer roller rotation time
M
*1
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A. Life determination
If the count of the transfer roller counter reaches the threshold, the machine determines
that the transfer roller has reached a new state.
(1) Transfer roller rotation time counter life criteria
A0EDT2C023DA
Outside image
guaranteed range
Life stop display
(life stop threshold value)
2nd image transfer roller
(life end)
2nd image transfer roller
(new article)
Image guaranteed range
Reaching life display
(reaching life threshold value)
State Display Criteria
Normal
Normal
(print enabled: within image guaranteed range)
Less than life threshold
Reaching life
Reaching life display
(print enabled: outside image guaranteed range)
Equal to or more than life threshold
and less than life stop threshold
Life stop Life stop display (print prohibited)
Equal to or more than life stop
threshold
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B. Life display
The life reaching screen appears when the count of the transfer roller rotation time
counter reaches the life threshold (print enabled, outside image guaranteed range).
The life stop screen appears when the count of the transfer roller rotation time counter
reaches the life stop threshold.
NOTE
The contents of the life warning display and life reaching display vary depending
on the settings made of life stop in Consumable Life Reminder of the service
mode.
(1) Life reaching display (typical)
(2) Life stop display (typical)
A0EDT2E312DA
A0EDT2E301DA
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15. TONER COLLECTING SECTION
15.1 Configuration
A0EDT2C273DA
A0EDT2C092DA
Transport motor
(M1)
Toner supply screw
(Developing unit/K)
Toner collecting screw 2
(dedicated to the transfer
belt toner collecting port)
Registration roller
Developer collecting port
(Developing unit/K)
Toner collecting port
(Drum unit/Y,M,C,K)
Front side relay
board (FREYB)
Toner collecting screw 1
(Waste toner box)
Toner collecting box
Waste toner full condition
detection window
Registration roller clutch (CL4)
Toner agitating blade
Toner collecting port
(Image transfer belt unit)
Toner collecting screw
(Image transfer belt unit
section)
Toner collecting screw
(Drum unit/Y,M,C,K)
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15.2 Drive
A0EDT2C093DA
Transport motor (M1)
Registration roller clutch (CL4)
Waste toner box drive
transmission gear
A0EDT2C095DA
Waste toner box drive gear
Registration roller
Registration roller
Waste toner box drive
transmission gear
Transport motor (M1)
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A0EDT2C097DA
Toner agitating blade
Toner collecting screw 2
(dedicated to the transfer belt
toner collecting port)
Toner collecting screw 1
(Waste toner box)
A0EDT2C094DA
A0EDT2C096DA
Registration roller Registration roller
Toner collecting screw 1
(Waste toner box)
Toner collecting screw
Toner collecting screw 1
(Waste toner box)
Toner collecting screw 2
(dedicated to the transfer
belt toner collecting port)
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15.3 Operation
15.3.1 Waste toner box drive mechanism
The waste toner box is driven by the transport motor.
The driving force of the transport motor is transmitted to the registration roller via the reg-
istration roller clutch.
The drive coupling gear mounted coaxially with the registration roller drives the waste
toner box.
A. Execution timing
The waste toner box rotates in synchronism with the registration roller. For the control of
the registration roller, see Registration section.
15.3.2 Toner collection path
With only the developing unit/K, part of the circulating developer is discharged into the
waste toner box through the toner collecting port located at the front side of the toner
supply screw/upper (auto refining developing system).
For details of the auto refining developing system, see Developing section.
A0EDT2C099DA
Waste toner box
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15.3.3 Control of waste toner conveyance through waste toner box
Waste toner in the image transfer belt unit and drum units, and excess toner in the devel-
oping unit/K are conveyed onto the waste toner box by the toner collecting screw.
Waste toner and waste developer (waste carrier/K + waste toner/K) are collected through
the toner collecting ports (at five places) and the developer collecting port.
The waste toner collecting port is provided with a toner agitating blade that prevents
toner from stagnating.
The toner agitating blade is moved up and down as the toner conveying screw rotates.
* The developer collecting port is not provided with any toner agitating blade.
Toner collecting screw 1 and toner collecting screw 2 (dedicated to the transfer belt toner
collecting port) are installed in the waste toner box.
The screws provided on both ends of toner collecting screw 1 function to convey waste
toner stagnant in the box uniformly onto the central portion of the box.
Toner collecting screw 2 functions to convey toner conveyed from the image transfer belt
unit uniformly onto the central portion of the box.
The paddle provided at the central portion of toner collecting screw 1 evens out the
waste toner conveyed onto the center of the box.
There is a detection window for detecting a waste toner full condition provided at the cen-
tral portion of the box. When the waste toner conveyed onto the central portion of the box
exceeds a predetermined height, waste toner spills over the waste toner full condition
detection window. For details, see Waste toner box full detection.
A0EDT2C100DA
Toner agitating blade
Toner collecting screw 2
(dedicated to the transfer belt
toner collecting port)
Toner collecting screw 1
(Waste toner box)
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A0EDT2C104DA
A0EDT2C103DA
A0EDT2C101DA A0EDT2C102DA
Toner
collecting port
(Image transfer
belt unit)
Toner agitating
blade
Toner collecting
screw 2
Toner collecting
screw 1
Toner collecting port
(Drum unit)
Toner agitating
blade
Toner collecting
screw 1
Waste toner full
condition detection
window
Waste toner full
condition detection
section
Toner agitating blade
Toner collecting screw 2
(dedicated to the transfer
belt toner collecting port)
Transport
section
Toner collecting screw 1
(Waste toner box)
Waste toner detection section/
Waste toner detection window
Transport section
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15.3.4 Waste toner box-in-position detection
The waste toner box set sensor provided on the front side relay board detects mounting condition of
the waste toner box. It prevents the machine from being operated with the waste toner box yet to be
mounted in place.
When the waste toner box is removed, the waste toner box set sensor is unblocked, which causes the
machine to determine that the waste toner box is yet to be mounted.
The machine, on determining that the waste toner box is yet to be mounted in place, prohibits initiation
of a new print cycle.
When the waste toner box is mounted, the waste toner box set sensor is blocked, which causes the
machine to determine that the waste toner box is mounted in place.
The machine, on determining that the waste toner box is mounted in place, resets the waste toner box
yet-to-be-mounted display, enabling initiation of a new print cycle.
A0EDT2C105DA
A0EDT2C106DA
Waste toner full sensor
Dispose toner box set sensor
Front side relay board (FREYB)
A0EDT2C107DA
Waste
toner box
Dispose toner box set sensor
(Front side relay board FREYB)
Waste toner full box
detection plate
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A. Execution timing
The waste toner box full detection control is performed under any of the following condi-
tions:
The power switch is turned ON
The front door is closed
B. Waste toner box yet-to-be-mounted display
A0EDT2E313DA
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15.3.5 Waste toner box full detection
The waste toner full sensor provided on the front side relay board is used to determine
the amount of waste toner accumulated in the waste toner box.
A. Waste toner near-full condition
The toner collecting screw provided in the waste toner box conveys waste toner in the
box onto the central portion of the box. For more details, see Control of waste toner con-
veyance through waste toner box.
There is the detection window for detecting a waste toner full condition provided at the
central portion of the waste toner box. When the waste toner conveyed onto the central
portion of the box exceeds a predetermined height, waste toner spills over the waste
toner full condition detection section.
The machine determines that there is a waste toner near-full condition, if the waste toner
full sensor is blocked by the waste toner stagnant over the waste toner full condition
detection section for a predetermined period of time or longer.
(1) Execution timing
The waste toner box near-full detection control is performed under any of the following
conditions:
The machine determines that the waste toner box is mounted in place using the waste
toner box set sensor.
During a print cycle
During execution of image stabilization control
A0EDT2C108DA
Waste toner full condition
detection section
A0EDT2C106DA
Waste toner full condition
detection window
Waste toner
A0EDT2C109DA
Waste toner full sensor
(Front side relay board
FREYB)
Waste toner full condition
detection window
Waste toner
Waste toner
Waste toner box
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B. Waste toner full condition
When a waste toner near-full condition is detected, the waste toner full detection
counter is incremented according to the image density information of the print image
during each of subsequent print jobs.
When the waste toner full detection counter reaches a threshold value, the machine
determines that there is a waste toner full condition.
(1) Execution timing
The waste toner box full detection control is performed under any of the following condi-
tions:
The machine determines that the waste toner box is mounted in place using the waste
toner box set sensor.
The waste toner full sensor detects a waste toner near-full condition.
During a print cycle
During execution of image stabilization control
C. Number of printed pages
NOTES
The number of printed pages represents a value calculated from the toner con-
sumption recorded when the machine is used in the standard job mode. It varies
depending on how the user uses the machine.
For details, see Outline/ Materials of Field Service.
Waste toner near-full 43,000 sheets
Waste toner full 45,000 sheets
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D. Waste toner near-full and full displays
The waste toner near-full display is given if the waste toner box set sensor is blocked by
the waste toner stagnant over the waste toner full condition detection section for a prede-
termined period of time or longer (though initiation of a new print cycle is enabled).
When the waste toner full detection counter reaches the threshold value, the waste toner
full display appears (and initiation of a new print cycle is prohibited).
NOTE
The contents of the waste toner near-full and waste toner full displays vary
depending on the settings made in Consumable Life Reminder of the Service
Mode.
(1) Typical waste toner near-full display
(2) Typical waste toner full display
A0EDT2E314DA
A0EDT2E315DA
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15.3.6 Waste toner box new article detection
The waste toner box is not provided with any new article detection mechanism. Detection
made by the waste toner full sensor is used for detecting a new waste toner box.
When the waste toner full display appears, the existing waste toner box is replaced with a
new one. When the waste toner full sensor remains unblocked for a predetermined
period of time or more, the machine determines that the normal state is recovered (the
old waste toner box is replaced with a new one).
Determining that a new waste toner box has been mounted, the machine resets the
waste toner full display, allowing the initiation of a new print cycle.
A. Timing at which to reset the waste toner full display
The waste toner box full detection control is performed under any of the following condi-
tions:
The waste toner full sensor detects a waste toner full condition.
The power switch is turned ON
The front door is closed
15.3.7 Waste toner spillage prevention shutter
The toner collecting port of the waste toner box is provided with a waste toner spillage
prevention shutter that prevents waste toner from spilling during removal or reinstallation
of the waste toner box.
A. Shutter/transfer section and shutter/Y, M, C, K
(1) Installation
Inserting the waste toner box into its mounting position pushes the shutter at each toner
collecting port of the waste toner box, thus opening the toner collecting port.
Waste toner in each toner cartridge is conveyed onto the collecting port by the toner con-
veying screw and discharged in the waste toner box.
A0EDT2C111DA
Shutter/transfer
section (open)
Shutter/Y (open)
Shutter/M (open)
Shutter/C (open)
Shutter/K (open)
Waste developer spillage prevention
material/Developing section/K
15. TONER COLLECTING SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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(2) Removal
Removing the waste toner box allows the shutter spring to close the shutter at the toner
collecting port.
A0EDT2C113DA
Shutter/Y, M, C, K
(open)
Toner collecting port/Y, M, C, K
A0EDT2C112DA
Toner collecting port/transfer section
Shutter/transfer section (open)
Waste toner box
Waste toner box
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 15. TONER COLLECTING SECTION
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B. Developer collecting port (developing unit/K)
The developer collecting port on the side of the developing unit/K is provided with a shut-
ter mechanism. (Auto refining developing system: For details, see Developing unit sec-
tion.)
Mounting the waste toner box in place pushes the shutter at the developer collecting
port, thus opening the developer collecting port. Removing the waste toner box, on the
other hand, closes the shutter, so that developer can be prevented from spilling from the
developer collecting port of the developing unit/K.
The developer collecting port on the side of the waste toner box is not provided with any
shutter mechanism. Instead, a waste developer spillage prevention material is affixed to
the developer collecting port, which helps prevent developer from spilling.
NOTE
When removing the waste toner box, the waste toner box must be held in a hori-
zontal position with care not to allow waste developer to spill from the developer
replenishing port.
A0EDT2C114DA
Waste toner box
Developer collecting port (Developing unit/K)
Waste developer spillage prevention
material/Developing unit/K
Toner collecting port/
Developing unit/K
A0EDT2C285DA
Waste developer spillage prevention material
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16. PAPER FEED SECTION (MANUAL TRAY)
16.1 Configuration
A0EDT2C117DA
Paper side guide plate Paper lift-up plate
Manual paper empty
sensor (PS27)
Manual multi FD
sensor /1 (PS28)
Manual multi FD
sensor /2 (PS29)
Manual multi FD
sensor /3 (PS30)
Paper feed roller
Paper lift-up cam
Manual lift-up position
sensor (PS26)
Manual paper feed
clutch (CL7)
Transport motor (M1)
Manual pick-up
solenoid (SD1)
Manual FD size sensor
(SE2) Separator roller
Manual paper detection
sensor (PS31)
A0EDT2C274DA
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16.2 Drive
A0EDT2C118DA
Transport motor (M1)
Separator roller
Manual paper feed clutch (CL7)
Paper feed roller
A0EDT2C119DA
Separator roller
Transport motor (M1)
Manual paper feed clutch (CL7)/
Paper feed roller
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16.3 Operation
16.3.1 Up/down control
The paper lift-up plate is moved up and down by the transport motor.
A. Up operation
The manual pick-up solenoid is energized for a predetermined period of time during rota-
tion of the transport motor. This unlocks the paper lift-up plate clutch (mechanical) and
the driving force of the transport motor is transmitted to the paper lift-up cam.
As the paper lift-up cam rotates, the paper lift-up plate which has so far been pushed
down by the paper lift-up cam is raised to the paper feed position by the spring.
B. Down operation
The manual pick-up solenoid is energized for a predetermined period of time during rota-
tion of the transport motor. This rotates the paper lift-up cam, so that the cam pushes the
paper lift-up plate down into its standby position.
A0EDT2C122DA
Spring
A0EDT2C121DA
A0EDT2C120DA
Paper lift-up plate
clutch (mechanical)
Paper lift-up plate
Manual lift-up position sensor (PS26)
Manual paper feed
clutch (CL7)
Transport motor (M1)
Manual pick-up solenoid (SD1)
Paper lift-up cam
Manual lift-up position
sensor (PS26)
Manual lift-up position
detection plate
Paper lift-up plate
clutch (mechanical)
Manual pick-up solenoid (SD1)
Paper lift-up cam
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C. Operation timing
(1) Move to paper feed position (up)
At the start of a manual paper feed sequence, the paper lift-up plate is raised to the
paper feed position.
After the lapse of a predetermined period of time, the manual pick-up solenoid is deener-
gized. The paper lift-up plate is stopped at the paper feed position.
The manual lift-up position detection plate mounted coaxially with the paper lift-up cam
rotates in synchronism with the paper lift-up cam. When the paper lift-up plate is raised,
the manual lift-up position sensor which has been blocked by the manual lift-up position
detection plate is unblocked. Then, the machine determines that the paper lift-up plate is
raised to the paper feed position.
If the manual lift-up position sensor remains unblocked even after the manual pick-up
solenoid has been deenergized, the machine determines that the paper lift-up plate is at
the paper feed position.
As the paper level lowers during paper feed, the spring pushes up the paper lift-up plate,
so that the paper stack is pushed up to the optimum paper feed position.
(2) Move to standby position (down)
The paper lift-up plate is lowered if there is no print job that uses the manual trays and
the paper exit sensor detects a sheet of paper fed from the manual tray.
The paper lift-up plate is lowered if the above conditions are met even during execution of
another job.
If a manual paper empty condition is detected at the paper feed position, the paper lift-up
plate is lowered to the standby position.
If a paper misfeed occurs, the paper lift-up plate is stopped at the paper feed position.
When the transport motor rotates stably after the misfeed is cleared, the paper lift-up
plate is lowered to the standby position.
After the lapse of a predetermined period of time, the manual pick-up solenoid is deener-
gized. The paper lift-up plate is stopped at the standby position. As the paper lift-up plate
lowers, the manual lift-up position sensor no longer detects the paper lift-up plate. The
machine determines that the paper lift-up plate is at the standby position based on the
fact that the manual lift-up position sensor does not detect the paper lift-up plate even
after the manual pick-up solenoid has been deenergized.
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A0EDT2C123DA
Manual lift-up position
sensor (PS26)
Manual lift-up position
detection plate
Paper lift-up cam
Paper lift-up plate
Standby position
Paper feed position
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16.3.2 Paper feed control
A. Pick-up control
Paper feed operations of the manual tray are driven by the transport motor.
The manual pick-up solenoid is energized by a print start signal and the paper is raised
to the paper feed position.
After the paper is raised to the paper feed position, the manual paper feed clutch is ener-
gized.
When the manual paper feed clutch is energized, the drive from the transport motor is
transmitted to the paper feed roller, so that the paper can be fed in.
The paper feed roller feeds the paper onto the registration roller (timing roller).
When the last sheet of paper for the print job fed from the manual tray is transported onto
the registration roller, the manual paper feed clutch is deenergized to stop the paper feed
roller from rotating.
If the sensor in front of tim. roller sensor does not detect paper even after the lapse of a
predetermined period of time, the machine determines that there is a paper misfeed at
the manual tray. Note, however, that the paper feed sequence is repeated a second time
if a paper misfeed is detected in a print job of black mode. If the sensor in front of tim.
roller sensor is still unable to detect paper, the machine determines that there is a paper
misfeed at the manual tray (paper feed retry control).
The manual pick-up solenoid is energized and the paper is lowered to the standby posi-
tion.
A0EDT2C126DA
Manual paper
feed clutch (CL7)
Transport motor (M1)
Separator roller
Paper feed roller
Paper
Paper feed roller
Separator
roller
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B. Separation control
The separator roller is pressed up against, and driven by, the paper feed roller. A torque
limited is mounted on the shaft of the separator roller.
The acting pressure of the paper feed roller/separator roller/torque limiter serves as the
limit torque for preventing double feed.
When there is no sheet of paper or only one sheet of paper between the separator roller
and paper feed roller, the limit torque is exceeded and the separator roller follows the
rotation of the paper feed roller.
If there are two or more sheets of paper between the separator roller and paper feed
roller, the limit torque is greater than the friction force of the paper, so that the separator
roller stops rotating.
Because of the stationary separator roller, the lower sheet of paper in contact with the
separator roller is not fed in, so that the first sheet of paper is properly separated from the
second sheet of paper.
C. Paper misfeed display
NOTE
Different paper misfeed displays appear depending on the settings made in Sys-
tem 2/ JAM Code Display Setting of the Service Mode.
(1) Typical
A0EDT2E316DA
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D. Periodically replaced parts
The paper feed roller and separator roller are periodically replaced parts. These two roll-
ers must be replaced with new ones at the same time.
Neither the paper feed roller nor separator roller is provided with a new article detection
mechanism. When the two rollers are replaced with new ones, the Manual Tray counter
must be reset to zero using Counter/ Life of the Service Mode.
The number of times the manual tray has been subjected to paper feed operations can
be checked with the Manual Tray counter of the Service Mode.
For details of the applicable replacement procedures for the paper feed roller and sepa-
rator roller and the Service Mode, see Field Service.
Periodical replacement cycle Paper feed operations 200,000 times
A0EDT2C124DA A0EDT2C125DA
Separator roller assy Paper feed roller assy
A0EDT2E317DA
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16.3.3 Paper size detection control
The size of the paper loaded in the manual section is detected by the combination of ON
or OFF positions of the three manual multi FD sensors and the manual CD size sensor.
Moving the paper guide rotates the size detection gear and the manual CD size sensors
detector located on the same axis of rotation as the size detection gear. With the rotation
of the manual CD size sensors detector, a value is detected and used to calculate the
paper width.
Metric area
*: One of the following paper sizes can be selected to be set for FLS (8 13).
8 13, 8.125 13.25, 8.25 13, 8.5 13, 8.65 13
Paper size
detected
Manual multi
FD sensor/1
Manual multi
FD sensor/2
Manual multi
FD sensor/3
Manual CD size sensor
Unit: mm
A6S
OFF OFF OFF
80 to less than 115
B6S 115 to 144 inclusive
A5 196 to 225 inclusive
B5 242 to 268 inclusive
A5S
ON OFF OFF
133 to 164 inclusive
B5S 169 to less than 196
A4S 196 to 255 inclusive
Letter (8-
1
/
2
11) 255 to less than 288
A4 288 to 330 inclusive
FLS (8 13)* ON ON OFF 188 to 235 inclusive
Legal (8-
1
/
2
14)
ON ON ON
201 to 231 inclusive
B4 242 to less than 268
Ledger (11 17) 268 to less than 288
A3 288 to less than 301
A3 wide
(12 18)
301 to 330 inclusive
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Inch area
*: One of the following paper sizes can be selected to be set for Foolscap (8 13).
8 13, 8.125 13.25, 8.25 13, 8.5 13, 8.65 13
Paper size
detected
Manual multi
FD sensor/1
Manual multi
FD sensor/2
Manual multi
FD sensor/3
Manual CD size sensor
Unit: mm
A6S
OFF OFF OFF
80 to less than 115
B6S 115 to 144 inclusive
Invoice
(5-
1
/
2
8-
1
/
2
)
201 to 231 inclusive
Executive
(7-
1
/
4
10-
1
/
2
)
242 to 282 inclusive
Invoice S
(5-
1
/
2
8-
1
/
2
S)
ON OFF OFF
125 to 155 inclusive
Executive S
(7-
1
/
4
10-
1
/
2
S)
169 to less than 201
Letter S
(8-
1
/
2
11 S)
201 to 231 inclusive
Letter (8-
1
/
2
11) 255 to less than 288
A4 288 to 330 inclusive
Foolscap
(8 13)*
ON ON OFF 188 to 235 inclusive
Legal (8-
1
/
2
14)
ON ON ON
201 to 231 inclusive
B4 242 to less than 268
Ledger (11 17) 268 to less than 288
A3 288 to less than 301
A3 wide
(12 18)
301 to 330 inclusive
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A0EDT2C127DA
Manual paper detection sensor (PS31)
Manual paper empty
sensor (PS27)
Manual multi FD
sensor /3 (PS30)
Manual multi FD
sensor /2 (PS29)
Manual multi FD
sensor /1 (PS28)
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16.3.4 Paper empty detection
The manual paper empty sensor detects a paper empty condition in the manual section.
A0EDT2C128DA
A0EDT2C129DA
Manual paper empty
sensor (PS27)
Actuator
(Paper empty position)
Manual paper detection
sensor (PS31)
Manual paper detec-
tion sensor (PS31)
Actuator
(Paper empty position)
Actuator
(Paper full position)
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16.3.5 Remaining paper detection control
A. Paper near-empty control
The manual tray is not mounted with any near-empty detection mechanism.
B. Paper empty control
(1) Paper conditions
The manual tray is provided with the manual paper empty sensor (interrupter-type photo-
sensor) and the manual paper detection sensor (reflector-type photosensor).
The following three types of paper conditions are detected according to the combination
of the states of the manual paper empty sensor and manual paper detection sensor:
Paper remaining
Paper not loaded in place
Paper empty
(2) Manual paper empty sensor
When the paper is loaded in the manual tray, the paper empty detection actuator is
pressed and lowered by the paper. The paper empty detection actuator is lowered to
block the manual paper empty sensor.
When there is no paper on the manual tray, the paper empty detection actuator is raised.
The paper empty detection actuator is raised to unblock the manual paper empty sensor.
A0EDT2C130DA
Manual paper empty
sensor (PS27)
Actuator
(Paper empty position)
Actuator
(Paper full position)
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(3) Manual paper detection sensor
When paper is loaded on the manual tray, the manual paper detection sensor detects
whether or not there is paper.
If the paper lift-up plate is located at the standby position (lower position), however, the
detection result is not incorporated under any of the following conditions because of the
limited detection range of the manual paper detection sensor.
At the start of paper feed from the manual tray
The power switch is turned ON
The machine exits the sleep mode
(4) Paper condition determination conditions
C. Paper empty and paper set failure displays
A0EDT2C131DA
Manual paper detection
sensor (PS31)
Paper conditions Manual paper empty sensor (PS27) Manual paper detection sensor (PS31)
Paper remaining Blocked (Paper remaining) Paper remaining
Paper not loaded in
place
Blocked (Paper remaining) No paper
Paper empty Unblocked (No paper)
Paper remaining
No paper
A0EDT2E318DA
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17. PAPER FEED SECTION
17.1 Configuration
17.1.1 Tray1
A0EDT2C200DA
Paper feed
tray 1 lever
Paper feed tray 1 paper lift-up plate A
(paper near empty position)
Tray lock pawl
Transport motor (M1)
Paper feed tray 1
paper feed clutch
(CL3)
Paper feed tray 1 pick-up roller
Paper feed tray 1 paper lift-up plate B
(paper near empty position)
Paper feed tray 1 paper feed roller
Paper feed tray 1
separator roller
Paper feed tray 1 paper
feed sensor (PS23)
* C360/C280 only
Paper feed tray 1 paper CD
size detect sensor/1 (PS13)
Paper feed tray 1
paper CD size detect
sensor/2 (PS14)
Paper feed tray 1 paper FD
sensor board (PSDB/1)
Paper feed tray 1 upper limit
sensor (PS25)
Paper feed tray 1
device detection sensor
(PS15)
Paper feed tray 1 near
empty sensor (PS11)
Paper feed tray
1 lift-up motor
(M12)
Paper feed tray 1 paper empty
sensor (PS24)
A0EDT2C275DA
Lift-up plate drive shaft
Coupling
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 17. PAPER FEED SECTION
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17.1.2 Tray2
A0EDT2C201DA
Paper feed tray 2 paper feed roller
Paper feed tray 2 separator roller
Paper feed tray 2 pick-up roller
Paper feed tray 2
paper feed clutch
(CL1)
Paper feed tray 2
near empty sensor
(PS12)
Paper feed tray 2 paper FD
sensor board (PSDB/2)
Paper feed tray 2
paper CD size detect
sensor/2 (PS17)
Paper feed tray 2 paper CD
size detect sensor/1 (PS16)
Paper feed tray 2 paper lift-up
plate A (paper full position)
Paper feed tray 2 paper lift-up plate B
(paper full position)
Paper feed tray 2 lever
Paper feed tray 2 vertical
transport roller
Paper feed tray 2 paper
feed sensor (PS20)
* C360/C280 only
Tray lock pawl
Paper feed tray 2 device
detection sensor (PS18)
Paper feed tray 2 verti-
cal transport sensor
Lift-up plate drive shaft
Coupling
Paper feed tray 2 upper limit
sensor (PS22)
Paper feed tray 2
lift-up motor (M13)
Paper feed tray 2 vertical
transport clutch (CL2)
Paper feed tray 2 paper empty
sensor (PS21)
A0EDT2C276DA
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17.2 Drive
Drive parts are arranged in the same way in tray1 and 2. If the description that follows is
not identified with tray 1 or tray 2, it is applicable to both tray 1 and tray 2 in terms of
mechanism and control.
Transport motor drives the tray1 and 2 paper feed roller section.
The drive section of each tray has a clutch that controls rotation of the paper feed roller
section.
A0EDT2C202DA
Transport motor (M1)
Paper feed tray 1 paper feed clutch (CL3)
Paper feed tray 2 vertical transport clutch (CL2)
Paper feed tray 2 paper feed clutch (CL1)
Paper feed tray 1 paper feed roller
Paper feed tray 1 separator roller
Paper feed tray 2 vertical
transport roller
Paper feed tray 1 pick-up roller
Paper feed tray 2 pick-up roller
Paper feed tray 2 paper feed roller
Paper feed tray 2
separator roller
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17.2.1 Layout of sensors and rollers
A0EDT2C203DA
Sensor in front of tim.
roller sensor (PS1)
Registration roller
Actuator of sensor in front of
tim. roller
Manual tray paper feed roller
Paper feed tray 2 vertical
transport sensor (PS19)
Paper feed tray 2 paper
feed sensor (PS20)
Paper feed tray 1 paper
feed sensor (PS23)
Paper feeding from tray 1
Paper feeding from tray 2
Paper feeding from manual
tray
Paper feeding from
optional paper feed unit
Paper feed tray 2
paper feed roller
Paper feed tray 1 paper
feed roller
Paper feed tray 2
vertical transport roller
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17.3 Operation
17.3.1 Up/down control
Tray1 and Tray2 are controlled in the same control procedure.
A. Up operation
paper lift-up plate B is located under paper lift-up plate A.
The lift-up plate drive shaft of the paper feed tray1(2) lift-up motor is connected to paper
lift-up plate B.
When the drive shaft of the paper feed tray1(2) lift-up motor rotates, paper lift-up plate B
raises paper lift-up plate A.
B. Down operation
When the tray is slid out of the machine, the coupling of the paper feed tray 1(2) lift-up
motor and the lift-up plate drive shaft are disconnected from each other.
When the driving force of the paper feed tray1(2) lift-up motor is released from the lift-up
plate drive shaft, the paper lift-up plate starts lowering by its own weight.
A00JT2C314AA
A00JT2C315AA
Paper feed tray1 upper limit sensor (PS25)
Paper feed tray2 upper limit sensor (PS22)
Paper feed tray1 lift-up motor (M12)
Paper feed tray2 lift-up motor (M13)
Paper lift-up plate B
Paper lift-up plate A
Lift-up plate drive shaft
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C. Operation timing
(1) When the tray is slid in
When the tray is slid into the machine, the paper feed tray1(2) device detection sensor is
blocked. The machine then determines that the tray is slid into position.
The paper lift-up plate is lowering when the tray is slid out, so that the paper feed tray1(2)
upper limit sensor is unblocked.
Determining that the paper feed tray1(2) upper limit sensor is unblocked, the machine
lets the paper feed tray1(2) lift-up motor rotate to start the up operation of the paper lift-
up plate.
When the paper stack is raised to a predetermined height after the up operation of the
paper lift-up plate has been started, the paper feed tray1(2) upper limit sensor is blocked.
Determining that the paper feed tray1(2) upper limit sensor is blocked, the machine stops
the paper feed tray1(2) lift-up motor to complete the up operation of the paper lift-up
plate.
Control is provided to make sure that only one tray performs the up operation at one
time.
If the tray is slid out during the up operation of the paper lift-up plate and accordingly the
tray1(2) device detection sensor is unblocked, the up operation of the paper lift-up plate
is terminated.
A0EDT2C204DA
Paper feed tray
Device
detection
sensor
Detection plate
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(2) During a print cycle
When the amount of paper decreases as the unit keeps printing, the pick-up roller will
gradually come down to block the paper feed tray1(2) upper limit sensor. The paper feed
tray1(2) lift-up motor will rotate again to lift up the paper lift-up plate.
When the paper feed tray1(2) upper limit sensor is unblocked, the paper feed tray1(2) lift-
up motor will stop to stop lift-up the paper lift-up plate.
The sequence of these operations is repeated to keep constant the pressure between
the pick-up roller and paper stack (paper take-up pressure) regardless of the amount of
paper still available for use.
AOLDT2O2O6DA
AOLDT2O2O6DA
Near empty sensor
Lift-up motor
Coupling
Upper limit sensor (blocked)
Light blocking plate of paper
feed tray 1 upper limit sensor
(upper position: blocked)
Paper lift-up plate B
(lower position)
Paper lift-up plate A
(lower position)
Actuator of paper feed tray 1(2) upper limit
sensor (lower position: low paper level or open
tray)
Coupling
Upper limit sensor
(unblocked)
Paper lift-up plate B
(upper position)
Paper lift-up plate A
(upper position)
Actuator of paper feed tray 1(2) upper limit
sensor (upper position: paper full)
Near empty sensor
Lift-up motor
Light blocking plate of paper
feed tray 1 upper limit sensor
(lower position: unblocked)
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17.3.2 Paper feed control
Tray1 and Tray2 are controlled in the same control procedure.
A. Pick-up control
The paper feed clutch is energized after the lapse of a predetermined period of time after
the print start signal.
The driving force of the transport motor is transmitted to the pick-up roller and paper feed
roller when the paper feed clutch is energized. These rollers rotate to pick up and feed a
sheet of paper into the machine.
B. Separation control
The separator roller is driven via a torque limiter in a direction opposite the paper trans-
port direction.
The separator roller is pressed up against the paper feed roller by the pressure of a
spring and an acting pressure generated from torque of the torque limiter.
The acting pressure of the paper feed roller/separator roller/torque limiter serves as the
limit torque for preventing double feed.
When there is no sheet of paper or only one sheet of paper between the separator roller
and paper feed roller, the limit torque is exceeded and the separator roller follows the
rotation of the paper feed roller.
If there are two or more sheets of paper between the separator roller and paper feed
roller, the limit torque is greater than the friction force of the paper, so that the separator
roller is rotated backward.
The backward rotation of the separator roller causes the lower sheet of paper in contact
with the separator roller to be pushed backward in the direction of the tray, so that the
lower sheet of paper is properly separated.
A0P0T5C033DA
Pick-up roller
Paper feed roller
Paper separator
roller
Paper
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C. Paper feed retry control
If the specified sensor is unable to detect the paper even after the lapse of a predeter-
mined period of time after the start of the paper feed sequence, the machine determines
that there is a paper misfeed. The paper feed sequence is, however, repeated a second
time, if a paper misfeed is detected in a print job of a specific color mode. A paper mis-
feed results if the specified sensor is still unable to detect the paper even after the paper
feed retry sequence, the machine determines that there is a paper misfeed.
D. Paper feed speed reduction control
If the sheet of paper being controlled reaches the paper feed tray 1(2) paper feed sensor
with a smaller distance relative to the preceding sheet of paper during a multi-print cycle,
the paper feed tray 1(2) paper feed clutch is temporarily deenergized to thereby retard
the paper feed timing of the sheet of paper being controlled. The paper-to-paper distance
is thereby corrected to an appropriate value. Note, however, that the paper feed tray 1(2)
paper feed sensor is mounted on C360/C280 only and no paper feed speed reduction
control is performed for the tray 1/2 paper feed section in C220. (C220 has a lower print
speed than the higher-end models, which eliminates the need for paper feed speed
reduction control.)
Paper feed
retry control
Paper port Color mode Sensor name
Manual tray Black
Sensor in front of tim. roller sensor
Tray1 Black
Tray2
Black/auto color and
other color mode
Paper feed tray 2 vertical transport
sensor
Tray3 (Option: PC-107/207) Tray3 vertical transport sensor
Tray4 (Option: PC-107/207) Tray4 vertical transport sensor
X Tray3 (Option: PC-408) No paper feed retry control is performed.
A0EDT2C207DA
Preceding sheet
Sheet of paper being controlled
Paper feed sensor
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E. Paper feed control
(1) Tray1
The tray 1 paper feed roller feeds the paper onto the registration roller.
The paper feed tray 1 paper feed sensor located downstream of the tray 1 paper feed
roller detects the paper fed from the paper feed roller. If the paper feed timing of the
paper fed from the paper feed roller is earlier than a predetermined value, the paper feed
tray 1 paper feed clutch is deenergized to correct the paper feed timing. For more details,
see Paper feed speed reduction control. (The paper feed sensor is mounted on C360/
C280 only.)
When the paper fed from the paper feed roller moves past the registration roller and
reaches a predetermined position, the paper feed tray 1 paper feed clutch is deenergized
to disconnect the driving force of the transport motor. The pick-up roller and paper feed
roller follow the movement of the paper, continuing rotating. The pick-up roller and paper
feed roller stop rotating as soon as the paper moves past them.
If the sensor in front of tim. roller is unable to detect paper even after the lapse of a pre-
determined period of time, the machine determines that there is a paper misfeed at tray
1. Note, however, that the paper feed sequence is repeated a second time if a paper mis-
feed is detected in a print job of black mode. If the sensor in front of tim. roller is still
unable to detect paper, the machine determines that there is a paper misfeed at tray 1
(paper feed retry control).
(2) Tray2
The tray 2 paper feed roller feeds the paper onto the tray 2 vertical transport roller.
The paper feed tray 2 paper feed sensor located downstream of the tray 2 paper feed
roller detects the paper fed from the paper feed roller. If the paper feed timing of the
paper fed from the paper feed roller is earlier than a predetermined value, the paper feed
tray 2 paper feed clutch is deenergized to correct the paper feed timing. For more details,
see Paper feed speed reduction control. (The paper feed sensor is mounted on C360/
C280 only.)
When the paper feed tray 2 vertical transport sensor located downstream of the tray 2
vertical transport roller along the paper path detects the leading edge of the paper fed
from the paper feed roller, the paper feed tray 2 paper feed clutch is deenergized to dis-
connect the driving force of the transport motor. The pick-up roller and paper feed roller
follow the movement of the paper, continuing rotating. The pick-up roller and paper feed
roller stop rotating as soon as the paper moves past them.
If the paper feed tray 2 vertical transport sensor is unable to detect the leading edge of
paper even after the lapse of a predetermined period of time, the machine determines
that there is a paper misfeed at tray 2. Note, however, that the paper feed sequence is
repeated a second time if a paper misfeed is detected in a print job of black mode. If the
paper feed tray 2 vertical transport sensor is still unable to detect paper, the machine
determines that there is a paper misfeed at tray 2 (paper feed retry control).
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F. Paper misfeed display
NOTE
Different paper misfeed displays appear depending on the settings made in Sys-
tem 2/ JAM Code Display Setting of the Service Mode.
(1) Tray1 (typical)
(2) Tray2 (typical)
A0EDT2E319DA
A0EDT2E320DA
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G. Downstream exit control during multi-print cycle
The following terms are used for convenience sake throughout this chapter.
Upstream: Refers to the source side of paper supply relative to the paper feeding direc-
tion
Downstream: Refers to the destination side of paper transport relative to the paper feed-
ing direction
If a paper misfeed occurs at the paper feed section which is upstream in paper transport,
the print cycle is not brought to an immediate stop; rather, the machine allows a sheet of
paper, for which the print cycle is to be completed at a downstream side, to continue
undergoing the current print cycle and feeds the printed page out after completion of the
current print cycle.
(1) Types of paper misfeed governed by downstream exit control
(2) Paper pass
Misfeed at tray1 Misfeed at manual paper feed section
Misfeed at tray2 Misfeed at vertical transport section
Misfeed at tray3
Misfeed at tray4
A0EDT2C208DA
Duplex transport roller 2
Paper exit/switchback roller
Duplex print paper re-feeding
(switchback)
Exit paper to exit tray, or transport
paper to Finishing options
Heating roller
Fusing roller
Transfer belt
Transfer belt drive roller
Transport paper from
paper feed section
Duplex transport roller 1
Fusing belt
Pressure roller
Duplex transport roller 3
Registration roller
Sensor in front of tim.
roller sensor (PS1)
2nd image transfer roller
Fusing loop detect
sensor (PS2)
Actuator of fusing loop
detect sensor
Paper exit sensor (PS3)
Actuator
Duplex paper passage
sensor (PS40)
Actuator of duplex paper
passage sensor
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(3) 1-sided printing
Operation 1
In consecutive 1-sided printing, 4th sheet causes a jamming at the paper feed tray sec-
tion.
1st sheet after an image transfer is remained at the fusing section and the paper exit sec-
tion.
2nd sheet before an image transfer is remained at the vertical conveyance section and
the registration section.
3rd sheet before an image transfer is remained at the paper feed section and the vertical
conveyance section.
A0EDT2C209DA
Sheet before a 1-sided image transfer
Sheet after a 1-sided image transfer

