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NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR

COMMUNICATIONS
K.Manju Lakshmi,B.Sc(cs),J.P.College, Tenkasi.
S.Maripushpam,B.Sc(cs)J.P.College,Tenkasi.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

Information technology is
considered one such mega
phenomenon that has happened to the
mankind and that has brought in
metamorphosis in the life of the
society. Computer technology and
communication technology can
revolutionize the life of the society.
one of the latest development in
the communication is the
“nanotechnology”.(nano=10^-9)
It is a great wonder that such a
seemingly simple communication and
information transportation system is
using “nanotechnology”

OBJECTIVES

TO KNOW ABOUT :

Wireless communication

Introduction
Applications

Satelite mobile communications

Global System for Mobile


GSM applications

Mobile computing
Methodology:

Sources are collected from the


website Wikipedia.com

Conclusion:

The pre dominant technology in


communication is “wireless
technology” and it was estabilished by
the “Satelite communication”. The
application of the technology is to
develop the capability of transferring
information from one place to another.
What is Nanotechnology?
A basic definition:
Nanotechnology is the
engineering of functional
systems at the molecular
scale. This covers both
current work and concepts
that are more advanced.

In its original sense,


'nanotechnology' refers to
the projected ability to
construct items from the
bottom up, using
With 15,342 atoms, this parallel-shaft speed
techniques and tools being reducer gear is one of the largest
developed today to make nanomechanical devices ever modeled in atomic
complete, high detail. LINK
performance products.

The Meaning of Nanotechnology

When K. Eric Drexler (right) popularized the word 'nanotechnology' in the 1980's, he was talking
about building machines on the scale of molecules, a few nanometers wide—motors, robot
arms, and even whole computers, far smaller than a cell. Drexler spent the next ten years
describing and analyzing these incredible devices, and responding to accusations of science
fiction. Meanwhile, mundane technology was developing the ability to build simple structures
on a molecular scale. As nanotechnology became an accepted concept, the meaning of the
word shifted to encompass the simpler kinds of nanometer-scale technology. The U.S. National
Nanotechnology Initiative was created to fund this kind of nanotech: their definition includes
anything smaller than 100 nanometers with novel properties.

Four Generations
Mihail (Mike) Roco of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative has described four
generations of nanotechnology development (see chart below). The current era, as Roco
depicts it, is that of passive nanostructures, materials designed to perform one task. The
second phase, which we are just entering, introduces active nanostructures for multitasking;
for example, actuators, drug delivery devices, and sensors. The third generation is expected to
begin emerging around 2010 and will feature nanosystems with thousands of interacting
components. A few years after that, the first integrated nanosystems, functioning (according to
Roco) much like a mammalian cell with hierarchical systems within systems, are expected to be
developed.
General-Purpose Technology

Nanotechnology is sometimes referred to as a general-purpose technology. That's because in its


advanced form it will have significant impact on almost all industries and all areas of society. It
will offer better built, longer lasting, cleaner, safer, and smarter products for the home, for
communications, for medicine, for transportation, for agriculture, and for industry in general.

Imagine a medical device that travels through the human body to seek out and destroy
small clusters of cancerous cells before they can spread. Or a box no larger than a sugar
cube that contains the entire contents of the Library of Congress. Or materials much
lighter than steel that possess ten times as much strength. — U.S. National Science
Foundation

Dual-Use Technology

Like electricity or computers before it, nanotech will offer greatly improved efficiency in
almost every facet of life. But as a general-purpose technology, it will be dual-use, meaning it
will have many commercial uses and it also will have many military uses—making far more
powerful weapons and tools of surveillance. Thus it represents not only wonderful benefits for
humanity, but also grave risks.

A key understanding of nanotechnology is that it offers not just better products, but a vastly
improved manufacturing process. A computer can make copies of data files—essentially as many
copies as you want at little or no cost. It may be only a matter of time until the building of
products becomes as cheap as the copying of files. That's the real meaning of nanotechnology,
and why it is sometimes seen as "the next industrial revolution."
APPLICATIONS OF NANO
TECHNOLOGY

Wireless
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search


For other uses, see Wireless (disambiguation).

Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of
electrical conductors or "wires".[1] The distances involved may be short (a few meters as
in television remote control) or long (thousands or millions of kilometers for radio
communications). When the context is clear, the term is often shortened to "wireless".
Wireless communication is generally considered to be a branch of telecommunications.

It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two way radios, cellular
telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples
of wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers and or garage doors,
wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, satellite television and cordless
telephones.

Introduction

Handheld wireless radios such as this Maritime VHF radio transceiver use
electromagnetic waves to implement a form of wireless communications technology.

Wireless operations permits services, such as long range communications, that are
impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used
in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio
transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network terminals, etc.)
which use some form of energy (e.g. radio frequency (RF), infrared light, laser light,
visible light, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires.[2]
Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.

Wireless communication
The term "wireless" has become a generic and all-encompassing word used to describe
communications in which electromagnetic waves or RF (rather than some form of wire)
carry a signal over part or the entire communication path. Common examples of wireless
equipment in use today include:

• Professional LMR (Land Mobile Radio) and SMR (Specialized Mobile Radio)
typically used by business, industrial and Public Safety entities
• Consumer Two Way Radio including FRS (Family Radio Service), GMRS
(General Mobile Radio Service) and Citizens band ("CB") radios
• The Amateur Radio Service (Ham radio)
• Consumer and professional Marine VHF radios
• Cellular telephones and pagers: provide connectivity for portable and mobile
applications, both personal and business.
• Global Positioning System (GPS): allows drivers of cars and trucks, captains of
boats and ships, and pilots of aircraft to ascertain their location anywhere on
earth.
• Cordless computer peripherals: the cordless mouse is a common example;
keyboards and printers can also be linked to a computer via wireless.
• Cordless telephone sets: these are limited-range devices, not to be confused with
cell phones.
• Satellite television: allows viewers in almost any location to select from hundreds
of channels.
• Wireless gaming: new gaming consoles allow players to interact and play in the
same game regardless of whether they are playing on different consoles. Players
can chat, send text messages as well as record sound and send it to their friends.
Controllers also use wireless technology. They do not have any cords but they can
send the information from what is being pressed on the controller to the main
console which then processes this information and makes it happen in the game.
All of these steps are completed in milliseconds.

Wireless networking (i.e. the various types of unlicensed 2.4 GHz WiFi devices) is used
to meet many needs. Perhaps the most common use is to connect laptop users who travel
from location to location. Another common use is for mobile networks that connect via
satellite. A wireless transmission method is a logical choice to network a LAN segment
that must frequently change locations. The following situations justify the use of wireless
technology:

• To span a distance beyond the capabilities of typical cabling,


• To avoid obstacles such as physical structures, EMI, or RFI,
• To provide a backup communications link in case of normal network failure,
• To link portable or temporary workstations,
• To overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult or financially
impractical, or
• To remotely connect mobile users or networks.

Wireless communication can be via:

• radio frequency communication,


• microwave communication, for example long-range line-of-sight via highly
directional antennas, or short-range communication, or
• infrared (IR) short-range communication, for example from remote controls or via
IRDA.

Applications may involve point-to-point communication, point-to-multipoint


communication, broadcasting, cellular networks and other wireless networks.

The term "wireless" should not be confused with the term "cordless", which is generally
used to refer to powered electrical or electronic devices that are able to operate from a
portable power source (e.g. a battery pack) without any cable or cord to limit the mobility
of the cordless device through a connection to the mains power supply. Some cordless
devices, such as cordless telephones, are also wireless in the sense that information is
transferred from the cordless telephone to the telephone's base unit via some type of
wireless communications link. This has caused some disparity in the usage of the term
"cordless", for example in Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications.

In the last fifty years, wireless communications industry experienced drastic changes
driven by many technology innovations.

Applications of wireless technology


Security systems

Wireless technology may supplement or replace hard wired implementations in security


systems for homes or office buildings.

Television remote control

Modern televisions use wireless (generally infrared) remote control units. Now radio
waves are also used.

