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Cu alte cuvinte nu sunt luate n considerare elePHQWHOH


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P = qvpv - qvc,
n care:
pv SUH

YkQGXW

GH YkQ]DUH XQLWDU

c cost unitar

Excedent brut din


exploatare ( sau
deficit)
5H]XOWDWXO H[SORDW

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Rezultatul curent al
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Rezultatul
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Rezultatul net al
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D SURILWXOXL

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qv FDQWLWDWH

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Venituri financiare

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taxe legate de exploatare

Excedent brut din


exploatare

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Cheltuieli cu personalul

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Exemplu
Spre exemplificarea metodologiei de
YkQ]

ULORU SUHVXSXQHP XUP

YkQ]

ULORU

GLQ

IDFWRULDO

SURILWXOXL

OD

U.M.
mii lei

1998 ( 0)
2.147.500

1999 ( 1)
2.899.000

OD

mii lei

2.510.000

3.473.000



exprimat n:
- costuri unitare din 1998
- SUH XUL GH YkQ]DUH GLQ 
1LYHOXO SURILWXOXL DIHUHQW YkQ]

mii lei
mii lei

X
X

ULORU vQ FHL GRL DQL OXD L vQ FRQV

2.200.000
2.915.000
iderare a fost de:

P0 = qvi0 pvi0 - qvi0 ci0 = 2.510.000 mii lei 2.147.500 mii lei =
= + 362.500 mii lei
P1 = qvi1 pvi1 - qvi1 ci1 = 3.473.000 mii lei 2.899.000 mii lei =
= + 574.000 mii lei
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LL YkQGXWH D DYXW YDO

oarea de:

I qv = qvi1 pvi0/ qvi0 pvi0 = 2.915.000/ 2.899.000 = 1.0055


9DULD LD LQGLFDWRUXOXL DQDOL]DW D IRVW GHFL GH

P = P1 - P0 = 574.000 mii lei 362.500 mii lei = + 211.500 mii lei


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1.

LQIOXHQ

FDQWLW

DIHUHQW

WRDUHOH LQIRUPD LL ILQDQFLDUH

I ndicatori
Cifra de afaceri H[SULPDW
nivelul costurilor
Cifra de afaceri H[SULPDW
nivelul pre XULORU GH YkQ]DUH
1LYHOXO

DQDOL]

LL FRPHUFLDOL]DWH

P (Qv) = Iqv x P0 - P0 = 1.0055 x 362.500 362.500 =

= 364.494 mii lei 362.500 mii lei = + 1.994 mii lei

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2.

LL

ULORU

P (gi) = ( qvi1 pvi0 - qvi1 ci0) - Iqv x P0 =

= (2.915.000 2.200.000) 364.494 = + 350.506 mii lei


LQIOXHQ D

3.

costului unitar al produselor comercializate:

P (ci) = ( qvi1 pvi0 - qvi1 ci1) - ( qvi1 pvi0 - qvi1 ci0) =

= 16.000 mii lei - 715.000 mii lei = - 699.000 mii lei


LQIOXHQ D SUH XOXL GH YkQ]DUH SH SURGXVH

4.

P (pvi) = ( qvi1 pvi1 - qvi1 ci1) - ( qvi1 pvi0 - qvi1 ci1) =

= P1 - ( qvi1 pvi0 - qvi1 ci1) = 574.000 mii lei 16.000 mii lei =
= + 558.000 mii lei
6H FRQVWDW

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s-D

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GH

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D QHIDYRUDELO

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FX

comparare cu

DFHODL

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GH

activitate).

Pnet
100
Active totale

Rrecon =

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XWLOL]

ULL FDSLWDOXOXL WRWDO GLVSRQLELO FX DOWH FXYLQWH I

VWUXFWXUD

GH

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GH

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6H GHWHUPLQ
FDSLWDOXOXL

FHOH

cei externi.

LL ILQDQFLDUH

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SURSULX

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B-

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IL

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vQ

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valorile indicatorului n cazul firmelor concurente

WUH FRPSDQLH L YDORDUHD


VDX
FX

SULQ

FRPSDUDUH

DFHODL

GRPHQLX

FX
GH

activitate).

