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Joshua Boyd HHPK 335 Nov.

26, 2012

First known as a game called rounders and played in England as early as the 1600s Townball was a version of rounders played by young men in the American colonies who came to town in the 1700s. Alexander Cartwright came to a game one Sunday in 1845 in New York City. He had created new rules written on a piece of paper, and the game of Baseball was created. Until the first organized game on June 19, 1846 , the pitcher was told what kind of pitch to throw with no balls or strikes, since then it has been three strikes and your out. I choose Pitching because I have a deep love for baseball and hopes of one day being a baseball coach. With this topic I wish to better understand the biomechanics of Pitching a Baseball.

The purpose of the shoulder and the upper extremity of the arm is to allow the hand to be placed in various positions, accomplishing a multitude of tasks. In the case of pitching, hand positioning is vital for accuracy and pitch type. The motions of pitching are very complex and detailed. Pitching a baseball includes the shoulder complex, elbow complex, and wrist complex.

Bones Scapula Clavicle Sternum Humerus Rib Cage Joints Sternoclavicular joint Acromioclavicular joint Glenohumeral joint Scapulothoracic articulation


Humerus Ulna Radius

Elbow joint Radioulnar joint




Radius Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate

Radiocarpal joint Midcarpal joint

Windup-ends when the ball leaves the glove hand Early Cocking-period of shoulder abduction and external rotation when ball leaves glove hand Late Cocking-occurs until maximum external rotation at the shoulder is obtained Arm Acceleration-starts with internal rotation of the humerus and concludes with ball release Arm Deceleration-part of follow-through that occurs right after ball release Follow-through-starts with ball release and ends when motion is complete

The Windup phase begins when the pitcher steps back with his front foot and positions his back foot against the pitching rubber. This phase ends when the front leg is at its maximum height and the glove hand and ball hand separate.

The Stride phase begins when the pitcher begins to move his front foot toward home plate and it ends when the front foot touches the mound. During this phase there are other phases occurring , and will be discussed in the following slides.

Early Cocking is the period of shoulder abduction and external rotation. It starts as the ball is realeased from the glove hand and ends when the lead foot (stride foot) contacts the ground.

The Late Cocking phase is a continuation of the motion of the Early Cocking phase. During this phase maximum external rotation is accomplished in the shoulder.

The Acceleration phase begins from the point of maximal external rotation of the shoulder and starts with internal rotation of the humerus and ends with the release of the baseball.

The Deceleration phase occurs from the time the ball has been released until the arm stops internally rotating. This is a short phase that is the beginning of the FollowThrough phase which starts with maximum shoulder internal rotation and ends when all motion is complete and both feet regain contact with the mound.

Shoulder joint motions are flexion, extension, hyperextension, Abduction and Adduction, medial and lateral rotation, horizontal abduction and adduction. Prime movers are Deltoids, Pectoralis Major, Triceps Brachii

The actual throwing of a baseball is an open kinetic chain Pitching is extremely complex, using several joints from the shoulder girdle to the wrist, several muscles, and even much of the lower body.