Cellular telephony (phones and modems)

Perhaps the best known example of wireless technology is the cellular


telephone and modems. These instruments use radio waves to enable the
operator to make phone calls from many locations world-wide. They can
be used anywhere that there is a cellular telephone site to house the
equipment that is required to transmit and receive the signal

WiFi

Main article: Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi (for wireless fidelity) is a wireless LAN technology that enables laptop PC’s,
PDA’s, and other devices to connect easily to the internet. Technically known as IEEE
802.11 a,b,g,n, Wi-Fi is less expensive and nearing the speeds of standard Ethernet and
other common wire-based LAN technologies. Several Wi-Fi hot spots have been popular
over the past few years. Some businesses charge customers a monthly fee for service,
while others have begun offering it for free in an effort to increase the sales of their
goods.[6]

Wireless energy transfer

Main article: Wireless energy transfer

Wireless energy transfer is a process whereby electrical energy is transmitted from a


power source to an electrical load that does not have a built-in power source, without the
use of interconnecting wires.

Computer Interface Devices

Answering the call of customers frustrated with cord clutter, many manufactures of
computer peripherals turned to wireless technology to satisfy their consumer base.
Originally these units used bulky, highly limited transceivers to mediate between a
computer and a keyboard and mouse, however more recent generations have used small,
high quality devices, some even incorporating Bluetooth. These systems have become so
ubiquitous that some users have begun complaining about a lack of wired peripherals.[who?]
Wireless devices tend to have a slightly slower response time than there wired
counterparts, however the gap is decreasing. Initial concerns about the security of
wireless keyboards have also been addressed with the maturation of the technology.

Many scientists have complained that wireless technology interferes with their
experiments, forcing them to use less optimal peripherals because the optimum one is not
available in a wired version.[who?] This has become especially prevalent among scientists
who use trackballs as the number of models in production steadily decreases.

Categories of wireless implementations, devices and


standards
• Radio communication system
• Broadcasting
• Amateur radio
• Land Mobile Radio or Professional Mobile Radio: TETRA, P25, OpenSky,
EDACS, DMR, dPMR
• Communication radio
• Cordless telephony:DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications)
• Cellular systems: 0G, 1G, 2G, 3G, Beyond 3G (4G), Future wireless
• List of emerging technologies
• Short-range point-to-point communication : Wireless microphones, Remote
controls, IrDA, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), Wireless USB, DSRC
(Dedicated Short Range Communications), EnOcean, Near Field Communication
• Wireless sensor networks: ZigBee, EnOcean; Personal area networks, Bluetooth,
TransferJet, Ultra-wideband (UWB from WiMedia Alliance).
• Wireless computer networks: Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN), (IEEE
802.11 branded as WiFi and HiperLAN), Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks
(WMAN) and Broadband Fixed Access (BWA) (LMDS, WiMAX, AIDAAS and
HiperMAN)
Mobile computing
Mobile computing is a generic term describing one's ability to use technology while
moving, as opposed to portable computers, which are only practical for use while
deployed in a stationary configuration.

Telxon PTC-710 is a 16-bit mobile computer PTC-710 with MP 830-42 microprinter 42-
column version. It was manufactured by the Telxon corporation since early 1990s. This
one was used for example as portable ticket machine by Czech Railways (České dráhy) in
1990s.

Many types of mobile computers have been introduced since the 1990s, including the:

• Wearable computer
• Personal digital assistant/Enterprise digital assistant
• Smartphone
• Carputer
• Ultra-Mobile PC

Technical and other limitations of mobile computing


• Insufficient bandwidth

Mobile internet access is generally slower than direct cable connections, using
technologies such as GPRS and EDGE, and more recently 3G networks. These networks
are usually available within range of commercial cell phone towers. Higher speed
wireless LANs are inexpensive, but have very limited range.

• Security standards
When working mobile one is dependent on public networks, requiring careful use of
VPNs.

• Power consumption

When a power outlet or portable generator is not available, mobile computers must rely
entirely on battery power. Combined with the compact size of many mobile devices, this
often means unusually expensive batteries must be used to obtain the necessary battery
life.

