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Jessie Zhao Period: 1

Chapter #14: Forging the National Economy Big Picture Themes 1. A wave of immigration came over starting in the 1840s, headed up by hungry Irish and Germans seeking a better life. Both of these groups were looked upon with suspicion, but they were hard workers and did well for themselves. 2. The factory system was in its infancy, led by Eli Whitneys interchangeable parts Cyrus McCormicks mechanical reaping machine paved the way for modern agriculture. 3. Changes were foreshadowed including women beginning to work outside the home. 4. The nation became smaller and tied together more closely thanks to (a) railroads being built, (b) canals such as the Erie, (c) steamships, and (d) the Pony Express. IDENTIFICATIONS: American Industrial Revolution time in America were agriculture turned into factories and new inventions were made to help things, such as transportation, advance to a whole new level. Nativism movement based on hostility to immigrants; motivated by ethnic tensions and religious bias Canal Age Time period where America built many canals including the Erie Canal that would help with transportation. Samuel Slater He was British man working in the textile factory when he decided to move to America, where he brought over with him the secrets of the textile which help America go into the industrial revolution. He was also called the Father of the Factory System. Eli Whitney/Cotton Gin Whitney invented the cotton gin machine that helped separate the seed from the cotton fiber. It became a hit overnight and the south the throne of King Cotton. Elias Howe Howe invented the sewing machine and was perfected by Isaac Singer. It gave a strong boast to the northern industrialization. It became the foundation of the ready-made clothing industry.

Lowell/Waltham System This system developed in the textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts in the 1820s, in these factories as much machinery as possible was used, so that few skilled workers were needed in the production process Commonwealth v. Hunt the supreme court of Mass. Ruled in this case that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided that their methods were honorable and peaceful. Erie Canal A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo; completed in 1825. GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: The Westward Movement Know: "Self-Reliance" 1. What were settlers of the frontier like? The settlers were restless and energetic, seemingly always on the move, and always westward.

Shaping the Western Landscape Know: Kentucky Bluegrass, Rendezvous, Bison, George Catlin 2. "The westward movement also molded the physical environment." Explain. Pioneers had spoiled land from tobacco so they discovered that when the cane was burned off bluegrass grew. Painters like Catlin decided to paint Americas many unspoiled and natural lands. The March of the Millions Know: Chicago, Irish and Germans, America Letters 3. How and why did American demographics change from 1820 to 1860? As the Americans moved west, they also multiplied at a fast rate. Also, many foreign people immigrated to America. There was a freedom of land and opportunity that made America very appealing to many immigrants.

The Emerald Isle Moves West Know: Molly Maguires, Tammany Hall, Paddy Wagons, Twisting the British Lion's Tail 4. After reading this section, does it seem logical or unbelievable that an Irish-American became president in 1960? Explain. It seems logical because they were very interested in politics and became wealthy with city machines like Tammany Hall. It was just about having the Americans accept the Irish people to have one of them become president.

The German Forty-Eighters Know: Carl Schurz, Conestoga Wagon, Kindergarten, Beer 5. Did the Germans make as large a contribution to America as the Irish did? Explain. In a way, Germans brought a large contribution in culture and education. While the Irish brought in their influence in politics. They both contributed in different ways. Flare-Ups of Antiforeignism Know: Nativists, Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, American (Know-Nothing) Party 6. Why were immigrants from Germany and Ireland feared and hated? Americans feared that these foreign hordes would outbread, outvote,, and outwhelm the old native stock. Creeping Mechanization Know: Factory System, Industrial Revolution 8. What barriers stood in the way of the industrial Revolution in the United States? America had a difficulty of producing goods of high enough quality ad cheap enough cost to compete with British factories in particular provided cutthroat competition.

Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine Know: Samuel Slater, Eli Whitney, Cotton Gin, King Cotton 9. Samuel Slater and Eli Whitney caused the North and South to develop in opposite directions. Explain. Slater brought over the secrets of the textile factory from Britain and it helps the north flourish in textile manufacturing. Whitney, on the other hand, helped the south with the cotton gin machine that made south the King of Cotton.

