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CAPITOLUL I

PREZENTAREA GENERAL A
S.C. ZAHR CORABIA S.A.
1
1.1. Amplasamentul societaii
Fig. 1.
Societatea comercial S.C. ZAHR CORAIA S.A. e!te am"la!at "e tera!a i#$erioar a
%&#rii c& o'iecti(e )i *# L&#ca %&#rii +&" c&m &rmea, -
.Se+i&l !ociet/ii e!te am"la!at "e "lat$orma i#+&!trial Cora'ia (e!t0 la limita ora)&l&i
$ii#+ c&"ri#! i#tre %N #r. 12 A Cora'ia ec3et0A&to!er(ice %acia0+r&m&l ora)e#e!c Cora'ia
S.C. IELIF CO4SRO4 )i !ocietatea +e co#!tr&c/ii RO4CO4 CRAIO5A. At6t la "artea e!tic
c6t )i la "artea (e!tic !e *#(eci#ea, c& "ro"iet/i "artic&lare .
2
.C6m"&rile +e #mol !&#t !it&ate i# l&#ca %&#rii 0*# a$ara i#ci#tei *#+ig&ite $ii#+
c&"ri#!e i#tre +r&m&l +e acce! la !ta/ia +e "om"are 1 )i +ig&l +e a"rare a mal&rilor .
.Sta/ia +e "om"are #r.1 !e *#(eci#ea, c& %&#rea )i c& !ta/ia +e "om"are a S.C. IELIF
CO4SRO4 c& care $ace cor" com&#.
.Sta/ia +e "om"are #r.7 e!te !it&at *# L&#ca %&#rii *# a$ara ,o#ei *#+ig&ite
i#(eci#6#+&.!e c& i!la,&l com&#al.
.Li#ia +e gara8 +i# a$ara i#ci#tei0!e i#(eci#ea, c& co#+&cta +e termo$icare a ora)&l&i
0li#iile +e gara8 a S.C. CORAPET0 S.C.CO4ICARA0 S.C.CORI4S )i ale $a'ricii +e "6i#e.
Am"la!ame#tele #& a& re!tric/ii $a/ +e "la#&l )i reg&lame#tele &r'a#i!tice.
1.2. Descrierea procesului productive
O'iecti(&l "ri#ci"al al acti(it/ii +e "ro+&c/ie *l co#!tit&ie (alori$icarea re!&r!elor +e
!$ecl +e ,a3r "ri# "ro+&cerea )i comerciali,area ,a3r&l&i to! alime#tar0 "rec&m )i a
"ro+&!elor !ec&#+are 9mela! )i 'or3ot: re,&ltate +i# "rel&crarea !$eclei +e ,a3r.
Ca"acitatea +e "rel&crare e!te +e ;<<< t=,i +e !$ecl +e ,a3r.
AOr!ani"area !eneral# a produciei
Pro+&/ia +e ,a3r )i "ro+&!e ,a3aroa!e e!te orga#i,at "e &rmtoarele !ectoare-
.Sector&l go!"o+riei +e !$ecl0"re(,&t c& &tila8e cla!ice "e#tra +e!crcarea !$eclei +i#
(agoa#e !a& +i# a&to 'a!c&la#te !i alte mi8loace +e tra#!"ort0 i#!tala/ii ELFA0 !ilo, !$ecl0
tra#!"ortoare c& 'a#+ "e#tra i#!ilo,are !$ecl0 !e"arator a"0ca#ale +e "l&tire !$ecl0 "ri#,toare
+e "aie."ietre0 +o,atoare etc>
.Go!"o+ria +e "iatr (ar !i coc!0"re(,&t c& tra#!"ortoare c& 'a#+a0!ta/ie +e co#ca!are.
!ortare0+e"o,ite "e#tr& "iatr +e (ar !i coc!0a!ce#!oare "e#tr& alime#tare0trei c&"toare +e ar+ere
"iatr +e (ar c& a#e?e>
3
.Sector +e !"lare !$ecl )i taiere.+i$&,ie0 "re(,&t c& &tila8e !"eci$ic0re!"ecti( ele(atoare0
'e#,i +e tra#!"ort0 ma)i# +e !"lat0 ma)i#i +e taiat 0+i$&,or."ri#,tor "&l"0 tra#!"ortoare c&
racle/i0 "om"e>
.Sector&l +e "re!are a 'or3ot&l&i "re(,&te c& "re!e ori,o#tale0tra#!"ortoare elicoi+ale )i
tra#!"ortoare c& racle/i0 i#!tala/ii +e 'ric3etat 'or3ot &!cat>
.Sec/ia +e "&ri$icare ,em&ri +otat c& "re+e$ecator0+e$ecator la cal+0i#!tala/ie !at&ra/ie c&
recirc&lare0 i#!tala/ie +e !&"ra!at&rare )i recirc&lare ,em&ri0 !&"ra!at&ratie la "re+e$ecator0
i#!tala/ie +eca#tare ,em&ri +e $iltrare !i co#trol *# $l&?>
.Sec/ia +e e(a"orare0 +otat c& !e"aratoare +e a'&r0"re*#cal,itoare0i#!tala/ii +e e(a"orare>
.Sector&l +e $ier'ere.cri!tali,are.ce#tri$&gare0 +otat c& a"arate (ac&&m "e#tra ma!a
groa!0 re,er(oare +e !iro"&ri0 mala?oare0 re$rigere#/i "ro+&!e0 "om"e ma!e groa!e )i !iro"&ri0
ce#tri$&ge0 tra#!"ortoare melc )i (i'ratoare0ca#tare mela!0etc>
.Sector +e co#+i/io#are ,a3r0 am'alare0 e?"e+i/ie>
.Sec/ia +e $a'rica/ie !&c&ri +otat c& &tila8e !"eci$ic $a'ricrii "ro+&!elor ,a3aroare9ra3at0
"ro+&!e ,a3aroa!e0 +ra8e&ri0 8ele&ri etc.:>
.Go!"o+aria +e mela!>
.Ce#trala electrotermic>
.Sta/ie +e a" i#+&!trial>
.Sta/ia +e a" "ota'il0 +otata c& "om"e0 'a,i#e !i ec3i"ame#te !"eci$ic>
.Gara8 a&to )i remi,a PSI>
.Sector &tila8 gre& care *#tre/i#e *# e?"loatare *#crctoarele ti" @olla0 Fa+roma0 I$ro#>
.Go!"o+rii a#e?e>
.Sector&l meca#ic care a!ig&r e$ect&area l&crrilor +e re"ara/ii !i *#tre/i#ere a &tila8elor
*# cam"a#ie )i *# remo#t>
4
.a,e +e rece"/ie !$ecl +e ,a3r0 orga#i,ate i# "&#ctele +e colectare +i# teritori& >
.Sector&l +e +ro8+ie $&ra8er +otat c& &tila8e !"eci$ice-li#&ri +e $erme#tare0
"re$erme#tatoare0 reci"ie#/i "e#tr& mela! )i aci+ !&l$&ric etc.

BAnali"a $lu%ului de producie
Te3#ologia +e $a'rica/ie a ,a3r&l&i a $o!t li(rat i#i/ial +e $irma germa#
SANGERHAUSEN )i mo+er#i,at *# tim" +e ge#era/ii +e !"eciali)ti )i l&cratori ai age#t&l&i
eco#omic.
Fl&?&l te3#ologic +e $a'rica/ie c&"ri#+e o"era/ii +e rece"/ie !$ecl +e ,a3r0 "iatra +e
(ar0 coc! )i alte materiale a&?iliare #ece!are "ro+&c/iei.A# go!"o+ria +e !$ecl !e e$ect&ea,
o"era/ii +e +e!crcare0 *#!ilo,are0 tra#!"ort !$ecl.
A# !ector&l +e !"lare0 !$ecla !e c6#tare)te0 !e +e!carc 3i+ra&lic0 !e !e"ar +e "ietre0 "aie
)i im"&rit/i. Piatra !i im"&rit/ile !e *#carc *# mi8loace +e tra#!"ort )i !e e?"e+ia, la groa"a +e
g&#oi. A"a $olo!it la tra#!"ort e!te trimi! la +e#i!i"ator0 a"oi la +eca#ator !i re$olo!it.
Nmol&l +i# a" e!te tra#!"ortat la c6m"&rile +e #mol. Ri+icarea !$eclei la ma)i#ile +e
!"alat !e $ace 3i+ra&lic.
A# go!"o+aria +e (ar !i coc! !e +e!carc )i !e co#ca!ea, "iatra +e (ar !i coc!&l0 care
a"oi !&#t i#tro+&!e i# +e"o,ite !a& +irect i# c&"tor&l c& (ar. Sa(&ra re,&ltat +e la co#ca!are !i
!ortare !e $olo!e)te la 'ala!tarea +r&m&rilor #ea!$altate.
C&"toarele c& (ar !&#t alime#tate c& calcar )i coc!0 "ro+&c6#+ (ar #e!ti#! "ri# ar+ere c&
coc! )i ga, meta#.%io?i+&l +e car'o# re,&ltat !e ca"tea, )i !e "om"ea, i# 3ala +e "ro+&c/ie
$ii#+ &tili,at la "&ri$icare.
O?i+i& +e calci& 9(ar&l #e!ti#!:!e tratea, c& a" *#tr.&# tam'&r rotati(0 re,&lt6#+
3i+ro?i+&l +e calci& 9la"te +e (ar:0 !e ce#tri$&g3ea, )i !e trimite i# 3ala +e $a'rica/ie la
"&ri$icarea ,em&rii. Ni!i"&l )i alte im"&rit/i re,&ltate +i# la"tele +e (ar !e e(ac&ea, la groa"a
+e g&#oi.
5
S$ecl ri+icat 3i+ra&lic la ma!i#a +e !"lat !e i#tro+&ce *# !"ltor&l +e !$ecl &#+e are
loc !"larea !$eclei +e #i!i"&l !i "m6#t&l a+ere#t "e !&"ra$a/. A# !"ltor !e !e"ar
co+i/ele0#i!i"&l !i "iatr. Co+i/ele !e colectea, !e +e"o,itea, )i !e (6#+ ca 3ra# la a#imale.
S$ecla !"lat !e taie !&' $orm +e tai/ei )i !e i#tro+&ce la o"rire )i a"oi la +i$&,ie.
or3ot&l re,&ltat !e tra#!"ort la "re!ele +e 'or3ot0 la li#ia +e 'ric3etare 'or3ot &!cat )i
a"oi la +e"o,it&l +e 'or3ot0 +e &#+e !e *#carc *# mi8loace +e tra#!"ort )i !e e?"e+ia, la
&tili,atori0 *# ge#eral cre!ctorii +e a#imale. A# &ltima "erioa+ 'or3ot&l !.a li(rat !&' $orm +e
'or3ot &me+ c& BC &mi+itate.
Zeama re,&ltat la +i$&,ie e!te "om"at la "&ri$icare ,em&ri0 i#tr6#+ la "re+e$eca/ie0
+e$ecatie0 !at&ra/ie 0 $iltrare0+ecalci$iere0 e(a"ora/ie0 $ier'ere )i cri!tali,are. 4ela!a re,&ltat e!te
"om"at la re,er(oarele +e mela! )i li(rat $a'ricilor +e alcool )i +ro8+ie +e 'ere0 c&
a&toci!ter#e !a& (agoa#e ci!ter#.
Za3r&l re,&ltat 9ma!a groa!: !e trimite la ce#tri$&gare )i a"oi la &!care0 racier0 !ortare0
c6#trire )i +e"o,itare.
O "arte +i# ,a3r e!te &tili,at la "re"ararea "ro+&!elor ,a3aroa!e.
Co#trol&l te3#ic +e calitate !e e$ect&ea, *# $a,elor $l&?&rilor +e $a'rica/ie +e!cri!e c&
ec3i"ame#te !"eci$ice +e co#trol acti(e )i *# $i#al0 e$ect&6#+&.!e )i a#ali,e $i,ico.c3imice "e
lot&ri +e $a'ricatie co#$orm caietelor +e !arci#i !"eci$ic.
Rece"/ia materiei "rime )i materialelor !e e$ect&ea, *# co#$ormitate c& "re(e+erile
caietelor +e !arci#i.
Pri#ci"alele materii "rime !i material &tili,ate *# "roce!&l +e $a'rica/ie !&#t !$ecla +e
,a3r 0 calcar&l0 coc!&l0 !o+a calci#at0 al+e3i+a $ormic )i &lei&l a#ti!"&ma#t.
Pe#tra am'alarea "ro+&!elor !&#t #ece!ari !aci +e i&t0 !aci +e "olietile#0 $olii +e
"olietile#0'&telii +e !ticl0 #a(ete "la!tic etc.
6
CAPITOLUL II
INSTALADII EI UTILAFE FOLOSITE AN SISTE4UL
%E TRANSPORT INTERN EI %EPOZITARE
AL S.C. ZAHR CORAIA S.A.
7
4a)i#ile c& ac/io#are +i!co#ti#& $olo!ite la. S.C. ZAHR CORAIA S.A. !&#t
moto!ti(&itoarele c& $&rci $ro#tale .
4a)i#ile c& ac/io#are co#ti#& $olo!ite la S.C. ZAHR CORAIA S.A. !&#t &rmtoarele -
. tra#!"ortoare elicoi+ale !a& )#ec&ri >
. tra#!"ortoare c& 'a#+>
. tra#!"ortoare c& raclete >
. ele(atoare c& c&"e >
2.1. Calculul motostivuitorului cu $urci $rontale
La S.C. ZAHR CORAIA S.A. !e $olo!e!te moto!ti(&itor&l +e ti" %e!ta %17 c& &rmatoarele
catacteri!tici te3#ice-
Fig. 7.
8
%e#&mire caracteri!tici U#itate +e
m!&r
Sim'ol 5aloarea
caracteri!ticilor
Pro+&ctor . . %e!ta
Ca"acitatea #omi#al +e *#crcare Gg H 171<
5ite,a +e +e"la!are ma?im c& *#crct&r m=! (
+i
70BB
5ite,a +e +e"la!are ma?im $r *#crct&r m=! (
+g
;0I1
5ite,a +e ri+icare a $&rcilor c& !arci# m=! (
r!
<.I
5ite,a +e ri+icare a $&rcilor $r !arci# m=! (
rg
<.I7
5ite,a +e co'or6re a $&rcilor c& !arci# m=! (
c!
<.1
5ite,a +e co'or6re a $&rcilor $r !arci# m=! (
cg
<.22
P&terea #omi#al a motor&l&i GJ P
#
;7
T&r/ia #omi#al a motor&l&i rot=mi# # 71<<
N&mr cili#+rii = ca"acitatea cili#+ric .=cm
;
. 2=1K<<
L&#gime $r $&rci mm E 7171
L/ime mm L 1<B<
A#l/ime c& $&rcile la !ol mm 71B1
A#l/ime c& $&rcile la 3
ma?
mm C ;2<<
A#l/imea +e ri+icare a !arci#ii mm A ;<<<
A#l/imea ma?im a ca'i#ei mm L 1KK1
L/imea c&loarelor +e circ&la/ie mm N ;B;<
2.1.1. Determinarea duratei medii a ciclului de lucru
%&rata &#&i cicl& +e ma#i"&lare !e +etermi# c& rela/ia-
1
M!ecN
n
c i
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T t


9
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i
t
. +&rata o"era/iei eleme#tare 0 i O
Pe#tr& a +etermi#a +&rata me+ie a cicl&l&i +e l&cr& !e $ace me+ia aritmetic a +&ratelor a trei
cicl&ri +e ma#i"&lare-
. "e#tr& c&r!a cea mai l&#g>
."e#tr& c&r!a me+ie>
."e#tr& c&r!a cea mai !c&rt >
Determinarea duratei ciclului de manipulare pentru cursa cea mai lun!#
1.Tim"&l #ece!ar i#tro+&cerii $&rcilor *# galeriile "alet&l&i
t
1
P 2!
7.Tim"&l #ece!ar rotirii i# "la# (ertical a !i!tem&l&i +e rame c& &#g3i&l Q
t
7
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;. Ri+icarea &#it/ii +e *#crct&r la *#l/imea +e tra#!"ort H
T
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N = M s m
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1.7
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1<.Tim"&l #ece!ar !coaterii $&rcilor +i# galeriile "alet&l&i
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%&rata cicl&l&i +e ma#i"&lare "e#tr& c&r!a cea mai l&#g-
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Determinarea duratei ciclului de manipulare pentru cursa medie
1.Tim"&l #ece!ar i#tro+&cerii $&rcilor *# galeriile "alet&l&i
12
t
1
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7.Tim"&l #ece!ar rotirii i# "la# (ertical a !i!tem&l&i +e rame c& &#g3i&l Q
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%&rata cicl&l&i +e ma#i"&lare "e#tr& c&r!a me+ie-
T
c7

Determinarea duratei ciclului de manipulare pentru cursa cea mai scurt#
1.Tim"&l #ece!ar i#tro+&cerii $&rcilor *# galeriile "alet&l&i
t
1
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7.Tim"&l #ece!ar rotirii i# "la# (ertical a !i!tem&l&i +e rame c& &#g3i&l Q
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2 t s
B.Co'or6rea *#crct&rii la *#l/imea +e !ti(&ire a mr$ii H
R
B
M N
R
C
H
t s
v