Rrfin =

([SULP
SHQWUX

Pnet
100
Cap. propriu
HILFLHQ D FX FDUH DX IRVW IRORVLWH VXUVHOH GH QDWXU
GHWHUPLQDUHD

DF LRQDULL ILUPHL

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GH

WUH

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C Rate de r HQWDELOLWDWH DOH DF


C1 5DWD

LL

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SURILW SH DF LXQH

Pnet
PA =

1XP

$YkQG vQ YHGHUH F

activLWDWHD

GHVI

100

GLYLGHQGHOH FRQVWLWXLH R DORFDUH D SURILWXOXL QHW GHJDMDW GH

XUDW

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C2 5DWD

U DF LXQL HPLVH

GH F

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D UHPXQHU

ULL

UDW

R LPDJLQH GHVSUH

FDSLWDOXOXL UDSRUWDW GH DF LRQDULDW

GLYLGHQG SH DF LXQH

Fond total dividende


DA =

$UDW

1XP

U DF LXQL HPLVH

FkWLJXO UHDOL]DW GH F

LQYHVWL LHL
FXPS

100

WUH DF LRQDULL ILUPHL FX DOWH FXYLQWH UHPXQHUDUHD

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ILQDQFLDU

SH

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SUH

FDUH

DFHWLD

DX

UHDOL]DW

-o prin

L FRPHUFLDOH

SH SURILW SH DF LXQH

&XUVXO EXUVLHU DO DF LXQLL

PPA =

$UDW

3URILWXO QHW SH DF LXQH

100

FkW GH UHSHGH VH SRDWH UHFXSHUD LQYHVWL LD vQ DF LXQLOH ILUPHL vQ FD]XO vQ

FDUH WRW SURILWXO QHW DU IL GLVWULEXLW DF LRQDULORU VXE IRUPD GLYLGHQGHORU &X FkW
YDORDUHD DFHVWHL UDWH HVWH PDL UHGXV

D
6H

5DWD UHQWDELOLW

GHWHUPLQ

ILUP

SULQ

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R VWDUH PDL EXQ

LL FRPHUFLDOH

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SURILWXOXL

DIHUHQW

YkQ]

ULORU

OD YDORDUHD DFHVWRUD ,PSRUWDQ D DFHVWHL UDWH UH]LG

HYLGHQ

HILFLHQ D IXQF LHL FRPHUFLDOH D ILUPHL

3URILW DIHUHQW YkQ]

Rrcom =

ULORU
u

Cifra de afaceri

100

UHDOL]DWH

vQ IDSWXO F

GH

WUH

SXQH vQ

$QDOL]D HFRQRPLF

$QDOL]D

L ILQDQFLDU

DFHVWHL

UDWH

IDFWRUL GH LQIOXHQ

D ILUPHL

SRDWH

OXD

vQ

FRQVLGHUDUH

PRGHOXO

IDFWRULDO

FHL

WUHL

vQ DFHVW FD] ILLQG

VWUXFWXUD YkQ]

ULORU SH SURGXVH VDX VHUYLFLL 

costul unitar al produselor;

SUH XO GH FRPHUFLDOL]DU

e.

Analiza ratelor de rentabilitate cu ajutorul modelului DuPont


0RGHOXO

'X3RQW

XWLOL]HD]

SHQWUX

DQDOL]D

HYROX LHL

GHVFRPSXQHUHD UDWHL GH UHQWDELOLWDWH ILQDQFLDU


XUP

UDWHORU

GH

UHQWDELOLWDWH

 0HWRGRORJLD GH DQDOL]

WRDUHD

Rrfin =

Pnet
Pnet
total active
100 =
100
Capital propriu
total active
capital propriu

&X DOWH FXYLQWH UDWD UHQWDELOLW

UDWD UHQWDELOLW

DXWRQRPLD ILQDQFLDU

/D UkQGXO V

LL ILQDQFLDUH HVWH SURGXVXO GLQWUH

LL HFRQRPLFH
LQGLFDWRU GH VROYDELOLWDWH 

X UDWD UHQWDELOLW

LL HFRQRPLFH SRDWH IL GHFRPSXV

Pnet
Rrecon =

9kQ]

Pnet
u

100 =

Total active
'HFL UHQWDELOLWDWHD HFRQRPLF

9kQ]

DVWIHO

UL

HVWH HIHFWXO DF LXQLL

ratei marjei L

URWD LHL DFWLYHORU WRWDOH LQGLFDWRU GH JHVWLXQH

UL

100 =
Total active

HVWH

3URILWXO L UHQWDELOLWDWHD DFWLYLW

6.4

LL

Analiza profitului unitar

Pentru analiza profitului unitar se poate utiliza modelul:


Pu = pv c,
n care:
pv SUH

XO GH YkQ]DUH XQLWDU

c costul unitar
Q

FHHD

FH

SULYHWH

FRVWXO

XQLWDU

cesta poate fi descompus n cost direct

XQLWDU L FRVW LQGLUHFW DORFDW SH SURGXV SH ED]