Marvels in Manufacturing Know: Interchangeable Parts, Isaac Singer, Limited Liability, Free Incorporation Laws, Samuel F. B. Morse 10. Which were more important in Antebellum America, new inventions or changes in business forms and legal status? Explain. I think that new inventions are what help America the most because it made transportation easier and better quality products in a shorter amount of time. The new inventions led America to new greatness. Workers and "Wage Slaves" Know: Wage Slaves, Strikebreakers (Scabs), Commonwealth v. Hunt 11. What demands did labor have in the 1830's and 1840's?

Labor demanded workers to work long and be paid at low costs. Workers were forced to toil in unsanitary buildings that were poorly lighted, and heated. There were also child labor and for a while , a major portion of the nations industrial toilers were children.

Women and the Economy Know: Lowell Mills, Catherine Beecher, Cult of Domesticity, Fertility Rate, Child-centered Homes 12. What types of work were done by women in Antebellum America? (Be careful on this one.) The Antebellum America worked mostly in textile mills, making clothes. Some women actually became teachers thanks to Catherine Beecher who inspired women to pursue a job in education. Western Farmers Reap a Revolution in the Fields Know: Corn, John Deere, Steel Plow, Cyrus McCormick, Mechanical Mower-reaper, Cash-crop Agriculture 13. What factors led to increased productivity for farmers? Factors like the Steel plow machine by Deere and McCormicks mechanical mower-reaper help lead t large-scale production and growth of cash crops.

Highways and Steamboats Know: Lancaster Turnpike, National (Cumberland) Road, Robert Fulton 14. Why were turnpikes and steamboats important? Turnpikes allowed economic expansion westward in shorter distance. Steamboats caused an increase in U.S. trade because there was no concern for weather and water current.

"Clinton's Big Ditch" in New York Know: Erie Canal 15. The Erie Canal brought revolutionary change to two regions. Explain. It brought revolutionary change in the North and the West. It shortened the expense and time of transportation.

The Iron Horse 16. Name some of the advantages and disadvantages of early railroads. Advantages: it was fast, reliable, cheaper than canals to construct, and not frozen over in winter. It was able to go almost anywhere, even through the Allegheny barrier, it defied terrain and weather. Disadvantages: flying sparks would set things on fire, brakes were so bad that people would miss the station, and were considered dangerous for public menace.

Cables, Clippers, and Pony Riders Know: Trans-Atlantic Cable, Clipper Ships, Stagecoaches, Pony Express 17. The clipper ship, stagecoach and Pony Express ultimately failed because they were not forward looking. Explain. Those inventions only lasted a short time because they were always uprooted to a more improved version of the original product.

The Transport Web Binds the Union Know: Division of Labor 18. Explain the effects of division of labor on a national and personal basis. Each region now specialized in a particular type of economic activity. The south raised exports on cotton for the East and in Europe; the east made machines and textiles for the South and West. The Market Revolution Know: John Jacob Astor, Social Mobility 19. To what extent was social mobility possible in the United States in the years before the Civil War? Millionaires were rare in the early days of the republic but by the eve of the civil war, several specimens of colossal financial success were strutting across the national stage. Chapter #15: The Ferment of Reform and Culture Big Picture Themes 1. The "Second Great Awakening" began in the 1830s. It's purpose was to wake people from lackluster religion and, like the First Great Awakening, was led by passionate and emotional preachers. 2. The Mormons emerged from these beginnings and wandered westward to the Great Salt Lake. 3. Free public schools began in large measure. 4. There was push to ban alcohol called "temperance." This was led by the ladies; they felt the way to save the family was to ban alcohol. 5. The first women's rights convention was held at Seneca Falls, NY. They asserted that all men, and women were created equal. 6. Many "utopia experiments" began. The overall mission was to perfect society and create true equality. Most simply failed and none of them succeeded in the ways envisioned. IDENTIFICATIONS: Second Great Awakening