• Transmission interferences

Weather, terrain, and the range from the nearest signal point can all interfere with signal
reception. Reception in tunnels, some buildings, and rural areas is often poor.

• Potential health hazards

More car accidents are related to drivers who were talking through a mobile device. Cell
phones may interfere with sensitive medical devices. There are allegations that cell phone
signals may cause health problems.[citation needed]

• Human interface with device

Screens and keyboards tend to be small, which may make them harder to use. Alternate
input methods such as speech or handwriting recognition require training.

1. GH Forman, J Zahorjan - Computer, 1994 - doi.ieeecomputersociety.org


2. David P. Helmbold, "A dynamic disk spin-down technique for mobile
computing", citeseer.ist.psu.edu, 1996
3. MH Repacholi, "health risks from the use of mobile phones", Toxicology Letters,
2001 - Elsevier
4. Landay, J.A. Kaufmann, T.R., "user interface issues in mobile computing",
Workstation Operating Systems, 1993.
5. T Imielinski, BR Badrinath "mobile wireless computing, challenges in data
management- Communications of the ACM, 1994 - portal.acm.org

Mobile computing: in-vehicle computing and fleet


computing
Many commercial and government field forces deploy a ruggedized portable computer
such as the Panasonic Toughbook or larger rack-mounted computers with their fleet of
vehicles. This requires the units to be anchored to the vehicle for driver safety, device
security, and user ergonomics. Ruggedized computers are rated for severe vibration
associated with large service vehicles and off-road driving, and the harsh environmental
conditions of constant professional use such as in EMS, fire and public safety.
Other elements that enables the unit to function in vehicle:

• Operating Temperature: A vehicle cabin can often experience temperature swings


from -20F to +140F. Computers typically must be able to withstand these
temperatures while operating. Typical fan based cooling has stated limits of 95F-
100F of ambient temperature, and temperature below freezing require localized
heaters to bring components up to operating temperature(based on independent
studies by the SRI Group and by Panasonic R&D).
• Vibration: Vehicles typically have considerable vibration that can decrease life
expectancy of computer components, notably rotational storage such as HDDs.
• Daylight, or sunlight readability: Visibility of standard screens becomes an issue
in bright sunlight.
• Touchscreens: These enable users to easily interact with the units in the field
without removing gloves.
• High-Temperature Battery Settings:. Lithium Ion batteries are sensitive to high
temperature conditions for charging. A computer designed for the mobile
environment should be designed with a high-temperature charging function that
limits the charge to 85% or less of capacity.
• External wireless Connections, and External GPS Antenna Connections:
Necessary to contend with the typical metal cabins of vehicles and their impact on
wireless reception, and to take advantage of much more capable external
tranception equipment.

Several specialized manufacturers such as National Products Inc (Ram Mounts), Gamber
Johnson and LedCo build mounts for vehicle mounting of computer equipment for
specific vehicles. The mounts are built to withstand the harsh conditions and maintain
ergonomics.

Specialized installation companies, such as TouchStar Pacific, specialize in designing the


mount design, assembling the proper parts, and installing them in a safe and consistent
manner away from airbags, vehicle HVAC controls, and driver controls. Frequently
installations will include a WWAN modem, power conditioning equipment, and
WWAN/WLAN/GPS/etc… transceiver antennæ mounted external to the vehicle.

Portable computing devices


There are several categories of portable computing devices that can run on batteries but
are not usually classified as laptops: portable computers, keyboardless tablet PCs,
Internet tablets, PDAs, Ultra Mobile PCs (UMPCs) and smartphones.
The Compaq Portable

A keyboard-less tablet PC

A Palm TX PDA

A Nokia N800 Internet tablet

A Portable computer is a general-purpose computer that can be easily moved from place
to place, but cannot be used while in transit, usually because it requires some "setting-up"
and an AC power source. The most famous example is the Osborne 1. Portable computers
are also called a "transportable" or a "luggable" PC.

A Tablet PC that lacks a keyboard (also known as a non-convertible Tablet PC) is shaped
like slate or a paper notebook, features a touchscreen with a stylus and handwriting
recognition software. Tablets may not be best suited for applications requiring a physical
keyboard for typing, but are otherwise capable of carrying out most tasks that an ordinary
laptop would be able to perform.