Jamming
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Operation 2
Feed and convey 4th sheet is stopped.
Exit 1st sheet.
Transfer/fuse images on 2nd sheet.
Convey 3rd sheet to transfer images.
A0EDT2C210DA

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Operation 3
Exit 2nd sheet.
Fuse 3rd sheet to exit paper.
A0EDT2C211DA

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(4) 2-sided printing
Operation 1
In consecutive 2-sided printing, 4th sheet causes a jamming at the paper feed tray sec-
tion.
1st sheet after a 2-sided image transfer is remained at the paper exit section.
2nd sheet before a 1-sided image fusing is remained at the duplex section.
3rd sheet before an image transfer is remained at the vertical conveyance section and
the registration section.
A0EDT2C212DA
Jamming
Sheet before a 1-sided image transfer
Sheet after a 1-sided image transfer
Sheet after a 2-sided image transfer

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Operation 2
Feed and convey 4th sheet is stopped.
Exit 1st sheet.
Transfer/fuse 2-sided images on 2nd sheet.
Transfer/fuse 1-sided images on 3rd sheet to convey to the duplex section.
A0EDT2C213DA

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Operation 3
Exit 2nd sheet.
Stop 3rd sheet at the duplex section.
Operation 4
The 3rd sheet of paper left in the duplex section should be removed by opening the
duplex section cover.
NOTE
3rd sheets are conveyed to the duplex section which allowed removing a jamming
easily. 2-sided images are not printed on a sheet conveyed to the duplex section.
A0EDT2C214DA