B
<.1
1
<.1
t s
R. Tim"&l #ece!ar rotirii i# "la# (ertical a !i!tem&l&i +e rame c& &#g3i&l Q
t
R
P 7!
K.Tim"&l #ece!ar !coaterii $&rcilor +i# galeriile "alet&l&i
t
K
P 2!
16
1<. %&rata ma#e(rei +e *#toarcere a moto!ti(&itor&l&i

1<
1 t s
11.%&rata +e"la!rii i# !tare goal a moto!ti(&itor&l&i
;
11
M N
dg
d
t s
v



11
1<.1 1
1
1<<<
1;S
;I<<
t s
+

&#+e-
dg
v
.(ite,a +e +e"la!are i# !tare goal a moto!ti(&itor&l&iP1;Tm=3
%&rata cicl&l&i +e ma#i"&lare "e#tr& c&r!a cea mai !c&rt-
T
c;

%&rata me+ie a cicl&l&i +e l&cr& (a $i-
1 7 ;
1K 17 ;K
1<
; ;
c
c
T T T
T s
+ + + +


7.1.7. Calc&l&l "ro+&cti(it/ii orare a moto!ti(&itor&l&i
H
e
P
;I<< ;I<<
S S<.I 2;.7 22 =
1;
T
c
k ui h
T


&#+e-
17
T
T
Pcoe$icie#t +e $olo!ire a moto!ti(&itor&l&i i# tim">
7.1.;. Calc&l&l "&terii #ece!are motor&l&i +e
a#tre#are a meca#i!melor moto!ti(&itor&l&i
Calc&l&l "&terii #ece!are motor&l&i !e (a reali,a *# +o&a ca,&ri -
. +emararea )i +e"la!area moto!ti(&itor&l&i c& *#crct&r >
. +emararea )i +e"la!area moto!ti(&itor&l&i $r *#crct&r .
4eca#i!m&l +e ri+icara a $&rcilor moto!ti(&itor&l&i e!te ac/io#at +e &# !i!tem 3i+ra&lic
co#trolat +e motor&l %ie!el 0 +ar +atorit $a"t&l&i c "&terea #ece!ar e!te m&lt mai mic *#
com"ara/ie c& "&terea #ece!ar meca#i!m&l&i +e r&lare 0 calc&lele &rmtoare #& /i# !eama )i +e
acea!ta .
Demararea &i deplasarea motostivuitorului cu 'nc#rc#tur#
Calc&l&l $or/elor re,i!te#te la r&lare-
T
R
nec
v F
P

7
1<
MTJN >
nec
P
U "&terea #ece!ar "e#tr& a#tre#area meca#i!m&l&i
F
R
U $or/a re,i!te#t la r&lare "e care o *#t6m"i# ro/ile cr&cior&l&i M+aNN
( U (ite,a +e +e"la!are a !ti(&itor&l&i Mm = !N > ( P 70BB m = !
T
. ra#+ame#t&l tra#!mi!iei > R 0 <
T


: 9
< inc ut R
G G w F +
M+aNN

<
w
coe$icie#t&l re,i!te#/ei la r&lare 0
<
<0 <7 w
>
18
s
G
gre&tatea "ro"rie a !ti(&itor&l&i 0
7;R<
s
G daN
>
i
G
gre&tatea *#crct&rii0
I7<
i
G daN
>
11 !aci ,a3r="aletS2< Tg=!acV7< TgPI7< Tg
i
G
<
9 : <.<7S97;R< I7<: I<
r s i
F w G G daN + +
7
S I<S7.BB
7.<B
1< S 1<<S<.R
i r
nec
F v
P kw


C&"l&l re,i!te#t *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e calc&lea,a c& &rmtoarea rela/ie -
i
d
i
s
i
dem
M M M +
N MNm

&#+e -
i
s
M . c&"l&l !tatic re,i!te#t re+&! la ar'orele motor&l&i 0
N MNm
>
i
d
M . c&"l&l +i#amic ce a"are la ar'orele motor&l&i 0
N MNm
.
n
P
n
P P
M
i
nec
i
nec
i
nec i
s
S 1 . K
I<
S S 7


N MNm

&#+e -
i
nec
P . "&terea #ece!ar $&#c/io#rii motor&l&i c& (ite,a co#!ta#ta 0
N Mw
>
n
. t&ra/ia #omi#al a motor&l&i
mi#N = Mrot
.
7<B<
K.1S R
71<<
i
s
M Nm
i
red
i
d
J M S

N MNm

&#+e -
19

. accelera/ia &#g3i&lar a ar'orel&i motor&l&i 0 N = M


7
s rad >
i
red
J . mome#t&l +e i#er/ie al *#treg&l&i !i!tem +e ac/io#are 0 N M
7
kgm .
i
d
t
n
S I<
S S 7

N = M
7
s rad

&#+e -
i
d
t . tim"&l +e +emarare al !ti(&itor&l&i c& *#crct&r 0
N Ms
.
d
i
d
a
v
t
N Ms

&#+e -
d
a
. accelera/ie la +emarare 0
7
<.; =
d
a m s .
7.BB
1<
<.;
i
d
d
v
t s
a

7
7S S 7S S71<<
7B =
I<S I<S1<
i
d
n
rad s
t

1
S S : 9 S 1 . K1 S
7

,
_

+ +
n
v
m m J J
i s c
i
red
N M
7
kgm

&#+e -
. coe$icie#t ce /i#e !eama +e i#$l&e#/a ma!elor a$late *# mi)care +e rota/ie 0 1.7 >
c
J
. mome#t&l +e i#er/ie al c&"la8&l&i 0 N M
7
kgm >
s
m
. ma!a "ro"rie a !ti(&itor&l&i 0
7;R<
s
m kg
>
i
m
. ma!a *#crct&rii 0
I7<
i
m kg
.
20
7
7
7
1 7.BB 1
S K1.1S9 :S9 : S 1.7S<.<7 K1.1S97;R< I7<: S S
71<< <.R
<.271
i
red c s i
v
J J m m
n
kgm

_
+ + + +

,

S 7BS<.271 17
i i
d red
M J Nm
R 1; 7<
i i i
dem s d
M M M Nm + +
5aloarea ma?im a "&terii *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e +etermi# c& rela/ia -
I<
S S 7
S
n
M P
i
dem
i
dem

N Mw

&#+e -
i
dem
M . c&"l&l re,i!te#t la +emarare 0
N MNm
-
7S S 7S S71<<
S 7<S 17;; 1.7;
I< I<
i i
dem dem
n
P M w kw


Calc&l&l c&"l&l&i +i#amic +atorat accelera/iei la $r6#are
S M N
i i
df f redf
M J Nm
7
7S S 7S S71<<
II =
I<S I<S2
f i
fr
n
rad s
t


7.BB
2
<.R
i
fr i
fr
v
t s
a

7
7
7
7.BB
S K1.1S9 :S9 : S 1.7S<.<7 K1.1S97;R< I7<:S S<.R
71<<
<.7KR1
i
redf c s i
v
J J m m
n
kgm

_
+ + + +

,

IIS<.7KR1 7<M N
i
df
M Nm
21
R 7< 7R
i i i
fr s df
M M M Nm + +
7S S 7S;.12S71<<
S 7RS B;7I.II B.;7
I< I<
i i
fr fr
n
P M w kw



Demararea &i deplasarea a motostivuitorului $#r# 'nc#rc#tur#

P&terea #ece!ar motor&l&i !e (a calc&la c& rela/ia -
S 1<
S
7
v F
P
r g
nec


N Mkw

&#+e -
r
F . $or/ele re,i!te#te la +e"la!are 0
N MdaN
>
v
. (ite,a +e +e"la!are a !ti(&itor&l&i 0
N = M s m
>
T
. ra#+ame#t&l tra#!mi!iei 0
<.R
T

.
For/ele re,i!te#te la *#ai#tare !e calc&lea, c& rela/ia -
s r
G w F S
<

N MdaN
&#+e -
<
w
. re,i!te#/a !"eci$ic la *#ai#tare 0
<7 . <
<
w
>
s
G
. gre&tatea "ro"rie a moto!ti(&itor&l&i 0
N MdaN
>
<
S <.<7S7;R< 2R
r s
F w G daN
22
7
S 2RS;.I1
7.1I
1< S 1<<S<.R
g r
nec
F v
P kw


C&"l&l re,i!te#t *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e calc&lea, c& &rmtoarea rela/ie -
g
d
g
s
g
dem
M M M +
N MNm

&#+e -
g
s
M . c&"l&l !tatic re,i!te#t re+&! la ar'orele motor&l&i 0
N MNm
>
g
d
M . c&"l&l +i#amic ce a"are la ar'orele motor&l&i 0
N MNm
.
n
P
n
P P
M
g
nec
g
nec
g
nec g
s
S 1 . K
I<
S S 7

N MNm

&#+e -
g
nec
P . "&terea #ece!ar $&#c/io#rii motor&l&i c& (ite,a co#!ta#t 0
N Mw
>
n
. t&ra/ia #omi#al a motor&l&i
mi#N = Mrot
.
71I<
K.1S K
71<<
g
s
M Nm
g
red
g
d
J M S

N MNm
&#+e -

. accelera/ia &#g3i&lar a ar'orel&i motor&l&i 0 N = M


7
s rad >
g
red
J . mome#t&l +e i#er/ie al *#treg&l&i !i!tem +e ac/io#are 0 N M
7
kgm .
g
d
t
n
S I<
S S 7

N = M
7
s rad

&#+e -
23
g
d
t . tim"&l +e +emarare al !ti(&itor&l&i $r *#crct&r 0
N Ms
.
d
g
d
a
v
t N Ms

&#+e -
d
a
. accelera/ia la +emarare 0
7
<.2 =
d
a m s .
;.I1
R
<.2
g
d
d
v
t s
a

7
7S S 7S S71<<
;; =
I<S I<SR
g
d
n
rad s
t

1
S S S 1 . K1 S
7

,
_

+
n
v
m J J
s c
g
red
N M
7
kgm

&#+e -
. coe$icie#t ce /i#e !eama +e i#$l&e#/a ma!elor a$late *# mi)care +e rota/ie 0 1.7 >
c
J
. mome#t&l +e i#er/ie al c&"la8&l&i 0
7
<.<7
c
J kgm >
s
m
. ma!a "ro"rie a moto!ti(&itor&l&i 0
7;R<
s
m kg
>
7
7 7
1 ;.I1 1
S K1.1S S9 : S 1.7S<.<7 K1.1S7;R<S S <.1B
71<< <.R
g
red c s
v
J J m kgm
n

_
+ +

,
S ;;S<.1B 1K
g g
d red
M J Nm
K 1K 7R
g g g
dem s d
M M M Nm + +
5aloarea ma?im a "&terii *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e +etermi# c& rela/ia -

I<
S S 7
S
n
M P
g
dem
g
dem

N Mw

24
&#+e -
g
dem
M . c&"l&l re,i!te#t la +emarare 0
N MNm
-

7S S 7S S71<<
S 7RS B;7B B.;7
I< I<
g g
dem dem
n
P M w kw


Calc&l&l c&"l&l&i +i#amic +atorat accelera/iei la $r6#are
S M N
g g
df f redf
M J Nm
7
7S S 7S S71<<
1; =
I<S I<S1
f g
fr
n
rad s
t


;.I1
1
<.K
g
fr g
fr
v
t s
a

7
7
7
;.I1
S K1.1S S9 : S 1.7S<.<7 K1.1S7;R<S S<.R
71<<
<.;K27
i
redf c s
v
J J m
n
kgm

_
+ +

,

1;S<.;K27 71M N
g
df
M Nm
K 71 ;<
g g g
fr s df
M M M Nm + +
7S S 7S;.12S71<<
S ;<S BR1< B.R1
I< I<
i i
fr fr
n
P M w kw


7.1.2. Calc&l&l e#ergiei co#!&mate "e#tr& e$ect&area
&#&i cicl& +e $&#c/io#are
25
Rela/ia +e calc&l &tili,at (a $i-
g i c
E E E +
N Mkwh
&#+e -
i
E
. e#ergia co#!&mat "e#tr& e$ect&area !emic&r!ei c& *#crct&ra 0
N Mkwh
>
g
E
. e#ergia co#!&mat "e#tr& e$ect&area !emic&r!ei $r *#crct&r 0
N Mkwh
.
( )
1
]
1

+
+

i
ct
i
nec
i
d
i
nec
i
dem
i
t P
t P P
E S
7
S
S
1< S I . ;
1
I

N Mkwh

&#+e -
i
dem
P . "&terea #ece!ar *# "erioa+a +e +emarare "e#tr& !emic&r!a c& *#crct&r 0
N Mw
>
i
nec
P . "&terea #ece!ar +e"la!rii &tila8&l&i c& (ite,a co#!ta#t 0
N Mw
>
i
ct
t . tim"&l +e mer! c& (ite,a co#!ta#t "e#tr& !emic&r!a c& *#crct&r 0
N Ms
.
%etermi#are tim"&l&i +e mer! c& (ite,a co#!ta#t
4o+&l +e calc&l e!te a!em#ator "e#tr& cele +o& ti"&ri +e !emic&r!e 0 *#crcat )i goal .
Se $olo!e)te &rmtoarea rela/ie +e calc&l -
v
D
t
ct i
ct

N Ms

&#+e -
ct
D
. +i!ta#/a "e care !e +e"la!ea, !ti(&itor&l c& (ite, co#!ta#t 0
N Mm
>
v
. (ite,a c& care !e +e"la!ea, !ti(&itor&l 0
N = M s m
.
( )
fr dem ct
D D d D +
N Mm
26
&#+e -
d . +i!ta#/a me+ie +e +e"la!are a !ti(&itor&l&i 0 71 d m >
dem
D
. +i!ta#/a #ece!ar +emarrii !ti(&itor&l&i 0
N Mm
>
fr
D
. +i!ta#/a #ece!ar $r6#rii !ti(&itor&l&i 0
N Mm
.
7 7
S <.;S1<
11
7 7
i i
i d d
dem
a t
D m
7 7
S <.2SR
1;
7 7
g g
g d d
dem
a t
D m
7
S
7 i
fr
i
fr i
fr
t a
D

N Mm

&#+e -
i
fr
a
. accelera/ia la $r6#are c& *#crct&r 0
7
<.R =
i
fr
a m s
>
i
fr
t
. tim"&l #ece!ar $r6#rii !ti(&itr&l&i c& *#crct&r 0
N Ms
>
7
7
S
<.BS2
B
7 7
i i
fr fr i
fr
a t
D m
7
S
7 g
fr
g
fr g
fr
t a
D

N Mm

&#+e -
g
fr
a
. accelera/ia la $r6#are $r *#crct&r 0
7
<.K =
g
fr
a m s
>
g
fr
t
. tim"&l #ece!ar $r6#rii !ti(&itr&l&i $r *#crct&r 0
N Ms
>

7
7
S
<.KS1
17
7 7
g g
fr fr g
fr
a t
D m
27
( )
71 911 B: ;
i i i
ct dem fr
D d D D m + +
( )
71 91; 17: <
g g g
ct dem fr
D d D D m + +
;
1
7.BB
i
i ct
ct
D
t s
v

E#ergia co#!&mat (a $i-
( )
( )
I
I
S
1
S S
;.IS1< 7
17;; 7<B< S1<
1
S 7<B<S1 <.<1<I
;.IS1< 7
i i i
dem nec d
i i
i nec ct
P P t
E P t
kwh
1
+
1 +
1
]
1 +
+
1
]
( )
( )
I
I
S
1
S S
;.IS1< 7
B;7B 71I< SR
1
S 7R<<S< <.<1<1
;.IS1< 7
g g g
dem nec d
g g
g nec ct
P P t
E P t
kwh
1
+
1 +
1
]
1 +
+
1
]
<.<1<I <.<1<1 <.<71 = .
c i g
E E E kwh cicl funct + +
7.1.1. Calc&l&l meca#i!m&l&l&i +e ri+icare
al moto!ti(&itor&l&i
Stare ( ) cu 'nc#rc#tur# *
Se a#ali,ea, $or/ele ce ac/io#ea, a!&"ra cr&cior&l&i "ort . $&rc -
W
H H

28
1 r c i
F G G T + + N MdaN
Fig.;. Sc3ema meca#i!m&l&i +e ri+icare
Ec&a/ia *# ra"ort c& ce#tr&l O al ro/ii e!te-
c i c
l G l G H S S S +

c
c c i

l G l G
H
S S +


N MdaN

c
c c i
o o r

l G l G
H F
S S
S S 7 S S 7
1
+


N MdaN

&#+e -
T . te#!i&#ea ce a"are *# la#/&rile +e care e!te "ri#! cr&cior&l "ort U $&rc >
c
G
. gre&tatea cr&cior&l&i "ort U $&rc 0
I<
c
G daN
>
i
G
. gre&tatea *#crct&rii 0
I7<
i
G daN
>
29
W
0 H H . reac/i&#i >
l . +i!ta#/a +e la !&"ort&l $or/ei i
G
la a?a ??X 0 <.R l m >
c
l
. +i!ta#/a +e la !&"ort&l $or/ei c
G
la a?a ??X 0
<.11
c
l m
>
c

. +i!ta#/a *#tre "&#ctele +e co#tact ale ro/ilor cr&cior&l&i "ort.$&rc 0


<.2<
c

>
o

. coe$ie#t&l re,i!te#/ei la r&lare 0


<7 . <
o

Te#!i&#ea T ce ac/io#ea, *# la#/ )i $or/a re,i!te#t a"r&t *#tre g3i+a8ele ro/ilor .