An Internet tablet is an Internet appliance in tablet form. Unlike a Tablet PC, an Internet
tablet does not have much computing power and its applications suite is limited, and it
can not replace a general purpose computer. Internet tablets typically feature an MP3 and
video player, a web browser, a chat application and a picture viewer.
A Personal digital assistant (PDA) is a small, usually pocket-sized, computer with limited
functionality. It is intended to supplement and to synchronize with a desktop computer,
giving access to contacts, address book, notes, e-mail and other features.

An Ultra Mobile PC is a full-featured, PDA-sized computer running a general-purpose


operating system.

A Smart phone is a PDA with an integrated cellphone functionality. Current smartphones


have a wide range of features and installable applications.
Global System Mobile communications
.

The GSM logo is used to identify compatible handsets and equipment

GSM world coverage as of 2008

GSM (Global System for Mobile communications: originally from Groupe Spécial
Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. Its promoter, the
GSM Association, estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard.[1]
GSM is used by over 3 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories.[2][3]
Its ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators,
enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs from its
predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital, and thus is considered
a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This has also meant that data
communication was easy to build into the system.

The ubiquity of the GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers (who benefit
from the ability to roam and switch carriers without switching phones) and also to
network operators (who can choose equipment from any of the many vendors
implementing GSM[4]). GSM also pioneered a low-cost (to the network carrier)
alternative to voice calls, the short message service (SMS, also called "text messaging"),
which is now supported on other mobile standards as well. Another advantage is that the
standard includes one worldwide emergency telephone number, 112.[5] This makes it
easier for international travellers to connect to emergency services without knowing the
local emergency number.


Technical details
Cellular radio network

Main article: Cellular network

GSM is a cellular network, which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching
for cells in the immediate vicinity.

There are five different cell sizes in a GSM network—macro, micro, pico, femto and
umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation
environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is
installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level. Micro cells are cells whose
antenna height is under average roof top level; they are typically used in urban areas.
Picocells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen metres; they are mainly
used indoors. Femtocells are cells designed for use in residential or small business
environments and connect to the service provider’s network via a broadband internet
connection. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in
gaps in coverage between those cells.

Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna gain and propagation
conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of kilometres. The longest
distance the GSM specification supports in practical use is 35 kilometres (22 mi). There
are also several implementations of the concept of an extended cell[12], where the cell
radius could be double or even more, depending on the antenna system, the type of
terrain and the timing advance.

Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor
picocell base station, or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through
power splitters, to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate
indoor distributed antenna system. These are typically deployed when a lot of call
capacity is needed indoors; for example, in shopping centers or airports. However, this is
not a prerequisite, since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of
the radio signals from any nearby cell.

The modulation used in GSM is Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK), a kind of


continuous-phase frequency shift keying. In GMSK, the signal to be modulated onto the
carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter prior to being fed to a frequency
modulator, which greatly reduces the interference to neighboring channels (adjacent
channel interference).

Interference with audio devices

Some audio devices are susceptible to radio frequency interference (RFI), which could be
mitigated or eliminated by use of additional shielding and/or bypass capacitors in these
audio devices. However, the increased cost of doing so is difficult for a designer to
justify.[13]

It is a common occurrence for a nearby GSM handset to induce a "dit, dit di-dit, dit di-dit,
dit di-dit" audio output on PAs, wireless microphones, home stereo systems, televisions,
computers, cordless phones, and personal music devices. When these audio devices are in
the near field of the GSM handset, the radio signal is strong enough that the solid state
amplifiers in the audio chain act as a detector. The clicking noise itself represents the
power bursts that carry the TDMA signal. These signals have been known to interfere
with other electronic devices, such as car stereos and portable audio players. This also
depends on the handset's design, and its conformance to strict rules and regulations
allocated by the US body, the FCC, in part 15 of its rules and regulations pertaining to
interference with electronic devices.