GH FKHL GH UHSDUWL LH 

C = cd + cind
/D UkQGXO V
GH

X FRVWXO GLUHFW XQLWDU HVWH RE LQXW SULQ FXPXODUHD FRQVXPXULORU

PDWHULL

SULPH

PDWHULDOH

FRQVXPXULOH GH PDQRSHU

GLUHFW

VHPLIDEULFDWH

GDF

este cazul) directe cu

YH]L DQDOL]D FRVWXOXL XQLWDU 

cd = cmd + csd
'HIDOFDUHD

FKHOWXLHOLORU

UHSUH]HQWkQG

PDWHULL

SULPH

PDWHULDOH

GLUHFWH

LQH

cont de consumul specific pe unitatea de produs (factor cantitativ) precuP

GH SUH XO GH DSURYL]LRQDUH IDFWRU FDOLWDWLY 

Cmd = cs x pa
Q

FHHD

FH

SULYHWH

FKHOWXLHOLOH

FX

VDODULLOH

GLUHFWH

WLPSXOXL GH OXFUX SH XQLWDWHD GH SURGXV VDX SH ID]

de salariul mediu tarifar (oraU


csd = t x sh

DFHVWHD

VXQW

UH]XOWDWXO

D SURFHVXOXL WHKQRORJLF L

SH FDWHJRULL GH VDODULDW L SH ID]

WHKQRORJLF

$QDOL]D HFRQRPLF

L ILQDQFLDU

D ILUPHL

CONSUM
SPECIFIC
COST
MATERII
DIRECTE

X
35(

'(

APROVIZ.
COST
UNITAR

+
TIMP DE
LUCRU

PROFI T
UNITAR

SALARII
DIRECTE

--

X
SALARIU
TARIFAR

35(

'(

VNZARE

6.5

Strategii n domeniul profitului

0HFDQLVPXO

IRUP

ED]HD]

SULRULWDWH

FX

ULL

SUH XOXL
GH

GH

YkQ]DUH

UDSRUWXO

GLQWUH

vQ

FRQGL LLOH

FHUHUH

HFRQRPLHL

RIHUW

GH

SLD

)RUPDUHD

vQV

VH
vQ

H[FOXVLYLWDWH D SUH XOXL GH YkQ]DUH FD HIHFW DO DF LXQLL IDFWRULORU H[RJHQL HVWH


vQV

GHRVHELW GH SHULFXORDV

 0DQDJHPHQWXO ILUPHL WUHEXLH V

IXQGDPHQWH]H

QLYHOXO SUH XOXL GH FRPHUFLDOL]DUH D SURGXVXOXL L SULQ OXDUHD vQ FRQVLGHUDUH D


DF LXQLL IDFWRULORU GH QDWXU

HQGRJHQ

 UHVSHFWLY

D P

ULPLL FRVWXOXL FRPSOHW

unitar.
)LUPD GH FRQVXOWDQ

Boston Consulting Group a elaborat o matrice care ia n

considerare diferitele raporturi care se pot stabili ntre cei doi indicatori
GHRVHELW

GH

LPSRUWDQ L

OD

QLYHOXO

XQXL

SURGXV

FRVWXO

SUH XO

GH

FRPHUFLDOL]DUH 6FRSXO SULQFLSDO DO PDWULFHL HVWH GH D HYLGHQ LD SDWUX VWUDWHJLL


JHQHULFH SHQWUX FDUH SRDWH RSWD PDQDJHPHQWXO VRFLHW

LL FRPHUFLDOH

3URILWXO L UHQWDELOLWDWHD DFWLYLW




SPECI ALI ZARE

 


A
v
a
+
n
t
a
j

Marja a

Marja b

cost

Strategia de

cost

I MPAS

Strategia de

VOLUM

 


d
e

 


p
r
e
t

Strategia de

 


Strategia de

LL

Marja d

Marja c

cost
cost

Strategia de volum
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HIHFW

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VH

LQGLFDW

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SUH]HQWDW
SX LQ

Avantaj de cost

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ODUJ

SUREDELO

vQ

DOHV

SULQ

FD]XO

HIHFWXO

FDGUXO

HYROX LH

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vQ

FDUH

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SH

vQ

,,

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VHFWRUXO

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L

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WUH %&* $UJXPHQWXO SULQFLSDO

SH FDUH vO DGXFHP HVWH JHQHUDW GH DFFHQWXDUHD LQHYLWDELO

D FRQFXUHQ HL GLQ

cadrul sectorului de activitate, marea majoritate a firmelor optnd pentru


reduceUHD

FRUHVSXQ]

PDUMD XQLWDU

WRDUH

SUH XOXL

GH

YkQ]DUH

FX

DOWH

VHFWRDUHOH

vQ

FDUH

FXYLQWH

VWUkQG

GH SURILW L QX PDMRUkQG

Strategia de impas

-o.

FDUDFWHUL]HD]

ILUPHORU HVWH GH D PHQ LQH PDUMHOH XQLWDUH GH SURILW GDWRULW


D SURGXVXOXL L D OLSVHL HIHFWHORU JHQHUDWH GH F
H[SHULHQ HL HWF

FRPSRUWDPHQWXO
VODEHL GLIHUHQ LHUL

WUH HFRQRPLLOH GH VFDU

 HIHFWXO

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L ILQDQFLDU

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