A#tre te#!i&#ea T )i
0
T
e?i!t rela/ia -
a
T
T

0

N MdaN
.
a

. ra#+ame#t&l a#gre#a8&l&i +i#tre ro/i )i "la#&l "e care !e +e"la!ea, 0


<.R
a

.
Fig.2. Re"re,e#tarea te#!i&#ilor

,
_

+ +
a
!
T T T F

1
1 S
0
N MdaN

P&terea #ece!ar (a $i +etermi#at c& rela/ia -
7
S
1< S
! !
nec
T
F v
P


N Mkw

30
&#+e -
!
v
. (ite,a c& care !e +e"la!ea, ca"t&l ti8ei "i!to#&l&i 0 !e "oate e?"rima *# $&#c/ie +e
(ite,a +e *#crcare .

r
v . (ite,a +e ri+icare a *#crct&rii 0
<.I =
r
v m s
.
S S I7<S<.R I<S<.11
17I;
<.2
i c c
c
G l G l
H daN

+ +

1
7S S 7S<.<7S17I; 11
r o
F H daN
1
I7< I< 11 B;1
i c r
T G G F daN + + + +
1 1
S 1 B;1S 1 1I21
<.R
!
a
F T daN

_
_
+ +

,
,
<.I
<.; =
7 7
r
!
v
v m s
7
S
1I21S<.;
I.1I
1< S 1<<S<.R
! !
nec
T
F v
P kw


C&"l&l re,i!te#t *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e calc&lea,a c& &rmtoarea rela/ie -
i
d
i
s
i
dem
M M M +

N MNm

n
P
n
P P
M
i
nec
i
nec
i
nec i
s
S 1 . K
I<
S S 7


N MNm

I1I<
K.1S 72
71<<
i
s
M Nm
i
red
i
d
J M S

N MNm

31
i
d
t
n
S I<
S S 7

N = M
7
s rad

d
i
d
a
v
t
N Ms


7
<.; =
d
a m s .
<.I
7
<.;
i
d
d
v
t s
a

7
7S S 7S S71<<
1;1 =
I<S I<S7
i
d
n
rad s
t

1
S S : 9 S 1 . K1 S
7

,
_

+ +
n
v
m m J J
i s c
i
red

N M
7
kgm

I<
c
m kg
>
I7<
i
m kg
.
7
7
7
1
S K1.1S9 : S9 : S
<.I 1
1.7S<.<7 K1.1S9I< I7<: S S <.<7R
71<< <.R
i
red c c i
v
J J m m
n
kgm

+ +
_
+ +

,
S 1;1S<.<7R 2
i i
d red
M J Nm
72 2 7R
i i i
dem s d
M M M Nm + +
5aloarea ma?im a "&terii *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e +etermi# c& rela/ia -
I<
S S 7
S
n
M P
i
dem
i
dem


N Mw

7S S 7S S71<<
S 7RS B;7B B.;7
I< I<
i i
dem dem
n
P M w kw


32
Calc&l&l c&"l&l&i +i#amic +atorat accelera/iei la $r6#are
S M N
i i
df f redf
M J Nm
7
7S S 7S S71<<
7I7 =
I<S I<S1
f i
fr
n
rad s
t


<.I
1
<.R
i
fr i
fr
v
t s
a

7
7
7
<.I
S K1.1S9 :S9 : S 1.7S<.<7 K1.1S9I< I7<:S S<.R
71<<
<.<;<
i
redf c c i
v
J J m m
n
kgm

_
+ + + +

,

7I7S<.<;< R
i
df
M Nm
72 R ;7
i i i
fr s df
M M M Nm + +
7S S 7S;.12S71<<
S ;7S R;B;.;; R.;B
I< I<
i i
fr fr
n
P M w kw


Stare ( ) $#r# 'nc#rc#tur# *
S S <S<.R I<S<.11
7;
<.2
i c c
c
G l G l
H daN

+ +

1
7S S 7S7;S<.<7 1
r o
F H daN
1
< I< 1 I1
i c r
T G G F daN + + + +
1 1
S 1 I1S 1 1;R
<.R
!
a
F T daN

_
_
+ +

,
,
<.I7
<.;1 =
7 7
r
!
v
v m s
33
7
S
1;RS<.;1
<.1;2
1< S 1<<S<.R
! !
nec
T
F v
P kw


C&"l&l re,i!te#t *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e calc&lea, c& &rmtoarea rela/ie -
n
P
n
P P
M
g
nec
g
nec
g
nec g
s
S 1 . K
I<
S S 7


N MNm

1;2
K.1S 7
71<<
g
s
M Nm
7
<.2 =
d
a m s .
<.I7
7
<.2
g
d
d
v
t s
a

7
= 1;1
7 S I<
71<< S S 7
S I<
S S 7
s rad
t
n
g
d

1.7 >
<
c
J
>
<.<7
R
J
I<
s
m kg
>
7
7 7
1 <.I7 1
S K1.1S S9 : S 1.7S<.<7 K1.1SI<S S <.<72
71<< <.R
g
red c s
v
J J m kgm
n

_
+ +

,
S 1;1S<.<72 2
g g
d red
M J Nm
Nm M M M
g
d
g
s
g
dem
I 2 7 + +
5aloarea ma?im a "&terii *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e +etermi# c& rela/ia -

kw w
n
M P
g
dem
g
dem
1B1 . 1 11B1
I<
71<< S S 7
S I
I<
S S 7
S

Calc&l&l c&"l&l&i +i#amic +atorat accelera/iei la $r6#are
34
S M N
g g
df f redf
M J Nm
7
7S S 7S S71<<
7I7 =
I<S I<S1
f g
fr
n
rad s
t


<.I7
1
<.K
g
fr g
fr
v
t s
a

7
7
7
<.I7
S K1.1S S9 : S 1.7S<.<7 K1.1SI<S S<.R
71<<
<.<721
i
redf c c
v
J J m
n
kgm

_
+ +

,

7I7S<.<721 BM N
g
df
M Nm
7 B K
g g g
fr s df
M M M Nm + +
7S S 7S;.12S71<<
S KS 7;11 7.;1
I< I<
i i
fr fr
n
P M w kw


%etermi#are tim"&l&i +e mer! c& (ite,a co#!ta#t
7 7
S <.;S7
<.I
7 7
i i
i d d
dem
a t
D m
7 7
S <.2S7
<.R
7 7
g g
g d d
dem
a t
D m
7
7
S
<.RS1
<.2
7 7
i i
fr fr i
fr
a t
D m
7
7
S
<.KS1
<.21
7 7
g g
fr fr g
fr
a t
D m
( )
7.1 9<.I <.2: 1.1
i i i
ct dem fr
D d D D m + +
( )
7.1 9<.R <.21: 1.71
g g g
ct dem fr
D d D D m + +
35
1.1
;
<.I
i
i ct
ct
D
t s
v

1.71
7
<.I7
g
g ct
ct
D
t s
v

E#ergia co#!&mat (a $i-

( )
( )
I
I
S
1
S S
;.IS1< 7
B;7B I1I< S7
1
S I1I<S; <.<<R
;.IS1< 7
i i i
dem nec d
i i
i nec ct
P P t
E P t
kwh
1
+
1 +
1
]
1 +
+
1
]
( )
( )
I
I
S
1
S S
;.IS1< 7
11B1 1;2 S7
1
S 1;2S7 <.<<<R
;.IS1< 7
g g g
dem nec d
g g
g nec ct
P P t
E P t
kwh
1
+
1 +
1
]
1 +
+
1
]
<.<<R <.<<<R <.<<RR = .
c i g
E E E kwh cicl funct + +
7.7. Calc&l&l tra#!"ortor&l&i elicoi+al
Caracteri!tici te3#ice ale tra#!"ortoarelor elicoi+ale
Tra#!"ortoarele elicoi+ale !&#t &tili,ate "e#tr& tra#!"ort&l materialelor *# (rac.
Tra#!"ortoarele elicoi+ale mai !&#t #&mite )i tra#!"ortoare c& melc !a& )#ec&ri . Ele !&#t
$olo!ite la tra#!"ort&l materiei "rime !a& a "ro+&!elor $i#ite !ec&#+are . I#!tala/iile +e ace!t $el
36
!&#t $oarte !im"le +i# "&#ct +e (e+ere co#!tr&cti(e )i !e remarc "ri# $ia'ilitate ri+icat 0
*#tre/i#ere &)oara )i "&/i# co!ti!itoare .
%e,a(a#ta8&l i#!tala/iei cel mai mare e!te co#!&m&l ri+icat +e e#ergie . Tra#!"ortor&l
elicoi+al a!ig&ra o "ro+&cti(itate !c,&t )i o +i!ta#/a relati( mic +e tra#!"ort .
La. S.C.ZAHR CORAIA S.A. !e &tili,ea, tra#!"ortoare c& melc T4YR<< a(6#+
+iametr&l e?terior al elicei melc&l&i +e R<< mm .
Caracteri!tici te3#ice-
Ti"&l tra#!"ortor&l&i
Sem#i$ica/ia
Sim'ol U#itate
+e
m!&r
T4YR<<
%iametr&l e?terior % mm R<<
%i!ta#/a ma?im +e tra#!"ort L m 7I.1
Pa!&l melc&l&i P mm 1<<
T&ra/ia ar'orel&i melc&l&i # rot=mi# I1
Coe$icie#t&l +e &m"lere a t&'&l&i Z . <.;
P&terea #omi#al a motor&l&i P
#
TJ 1.1 1.1
7.7.1. Calc&l&l "ro+&cti(it/ii orare a tra#!"ortor&l&i
elicoi+al
Pro+&cti(itatea orar a tra#!"ortor&l&i elicoi+al !e (a calc&la c& rela/ia -

v " # S S I . ;

[ ] h t =

&#+e -
37
[ U gre&tatea re"arti,at a material&l&i tra#!"ortat [ ] = daN m
>
( U (ite,a +e +e"la!are +e.a l&#g&l t&'&l&i [ ] = m s
>
M s
$ " S S ;
1< = daN m 1
]

&#+e -
A
!
U aria !ec/i&#ii tra#!(er!ale a t&'&l&i +e tra#!"ort [ ]
7
m >

U coe$icie#t +e &m"lere a !ec/i&#ii t&'&l&i +e ctre material&l tra#!"ortat


<.;
>
M
. gre&tatea (ol&metric a material&l&i tra#!"ortat
;
= daN m 1
]
0
;
1<< =
M
daN m >
% U +iametr&l e?terior al elicei
[ ] m
0 <.R D m >
5ite,a +e +e"la!are a material&l&i *# t&'&l +e tra#!"ort !e (a calc&la *# $&#c/ie +e "a!&l )i
t&ra/ia melc&l&i c& rela/ia -
I<
Sn !
v
1
]
1

s
m

&#+e -
" U "a!&l melc&l&i
[ ] m
"P<.1m>
# U t&ra/ia melc&l&i
[ ] mi# = rot
#PI1rot=mi#.
<.1SI1
<.1 =
I<
v m s
7 7
S<.R
S S S S S1<<S<.; B1.;I =
2 2
s M M
D
" $ daN m


;.IS S ;.ISB1.;IS<.1 1;1.I 1;I = # " v t h
38
7.7.7. Calc&l&l $or/ei re,i!te#te care a"are la
+e"la!area material&l&i "ri# t&'
Se +etermi# c& rela/ia -
!i# S S co! S S S
<
% " % " & F
R
t
N MdaN
&#+e-
<
w
. coe$icie#t&l re,i!te#/ei la *#ai#tare 0
7 . 1
<
w
>
% . l&#gimea +e tra#!"ort 0 7I.1 % m >

. &#g3i&l +e *#cli#are 0 < .


<
S S Sco! S S!i# 1.7SB1.;IS7I.1S1 B1.;IS7I.1S< 7;KB
R
F w " % " % t t N MdaN
7.7.;. Calc&l&l "&terii motor&l&i #ece!ar
a#tre#rii melc&l&i

P&terea #ece!ar -
39

T
R
D nec
v F
k P


7
1<
MT@N
D
k
Pcoe$icie#t care /i#e !eama +e re,er(a +e "&tere #ece!ar la "or#irea tra#!"ortor&l&i c&
t&'&l *#crcat c& material
D
k
P1.7>
v
P(ite,a +e +e"la!are a material&l&i i# t&'&l +e tra#!"ort>
T

Pra#+ame#t&l gr&"&l&i +e ac/io#are


T

P<0R>
7
7;KB <.1
1.7 1R
1< <.R
nec
P kw

7.;. Calc&l&l tra#!"ortor&l&i c& 'a#+


Re"re,i#t ma)i#ile c& ac/i&#e c& cea mai mare r!"*#+ire0+atorit "o!i'ilit/ilor m&lti"le +e
&tili,are a ace!tor ma)i#i0*# "roce!ele +e *#crcare.+e!crcare )i +e tra#!"ort i#ter# a mr$&rilor.
S&#t $olo!ite la tra#!"ort&l materialelor i# (rac la +i!ta#/e +e ca/i(a metri "6# la !&te +e
metri c& "ro+&cti(itti orare +e la c6te(a t=3 "6#a la !&te +e t=3.
7.;.1.Calc&l&l "ro+&cti(it/ii orare a tra#!"ortor&l&i c&
'a#+
Pro+&cti(itatea orar a tra#!"ortor&l&i c& 'a#+ !e (a calc&la c& rela/ia -

v " # S S I . ;

[ ] h t =

40

k $ "
M '

M+aN=mN
&#+e-
A
S
U aria #ece!ar a !ec/i&#ii tra#!(er!ale "ri# coloa#a +e material tra#!"ortat>

k
coe$icie#t ce /i#e !eama +e re+&cerea !ec/i&#ii coloa#ei +e material +atorit trecerii
material&l&i "e !&"ra$e/ele i#cli#ate
k

P1>
[ U gre&tatea re"arti,at a material&l&i M+aN=mN

M
gre&tatea (ol&metric a material&l&i M+aN=m
;
N
A
!
!e alege i# $&#ctie +e l/imea 'e#,ii +e tra#!"ort 0+e &#g3i&l +e tal&, +i#amic al material&l&i
+e "e 'a#+
D

!i +e ti"&l +e !&"or/i c& role.


Tra#!"ortoarele c& 'a#+ $olo!ite a& 'a#+ "lat c& l/imea 'e#,ii +e tra#!"ort +e 1<< mm.
P1<<mm>
D

P1<
<
>
A
!
P<0<<2Bm
7
Gre&tatea re"arti,at a material&l&i (a $i-

<.<<2BSI<<S1 7.R7 = " daN m

v " # S S I . ;

[ ] h t =
&#+e-
v
.(ite,a +e +e"la!are a 'e#,ii Mm=!N
v
P1.7m=!>
Pro+&cti(itatea orar (a $i
;.IS7.R7S1.7 17.1R 1; = # t h

Gre&tatea re"arti,at a 'e#,ii !e calc&lea, c& rela/ia-
41

1 7
101S 9 10 IS :M = N
(
" ( s i s daN m + +

&#+e-
.l/imea 'e#,ii +e tra#!"ort MmmN P1<<mm>
i.#&mr&l +e !trat&ri +e i#!er/ie iP2>
!
1
U gro!imea !trat&l&i +e ca&ci&c *# ra"ort c& $a/a 'e#,ii care !e rea,m "e !&"ort&rile c& role
MmmN> !
1
P7mm
!
7
U gro!imea !trat&l&i +e ca&ci&c m!&rat *# ra"ort c& $a/a 'e#,ii "e care !e a)ea, material&l
tra#!"ortat MmmN> !
7
P 2 mm
10I. gro!imea me+ie a &#&i !trat +e i#!er/ie
101S<0 197 10 IS2 2: I.R7 =
(
" daN m + +

Gre&tatea re"arti,at a rolelor
Se +etermi# gre&tatea "r/ii rotati(e a rolelor c& rela/ia-

1< ;M N
R
G ( daN +

&#+e-
.l/imea 'e#,ii +e tra#!"ort MmN
1< <0 1 ; R
R
G daN +

Gre&tatea re"arti,at "e ram&ra +e!crcat (a $i -
1
1
R
11.27 =
<.B
R
r
r
G
" daN m
l

&#+e-
1 r
l
Pi#ter(al&l +i#tre rolele +e re,emareale ram&rii *#crcate
1
<.B >
r
l m
42
Gre&tatea re"arti,at "e ram&ra *#crcat (a $i -

1
7
7
11.27
R.11 =
1.2
r
r
r
"
" daN m
l


&#+e-
7 r
l
P i#ter(al&l +i#tre rolele +e re,emareale ram&rii goale
7
1.2 >
r
l m
7.;.7. Calc&l&l te#!i&#ilor +i# 'a#+a tra#!"ortor&l&i
desf
T T
1
7 1 1 7 7
9 : <0 <2S9I.R7 R.11: S7< 11.KB
desf ( r desf desf
T T F T w " " % T T

+ + + + + +

; i#$ 7
9 1: 91 <.<I:9 11.KB: 1.<IS 17.IK
desf desf
T k T T T + + + +

2 ; ; 2 1
91.<I 17.IK: 9 : S
R desf ( r
T T F T w " " %

+ + + +

1.<IS 17.IK <.<2S9I.R7 11.27: S7<
desf
T + + + 10 <I 7B.7R7
desf
T +

i#$ 2
T T
%i# ec&a/ia l&i E&ler-

e T T )
desf i#$ i#$

101S910 <I 7B.7R7: S7.R2K
desf desf
T T +

1.1IS ;<.<1 S7.R2K
desf desf
T T +

desf
T
P1B0BI

1
1B.BI T daN

7
1B.BI 11.KB ;< T daN +

;
1.<IS1B.BI 17.IK ;7 T daN +

43
2
1.<IS1B.BI 7B.7R7 2I T daN +

i#$
2I.1 T daN

Se +etermi# "&terea motor&l&i "e#tr& a#tre#area 'e#,ii
2 1
2I 1R 7R
T
F T T
+aN
T
T D
nec
v F k
P

7
1<
7
10 7 7R 10 7
1< <0R

P<01<2 T@
T
%
!e i#tro+&ce +atorit $a"t&l&i c motor&l +emarea, c& 'a#+a *#crcat c& material.