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H. Periodically replaced parts
The pick-up roller, paper feed roller, and separator roller are periodically replaced parts.
These three rollers must be replaced with new ones at the same time.
None of the pick-up roller, paper feed roller, and separator roller is provided with a new
article detection mechanism. When the three rollers are replaced with new ones, the
1st. or 2nd. counter must be reset to zero using Counter/ Life of the Service Mode.
The number of times tray 1/tray 2 has been subjected to paper feed operations can be
checked with the 1st./2nd. counter of the Service Mode.
For details of the applicable replacement procedures for the pick-up roller, paper feed
roller, and separator roller and the Service Mode, see Field Service.
Periodical replacement cycle Paper feed operations 300,000 times
A0EDT2E321DA
A0EDT2C215DA A0EDT2C216DA
Paper feed roller assy/Pick-up roller assy Separator roller assy
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17.3.3 Paper size detection control
A. Main scanning direction
The size in the main scanning direction is detected based on the combination of paper
feed tray1(2) paper CD size detect sensor/1 and paper feed tray1(2) paper CD size
detect sensor/2 being unblocked or blocked.
Paper feed tray1(2) paper CD size detect sensor/1 and paper feed tray1(2) paper CD
size detect sensor/2 are unblocked or blocked by the paper width detection plate pro-
vided in the paper width guide plate.
B. Sub scanning direction
The size in the sub scanning direction is detected based on the combination of ON or
OFF position of switches 1 to 4 mounted on paper FD sensor board/1,/2.
Each of switches 1 to 4 is turned ON or OFF by the paper length detection plate con-
nected to the paper length guide plate.
A0EDT2C218DA
1 2 3 4
Paper FD
sensor board
Device detection sensor
Paper guide (FD)
Paper guide (CD)
Paper CD size detect sensor/1
Paper CD size detect plate
Paper CD size
detect sensor/2
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C. Sheet size determination
Combination of the width of the main scanning and the length of the sub scanning will
decide a sheet size.
*: One of the following paper sizes can be selected to be set for FLS.
220 x 330 mm, 8 13, 8
1
/
8
13
1
/
4
, 8
1
/
4
13, 8
1
/
2
13
Switch/sensor states
Paper size
Paper FD sensor board
Paper CD size
detect sensor/1
Paper CD size
detect sensor/2
SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4
A3 Wide
(Tray2 only)
ON OFF OFF ON Blocked Unblocked
A3 OFF ON/OFF OFF OFF Blocked Unblocked
B4 OFF OFF OFF ON Blocked Unblocked
A4S ON ON/OFF OFF OFF Unblocked Unblocked
A4 ON/OFF ON ON ON Blocked Unblocked
B5S ON ON OFF ON Unblocked Unblocked
B5 OFF OFF ON ON Blocked Unblocked
A5S
Invoice S
ON/OFF ON ON ON Unblocked Unblocked
Ledger (11 17) OFF ON OFF OFF Blocked Blocked
Legal (8-
1
/
2
14) OFF OFF OFF ON Unblocked Unblocked
Letter S
(8-
1
/
2
11 S)
OFF ON ON OFF Unblocked Unblocked
Letter (8-
1
/
2
11) ON ON ON ON Blocked Blocked
FLS OFF OFF OFF OFF Unblocked Unblocked
K8 S (270 mm
390 mm)
OFF OFF ON OFF Blocked Blocked
K16 (270 mm
195 mm)
OFF ON ON ON Blocked Blocked
Switch/sensor
Physical state
HIGH signal LOW signal
Paper FD sensor board/1, 2 : Switches 1 to 4 OFF ON
Paper feed tray1 paper CD size detect sensor/
1, 2
Blocked Unblocked
Paper feed tray2 paper CD size detect sensor/
1, 2
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17.3.4 Remaining paper detection control
The remaining paper detection control is performed under any of the following condi-
tions:
Tray 1/tray 2 is closed in position
The up/down control of the paper lift-up plate is completed
A. Paper near-empty detection
The paper feed tray1(2) near empty sensor detects a paper near-empty condition of the
tray.
As paper is consumed, the position of the near empty detection actuator provided at the
lift-up plate drive shaft of the paper feed tray1(2) lift-up motor is raised.
When the near empty detection actuator is raised to a position at which the paper feed
tray1(2) near empty sensor is blocked, the machine detects a near-empty condition.
A near-empty condition is detected when the amount of paper still available for use
becomes about 50 30 sheets (about 50 sheets in terms of paper weighing 80 g/m
2
).
A0EDT2C219DA
Lift-up motor
Near empty sensor
Actuator
Upper limit sensor
Paper lift-up plate
drive shaft
Pick-up roller
Paper lift-up plate A
(lower position)
Paper lift-up plate B
(upper position)
Paper lift-up plate A
(upper position)
Paper lift-up plate B
(lower position)
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B. Paper empty detection
Paper feed tray 1 and paper feed tray 2 use the same control system to detect a paper
empty condition.
A paper empty condition is detected by the device detection sensor, upper limit sensor,
and paper empty sensor.
Based on the combination of detection signals from each of the sensors, a paper empty
condition is detected.
Sensor Paper empty
Paper empty sensor Unblocked
Device detection sensor Blocked
Upper limit sensor Unblocked
A0EDT2C220DA
Paper feed roller
Paper feed sensor
Paper empty detection plate
Paper empty sensor
Upper limit sensor
Pick-up roller
Paper empty sensor
Paper empty detection
plate (Upper position:
paper remaining)
Paper empty detection plate
(Lower position: paper empty)
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C. Remaining paper level display
The amount of remaining paper is indicated by the LED on the right side of each tray and
by the screen of the control panel.
The following shows how the level is displayed.
*1: LED turns OFF when Paper Remainder is set to Type 2: Service Mode System 1
Machine State LED Setting Paper Remainder.
Tray condition Empty Near empty
Other statuses
(Including during lift-up and no tray conditions)
LED ON Blinking *1 OFF
A0EDT2E322DA
A0EDT2C221DA
Paper feed tray 1
LED board (LEDB1)
Paper feed tray 2
LED board (LEDB2)
Paper feed system
option
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17.3.5 Paper feed tray locking mechanism
The paper feed tray is provided with a locking mechanism.
A. Unlocking the paper feed tray
Withdrawing the lever of the paper feed tray to the front will disengage the tray lock pawl
provided on the right side of the paper feed tray.
The paper feed tray can be pulled out of the machine by continuing pulling the lever with
the tray lock pawl disengaged.
Rollers are provided for the right and left tray rails. They reduce the operating force
required for sliding in/out the paper feed tray.
B. Locking the paper feed tray
Pushing the lever of the paper feed tray all the way toward the rear will allow the paper
feed tray to be slid into the machine.
When the paper feed tray is inserted all the way in place, the tray lock pawl provided on
the right side of the paper feed tray locks the tray in place.
A0EDT2C222DA
Lever
Lock pawl
Lock lever
Roller
Roller
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 18. VERTICAL TRANSPORT SECTION
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18. VERTICAL TRANSPORT SECTION
18.1 Configuration
A0EDT2C223DA
Fusing motor (M3)
Fusing drive release lever
Duplex transport motor (M5)
Duplex transport roller 2
Fusing loop detect
sensor (PS2)
Duplex paper passage
sensor (PS40)
Duplex transport
roller 3
Registration roller
Sensor in front of tim.
roller sensor (PS1)
Manual tray paper
feed roller
Paper feed tray 1
paper feed sensor
(PS23)
Paper feed tray 2 vertical
transport roller
Paper feed tray 2 vertical
transport sensor (PS19)
Paper feed tray 2 paper
feed sensor (PS20)
Paper feed tray 2
paper feed roller
Paper feed tray
1 paper feed
roller
Paper feed tray 2 paper
feed clutch (CL1)
Paper feed tray 2
vertical transport
clutch (CL2)
Fusing drive
release gear
Transport motor (M1)
Paper feed tray 1
paper feed clutch
(CL3)
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18.2 Drive
A0EDT2C224DA
Fusing motor (M3)
Fusing drive release
lever
Duplex paper passage
sensor (PS40)
Duplex transport roller 2
Duplex transport motor (M5)
Registration roller
Duplex transport roller 3
Manual tray paper feed
roller
Paper feed tray 2 vertical
transport sensor (PS19)
Paper feed tray 2 vertical
transport roller
Paper feed tray 2 paper
feed roller
Paper feed tray 1
paper feed sensor
(PS23)
Paper feed tray1 paper
feed roller
Sensor in front of tim. roller sensor (PS1)
Transport motor (M1)
Fusing loop detect sensor (PS2)
Fusing drive release gear
Paper feed tray 2 paper feed sensor
(PS20)
Tray 2 paper
feed section
Tray 1 paper
feed section
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18.3 Operation
18.3.1 Vertical transport control
The vertical transport section transports paper fed from tray1, 2, or optional paper feed
unit onto the registration section.
The paper fed from tray1 is transported onto the registration section by the tray 1 paper
feed roller.
The paper fed from the manual tray is transported onto the registration section by the
manual tray paper feed roller.
The paper fed from tray2 is transported onto the registration section by the tray2 vertical
transport roller.
18.3.2 Transport clutch control
A. Tray2 vertical transport clutch
The paper feed tray 2 vertical transport clutch is connected to the tray 2 vertical transport
roller. When the paper feed tray 2 vertical transport clutch is energized, the driving force
of the transport motor is transmitted, so that the paper feed tray 2 vertical transport roller
is rotated.
18.3.3 Operation timing
A. Tray2 vertical transport roller
The tray2 vertical transport roller starts rotating after the lapse of a predetermined period
of time after the print start signal.
The tray2 vertical transport sensor located downstream of the tray2 vertical transport
roller along the paper path detects the paper that has moved past the tray2 vertical trans-
port roller.
If the paper feed tray 2 vertical transport sensor is unable to detect the leading edge of
the paper even after the lapse of a predetermined period of time after a paper feed
sequence is started, the machine determines that there is a paper misfeed at the paper
feed section.
If the paper feed tray 2 vertical transport sensor is unable to detect the trailing edge of
the paper even after the lapse of a predetermined period of time after it has detected the
leading edge of the paper, the machine determines that there is a paper misfeed at the
vertical transport section.
For a print job that uses an optional paper feed unit, if the paper feed tray 2 vertical trans-
port sensor is unable to detect paper even after the lapse of a predetermined period of
time after the tray 3 vertical transport sensor has detected the paper, the machine deter-
mines that there is a paper misfeed at the vertical transport section.
If the paper feed tray 2 paper feed sensor detects paper earlier than a predetermined
time, the paper feed tray 2 paper feed clutch is temporarily deenergized, so that the tim-
ing at which the paper being controlled is to be transported is retarded. This corrects the
time at which the paper reaches the registration roller (paper transport deceleration con-
trol).
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18.3.4 Right door mechanism
The machine has the right door to enable easy access into the inside of the machine for
clearing a paper misfeed or performing other service jobs.
The right door is mounted with the mechanisms of the vertical transport section, paper
feed section (manual tray), and the duplex section (paper passage guide). For detailed
functions of the paper feed section (manual tray) and the duplex section (paper passage
guide), see the corresponding chapters.
The registration unit (2nd image transfer section, registration section, and duplex sec-
tion) is found inside the right door when opened.
The registration unit is not provided with a locking mechanism or open/close detection
mechanism. The locking mechanism and open/close detection mechanism provided for
the right door are used also for the registration unit.
For details of the registration unit, see Registration section.
A0EDT2C225DA
Right door section
A0EDT2C226DA A0EDT2C227DA
Registration unit
(registration section/
2nd image transfer section)
Registration unit
Lever
(Closing the registration unit
will push the fusing drive
release lever.)
Registration unit
(duplex section)
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A. Right door locking mechanism
The right door is provided with a locking mechanism.
(1) Unlocking the right door
Withdrawing the lever of the right door to the front will disengage the door lock pawls
(three) provided at the front side of the right door.
Unlocking the right door will unlock the registration unit.
When the registration unit is unlocked, the fusing drive release lever is also released. For
the function of the fusing drive release lever, see Registration Section.
(2) Locking the right door
Close the registration unit and then close the right door. When the right door is closed in
its correct position, the door lock pawls (three) provided at the front side of the right door
lock the right door in place.
The right door also locks the registration unit and fusing drive release lever in position.
A0EDT2C228DA
Right door lever
Door lock pawl (upper)
Door lock pawl (center)
Right door positioning pin
Right door switch
(MS2):
mounted on
machine frame
Door lock pawl (lower)
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B. Right door open/close detection mechanism
The right door switch detects that the right door is opened or closed.
When the right door is closed, the open/close detection plate provided at an upper por-
tion at the front of the right door presses the actuator of the right door switch. This turns
ON the right door switch and the machine determines that the right door is closed.
When the right door is opened, the actuator of the right door switch is released. This
turns OFF the right door switch and the machine determines that the right door is
opened, giving a message that prompts the operator to close the right door.
On determining that the right door is open, the machine prohibits the use of all jobs but
the fax reception job. A paper misfeed results if the right door is opened during a print
cycle.
A0EDT2E323DA
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 19. REGISTRATION SECTION
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19. REGISTRATION SECTION
19.1 Configuration
A0EDT2C242DA
A0EDT2C241DA
Fusing motor (M3)
Transport motor (M1)
Fusing loop detect sensor (PS2)
2nd image transfer roller
Toner collecting box
drive coupling portion
Registration roller clutch (CL4)
Registration roller
Sensor in front of tim. roller sensor (PS1)
Registration unit position-
ing guide rail (provided
on the machine frame
side)
Fusing drive
coupling portion
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19.2 Drive
A0EDT2C243DA
Registration roller clutch (CL4)
Registration roller
Sensor in front of tim. roller sensor (PS1)
Sensor in front of tim. roller sensor actuator
Transport motor (M1)
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19.3 Operation
19.3.1 Registration control
The transport motor provides the drive for the registration roller.
The registration roller clutch is connected to the registration roller. When the registration
roller clutch is energized, the driving force of the transport motor is transmitted to the reg-
istration roller. This rotates the registration roller.
The paper will create a loop between the tray 1 paper feed roller (or tray2 vertical trans-
port roller/manual paper feed clutch) and the regist motor when the paper is being con-
veyed in order to correct the skew.
Registration roller is controlled in order to synchronize the timing the unit starts writing
the image and conveying paper.
A. Adjustment
The amount of the loop of the paper can be adjusted in the Service Mode - Machine -
Printer Regist Loop. Changing the adjustment value will change the OFF timing of the
paper feed tray 1 vertical transport clutch (or tray2 vertical transport roller/manual paper
feed clutch).
A0EDT2C244DA
A0EDT2C245DA
Paper
Sensor in front of tim.
roller sensor (PS1)
Registration roller
Actuator
Paper feed roller
The sensor in front of tim. roller detects the leading edge of the paper.
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A0EDT2C247DA
A0EDT2C246DA
The registration roller is started to rotate again to transport the paper.
The registration roller is stopped from rotating.
A loop is formed at the leading edge of the paper because the paper feed roller continues rotating.
The loop corrects skew in the paper.
Loop
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19.3.2 Registration unit mechanism
The machine has the right door to enable easy access into the inside of the machine for
clearing a paper misfeed or performing other service jobs.
The registration unit (2nd image transfer section, registration section, and duplex sec-
tion) is found inside the right door when opened.
The registration unit is not provided with a locking mechanism or open/close detection
mechanism. The locking mechanism and open/close detection mechanism provided for
the right door are used also for the registration unit.
Opening the right door releases the registration unit.
The registration unit is provided with a positioning pin that ensures that the registration
unit is positioned correctly. In addition, the machine frame has a positioning guide rail.
A0EDT2C248DA
Positioning guide rail
Positioning pin
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19.3.3 Fusing drive release mechanism
The fusing drive release gear transmits the driving force of the fusing motor to the fusing
unit and transfer belt retraction mechanism.
When the right door is opened, the fusing drive release lever locked by the registration
unit is unlocked.
When the fusing drive release lever is unlocked, the connection of the fusing drive
release gear is disengaged, so that drive connection to the fusing roller in the fusing unit
is also disengaged.
If a paper misfeed occurs in the fusing section, opening the right door will disengage the
drive connection of the fusing roller. Thus, the jammed paper can be pulled out easily
with a light force.
For details of the fusing mechanism, see Fusing section.
A0EDT2C249DA
Fusing motor (M3)
Fusing drive release gear
Fusing drive
release lever
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20. FUSING SECTION
20.1 Configuration
A0EDT2C230DA
Exit/switchback roller
Paper winding prevention guide
(Standard for Japan market only)
Fusing belt
A0EDT2C277DA
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A0EDT2C232DA
Actuator of paper exit sensor
A0EDT2C231DA
Fusing roller
Duplex transport roller 1
Pressure roller
Heating roller
Fusing separation claw
Pressure roller fusing
heater lamp (FH2)
Heating roller fusing heater
lamp (FH1)
Fusing motor (M3)
Switchback motor (M4)
Paper exit sensor (PS3)
Fusing pressure roller thermostat (TS2)
Duplex transport motor (M5)
Pressure roller thermister
Heating roller thermostat (TS1)
Fusing pressure roller
home sensor (PS32)
Fusing pressure roller
retraction sensor (PS38)
Fusing pressure roller retraction motor (M11)
Heating roller thermister/S
Heating roller thermister/M
Heating roller thermister/C
Fusing loop detect sensor (PS2)
2nd image transfer roller
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20.2 Drive
A0EDT2C233DA
Switchback motor (M4)
Switchback motor (M4)
Fusing pressure roller retraction motor (M11)
Exit/switchback roller
Fusing drive release gear
(coupling disengaged position)
Fusing separation claw
Pressure roller
Fusing roller
Fusing belt
Fusing motor (M3)
Fan-shaped gear
Fusing pressure roller
retraction motor (M11)
Fusing motor (M3)
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20.3 Operation
20.3.1 Fusing drive release mechanism
The fusing drive release gear transmits the driving force of the fusing motor to the fusing
unit and transfer belt retraction mechanism.
When the right door is opened, the fusing drive release lever locked by the registration
unit is unlocked.
When the fusing drive release lever is unlocked, the connection of the fusing drive
release gear is disengaged, so that drive connection to the fusing roller in the fusing unit
is also disengaged.
If a paper misfeed occurs in the fusing section, opening the right door will disengage the
drive connection of the fusing roller. Thus, the jammed paper can be pulled out easily
with a light force.
20.3.2 Fusing speed correction
A. Fusing roller speed change control
The fusing belt is driven by the fusing motor.
The driving force of the fusing motor is transmitted to the fusing pressure roller via the
fusing drive release mechanism. The fusing roller is pressed up against the fusing belt,
so that the fusing belt (fusing roller, heating roller) is rotated by following the movement
of the fusing pressure roller.
To avoid fusing failure, the fusing belt rotation speed is controlled to be switched from
one level to another depending on paper type.
A0EDT2C249DA
Fusing motor (M3)
Fusing drive release gear
Fusing drive release
lever
Paper type Color mode
Fusing speed (mm/second)
bizhub C360/C280 bizhub C220
Plain paper (60 to 90 g/m
2
),
OHP film (Only for black printing)
Black/Color 166.6 111
Thick paper 1/2/3/4 (91 g/m
2
to 271 g/ m
2
),
Postcards, Envelopes, Labels
Black/Color 55.5
Glossy paper Black/Color 55.5
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B. Fusing loop control
To prevent double transferred images and brush effects, a loop is formed in the paper
between the 2nd image transfer and fusing sections. The loop corrects variations
between the paper conveyance speed during the image transfer and the fusing speed.
The fusing loop detect sensor detects the length of the loop formed in the paper between
the 2nd transfer section and the fusing roller. According to the length, the rotation speed
of the fusing roller is varied. Thus the length of the loop formed in the paper in the fusing
section is controlled.
Fusing loop detect sensor Loop amount Fussing speed
Blocking large Speed-up
Unblocking small Slowdown
A0EDT2C239DA
Actuator
Fusing loop detect
sensor (PS2)
Fusing roller
Loop length: small
Loop length: large
2nd image transfer
roller
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(1) Operation timing
It starts controlling when the front-edge of the paper reaches to the predetermined posi-
tion before the fusing roller.
The fusing speed is decelerated so that a loop is formed in the paper between the 2nd
image transfer roller and the fusing roller.
When the paper loop amount is large, the fusing loop detect sensor is blocked. The fus-
ing speed is increased when the sensor is blocked.
When the paper loop amount is small, the fusing loop detect sensor is unblocked. The
fusing speed is decreased when the sensor is unblocked.
Operations explained above will keep the amount of the paper loop within specified
range so the speed difference between the fusing and the paper conveyance for image
transfer will be adjusted.
The fusing loop control will finish when the back-edge of the paper passes the predeter-
mined position on the back of the transfer roller.
20.3.3 Fusing pressure/retraction control
To ensure prolonged durability of the fusing belt, the pressure roller is retracted *
1
from
the fusing belt during any time other than a print cycle. (The roller is, however, retracted
during a print cycle using envelopes.)
*1: The pressure roller does not completely retract but is slightly pressed to the fusing
belt.
The pressure or retraction operation between the fusing belt and the fusing pressure
roller is accomplished by driving the fusing pressure roller retraction motor to rotate for-
ward or backward. When the motor rotates, the fan-shaped gear will rotate to move the
pressure roller.
The fusing pressure roller home sensor detects the fusing pressure roller at its home
position.
The amount of pressure of the fusing pressure roller is detected with the number of
pulses of the fusing pressure roller retraction sensor.
When there is no change in the output of the fusing pressure roller home sensor even
after the lapse of a predetermined period of time after the fusing pressure roller retraction
motor has started rotating or when there is no change in the output of the fusing pres-
sure roller home sensor even when a predetermined number of output pulses is counted
of the fusing pressure roller retraction sensor, the machine determines that there is a
pressure/retraction fault and displays the Trouble code: Fusing roller separation failure
message.
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 20. FUSING SECTION
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/
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/
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2
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O
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U
R
A
T
I
O
N
/
O
P
E
R
A
T
I
O
N
A0EDT2C236DA A0EDT2C235DA
A0EDT2C234DA
Fan-shaped gear
Pressure roller
Fusing belt
Retraction operation Pressure operation
Fusing pressure roller
retraction motor (M11)
Fusing pressure roller
retraction sensor (PS38)
Rotating
detection gear
Fan-shaped gear (front)
Fusing pressure roller
home sensor (PS32)
Fusing pressure roller home sensor detection plate
Fusing belt
Pressure roller
20. FUSING SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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I
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/
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R
A
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I
O
N
(1) Operation timing
*2: Pressure/retraction will be conducted after the currently printed paper passes between
the fusing belt and the pressure roller. The timing for the next paper to be fed will be
delayed during the pressure/retraction and keep the certain period of time between
feeding the papers.
Conditions Pressure/retraction operation
Warm-up
At the start of a warm-up cycle Pressure
At the completion of a warm-up cycle in a high humid-
ity condition
Retraction
Standby At the completion of the fusing belt preliminary rotation Retraction
Printing
For envelopes Retraction
For paper types other than envelopes Pressure
When printing
the multi jobs
When current printing is for other than envelopes and
the next job is for the envelopes.
Pressure Retraction *
2
When current printing is for the envelopes and the next
job is for other than envelopes.
Retraction Pressure *
2
Power save mode Retraction
When the fusing heater lamp is turned OFF (a door opened, a malfunc-
tion occurs, or other factors.)
Retraction
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 20. FUSING SECTION
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/
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I
O
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20.3.4 Fusing paper transport control
The 2nd image transfer roller transports paper onto the fusing roller (fusing belt, fusing
pressure roller).
The paper exit sensor installed downstream of the fusing roller (at the right door/duplex
section) detects the paper fed from the fusing roller.
The fusing motor is deenergized when the paper which has been transported from the
2nd image transfer roller and moved past the fusing roller reaches a predetermined posi-
tion. The switchback motor starts rotating forward when the paper that has moved past
the fusing roller reaches the predetermined position and the exit/switchback roller con-
nected by the drive belt rotates forward.
The switchback motor is deenergized when the paper which has been transported from
the fusing roller and moved past the exit/switchback roller reaches a predetermined posi-
tion.
For duplex printing, the switchback roller is rotated backward to transport the paper into
the duplex section.
20.3.5 Paper separation mechanism
Paper separator claws (at five places) function to separate the paper which has under-
gone the fusing process reliably from the fusing belt.
A0EDT2C278DA
Exit/switchback roller
Fusing belt
Pressure roller
Transfer belt
2nd image transfer roller
Paper exit sensor (PS3)
Actuator
A0EDT2C279DA
Paper exit sensor (PS3)
Pressure roller
Paper separator claws
(at five places)
Fusing belt
Actuator
20. FUSING SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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U
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I
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N
/
O
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R
A
T
I
O
N
20.3.6 Fusing temperature control
Fusing temperature control uses a noncontact type thermistor to detect the temperature
of the fusing roller and fusing pressure roller and thereby controls to turn ON the fusing
heater lamp for controlling the fusing temperature.
A. Fusing heater lamp
(1) Heating roller
The heating roller contains a fusing heater lamp in it. The fusing heater lamp turns ON to
generate heat, which heats the heating roller and fusing belt. The lamp turns OFF to stop
heating. (The temperature of the heating roller and fusing belt decreases.)
The fusing heater lamp consists of two heaters, each having a unique characteristic dif-
ferent from each other. One is called the long heater that uniformly heats the entire
area of the heating roller and the other is called the short heater that heats only the
central portion of the heating roller.
The long and short heaters are used differently depending on the temperature condi-
tion of the heating roller. To be more specific, the short heater may typically be used in
the following condition: when a multi-print cycle using a large volume of small sized
paper is run, the temperature of the heating roller at its central portion can at times be
decreased. In such conditions, the short heater is turned ON to heat the central portion
of the heating roller to a temperature appropriate for printing. The temperature of the
ends of the heating roller which are not heated decreases, which corrects uneven tem-
perature of the roller.
A0EDT2C237DA
fusing pressure roller
thermostat (TS2)
Heating roller thermister
Heating roller thermostat
(TS1)
Pressure roller fusing
heater lamp
Heating roller Fusing heater lamp (short)
Heating roller Fusing heater lamp (long)
Heating roller
thermister/C
Heating roller
thermister/M
Heating roller
thermister/S
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 20. FUSING SECTION
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0
/
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O
N
F
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U
R
A
T
I
O
N
/
O
P
E
R
A
T
I
O
N
(2) Pressure roller
The pressure roller contains a fusing heater lamp in it. The fusing heater lamp turns ON
to generate heat, which heats the pressure roller. The lamp turns OFF to stop heating.
This fusing heater lamp uniformly heats the entire area of the pressure roller.
A0EDT2C280DA
Heating roller
thermister/S
Heating roller
thermister/M
Heating roller
thermister/C
Front of machine Rear of machine
Heating roller Fusing heater
lamp (short)
Heating roller Fusing heater
lamp (long)
Heating zones
A0EDT2C281DA
Heating roller thermister
Front of machine Rear of machine
Pressure roller fusing heater lamp
Heating zones
20. FUSING SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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/
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F
I
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U
R
A
T
I
O
N
/
O
P
E
R
A
T
I
O
N
B. Temperature control chart
[1] In warm up [4] In standby state
[2] Stand-by [5] Low power mode
[3] During a print cycle (plain paper, color mode,
1-sided)
[6] In sleep state
A0EDT2C163DA 0
[2] [1]
[4] [5] [6] [3]
Sub power
switch ON
Start key ON Power save mode canceled
Warm-up completed
Pressure roller temperature
Fusing belt temperature
*An example when a machine is warmed up under a normal ambient condition
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 20. FUSING SECTION
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/
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N
F
I
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U
R
A
T
I
O
N
/
O
P
E
R
A
T
I
O
N
C. Fusing temperature control during warm-up
To prevent image fixability from being degraded due to environmental changes, three dif-
ferent types of temperature control are adopted. In the control, the set temperature for
the fusing belt and fusing pressure roller is controlled to an optimum value according to
the environment.
*1: When the default value of the service mode is selected (Change Warm Up Time: Mode
1 and Engine FW Dip SW No.5: OFF) and the rated power source is used at a room
temperature of 23C
*2: Absolute humidity: water content contained in the air (1 m
3
) as steam regardless of the
temperature
Warm up mode
Environment
Warm up time
*1
Machine interior
temperature
Machine interior humidity
(absolute humidity *2)
Warm-up at low temper-
atures
18C or less
Not judged by absolute
humidity
Black mode: 30 sec.
Color mode: 41 sec.
Warm-up at ordinary
temperatures
18C or more to 32C
or less
Less than a predeter-
mined value
Warm-up under high
humidity condition
More than 32C
Predetermined value or
more
A0EDT2C164DA
Machine interior
temperature
18C or less
Absolute humidity,
specified value or
more
Machine interior
temperature
exceeding 18C
Low temperature
environment
High humidity
environment
Room temperature
environment
20. FUSING SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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0
/
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O
N
F
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G
U
R
A
T
I
O
N
/
O
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E
R
A
T
I
O
N
(1) Temperature control
The target temperatures of the fusing belt and fusing pressure roller are set according to
the environment of at low temperatures, at ordinary temperatures, and under high
humidity condition and the heater lamp is controlled accordingly.
The machine determines that a print cycle can be started (warm-up cycle is completed)
as soon as the temperature of the fusing belt and fusing pressure roller reaches the
warm-up completion temperature. A print cycle is started if a print request is received.
The machine enters the standby state control if no print request is received even after
the lapse of a predetermined period of time after the warm-up cycle has been completed.
(2) Service Mode and Engine FW Dip SW
Control details during the warm-up cycle and warm-up time can be changed by the com-
bination of the settings made in System 1/ Change Warm Up Time and No. 5 PPM
control (high humidity environment mode) prohibited of Engine FW DIP switch of
Enhanced Security of the service mode.
This provides the user with fixability that responds accurately to its individual need.
A0EDT2C164DA
Machine interior
temperature
18C or less
Absolute humidity,
specified value or
more
Machine interior
temperature
exceeding 18C
Low temperature
environment
High humidity
environment
Room temperature
environment
A0EDT2E324DA
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 20. FUSING SECTION
221
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3
6
0
/
C
2
8
0
/
C
2
2
0
C
O
N
F
I
G
U
R
A
T
I
O
N
/
O
P
E
R
A
T
I
O
N
NOTE
For details of the Service Mode and the Engine FW Dip SW, see Field Service.
*
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20. FUSING SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
222
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i
z
h
u
b