GSM frequencies

Main article: GSM frequency ranges

GSM networks operate in a number of different frequency ranges (separated into GSM
frequency ranges for 2G and UMTS frequency bands for 3G). Most 2G GSM networks
operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Some countries in the Americas (including
Canada and the United States) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900
and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated. Most 3G GSM networks in
Europe operate in the 2100 MHz frequency band.

The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries where these
frequencies were previously used for first-generation systems.

GSM-900 uses 890–915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base
station (uplink) and 935–960 MHz for the other direction (downlink), providing 125 RF
channels (channel numbers 0 to 124) spaced at 200 kHz. Duplex spacing of 45 MHz is
used.

In some countries the GSM-900 band has been extended to cover a larger frequency
range. This 'extended GSM', E-GSM, uses 880–915 MHz (uplink) and 925–960 MHz
(downlink), adding 50 channels (channel numbers 975 to 1023 and 0) to the original
GSM-900 band. Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight full-rate or sixteen
half-rate speech channels per radio frequency channel. There are eight radio timeslots
(giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a TDMA frame. Half rate
channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel data rate for all 8
channels is 270.833 kbit/s, and the frame duration is 4.615 ms.

The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in


GSM850/900 and 1 watt in GSM1800/1900.

Network structure
The structure of a GSM network

The network behind the GSM seen by the customer is large and complicated in order to
provide all of the services which are required. It is divided into a number of sections and
these are each covered in separate articles.

• the Base Station Subsystem (the base stations and their controllers).
• the Network and Switching Subsystem (the part of the network most similar to a
fixed network). This is sometimes also just called the core network.
• the GPRS Core Network (the optional part which allows packet based Internet
connections).
• all of the elements in the system combine to produce many GSM services such as
voice calls and SMS.

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

Main article: Subscriber Identity Module

One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module, commonly known as a
SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's subscription
information and phone book. This allows the user to retain his or her information after
switching handsets. Alternatively, the user can also change operators while retaining the
handset simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing the
phone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM issued by them; this practice is known as
SIM locking, and is illegal in some countries.

In Australia, North America and Europe many operators lock the mobiles they sell. This
is done because the price of the mobile phone is typically subsidised with revenue from
subscriptions, and operators want to try to avoid subsidising competitor's mobiles. A
subscriber can usually contact the provider to remove the lock for a fee, utilize private
services to remove the lock, or make use of ample software and websites available on the
Internet to unlock the handset themselves. While most web sites offer the unlocking for a
fee, some do it for free. The locking applies to the handset, identified by its International
Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number, not to the account (which is identified by the
SIM card).

In some countries such as Bangladesh, Belgium, Costa Rica, Indonesia, Malaysia, Hong
Kong and Pakistan, all phones are sold unlocked. However, in Belgium, it is unlawful for
operators there to offer any form of subsidy on the phone's price. This was also the case
in Finland until April 1, 2006, when selling subsidized combinations of handsets and
accounts became legal, though operators have to unlock phones free of charge after a
certain period (at most 24 months).

GSM security

GSM was designed with a moderate level of security. The system was designed to
authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and challenge-response.
Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted. The
development of UMTS introduces an optional USIM, that uses a longer authentication
key to give greater security, as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user -
whereas GSM only authenticates the user to the network (and not vice versa). The
security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication, but limited
authorization capabilities, and no non-repudiation. GSM uses several cryptographic
algorithms for security. The A5/1 and A5/2 stream ciphers are used for ensuring over-the-
air voice privacy. A5/1 was developed first and is a stronger algorithm used within
Europe and the United States; A5/2 is weaker and used in other countries. Serious
weaknesses have been found in both algorithms: it is possible to break A5/2 in real-time
with a ciphertext-only attack, and in February 2008, Pico Computing, Inc revealed its
ability and plans to commercialize FPGAs that allow A5/1 to be broken with a rainbow
table attack.[15] The system supports multiple algorithms so operators may replace that
cipher with a stronger one.

Standards information
The GSM systems and services are described in a set of standards governed by ETSI,
where a full list is maintained.[16]

Example specifications

GSM 07.07 "AT command set for GSM Mobile Equipment (ME)"
describes the Main AT commands to communicate via a serial interface

with the GSM


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