7.2. Calc&l&l tra#!"ortor&l&i c& raclete
Caracteri!tici te3#ice ale tra#!"ortator&l&i c& raclete
Tra#!"ortoarele c& raclete re"re,i#t o categorie im"orta#t +e ma)i#i +e tra#!"ortat c&
ac/i&#e co#ti#& 0 c& !i!tem +e trac/i&#e $le?i'il 0 reali,at +i# &#&l !a& +o& la#/&ri 0 *# circ&it
*#c3i! .
Pe la#/&ri !&#t "ri#!e 0 +i# loc *# loc 0 raclete 0 co#$ec/io#ate +i# ta'la +e o/el .
Si!tem&l "&rttor e!te $i? )i !e reali,ea, !&' $orma &#&i 8g3ea' +i# o/el c& !ec/i&#e
+re"t&#g3i&lar 0 !emicirc&lar !a& "oligo#al .
Pri#ci"i&l +e $&#ctio#are co#!t *# +e"la!area orga#&l&i +e tra#!"ort "e $&#+&l &#&i
8g3ea' *#c3i!. Ram&ra *#crcat a orga#&l&i a orga#&l&i +e tra#!"ort e!te !c&$&#+at *# material 0
iar cea li'era e!te +ea!&"ra material&l&i +e"la!6#+&.!e "e role +e !&!/i#ere .
O+ata c& orga#&l +e tra#!"ort !e mi)ca i#treaga ca#titate +e material ce !e a$l +ea!&"ra l&i .
44
Ti"&l tra#!"ortor&l&i
Sem#i$ica/ia
Sim'ol U#itate +e
m!&r
TL.7<<
4a!a (ol&metric a material&l&i \
m
Gg=m
;
1<<
L&#gimea total a tra#!"ortor&l&i L m 1K
L/imea 8g3ea'&l&i mm 7<<
A#al/ime 8g3ea'&l&i 3 mm ;17
Pa!&l orga#&l&i +e tra#!"ort " mm I<<
Ti"&l orga#&l&i +e tra#!"ort
.
. la#t c& ecli!e
5ite,a +e +e"la!are a orga#&l&i
+e tra#!"ort
( m=! <.; <.I
7.2.1.Calc&l&l "ro+&cti(it/ii orare a tra#!"ortor&l&i c&
raclete
Pro+&cti(itatea orar a tra#!"ortor&l&i c& raclete !e calc&lea, c& rela/ia-
;.IS S S
m
e
# v
!
N = M h t

45
e. (ol&m&l +e material *#tre +o& raclete !&cce!i(e Mm
;
N>
;
S S S M N
* *
e ( h ! m

8
.l/imea 8g3ea'&l&i MmN
8
P<07m>
3
8
.*#l/imea 8g3ea'&l&i MmN 3
8
P<0;17 m>
Z. coe$icie#t +e &m"lere a !ec/i&#ii 8g3ea'&l&i ZP<.B>
\
m
.gre&tatea (ol&metric a material&l&i tra#!"ortat M+aN=m
;
N \
m
P1<< +aN=m
;
>
(.(ite,a +e +e"la!are a !i!tem&l&i +e trac/i&#e Mm=!N (P<01m=!>
".+i!ta#/a *#tre +o& raclete MmN "P<0Im>
;
<.7S<.;17S<.BS<.I <.<7I7 e m
Pro+&cti(itatea orar (a $i-
;.IS S S
m
e
# v
!

N = M h t

<.<7I7
;.IS S1<<S<.1 ;K.; 2< =
<.I
# t h

7.2.7. %etermi#area "&terii motor&l&i +e a#tre#are
Pe#tr& a calc&la "&terea #ece!ar ac/io#rii ma)i#ii "or#im +e la rela/ia-
2<
;B.<; ;R =
;.IS ;.IS<.;
#
" daN m
v

&#+e-
[.gre&tatea re"arti,at a material&l&i M+aN=mN>
46
(.(ite,a +e tra#!"ort Mm=!N >
For/a +e trac/i&#e total !e calc&lea, c& rela/ia-
9 S co! !i# :M N
t
F " w % % daN t

&#+e-
J.re,i!te#/a !"eci$ic total0 JP<.K>
L.l&#gimea total a tra#!"ortor&l&i MmN LP1Km>
.&#g3i&l +e *#cli#are0 $at +e ori,o#tal0 al tra!e&l&i "e care !e +e"la!ea, material&l P< >
;R9<.KS1KS1: I1<
t
F daN

P&terea #ece!ar ac/io#rii ma)i#ii (a $i-
7
S
M N
1< S
t
nec
T
F v
P kw


&#+e-
.ra#+ame#t&l tra#!mi!iei0 P<.R>
7
S I1<S<.1
2.<I
1< S 1<<S<.R
t
nec
T
F v
P kw



7.1. Calc&l&l ele(ator&l&i c& c&"e
Caracteri!tici te3#ice "ri#ci"ale
ale ele(ator&l&i
47
Ele(atoarele c& c&"e !&#t ma)i#i +e tra#!"ortat c& ac/i&#e co#ti#& ce "ot +e"la!a
materiale *# (rac "e +irec/ie (ertical !a& "e +irec/ii *#cli#ate c& &#g3i&ri mari $a/ +e
ori,o#tal . %i!ta#/a ma?im +e tra#!"ort e!te +e 1< m .
Si!tem&l "&rtator "e#tr& material&l tra#!"ortat *# ca,&l +e $a/a e co#!tit&it +i#tr.o !erie +e
c&"e reali,ate +i# ta'la +e o/el . For/a +e trac/i&#e !e tra#!mite materialelor tra#!"ortate "ri#
i#terme+i&l &#ei 'e#,i ela!tice +e ca&ci&c c& i#!ertii +e $i'ra te?til .
C&"ele !e "ri#+ +e !i!tem&l +e trac/i&#e "ri# i#terme+i&l &#or )&r&'&ri !a& agra$e +e o/el
+e $orm !"ecial .
Tra#!"ort&l materialelor c& a8&tor&l ele(ator&l&i c& c&"e c&"ri#+e &rmtoarele $a,e -
. &m"lerea c&"elor c& material&l tra#!"ortat >
+e"la!area c&"elor *#carcate 0 "e (ertical 9 !a& "e +irec/ii a"ro"iate +e (ertical : 0 "6# la
"&#ct&al $i#al >
. +e!carcarea 9 golirea :c&"elor )i e(ac&area material&l&i +i# ele(ator .
A#carcarea c&"elor re"re,i#t o (erig im"orta#ta *# $&#c/io#area ma)i#ii +eoarece 0 +e
acea!ta +e"i#+e "ro+&cti(itatea +e e?"loatare a i#!tala/iei . E$icie#/a ace!tor $a,e !e a"reciea,
c& a8&tor&l &#&i coe$icie#t Z0 +e &m"lere care *# ca,&l e(ac&arii material&l&i +e"i#+e +e t&ra/ia
tam'&r&l&i +e a#tre#are 0 +e ca#titatea +e material ac&m&lat *# "icior&l ele(ator&l&i .
A# ge#eral ele(atoarele c& c&"e #ece!it &# !i!tem +e alime#tare care ! a!ig&re &# +e'it
co#!ta#t +e material 0 ce "oate $i o alta ma)i#a c& ac/i&#e co#ti#& 0 tra#!"ortor c& la#/ !a&
tra#!"ortor elicoi+al .
Um"lerea c&"elor *# ca,&l +e $a/ !e $ace "ri# e!ca(area +irecta a material&l&i +i#
"icior&l ele(ator&l&i .
Golirea c&"elor !e "oate $ace $ie ce#tri$&gal $ie gra(ita/io#al .
48
Ti"&l e(ator&l&i
Sem#i$ica/ia
Sim'ol U#itate
+e
m!&r
EL.7<<
%e'it&l ma?im H
m
t=3 11
4o+&l +e +e!crcare . . gra(ita/io#al
5ite,a +e tra#!"ort ( m=! <0R
Ti"&l c&"elor . . a+6#ci
Pa!&l c&"elor " mm 2<<
Ca"acitatea c&"elor c +m
;
2.71
A#l/imea ma?im 3
m
mm HV1I1<
P&terea #omi#al P
#
TJ 2

101
7.1.1.Calc&l&l "ro+&cti(it/ii orare a ele(ator&l&i c& c&"e
Pro+&cti(itatea orar a ele(ator&l&i c& c&"e !e +etermi# c& rela/ia -
v " # S S I . ;
N = M h t
&#+e-
[ U gre&tatea material&l&i "e metr&l li#iar +e tra#!"ortor
N = M m daN
>
( U (ite,a +e +e"la!are a !i!tem&l&i +e tra#c/i&#e 0 ;.1 = v m s >
Gre&tatea material&l&i "e metr&l li#iar +e tra#!"ortor !e calc&lea, c& $orm&la -
49
;
1<
S S S
m
" c
!

N = M m daN

c U ca"acitatea &#ei c&"e 0
;
M N dm cP2.71+m
;
>
" U "a!&l c&"elor 0 +i!ta#/a +i#tre +o& c&"e !&cce!!i(e M N m
"P<.2m
>
m

. +e#!itatea material&l&i *# (rac


;
M = N kg m 0
;
= B . < m kg >

. coe$icie#t&l +e &m"lere a c&"elor


<.1
>

;
1<
S2.71S<.1S<.B ;.B1 =
<.2
" daN m



Pro+&cti(itatea orar (a $i -

;.IS;.B1S;.1 2I.B2 2B = # t h

7.1.7. Calc&l&l $or/ei re,i!te#te la &m"lere
For/a re,i!te#/a la &m"lere a c&"elor !e +etermi# co#$orm rela/iei -
" F
Ru
S
N MdaN
&#+e -

. l&cr&l meca#ic !"eci$ic "e#tr& &m"lerea c&"ei


N = M I 7 daN daNm
09aleg
2 = daNm daN
:>
[ U gre&tatea material&l&i "e metr&l li#iar +e tra#!"ortor ;.B1 = daN m>
S 2S;.B1 12.R2
Ru
F " daN

50
7.1.;. Calc&l&l "&terii #ece!are meca#i!m&l&i
+e ac/io#are a la#/&l&i
For/ele +i# orga#&l +e trac/i&#e
Fig. 7.1.Co#t&r&l la#/&l&i ele(ator&l&i c& c&"e
desf
T T
1
1R< 7<<M N daN
"e#tr& orga#&l +e trac/i&#e co!tit&it +i# la#/ >
7 i#$ 1 1 7
S M N
R
T k T F daN

+
>

; 7
M N
Ru
T T F daN +
>
N M
S
1 2
daN e T cT


&#+e -
2 ; 7 1
0 0 0 T T T T
. te#!i&#ile *# "&#ctele 10 7 0 ;0 2 >
i#$
k . coe$icie#t&l +e trecere al la#/&l&i "e!te tam'&r&l +e g3i+are 0 <1 . 1
i#$
k >
51
c
. coe$icie#t&l +e !ig&ra#/ 0 11 . 1 c >

. coe$icie#t&l +e $recare la#/ U material 0


7 . <
>

. &#g3i&l +e *#$a)&rare al la#/&l&i "e tam'&r 0


<
1R< >
Ru
F
. $or/a re,i!te#t la &m"lere a c&"elor >
7 1 r
F . $or/a re,i!te#t "e ram&ra 1.7 )i !e calc&lea, c& $orm&la -
N M S S
1 7 1
daN H " F
T r

i# care-
1
. coe$icie#t ce /i#e !eama +e $recarea +i#tre la#/ )i ram&ra +e!carcat
1 . <
>
T
" . gre&tatea orga#&l&i $le?i'il >
H . *#l/imea ele(ator&l&i 0 71 H m .
N = M S m daN # k "
T T
*# care-
#
. "ro+&cti(itatea orar +e e?"loatare a &tila8&l&i >
T
k . coe$icie#tce /i#e !eama +e re,i!te#/a la +e"la!area !i!tem&l&i +e trac/i&#e +e c&
(alori c&"ri#!e *#tre R . < ; . < 9 aleg
<.I
T
k
: >
S <.IS2B 7R.7 =
T T
" k # daN m
1 7 1
S S <.1S7R.7S71 1K.77
r T
F " H daN


1
1R<
desf
T T daN

7 i#$ 1 1 7
S 1.<1S1R< 1K.77 72R.77 72K
R
T k T F daN

+ +
>
; 7
72R.77 12.R2 7I;
Ru
T T F daN + +
>
S
2 1 2 2
1.11 1R<S1.R1 7RK.1I 7K< cT Te T T daN


Pe#tr& a calc&la "&terea motor&l&i #ece!ar a#tre#rii !e $olo!e)te rela/ia -
52
T
R
nec
v F
P
S 1<
S
7
N Mkw

&#+e -
R
F . $or/a re,i!te#t la r&"ere 0
N MdaN
>
i#$
7K< 1R< 11<
R desf
F T T daN
7 7
S 11<S;.1 1I2
2.R1
1< S 1< S<.R R<
R
nec
T
F v
P kw



7.I. Ca"acit/i +e +e"o,itare
S.C. ZAHR CORAIA S.A +i!"&#e +e !"a/ii +e +e"o,itare !"ecial ame#a8ate "e#tr& materia
"rim !i materialele a&?iliare )i "ro+&!ele $i#ite-
.!$ecla +e ,a3r . 17<<< t>
.calcar.coc! . 2<<<< t >
."c&r U I1<< t>
.!"a/ii +e +e"o,itare ,a3r (rac *# ; cel&le !ilo, a c6te 11<<< t $iecare ]21<<<t
.&# +e"o,it aco"erit "e#tr& o ca"acitate +e +e"o,itare a ,a3r&l&i 'r&t+i# im"ort +e 12<<< t
ec3i"at core!"&#,ator c& mi8loace meca#ice +e +e!crcare )i ma#i"&lare.