C
3
6
0
/
C
2
8
0
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R
A
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D. Temperature control during stand-by
Control proceeds to that in the standby state if no print requests are received after the
warm-up cycle.
The temperature control in the standby state controls to turn ON the fusing heater lamp
so as to ensure that the temperatures of the fusing belt and pressure roller in the standby
state fall within a predetermined temperature range.
This control is to shorten time required for entering the print mode when a print job is
received.
E. Temperature control during the print cycle
(1) Temperature control
The machine enters a print state as it receives a print request and carries out a print
cycle at a set temperature corresponding to the type of paper selected for the job. The
fusing temperature is controlled also during the print cycle.
(2) Service Mode
The fusing temperature adjustment function is provided for preventing image fixability
from being degraded and reducing frequency of occurrence of paper curl, uneven wax,
and offset. These problems are associated with certain types of paper used.
The fusing temperature can be varied using the setting made in Machine/ Fusing Tem-
perature of the service mode. This provides for a wider scope of fusing performance to
meet the diversified needs of the user.
In the fusing temperature adjustment function, the adjustment is first made on the heat-
ing side; if additional adjustments are still required, the adjustment is to be made on the
pressure side.
Paper type Heating side Pressure side
Plain paper
- 20 C to + 5 C (step: 5 C) - 20 C to + 5 C (step: 5 C)
OHP film
Thick paper 1
Thick paper 2
Thick paper 3
Thick paper 4
Envelopes - 5 C to + 5 C (step: 5 C) - 5 C to + 5 C (step: 5 C)
A0EDT2E325DA
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F. Temperature control during low power mode
To reduce power consumption, temperature control is provided with a fusing temperature
lower than a predetermined one that is used in the temperature control during stand-by.
The temperature control during low power mode ensures that the temperature can be
restored to the print-enable level within 30 sec. max.
G. Temperature control during sleep mode
To reduce power consumption during the sleep mode, power to the fusing heater lamp is
shut down to stop heating the fusing belt and pressure roller.
Since the temperature control during sleep mode involves no heating, the temperatures
of the fusing belt and pressure roller can be reduced down to room temperature. Accord-
ingly, time may be required as much as the warm-up time before the print-enable level is
reached.
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20.3.7 Protection from abnormal temperatures
The machine provides protection against abnormally high temperature of the fusing unit
in the following three steps.
A. First approach: thermistor protection (software)
If the heating roller thermistor/C detects a predetermined temperature or more for more
than a predetermined period of time, the temperature is judged to be abnormally high.
Trouble code C3721: Fusing abnormally high temperature detection (Center of the heat-
ing side) will be displayed.
When the fusing pressure roller thermistor detects a predetermined temperature or more
for more than a predetermined period of time, the temperature is considered to be abnor-
mally high. Trouble code C3723: Fusing abnormally high temperature detection (Pres-
surizing side) will be displayed.
When the trouble code is displayed, printing will be prohibited.
B. Second approach: thermistor protection (hardware)
A different protection is provided when the CPU overruns, becoming unable to detect the
malfunction of an abnormally high temperature. If any of the thermistors detects an
abnormal temperature, the heater relay of the DC power supply is turned OFF through
the printer board. Power supply to each of the fusing heater lamps is then shut down.
When the hardware circuit in the DC power unit detects the heater relay being OFF, the
temperature is judged to be abnormally high. Trouble code C3721: Fusing abnormally
high temperature detection (Center of the heating side) will be displayed.
Through these control procedures, the power supply to the heater lamps can be shut
down before the thermostat is activated. It thereby suppresses damage to the fusing unit
itself.
C. Third approach: thermostat protection
If detection of the abnormally high temperature through approaches 1 and 2 above is not
possible due to a defective thermistor or other reason, the thermostat comes into play to
shut down the power supply to each of the heater lamps.
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20.3.8 Fusing speed control
A. PPM control
To achieve the intended level of fixability of printed images, the printed pages value is
reduced in the multi-print cycle, thereby preventing fixability from being degraded due to
the continuous printing. The following five different types of modes are available for PPM.
*1: Multi-print speed calculation example:
If a multi-print cycle is run using A4-size paper on the bizhub C360, the multi-print speed
at 100% is 35.6 printed pages/min. and that at 90% is 32.04 printed pages/min.
*2: Execution of the control for the high humidity environment mode can be prohibited by
turning ON No. 5 PPM control (high humidity environment mode) prohibited of Engine
FW DIP switch of Enhanced Security of the service mode. (This can prevent the multi-
print speed from decreasing as a result of the execution of the high humidity environ-
ment mode. As a side-effect, paper curl due to high humidity can occur.)
PPM mode
Control execution
conditions
Purpose Specific controls
Multi-print
speed *1
Low tem-
perature
environ-
ment mode
Room temperature at
the start of the print
cycle is 18C or less
To achieve the
intended level of
fixability under low
temperature envi-
ronment
To prevent fixability from being
degraded even when a multi-print
cycle is run, paper-to-paper dis-
tance is widened to reduce the
multi-print speed and prevent the
fusing temperature from decreas-
ing.
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
High
humidity
environ-
ment mode
*2
Environmental
humidity at the start
of the print cycle is a
predetermined value
or more
To suppress
occurrence of
paper curl under
high humidity envi-
ronment
To prevent paper from curling
even when a multi-print cycle is
run under high humidity environ-
ment, paper-to-paper distance is
widened to reduce the multi-print
speed and prevent the fusing
temperature from decreasing.
100%
70%
50%
Paper curl
suppres-
sion mode
Mode 3 is selected
for Change Warm
Up Time of the ser-
vice mode
To suppress
occurrence of
paper curl under
conditions other
than high humidity
environment
To prevent paper from curling
even when a multi-print cycle is
run under any condition other
than high humidity environment,
paper-to-paper distance is wid-
ened to prevent the heating roller
temperature from decreasing.
100%
50%
Roller end
tempera-
ture rise
suppres-
sion mode
Print request is
received for paper
with a paper width of
209 mm or less
Temperature of the
heating roller ends
becomes a predeter-
mined value or more
To suppress inor-
dinate rise in tem-
perature on
heating roller ends
in a print cycle
using paper of a
small size
To prevent the temperature of
heating roller ends from rising
even when a multi-print cycle is
run, paper-to-paper distance is
widened to reduce the multi-print
speed and promote decrease in
the heating roller end tempera-
ture.
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
Reduced
power sup-
ply mode
Only an insufficient
power is supplied to
the fusing heater
lamp, resulting in a
fusing temperature
lower than a prede-
termined value
To achieve the
intended level of
fixability under low
power supply con-
dition
To prevent fixability from being
degraded even when a multi-print
cycle is run, paper-to-paper dis-
tance is widened to reduce the
multi-print speed and prevent the
fusing temperature from decreas-
ing.
70%
50%
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20.3.9 Fusing unit new article detection
The fusing unit is not provided with any new article detection mechanism. If the fusing
unit is replaced with a new one, therefore, New Release of Fusing Unit must be per-
formed in Counter/ Life of the service mode.
A0EDT2E326DA
A0EDT2E330DA
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20.3.10 Fusing unit life detection
The life counter of the fusing unit controls the life of the fusing unit.
The counter value is recorded in the service EEPROM board of the machine.
A. Determination of life by the printed counter
When the printed counter value reaches the threshold value, the machine determines
that the fusing unit has entered a new state.
(1) Fusing unit printed counter life criteria
For more details, see Service Mode, Field Service.
B. Fusing unit life determination timing
The life determination control is performed under any of the following conditions:
Power is turned ON (with the front door or right door closed)
The machine exits the sleep mode
The front door or right door is opened and closed with the power switch in ON position
Controlled item Counting unit
Printed page count Count
A0EDT2C023DA
Outside image
guaranteed range
Life stop display
(life stop threshold value)
Fusing unit
(life end)
Fusing unit
(new article)
Image guaranteed range
Reaching life display
(reaching life threshold value)
Normal display
(less than life threshold)
State Display Criteria
Normal
Normal
(print enabled: within image guaranteed range)
Less than life threshold
Reaching life
Reaching life display
(print enabled: outside image guaranteed range)
Equal to or more than life threshold
and less than life stop threshold
Life stop Life stop display (print prohibited)
Equal to or more than life stop
threshold
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C. Life display
The life reaching screen appears when the count of the printed counter or the fusing
rotation time counter reaches the life threshold (print enabled, outside image guaranteed
range).
The life stop screen appears when the count of the printed pages counter reaches the
life stop threshold (print prohibited).
(1) Life reaching display (typical)
(2) Life stop display (typical)
A0EDT2E327DA
A0EDT2E328DA
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20.3.11 Fusing cooling control
A. Fusing unit cooling
The machine is provided with fusing cooling fan motor/1 and fusing cooling fan motor/2
for cooling the machine interior around the fusing unit and the paper that has been fed
out of the machine.
Outside air is drawn into the inside of the machine through the upper surface of the exit
section and is blown against the paper being transported through the exit section to let it
cool down. It also cools the interior near the fusing section.
Heated air is drawn out of the machine through the paper exit port.
A0EDT2C238DA
Fusing cooling fan motor/2 (FM5)
Fusing cooling fan motor/1 (FM4)
Fusing unit
21. PAPER EXIT/SWITCHBACK SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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21. PAPER EXIT/SWITCHBACK SECTION
21.1 Configuration
A0EDT2C155DA
A0EDT2C154DA
Paper exit/switch back roller
Paper exit/switch back roller
Fusing cooling fan motor
Duplex section
Switchback motor (M4)
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 21. PAPER EXIT/SWITCHBACK SECTION
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21.2 Drive
A0EDT2C506AA
Switchback motor (M4)
Paper exit/switch back roller
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21.3 Operation
21.3.1 Transport control
A. Paper transport path
The paper exit/switchback roller is driven by the switchback motor.
The duplex transport roller/1 is driven by the duplex transport motor.
In single-sided printing, the paper exit/switchback roller rotates forward and the paper
transported from the fusing section is ejected onto the paper exit tray. In the second print
cycle in duplex mode, the paper is ejected in the same manner.
B. Duplex transport
In the first print cycle in duplex mode, the paper transported from the fusing section is
transported to the paper exit direction. When the paper reaches a predetermined posi-
tion, the paper exit/switchback roller rotates backward to convey the paper to the duplex
transport roller/1.
A0EDT2C157DA
Paper exit/switch
back roller
Paper exit/switch back roller/1
Switchback motor (M4)
Paper exit sensor (PS3)
Paper exit section Duplex section
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22. DUPLEX SECTION
22.1 Configuration
A0EDT2C159DA
A0EDT2C158DA
Duplex paper passage sensor (PS40)
Duplex transport roller/1
Duplex transport roller/2
Duplex transport roller/3
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22.2 Drive
A0EDT2C160DA
Switchback motor (M4)
Duplex transport roller/2
Duplex transport roller/3
Duplex transport motor (M5)
Duplex transport roller/1
Paper exit/switchback roller
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22.3 Operation
22.3.1 Paper transport control
The paper exit/switchback roller is driven by the switchback motor.
The duplex transport roller/1,2,3 are driven by the duplex transport motor.
In the first print cycle in duplex mode, the paper transported from the fusing section is
transported to the paper exit direction. When the paper reaches a predetermined posi-
tion, the paper exit/switchback roller rotates backward to convey the paper to the duplex
transport roller/1.
When a predetermined period of time elapses after the switchback motor rotates back-
ward, the duplex transport motor starts rotating and duplex transport roller/1,2,3 turn to
transport the paper into the duplex section.
When a predetermined period of time elapses after the leading edge of the paper passes
the duplex paper passage sensor, the duplex transport motor stops running and the
duplex transport roller/1,2,3 stop rotating.
A0EDT2C161DA
Paper exit/switch
back roller
Duplex transport roller/2
Duplex transport roller/3
Duplex transport roller/1
Duplex paper passage sensor (PS40)
Switchback motor (M4)
Duplex transport motor (M5)
Paper exit sensor (PS3)
Paper exit section Duplex section
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22.3.2 Duplex print control
The following two types of 2-sided printing methods are available.
A. 1 sheet operation
Duplex print control
1 sheet operation
2 sheets operation (FD length 216 mm or less)
2
4066T2C501DA
Operation 1
The first sheet of paper is taken up and fed in from the
main body drawer and the main body starts the first print
cycle to produce the print image of the second page of the
original.
Paper exit/switch back roller
Operation 2
Immediately before the 1-sided print leaves the paper exit/
switch back roller, the direction of rotation of the paper exit
roller is reversed and the 1-sided print is transported
toward and into the duplex unit.
2
4066T2C502DA
Operation 3
While passing through the duplex section, the 1-sided print
stops temporarily and is subject to the second print cycle.
2
4066T2C503DA
Operation 4
The main body carries out the second print cycle to pro-
duce the print image of the first page of the original on the
other side of the 1-sided print.
1 2
4066T2C504DA
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Steps 2 through 5 are repeated.
Operation 5
While feeding the first 2-sided print out of itself, the main
body carries out the first print cycle for the second sheet of
paper to produce the print image of the fourth page of the
original.
1
2
4
4066T2C505DA
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B. 2 sheets operation
2
4066T2C506DA
Operation 1
The first sheet of paper is taken up and fed in from the
main body drawer and the main body starts the first print
cycle to produce the print image of the second page of the
original.
Paper exit/switch back roller
2
4066T2C507DA
Operation 2
Immediately before the first 1-sided print leaves the paper
exit/switch back roller, the direction of rotation of the paper
exit/switch back roller is reversed and the first 1-sided print
is transported toward and into the duplex unit.
At the same time, the second sheet of paper is taken up and
fed into the main body.
4
2
4066T2C508DA
Operation 3
The main body carries out the first print cycle for the second
sheet of paper to produce the print image of the fourth page
of the original.
At the same time, the first 1-sided print is transported
through the duplex unit.
Operation 4
The main body produces the print image of the first page of
the original on the first 1-sided print that has been fed
through the duplex unit.
At the same time, the second sheet of paper is subjected to
a switchback sequence at the exit section and fed into the
duplex unit.
At the same time, the third sheet of paper is taken up and
fed into the main body.
1 2
6
4
4066T2C509DA
Operation 5
While feeding the first 2-sided print out, main body produces
the print image of the 6th page of the original on the third
sheet of paper.
The second sheet of paper will wait in front of the duplex
transport roller 3.
1
4
2
6
4066T2C510DA
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Steps 6 through 8 are repeated.
1
4
2
6
4066T2C511DA
Operation 6
Immediately before the first 1-sided print leaves the paper
exit/switch back roller, the direction of rotation of the paper
exit/switch back roller is reversed and the first 1-sided print
for the third sheet is transported toward and into the duplex
unit.
At the same time, the second sheet of paper is fed into the
main body again.
1
4 2
6
3
4066T2C512DA
Operation 7
The main body carries out the first print cycle for the second
sheet of paper to produce the print image of the third page
of the original.
At the same time, the first 1-sided print for the third is trans-
ported through the duplex unit.
At the same time, the forth sheet of paper is taken up and
fed into the main body.
1
8
2
3
4
6
4066T2C513DA
Operation 8
While feeding the second 2-sided print out, main body pro-
duces the print image of the 8th page of the original on the
fourth sheet of paper.
The third sheet of paper will wait in front of the duplex trans-
port roller 3.
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23. IMAGE STABILIZATION CONTROL
23.1 Overview
The machine provides the following image stabilization control to ensure stabilized copy
image.
* An explanation is given of the control for each section.
Purpose Control Control means
To stabilize image density
To stabilize gradation
IDC registration sensor adjust-
ment control
Max. density adjustment control
LD intensity adjustment control
Registration control (color shift
correction)
Gamma correction control
IDC registration sensor
Temperature/humidity sensor
PH thermister
To stabilize toner density * TCR control (Y,M,C,K) TCR sensor
To stabilize image transfer
* Image transfer output control
2nd image transfer ATVC
Temperature/humidity sensor
A0EDT2E266DA
IN
OUT
Transfer ATVC control
IDC registration sensor
Temperature/
humidity sensor
To be set on control panel
D MAX density
Background voltage margin
ATDC toner supply
OUT/IN
Toner supply control
TCR sensor Developing bias Vdc Grid voltage Vg
Image density
Gradation control
Gamma correction data
Gradation correction table
PC
drum/
K
PC
drum/
C
PC
drum/
M
PC
drum/
Y
Toner supply motor
PH thermister
2nd Image transfer roller
G3/Y G3/M G3/C
Color skew
correction
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23.2 Description of control
23.2.1 IDC registration sensor adjustment control
Controls changes in characteristics due to change with time and contamination of the
transfer belt and IDC registration sensor, part-to-part variations in the sensors, and
change of environment.
The intensity (current value) of the IDC registration sensor is adjusted on the surface of
the transfer belt, on which no toner sticks (background level).
23.2.2 Max. density adjustment control
The developing bias (Vdc) is adjusted to control changes in the solid density resulting
from variations in developing characteristics and IDC registration sensor intensity, varia-
tions in sensitivity of the photo conductor, and changes in the environment, durability,
and the amount of charge in toner.
Patterns are produced on the surface of the transfer belt and the IDC registration sensor
detects the amount of toner sticking to them.
Referring to the detected data and the environment data taken by the temperature/
humidity sensors, the developing bias value that results in the appropriate maximum
density is calculated and stored in memory.
Thereafter, the grid voltage (Vg) value, including the background margin adjustment
value, is calculated and stored in memory.
23.2.3 LD (laser diode) intensity adjustment control
It adjusts the variation in reproducibility of the thin line and the reverse outline, which is
resulting from the variations in electrostatic characteristics of the photo conductor, devel-
oping characteristics and transfer characteristics in terms of individual difference, envi-
ronment and durability, to make it the target level.
It produces detection patterns on the surface of the transfer belt with the given level of LD
intensity and detects the output value of IDC registration sensor.
LD intensity is calculated from the detected IDC registration sensor data.
23.2.4 Gamma correction control
The intensity of LD in all gradation levels is adjusted to correct changes in gradation
characteristics to a linear one. The changes in gradation characteristics are caused by
variations in the photo conductor sensitivity and developing characteristics and changes
with time and in environment.
It produces gradation patterns on the transfer belt and calculates gradation characteris-
tics output by the current engine with the IDC registration sensor.
The gamma correction data is calculated using the density measurements of different
gradation levels. The optimum LD intensity is set for each of the different gradation levels.
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23.3 Operation sequence
*IDC registration sensor detection:
The IDC registration sensor uses the output value calculated in the last IDC registration
sensor adjustment and check that the value measured on the surface of the transfer belt
(background level) is within the specified range. If the measured value is out of the speci-
fied range, mode 1 (long) is used when the next image stabilization is carried out.
* Max. density adjustment control 1: Use default for characteristic tilted value and Vdc
value.
Max. density adjustment control 2: Use previous setting value for characteristic tilted value
and Vdc value.
Max. density adjustment control 3: Use previous setting value for the monochrome Vdc
value.
* LD (laser diode) intensity adjustment control 1: Use default for LD intensity for adjustment
pattern.
LD (laser diode) intensity adjustment control 2: Use previous setting value for LD intensity
for adjustment pattern.
LD (laser diode) intensity adjustment control 3: Use previous setting value for LD intensity
for adjustment pattern (monochrome).
Sequ
ence
Mode 1
(long,
initialized)
Mode 2
(short)
Mode 3
(gamma +
registration)
Mode 4
(registration)
Mode 5
(mono-
chrome, long)
Mode 6
(mono-
chrome, short)
1
IDC registra-
tion sensor
adjustment
IDC registra-
tion sensor
detection
IDC registra-
tion sensor
detection
IDC registra-
tion sensor
detection
IDC registra-
tion sensor
adjustment
IDC registra-
tion sensor
detection
2
Dmax density
adjustment 1
Dmax
density adjust-
ment 2
Simplified reg-
istration
Simplified reg-
istration
Dmax density
adjustment 3
Dmax density
adjustment 3
3
LD light
intensity
adjustment 1
Simplified reg-
istration
Simplified
gamma
correction