A religious movement that was spread to the masses on the frontier by huge camp meetings. It was based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. Shakers Part of the Burn-over district where waves of reform often happened. american religious sect devoted to the teachings of ann lee stanley, prohibited marriage and sexual relationships Mormons a new religion founded by Joseph Smith when he said thathe had received some golden plates from an angel. Brigham Young young took over the Mormons and the people followed him to Utah where they lived and practiced their religion. Transcendentalists an era in American literature where authors focused on nature and feeling of the heart and how nature is the bridge between the spirit world and reality

Ralph Waldo Emerson one of the first American transcendentalism author who did a lot of lyceum lecturers and he urged American writers to throw off European traditions and delve into the riches of their own backyards.

Henry David Thoreau Thoreau condemned a government that supported slavery and he refused to pay his taxes and was jailed for a night. His most famous work is Walden an essay about him living by himself in Walden Pond for two years.

Utopia a society where everyone is happy and everyone is on the same page. A peaceful place that everyone yearns for. Brook Farm A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts

New Harmony this was a society that focused on Utopian Socialism (Communism). It was started by Robert Owens but failed because everybody did not share a fair load of the work.

Oneida Community this was a more radical experiment founded in New York in 1848. It practiced free love, birth control, and the eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring. Temperance Crusade This was the most successful reform movements where Beecher published sermons against drinking the "demon rum" and viewed alcohol as a threat to public morality. Seneca Falls Convention Took place in upper state New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote and married women be freed from unjust laws. This rejected Cult of True Womanhood and Doctrine of separate spheres and launched modern movement for gender equality. American Colonization Society People who expressed moral and religious concern over slavery. 1821 William Lloyd Garrison this radical abolitionist started the anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator. David Walker Black abolitionist who wrote Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World. Hudson River School A group of landscape painters inspired by romanticism. Their group's paintings gave the Hudson River Valley its name GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: Reviving Religion Know: Alexis de Tocqueville, The Age of Reason, Deism, Unitarians, Second Great Awakening, Camp Meetings, Charles Grandison Finney 1. In what ways did religion in the United States become more liberal and more conservative in the early decades of the 19th century? In the 19th the second great awakening focused on deism and Unitarianism. People focused on Gods forgiveness and repentance on a persons sin.

Denominational Diversity Know: Burned-Over-District, Millerites (Adventists) 2. What effect did the Second Great Awakening have on organized religion?

the second great awakening widened the line between classes an regions. The issue of slavery rose and both sides, Methodism and Baptism , had different opinion.

A Desert Zion in Utah (Website if interest: http://www.pbs.org/mormons/view) Know: Joseph Smith, Book of Mormon, Brigham Young 3. What characteristics of the Mormons caused them to be persecuted by their neighbors? The Mormons voted as a unit and drilled their militia for defensive purposes. There was also the belief of polygamy that angered people.

Free Schools for a Free People Know: Three R's, Horace Mann, Noah Webster, McGuffey's Readers 4. What advances were made in the field of education from 1820 to 1850? The advances were that education was more standardized and in the Webster dictionary, Webster created a standard American dialect. Mann went for high wages for teachers and supported education for everyone. Higher Goals for Higher Learning Know: University of Virginia, Oberlin College, Mary Lyon, Lyceum, Magazines 5. In what ways did higher education become more modern in the antebellum years? It was the development of co-ed schools such as Oberlin College where they accepted women and black people. University of Virginia was a religious tolerance schools.

An Age of Reform Know: Sylvester Graham, Penitentiaries, Dorthea Dix 6. How and why did Dorthea Dix participate in the reform movements? Dix was a teacher/author who represented a change in education. She allowed better treatment for the ill ay commenting on their poor condition.