53
CAPITOLUL III
CHELTUIELI CU SISTE4UL %E TRANSPORT
54
U# !i!tem +e tra#!"ort i#ter# !i +e"o,itare care !ati!$ace ceri#/ele +i# "&#ct +e (e+ere
te3#ic #& e!te !&$icie#t +ac "e#tr& reali,area ace!tora #ece!it c3elt&ieli $oarte mari c&
*#tre/i#erea )i e?"loatarea.
Se ca&ta &# com"romi! *#tre +otarea te3#ic )i c3elt&ielile c& *#tre/i#erea )i e?"loatarea
!i!tem&l&i .
C3elt&ielile c& *#tre/i#erea )i e?"loatarea !i!tem&l&i !e *m"art *# -
c3elt&ieli $i?e ce #& +e"i#+ +e gra+&l +e $olo!ire al &tila8&l&i c&m ar $i c3elt&ielile c&
amorti!me#t&l ma)i#ilor >
c3elt&ielile (aria'ile ce +e"i#+ +e gra+&l +e $olo!ire al &tila8&l&i "rec&m )i c3elt&ieli c&
re"ara/iile 0 c3elt&ieli c& e#ergia co#!&mat 0 c3elt&ieli c& !alari,area "er!o#al&l&i .
.
;.1. Calc&l&l c3elt&ielilor c& !alari,area "er!o#al&l&i
m&#citor
La S.C. ZAHR CORAIA S.A. !e l&crea, *# ; !c3im'&ri +e t&r +e R ore0 $iecare ec3i"
a(6#+ &rmtoarea com"o#e#/ (
55
Pro$e!ia l&crtor&l&i N&mr&l +e l&crtori
"e t&r
Salari&l me+i& l&#ar
"e#tr& &# l&crtor MRONN
meca#ic R I7<
electromeca#ic 1 B<<
electricia# R B1<
!&+or ; R<<
co#+&ctor moto!ti(&itor 7 B<<
ma#i"&la#t ; 11<
C3elt&ielile c& !alari,area "er!o#al&l&i m&#citor *# +ec&r!&l &#&i a# !e (or calc&la c& rela/ia -
1
17S S S
i
PM i i
n
C n s


N = M an R+N

&#+e -
i
n
. #&mr&l+e l&crtori>
i
s
. !alari&l me+i& l&#ar "e#tr& $iecare "ro$e!ie .
.coe$icie#t care /i#e !eama +e c3elt&ielile !&"lime#tare c& !alari,area-!a#atate0 acci+e#te )i
'oli "ro$e!io#ale0co#ce+ii etc. P102.
C3elt&ielile legate +e !alari,area "er!o#al&l&i *# +ec&r!&l &#&i a#
17972SI7< 11SB<< 72SB1< KSR<< ISB<<< KS11<:S1.2 BRR2;I = C R+N an
PM
+ + + + +

;.7. Calc&l&l c3elt&ielilor c& e#ergia co#!&mat
56
+e motoarele ma)i#ilor )i &tila8elor +e ri+icat !i tra#!"ortat
Se +etermi# c& $orm&la -

1
1
S S S S M = N
n
i
EE e i i !
i
i
C c P t k R+N an


&#+e-
c
e
."re/&l &#&i TJ3 e#ergie electric MRON=TJ3N>
#.#&mr&l motoarelor electrice i#!talate>
P
i
."&terile #omi#ale ale ace!tor motoare MTJN>
t
i
.#&mr&l a#&al +e ore +e $&#c/io#are ale $iecr&i motor More=a#N>
i
!
k
.coe$icie#t +e $olo!ire a a "&terii i#!talate
i nec
!
N
P
k
P

>
i

.ra#+ame#t&l me+i& al motoarelor electrice


<.R
i

>
E?i!t &rmator&l #&mr +e &tila8e +e tra#!"ort co#ti#&& -
.K tra#!"ortoare elicoi+ale>
.1B tra#!"ortoare c& 'a#+>
.7 tra#!"ortoare c& raclete>
.1< ele(atoare>
Re,&lt ;R +e motoare electrice.
P&terile #omi#ale ale motoarelor !&#t-
.tra#!"ortor elicoi+al P
N
P77TJ>
57
.tra#!"ortor c& 'a#+ P
N
P101TJ>
.tra#!"ortoare c& raclete P
N
PB TJ>
.ele(ator c& c&"e P
N
P101 TJ>
Coe$icie#t&l +e $olo!ire a a "&terii i#!talate "e#tr& $iecare &tila8>
.tra#!"ortor elicoi+al
1R
<.R
77
i
!
k >
.tra#!"ortor c& 'a#+
<.1<2
<.21R
1.1
i
!
k >
.tra#!"ortoare c& raclete
2.<I
<.1R
B
i
!
k >
.ele(ator c& c&"e
2.R1
<.RB
1.1
i
!
k >
A#tre"ri#+erea $&#c/io#ea,a *# me+ie 11< ,ile=a# iar acti(itatea e!te co#ti#& a!ig&rat +e trei
!c3im'&ri.
Perioa+a +e i#acti(itate e!te +ata $ie +e li"!a materii "rime 0 $ie +e re"ara/ii ale ma)i#ilor c&
ac/i&#e co#ti#& .

11<S72 ;I<< =
i
t ore an
C3elt&ielile c& e#ergia co#!&mat +e motoarele i#!tala/iilor0ma)i#ilor )i &tila8elor +e ri+icat !i
tra#!"ortat (or $i-
1 1
<.IBIS9KS77S;I<<S<.RS 1BS1.1S;I<<S<.21S
<.R <.R
1 1
7SBS;I<<S<.1RS 1<S1.1S;I<<S<.RBS : IBBB11.KB =
<.R <.R
EE
C
ron an
+ +
+ +
;.;. C3elt&ieli c& e#ergia co#!&mat "e#tr& il&mi#area
58
"&#ctelor +e l&cr&
Se +etermi# c& $orm&la-
;
1
1< S S S
!
E, * * * e
*
C $ t c


N = M an R+N

&#+e-
*

.co#!&m&l #ormat +e e#ergie electric "e#tr& il&mi#area &#&i m


7
MJ=m
7
N

*

PR J=m
7
>
*
$
.mrimea0*# m
7
0a !&"ra$e/elor il&mi#ate>
*
t
.#&mr&l a#&al +e ore +e il&mi#are "e#tr& $iecare ti" +e !&"ra$a/ More=a#N>
%e"o,it&l "e#tr& !acii +e ,a3r are &rmatoarele mrimi-
.l&#gimea +e"o,it&l&i LP;7 m>
.l/imea +e"o,it&l&i lP1I m>
A
1
PLSl Mm
7
N>
A
1
P;7S1IP117 m
7
>
T&r#&l +e *#!c&ire are &rmatoarele mrimi-
.l&#gimea t&r#&l&i LPK m>
.l/imea t&r#&l&i lPB m>
A
7
PLSl Mm
7
N>
A
7
P;7S1IPI; m
7
>
P&#ctele +e l&cr& !&#t il&mi#ate 17 ore "e ,i tim" +e 7<< +e ,ile "e a#.
59
t
1
Pt
7
P17S7<<P72<< 3=a#
C3elt&ieli c& e#ergia co#!&mat "e#tr& il&mi#area "&#ctelor +e l&cr& (a $i-
;
1< S9RS117S72<< RSI;S72<<: S<.IBI B2I;.<2 =
E,
C R+N an

+
;.2. Calc&l&l c3elt&ielilor c& com'&!ti'il&l
co#!&mat +e moto!ti(&itoare
C3elt&ielile "e#tr& car'&ra#t&l co#!&mat +e motoarele c& ar+ere i#ter# !e +etermi# c& rela/ia-
1
S S S S
n
i
c c i i ! i
i
C c P t k



N = M an R+N

&#+e-
c
c
.co!t&l car'&ra#t&l&i co#!&mat
M = N R+N l
c
c
P202
M = N R+N l
>
i
P
."&terile #omi#ale ale motoarelor i#!talate "e ma)i#i
M N kw
>
t
i
.#&mr&l a#&al +e ore +e $&#c/io#are ale $iecr&i motor M3=a#N>
t
i
P1<3=,iS7<<,ile=a#P7<<< 3=a#

i
!
k
.coe$icie#t +e $olo!ire a a "&terii i#!talate
i nec
!
N
P
k
P

>

i

.co#!&m&l !"eci$ic +e car'&ra#t


M = N l kwh <.;1 =
i
l kwh
>
P&terile motor&l&i !&#t-
."&terea #ece!ar
7.<B
nec
P kw
>
60
."&terea #omi#al
;7
N
P kw
>
Coe$icie#t +e $olo!ire a a "&terii i#!talate (a $i-

7.<B
<.<I
;7
i
!
k
C3elt&ielile "e#tr& car'&ra#t&l co#!&mat +e motoarele c& ar+ere i#ter# (or $i-

C3elt&ielile totale c& e#ergia co#!&mat (or $i-
M = N
E EE E, c
C C C C R+N an + +


IBBB11.KB B2I;.<2 11R7B.7 IKB<<7.71 =
E
C R+N an + +

;.1. Calc&l&l c3elt&ielilor c& amorti,area
i#!tala/iilor +e tra#!"ort co#ti#&&
C3elt&ielile a#&ale +e amorti,area i#(e!ti/iei !e (or calc&la c& rela/ia -
<.<1S S
$M i i
C - a


N = M an R+N

k
-
. (aloarea &tila8&l&i la ac3i,i/ie
. tra#!"ortor elicoi+al -
22<<<
e
- R+N
.tra#!"ortor c& 'a#+-
71<<<
e
- R+N
.tra#!"ortor c& raclete-
;IB<<
e
- R+N
61
. ele(ator c& c&"e -
;K<<<
Ec
- R+N

a
. (aloarea cotei a#&ale +e amorti,are e!te-
. tra#!"ortor elicoi+al 17C a
.tra#!"ortor c& 'a#+- 1<C a
.tra#!"ortor c& raclete- RC a
. ele(ator c& c&"e - 1<C a
<.<1S S <.<1S922<<<S17 71<<<S1< ;IB<<SR ;K<<<S1<:
12I1I =
$M k k
C - a
R+N an
+ + +

;.I. Calc&l&l c3elt&ielilor c& amorti,area


moto!ti(&itoarelor
C3elt&ielile a#&ale +e amorti,area i#(e!ti/iei !e (or calc&la c& rela/ia -
k k $M
a - C S S <1 . <

N = M an R+N
k
-
. (aloarea &tila8&l&i la ac3i,i/ie 0
1K<<< IKB;<
k
- Euro R+N

a
. (aloarea cotei a#&ale +e amorti,are !ti(&itor&l&i e!te C 17 a
<.<1S S <.<1SIKB;<S17S7 1IB;1.7 =
$M k k
C - a R+N an

;.B. Calc&l&l c3elt&ielilor a#&ale c& amorti,area


62
cl+irilor !i!tem&l&i +e +e"o,itare
Rela/ia +e calc&l $olo!it e!te -
a - C
d $M
S S <1 . <
N = M an R+N
&#+e -
d
-
. (aloarea act&al a +e"o,it&l&i >
a
. cota a#&al +e amorti,are a +e"o,it&l&i 0 C R a >
R+N -
s
71<<<<
<.<1S S <.<1S71<<<<SR 7<<<< =
$M d
C - a R+N an
;.R. Calc&l&l c& re"ara/iile c&re#te ale
ma)i#ilor c& ac/i&#e co#ti#&
Co!t&l &#ei ma)i#i c& ac/i&#e co#ti#& e!te +i$icil +e a"reciat *# co#+i/iile *# care acea!ta
+e"i#+e +e +ime#!i&#ile ma)i#ii 0 $irma "ro+&ctoare )i altele .
S.a !ta'ilit co!t&l ace!tor &tila8e ca o (aloare me+ie at6t a +ime#!i&#ilor c6t )i al "re/&l&i
+e ac3i,i/ie -
. tra#!"ortor elicoi+al -
22<<<
e
- R+N
>
.tra#!"ortor c& 'a#+-
71<<<
e
- R+N
>
63
.tra#!"ortor c& raclete-
;IB<<
e
- R+N
>
. ele(ator c& c&"e -
;K<<<
Ec
- R+N
>
Rela/ia +e calc&l a c3elt&ielilor a#&ale c& re"ara/iile c&re#te e!te -
<.<1S S
RC i i
C - r


N = M an R+N

&#+e -
i
-
. (aloarea ma)i#ii +e ti"&l 0iX >
i
r
. cota +e re"ara/ii a &tila8&l&i +e ti"&l 0iX .
. tra#!"ortor elicoi+al 7C r >
.tra#!"ortor c& 'a#+- ;C r >
.tra#!"ortor c& raclete- 2C r >
. ele(ator c& c&"e - ;C r >
( ) <.<1S S <.<1S 22<<<S7 71<<<S; ;IB<<S2 ;K<<<S; 27IR =
RC i i
C C r R+N an + + +

;.K. Calc&l&l c3elt&ielilor c& *#tre/i#erea


)i re"ara/iile "arc&l&i +e !ti(&itoare
Rela/ia +e calc&l &tili,at e!te &rmtoarea -
r C n C
,R
S S S <1 . <

N = M an R+N

&#+e -
64
n
. #&mr&l +e &tila8e acti(e 0 7 n >
C . co!t&l &#&i &tila8 *# "re,e#t 0
1K<<< = IKB;< = C Euro utila* R+N utila*

r . cota "roce#t&al a (alorii re"ara/iilor *# ra"ort c& (aloarea total a &tila8&l&i 0 2C r >
<.<1S S S <.<1S7SIKB;<S2 11BR.2 =
,R
C n C r R+N an
;.1<. Calc&l&l c3elt&ielilor c& *#tre/i#erea
)i re"ara/iile !i!tem&l +e +e"o,itare
Rela/ia +e calc&l &tili,at e!te &rmtoarea -
r - C
c ,R
S S <1 . <
N = M an R+N
&#+e -
c
-
. (aloarea act&al a cla+irii >
r . cota a#&al +e *#tre/i#ere )i re"ara/ii.
71<<<<
c
- R+N
7C r
<.<1S71<<<<S7 1<<< =
,R
C R+N an
C+eltuielile anuale totale vor $i(
M = N
T PM E $M ,R
C C C C C R+N an + + +
BRR2;I IKB<<7.71 912I1I 1IB;1.7 7<<<<: 927IR 11BR.2 1<<<: 1111I;1.R1 =
T
C R+N an + + + + + + +
65
CAPITOLUL I5
PREZENTAREA SOLUDIILOR PROPUSE PENTRU
RETEHNOLOGIZAREA EI 4O%ERNIZAREA
SISTE4ULUI %E TRANSPORT INTERN EI
%EPOZITARE
Sol&/ia +e mo+er#i,are
66
2.1. I#tro+&cererea !tela8elor *# +e"o,it&l +e ,a3r
)i i#tro+&cerea electro!ti(&itor&l&i
A# &rma !t&+i&l&i $c&t a!&"ra "ro+&c/iei +e ,a3r o'/i#&t i# &ltimii 1 a#i !e o'!er( o
cre)tere a ace!teia *# $iecare a#.
Se $ace o "rog#o, core!"&#,toare "ro+&c/iei o'/i#&te *# &ltimii 1 a#i $olo!i#+ $&#c/ia tre#+
li#e !a& te#+i#/a ge#eral re,&lt6#+ ca"acitatea #ece!ar +e +e"o,itare *# a#&l 7<17.
%e aici !e o'!er( &# #ece!ar +e ca"acitate *# 7<17 +e ;1;1< +e to#e +e ,a3r.


Nr.
Crt.
a#&l Pro+&c/ia a#&al
MtN
67
< 7<<; 1<17<
1 7<<2 17K11
7 7<<1 121R;
; 7<<I 1I7;2
2 7<<B 7;<BI
1 7<<R 7;KK10;
I 7<<K 7IR;<0R
B 7<1< 7KIB<0;
R 7<11 ;71<K0R
K 7<17 ;1;2K0;
%eoarece !e e!timea, o cre)tere a "ro+&c/iei +e ,a3r e!te #ece!ar o cre)tere a
ca"acit/ii +e +e"o,itare.
Se "ro"&#e o !ol&/ie +e rete3#ologi,are )i mo+er#i,are a +e"o,it&l&i +e "ro+&!e $i#ite )i
a#&me-
.i#tro+&cere a !tela8elor i# +e"o,it ceea ce (a +&ce la o cre)tere a ca"acit/ii +e +e"o,itare care
! aco"ere #ece!ar&l +e ca"acitate +i# 7<17
. *#loc&irea moto!ti(&itoarelor %e!ta %17 $olo!ite la ma#i"&larea &#it/ilor +e *#crct&r c&
electro!ti(&itoare E17 care a&-
. *#l/ime +e ri+icare a &#it/ii +e *#crct&r mai mare>
.&# co!t al e#ergiei co#!&mate mai re+&! +ec6t co!t&l co#!&m&l&i +e com'&!ti'il $olo!it la
moto!ti(&itoare>
.&# c&loar +e l&cr& mai re+&! >
. elimi#area #o?elor ema#ate +e e)a"ame#t&l motor&l&i %ie!el *# totalitate>
.o "ro+&cti(itate mai mare >
2.7. Calc&l&l +ime#!i&#ilor !tela8elor
68
%ime#!i&#ile !tela8elor !e (or calc&la *# $&#c/ie +e +ime#!i&#ile +e 'a, ale cl+irii )i +e
caracteri!ticile electro!ti(&itor&l&i care (a *#loc&i moto!ti(&itor&l act&al .
%atele #ece!are calc&l&l&i +ime#!i&#ilor !tela8elor !&#t -
. +ime#!i&#ile +e"o,it&l&i +e !aci +e ,a3r- ;7 % m > 1I l m >
. !"a/iile +e !ig&ra#/ *#tre "ere/ii +e"o,it&l&i )i !tela8e - m l 1 >
. *#l/imea ma?im +e ri+icare a $&rcilor -
mm h 21<<
ma?

>
. +ime#!i&#ile &#it/ii +e *#crct&r "e#tr& !acii +e ,a3r-
.
17<< R<< 17<<
ui ui ui
h l %
.
Pe#tr& calc&l&l +ime#!i&#ilor &#&i 'loc +e !tela8 tre'&ie a$late *# "rim&l r6#+
+ime#!i&#ile &#ei cel&le +e +e"o,itare .
Cel&la +e +e"o,itare e!te &# !"a/i& egal c& +ime#!i&#ile +e ga'arit ale &#it/ii +e
*#crct&r la cere !e a+a&g !"a/iile +e !ig&ra#/ +i#tre !tr&ct&ra metalic )i co#t&r&l +e ga'arit
al &#ittii +e *#crct&r .
Fig.I Cel&la +e +e"o,itare
69
%ime#!i&#ile cel&lei +e +e"o,itare !&#t -
. l&#gimea &#it/ii +e *#crct&r -
mm %
ui
17<<
>
. l/imea &#it/ii +e *#crct&r -
mm l
ui
R<<
>
. *#l/imea &#it/ii +e *#crct&r -
mm h
ui
17<<
>
. !"a/i& +e !ig&ra#/ - mm 1<< >
. l&#gimea cel&lei +e +e"o,itare -
mm % %
ui c
12<< 1<< S 7 17<< 7 + +
>
. l/imea cel&lei +e +e"o,itare -
mm l l
ui c
1<<< 1<< S 7 R<< S 7 + +
>
. *#l/imea cel&lei +e +e"o,itare -
mm h h
ui c
1;<< 1<< 17<< + +
.
N&mr&l +e cel&le "e (ertical !e calc&lea, c& rela/ia -
ma?
1
cv
c
h
N
h
1
+
1
]

M N celule

&#+e -
ma?
h
. *#l/imea ma?im +e !ti(&ire 0
m h 1 . 2
ma?