LD light
intensity
adjustment 3

4 Registration
Simplified
gamma
correction

Simplified
gamma
correction

5
Dmax density
adjustment 2

6
LD light
intensity
adjustment 2

7
Gamma
correction

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Types of stabilization mode
Stabilization mode Description
Mode 1 (initialized)
Executed when Initialize + Image Stabilization is selected from the
control panel.
Mode 1 (long)
Makes the IDC registration sensor adjustment as invoked by an envi-
ronmental change.
Mode 2 (short) Executed mainly after the main power/sub power switch is turned ON
Mode 3 (gamma + registration)
Executed when the count of the number of printed pages during a
print cycle reaches 400 and there is a change in machine interior
temperature.
Mode 4 (registration) Executed when there is a change in machine interior temperature.
Mode 5 (monochrome, long)
Executed to make an adjustment and IDC adjustment as invoked by
an environmental change for black.
Mode 6 (monochrome, short)
Executed when the count of the number of printed pages during a
black print cycle reaches 1000 and there is a change in machine inte-
rior temperature.
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23.4 Operation timing
A. Predrive operation
The following describe the stabilization operations executed when, for example, the main
power/sub power switch is turned ON, the sleep mode is canceled, the front door is
closed, or a malfunction is reset.
Mode Operation condition * Stabilization mode
Mode 1
(long)
A new drum unit or a new developing unit is detected.
A new transfer belt is detected
The machine recovers from a toner empty condition.
While a warning code is being displayed.
All modes
In the last image stabilization, the value of IDC regis-
tration sensor detection was out of the specified
range.
A change in environment is detected (the threshold
value in changes in absolute humidity
*2
is exceeded
relative to the absolute humidity during the last stabili-
zation sequence).
The count of the number of printed pages is 10,000
as counted from the last LD adjustment.
After skew adjustment reset (service mode).
Standard, Color priority
Mode 2
(short)
A Dmax adjustment request is received as a result of
the last gamma correction.
The count of the number of printed pages after the
gamma adjustment is 400 or more.
Information is provided indicating that the last stabili-
zation control was discontinued.
There is a change in temperature after the lapse of a
predetermined period of time after a developing drive
stop.
Standard, Color priority
The stabilization is executed when the main power/
sub power switch is turned ON even without the oper-
ating condition (when color priority is selected).
Color priority
Mode 4
(registration)
There is a change of a predetermined value or more
in temperature after the registration adjustment (only
when exiting from the sleep mode).
Color priority
Mode 5 (mono-
chrome, long)
In the last image stabilization, the value of IDC regis-
tration sensor detection was out of the specified
range.
A change in environment is detected (the threshold
value in changes in absolute humidity
*2
is exceeded
relative to the absolute humidity during the last stabili-
zation sequence).
The count of the number of printed pages is 10,000
as counted from the last LD adjustment.
A predetermined period of time or more elapses after
a developing drive stop.
Executed only if black
stabilization is required
with Black Priority
selected; no color stabili-
zation is executed.
Mode 6 (mono-
chrome, short)
A Dmax adjustment request is received as a result of
the last gamma correction.
The count of the number of printed pages after the
gamma adjustment is 1000 or more.
Information is provided indicating that the last stabili-
zation control was discontinued.
Executed only if black
stabilization is required
with Black Priority
selected; no color stabili-
zation is executed.
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Absolute humidity: water content contained in the air (1 m
3
) as steam regardless of the
temperature
A change in environment is detected (the threshold value in changes in absolute humid-
ity
*2
is exceeded relative to the absolute humidity during the last stabilization sequence).
* Stabilization mode setting
The following three different modes are provided to select the optimum stabilization con-
trol according to utilization condition of the user. The mode can be selected via the
administrator mode or the service mode.
1. Standard (default setting)
2. Black Priority
3. Color Priorityl
These modes are provided to maintain image quality and achieve the following purposes.
1. To reduce frequency at which the stabilization control is performed in order to
reduce cost per print for users who have a low print volume and low color ratio
2. To shorten time between when the machine is turned ON and when it is ready for
printing
3. To maintain convenience for users having a high color frequency
Mode Control
1.Standard
Color stabilization is executed if image adjustments are necessary for color
print or black print during predrive.
2.Black priority
Black stabilization is executed if image adjustments are necessary for black
print during predrive.
Color stabilization is executed before color print if image adjustments are nec-
essary for color print.
3.Color priority
Color stabilization is executed if image adjustments are necessary for color
print or black print during predrive.
Stabilization is executed unconditionally when the main power/sub power
switch is turned ON. Warm-up time takes about 60 sec. when the main power
switch is turned ON with the sub-power switch ON.
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B. Before, during, and after a print cycle
Mode
Operating conditions
Execution
timing *4
Stabiliza-
tion execu-
tion
condition *1
Dmax
adjustment
request
based on
last gamma
correction
result
Print count
after
gamma cor-
rection
Change of a
predeter-
mined value
or more in
tempera-
ture after
last stabili-
zation *2
The num-
ber of pages
yet to be
printed of
the current
print job
Print count
after last
stabilization
*3
Mode 1 Met - -
Change
50 sheets or
more
- 0
50 sheets or
less
- 2
Not change
-
1000 sheets
or more
0
-
800 sheets
or more
1
-
400 sheets
or more
2
Mode 2
Not met
Yes -
Change
50 sheets or
more
-
0
50 sheets or
less
2
Not change
-
1000 sheets
or more
0
-
800 sheets
or more
1
-
400 sheets
or more
2
Mode 3
No
400 sheets
or more
Change
50 sheets or
more
400 sheets
or more
0
50 sheets or
less
2
Not change
-
1000 sheets
or more
0
-
800 sheets
or more
1
-
400 sheets
or more
2
Mode 4
400 sheets
or less
Change
50 sheets or
more
-
0
50 sheets or
less
2
Mode 5
Met - - - - - 0
Not met Yes - - - - 0
Mode 6 Not met -
1000 sheets
or more
- - - 0
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*1: Stabilization execution condition:
Stabilization is executed when any of the following conditions is met:
In the last image stabilization, the value of IDC registration sensor detection was out of
the specified range.
The last warning code occurs.
A change in environment is detected (the threshold value in changes in absolute humid-
ity is exceeded relative to the absolute humidity during the last stabilization sequence).
The count of the number of printed pages is 10,000 as counted from the last LD adjust-
ment.
*2: Detected by both the PH thermistor and temperature/humidity sensor
*3: Counting method of printed pages
*4: Details of execution timing
C. Service Mode
Image Stabilization within the Service Mode
D. Expert Adjustment
Image Stabilization within the Expert Adjustment
Paper length in the sub scanning direction
Count
Color mode Monochrome mode
216 mm or less 2 1
Over 216 mm 4 2
0 Executed by interrupting the print cycle
1
Before or after a print cycle, when the print mode changes from monochrome to color, or
between each print set
2 Before or after a print cycle, or when the print mode changes from monochrome to color
Service Mode Image Process Adjustment Stabilizer menu
Mode 1 Initialize + Image Stabilization
Mode 2 Stabilization Only
Service Mode Image Process Adjustment Gradation Adjust menu
Mode 2 Stabilizer
Utility Administrator Settings System Settings Expert Adjustment Image Stabilization
Image Stabilization Only menu
Mode 1 Initialize + Image Stabilization
Mode 2 Image Stabilization Only
Utility Counter Administrator Settings System Settings Expert Adjustment
Gradation Adjustment menu
Mode 2 Image Stabilization Only
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E. Stabilization time
C360/C280
C220
States Time
Mode 1 (long, initialized) 32 sec
Mode 2 (short) 16 sec
Mode 3 (gamma + registration) 14 sec
Mode 4 (registration) 10 sec
Mode 5 (monochrome, long) 13 sec
Mode 6 (monochrome, short) 6 sec
States Time
Mode 1 (long, initialized) 45 sec
Mode 2 (short) 20 sec
Mode 3 (gamma + registration) 17 sec
Mode 4 (registration) 12 sec
Mode 5 (monochrome, long) 16 sec
Mode 6 (monochrome, short) 6 sec
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24. IMAGE PROCESSING
24.1 Scanner section image processing block diagram
The following detail the image processing operations performed by the scanner section.
1. A reduction type CCD sensor is used to read the light reflected off the original and
convert the optical data to a corresponding electric signal. To make data process-
ing faster, data transfer and output are done through two channels, one for even-
numbered pixels and the other for odd-numbered pixels.
2. The odd and even analog signals output from the CCD sensor chips are synthe-
sized to form a single string of signal data which is in turn converted to 10-bit digital
signals (1024 gradation levels).
The image data is transmitted to MFP board on the write section through the interface
cable.
1. Photoelectric conversion
2. Analog-to-digital conversion
CCD sensor board
To the MFP board
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24.2 Write section image processing block diagram
From scanner section
6. AE processing
7. Image data editing
8. Image area discrimination
11. Input buffer memory
15. Memory access coordinator
14. JBIG expansion
16. Frame memory
13. File (code) memory
DRAM:2GB (standard)
HDD:250GB (standard)
21. Color conversion
processing
RGB to YMCK
23. Area discrimination FEET
24. Interpolation
To PH unit
19. Resolution conversion
processing in the main
scanning direction/move
ment processing
10. BTC compression
12. JBIG compression
MFP board
2. Line-to-line variation
correction/color
aberration correction
29. Main scanning position
correction
Speed conversion
Modulation
9. Miscellaneous processing
(improved reproduction of
black text, edge emphasis,
smoothing and color balance)
3. Detection of security pattern
1. Shading correction
20. Resolution conversion
processing in the sub
scanning direction
25. Gamma correction
5. ACS control
17. Output buffer memory
18. BTC expansion
28. Delay control for the
interval of photo conductors
27. Screening
26. Error diffusion
(binary)
Gamma correction
Mode other than
photo
4. Free erase
22. Embedment of security
pattern
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The following detail the image processing operations performed by MFP board on the
Write section.
1. Correct variations in reading caused by pixel-to-pixel variations in sensitivity of the
CCD sensor and uneven light distribution by the exposure lamp. A peak-hold-type
shading correction is performed, in which the maximum value of two or more read-
ings of two or more lines is taken to prevent effect due to dust or dirt on the shading
sheet.
2. To correct differences in the position of each chip of CCD sensors R, G, and B,
FIFO memory is adopted to match the output timing. Also correct color aberration
of the lens.
3. The security pattern created during printing on this machine is detected and copy-
ing is enabled or disabled through a password (when the security kit SC-507 is
mounted).
4. If outer document elimination is selected from the control panel, document area
determination processing is performed for each line within the document area data
acquired during prescan. Then, the START and END positions of the document
area in the main scanning direction are detected and the area outside the START
and END positions is erased as the outside-the-document area.
5. The scanning area is divided into multiple blocks. The ratio of color or monochrome
is calculated for each of these blocks. The machine then determines whether the
entire original is colored or monochrome.
6. A histogram of lightness for AE processing is generated. The AE level of the docu-
ment is determined based on this histogram and AE processing is performed.
7. R, G, and B data are then converted to value and color component data for adjust-
ments of saturation, lightness, and hue.
8. Each image area, whether it is a color edge area, black edge area, dot area, or a
continuous gradation area, is discriminated.
9. Other types of processing performed are the improved reproduction of black text,
edge emphasis, smoothing and color balance.
10. Each Image data of R, G, and B is compressed to reduce the consumption of data
capacity.
11. Temporarily storeds The BTC-compressed image data.
12. The stored image data is compressed in the JBIG (Joint bi-level image experts
group) format.
13. Each Image data of R, G, and B in the copy, print, scan, and fax mode is stored. In
PS printing, multi-valued data of Y, M, C, and K is stored.
14. The image data read from the file memory is uncompressed through a method in a
reverse way of JBIG compression. At this time, image rotating or sorting processing
is conducted.
15. JBIG image data are expanded in the frame memory.
16. Each Image data of R, G, and B is stored in frame memory.
17. Temporarily stores the image data output from the frame memory.
18. The image data is expanded through a method opposite to that used in the BTC
compression.
19. FIFO memory is used to enlarge or reduce images in the main scanning direction.
The image is enlarged by increasing the number of data readings and reduced by
decreasing the number of data readings.
20. Reduction processing is conducted in sub scanning direction. No processing is
done at same size or zoom, but at reduction, the lines are thinned out.
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21. When copying in a photo mode or making PC print, the R, G, and B data is con-
verted to the Y, M, C, and K density data. Also, the masking processing, which
compensates for the deviation in the spectral reflection characteristics of the toner,
and UCR/BP processing are performed on the image data.
For PS printing, multi-valued data of Y, M, C, and K are stored and there is no need
of converting or processing those data.
22. The security pattern is embedded in the image data. Either enabling copying
through a password or unconditionally prohibiting copying can be selected from the
control panel for the security pattern to be embedded (when the security kit SC-507
is mounted).
23. Edge of letter and lineal drawing gets area discrimination and FEET processing is
conducted according to the discrimination result.
24. When FEET processing is conducted, interpolation is done so that no influence is
given to continuous gradation portion.
25. Makes the necessary corrections so that the printed gradations have linear charac-
teristics, since the image density of the input image data is not directly proportional
to that of the printed image because of the changing developing and photo conduc-
tor characteristics.
26. In photo mode during copying and PC print, the image is processed as multi-valued
data (8-bit data). In any mode other than photo, the error diffusion method is
employed to process the image as binary (1-bit) data.
27. Creates the density distribution of a predetermined pattern to enable outstanding
gradation reproduction.
28. Image data of the file memory is developed to the frame memory and output delay
control for the interval of photo conductors, Y, M, C, K is conducted.
29. Correct the shear in printing start position in the main scanning direction, which
occurs when each PH unit of Y, M, C, K is exposed on the photo conductor. Adjust
the processing speed in the board (main scanning) to conform to the input process-
ing speed. The laser is emitted according to the laser intensity information.
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25. POWER SUPPLY SECTION
25.1 Parts energized when the main power switch is turned ON
25.1.1 Configuration
25.1.2 Operation
When the main power switch is turned ON, power is supplied from the DC power supply
unit to the following components.
A0EDT2C145DA
Main power switch
Voltage Power supplied to
12V Fax board, control panel
5V
MFP board, HDD, Fax board, Printer control board, Scanner relay board,
Control panel, USB board
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25.2 Parts energized when the sub power switch is turned ON
25.2.1 Configuration
25.2.2 Operation
When the sub power switch is turned ON, MFP board detects it and sends a control sig-
nal to the DC power supply through the printer control board.
The DC power supply then supplies 3.3 VDC, 5VDC, 12VDC, and 24VDC to all PWBs
and options. It also turns ON the relays in the PWBs and power can be supplied to the
heater lamp.
NOTE
To turn OFF and ON the main power switch, first turn OFF the main power switch
and wait for 10 sec. or more before turning it ON again. If a setting value or values
in the tech. rep. mode are changed, it takes 10 sec. or more to incorporate the set-
ting changes properly in the machine.
A0EDT2C146DA
Sub power switch
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25.3 Power cables
25.3.1 Configuration
25.3.2 Operation
The main body uses a single outlet.
A0EDT2E286DA
Power supply:
100V 15A
110V 15A
120V 12A
127V 12A
230V 8A
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26. FAN CONTROL
26.1 Configuration
A0EDT2C148DA
Fusing cooling fan motor/1 (FM4)
Power supply cooling fan motor (FM1)
Cooling fan motor/3 (FM2)
Exhaust fan motor (FM3)
MFP board cooling
fan motor (FM7)
CPU cooling fan
motor
(built into MFP
board)
Intake air
Discharge air
Fusing cooling fan motor/2 (FM5)
Transfer belt cleaner cooling
fan motor (FM6)
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26.2 Operation
A. Function
Motor name Control conditions
Power supply cooling fan
motor (FM1)
Draws outside air into the inside of the machine to prevent the tempera-
ture of the DC power supply, PH section, and other parts from rising.
Cooling fan motor/3 (FM2)
Draws outside air into the inside of the machine to prevent the tempera-
ture of the toner cartridge from rising.
Exhaust fan motor (FM3)
A white belt may occur on the image because of the lower sensitivity of
the PC drum due to ozone accumulated around the PC drum charge
corona. In order to avoid this trouble, ozone filter removes the ozone
inside the PC drum charge corona to keep the sensitivity of the PC drum.
Ozone accumulated around PC drum charge corona will be absorbed by
ozone filter and be removed.
Fusing cooling fan motor/
1 (FM4)
When the paper with toner heated at fusing part exit while still at high
temperature, toner may be transferred to other paper on the exit tray.
In order to avoid this, air is applied to cool the toner and paper.
Fusing cooling fan motor/
2 (FM5)
When the paper with toner heated at fusing part exit while still at high
temperature, toner may be transferred to other paper on the exit tray.
In order to avoid this, air is applied to cool the toner and paper.
Transfer belt cleaner cool-
ing fan motor (FM6)
Draws air from the drum unit and developing unit area to prevent the tem-
perature of the process section and image transfer cleaner section from
rising.
MFP board cooling fan
motor (FM7)
Blows outside air against the MFP board to prevent the temperature of
the board from rising.
CPU cooling fan motor
(built into MFP board)
Blows outside air against the CPU to cool it down, thereby preventing the
temperature of the CPU from rising.
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B. Fan control
Motor name Control Control conditions (outline)
Power supply cooling
fan motor (FM1)
STOP
At paper-jam, in trouble, or when the door is open
When updating the firmware
In standby *2
In low-power or sleep
Full speed
At warm-up, At fusing rollers preparatory rotation
When printing
At initial operation, image stabilization, function *1
Cooling fan motor/3
(FM2)
STOP
When the door is open
In sleep
When updating the firmware
30% air flow
relative to
that of full
speed
At paper-jam, in trouble
At warm-up
At fusing rollers preparatory rotation
In low-power
40% air flow
relative to
that of full
speed
In standby
Full speed
When printing
At initial operation, image stabilization, function *1
Exhaust fan motor
(FM3)
STOP
At paper-jam, in trouble, or when the door is open
When updating the firmware
In standby, low-power or sleep
At fusing rollers preparatory rotation
At warm-up
Half speed
Full speed
When printing
At initial operation, image stabilization, function *1
Fusing cooling fan
motor/1 (FM4)
STOP
When the door is open
In sleep
When updating the firmware
30% air flow
relative to
that of full
speed
At paper-jam, in trouble
In standby
At warm-up, At fusing rollers preparatory rotation
At initial operation, image stabilization, function *1
In low-power
PWM
control
During the print cycle, the fan motor is subject to PWM (pulse
width modulation) control under the following conditions to
achieve the optimum air flow.
1. Whether a finishing option is mounted or not
2. Paper size
3. Paper type
4. Print mode (color, black)
5. Paper passage mode (1-sided, 2-sided)
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*1: Some operations selected in the service mode (Paper path check etc.)
*2: If the machine enters the standby state, the fan motor turns at full speed for 30 sec.
before stopping.
Fusing cooling fan
motor/2 (FM5)
STOP
When the door is open
In sleep
When updating the firmware
30% air flow
relative to
that of full
speed
At paper-jam, in trouble
In standby
At warm-up, At fusing rollers preparatory rotation
At initial operation, image stabilization, function *1
In low-power
PWM
control
During the print cycle, the fan motor is subject to PWM (pulse
width modulation) control under the following conditions to
achieve the optimum air flow.
1. Whether a finishing option is mounted or not
2. Paper size
3. Paper type
4. Print mode (color, black)
5. Paper passage mode (1-sided, 2-sided)
Transfer belt cleaner
cooling fan motor (FM6)
STOP
When the door is open
At paper-jam, in trouble
In standby
At warm-up, At fusing rollers preparatory rotation
In low-power or sleep
When updating the firmware
Half speed
Full speed
When printing
At initial operation, image stabilization, function *1
MFP board cooling fan
motor (FM7)
STOP
When sub power switch is turned OFF
In sleep
In low-power
At paper-jam, in trouble, or when the door is open
When updating the firmware
Low speed In standby
Full speed
When printing
At initial operation, image stabilization, function *1
CPU cooling fan motor
(built into MFP board)
STOP
ON/OFF control is performed using the temperature sensor
inside the CPU.
When the CPU internal temperature is less than 75 C
Full speed When the CPU internal temperature is 75 C or higher
27. COUNTER CONTROL Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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27. COUNTER CONTROL
27.1 Configuration
27.2 Operation
NOTE
The counting modes can be selected at [billing setting] of service mode.
For details, see [Field service/adjustment/setting/billing setting].
A0P0T2C612AA
Total counter
Electronic counter
Key counter (option)
Printer control board
(PRCB)
MFP board (MFPB)
Name Function/system
Total counter
Displays the cumulative number of copies and prints of all jobs.
A mechanical counter driven by an electric signal
Counts one when an exit signal is applied to it
Electronic counter
Number of total in copy/print/fax/scan mode will be displayed on the
screen as described below.
Black, full color, mono color, and 2 color
Total counter, large size counter, color total (copy + printer), scan
counter, fax TX counter, fax RX counter, No. of originals counter, No.
of prints counter, total duplex counter
Counts one when an exit signal is applied to it
Key counter (option)
When charging prints by using the key counter, copies cannot be
made with out the key counter. However PC prints and fax TX/RX
service are available without the key counter.
Displays the cumulative number of copies while the key counter is
being mounted.
A mechanical counter driven by an electric signal
Counts one when a paper take-up start signal or image forming start
signal, whichever occurs earlier, is applied to it
SERVICE MANUAL
2009.07
Ver. 1.0
THEORY OF OPERATION
Revision history
After publication of this service manual, the parts and mechanism may be subject to change for
improvement of their performance.
Therefore, the descriptions given in this service manual may not coincide with the actual machine.
When any change has been made to the descriptions in the service manual, a revised version will be
issued with a revision mark added as required.
Revision mark:
To indicate clearly a section revised, is shown at the left margin of the revised section.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
To indicate clearly a page that contains the revision, is shown near the page number of the
corresponding page.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
NOTE
Revision marks shown in a page are restricted only to the latest ones with the old ones deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 3.0 only are shown with those for Ver. 2.0 deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has not been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 2.0 are left as they are.
1
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Date Service manual Ver. Revision mark Descriptions of revision
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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CONTENTS
DF-617
OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................ 1
2. SECTION CONFIGURATION.................................................................................. 5
3. PAPER PATH........................................................................................................... 5
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
4. CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................. 7
5. DRIVE ..................................................................................................................... 8
6. OPERATION ........................................................................................................... 9
6.1 Paper feed section................................................................................................ 9
6.1.1 Document feed tray ascent/descent mechanism.......................................... 9
6.1.2 Feeding the original..................................................................................... 10
6.1.3 Document set detection .............................................................................. 10
6.1.4 Original size detection................................................................................. 11
6.2 Transport section ................................................................................................ 12
6.2.1 Transport mechanism.................................................................................. 12
6.2.2 Reading roller pressure/retraction control ................................................... 12
6.2.3 DF original glass contamination prevention control .................................... 13
6.3 Reverse/paper exit section ................................................................................. 15
6.3.1 Transporting mechanism for original ........................................................... 15
6.3.2 Switching mechanism for reverse/paper exit............................................... 15
6.3.3 Reverse roller pressure/retraction control ................................................... 17
6.4 Paper path .......................................................................................................... 18
6.4.1 1-sided mode .............................................................................................. 18
6.4.2 2-sided mode .............................................................................................. 19
6.4.3 Mixed original/AMS mode (2-sided) ............................................................ 20
6.5 Open/close detecting section.............................................................................. 22
6.5.1 DF angle open/close detection ................................................................... 22
6.5.2 DF open/close detection ............................................................................. 22
6.6 Cooling inside the unit ........................................................................................ 23
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
A. Type
B. Functions
C. Paper type
*1: For the mixed original detection mode, refer to the mixed original feed chart.
Name Reverse automatic document feeder
Type
Paper feed section Paper feed from top of stack
Image reading section Sheet-through system
Reverse section Switchback system
Exit section Straight exit system
Installation Screw cramp to the main body
Document alignment Center
Document loading Face up
Modes Standard mode / Mixed original detection mode / FAX mode
Type of document
Standard mode
1-sided mode
35 to 210 g/m
2
(9.25 to 55.75 lb)
2-sided mode
50 to 128 g/m
2
(13.25 to 34 lb)
Mixed original detection mode
1-sided / 2-sided mode
50 to 128 g/m
2
(13.25 to 34 lb)
FAX mode
1-sided mode
35 to 210 g/m
2
(9.25 to 55.75 lb)
2-Sided Mode
50 to 128 g/m
2
(13.25 to 34 lb)
Detectable document
size*1
Standard mode/FAX mode
Metric area: B6S to A3
Inch area: 5
1
/
2
x 8
1
/
2
to 11 x 17
Capacity 100 sheets (80 g/m
2
) or stack of 14 mm and below
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D. Paper feed prohibited originals
If fed, trouble occurrence will be highly possible.
E. Paper feed not guaranteed originals
If fed, paper feed will be possible to some extent but trouble occurrence will be possible.
Type of original Possible trouble
Sheets stapled or clipped together
Paper feed failure, damaged sheet, defective drive
mechanism due to jammed staples or clips
Sheets glued together Paper feed failure, damaged sheet
Book original Paper feed failure, damaged sheet
Original weighing less than 35 g/m
2
(9.25 lb) or
210 g/m
2
(55.75 lb) or more
Paper feed failure, transport failure
Sheets folded, torn or wrinkled
Paper feed failure, damaged sheet,
transport failure
Sheets severely curled
Sheets misfed due to being dog-eared or fed in
askew
OHP film (Transparency film) Paper feed failure, transport failure
Label paper Paper feed failure, transport failure
Offset master paper Paper feed failure, transport failure
Glossy photographic paper or glossy enamel
paper
Transport failure, damaged sheet
Sheets clipped or notched Damaged sheet, transport failure
Sheets patched Patched part folded or torn sheet
Type of Original Possible Trouble
Sheets lightly curled (Curled amount: 10 to 15 mm) Dog-eared, exit failure, transport failure
Heat sensitive paper Edge folded, exit failure, transport failure
Ink jet paper Paper feed failure, transport failure
Sheets with smooth surface (Coated paper) Paper feed failure, transport failure
Intermediate paper Paper feed failure, transport failure
Paper immediately after paper exit from the main unit Paper feed failure, transport failure
Paper with many punched holes (e.g., loose leaf) limited
to vertical feeding
Multi-page feed due to flashes from holes
Sheets with 2 to 4 holes Transport failure
Sheets two-folded or Z-folded Transport failure, image deformation
Sheets with rough surface (e.g., letterhead) Paper feed failure
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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F. Mixed original feed chart
For metric
For inch
Max. original
size
297 mm 257 mm 210 mm 182 mm 148 mm 128 mm
Mixed original size A3 A4 B4 B5 A4S A5 B5S A5S B6S
297 mm
A3 OK OK - - - - - - -
A4 OK OK - - - - - - -
257 mm
B4 OK OK OK OK - - - - -
B5 OK OK OK OK - - - - -
210 mm
A4S OK OK OK OK OK OK - - -
A5 NG NG OK OK OK OK - - -
182 mm B5S NG NG OK OK OK OK OK - -
148 mm A5S NG NG NG NG NG NG OK OK -
128 mm B6S NG NG NG NG NG NG NG OK OK
Max. original size 11 8
1
/
2
5
1
/
2
Mixed original size 11 x 17 8
1
/
2
x 11 8
1
/
2
x 14 8
1
/
2
x 11S 5
1
/
2
x 8
1
/
2
5
1
/
2
x 8
1
/
2
S
11
11 x 17 OK OK - - - -
8
1
/
2
x 11 OK OK - - - -
8
1
/
2
8
1
/
2
x 14 OK OK OK OK OK -
8
1
/
2
x 11S OK OK OK OK OK -
5
1
/
2
x 8
1
/
2
NG NG OK OK OK -
5
1
/
2
5
1
/
2
x 8
1
/
2
S NG NG NG NG NG OK
OK Mixed original feed available (Tilted with in 1.5% or less)
NG No. mixed original feed
- Can not set original
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G. Machine specifications
H. Operating environment
Conforms to the operating environment of the main body.
NOTE
These specifications are subject to change without notice.
Power requirements
DC 24 V (supplied from the main unit)
DC 5 V
Max. power
consumption
60 W or less
Dimensions
600 mm (W) x 575 mm (D) x 130 mm (H)
23.62 inch (W) x 22.64 inch (D) x 5.12 inch (H)
Weight Approx. 16.7 kg (36.82 lb)
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 2. SECTION CONFIGURATION
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2. SECTION CONFIGURATION
3. PAPER PATH
A0HUT1C001DA
Paper feed section
Paper exit reverse section Reverse section
Transport section
Paper exit section
A0HUT1C002DA
Feed tray Exit tray
Document read position
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CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
4. CONFIGURATION
A0HUT2C002DA
A0HUT2C001DA
Transportation cover Document feed tray
Reverse cover Document guide Original read section Magnet
Separation roller
Feed roller
Registration roller
Reading roller 1 Exit roller
Reverse registration roller
Reverse roller
Exit reverse roller
Reading roller 2
Pick-up roller
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5. DRIVE
A0HUT2C003DA
Take-up motor (M8)
Reading motor (M1)
Exit motor (M3)
Registration motor (M2)
Lift-up motor (M7)
Reverse roller
pressure/retraction
motor (M5)
Reading roller pressure/
retraction motor (M4)
Glass cleaning
motor (M9)
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6. OPERATION
6.1 Paper feed section
6.1.1 Document feed tray ascent/descent mechanism
The document feed tray will move up to feed the original.
Ascent/descent of the document feed tray will be performed by the lift-up motor.
A. Document feed tray ascent
The document feed tray will stay in the stand-by position when in stand-by status.
Setting the original and pressing the start key will move the document feed tray up.
The lift-up motor will rotate the drive cam through the gear. The lift up lever will move
above the cam, and the document feed tray will move up.
The document feed tray will stop moving up when the lift up upper sensor is transmitted.
B. Document feed tray descent
When all the originals are fed and the empty sensor is interrupted, the lift-up motor will
reverse.
The lift-up motor will rotate the drive cam through the gear. The lift up lever will move
above the cam, and the document feed tray will move down.
The document feed tray will stop moving down when the lift up lower sensor is inter-
rupted.
9J07T2C202c0
Lift up lever
Lift-up motor (M7)
Lift up lower
sensor (PS15)
Empty sensor (PS14)
Lift up upper
sensor (PS16)
Descent position
Ascent position
Drive cam
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6.1.2 Feeding the original
The paper feed section consists of the pick-up roller, feed roller as well as the separation
roller, and is directly driven by the take-up motor.
Pressing the start key will transport the original to the registration roller by the pick-up
roller and the feed roller.
6.1.3 Document set detection
To prevent a document set mistake, the original set sensor detects a document loaded in
the document feed tray.
A0HUT2C004DA
Take-up motor (M8)
Separation roller
Feed roller
Pick-up roller
A0HTT6C001DA
Document feed tray
Original set
sensor (PS20)
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6.1.4 Original size detection
A. Detecting the width of the original 1
The width of the original will be detected by the restriction plate positional volume under
the document feed tray.
Reference for setting the original on the document feed tray is its center.
B. Detecting the width of the original 2
Three consolidation sensors are mounted to where the paper passes immediately after it
is fed. It is for detecting the width of the original for mixed original/AMS.
C. Detecting the length of the original 1
The length of the original will be detected by the length sensor/1/2/3.
Length sensor/1 and /3 are mounted in this order with the length sensor/2 being closest
to the feed roller.
D. Detecting the length of the original 2
Length of the mixed original/AMS will be calculated by the time before read sensor is
interrupted.
A0HTT6C002DA
Length sensor/1
(PS10)
Length sensor/3
(PS12)
Length sensor/2
(PS11)
Before read
sensor (PS9)
Consolidation
sensor/1 (PS19)
Consolidation
sensor/2 (PS18)
Consolidation
sensor/3 (PS17)
Restriction plate positional
volume (VR1)
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6.2 Transport section
6.2.1 Transport mechanism
The original transported from the paper feed section will be transported to the paper exit
section or reverse section by the registration roller, the reading roller 1 and 2, and the
reverse roller.
The registration roller and the reverse roller are driven by the registration motor.
Reading roller 1 and 2 are driven by the reading motor.
6.2.2 Reading roller pressure/retraction control
Document speed fluctuates as the trailing edge of the document moves past reading
roller 1. To inhibit these speed fluctuations, the reading roller pressure/retraction motor is
employed to retract reading roller 1.
A07HT2C003DB
Reading motor (M1)
Registration
sensor (PS3)
Reading roller 1
Reading roller 2
Reverse roller Registration motor (M2)
Registration roller
A0HUT2C005DA
Reading roller 1
Lever
Reading roller pressure/
retraction motor (M4)
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6.2.3 DF original glass contamination prevention control
A. DF original glass cleaning
A reading line can occur if the DF original glass is contaminated with dust or dirt. The DF
original glass cleaning mechanism prevents this fault from occurring.
The cleaning brush rotates to remove dust sticking to the DF original glass.
The cleaning brush is rotated by the glass cleaning motor.
The glass cleaning sensor detects the cleaning brush at its home position.
A0HUT2C007DA
A0HUT2C006DA
Glass cleaning motor (M9)
Glass cleaning sensor (PS21)
Cleaning brush
DF original glass
Image reading position
Home position During cleaning
Cleaning brush
Rotates forward during cleaning: counterclockwise
Rotates backward when straightening the brush: clockwise
Image reading position
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B. Details of DF original glass cleaning
NOTE
No cleaning operation is performed if the following setting is made in the service
mode: [System 2] [Split Line Detect. Setting] [Feed Cleaning Settings] [0].
Condition Cleaning operation
Predrive
Sub power switch ON
Rotates the cleaning brush one complete turn to check for its
correct operation.
Existing from sleep
Start key ON
Before starting reading
Rotates the cleaning brush one complete turn to perform
cleaning.
During reading
Rotates the cleaning brush one complete turn to perform
cleaning for every two originals during continuous reading of
originals.
Rotates the cleaning brush three complete turns to perform
cleaning for each original during continuous reading of origi-
nals, if the despeckle mode is selected.
After completing read-
ing last original
The cleaning brush tends to curl if repeatedly operated in one
direction only, resulting in poor cleaning performance. To
straighten the brush, it is rotated one complete turn in the
backward direction when reading of the last original is com-
pleted.
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6.3 Reverse/paper exit section
6.3.1 Transporting mechanism for original
The original transported from the transport section will reverse or exit by the exit roller,
the reverse roller, and the exit reverse roller.
The exit roller and the exit reverse roller are driven by the exit motor.
The reverse roller is driven by the registration motor.
6.3.2 Switching mechanism for reverse/paper exit
A. Reverse section
Pathway of the original will be switched and the original will be reversed by the reverse
lever.
Reverse lever is switched by ON/OFF of the reverse path switching solenoid.
A0HTT6C004DA
Exit motor (M3)
Registration motor (M2)
Reverse roller
Exit reverse roller
Exit roller
When in 1-sided mode:
Reverse path switching solenoid will be OFF
9J07T2C013DA
9J07T2C012DA
When in 2-sided/
mixed original/AMS (1-sided, 2-sided) mode:
Reverse path switching solenoid will be ON
Reverse path switching solenoid (SD1)
Exit roller
Reverse roller
Reverse lever
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B. Paper exit section
The exit lever will switch the pathway of the original to exit.
The exit lever will be switched by ON/OFF of the exit reverse path switching solenoid.
9J07T2C014DA
When in 1-sided mode: Exit reverse path switching solenoid will be OFF
When in 2-sided/mixed original/AMS (1-sided, 2-sided) mode: Exit reverse path switching solenoid
will be ON
Exit reverse path switching
solenoid (SD2)
Exit lever
Exit reverse roller
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6.3.3 Reverse roller pressure/retraction control
To enhance productivity in document scanning, control is performed at the reverse sec-
tion by narrowing the gap between two originals so that they pass each other properly at
the reverse roller. The reverse roller pressure/retraction motor provides the drive for the
pressure/retraction operations of the reverse roller.
This control is performed during the mixed original AMS mode only.
A0HUT2C008DA
Reverse roller
Reverse roller
pressure/retraction
motor (M5)
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6.4 Paper path
6.4.1 1-sided mode
1. Pressing the start key will lift up the feed tray and press the reading roller 1.
2. After the feed tray is lifted up, the take-up motor is started and the pick-up roller and
the feed roller will start rotating to start feeding the first sheet of paper.
3. When the paper reaches the registration roller, a loop is formed in the paper. Then,
the registration motor is started, so that the registration roller transports the paper.
4. The take-up motor is deenergized when a predetermined period of time elapses
after the registration motor has been activated. The reading motor and the exit
motor will start running.
5. It starts reading from the front edge of the original when the before read sensor
turned ON and the specified period of time has passed.
6. Reading roller 1 will be retracted right before the back edge of the original passes
through the reading roller 1. The retracted reading roller 1 will be pressed again to
prepare for the next original.
7. The original will be exit by the reading roller 2 and the exit roller.
8. All motors will turn OFF after the back edge of the original turns OFF the exit sen-
sor and the specified period of time is passed.
A0HUT1C002DA
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6.4.2 2-sided mode
1. The first side of the original will be read.
2. The original will be transported to the reverse section. (Reverse path switching
solenoid will be ON)
3. In order to read the second side of the original which is transported to the reverse
section, the reverse roller will reverse by the reverse operation of the registration
motor, and transport the original to the reverse registration roller.
4. The reverse registration sensor will turn ON and the reverse registration roller will
rotate by the exit motor to transport the original to the original read section.
5. It starts reading from the front edge of the original when the before read sensor
turned ON and the specified period of time has passed.
6. The original will be transported to the paper exit reverse section after it is read.
(Exit reverse path switching solenoid will be ON)
Exit reverse roller will reverse by the exit motors reverse operation.
A0HUT2C009DA
A0HUT2C010DA
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7. In order to keep the proper order of the original, exit reverse roller will rotate for-
ward by the exit motors forward operation. The original will be turned over and be
discharged.
6.4.3 Mixed original/AMS mode (2-sided)
Paper path control will be the same as the 2-sided mode.
1. The original will be fed to detect the paper length. (It will not read the original)
The length of the original will be judged by the before read sensor ON time, and the
width of the original will be judged by the consolidation sensor/1, /2, and /3.
2. The original will be fed without the 2nd side being read.
A0HUT2C011DA
A0HUT2C009DA
A0HUT2C012DA
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3. After reading the first side, the original will be transported again to the reverse part
to read the second side.
4. The original will be transported to the paper exit reverse section after second side
is read. (Exit reverse path switching solenoid will be ON)
Exit reverse roller will reverse by the exit motors reverse operation.
5. In order to keep the proper order of the original, exit reverse roller will rotate for-
ward by the exit motors forward operation. The original will be turned over and be
discharged.
A0HUT2C012DA
A0HUT2C010DA
A0HUT2C011DA
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6.5 Open/close detecting section
6.5.1 DF angle open/close detection
The lever actuator is provided to detect the original size when using the auto document
feeder as the original cover.
When lowering the reverse automatic document feeder to 15 degree angle or lower, the
angle detection lever for the original cover on the copier will be pressed to turn ON the
angle sensor.
6.5.2 DF open/close detection
The magnet is installed to detect the open/close of the reverse automatic document
feeder on the copier side.
The original cover sensor on the copier will turn ON by the magnet when lowering DF.
A0HUT2C013DA
Original cover sensor (RS201)
Magnet Lever actuator
Angle sensor (PS202)
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6.6 Cooling inside the unit
The air will be blown inside the unit by the cooling fan in order to avoid the temperature
increase of the driving motor and the board.
A01HT2C004AA
Cooling
fan (FM1)
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SERVICE MANUAL
2009.07
Ver. 1.0
THEORY OF OPERATION
Revision history
After publication of this service manual, the parts and mechanism may be subject to change for
improvement of their performance.
Therefore, the descriptions given in this service manual may not coincide with the actual machine.
When any change has been made to the descriptions in the service manual, a revised version will be
issued with a revision mark added as required.
Revision mark:
To indicate clearly a section revised, is shown at the left margin of the revised section.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
To indicate clearly a page that contains the revision, is shown near the page number of the
corresponding page.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
NOTE
Revision marks shown in a page are restricted only to the latest ones with the old ones deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 3.0 only are shown with those for Ver. 2.0 deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has not been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 2.0 are left as they are.
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2009/07 1.0 Issue of the first edition
Date Service manual Ver. Revision mark Descriptions of revision
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
i
CONTENTS
PC-107/PC-207
OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................ 1
2. PAPER FEED PATH................................................................................................ 2
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
3. CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................. 3
4. DRIVE ..................................................................................................................... 4
5. OPERATIONS......................................................................................................... 5
5.1 Paper feed section................................................................................................ 5
5.1.1 Vertical transport drive mechanism............................................................... 5
5.1.2 Paper lifting motion ....................................................................................... 6
5.2 Cassette section................................................................................................... 7
5.2.1 Paper size detection...................................................................................... 7
5.2.2 Remaining paper display............................................................................... 8
5.2.3 Dehumidification heater control .................................................................... 9
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
A. Type
B. Paper
*1: Image is not guaranteed when thick paper 3 is used.
C. Machine specifications
D. Operating environment
Conforms to the operating environment of the main body.
NOTE
These specifications are subject to change without notice.
Name 1 way paper feed cabinet / 2 way paper feed cabinet
Type Front loading type 1 way paper feed device / 2 way paper feed device
Installation Desk type
Document alignment Center
Type Size
Capacity
Tray 3 Tray 4
Plain paper
(60 to 90 g/m
2
, 16 to 24 lb)
A5S (Metric area only),
B5, B5S, A4, A4S, B4, A3,
5-
1
/
2
x 8-
1
/
2
S (Inch area only),
8-
1
/
2
x 11, 8-
1
/
2
x 11S,
8-
1
/
2
x 14, 11 x 17
8K, 16K
500 sheets 500 sheets
Thick paper 1
(91 to 150 g/m
2,

