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Inner Product of Functions: Orthogonal and Orthonormal Functions


Using integration1, the inner product of two functions is defined as and defined on a domain

where is a predetermined weighting function, with simplest case . If the inner product is zero,

In the

Then the two functions

and

are said to be orthogonal.

The norm is a measure of the size of a function with respect to the inner product and it is defined as follows

Often the term orthogonal is applied to a sequence of functions. For example the sequence of functions are said to be orthogonal if

The stricter property of orthogonality is applied to an orthogonal sequence of functions for which the norms of all the functions are equal to unity. For example the sequence of functions are said to be orthonormal if

where

is the Kroneker delta;

Integration