>
c
h
. *#l/imea cel&lei +e +e"o,itare 0
m h
c
; . 1
>
ma?
2.1
1 1 ; 1 2
1.;
cv
c
h
N niveluri
h
1
1
+ + +
1
1
]
]
N&mr&l +e cel&le "e ori,o#tal !e calc&lea, c& rela/ia-

s
co
.
%
N
D
1

1
]

Mcel&leN
70
&#+e-
%
?
. +ime#!i&#ea "e ori,o#tal ra"ortat la !&"ra$a/a lateral a !tela8&l&i ce re(i#e &#ei cel&le +e
+e"o,itare>
L
!
U l&#gimea !tela8&l&i>
L
!
P l . lc
L
!
P 1I U ;071 P 170BK m.
l U l/imea +e"o,it&l&iMmN>
lc U l/imea mi#im a c&loar&l&i +e circ&la/ieMmN>

s
co
.
%
N
D
1

1
]
P
170 BK
1
1
1
]
P M1707N P 17 cel&le
N&mr&l +e cel&le +i# !tela8 !e calc&lea, c& rela/ia-

N
c!
P N
c o
^ N
c(
Mcel&leN
N
c!
P 17 ^ 2 P 2R cel&le
Ca"acitatea #ece!ara +e +e"o,itare -
S S
a
ND d d
#
C T k
/

N Mcelule

&#+e -
a
#
. ca#titatea a#&al +e &#it/i +e *#crct&r reali,ate 0
N . M i u
>
/ . #&mr&l a#&al +e ,ile l&crtoare 0 72< / /ile >
d
T
. tim"&l me+i& +e +e"o,itare 0
7
d
T /ile
>
71
d
k
. coe$icie#t ce /i#e !eama +e "o#+erea li(rrilor +irecte 0
R . <
d
k
.
I<<<<
S S S7S<.R 2<<
72<
a
ND d d
#
C T k celule
/

Ca"acitatea +e +e"o,itare "roiectat (a $i +etermi#at c& rela/ia -
cs (' !roiect
N N C S

N Mcelule

&#+e -
('
N
. #&mr&l +e 'loc&ri +e !tela8 care !e calc&lea, c& rela/ia -

2<<
K
2R
ND
('
cs
C
N locuri
N

S KS2R 2;7
!roiect (' cs
C N N celule
Coe$icie#t&l +e &tili,are a ca"acit/ii "roiectate (a $i -
2<<
<.K7
2;7
ND
st
!roiect
C
C

%&" i#tro+&cerea !tela8elor (a re,&lta cre)terea ca"acit/ii +e +e"o,itare ca"a'il !a aco"er
#ece!ar&l +e ca"acitate )i o mai '&# ara#8are a &#it/ilor +e *#crct&r *# +e"o,it.
2.;. Calc&l&l electro!ti(&itor&l&i "ro"&!
Pe#tr& mo+er#i,area "arc&l&i +e !ti(&itoare !.a ale! electro!ti(&itor&l& E.17 c& &rmtoarele
caracteri!tici te3#ice -
%e#&mire caracteri!tici U#itate +e
m!&r
Sim'ol 5aloarea
caracteri!ticilor
Ca"acitatea #omi#al +e *#crcare +aN G
N
7<<<
5ite,a +e +e"la!are c& *#crct&r m=! (
+i
201I
5ite,a +e +e"la!are $r *#crct&r m=! (
+g
2022
5ite,a +e ri+icare a $&rcilor c& !arci# m=! (
r!
<.B
72
5ite,a +e ri+icare a $&rcilor $r !arci# m=! (
rg
<.BI
5ite,a +e co'or6re a $&rcilor c& !arci# m=! (
c!
<.I1
5ite,a +e co'or6re a $&rcilor $r !arci# m=! (
cg
<.1I
P&terea #omi#al a motor&l&i GJ P
#
I
T&r/ia #omi#al a motor&l&i rot=mi# # 7B1<
Gre&tatea "ro"rie +aN G
&t
;1<<
Coe$icie#t +e !&"ra*#crcare . _
a
1.1
Ca"acitatea 'ateriei 5=A3 C
'
2B=B7<
A#l/imea ma?im +e ri+icare a $&rcilor m 3
ma?
2.1
L&#gime $r $&rci mm l
1
7;71
L/imea total mm l 1<B<
L/imea c&loarelor +e circ&la/ie mm l
c
;71<
,.-.1. Determinarea duratei medii a ciclului de lucru
%&rata &#&i cicl& +e ma#i"&lare !e +etermi# c& rela/ia-
1
M!ecN
n
c i
i
T t

U#+e -
i
t
. +&rata o"era/iei eleme#tare i
Pe#tr& a +etermi#a +&rata me+ie a cicl&l&i +e l&cr& !e $ace me+ia aritmetic a +&ratelor a trei
cicl&ri +e ma#i"&lare-
. "e#tr& c&r!a cea mai l&#g
."e#tr& c&r!a me+ie
73
."e#tr& c&r!a cea mai !c&rt
%etermi#area +&ratei cicl&l&i +e ma#i"&lare "e#tr& c&r!a cea mai l&#g
1.Tim"&l #ece!ar i#tro+&cerii $&rcilor *# galeriile "alet&l&i
t
1
P 2!
7.Tim"&l #ece!ar rotirii i# "la# (ertical a !i!tem&l&i +e rame c& &#g3i&l Q
t
7
P 7!
;. Ri+icarea &#it/ii +e *#crct&r la *#l/imea +e tra#!"ort H
T
;
T
R
H
t
v


N Ms

&#+e -
R
v
. (ite,a +e ri+icare a $&rcilor c& !arci# 0
N = M s m
.

;
<.1
1
<.B
t s
2.%&rata ma#e(rei +e *#toarcere a electro!ti(&itor&l&i

2
2 t s
1.%e"la!area electro!ti(&itor&l&i c& *#crct&ra

1
1
M N
di
d
t s
v


1
I.1 1; 1;
R
1<<<
11S
;I<<
t s
+ +

&#+e-
1
d
.+i!ta#/a "e care !e +e"la!ea, electro!ti(&itor&l MmN
74
di
v
.(ite,a +e +e"la!are *#crcat a electro!ti(&itor&l&i P11 Tm=3
I. Rotirea &tila8&l&i "e &# arc +e c&r' +e K<
o

I
; t s
B. Rotirea &tila8&l&i "e &# arc +e c&r' +e K<
o

B
; t s
R.Ri+icarea *#crct&rii la *#l/imea +e !ti(&ire a mr$ii H
R
R
M N
R
R
H
t s
v

R
2
I
<.B
t s
K. Tim"&l #ece!ar rotirii i# "la# (ertical a !i!tem&l&i +e rame c& &#g3i&l Q
t
K
P 7!
1<.Tim"&l #ece!ar !coaterii $&rcilor +i# galeriile "alet&l&i
t
1<
P 2!
11.Co'or6rea $&rcilor $r *#crct&r +e la *#l/imea +e !ti(&ire a mar$ii H
R
11
M N
R
c
H
t s
v

11
2
B
<.1I
t s
&#+e-
c
v
.(ite,a +e co'or6re $ar *#crct&r Mm=!N
17. %&rata ma#e(rei +e *#toarcere a electro!ti(&itor&l&i
75

17
2 t s
1;.%&rata +e"la!rii *# !tare goal a electro!ti(&itor&l&i
1
1;
M N
dg
d
t s
v


1;
I.1 1; 1;
R
1<<<
1IS
;I<<
t s
+ +

&#+e-
dg
v
.(ite,a +e +e"la!are *# !tare goala a electro!ti(&itor&l&iP1ITm=3
%&rata cicl&l&i +e ma#i"&lare "e#tr& c&r!a cea mai l&#g-
T
c1

%etermi#area +&ratei cicl&l&i +e ma#i"&lare "e#tr& c&r!a me+ie
1.Tim"&l #ece!ar *#tro+&cerii $&rcilor *# galeriile "alet&l&i
t
1
P 2!
7.Tim"&l #ece!ar rotirii i# "la# (ertical a !i!tem&l&i +e rame c& &#g3i&l Q
t
7
P 7!
;. Ri+icarea &#it/ii +e *#crct&r la *#l/imea +e tra#!"ort H
T
;
T
R
H
t
v


N Ms

&#+e -
R
v
. (ite,a +e ri+icare a $&rcilor c& !arci# 0
N = M s m
.
76

;
<.1
1
<.B
t s
2.%&rata ma#e(rei +e *#toarcere a electro!ti(&itor&l&i

2
2 t s
1.%e"la!area electro!ti(&itor&l&i c& *#crct&ra

7
1
M N
di
d
t s
v


1
I.1 R I.1
1
1<<<
11S
;I<<
t s
+ +

&#+e-
7
d
.+i!ta#/a "e care !e +e"la!ea, electro!ti(&itor&l MmN
di
v
.(ite,a +e +e"la!are *#crcat a electro!ti(&itor&l&i P11 Tm=3
I. Rotirea &tila8&l&i "e &# arc +e c&r' +e K<
o

I
; t s
B. Rotirea &tila8&l&i "e &# arc +e c&r' +e K<
o

B
; t s
R.Ri+icarea *#crct&rii la *#l/imea +e !ti(&ire a mr$ii H
R
R
M N
R
R
H
t s
v

R
1.;
7
<.B
t s
K. Tim"&l #ece!ar rotirii i# "la# (ertical a !i!tem&l&i +e rame c& &#g3i&l Q
77
t
K
P 7!
1<.Tim"&l #ece!ar !coaterii $&rcilor +i# galeriile "alet&l&i
t
1<
P 2!
11.Co'or6rea $&rcilor $r *#crct&r +e la *#l/imea +e !ti(&ire a mar$ii H
R
11
M N
R
c
H
t s
v

11
1.;
7
<.1I
t s
&#+e-
c
v
.(ite,a +e co'or6re $ar *#crct&r Mm=!N
17. %&rata ma#e(rei +e *#toarcere a electro!ti(&itor&l&i

17
2 t s
1;.%&rata +e"la!rii i# !tare goal a electro!ti(&itor&l&i
1
1;
M N
dg
d
t s
v


1;
I.1 R I.1
1
1<<<
1IS
;I<<
t s
+ +

&#+e-
dg
v
.(ite,a +e +e"la!are i# !tare goal a electro!ti(&itor&l&iP1ITm=3
%&rata cicl&l&i +e ma#i"&lare "e#tr& c&r!a me+ie-
T
c7

78
%etermi#area +&ratei cicl&l&i +e ma#i"&lare "e#tr& c&r!a cea mai
!c&rt
1.Tim"&l #ece!ar i#tro+&cerii $&rcilor *# galeriile "alet&l&i
t
1
P 2!
7.Tim"&l #ece!ar rotirii i# "la# (ertical a !i!tem&l&i +e rame c& &#g3i&l Q
t
7
P 7!
;. Ri+icarea &#it/ii +e *#crct&r la *#l/imea +e tra#!"ort H
T
;
T
R
H
t
v


N Ms

&#+e -
R
v
. (ite,a +e ri+icare a $&rcilor c& !arci# Mm=!N

;
<.1
1
<.B
t s
2.%&rata ma#e(rei +e *#toarcere a electro!ti(&itor&l&i

2
2 t s
1.%e"la!area electro!ti(&itor&l&i c& *#crct&ra

;
1
M N
di
d
t s
v


1
I.1 ; ;.1
2
1<<<
11S
;I<<
t s
+ +

&#+e-
79
;
d
.+i!ta#/a "e care !e +e"la!ea, electro!ti(&itor&l MmN
di
v
.(ite,a +e +e"la!are *#crcat a electro!ti(&itor&l&i P11 Tm=3
I. Rotirea &tila8&l&i "e &# arc +e c&r' +e K<
o

I
; t s
B.Co'or6rea *#crct&rii la *#l/imea +e !ti(&ire a mr$ii H
R
B
M N
R
C
H
t s
v

R
<.1
1
<.I1
t s
R. Tim"&l #ece!ar rotirii i# "la# (ertical a !i!tem&l&i +e rame c& &#g3i&l Q
t
K
P 7!
K.Tim"&l #ece!ar !coaterii $&rcilor +i# galeriile "alet&l&i
t
K
P 2!
1<. %&rata ma#e(rei +e *#toarcere a electro!ti(&itor&l&i

1<
2 t s
11.%&rata +e"la!rii i# !tare goal a electro!ti(&itor&l&i
;
11
M N
dg
d
t s
v


11
I.1 ; ;.1
;
1<<<
1IS
;I<<
t s
+ +

&#+e-
dg
v
.(ite,a +e +e"la!are i# !tare goal a electro!ti(&itor&l&iP1I Tm=3
80
%&rata cicl&l&i +e ma#i"&lare "e#tr& c&r!a cea mai !c&rt-
T
c;

%&rata me+ie a cicl&l&i +e l&cr& (a $i-
1 7 ;
1B 2< ;2
2;.II 22
; ;
c
c
T T T
T s
+ + + +

Calc&l&l "ro+&cti(it/ii orare a electro!ti(&itor&l&i
H
e
P
;I<< ;I<<
S S<.B 1B.7B 1R =
22
T
c
k ui h
T


&#+e-
T
T
Pcoe$icie#t +e $olo!ire a electro!ti(&itor&l&i i# tim">
N&mr&l #ece!ar +e electro!ti(&itoare
Calc&l&l #&mr&l&i #ece!ar +e electro!ti(&itoare !e calc&lea, c& rela/ia -
7S S S
M N
S S
a n d
s
F e
# k k
N electrostivuitoare
/ T #

&#+e-
7.mar$a e ma#i"&lat +e 7 ori 9*#crcare )i +e!crcare +i# !tela8: >

a
#
.(ol&m&l a#&al +e mr$&ri i#trate *# +e"o,it >

n
k
.coe$icie#t +e #e&#i$ormitate 9"erioa+e +e !r'tori:0 /i#e !eama +e (6r$&rile +i#
"erioa+ele
a#&l&i
n
k
P107>
81

d
k
. coe$icie#t ce /i#e !eama +e "o#+erea li(rrilor +irecte 0 R . <
d
k >

F
T
.tim"&l ,il#ic +e $&#c/io#are a +e"o,it&l&i >

e
#
."ro+&cti(itatea orar +e e?"loatare a electro!ti(&itor&l&i >


7SI<<<<S1.7S<.R
<.R7 1
72<S1<S1R
s
N electrostivuitor
Pe#tr& ma#i"&larea &#it/ilor +e *#crct&r e!te #ece!ar &# electro!ti(&itor .%eoarece *#
ca,&l +e$ectrii electro!ti(&itor&l&i mar$a #& mai "oate $i ma#i"&lat !i ara#8at *# +e"o,it !e
"ro"&#e ac3i,i/io#area a 7 electro!ti(&itoare %e!ta E17.
2.;.7. %emararea )i +e"la!area electro!ti(&itor&l&i c&
*#crct&r
Calc&l&l $or/elor re,i!te#te la r&lare-
T
R
nec
v F
P

7
1<
MTJN >
P
#ec
U "&terea #ece!ar "e#tr& a#tre#area meca#i!m&l&i
F
R
U $or/a re,i!te#t la r&lare "e care o *#t6m"i# ro/ile cr&cior&l&i M+aNN
( U (ite,a +e +e"la!are a !ti(&itor&l&i Mm = !N >
T
. ra#+ame#t&l tra#!mi!iei > R 0 <
T


: 9
< inc ut R
G G w F +
M+aNN
82

<
w
coe$icie#t&l re,i!te#/ei la r&lare 0
<
<0 <7 w
>
s
G
gre&tatea "ro"rie a !ti(&itor&l&i 0
;1<<
s
G daN
>
i
G
gre&tatea *#crct&rii0
I7<
i
G daN
>
<
9 : <.<7S9;1<< I7<: B2.2
r s i
F w G G daN + +
7
S B2.2S;.;
;.<I
1< S 1<<S<.R
i r
nec
F v
P kw


C&"l&l re,i!te#t *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e calc&lea,a c& &rmtoarea rela/ie -
i
d
i
s
i
dem
M M M +
N MNm

&#+e -
i
s
M . c&"l&l !tatic re,i!te#t re+&! la ar'orele motor&l&i 0
N MNm
>
i
d
M . c&"l&l +i#amic ce a"are la ar'orele motor&l&i 0
N MNm
.
n
P
n
P P
M
i
nec
i
nec
i
nec i
s
S 1 . K
I<
S S 7


N MNm

&#+e -
i
nec
P . "&terea #ece!ar $&#c/io#rii motor&l&i c& (ite,a co#!ta#ta 0
N Mw
>
n
. t&ra/ia #omi#al a motor&l&i
mi#N = Mrot
.
;<I<
K.1S 11
7B1<
i
s
M Nm
i
red
i
d
J M S
N MNm

&#+e -

. accelera/ia &#g3i&lar a ar'orel&i motor&l&i 0 N = M


7
s rad >
83
i
red
J . mome#t&l +e i#er/ie al *#treg&l&i !i!tem +e ac/io#are 0 N M
7
kgm .
i
d
t
n
S I<
S S 7

N = M
7
s rad
&#+e -
i
d
t . tim"&l +e +emarare al !ti(&itor&l&i c& *#crct&r 0
N Ms
.
d
i
d
a
v
t N Ms