24.25 to 40 lb)
150 sheets 150 sheets
Thick paper 2
(151 to 209 g/m
2
,
40 to 55.5 lb)
Thick paper 3 *1
(210 to 256 g/m
2
,
55.75 to 68 lb)
Copy paper dimensions
Width
139.7 to 297 mm
5.5 to 11.7 inch
Length
182 to 431.8 mm
7.2 to 17 inch
Power requirements
DC 24 V 10% (supplied from the main body)
DC 5 V 5%
Max. power consumption 15 W or less
Dimensions
600 mm (W) x 705 mm (D) x 302 mm (H)
23.7 inch (W) x 27.8 inch (D) x 11.9 inch (H)
Weight
PC-107: 28.5 kg (62.9 lb)
PC-207: 30.5 kg (67.3 lb)
2. PAPER FEED PATH Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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2. PAPER FEED PATH
A093T2C510AA
Transportation in PC
Transportation to main body
Paper feed from the 3rd tray
PC-107/PC-207
Main body
Paper feed from the 4th tray
Only PC-207
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 3. CONFIGURATION
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CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
3. CONFIGURATION
A093T2C509AA
Paper feed section
Cassette section
PC-107/PC-207
Only PC-207
4. DRIVE Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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4. DRIVE
A0XWT2C503DA
A0XWT2C502DA
<PC-107>
<PC-207>
Tray3 vertical transport motor (M120)
Tray3 paper feed motor (M122)
Tray4 paper feed motor (M123)
Tray3 vertical transport motor (M120)
Tray3 paper feed motor (M122)
Tray4 vertical transport motor (M121)
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 5. OPERATIONS
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5. OPERATIONS
5.1 Paper feed section
5.1.1 Vertical transport drive mechanism
The paper feed motor drives the pick-up roller and paper feed roller to take up and feed a
sheet of paper into the main body.
Then, the transport roller motor transports the paper through the vertical transport sec-
tion.
The pick-up roller takes up sheets of paper and the paper feed and separation rollers
ensure that only one sheet of paper is separated and fed into the main body.
When the drawer is slid in, the lever is pushed to lower the pick-up roller.
The upper limit sensor then detects the upper limit position when the paper lifting plate is
raised.
The empty sensor detects when paper in the drawer runs out.
The polyethylene sheet and height difference of guide plate are reduces resistance between
a curled sheet of paper and guide, thereby preventing skewed feeding.
A093T2C501AA
A093T2C502AA
Feed roller
Pick-up roller
Upper limit sensor
(PS114, PS123)
Polyethylene sheet
Empty sensor
(PS115, PS124)
Separation roller
Lever
Pick-up roller home position Pick-up roller feed position
Actuator
Polyethylene
sheet
Height difference of
guide pate
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5.1.2 Paper lifting motion
When the drawer is slid into the main body and the device detection sensor is activated,
the lift-up motor starts rotating to raise the paper lifting plate.
The paper stack of the drawer pushes up the pick-up roller. when the upper limit position
is detected through the action of the actuator, it stops raising the paper lifting plate.
As paper is consumed during the print cycle and the pick-up roller is lowered, the lift-up
motor is energized until the upper limit sensor is blocked again.
A. When the drawer is slid in
1. The paper lifting plate goes up and the top surface of the paper stack pushes up
the roller.
2. The lifting motion stops as soon as the sensor detects the upper limit position.
B. During a print cycle
1. As the paper is consumed, the sensor is unblocked.
2. The paper lifting plate goes up.
A093T2C503AA
Upper limit sensor (PS114, PS123) Pick-up roller
Paper lifting plate
Lift-up arm
A093T2C504AA
Upper limit sensor (PS114, PS123)
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5.2 Cassette section
5.2.1 Paper size detection
When the trailing edge stop of the drawer is moved, the circular plate located on the bot-
tom of the drawer turns, allowing the four FD paper size sensors on the paper size board.
moving the edge guide activates or deactivates the two CD paper size sensors through
the cutout in the lever.
The combination of the four FD paper size sensors and two cd paper size sensors that
are either activated or deactivated determines the size of the paper loaded in the drawer.
The tray device detection sensor detects that the drawer is slid into position as it is slid in.
A093T2C505AA
A093T2C506AA
Length detection
Width Detection
Device detection sensor (PS-122, PS-121)
Lift-up motor
(M124, M125)
CD paper size sensor/2
(PS119, PS128)
Circular plate
FD paper size sensors
CD paper size sensor/1
(PS118, PS127)
Paper size detect board (PSDTB/1, PSDTB/2)
5. OPERATIONS Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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5.2.2 Remaining paper display
The control panel displays a near-empty or empty message when the corresponding
condition occurs.
The estimate amount of paper for near empty is around 50.
Tray status Empty Near empty
Other status
(During lifting-up and with tray not being
set included)
LED status ON Blink OFF
A0XWT2E511DA
Display on the control panel Display on the right side of the tray
<PC-107>
<PC-207>
Tray 3
Tray 3
Tray 4
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5.2.3 Dehumidification heater control
The dehumidification heater is installed in the bottom of the paper feed cabinet.
When energized, the dehumidification heater generates heat to dehumidify the inside of
the tray and the machine. By dehumidifying, the dehumidification heater prevents the
paper stack loaded in the tray from becoming damp.
The dehumidification heater is energized when the dehumidification heater switch
located at the back of the cabinet is turned ON.
When the dehumidification heater switch is ON, the dehumidification heater is energized
as long as the PC motor remains deenergized (in the standby state; for details, see the
table below).
When the color PC motor is running (during a print cycle), the dehumidification heater is
turned OFF to reduce power consumption.
When the photo conductor small amount rotation control is activated and the color PC
motor runs only for a short time, the dehumidification heater is not turned OFF/ON.
Dehumidification heater Color PC motor (M2) Transport motor (M1)
ON OFF OFF
OFF OFF ON
OFF ON OFF
OFF ON ON
A0XWT2C506DA
Dehumidification heater (DH)
Dehumidification heater switch (SW1)
5. OPERATIONS Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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SERVICE MANUAL
2009.07
Ver. 1.0
THEORY OF OPERATION
Revision history
After publication of this service manual, the parts and mechanism may be subject to change for
improvement of their performance.
Therefore, the descriptions given in this service manual may not coincide with the actual machine.
When any change has been made to the descriptions in the service manual, a revised version will be
issued with a revision mark added as required.
Revision mark:
To indicate clearly a section revised, is shown at the left margin of the revised section.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
To indicate clearly a page that contains the revision, is shown near the page number of the
corresponding page.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
NOTE
Revision marks shown in a page are restricted only to the latest ones with the old ones deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 3.0 only are shown with those for Ver. 2.0 deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has not been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 2.0 are left as they are.
1
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Date Service manual Ver. Revision mark Descriptions of revision
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
i
CONTENTS
PC-408
OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................ 1
2. PAPER FEED PATH................................................................................................ 2
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
3. CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................. 3
4. DRIVE ..................................................................................................................... 4
5. OPERATIONS......................................................................................................... 5
5.1 Paper feed section................................................................................................ 5
5.1.1 Paper feed drive mechanism......................................................................... 5
5.2 TRAY SECTION ................................................................................................... 6
5.2.1 Elevator tray mechanism............................................................................... 6
5.2.2 Shift Gate drive mechanism.......................................................................... 7
5.2.3 Shifter drive mechanism ............................................................................... 7
5.2.4 Paper empty detection .................................................................................. 8
5.2.5 Remaining paper amount displayed.............................................................. 8
5.2.6 Dehumidification heater control .................................................................... 9
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
A. Type
B. Paper
*1: Image is not guaranteed when thick paper 3 is used.
C. Machine specifications
D. Operating environment
Conforms to the operating environment of the main body.
NOTE
These specifications are subject to change without notice.
Name Large capacity cabinet
Type Front loading type LCC
Installation Desk type
Document alignment Center
Type Size Capacity
Plain paper
(60 to 90 g/m
2
(16 to 24 lb))
Metric area : A4,
Inch area : 8
1
/
2
x 11
2,500 sheets
Thick paper 1
(91 to 150 g/m
2
(24.25 to 40 lb))
1,000 sheets
Thick paper 2
(151 to 209 g/m
2
(40 to 55.5 lb))
Thick paper 3 *1
(210 to 256 g/m
2
(55.75 to 68 lb))
Power requirements
DC 24 V 10% (supplied from the main body)
DC 5 V 5%
Max. power consumption 45 W or less
Dimensions
600 mm (W) x 702 mm (D) x 302 mm (H)
23.7 inch (W) x 27.7 inch (D) x 11.9 inch (H)
Weight 30.5 kg (67.3 lb)
2. PAPER FEED PATH Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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2. PAPER FEED PATH
A093T2C512AA
Transportation to main body
Paper feed in LCC
Move from sub-tray to the main tray
Sub tray
Main tray
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3. CONFIGURATION
A093T2C511AA
Paper feed section
Tray section
Main tray Sub tray
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4. DRIVE
A0XWT2C501DA
Vertical transport motor (M2)
Paper feed motor (M1)
Elevator motor (M5)
Shift motor (M4)
Division board position motor (M3)
Tray lock solenoid (SD1)
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5. OPERATIONS
5.1 Paper feed section
5.1.1 Paper feed drive mechanism
The paper feed motor drives the pick-up roller and paper feed roller to take up and feed a
sheet of paper into the main body.
Then, the vertical transport motor transports the paper through the vertical transport sec-
tion.
The pick-up roller takes up sheets of paper and the paper feed and separation rollers
ensure that only one sheet of paper is separated and fed into the main body.
when the drawer is slid in, the lever is pushed to lower the pick-up roller.
The lift-up upper sensor then detects the upper limit position when the paper lifting plate
is raised.
The paper empty sensor detects when paper in the drawer runs out.
A093T2C513AA
A093T2C514AA
Paper feed roller Pick-up roller Lift-up upper sensor (PS4)
Paper empty sensor (PS3) Separation Roller
Lever
Pick-up roller home position
Actuator
Pick-up roller feed position
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5.2 TRAY SECTION
5.2.1 Elevator tray mechanism
The main tray is suspended by the cables at the front and rear.
As the elevator motor turns forward or backward, the cables are wound to raise or lower
the tray.
The lift-up lower limit sensor detects the tray at its lower limit position.
A0XWT2C509DA
A0XWT2C508DA
Elevator motor(M5)
Lift-up lower limit sensor (PS13)
Wire
Sub tray
Main tray
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5.2.2 Shift Gate drive mechanism
If the main tray runs out of paper, while the sub tray is loaded with paper, the paper stack
on the sub tray is moved to the main tray.
At this time, the division board motor is energized to retract the front and rear shift gates.
5.2.3 Shifter drive mechanism
Then, the shift motor is energized to move the shifter so that the paper stack on the sub
tray is moved onto the main tray.
The shifter continues moving and stops when the shifter stop position sensor is acti-
vated. when the drawer release button is thereafter pressed, the shifter starts moving
and stops as soon as the shift tray home sensor is activated.
A0XWT2C510DA
Division board position
motor (M3)
Shift gate move to outside
Shifter
Shift gate move to outside
Shifter move
A0XWT2C507DA
Shifter home position sensor (PS12)
Shifter stop position sensor (PS11)
Shift motor (M4)
Shift motor (M4)
Shifter
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5.2.4 Paper empty detection
Paper empty detection of main tray is performed by main tray paper empty sensor board.
paper empty detection of sub tray is performed by shift tray empty sensor.
5.2.5 Remaining paper amount displayed
The control panel displays a near-empty or empty message when the corresponding
condition occurs.
The estimate amount of paper for near empty is around 150.
A093T2C519AA
Shift tray empty sensor (PS9)
Main tray paper empty board (MTPEB)
Sub Tray Main Tray
Tray status Empty Near empty
Other status
(During lifting-up and with tray not being
set included)
LED status ON Blink OFF
A0XWT2E512DA
Display on the right side of the tray Display on the control panel
Tray 3
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5.2.6 Dehumidification heater control
The dehumidification heater is installed in the bottom of the paper feed cabinet.
When energized, the dehumidification heater generates heat to dehumidify the inside of
the tray and the machine. By dehumidifying, the dehumidification heater prevents the
paper stack loaded in the tray from becoming damp.
The dehumidification heater is energized when the dehumidification heater switch
located at the back of the cabinet is turned ON.
When the dehumidification heater switch is ON, the dehumidification heater is energized
as long as the PC motor remains deenergized (in the standby state; for details, see the
table below).
When the color PC motor is running (during a print cycle), the dehumidification heater is
turned OFF to reduce power consumption.
When the photo conductor small amount rotation control is activated and the color PC
motor runs only for a short time, the dehumidification heater is not turned OFF/ON.
Dehumidification heater Color PC motor (M2) Transport motor (M1)
ON OFF OFF
OFF OFF ON
OFF ON OFF
OFF ON ON
A0XWT2C505DA
Dehumidification heater (DH)
Dehumidification heater switch (SW1)
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SERVICE MANUAL
2009.07
Ver. 1.0
THEORY OF OPERATION
Revision history
After publication of this service manual, the parts and mechanism may be subject to change for
improvement of their performance.
Therefore, the descriptions given in this service manual may not coincide with the actual machine.
When any change has been made to the descriptions in the service manual, a revised version will be
issued with a revision mark added as required.
Revision mark:
To indicate clearly a section revised, is shown at the left margin of the revised section.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
To indicate clearly a page that contains the revision, is shown near the page number of the
corresponding page.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
NOTE
Revision marks shown in a page are restricted only to the latest ones with the old ones deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 3.0 only are shown with those for Ver. 2.0 deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has not been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 2.0 are left as they are.
1
1
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1
2009/07 1.0 Issue of the first edition
Date Service manual Ver. Revision mark Descriptions of revision
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
i
CONTENTS
JS-505
OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................ 1
2. PAPER PATH........................................................................................................... 3
2.1 Exit to the lower tray ............................................................................................. 3
2.2 Exit to the sub tray ................................................................................................ 3
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
3. CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................. 5
4. DRIVE ..................................................................................................................... 6
5. OPERATION ........................................................................................................... 7
5.1 Transport/exit section............................................................................................ 7
5.1.1 Paper transport ............................................................................................. 7
5.1.2 Transport path switching ............................................................................... 8
5.1.3 Full-of-paper detecting mechanism............................................................. 12
5.1.4 Lower tray exit roller pressure/retraction..................................................... 13
5.2 Paper shift section .............................................................................................. 15
5.2.1 Paper shift mechanism................................................................................ 15
5.2.2 Shift operation overview.............................................................................. 16
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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Blank Page
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
A. Type
B. Functions
C. Paper
Type Built-in type 2-bin stacker
Installation Installed in main body
Document align-
ment
Center
Modes Sort, group, sort offset, group offset
Exit tray Size Type Capacity
Lower tray
A6S, A5S/A5, B6S, B5S/B5,
A4S/A4, B4, A3, A3 Wide, Post
card S
5-
1
/
2
X 8-
1
/
2
S/5-
1
/
2
X 8-
1
/
2
,
8-
1
/
2
X 11S/8-
1
/
2
X 11,
8-
1
/
2
X 14, 11 X 17, 12-
1
/
4
X 18
Max.: 311.1 mm X 1200 mm
12.25 inch X 47.25 inch
Min.: 90 mm X 139.7 mm
3.5 inch X 5.5 inch
Plain paper (60 to 90 g/m
2
)
(16 to 24 lb)
150 sheets
Special
paper
Thick paper 1
(91 to 150 g/m
2
)
(24.25 to 40 lb)
20 sheets
Thick paper 2
(151 to 209 g/m
2
)
(40.25 to 55.5 lb)
Thick paper 3
(210 to 256 g/m
2
)
(55.75 to 68 lb)
Thick paper 4
(257 to 271 g/m
2
)
(68.25 to 72 lb)
OHP film
Post card
Label
Envelope 10 sheets
Long size paper 1 sheet
Sub tray
A5S, B5S/B5, A4S/A4, B4, A3
8-
1
/
2
X 11S/8-
1
/
2
X 11, 8-
1
/
2
X
14, 11 X 17
Max.: 297 mm X 431.8 mm
11.75 inch X 17 inch
Min.: 148 mm X 210 mm
5.75 inch X 8.25 inch
Plain paper (60 to 90 g/m
2
)
(16 to 24 lb)
50 sheets
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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D. Offset function
E. Machine specifications
*1: Size when the paper exit tray is pulled out
F. Operating environment
Conforms to the operating environment of the main body.
NOTE
These specifications are subject to change without notice.
Exit tray Lower tray
Shift amount 30 mm
Types of paper to
be used
Plain paper, Thick paper 1/2/3/4
Size
B5S/B5, A4S/A4, B4, A3
8-
1
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X 11S/8-
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X 11, 8-
1
/
2
X 14, 11 X 17
Power require-
ments
DC 24 V 10 % (supplied from the main body)
DC5 V 5 %
Max. power con-
sumption
40 W or less
Dimensions
423 mm (W) X 477 mm (D) X 129.5 mm (H)
16.75 inch (W) X 18.75 inch (D) X 5 inch (H)
543 mm (W) X 477 mm (D) X 129.5 mm (H) *1
21.5 inch (W) X 18.75 inch (D) X 5 inch (H) *1
Weight 5.0 kg (11 lb)
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 2. PAPER PATH
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2. PAPER PATH
2.1 Exit to the lower tray
2.2 Exit to the sub tray
A083T1C501AA
A083T1C502AA
2. PAPER PATH Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 3. CONFIGURATION
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CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
3. CONFIGURATION
A083T1C503AA
A083T2C519AA
A083T2C501AA
Lower tray
Upper tray
Transport path switching mechanism
Paper shift mechanism
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4. DRIVE
A083T2C507AA
Upper tray exit roller
Lower tray exit roller
JS control board (JSCB)
Transport motor (M1)
Retraction motor (M3)
Shift motor (M2)
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5. OPERATION
5.1 Transport/exit section
5.1.1 Paper transport
Drive from the transport motor causes the corresponding exit roller to rotate, thereby
transporting the paper into the main or upper tray.
The transport motor is energized a predetermined period of time after the paper has acti-
vated the paper exit sensor of the copier.
Drive of the transport motor rotates the exit roller, so that paper is transported into the
corresponding tray.
A083T2C503AA
Lower tray exit roller
Upper tray exit roller
Transport motor (M1)
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5.1.2 Transport path switching
The paper transport path is adequately switched to ensure that the paper is transported
properly into the main or upper tray as necessary.
The retraction motor is energized to operate the paper path switching guide, so that the
paper is directed into the correct tray.
A. Overview
Paper path switching is done by the paper path switching guide. The paper path switch-
ing guide is swung up or down at the following timings.
A083T2C508AA
Lower tray exit roller
Paper path switching guide
Upper tray exit roller
Retraction motor (M3)
Guide moving direction Operation
Guide swung up
(to feed paper into lower tray)
Lower tray selected for exit port, 2-sided print, sort selected
Guide swung down
(to feed paper into upper tray)
Upper tray selected for exit port
A083T2C515AA
Paper path switching guide
Guide swung up
(to feed paper into lower tray)
Guide swung down
(to feed paper into upper tray)
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B. Operation
The retraction motor is used to swing up or down the paper path switching guide. The
retraction motor, when energized, swings the paper path switching guide up or down.
The retraction home sensor detects the position of the paper path switching guide, either
in the raised or lowered position.
The paper path switching guide is detected at its raised or lowered position when the
sensor is blocked or unblocked by a cam.
(1) Predrive
The following operations are performed before the paper path switching operation when
the copier is turned ON or released from the sleep mode, or a malfunction is reset.
Guide moving direction Retraction home sensor
Guide swung up (to feed paper into lower tray) Blocked
Guide swung down (to feed paper into upper tray) Unblocked
A083T2C516AA
Retraction home sensor (PS4)
Cam
Retraction motor (M3)
Paper path switching guide
Part Operation
Retraction motor
The retraction motor is energized to swing up the paper path switching
guide into its raised position (to feed paper into the lower tray).
Retraction home sensor
The retraction motor is deenergized a predetermined period of time
after the sensor has been blocked.
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(2) Operation from the lowered position (exit to lower tray) to the raised position
(exit to upper tray)
1. The predrive sequence is run (only when the copier is turned or released from the
sleep mode, or a malfunction is reset).
2. The exit position of the tray is determined according to whether the retraction home
sensor is blocked or unblocked.
3. If the retraction home sensor is blocked, it is determined that the paper path switch-
ing guide is in its raised position (to feed paper into the lower tray). If the sensor is
unblocked, it is then determined that the paper path switching guide is in its low-
ered position (to feed paper into the upper tray).
4. If the paper path switching guide is in its raised position (to feed paper into the
lower tray), the retraction motor is energized. After the retraction home sensor is
thereafter unblocked, the retraction motor is deenergized.
A083T2C509AA
A083T2C517AA
Before switching After switching
Paper path switching guide Retraction motor
Paper path switching guide
Retraction motor
Retraction home sensor
Cam
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(3) Paper exit into the upper tray
1. The predrive sequence is run (only when the copier is turned or released from the
sleep mode, or a malfunction is reset).
2. The exit position of the tray is determined according to whether the retraction home
sensor is blocked or unblocked.
3. If the retraction home sensor is blocked, it is determined that the paper path switch-
ing guide is in its raised position (to feed paper into the lower tray). If the sensor is
unblocked, it is then determined that the paper path switching guide is in its low-
ered position (to feed paper into the upper tray).
4. If the paper path switching guide is in its lowered position (to feed paper into the
upper tray), the retraction motor is energized. After the retraction home sensor is
thereafter blocked, the retraction motor is deenergized.
A083T2C510AA
A083T2C518AA
Before switching After switching
Paper path switching guide Retraction motor
Retraction motor
Retraction home sensor
Cam
Paper path switching
guide
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5.1.3 Full-of-paper detecting mechanism
Each tray is mounted with a tray paper full detect board that detects a full-of-paper condi-
tion of the tray.
The tray paper full detect board consists of an LED and a PR (photoreceiver). When the
paper stack blocks the LED light for a predetermined period of time, it is determined that
the tray is in the full-of-paper condition. This is relayed to a corresponding message on
the control panel.
A083T2C514AA
Lower tray paper full detect board/LED (T1FDTB/LED)
Upper tray paper full detect board/LED (T2FDTB/LED)
Upper tray paper full detect board/PR (T2FDTB/PR)
Lower tray paper full detect board/PR (T1FDTB/PR)
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 5. OPERATION
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5.1.4 Lower tray exit roller pressure/retraction
The lower tray is provided with an exit roller pressure/retraction mechanism that allows
paper to be temporarily fed into the lower tray when a 2-sided print cycle is commanded.
When a pressure/retraction command is received, the roller pressure/retraction clutch is
energized. Then, the lifting cam is rotated a half turn, which causes the lifting plate to
swing up and down, so that the exit roller is pressed and released.
A. Exit roller pressure/retraction overview
The exit roller is normally in its pressed condition. It is released during a 2-sided print
cycle.
When the copier is turned or released from the sleep mode, or a cover open/close, the
roller pressure/retraction clutch is energized to bring the exit roller into its pressed condi-
tion, which is done to determine the condition of the exit roller.
A083T2C511AA
Roller pressure/retraction clutch
Lifting cam
Pressure/retraction home
sensor
Lifting plate
Roller pressure/release condition
Normal printing Pressed
2-sided printing
Pressed released pressed
The copier is turned or released from the sleep mode, or a
cover open/close
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B. Exit roller pressure/retraction operation
When the roller pressure/retraction clutch is energized, the lifting cam is rotated a half
turn. The lifting plate is then raised and lowered to complete a pressure/retraction opera-
tion.
Whether the pressure/retraction home sensor is blocked or unblocked determines the
condition of the exit roller, either pressed or released.
When the pressure/retraction home sensor is blocked and unblocked, the roller pressure/
retraction clutch is deenergized to stop the operation.
Pressure/retraction home sensor Lifting plate position
Pressed Blocked Raised
Released Unblocked Lowered
A083T2C512AA
Lifting plate
Pressed condition Released condition
Lifting cam
Lower tray exit roller
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5.2 Paper shift section
5.2.1 Paper shift mechanism
The exit roller is shifted its position during paper exit so that print jobs can be offset, one
job from another.
To offset print jobs, the shift section is moved.
The shift section is moved by drive supplied from the shift motor. The motion is controlled
by the shift home sensor that is blocked or unblocked.
The shift operation is executed when the sort function is used on the control panel.
A083T2C513AA
Shift motor (M2) Shift home sensor (PS6)
Shift section
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5.2.2 Shift operation overview
At a predetermined timing during paper exit into the lower tray, the shift motor is ener-
gized to slide the shift section in a direction perpendicular to the feeding direction.
Receiving a shift operation command, the shift motor is energized, causing the shift sec-
tion to slide.
The position of the shift section is controlled using the shift home sensor. The position is
detected as the shift home sensor is blocked or unblocked.
The shift home sensor is normally blocked.
When the sort function is used on the control panel, the shift motor is energized and the
shift section is made to slide until the shift home sensor is unblocked.
A predetermined period of time after the shift section has been moved (for sorting), the
shift motor is energized to slide the shift section until the shift home sensor is blocked.
A083T2C520AA
Normal position
Shift position
Shift section
Paper
Shift home sensor
SERVICE MANUAL
2009.07
Ver. 1.0
THEORY OF OPERATION
Revision history
After publication of this service manual, the parts and mechanism may be subject to change for
improvement of their performance.
Therefore, the descriptions given in this service manual may not coincide with the actual machine.
When any change has been made to the descriptions in the service manual, a revised version will be
issued with a revision mark added as required.
Revision mark:
To indicate clearly a section revised, is shown at the left margin of the revised section.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
To indicate clearly a page that contains the revision, is shown near the page number of the
corresponding page.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
NOTE
Revision marks shown in a page are restricted only to the latest ones with the old ones deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 3.0 only are shown with those for Ver. 2.0 deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has not been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 2.0 are left as they are.
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2009/07 1.0 Issue of the first edition
Date Service manual Ver. Revision mark Descriptions of revision
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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CONTENTS
FS-527
OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................ 1
2. PAPER FEED PATH................................................................................................ 4
2.1 Tray1..................................................................................................................... 4
2.2 Tray2..................................................................................................................... 5
2.3 Stapling................................................................................................................. 6
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
3. CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................. 7
4. HORIZONTAL CONVEYANCE SECTION............................................................... 8
4.1 Configuration ........................................................................................................ 8
4.2 Horizontal conveyance mechanism...................................................................... 9
4.2.1 Paper conveyance......................................................................................... 9
4.2.2 Conveyance path switching motor mechanism........................................... 10
5. CONVEYANCE SECTION .................................................................................... 11
5.1 Configuration ...................................................................................................... 11
5.2 Drive ................................................................................................................... 12
5.3 Operation............................................................................................................ 13
5.3.1 Upper lower path switching gate................................................................. 13
5.3.2 Tray1 path switching gate............................................................................ 14
5.3.3 Conveyance operation ................................................................................ 15
6. EXIT TRAY SECTION........................................................................................... 18
6.1 Drive ................................................................................................................... 18
6.2 Operation............................................................................................................ 19
6.2.1 Tray lift ......................................................................................................... 19
6.2.2 Exit to tray1 ................................................................................................. 20
6.2.3 Exit to tray2 ................................................................................................. 21
6.2.4 Tray2 shift control ........................................................................................ 23
7. ALIGNMENT SECTION ........................................................................................ 25
7.1 Drive ................................................................................................................... 25
7.2 Operation............................................................................................................ 26
7.2.1 Alignment plate ........................................................................................... 26
7.2.2 Alignment section conveyance mechanism................................................ 27
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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8. STAPLER.............................................................................................................. 28
8.1 Drive................................................................................................................... 28
8.2 Operation............................................................................................................ 29
8.2.1 Stapler movement....................................................................................... 29
8.2.2 Stapler control............................................................................................. 30
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
A. Type
B. Functions
C. Paper type
(1) Non sort/sort/group
*: Long size paper is available only for non-sort mode.
Name Multi staple finisher
Type Freestanding
Document
alignment
Center
Consumables Staples
Modes Sort, group, offset, group offset, sort staple
Type Size Weight Max. capacity
Plain paper
Recycled
paper
A6S, A5S/A5, B5S/B5,
B6S, A4S/A4, B4, A3,
A3Wide
5
1
/
2
x 8
1
/
2
S/5
1
/
2
x 8
1
/
2
,
8
1
/
2
x 11S/8
1
/
2
x 11,
8
1
/
2
x 14, 11 x 17,
12
1
/
4
x 18
Tray1 (Sub tray)
Max.
311.15 mm x 1200 mm
12.25 x 47.24 inch
Min.
90 mm x 139.7 mm
3.54 x 5.5 inch
Tray2 (Main tray)
Max.
311.15 mm x 457.2 mm
12.25 x 18 inch
Min.
100 mm x 139.7 mm
3.94 x 5.5 inch
60 to 90 g/m
2
16 to 24 lb
Exit
tray1
200 sheets
Exit
tray2
A4S, 8
1
/
2
x 11S
or less
3000
sheets
B4, 8
1
/
2
x 14
or greater
1500
sheets
A5S, 5
1
/
2
x 8
1
/
2
S
or less
500
sheets
Envelope
20 sheets
OHP
transparencies