Demon Rum--The "Old Deluder" Know: American Temperance Society, Neil S. Dow, Maine Law of 1851 7. Assess the successfulness of the temperance reformers. They implored drinkers to sign the temperance pledge and organized childrens clubs. Temperance crusaders also made effective use of pictures, pamphlets, and lurid lectures, some of whom were reformed drunkards. It helped people from becoming addicted to alcohol and prevented children from drinking at a young age.

Women in Revolt Know: Spinsters, Alexis de Tocqueville, Cult of Domesticity, Catherine Beecher, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Blackwell, Margaret Fuller, Sarah and Angelina Grimke, Amelia Bloomer, Seneca Falls, Declaration of Sentiments 8. Describe the status of women in the first half of the 19th century. In the beginning, men still dominated the world and women stayed at home taking care of the children and having no rights what so ever. As time went on, people like Beecher inspired women to take action and work on their own. Women soon began to take jobs at textile mills or in education. The home was starting to turn into a place for relaxation and a stress free environment. Women began t have education and being submitted into colleges such as Oberlin College.

Wilderness Utopias Know: Utopias, New Harmony, Brook Farm, Oneida Community, Complex Marriage, Shakers 9. In what ways were utopian communities different from mainstream America? Utopian communities set up places of a cooperative, communistic nature. It was founded by Robert Owen but failed due to contradiction and confusion.

The Dawn of Scientific Achievement Know: Benjamin Silliman, John J. Audubon 10. Was the United States a leader in the world in scientific pursuits? Explain. Yes, because great minds have started to pay closer attention on their surrounds and recording data and publishing their discoveries. I would say that this is just the first step for America in scientific pursuits.

Makers of America: The Oneida Community Know: John Humphrey Noyes, Bible Communism, Mutual Criticism 11. The word "utopia" is a word that is "derived from Greek that slyly combines the meanings of `a good place' and `no such place'." Does the Oneida Community fit this definition? Explain. Yes, because the idea of Oneida was that it practiced free love, birth control, and the parental arrangement to produce superior off springs. If things like those happened there would be superior beings and it would be a good place to live.

Artistic Achievements Know: Thomas Jefferson, Gilbert Stuart, Charles Wilson Peale, John Trumball, Hudson River School, Daguerreotype, Stephen C. Foster 12. "The antebellum period was a time in which American art began to come of age." Assess. What this quote meant was that it was the time period where America was able to create something of their own and express themselves and the American culture.

The Blossoming of a National Literature Know: Knickerbocker Group, Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, William Cullen Bryant 13. In the early 1800's American writers emerged, who were recognized world-wide for their ability. What made them uniquely American? The American authors captured the life of an American frontier and painted America as the nation grew.

Trumpeters of Transcendentalism Know: Transcendentalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Walden: Or Life in the Woods, On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, Walt Whitman 14. Which of the transcendentalists mentioned here best illustrated the theory in his life and writings? Explain. Thoreaus works of Walden and Civil Disobedience best illustrates the theory of transcendentalism life because Thoreau went through what he wrote about.

Glowing Literary Lights Know: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Louisa May Alcott, Emily Dickinson 15. Name six important American writers and explain the significance of each. Longfellow- wrote poems based on American traditions that were popular in European countries. Whittier- his poems cried aloud against inhumanity, injustice, and intolerance. He helped arouse the slavery issue. Lowell- he wrote a lot of political satire. An even better poet in American literature. Holmes- he was a nonconformist and a fascinating conversationalists. Alcott- a transcendentalisms author who wrote Little Women and had to support the family off her works Dickinson- explored the universal themes of nature, love, death, and immortality. She refused to have her work published but when she died, her works soon found their way onto the prints. Literary Individualists and Dissenters Know: Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville 16. Why do you think Poe and Melville were not appreciated as much in America at the time as they were in other times and places? Poe and Melville wrote about things that were abstract in American culture and were seen as a outcast. They stood out because of what they wrote.

Portrayers of the Past Know: George Bancroft, William H. Prescott, Francis Parkman 17. How did the geographic background of early historians affect the history they wrote? Where the historians were located was where the history was twisted to benefit their location. Many historians wrote false history to support their geographic background.