&#+e -
d
a
. accelera/ia la +emarare 0
7
<.; =
d
a m s .
;.;
11
<.;
i
d
d
v
t s
a

7
7S S 7S S7B1<
7I =
I<S I<S11
i
d
n
rad s
t

1
S S : 9 S 1 . K1 S
7

,
_

+ +
n
v
m m J J
i s c
i
red
N M
7
kgm
&#+e -
. coe$icie#t ce /i#e !eama +e i#$l&e#/a ma!elor a$late *# mi)care +e rota/ie 0 1.7 >
c
J
. mome#t&l +e i#er/ie al c&"la8&l&i 0 N M
7
kgm >
s
m
. ma!a "ro"rie a !ti(&itor&l&i 0
7;R<
s
m kg
>
i
m
. ma!a *#crct&rii 0
I7<
i
m kg
.
7
7
7
1 ;.; 1
S K1.1S9 : S9 : S 1.7S<.<7 K1.1S9;1<< I7<:S S
7B1< <.R
<.I;
i
red c s i
v
J J m m
n
kgm

_
+ + + +

,

84
S 7IS<.I; 1B
i i
d red
M J Nm
11 1B 7R
i i i
dem s d
M M M Nm + +
5aloarea ma?im a "&terii *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e +etermi# c& rela/ia -
I<
S S 7
S
n
M P
i
dem
i
dem

N Mw

&#+e -
i
dem
M . c&"l&l re,i!te#t la +emarare 0
N MNm
-
7S S 7S S7B1<
S 7RS R<1K R.<1
I< I<
i i
dem dem
n
P M w kw


Calc&l&l c&"l&l&i +i#amic +atorat accelera/iei la $r6#are
S M N
i i
df f redf
M J Nm
7
7S S 7S S7B1<
B7 =
I<S I<S2
f i
fr
n
rad s
t


;.;
2
<.R
i
fr i
fr
v
t s
a


7
7
7
;.;
S K1.1S9 :S9 : S 1.7S<.<7 K1.1S9;1<< I7<: S S<.R
71<<
<.1<<1
i
redf c s i
v
J J m m
n
kgm

_
+ + + +

,

B7S<.1<<1 ;B
i
df
M Nm
11 ;B 2R
i i i
fr s df
M M M Nm + +
7S S 7S;.12S7B1<
S 2RS 1;R1I 1;.R1
I< I<
i i
fr fr
n
P M w kw


85
2.;.;.%emararea )i +e"la!area a electro!ti(&itor&l&i $r
*#crct&r
P&terea #ece!ar motor&l&i !e (a calc&la c& rela/ia -
S 1<
S
7
v F
P
r g
nec


N Mkw

&#+e -
r
F . $or/ele re,i!te#te la +e"la!are 0
N MdaN
>
v
. (ite,a +e +e"la!are a !ti(&itor&l&i 0
N = M s m
>
T
. ra#+ame#t&l tra#!mi!iei 0
<.R
T

.
For/ele re,i!te#te la *#ai#tare !e calc&lea, c& rela/ia -
s r
G w F S
<
N MdaN
&#+e -
<
w
. re,i!te#/a !"eci$ic la *#ai#tare 0
<7 . <
<
w
>
s
G
. gre&tatea "ro"rie a !ti(&itor&l&i 0
N MdaN
>
<
S <.<7S;1<< I7
r s
F w G daN
7
S I7S;.R
7.K2
1< S 1<<S<.R
g r
nec
F v
P kw


C&"l&l re,i!te#t *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e calc&lea, c& &rmtoarea rela/ie -
86
g
d
g
s
g
dem
M M M + N MNm
&#+e -
g
s
M . c&"l&l !tatic re,i!te#t re+&! la ar'orele motor&l&i 0
N MNm
>
g
d
M . c&"l&l +i#amic ce a"are la ar'orele motor&l&i 0
N MNm
.
n
P
n
P P
M
g
nec
g
nec
g
nec g
s
S 1 . K
I<
S S 7

N MNm

&#+e -
g
nec
P . "&terea #ece!ar $&#c/io#rii motor&l&i c& (ite,a co#!ta#t 0
N Mw
>
n
. t&ra/ia #omi#al a motor&l&i
mi#N = Mrot
.
7K2<
K.1S 11
7B1<
g
s
M Nm
g
red
g
d
J M S
N MNm
&#+e -

. accelera/ia &#g3i&lar a ar'orel&i motor&l&i 0 N = M


7
s rad >
g
red
J . mome#t&l +e i#er/ie al *#treg&l&i !i!tem +e ac/io#are 0 N M
7
kgm .
g
d
t
n
S I<
S S 7

N = M
7
s rad
&#+e -
g
d
t . tim"&l +e +emarare al !ti(&itor&l&i $r *#crct&r 0
N Ms
.
d
g
d
a
v
t N Ms

&#+e -
87
d
a
. accelera/ia la +emarare 0
7
<.2 =
d
a m s .
;.R
K
<.2
g
d
d
v
t s
a

7
7S S 7S S7B1<
;7 =
I<S I<SK
g
d
n
rad s
t

1
S S S 1 . K1 S
7

,
_

+
n
v
m J J
s c
g
red
N M
7
kgm
&#+e -
. coe$icie#t ce /i#e !eama +e i#$l&e#/a ma!elor a$late # mi)care +e rota/ie 0 1.7 >
c
J
. mome#t&l +e i#er/ie al c&"la8&l&i 0
7
<.<7
c
J kgm >
s
m
. ma!a "ro"rie a !ti(&itor&l&i 0
7;R<
s
m kg
>
7
7 7
1 ;.R 1
S K1.1S S9 : S 1.7S<.<7 K1.1S;1<<S S <.B
7B1< <.R
g
red c s
v
J J m kgm
n

_
+ +

,
S 7KS<.B 7;
g g
d red
M J Nm
11 7; ;2
g g g
dem s d
M M M Nm + +
5aloarea ma?im a "&terii *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e +etermi# c& rela/ia -

I<
S S 7
S
n
M P
g
dem
g
dem

N Mw

&#+e -
g
dem
M . c&"l&l re,i!te#t la +emarare 0
N MNm
-

7S S 7S S7B1<
S ;2S KBRI K.BR
I< I<
g g
dem dem
n
P M w kw


88
Calc&l&l c&"l&l&i +i#amic +atorat accelera/iei la $r6#are
S M N
g g
df f redf
M J Nm
7
7S S 7S S7B1<
B7 =
I<S I<S2
f g
fr
n
rad s
t


;.R
2
<.K
g
fr g
fr
v
t s
a



7
7
7
;.R
S K1.1S S9 : S 1.7S<.<7 K1.1S;1<<S S<.R
71<<
<.1;21
i
redf c s
v
J J m
n
kgm

_
+ +

,

B7S<.1;21 ;KM N
g
df
M Nm
11 ;K 1<
g g g
fr s df
M M M Nm + +
7S S 7S;.12S7B1<
S 1<S 12;K1.II 12.;K
I< I<
i i
fr fr
n
P M w kw


2.;.2. Calc&l&l e#ergiei co#!&mate "e#tr& e$ect&area
&#&i cicl& +e $&#c/io#are
Rela/ia +e calc&l &tili,ata (a $i-
g i c
E E E +

N Mkwh

&#+e -
i
E
. e#ergia co#!&mat "e#tr& e$ect&area !emic&r!ei c& *#crct&ra 0
N Mkwh
>
g
E
. e#ergia co#!&mat "e#tr& e$ect&area !emic&r!ei $r *#crct&r 0
N Mkwh
.
89
( )
1
]
1

+
+

i
ct
i
nec
i
d
i
nec
i
dem
i
t P
t P P
E S
7
S
S
1< S I . ;
1
I

N Mkwh

&#+e -
i
dem
P . "&terea #ece!ar *# "erioa+a +e +emarare "e#tr& !emic&r!a c& *#crct&r 0
N Mw
>
i
nec
P . "&terea #ece!ar +e"la!rii &tila8&l&i c& (ite,a co#!ta#t 0
N Mw
>
i
ct
t . tim"&l +e mer! c& (ite,a co#!ta#t "e#tr& !emic&r!a c& *#crct&r 0
N Ms
.
%etermi#are tim"&l&i +e mer! c& (ite,a co#!ta#t
4o+&l +e calc&l e!te a!em#ator "e#tr& cele +o& ti"&ri +e !emic&r!e 0 *#crcat )i goal .
Se $olo!e)te &rmtoarea rela/ie +e calc&l -
v
D
t
ct i
ct

N Ms

&#+e -
ct
D
. +i!ta#/a "e care !e +e"la!ea, !ti(&itor&l c& (ite, co#!ta#t 0
N Mm
>
v
. (ite,a c& care !e +e"la!ea, !ti(&itor&l 0
N = M s m
.
( )
ct dem fr
D d D D +

N Mm

&#+e -
d . +i!ta#/a me+ie +e +e"la!are a !ti(&itor&l&i 0 71 d m >
dem
D
. +i!ta#/a #ece!ar +emarrii !ti(&itor&l&i 0
N Mm
>
fr
D
. +i!ta#/a #ece!ar $r6#rii !ti(&itor&l&i 0
N Mm
.
%eoarece
dem fr
D D d + >
"&#em co#+i/ia ca
dem fr
D D d +
90
Stare *#crcat -
7 7 7 7
71 71 ;.; =
7 7 7S<.; 7S<.R
d f
v v v v
m m v m s
a a
+ +
Stare goal-

7 7 7 7
71 71 ;.R =
7 7 7S<.2 7S<.K
d f
v v v v
m m v m s
a a
+ +
Se (a $olo!i (ite,a +e ;.; m=! "e#tr& +e"la!area electro!ti(&itor&l&i *# !tare *#crcat )i ;.Rm=!
"e#tr& +e"la!area *# !tare goal.
7 7
S <.;S11
1R
7 7
i i
i d d
dem
a t
D m
7 7
S <.2SK
1B
7 7
g g
g d d
dem
a t
D m
7
S
7 i
fr
i
fr i
fr
t a
D
N Mm

&#+e -
i
fr
a
. accelera/ia la $r6#are c& *#crct&r 0
7
<.R =
i
fr
a m s
>
i
fr
t
. tim"&l #ece!ar $r6#rii !ti(&itor&l&i c& *#crct&r 0
N Ms
>
7
7
S
<.RS2
B
7 7
i i
fr fr i
fr
a t
D m
7
S
7 g
fr
g
fr g
fr
t a
D
N Mm

91
&#+e -
g
fr
a
. accelera/ia la $r6#are $r *#crct&r 0
7
<.K =
g
fr
a m s
>
g
fr
t
. tim"&l #ece!ar $r6#rii !ti(&itor&l&i $r *#crct&r 0
N Ms
>
7
7
S
<.KS2
R
7 7
g g
fr fr g
fr
a t
D m
( )
71 91R B: <
i i i
ct dem fr
D d D D m + +
( )
71 91B R: <
g g g
ct dem fr
D d D D m + +
E#ergia co#!&mat (a $i-
( )
( )
I
I
S
1
S S
;.IS1< 7
R<1K ;<I< S11
1
S ;<I<S< <.<<1B
;.IS1< 7
i i i
dem nec d
i i
i nec ct
P P t
E P t
kwh
1
+
1 +
1
]
1 +
+
1
]
( )
( )
I
I
S
1
S S
;.IS1< 7
KBRI 7K2< SK
1
S 7K2<S< <.<<1<
;.IS1< 7
g g g
dem nec d
g g
g nec ct
P P t
E P t
kwh
1
+
1 +
1
]
1 +
+
1
]
<.<<1B <.<<1< <.<1<B = .
c i g
E E E kwh cicl funct + +
92
2.;.1. Calc&l&l meca#i!m&l&l&i +e ri+icare
al electro!ti(&itor&l&i
Stare ( ) cu 'nc#rc#tur# *
Se a#ali,ea, $or/ele ce ac/io#ea, a!&"ra cr&cior&l&i "ort . $&rc -
W
H H

1 r c i
F G G T + + N MdaN
Ec&a/ia *# ra"ort c& ce#tr&l O al ro/ii e!te-
c i c
l G l G H S S S +

c
c c i

l G l G
H
S S +


N MdaN

c
c c i
o o r

l G l G
H F
S S
S S 7 S S 7
1
+


N MdaN

&#+e -
T . te#!i&#ea ce a"are *# la#/&rile +e care e!te "ri#! cr&cior&l "ort U $&rc >
c
G
. gre&tatea cr&cior&l&i "ort U $&rc 0
11
c
G daN
>
i
G
. gre&tatea *#crct&rii 0
I7<
i
G daN
>
W
0 H H . reac/i&#i >
l . +i!ta#/a +e la !&"ort&l $or/ei i
G
la a?a ??X 0 <.R l m >
c
l
. +i!ta#/a +e la !&"ort&l $or/ei c
G
la a?a ??X 0
<.11
c
l m
>
93
c

. +i!ta#/a *#tre "&#ctele +e co#tact ale ro/ilor cr&cior&l&i "ort.$&rc 0


<.2<
c

>
o

. coe$ie#t&l re,i!te#/ei la r&lare 0


<7 . <
o

Te#!i&#ea T ce ac/io#ea, *# la#/ )i $or/a re,i!te#t a"r&t *#tre g3i+a8ele ro/ilor .


A#tre te#!i&#ea T )i
0
T
e?i!t rela/ia -
a
T
T

0

N MdaN
.
a

. ra#+ame#t&l a#gre#a8&l&i +i#tre ro/i )i "la#&l "e care !e +e"la!ea, 0


<.R
a

.

,
_

+ +
a
!
T T T F

1
1 S
0
N MdaN

P&terea #ece!ar (a $i +etermi#at c& rela/ia -
7
S
1< S
! !
nec
T
F v
P


N Mkw

&#+e -
!
v
. (ite,a c& care !e +e"la!ea, ca"t&l ti8ei "i!to#&l&i 0 !e "oate e?"rima *# $&#c/ie +e
(ite,a +e *#crcare .

r
v . (ite,a +e ri+icare a *#crct&rii 0
<.B =
r
v m s
.
S S I7<S<.R 11S<.11
17I1
<.2
i c c
c
G l G l
H daN

+ +

1
7S S 7S<.<7S17I1 11
r o
F H daN
1
I7< I< 11 B7I
i c r
T G G F daN + + + +
1 1
S 1 B7IS 1 1I;2
<.R
!
a
F T daN

_
_
+ +

,
,
94
<.B
<.;1 =
7 7
r
!
v
v m s
7
S
1I;2S<.;1
B.12
1< S 1<<S<.R
! !
nec
T
F v
P kw


C&"l&l re,i!te#t *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e calc&lea, c& &rmtoarea rela/ie -
i
d
i
s
i
dem
M M M +
N MNm

n
P
n
P P
M
i
nec
i
nec
i
nec i
s
S 1 . K
I<
S S 7


N MNm


B12<
K.1S 71
7B1<
i
s
M Nm
i
red
i
d
J M S
N MNm

i
d
t
n
S I<
S S 7

N = M
7
s rad
d
i
d
a
v
t N Ms


7
<.; =
d
a m s .
<.B
7
<.;
i
d
d
v
t s
a

7
7S S 7S S7B1<
122 =
I<S I<S7
i
d
n
rad s
t

1
S S : 9 S 1 . K1 S
7

,
_

+ +
n
v
m m J J
i s c
i
red
N M
7
kgm
11
s
m kg
>
I7<
i
m kg
.
95
7
7
7
1
S K1.1S9 : S9 : S
<.B 1
1.7S<.<7 K1.1S911 I7<: S S <.<7K
7B1< <.R
i
red c s i
v
J J m m
n
kgm

+ +
_
+ +

,
S 122S<.<7K 1
i i
d red
M J Nm
71 1 ;<
i i i
dem s d
M M M Nm + +
5aloarea ma?im a "&terii *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e +etermi# c& rela/ia -
I<
S S 7
S
n
M P
i
dem
i
dem


N Mw

7S S 7S S7B1<
S ;<S RI;1 R.I;1
I< I<
i i
dem dem
n
P M w kw


Calc&l&l c&"l&l&i +i#amic +atorat accelera/iei la $r6#are
S M N
i i
df f redf
M J Nm
7
7S S 7S S7B1<
7RR =
I<S I<S1
f i
fr
n
rad s
t


7
7
7
<.B
S K1.1S9 :S9 : S 1.7S<.<7 K1.1S911 I7<: S S<.R
71<<
<.<;<1
i
redf c c i
v
J J m m
n
kgm

_
+ + + +

,

7I7S<.<;<1 K
i
df
M Nm
71 K ;2
i i i
fr s df
M M M Nm + +
7S S 7S;.12S7B1<
S ;2S KBRI.;; K.BR
I< I<
i i
fr fr
n
P M w kw


Stare ( ) $#r# 'nc#rc#tur# *
96
S S <S<.R 11S<.11
71
<.2
i c c
c
G l G l
H daN

+ +

1
7S S 7S71S<.<7 1
r o
F H daN
1
< 11 1 1I
i c r
T G G F daN + + + +
1 1
S 1 1IS 1 17I
<.R
!
a
F T daN

_
_
+ +

,
,
<.BI
<.;R =
7 7
r
!
v
v m s
7
S
17IS<.;R
<.1KR
1< S 1<<S<.R
! !
nec
T
F v
P kw