Label
Letterhead
Thick paper 1
91 to 150 g/m
2
24.25 to 40 lb
Thick paper 2
151 to 209 g/m
2
40.25 to 55.5 lb
Thick paper 3
210 to 256 g/m
2
55.75 to 68 lb
Thick paper 4
257 to 271 g/m
2
68.25 to 72 lb
Long size
paper *
210 mm to 297 mm x
457.2 mm to 1200 mm
127 to 160 g/m
2
33.75 to 42.5 lb

1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009


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(2) Sort offset/group offset
*: 2000 sheets when SD-509 is mounted
(3) Sort staple
Type Size Weight Max. capacity
Plain paper
Recycled
paper
A5, B5S/B5, A4S/A4, B4,
A3, A3Wide
8
1
/
2
x 11S/8
1
/
2
x 11,
8
1
/
2
x 14, 11 x 17, 12
1
/
4
x 18
Max.
311.15 mm x 457.2 mm
12.25 x 18 inch
Min.
182 mm x 148.5 mm
7.17 x 5.85 inch
60 to 90 g/m
2
16 to 24 lb
Exit
tray2
A4S, 8
1
/
2
x 11S
or less
3000
sheets *
B4, 8
1
/
2
x 14
or greater
1500
sheets
A5
500
sheets
Thick paper
91 to 271 g/m
2
24.25 to 72 lb

Type Size Weight


No. of sheets
to be stapled
Max. capacity Max.
No. of
sheets
to be
stapled
A4S,
8-
1
/
2
X 11S
or less
B4,
8-
1
/
2
X 14
or greater
Plain paper
Recycled
paper
A5, B5S/B5, A4S/A4,
B4, A3
8
1
/
2
x 11S/8
1
/
2
x 11,
8
1
/
2
x 14, 11 x 17
Max.
297 mm x 431.8 mm
11.75 x 17 inch
Min.
182 mm x 148.5 mm
7.25 x 5.75 inch
60 to 90 g/m
2
16 to 24 lb
Exit
tray2
2 to 9
sheets
100 copies 50 copies
50
sheets
10 to 20
sheets
50 copies 50 copies
21 to 30
sheets
30 copies 30 copies
31 to 40
sheets
25 copies 25 copies
41 to 50
sheets
20 copies 20 copies
Thick
paper 1
91 to 209 g/m
2
24.25 to 55.5 lb