C&"l&l re,i!te#t *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e calc&lea, c& &rmtoarea rela/ie -
n
P
n
P P
M
g
nec
g
nec
g
nec g
s
S 1 . K
I<
S S 7


N MNm

1KR
K.1S 7
7B1<
g
s
M Nm
7
<.2 =
d
a m s .
<.BI
7
<.2
g
d
d
v
t s
a

7
7S S 7S S7B1<
122 =
I<S I<S7
g
d
n
rad s
t


1.7 >
<
c
J
>
<.<7
R
J
11
s
m kg
>
7
7 7
1 <.BI 1
S K1.1S S9 : S 1.7S<.<7 K1.1S11S S <.<72
7B1< <.R
g
red c s
v
J J m kgm
n

_
+ +

,
97
S 122S<.<72 2
g g
d red
M J Nm
Nm M M M
g
d
g
s
g
dem
I 2 7 + +
5aloarea ma?im a "&terii *# "erioa+a +e +emarare !e +etermi# c& rela/ia -

7S S 7S S7B1<
S IS 1B7B 1.B7B
I< I<
g g
dem dem
n
P M w kw


Calc&l&l c&"l&l&i +i#amic +atorat accelera/iei la $r6#are
S M N
g g
df f redf
M J Nm
7
7S S 7S S7B1<
7RR =
I<S I<S1
f g
fr
n
rad s
t


7
7
7
<.BI
S K1.1S S9 : S 1.7S<.<7 K1.1S11S S<.R
71<<
<.<721
i
redf c c
v
J J m
n
kgm

_
+ +

,

7RRS<.<721 RM N
g
df
M Nm
7 R 1<
g g g
fr s df
M M M Nm + +
7S S 7S;.12S7B1<
S 1<S 7RBR.;; 7.RB
I< I<
i i
fr fr
n
P M w kw


%etermi#are tim"&l&i +e mer! c& (ite,a co#!ta#t
7 7
S <.;S7
<.I
7 7
i i
i d d
dem
a t
D m
7 7
S <.2S7
<.R
7 7
g g
g d d
dem
a t
D m
7
7
S
<.RS1
<.2
7 7
i i
fr fr i
fr
a t
D m
98
7
7
S
<.KS1
<.21
7 7
g g
fr fr g
fr
a t
D m
( )
2 9<.I <.2: ;
i i i
ct dem fr
D d D D m + +
( )
2 9<.R <.21: 7.B1
g g g
ct dem fr
D d D D m + +
;
1
<.B
i
i ct
ct
D
t s
v

7.B1
2
<.BI
g
g ct
ct
D
t s
v

E#ergia co#!&mat (a $i-

( )
( )
I
I
S
1
S S
;.IS1< 7
RI;1 B12< S7
1
S B12<S1 <.<12
;.IS1< 7
i i i
dem nec d
i i
i nec ct
P P t
E P t
kwh
1
+
1 +
1
]
1 +
+
1
]
( )
( )
I
I
S
1
S S
;.IS1< 7
1B7B 1KR S7
1
S 1KRS2 <.<<1;
;.IS1< 7
g g g
dem nec d
g g
g nec ct
P P t
E P t
kwh
1
+
1 +
1
]
1 +
+
1
]
<.<12 <.<<1; <.<11; = .
c i g
E E E kwh cicl funct + +
Pri# *#loc&irea moto!ti(&itoarelor c& elelectro!ti(&itoare !e o'!er( o re+&cere a +&ratei +e
"arc&rgere a &#&i cicl& re,&lt6#+ cre)terea "ro+&cti(it/ii orare +e e?"loatare.
99
2.;.I. Calc&l&l c3elt&ielilor a#&ale
"e#tr& e?"loaterea
co#!tr&c/iilor )i &tila8elor
4o+er#i,area "arc&l&i +e !ti(&itoare "ro"&#e &# !et +e m!&ri ce !e (or l&a ca &rmare a ace!tei
mo+er#i,ri -
. ac3i,i/io#area a 7 electro!ti(&itoare E.17 >
. a#ga8area &#&i electromeca#ic !"eciali,at *# *#tre/i#erea electro!ti(&itor&l&i >
. lic3i+area "arc&l&i +e moto!ti(&itoare .
A# cecea ce "ri(e)te i#tro+&cerea !tela8elor *# +e"o,it aceata "re!&"&#e ac3i,i/io#area
!tela8elor .
2.;.I.1. Calc&l&l i#(e!ti/iilor #ece!are
.lectrostivuitor (
5aloarea &#&i electro!ti(&itor E.17 e!te +e
717<< BBR<2
E
- Euro R+N
.
I#(!eti/ia #ece!ar (a $i -
E e
- n , S

N MR+N

e
n
. #&mr&l +e electro!ti(&itoare 0
vuitoare electrosti n
e
7

S 7SBBR<2 111I<R
e E
, n - R+N
Stela/ (
Co!t&l &#ei cel&le +e +e"o,itare
2<< =
c
- R+N m
.
2R
cs
N celule
100
st ('
- % N , S S N MR+N


('
N
. #&mr&l +e 'loc&ri +e !tela8 0 1<
('
N locuri .
S S 1<S2RS2<< 1K7<<<
(' cs c
, N N - R+N
2.;.I.7. Calc&l&l c3elt&ielilor c& !alari,area "er!o#al&l&i
ce +e!er(e)te !i!tem&l
Per!o#al&l ce +e!er(e)te "arc&l +e electro!ti(&itoare e!te alct&it +i# -
.1co#+&ctori +e &tila8 c& !alari&l +e B<< = R+N luna >
.1 electromeca#ic c& !alari&l +e B<< = R+N luna .
1
17S S S
i
sal i i
n
C n s


N = M an R+N

&#+e -
i
n
. #&mr&l !alaria/ilor "e#tr& cele ` `i "ro$e!ii >
i
s
. !alari&l me+i& l&#ar "e#tr& $iecare "ro$e!ie >

.coe$icie#t care /i#e !eama +e c3elt&ielile !&"lime#tare c& !alari,area P10




( )
1
17S S 17S 1SB<<S 1SB<< 1IR<< =
i
sal i i
n
C n s R+N an

2.;.I.;.Calc&l&l c3elt&ielilor c& e?"loatarea


electro!ti(&itoarelor )i *#tre/i#erea !tela8elor
101
Rela/ia +e calc&l $olo!it "e#tr& +etermi#area c3elt&ielilor c& e?"loaterea
electro!ti(&itoarelor e!te -

<.<1S S S
,R
C n - r

N = M an R+N

&#+e -
n
. #&mr&l +e &tila8e acti(e 0 7 n >
- . co!t&l &#&i &tila8 *# "re,e#t 0
717<< = BBR<2 = - Euro utila* R+N utila*

r . cota "roce#t&al a (alorii re"ara/iilor *# ra"ort c& (aloarea total a &tila8&l&i 0 C 17 r >
<.<1S S S <.<1S7SBBR<2S17 1RIB7.KI =
,R
C n C r R+N an
Stela8ele !&#t co#!tr&c/ii metalice +e $olo!i#/ *#+el&#gat +e!ti#ate +e"o,itrii &#it/ilor
+e *#crct&r "aleti,at !a& "ac3eti,at . Fii#+ co#!tr&c/ii metalice am"la!ate *# i#terior&l
!"a/iilor +e +e"o,itare 0 !tela8ele #ece!it re"ara/ii mi#ime o "erioa+ +e 1.1< a#i +e la +area *#
$olo!i#/ . Rata a#&al +e re"ara/ii (a $i !ta'ilit la ;C r .

r - C
st ,R
S S <1 . <

N = M an R+N

<.<1S S <.<1S91K7<<<S;: 1BI< =
,R st
C - r R+N an

2.;.I.2. Calc&l&l c3elt&ielilor c& e#ergia co#!&mat


+e motoarele electro!ti(&itoarelor
Rela/ia +e calc&l a c3elt&ielilor c& e#ergia co#!&mat +e motor&l electro!ti(&itor&l&i e!te -
1
1
S S S S M = N
n
i
EE e i i !
i
i
C c P t k R+N an


102
&#+e -
c
e
.co!t&l &#&i TJ3 e#ergie electric MRON=TJ3N>
P
i
."&terea #omi#al a motor&l&i MTJN>
t
i
.#&mr&l a#&al +e ore +e $&#c/io#are a $iecr&i motorMore=a#N>
t
i
P1<3=,iS7<<,ile=a#P7<<< 3=a#
i
!
k
.coe$icie#t +e $olo!ire a a "&terii i#!talate
i nec
!
N
P
k
P

>
P&terile motor&l&i !&#t-
."&terea #ece!ar
;.<I
nec
P kw
>
."&terea #omi#al
I
N
P kw
>
;.<I
<.11
I
i
!
k
i

.ra#+ame#t&l me+i& al motoarelor electrice


<.R
i

C3elt&ielile c& e#ergia co#!&mat +e motor&l electro!ti(&itor&l&i (or $i-
1
<.IBIS9IS7<<<S<.11S :S7 1<;27.R =
<.R
EE
C R+N an
2.;.I.1. Calc&l&l c3elt&ielilor c& amorti,area
&tila8elor )i !tela8elor
C3elt&ielile a#&ale +e amorti,area i#(e!ti/iei !e (or calc&la c& rela/ia -
k k $M
a - C S S <1 . <


N = M an R+N

103
a
. (aloarea cotei a#&ale +e amorti,are a i#(e!ti/iei $c&te "e#tr& mo+er#i,area "arc&l&i
+e !ti(&itoare )i "e#tr& !tela8e a $o!t !ta'ilit la C 2 a .
<.<1S S <.<1S9BBR<2S2 BBR<2S2: I772.;7 =
$E k k
C - a R+N an +

<.<1S S <.<1S91K7<<<S2: BIR< =


$st st k
C - a R+N an

CAPITOLUL 5
EFICIENDA ECONO4IC EI FINANCIAR A
SOLUDIEI PROPUSE
104
Sol&/ia "ro"&! +e rete3#ologi,are !i mo+er#i,are a a +e"o,it&l&i +e "ro+&!e $i#ite
"re!&"&#e-
.i#tro+&cere a !tela8elor i# +e"o,it ceea ce (a +&ce la o cre)tere a ca"acit/ii +e +e"o,itare
care ! aco"ere #ece!ar&l +e ca"acitate +i# 7<17
. *#loc&irea moto!ti(&itoarelor %e!ta %17 $olo!ite la ma#i"&larea &#it/ilor +e *#crct&r
c& electro!ti(&itoare E17 care a&-
. *#l/ime +e ri+icare a &#it/ii +e *#crct&r mai mare>
.&# co!t al e#ergiei co#!&mate mai re+&! +ec6t co!t&l co#!&m&l&i +e com'&!ti'il $olo!it
la moto!ti(&itoare>
.&# c&loar +e l&cr& mai re+&! >
. elimi#area #o?elor ema#ate +e e)a"ame#t&l motor&l&i %ie!el *# totalitate>
.o "ro+&cti(itate mai mare >
105
Acea!ta !ol&tie "re!&"&#e-
.ac3i,i/io#area 'loc&rilor +e !tela8e>
.ac3i,i/io#area a +o&a electro!ti(&itoare %e!ta E17>
. a#ga8area &#&i electromeca#ic !"eciali,at *# *#tre/i#erea electro!ti(&itoarelor
I#(e!ti/iile "e#tr& reali,area ace!tei !ol&tii !&#t &rmatoarele-
.ac3i,i/io#area electro!ti(&itoarelori -

111I<R
E
, R+N
.ac3i,i/io#area !tela8elor-
1K7<<<
s
, R+N
Investiiile totale vor $i(
111I<R 1K7<<< ;2BI<R
T
, R+N +
C+eltuielile pentru aceast# soluie sunt(
.c3elt&ielilor c& !alari,area "er!o#al&l&i ce +e!er(e)te !i!tem&l
1IR<< =
sal
C R+N an
.c3elt&ieli c& e?"loatarea electro!ti(&itor&l&i )i *#tre/i#erea !tela8elor
1RIB7.KI =
,RE
C R+N an
1BI< =
,R'
C R+N an
.c3elt&ieli c& e#ergia co#!&mat +e motor&l electro!ti(&itor&l&i
1<;27.R =
EE
C R+N an
106
.c3elt&ieli c& amorti,area &tila8&l&i )i !tela8elor
I772.;7 =
$E
C R+N an
BIR< =
$'T
C R+N an
C+eltuielile totale vor $i(
1IR<< 1RIB7.KI 1BI< 1<;27.R I772.;7 BIR< I12R<.<R
T
C R+N + + + + +
0lu%ul de venituri &i c+eltuieli 1 02C (

Pro$it&l o'/i#&t la (6#,area &#ei to#e +e ,a36r e!te +e 1R1.1 RON.
* *
C - F-C

N = M an R+N
&#+e -
*
-
. (e#it&l o'/i#&t *# a#&l 8 >
*
C
. c3elt&ielile care a"ar *# a#&l 8 .
Se *#tocme)te +iagrama $l&?&l&i +e (e#it&ri !i c3elt&ieli-
107
MRONN
777BI<;.K
1B177;2.B
11KIRI1.1
IR12KI.7
R;<I;.2

7<<R
7<<K 7<1< 7<11 7<17 tMRONN

;2BI<R

IMRONN
2enitul actuali"at 1 23A
E(al&area e!timrii (alorii &#&i "roiect "e 'a,a $l&?&l&i +e #&merar act&ali,at !e "oate
reali,a )i c& a8&tor&l (alorii #ete act&ali,ate !a& a (e#it&l&i #et act&ali,at.
5NA re"re,i#t +i$ere#/a +i#re (aloarea act&ali,at a (e#it&rilor )i (aloarea act&ali,at a
c3elt&ielilor "e toat +&rata +e (ia/ a "roiect&l&i


g
i act g i act
*
*
C - -N$
: 9 : 9
N = M an R+N
&#+e -
108
: 9i act
*
*
-

. (aloarea act&ali,at a (e#it&rilor >


: 9i act
g
g
C

. (aloarea act&ali,at a c3elt&ielilor >


8 )i g U i#+ici ai a#ilor *# care a"ar 'e#e$iciile !a& c3elt&ielile act&ali,ate la rata i.
i . rata a#&al +e act&ali,are IC i .
Act&ali,area (e#it&rilor )i c3elt&ielilor !e reali,ea, &tili,6#+ $actor&l +e act&ali,are
9 5A : 0 +e $orma -
( )
n
i
-$
+

1
1
109
A# I RONN MRONN F5C iPIC 5NA iP;7<C 5NA
< ;2BI<R R;<I;.2 .7I2122 <.K2;; .72K122.K
<.7;R<
-62986.8
1 < IR12KI IR12KI <.RRKK I<I2I;.2
<.<1II
;RI;;.1B
7 < 11KIRI1 11KIRI1 <.R;KI 1<<2RRR.;
<.<1;2
1I112.I1
; < 1B177;2 1B177;2 <.BK7< 1;1I<RK.K
<.<<;7
11<7.1BB
2 < 777BI<;.K 777BI<; <.B2B7 1II22I1.I
<.<<<B
1B<2.2BR
aP ;2BBKI7.; .KK1.1;1
Rata intern# de renta4ilitate 1 RIR
Rata i#ter#a +e re#ta'ilitate e!te acea rat +e act&ali,are 0 i 0 care $ace ca (aloarea #et a
$l&?&l&i +e #&merar ! $ie egal c& ,ero .
<
: 9 : 9


g
i act g i act
*
*
C -
Am calc&lat 5NA.&l "e#tr& o rat +e act&ali,are "e#tr& care 5NA are (aloare "o,iti(-
mi#
IC i
)i "e#tr& o rat +e act&ali,are "e#tr& care 5NA are (aloare #egati(-
ma?
;7<C i
( )
( )
( ) ( )
mi#
mi# ma?
mi# ma? mi#
act i
act i act i
-
R,R i i i
- -
+ +
+


;2BBKI7.;
I 9;7< I: ;;1.K
;2BBKI7.;VKK1.1;1
R,R + +
A(6#+ *# (e+ere c rata i#ter# +e re#ta'ilitate are o (aloare $oarte mare *#!eam# c
"roiect&l !&"ort o rat a re#ta'ilit/ii $oarte mare0 rec&"er6#+&.!e c& &)&ri#/ ca"ital&l i#(e!tit.
i'liogra$ie
1. Io# Cataram - Tra#!"ort i#+&!trial U Note +e c&r! - U#i(er!itatea Polite3#ica &c&re)ti >
7. Io# Cataram - 4a)i#i )i i#!tala/ii +e ma#i"&lare a mr$&rilor U Note +e c&r! -
U#i(er!itatea Polite3#ica &c&re)ti >
110
;. Io# Cataram - Teoria ge#eral a ma)i#ilor +e ri+icat )i tra#!"ortat 0 ma)i#i c& ac/i&#e
co#ti#& - U#i(er!itatea Polite3#ica &c&re)ti >
2. 4i3aela Po"a - E(al&area "roiectelor +e i#(e!ti/ii *# i#$ra!tr&ct&ra tra#!"ort&rilor 0
E+it&ra REN 0 &c&re)ti 0 7<<< >
1. 4i3aela Po"a - Eco#omia )i "la#i$icarea tra#!"ort&rilor U A#+r&mar +e "roiectare 0
E+it&ra Polite3#ica PRESS 0 &c&re)ti 0 7<<7 >
111