30
sheets
Thick
paper 2

15
sheets
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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D. Stapling
E. Machine specifications
*: Size when the paper output tray is pulled out
F. Operating environment
Conforms to the operating environment of the main body.
Staple filling mode Dedicated staple cartridge (5000 staples)
Stapling position
Back/Front of the corner
(45 degree)
A4, A3
8
1
/
2
x 11, 11 x 17
Back/Front of the corner
(35 degree)
B5, B4
Back/Front of the corner
(Parallel)
A4S, B5S, A5
8
1
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2
x 11S, 8
1
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2
x 14
Side: Parallel 2 point
A4S/A4, A3, B5S/B5, B4, A5
8
1
/
2
x 11S/8
1
/
2
x 11, 8
1
/
2
x 14, 11 x 17
Manual staple None
Power
requirements
DC 24 V 10 % (supplied from the main body)
Max. power
consumption
56 W or less
Dimensions
528 (W) x 641 (D) x 1,025 (H) mm
20.79 (W) x 25.24 (D) x 40.35 (H) inch
658 (W) x 641 (D) x 1,087 (H) mm *
25.91 (W) x 25.24 (D) x 42.8 (H) inch *
Weight 42 kg (92.59 lb)
2. PAPER FEED PATH Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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2. PAPER FEED PATH
2.1 Tray1
A0HRT1C001DB
Tray1 exit roller
Tray1
Tray1 path switching gate
Paper path from the horizontal
conveyance unit
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2.2 Tray2
A0HRT1C002DB
Tray2
Bypass route Upper lower path switching gate
Paper path from the horizontal
conveyance unit
2. PAPER FEED PATH Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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2.3 Stapling
A0HRT1C003DB
Tray2 exit roller
Tray2
Alignment section
Stapler
Paper path from the horizontal
conveyance unit
Bypass route Upper lower path switching gate
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 3. CONFIGURATION
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CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
3. CONFIGURATION
The following sections are combined in a single unit: the horizontal conveyance section,
conveyance section, alignment section, tray1, tray2, and stapler section.
A0HRT2C002DB
Alignment section
Tray2
Stapler section
Horizontal conveyance
section Conveyance section
Tray1
4. HORIZONTAL CONVEYANCE SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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4. HORIZONTAL CONVEYANCE SECTION
4.1 Configuration
The horizontal conveyance section is composed of the duplex path switching sensor,
paper passage sensor/1, horizontal conveyance cover sensor, paper passage sensor/2,
paper passage motor/1, and duplex path switching motor.
A0HRT2C001DA
Paper passage
motor/1 (M1)
Paper passage sensor/2 (PS2)
Duplex path switching sensor (PS3)
Duplex path switching motor (M2)
Paper passage sensor/1 (PS1)
Horizontal conveyance cover
sensor (PS5)
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4.2 Horizontal conveyance mechanism
4.2.1 Paper conveyance
The horizontal conveyance section conveys paper fed out from the main body to the fin-
isher.
The paper passage motor/1 provides drive for the conveyance rollers.
On the finisher side, drive from the paper passage motor/1 conveys the paper into the
finisher.
A0HRT2C003DA
Horizontal conveyance section
Main body side Finisher side
Conveyance roller
Paper passage motor/1 (M1)
4. HORIZONTAL CONVEYANCE SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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4.2.2 Conveyance path switching motor mechanism
The horizontal conveyance section is provided with a paper path switching mechanism
for conveying paper fed from the fusing section onto the duplex section or tray 3 (when
another option of JS-603 is mounted).
The paper path is changed by the duplex path switching motor and the path switching
guide.
A. Operation
The path switching guide swings up or down when the duplex path switching motor is
energized.
The duplex path switching sensor detects the position of the path switching guide, either
the swung-up or swung-down position. The sensor is blocked or unblocked by the cam to
detect the swung-down or swung-up position of the path switching guide as detailed
below.
A0HRT2C024DA
Duplex path switching
sensor (PS3)
Duplex path switching
motor (M2)
Path switching guide
Path switching guide position Duplex path switching sensor
Swung-up position (paper to finisher) Unblocking
Swung-down position (paper to duplex section) Blocking
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 5. CONVEYANCE SECTION
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5. CONVEYANCE SECTION
5.1 Configuration
A0HRT2C025DA
Conveyance motor (M4)
Paper passage motor/2 (M3)
Exit motor (M5)
Registration
roller
Switchback roller
Tray2 exit roller
Tray1 exit roller
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5.2 Drive
A0HRT2C004DB
Conveyance motor (M4)
Paper passage motor/2 (M3)
Exit motor (M5)
Tray1 exit roller
Exit driven roller
Tray2 exit roller
Conveyance
roller 2
Paper passage roller
Conveyance roller 1
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5.3 Operation
5.3.1 Upper lower path switching gate
The upper lower path switching gate switches paper to different routes that go to individ-
ual trays and SD-509.
The paper exit command from the main body moves the upper lower path switching gate
up or down as necessary.
A. Upper lower path switching gate operation
The upper lower path switching motor drives the route change gate.
A0HRT2C005DB
Upper lower path switching motor (M6)
Upper lower path switching gate
Upper lower path
switching gate
5. CONVEYANCE SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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5.3.2 Tray1 path switching gate
The tray1 path switching gate changes the paper conveyance path between one toward
the tray1 and one toward the bypass route.
A. Tray1 path switching gate operation
The tray1 path switching gate is operated by the tray1 path switching motor.
When the tray1 path switching motor is energized, the tray1 path switching gate swings
up or down.
The tray1 path switching home sensor detects the position of the tray1 path switching
gate, either the swung-up or swung-down position.
A0HRT2C006DB
Tray1 path switching home sensor (PS7)
Tray1 path switching
motor (M8)
Tray1 path switching gate
Tray1 path switching gate
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5.3.3 Conveyance operation
A. Tray1 conveyance
The paper conveyed from the horizontal conveyance section is conveyed via the registra-
tion roller and guided into the tray1 by the upper lower path switching gate and tray1 path
switching gate. It is then fed out into the tray1 by the tray1 exit roller.
B. Tray2 conveyance
The paper conveyed from the horizontal conveyance section is conveyed onto the align-
ment section by way of the registration roller, paper passage roller, switchback roller, and
lower path roller.
A0HRT2C008DB
Registration roller
Upper lower path switching gate
Tray1 exit roller
Tray1 path switching gate
Tray1
A0HRT2C007DB
Paper passage roller
Lower path roller
Switchback roller
Tray2
Registration roller
5. CONVEYANCE SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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C. Bypass route
The bypass route is provided to eliminate any time loss during stapling operation relative
to the subsequent sheet of paper and to achieve high productivity.
The following describe how two copy sets/stacks are produced as an output, each con-
sisting of two sheets of paper stapled together.
(1) For the 1st copy
The bypass route is not used for the paper path for the first copy set/stack.
(2) For the 2nd copy
The first sheet of paper of the second copy set/stack passes through the path to tray2,
but is fed and temporarily brought into a standby state on the conveyance path to the SD-
509 by the switchback roller.
The second sheet of paper of the second copy set/stack is then conveyed and fed into
the bypass route.
At the same time that the first copy set/stack is fed out, the first and second sheets of the
second copy set/stack are conveyed onto the alignment section.
A0HRT2C009DB
SD-509
Switchback roller
Tray2
Conveyance path to the SD-509
Bypass route
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 5. CONVEYANCE SECTION
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D. Conveyance to SD-509
The paper conveyed from the horizontal conveyance section is further conveyed onto the
path toward tray2 and, when the trailing edge of the paper moves past the lower path
sensor, the switchback roller is brought to a temporary stop.
The switchback roller is thereafter turned backward, so that the paper is conveyed into
the SD-509.
A0HRT2C010DB
Switchback roller
Lower path sensor (PS9)
SD-509
6. EXIT TRAY SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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6. EXIT TRAY SECTION
6.1 Drive
A0HRT2C011DB
Lift belt
Tray2
Elevate motor (M15)
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 6. EXIT TRAY SECTION
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6.2 Operation
6.2.1 Tray lift
A. Tray lift operation
The driving force of the worm gear mounted on the shaft of the elevate motor drives the
lift belt.
The tray2 moves up or down depending on the direction in which the lift belt is driven.
B. Paper detection
The tray2 upper position sensor keeps the specified distance between the upper surface
of the paper exited to the tray2 and the paper exit opening to eliminate the misalignment
of the exited paper.
The tray2 upper position sensor and tray2 lower position sensor detect a full-of-paper
condition of the tray2.
When both of these sensors are activated, a corresponding message appears on the
control panel.
The tray2 lower position switch detects the lower limit of the tray.
A0HRT2C012DB
Tray2 upper position sensor (PS24)
Tray2 upper position
switch (SW2)
Tray2 lower position sensor (PS21)
Tray2
Elevate motor (M15)
Lift belt
Tray2 lower position
switch (SW3)
6. EXIT TRAY SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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6.2.2 Exit to tray1
The paper conveyed from the horizontal conveyance section is fed out into the tray1 by
the tray1 exit roller by way of the registration roller and paper passage roller.
The upper lower path switching gate and tray1 path switching gate are also operated to
convey the paper into the tray1.
The paper passage motor/2 provides drive for the tray1 exit roller.
A0HRT2C015DB
Upper lower path
switching gate
Paper passage motor/2 (M3)
Tray1 path
switching gate
Tray1 exit roller
Tray1
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 6. EXIT TRAY SECTION
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6.2.3 Exit to tray2
The exit motor is energized to convey paper onto tray2.
To collect sheets of paper in the alignment section during stapling, the exit roll is tempo-
rarily retracted.
When the stapling operation is completed, the exit roll is pressed, so that the paper is fed
out into tray2.
The exit roller retraction motor provides drive for retraction of the exit roll.
A. Normal paper exit operation
When the leading edge of the paper reaches a point a given distance before the tray2
exit roller, the exit motor is energized and the paper is conveyed onto tray2.
B. Paper exit operation during stapling
When the leading edge of the paper reaches the paper exit sensor of the main body, the
exit roller retraction motor is energized to retract the exit roll.
After the paper is processed, the exit roller retraction motor is energized to press the exit
roll and the paper is fed out by drive from the exit motor.
A0HRT2C013DB
Tray2 exit roller
Exit motor (M5)
6. EXIT TRAY SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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A0HRT2C014DB
Exit roll
Exit roller retraction motor (M9)
Exit motor (M5)
Tray2 exit roller
A0HRT2C026DA
Before pressure After pressure
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 6. EXIT TRAY SECTION
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6.2.4 Tray2 shift control
The tray2 is moved to the front or rear in order to offset one copy set/stack with respect to
another in the sort or group mode.
The tray2 shift motor provides drive for the front-to-rear shift motion of the tray2.
A0HRT2C016DB
Tray2
Tray2 shift motor (M16)
6. EXIT TRAY SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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A. Tray1 shift operation
When the leading edge of the paper reaches a point a given distance before the tray2
exit roller in the sort/group mode, the tray2 shift motor is energized to perform the shift
operation.
When the tray2 shift motor is energized, the shift frame is moved to the right or left via a
gear train, which results in tray2 operatively connected to the shift frame being moved to
the right or left.
If a command for the next paper is received, the tray2 shift motor is energized again to
perform the shift operation.
The shift position of the tray2 is controlled by the tray2 shift home sensor. The sensor is
activated when the tray2 is at its home position (ordinary position).
The amount of shift operation is 30 mm.
A0HRT2C019DB
Tray2 shift home sensor (PS25)
Tray2 shift motor (M16)
30 mm
Tray2
Shift frame
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7. ALIGNMENT SECTION
7.1 Drive
A0HRT2C017DB
Alignment plate
Alignment plate motor (M13)
Alignment plate home sensor (PS17)
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7.2 Operation
7.2.1 Alignment plate
The alignment plates align sheets of paper in the crosswise direction inside the finisher.
The alignment plate motor rotates in the forward/reverse direction to open/close the
alignment plates to perform the alignment of the paper.
The alignment plate motor rotates to open/close the alignment plates via the alignment
plate belts.
The alignment plate home sensor detects the home position of the alignment plates.
A0HRT2C018DB
Alignment plate motor
(M13)
Alignment plate home sensor (PS17)
Alignment plate
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7.2.2 Alignment section conveyance mechanism
The paper fed out from the main body falls in the alignment section by its own weight.
The accommodation paddle motor operates the accommodation paddle to convey paper
reliably onto the alignment section.
A0HRT2C020DB
Rewind paddle
Accommodation paddle
motor (M12)
Accommodation
paddle
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8. STAPLER
8.1 Drive
A0HRT2C021DB
Stapler movement motor (M11)
Stapler home sensor/1 (PS18)
Stapler home sensor/2 (PS19)
Stapler unit
Belt
A0HRT2C027DA
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8.2 Operation
8.2.1 Stapler movement
A. Stapler movement operation
The stapler movement motor moves the stapler.
Rotation of the stapler movement motor drives the belt through the pulley, which moves
the stapler mounted on the belt.
The stapler home sensor/1 becomes the staplers home position. In the two-point sta-
pling mode, the stapler is stopped at a position a given distance relative to the stapler
home sensor/2.
In the one-corner stapling mode using A4 or A3 paper, the stapler stops at the stapler
home sensor/1 to staple sheets. For any other paper size, the stapler stops a position a
predetermined distance away relative to the stapler home sensor/1 to staple sheets.
A0HRT2C028DA
Belt
Stapler home sensor/2 (PS19)
Stapler
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8.2.2 Stapler control
The stapling operation is performed by the stapler motor.
A. Stapling operation
In the stapling operation, the stapler motor drives the clincher side to press the paper.
Then, the staple is pushed out from the stapler side and bent at the clincher side.
A0HRT2C023DB
Paper
Stapler (clincher side)
Stapler (stapler side)
Stapler motor (M18)
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B. Staple control
(1) Stapling
After completing the alignment operation of the alignment plate, the stapler motor per-
forms the stapling operation.
The stapling operation is completed when the stapler home sensor in the stapler detects
the home position and turn ON.
(2) Clogged staple detection
The main body determines that staples have been jammed, if the stapler home sensor is
not activated within a predetermined period of time after it has been deactivated during a
stapling operation. The stapler motor is then rotated backward to bring the stapler back
to its home position.
(3) Staple detection and cartridge detection
When the staples run out, or if there is no cartridge loaded in position, the staple empty
switch turns ON and the main body displays a corresponding staple empty message on
the control panel.
8. STAPLER Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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SERVICE MANUAL
2009.07
Ver. 1.0
THEORY OF OPERATION
Revision history
After publication of this service manual, the parts and mechanism may be subject to change for
improvement of their performance.
Therefore, the descriptions given in this service manual may not coincide with the actual machine.
When any change has been made to the descriptions in the service manual, a revised version will be
issued with a revision mark added as required.
Revision mark:
To indicate clearly a section revised, is shown at the left margin of the revised section.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
To indicate clearly a page that contains the revision, is shown near the page number of the
corresponding page.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
NOTE
Revision marks shown in a page are restricted only to the latest ones with the old ones deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 3.0 only are shown with those for Ver. 2.0 deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has not been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 2.0 are left as they are.
1
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Date Service manual Ver. Revision mark Descriptions of revision
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
i
CONTENTS
PK-517
OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................ 1
2. UNIT CONFIGURATION......................................................................................... 2
3. PAPER PATH........................................................................................................... 3
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
4. CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................. 5
5. OPERATION ........................................................................................................... 5
5.1 Skew correction mechanism................................................................................. 5
5.2 Punch mechanism................................................................................................ 6
5.3 Punch status detection ......................................................................................... 7
5.4 Punch trash box full detection mechanism........................................................... 8
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
A. Type
B. Functions
C. Paper type
D. Machine specifications
E. Operating environment
Conforms to the operating environment of the main body.
NOTE
These specifications are subject to change without notice.
Name Punch kit
Type FS-integrated type punching operation device
Punching method Stops and punches every paper
No. of holes 2-3 holes / 4 holes / Sweden 4 holes
Hole diameter/pitch
2 holes / 8.0 mm / 70 mm pitch - 3 holes / 8.0 mm / 108 mm pitch
4 holes / 6.5 mm / 80 mm pitch
Sweden 4 holes / 6.5 mm / 70 mm, 21 mm pitch
Supported mode Punch mode
Applicable post processing
mode
Sort, group, staple
Size
2 hole punch setting:
11 x 17, 8-
1
/
2
x 14, 8-
1
/
2
x 11/8-
1
/
2
x 11S
3 hole punch setting:
11 x 17, 8-
1
/
2
x 11
4 hole punch setting:
A3, B4, A4, B5
Sweden 4 hole punch setting:
A3, B4, A4/A4S, B5
Supported paper
Plain paper, bond paper, thick paper 1/2/3
(Main unit specifications prioritized)
Weight 60 to 256 g/m
2
Punch prohibited paper
Label paper, tab paper, transparency film, 2nd base paper, holed paper,
and the other paper that may interfere with the operation of the punch kit
or the punch blade
Dimensions
58 mm (W) x 470 mm (D) x 135 mm (H)
2.28 inch (W) x 18.50 inch (D) x 5.31 inch (H)
Weight 1.8 kg (3.97 lb)
2. UNIT CONFIGURATION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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2. UNIT CONFIGURATION
A10ET1C001DB
Punch section
Punch scraps box section
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3. PAPER PATH
A10ET1C002DB
Punch scraps box
Punch kit
Paper path from
the main body
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CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
4. CONFIGURATION
5. OPERATION
5.1 Skew correction mechanism
For punch operation, a loop is formed in the paper at the conveyance roller to correct
skew.
The paper passage sensor/1 detects the leading edge of the paper and the conveyance
roller forms a loop in the paper.
The paper passage motor/1 is then energized after a given period of time after the paper
passage sensor/1 is activated by the leading edge of the paper, this causes the convey-
ance roller to start turning.
A10ET2C001DA
4512T2C002DA
Conveyance roller
Paper passage sensor/1
(PS1)
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5.2 Punch mechanism
The paper passage sensor/1 will detect the trailing edge of the paper and stop feeding
the paper after the lapse of a predetermined period of time.
The drive cam will be rotated by the punch motor/1(2) to move the slide cam back and
forth. The slide cam will move the puncher down to make the punch hole at the back
edge of the paper. (The punch hole will be made sheet by sheet.)
A10ET2C004DA
Puncher
A10ET2C002DA
Paper passage
sensor/1 (PS1)
Puncher
Punch motor/1 (M100)
Punch motor/2 (M101)
Slide cam
Paper feed direction
Slide cam
Punch motor/1 (M100)
Punch motor/2 (M101)
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5.3 Punch status detection
The punch status is detected by the punch cam position sensor, punch home sensor/1,
and the punch pulse sensor/1.
A10ET2C003DA
Punch cam position sensor (PS200)
Punch pulse sensor/1 (PS300)
Punch pulse sensor/2 (PS301)
Punch home sensor/1 (PS100)
Punch home sensor/2 (PS101)
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5.4 Punch trash box full detection mechanism
The punch trash box is provided with the punch hole full sensor. When a punch waste is
detected, the corresponding message is displayed on the control panel.
The punch hole full sensor is a reflector type sensor that detects height of the punch
trash.
Punch hole full sensor also detects whether or not the punch trash box is mounted.
Punch dust full message will be displayed on the control panel when the punch trash
box is not mounted.
A10ET2C005DA
Punch hole full sensor (PS30)
SERVICE MANUAL
2009.07
Ver. 1.0
THEORY OF OPERATION
Revision history
After publication of this service manual, the parts and mechanism may be subject to change for
improvement of their performance.
Therefore, the descriptions given in this service manual may not coincide with the actual machine.
When any change has been made to the descriptions in the service manual, a revised version will be
issued with a revision mark added as required.
Revision mark:
To indicate clearly a section revised, is shown at the left margin of the revised section.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
To indicate clearly a page that contains the revision, is shown near the page number of the
corresponding page.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
NOTE
Revision marks shown in a page are restricted only to the latest ones with the old ones deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 3.0 only are shown with those for Ver. 2.0 deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has not been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 2.0 are left as they are.
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Date Service manual Ver. Revision mark Descriptions of revision
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
i
CONTENTS
SD-509
OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................ 1
2. PAPER FEED PATH................................................................................................ 2
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
3. CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................. 3
4. ALIGNMENT SECTION .......................................................................................... 4
4.1 Drive ..................................................................................................................... 4
4.2 Operation.............................................................................................................. 5
4.2.1 Alignment ...................................................................................................... 5
4.2.2 Stopper ......................................................................................................... 7
5. STAPLER ................................................................................................................ 9
5.1 Drive ..................................................................................................................... 9
5.2 Operation............................................................................................................ 10
5.2.1 Stapling....................................................................................................... 10
6. FOLDING/SADDLE STITCHING .......................................................................... 11
6.1 Drive ................................................................................................................... 11
6.2 Operation............................................................................................................ 12
6.2.1 Folding plate................................................................................................ 12
6.2.2 Folding conveyance .................................................................................... 13
7. EXIT SECTION..................................................................................................... 15
7.1 Configuration ...................................................................................................... 15
7.2 Operation............................................................................................................ 16
7.2.1 Exit .............................................................................................................. 16
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1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
A. Type
B. Paper
(1) Saddle stitching
(2) Folding
C. Machine specifications
D. Operating environment
Conforms to the operating environment of the main body.
E. Consumables
Staples 5000 (SK-602: Staple kit)
NOTE
These specifications are subject to change without notice.
Name Saddle sticher SD-509
Type Built into the finisher
Installation Screwed to the finisher
Document alignment Center
Stapling function Center parallel two points
Type Plain paper, Thick paper 1, Thick paper 2
Size
A3, B4, A4S, A3 Wide, 11 x 17, 8-
1
/
2
x 14, 8-
1
/
2
x 11S
Min: 210 mm x 279.4 mm, 8.27 inch X 11 inch
Max: 311.15 mm x 457.2 mm, 12.25 inch X 18 inch
Max. saddle stitching capacity
15 sheets (60 g/m
2
to 90 g/m
2
, 16 to 24 lb)
14 sheets (60 g/m
2
to 90 g/m
2
, 16 to 24 lb)
+ 1 sheet (60 g/m
2
to 209 g/m
2
, 16 to 55.5 lb)
Type Plain paper
Size
A3, B4, A4S, A3 Wide, 11 x 17, 8-
1
/
2
x 14, 8-
1
/
2
x 11S
Min: 210 mm x 279.4 mm, 8.27 inch X 11 inch
Max: 311.15 mm x 457.2 mm, 12.25 inch X 18 inch
Max. number of sheets folded together 3 sheets (60 g/m
2
to 90 g/m
2
, 16 to 24 lb)
Dimensions
239 mm (W) x 579 mm (D) x 534 mm (H)
9.41 inch (W) x 22.80 inch (D) x 21.02 inch (H)
Weight 24 kg (52.91 lb)
2. PAPER FEED PATH Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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A10DT1C001DB
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CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
3. CONFIGURATION
A10DT2C001DA
Exit section
Alignment section
Stapler
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4. ALIGNMENT SECTION
4.1 Drive
A10DT2C002DB
Center staple alignment
motor/F (M24)
Center staple alignment
motor/R (M23)
Alignment plate/F Alignment plate/R
Leading edge stopper Leading edge stopper motor (M20)
Leading edge
stopper
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4.2 Operation
4.2.1 Alignment
In the folding/saddle stitching mode, the center staple alignment motor/F and /R aligns
paper.
The center staple alignment motor rotates in the forward/reverse direction to move the
alignment plates, thereby aligning paper in the main scanning direction.
The leading edge stopper motor is rotated to raise the leading edge stopper up to a posi-
tion of the paper to be stored, thereby aligning paper in the sub-scanning direction.
A. Alignment operation
The center staple alignment motor/F and /R rotate to open/close the alignment plates via
the alignment belts.
The center staple alignment home sensor/F and /R detect the home position of the align-
ment plates.
The leading edge stopper motor rotates to move the leading edge stopper in the vertical
direction via the belt.
A10DT2C003DB
Center staple alignment
motor/F (M24)
Center staple alignment motor/R (M23)
Alignment plate/F
Alignment plate/R
Leading edge stopper
Leading edge stopper motor (M20)
Center staple alignment
home sensor/F (PS42)
Center staple alignment
home sensor/R (PS41)
Paddle
Upper paddle motor (M21)
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B. Alignment control
When the first sheet of paper undergoes a switchback operation, the center staple align-
ment motor/F and /R start rotating to bring the alignment plates closer to each other and
then bring them to a stop at the standby positions at which they are apart from each at a
distance slightly wider than the paper width.
The center staple alignment motor/F and /R perform the alignment operation by rotating
in the forward and reverse direction to move the alignment plate back and forth after a
specified period of time since the saddle path sensor detects the trailing edge of the
paper.
The paper alignment operation in the main scanning direction is performed each time a
sheet of paper is fed in.
C. Paddle control
After the lapse of a predetermined period of time after the saddle path sensor has
detected the leading edge of the paper, the upper paddle motor is rotated to align the
paper in the sub-scanning direction.
The paddles are rotated each time a sheet of paper is fed in.
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4.2.2 Stopper
At the leading edge stopper, papers in sub scanning direction are aligned, and papers
conveyed to the aligning section are conveyed to the specified position.
The leading edge grip holds the paper when moving it to a specified position, or when
stapling or folding it.
A. Stopper operation
The leading edge stopper motor moves the leading edge stopper up and down in accor-
dance with the paper size. The leading edge stopper home sensor detects the home
position.
A10DT2C004DA
Leading edge stopper
Leading edge grip
Leading edge stopper motor (M20)
Leading edge stopper home sensor (PS45)
Leading edge grip
Leading edge grip solenoid (SD3)
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B. Stopper control
(1) Folding mode
After the last sheet of paper was aligned, the leading edge grip solenoid is turned ON
and the sheets of paper are held in place.
After the sheets are held in place, the leading edge stopper motor rotates to move the
leading edge stopper down and lower the sheets to the folding position.
(2) Saddle stitching mode
After the last sheet of paper was aligned, the leading edge grip solenoid is turned ON
and the sheets of paper are held in place.
After the sheets are held in place, the leading edge stopper motor rotates to move the
leading edge stopper down and lower the sheets to the saddle stitching position.
After stapling operation was completed, the center staple alignment motor/F and /R
opens the alignment plates and the leading edge stopper motor starts rotating to move
the leading edge stopper further down and lower the paper to the folding position.
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5. STAPLER
5.1 Drive
A10DT2C005DA
Staple motor
Drive gear
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5.2 Operation
5.2.1 Stapling
The stapling operation is performed by the staple motor.
A. Stapling operation
In the stapling operation, the staple motor in the stapler pushes out the paper press sec-
tion to the clincher by the drive gear to hold the paper and punch out the staple. Then,
the staple is bent in the clincher.
B. Staple control
(1) Stapling
After completing the alignment operation of the alignment plate, the staple motor per-
forms the stapling operation.
The stapling operation is completed when the sensor in the stapler detects the home
position and turn ON.
(2) Clogged staple detection
During the stapling operation, it is determined that the staple has been clogged and the
staple motor rotates in the reverse direction to replace the stapler to the home position if
the sensor in the stapler does not turn ON after a specified period of time since it turn
OFF.
A10DT2C006DA
Stapler
Clincher Drive gear
Staple
Staple motor
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 6. FOLDING/SADDLE STITCHING
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6.1 Drive
A10DT2C007DB
Folding roller
Folding plate
Center fold plate
motor (M26)
Center fold roller
motor (M25)
6. FOLDING/SADDLE STITCHING Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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6.2 Operation
6.2.1 Folding plate
The center fold plate motor drives the folding plate.
A. Folding plate operation
The center fold plate motor rotates the crank shaft a half turn via the gear and pushes the
paper to the nip section with the folding plate.
The folding rollers draw and fold the paper.
The position of the leading edge stopper controls the folding position.
B. Folding plate control
The center fold plate motor turns ON and sticks out the folding plate to the paper after a
specified period of time since the leading edge stopper stops at the folding position.
The center fold plate motor stops when the folding plate reciprocates and the center fold
plate home sensor turns ON.
A11RT2C014DA
Fold plate
Paper
Folding roller
Leading edge stopper
Center fold plate
home sensor (PS47)
Crank shaft
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 6. FOLDING/SADDLE STITCHING
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6.2.2 Folding conveyance
The center fold roller motor drives the folding roller.
A10DT2C009DA
Folding roller
Center fold roller
motor (M25)
6. FOLDING/SADDLE STITCHING Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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A. Folding conveyance control
The center fold plate motor turns ON after the leading edge stopper stops at the folding
position.
When the center fold plate motor turns ON the center fold plate home sensor, the center
fold roller motor turns ON and folds the paper.
The center fold roller motor stops after a specified period of time since the paper detec-
tion sensor/2 detects the trailing edge of the paper bundle.
B. Folding roller control
Different folding roller controls are performed depending on the number of sheets of
paper and the size of the paper.
(1) The paper width is 215.9 mm or more and the number of sheets of paper is less
than six
When the center fold plate home sensor is deactivated after the center fold plate motor
has been energized, the center fold roller motor is energized to start rotating at low
speed.
The folding roller is made to start rotating at high speed after the lapse of a predeter-
mined period of time after it has started rotating.
When the paper detection sensor/2 detects the trailing edge of the paper stack, the lead-
ing edge stopper motor is energized to raise the leading edge stopper to the alignment
position defined according to the paper size.
(2) Other than above
The center fold roller motor is energized to start rotating at low speed a predetermined
period of time before the paper stack reaches the center fold position.
The center fold plate motor is energized and, after the lapse of a predetermined period of
time after the center fold plate home sensor has been deactivated, the folding roller is
made to start rotating at high speed.
When the paper detection sensor/2 detects the trailing edge of the paper stack, the lead-
ing edge stopper motor is energized to raise the leading edge stopper to the alignment
position defined according to the paper size.
A10DT2C010DA
Paper detection sensor/2 (PS44)
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 7. EXIT SECTION
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7. EXIT SECTION
7.1 Configuration
A10DT2C008DA
Booklet tray near full
sensor (PS48)
Booklet tray full
sensor (PS50)
7. EXIT SECTION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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7.2 Operation
7.2.1 Exit
The paper fed out by the center fold roller motor is stacked in the tray by its own weight.
A. Full-of-paper detection
The capacity of the tray varies depending on the number of sheets of paper in the paper
sets/stacks fed into the tray and detection of a full-of-paper condition cannot be made
based on the number of sheets of paper stacked in the tray.
The main body therefore counts the number of sheets of paper stacked and detects a
full-of-paper condition when a predetermined number of sheets of paper is reached.
If the booklet tray full sensor remains activated for a predetermined period of time, the
main body determines that paper can no longer be fed into the tray and that there is a
full-of-paper condition in the tray.
B. Full-of-paper detection conditions
The booklet tray full sensor is activated.
The booklet tray near full sensor is activated when the power switch is turned ON.
The number of sets/stacks stacked in the tray reaches a predetermined value during
copying.
A set/stack having a paper length different from that fed out earlier is fed out.
The main body does not determine that there is a full-of-paper condition in the tray under
any condition other than above.
SERVICE MANUAL
2009.07
Ver. 1.0
THEORY OF OPERATION
Revision history
After publication of this service manual, the parts and mechanism may be subject to change for
improvement of their performance.
Therefore, the descriptions given in this service manual may not coincide with the actual machine.
When any change has been made to the descriptions in the service manual, a revised version will be
issued with a revision mark added as required.
Revision mark:
To indicate clearly a section revised, is shown at the left margin of the revised section.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
To indicate clearly a page that contains the revision, is shown near the page number of the
corresponding page.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
NOTE
Revision marks shown in a page are restricted only to the latest ones with the old ones deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 3.0 only are shown with those for Ver. 2.0 deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has not been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 2.0 are left as they are.
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Date Service manual Ver. Revision mark Descriptions of revision
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
i
CONTENTS
JS-603
OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................ 1
2. PAPER PATH........................................................................................................... 2
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
3. CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................. 3
4. DRIVE ..................................................................................................................... 4
5. OPERATION ........................................................................................................... 5
5.1 Conveyance/exit section ....................................................................................... 5
5.1.1 Paper conveyance......................................................................................... 5
5.1.2 Conveyance path switching........................................................................... 5
5.1.3 Full-of-paper detecting mechanism............................................................... 6
5.1.4 Exit roller pressure/retraction ........................................................................ 7
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
ii
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
A. Type
B. Functions
C. Paper
D. Machine specifications
E. Operating environment
Conforms to the operating environment of the main body.
NOTE
These specifications are subject to change without notice.
Type Fixed to the finisher
Document align-
ment
Center
Modes Sort, group
Size Type Capacity
A5S, B5S/B5, A4S/A4, B4, A3, A3 Wide
5-
1
/
2
X 8-
1
/
2
S, 8-
1
/
2
X 11S/8-
1
/
2
X 11, 8-
1
/
2
X 14,
11 X 17, 12-
1
/
4
X 18
Max.: 311.15 mm X 457.2 mm
12.25 inch X 18 inch
Min.: 139.7 mm X 182 mm
5.5 inch X 7.17 inch
Plain paper (60 to 90 g/m
2
)
(16 to 24 lb)
100 sheets
Special
paper
Thick paper 1 (91 to 150 g/m
2
)
(24.25 to 40 lb)
10 sheets
Thick paper 2 (151 to 209 g/m
2
)
(40.25 to 55.5 lb)
Thick paper 3 (210 to 256 g/m
2
)
(55.75 to 68 lb)
Thick paper 4 (257 to 271 g/m
2
)
(68.25 to 72 lb)
OHP film
Label
Envelope
Power require-
ments
DC 24 V 10 % (supplied from the main body)
DC5 V 5 %
Dimensions
165 mm (W) X 389 mm (D) X 63 mm (H)
6.5 inch (W) X 15.31 inch (D) X 2.48 inch (H)
Weight 1.0 kg (2.2 lb)
2. PAPER PATH Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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2. PAPER PATH
A10FT1C001DA
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 3. CONFIGURATION
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CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
3. CONFIGURATION
A10FT2C002DB
A10FT2C001DB
Conveyance/exit section
4. DRIVE Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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4. DRIVE
A10FT2C003DA
Tray3 exit roller retraction
motor (M17)
Tray3 exit roller retraction sensor (PS35)
Tray3 full sensor (PS36)
Paper passage motor/1 (M1)
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 5. OPERATION
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5. OPERATION
5.1 Conveyance/exit section
5.1.1 Paper conveyance
Drive from the paper passage motor/1 causes the corresponding exit roller to rotate,
thereby conveying the paper into the tray.
The paper passage motor/1 is energized a predetermined period of time after the paper
has activated the paper passage sensor/1.
Drive of the paper passage motor/1 rotates the exit roller, so that paper is conveyed into
the tray.
5.1.2 Conveyance path switching
The horizontal conveyance section of FS-527 is provided with a conveyance path switch-
ing mechanism for conveying paper onto JS-603. For details of the mechanism, see the
horizontal conveyance section of FS-527.
A10FT2C004DB
Exit roller
Paper passage motor/1 (M1)
5. OPERATION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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5.1.3 Full-of-paper detecting mechanism
The tray3 full sensor is located at the exit of the tray, detecting a full-of-paper condition of
the tray.
The actuator is operated each time paper is fed into the tray. When the level of paper fed
into the tray reaches a predetermined value (capacity), the sensor is blocked and the
main body determines that the tray is full of paper.
The number of sheets of paper that is detected as a full-of-paper condition is 100 sheets
in terms of plain paper.
The number of sheets of paper detected as a full-of-paper condition, however, varies
depending on the environmental conditions and the amount of curl in paper.
A10FT2C005DA
Actuator
Tray3 full sensor (PS36)
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 5. OPERATION
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5.1.4 Exit roller pressure/retraction
The tray is provided with an exit roller pressure/retraction mechanism that allows paper
to be temporarily fed into the tray when a 2-sided print cycle is commanded.
When a pressure/retraction command is received, the tray3 exit roller retraction motor is
energized. Then, the lifting cam is rotated a half turn, which causes the lifting lever to
swing up and down, so that the exit roller is pressed and retracted.
A10FT2C006DA
Tray3 exit roller retraction motor (M17)
Lifting cam
Tray3 exit roller retraction
sensor (PS35)
Lifting lever
Exit roller
A10FT2C007DB
Retraction Pressure
Exit roller
Lifting cam
Lifting lever
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A. Exit roller pressure/retraction overview
The exit roller is normally in its retracted condition. It is pressed during a 2-sided print
cycle and paper exit into tray 3.
When the main body is turned or retracted from the sleep mode, or a cover open/close,
the tray3 exit roller retraction motor is energized to bring the exit roller into its retracted
condition, which is done to determine the condition of the exit roller.
B. Exit roller pressure/retraction operation
When the tray3 exit roller retraction motor is energized, the lifting cam is rotated a half
turn. The lifting lever is then raised and lowered to complete a pressure/retraction opera-
tion.
Whether the tray3 exit roller retraction sensor is blocked or unblocked determines the
condition of the exit roller, either pressed or retracted.
When the tray3 exit roller retraction sensor is blocked and unblocked, the tray3 exit roller
retraction motor is deenergized to stop the operation.
Roller pressure/retraction condition
Normal printing Retracted
2-sided printing (except for small size paper)
Retracted pressed retracted
The main body is turned or retracted from the sleep mode
Tray3 exit roller retraction sensor
Pressed Blocked
Retracted Unblocked
A10FT2C008DA
Lifting lever
Lifting cam
Exit roller
Tray3 exit roller retraction
motor (M17)
Tray3 exit roller retraction sensor (PS35)
SERVICE MANUAL
2009.07
Ver. 1.0
THEORY OF OPERATION
Revision history
After publication of this service manual, the parts and mechanism may be subject to change for
improvement of their performance.
Therefore, the descriptions given in this service manual may not coincide with the actual machine.
When any change has been made to the descriptions in the service manual, a revised version will be
issued with a revision mark added as required.
Revision mark:
To indicate clearly a section revised, is shown at the left margin of the revised section.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
To indicate clearly a page that contains the revision, is shown near the page number of the
corresponding page.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
NOTE
Revision marks shown in a page are restricted only to the latest ones with the old ones deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 3.0 only are shown with those for Ver. 2.0 deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has not been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 2.0 are left as they are.
1
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Date Service manual Ver. Revision mark Descriptions of revision
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
i
CONTENTS
FS-529
OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................ 1
2. PAPER PATH........................................................................................................... 3
CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
3. CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................. 5
4. DRIVE ..................................................................................................................... 6
5. OPERATION ........................................................................................................... 7
5.1 Conveyance section.............................................................................................. 7
5.1.1 Paper conveyance......................................................................................... 7
5.1.2 Conveyance path switching........................................................................... 8
5.1.3 Tray exit roller pressure/retraction................................................................. 9
5.2 Alignment section ............................................................................................... 11
5.2.1 Drive............................................................................................................ 11
5.2.2 Operation .................................................................................................... 12
5.3 Stapler ................................................................................................................ 13
5.3.1 Drive............................................................................................................ 13
5.3.2 Operation .................................................................................................... 14
5.4 Exit tray section .................................................................................................. 15
5.4.1 Drive............................................................................................................ 15
5.4.2 Operation .................................................................................................... 16
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
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OUTLINE
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
A. Type
B. Functions
C. Paper
D. Offset function
Type Multi staple finisher built into the main body
Installation Installed in main body
Modes Sort, group, sort offset, group offset, sort staple
Size Type
Capacity
Letter S, A4S,
8-
1
/
2
X 11S or
less
Legal, B4,
8-
1
/
2
X 14 or
greater
A6S, A5S/A5, B6S, B5S/B5,
A4S/A4, B4, A3, A3 Wide
5-
1
/
2
X 8-
1
/
2
S/5-
1
/
2
X 8-
1
/
2
,
8-
1
/
2
X 11S/8-
1
/
2
X 11,
8-
1
/
2
X 14, 11 X 17, 12-
1
/
4
X 18
Max.: 311.15 mm X 1200 mm
12.25 inch X 47.24 inch
Min.: 90 mm X 139.7 mm
3.54 inch X 5.5 inch
Plain paper (60 to 90 g/m
2
)
(16 to 24 lb)
300 sheets
(30 copies)
250 sheets
(30 copies)
Special
paper
Thick paper 1
(91 to 150 g/m
2
)
(24.25 to 40 lb)
10 sheets
Thick paper 2
(151 to 209 g/m
2
)
(40.25 to 55.5 lb)
Thick paper 3
(210 to 256 g/m
2
)
(55.75 to 68 lb)
Thick paper 4
(257 to 271 g/m
2
)
(68.25 to 72 lb)
OHP film
Label
Envelope
Long size paper
Shift amount 30 mm
Types of paper to
be used
Plain paper, Thick paper (91 to 209 g/m
2
, 24.25 to 55.5 lb)
Size
B5, A4S/A4, B4, A3
8-
1
/
2
X 11S/8-
1
/
2
X 11, 8-
1
/
2
X 14, 11 X 17
1. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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E. Stapling
F. Machine specifications
G. Operating environment
Conforms to the operating environment of the main body.
NOTE
These specifications are subject to change without notice.
No. of sheets to be
stapled
Letter S, A4S, 8-
1
/
2
X 11S or less 50 sheets
Legal, B4, 8-
1
/
2
X 14 or greater 30 sheets
80 to 90 g/m
2
(21.25 to 24 lb): 48 sheets + 2 sheets (209 g/m
2
(55.5 lb))
Stapling position
Back of the corner
Front of the corner
Center two points
Power require-
ments
DC 24 V 10 % (supplied from the main body)
DC5.1 V 5 %
Max. power con-
sumption
56 W or less
Dimensions
471 mm (W) X 564 mm (D) X 147 mm (H)
18.54 inch (W) X 22.2 inch (D) X 5.79 inch (H)
Weight 12.0 kg (26.46 lb)
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 2. PAPER PATH
3
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2. PAPER PATH
A0U7T1C001DA
2. PAPER PATH Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 3. CONFIGURATION
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CONFIGURATION/OPERATION
3. CONFIGURATION
A0U7T2C001DA
Exit tray section
Conveyance section
Alignment section
A0U7T2C015DA
Staple section
4. DRIVE Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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4. DRIVE
A0U7T2C002DA
Exit roller
Conveyance motor/2 (M6)
Conveyance motor/1 (M5)
Pick up roller position
motor (M1)
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 5. OPERATION
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5. OPERATION
5.1 Conveyance section
5.1.1 Paper conveyance
Drive from the conveyance motor/1 and conveyance motor/2 cause the corresponding
roller to rotate, thereby conveying the paper into the tray.
After it is determined that the paper has been fed out of the main body, the conveyance
motor/1 and conveyance motor/2 are energized.
A0U7T2C003DA
Conveyance motor/2 (M6)
Conveyance motor/1 (M5)
5. OPERATION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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5.1.2 Conveyance path switching
The conveyance path is switched to conveyance paper onto the duplex section.
The paper path switching guide works to switch the conveyance path as necessary. The
lever is operated to swing up and down the paper path switching guide when the flapper
solenoid is energized.
A0U7T2C004DA
Flapper solenoid (SD4)
Lever
Paper path switching guide
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 5. OPERATION
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5.1.3 Tray exit roller pressure/retraction
The exit roller is retracted as necessary in order to conveyance the paper from the main
body temporarily onto the alignment section.
After the alignment operation is completed, the exit roller is pressed again, so that the
paper is fed into the tray.
The exit roller is pressed or retracted by the pickup roller position motor.
The exit roller is moved up or down via a gear train when the pick up roller position motor
is energized.
A. Exit roller pressure/retraction overview
The exit roller is normally in its retracted condition.
When the main body is turned or retracted from the sleep mode, or a cover open/close,
the pick up roller position motor is energized to bring the exit roller into its retracted con-
dition, which is done to determine the condition of the exit roller.
A0U7T2C005DA
Pick up roller position
motor (M1)
Exit roller Pick up roller position
sensor (PS12)
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B. Exit roller pressure/retraction operation
When the pick up roller position motor is energized, the gear is rotated. The exit roller is
then raised and lowered to complete a pressure/retraction operation.
Whether the pick up roller position sensor is blocked or unblocked determines the condi-
tion of the exit roller, either pressed or retracted.
Pick up roller position sensor
Pressed Unblocked
Retracted Blocked
A0U7T2C006DA
Pick up roller position
sensor (PS12)
Actuator
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5.2 Alignment section
5.2.1 Drive
A0U7T2C007DA
Alignment plate/R Alignment plate/F
Alignment motor/F (M3) Alignment motor/R (M4)
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5.2.2 Operation
A. Alignment section
The alignment section performs stapling, aligning, sorting, and offsetting.
The paper is conveyed, one sheet at a time, onto the alignment section for subsequent
necessary operation.
B. Alignment plate
The alignment plate/F and alignment plate/R align the paper.
The alignment plate/F and alignment plate/R are driven by the alignment motor/F and
alignment motor/R, respectively.
The alignment plate home sensor/F and alignment plate home sensor/R detect the posi-
tion of the alignment plate/F and alignment plate/R, respectively.
C. Shift control
In the sort or group copy mode, the alignment plate shifts to the front or rear. This stacks
copy sets/stacks in a saw tooth manner, each being offset by about 30 mm with respect
to the others.
The registration in normal print mode varies depending on the paper size, stapling posi-
tion, and the position of the alignment plate during paper exit.
A0U7T2C008DA
Alignment plate home sensor/F (PS8) Alignment plate home sensor/R (PS9)
A0U7T2C009DA
30 mm
Alignment plate/R
Alignment plate/F
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 5. OPERATION
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5.3 Stapler
5.3.1 Drive
A0U7T2C010DA
Stapler Drive belt
Stapler movement motor (M7)
Stapler home sensor (PS11)
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5.3.2 Operation
A. Stapler movement
The stapler movement motor moves the stapler.
The stapler movement motor rotates to drive the belt, which in turn moves the stapler
unit.
The stapling position is controlled based on the number of pulses generated by the sta-
pler movement motor. No position sensors are provided for back corner stapling and two-
point stapling.
The stapler home sensor determines the home position of the stapler, as that may be
needed when the stapler is brought to a stop at an irregular position during, for example,
a malfunction. In such cases, the stapler is moved until the stapler home sensor is
blocked.
B. Stapling operation
The stapling operation is performed by the stapler motor.
In the stapling operation, the stapler motor drives the clincher side to press the paper.
Then, the staple is pushed out from the stapler side and bent at the clincher side.
A0U7T2C011DA
Stapler motor (M8)
Clincher
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5.4 Exit tray section
5.4.1 Drive
A0U7T2C012DA
Exit roller
Paper surface detect
sensor/1 (PS2)
Paper surface detect
sensor/2 (PS3)
Paper surface detect
solenoid (SD1)
Conveyance
motor/2 (M6)
Tray up/down operation
sensor (PS4)
Tray lower limit sensor (PS6)
Tray up/down motor (M2)
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5.4.2 Operation
A. Tray up/down
When the tray up/down motor is energized, the corresponding arm is operated via a gear
train to raise the tray.
The upper limit of motion of the tray is established by a stopper provided in the finisher.
The tray is lowered as the motor rotates backward.
The tray lower limit sensor detects the lower limit of motion of the tray.
B. Full-of-paper condition detection
The paper surface detect sensor/1 and paper surface detect sensor/2 detect a full-of-
paper condition in the tray. If the paper surface detect sensor/1/2 is not blocked
(unblocked) even when the paper surface detect solenoid is energized, the main body
determines that the tray is full of paper.
A0U7T2C013DA
Tray up/down motor (M2)
Arm
Exit tray
A0U7T2C014DA
Actuator
Paper surface detect
sensor/1 (PS2)
Paper surface detect
sensor/2 (PS3)
Paper surface detect solenoid (SD1)
SERVICE MANUAL
2009.07
Ver. 1.0
THEORY OF OPERATION
Revision history
After publication of this service manual, the parts and mechanism may be subject to change for
improvement of their performance.
Therefore, the descriptions given in this service manual may not coincide with the actual machine.
When any change has been made to the descriptions in the service manual, a revised version will be
issued with a revision mark added as required.
Revision mark:
To indicate clearly a section revised, is shown at the left margin of the revised section.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
To indicate clearly a page that contains the revision, is shown near the page number of the
corresponding page.
The number inside represents the number of times the revision has been made.
NOTE
Revision marks shown in a page are restricted only to the latest ones with the old ones deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 3.0 only are shown with those for Ver. 2.0 deleted.
When a page revised in Ver. 2.0 has not been changed in Ver. 3.0:
The revision marks for Ver. 2.0 are left as they are.
1
1
1
1
2009/07 1.0 Issue of the first edition
Date Service manual Ver. Revision mark Descriptions of revision
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
i
CONTENTS
EK-604/605/SC-507
EK-604
1. CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................. 1
2. OPERATION ........................................................................................................... 1
EK-605
1. CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................. 2
2. OPERATION ........................................................................................................... 3
SC-507
1. CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................. 4
2. OPERATION ........................................................................................................... 4
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Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
ii
Blank Page
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 1. CONFIGURATION
1
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EK-604
1. CONFIGURATION
2. OPERATION
The document can be printed directly from, or saved in, the USB memory.
Connecting the USB keyboard (dealer option: overseas market only) will permit keyboard
input.
A0YCT2C502AA
Local Interface Kit EK-604
USB terminal (extension) USB terminal (standard)
1. CONFIGURATION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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EK-605
1. CONFIGURATION
A0YCT2C504AA
Local Interface Kit EK-605
USB terminal (extension) USB terminal (standard)
Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009 2. OPERATION
3
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2. OPERATION
The document can be printed directly from, or saved in, the USB memory.
Connecting the USB keyboard (dealer option: overseas market only) will permit keyboard
input.
The local interface kit is mounted when the voice guidance function and functions inter-
acting with the portable phone or PDA (portable data terminal) compatible with Bluetooth
are to be used. It has a built-in speaker and Bluetooth communication receiver.
Using Bluetooth, the user can print files directly from the portable phone, download and
print PDF or other files from the portable phone, or save them in a box.
If an XHTML file is downloaded from the portable phone, an image file can be down-
loaded from the URL described in XHTML and printed as an image onto a location spec-
ified in the XHTML document.
A0YCT2C503AA
Portable phone, PDA
Local Interface Kit EK-605
1. CONFIGURATION Theory of Operation Ver. 1.0 Jul. 2009
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SC-507
1. CONFIGURATION
2. OPERATION
The security kit offers the copy guard (copy prohibited) and password copy functions in
addition to the conventional copy protect function. The copy guard security pattern or
password copy security pattern printed on the original is detected to thereby prevent
unauthorized copies from being produced.
* The copy guard security pattern and password copy security pattern can be detected
only by the Konica Minolta machine mounted with the copy guard and password copy
functions.
A0Y9T2C501AA
Security Kit SC-507
A0Y9T2C504AA
Making a copy from an
output produced by add-
ing the copy guard secu-
rity pattern or password
copy security pattern.
Detecting the copy
guard security pat-
tern to discard the
job.
Copy
Print
Copying enabled through
password input.
2009 KONICA MINOLTA BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 2009 KONICA MINOLTA BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
Printed in Japan Printed in Japan
DDA0ED-M-TE1 DDA0ED-M-TE1
Use of this manual should be strictly supervised to
avoid disclosure of confidential information.
Use of this manual should be strictly supervised to
avoid disclosure of confidential information.