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materiale DEUD]LYH L
treptat ele DX F S WDW
FDVQLF

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au fost realizate L SULPHOH


masele ceramice erau utilizate ca
IRORVLWH SHQWUX OHIXLUHD GLYHUVHORU unelte din lemn,
alte vQWUHEXLQ UL, unele fragmente de obiecte de uz

GLQ

'DF

OD vQFHSXW

FHUDPLF

ILLQG

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vQF

GLQ

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QHROLWLF 

Ulterior, masele ceramice au VXIHULW R VHULH GH vPEXQ W LUL GHYHQLQG prin


ardere n foc PDL GXUH L PDL SX LQ SHUPHabile. 1RLOH SURSULHW L DX I FXW FD
SURGXVHOH FHUDPLFH V
FDSHWH vQWUHEXLQ UL GLQ FHOH PDL GLYHUVH V-au folosit
OD IDEULFDUHD F U PL]LORU acestea, realizate din mase ceramice n amestec cu
diverse fibre, fiind unele dintre cele mai vechi materiale compozite), la
FRQIHF LRQDUHD PDWUL HORU SHQWUX WXUQDUHD PHWDOHORU GDWRULW

SURSULHW

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lor refractare etc.


Treptat, s-a acordat o DWHQ LH din ce n ce mai mare valorii artistice a
maselor ceramice, apogeul fiind atins vQ &KLQD L vQ Orientul Mijlociu. Pe
OkQJ

YDORDUHD

HVWHWLF 

JUHFLL

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DX

IRORVLW

PDVHOH

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mortarul la construirea unor importante edificii. Secolele al XVIII-OHD i al


XIX-lea DX DGXV LPSRUWDQWH PRGHUQL] UL SURFHVHORU GH IDEULFD LH D PDVHORU
ceramice, iar secolul al XX-lea D SHUPLV R PDL EXQ vQ HOHJHUH D
SURSULHW
LORU DFHVWRUD, n paralel cu extinderea folosirii lor n alte domenii.
3URGXVHOH FHUDPLFH DX GUHSW PDWHULH SULP
FKLPLF FDUH HVWH IDVRQDW

GH ED]

DUJLOD PRGLILFDW

vQ GLYHUVH IRUPH FH GHYLQ ULJLGH SULQ FRDFHUH

ntr-un cuptor, la temperaturi relativ joase. Obiectele astfel RE LQXWH sunt


poroase, fapt ce impune aplicarea unor glazuri. NatXUD L WLSXO PDVHL
ceramice sunt determinate GH FRPSR]L LD DUJLOHL GH PHWRGD GH IDVRQDUH GH
temperatura la care are loc ardeUHD L GH JOD]XUD IRORVLW 
6SUH
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GH

SURGXVHOH

GLQ

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P UIXULOH

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DX

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OD Fk LYD PLFURPHWUL OD Fk LYD PLOLPHWUL  XQLWH vQWUH HOH SULQ

tr-o serie de
fenomene fizico-FKLPFH FDUH DX ORF vQ WLPSXO SURFHVHORU GH VLQWHUL]DUH L GH
vitrifiere din timpul arderii.
Numele de FHUDPLF provine de la cuvntul grecesc keramos, avnd
VHPQLILFD LD GH DUJLOD RODUXOXL. DDF
n trecut fabricarea obiectelor
ceramice era pULYLW FD XQ simplu PHWHXJ DVW ]L HOH VH IDEULF L
industrial, n serie, DYkQG GLIHULWH GHVWLQD LL
0 UIXULOH FHUDPLFH LQFOXG R JDP
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de produse, nu numai
FDVQLFH VDX GH DUW  FXP DU IL: SURGXVHOH GH RO ULH IDLDQ  VHPLSRU HODQXUL L

Merceologie
SRU HODQXUL GDU L GLYHUVH SURGXVH WHKQLFH L LQGXVWULDOH SULQWUH FDUH JUHVLH
F U PL]L

LJO  L]RODWRUL HOHFWULFL HWF

2.1 ,VWRULD RELHFWHORU GLQ FHUDPLF


6SUH GHRVHELUH GH DOWH YHVWLJLL LVWRULFH FDQWLW
RELHFWH GLQ FHUDPLF

V DX S VWUDW LQWDFWH SkQ

L LPSUHVLRQDQWH GH

vQ ]LOHOH QRDVWUH FHD PDL PDUH

parte dintre acestea provenind din China. Multe dintre ele, perfect
conservate, s-au descoperit n morminte, GDU L vQ FRU ELLOH VFXIXQGDWH SH
fundul oceanelor.
3ULPHOH RELHFWH GLQ FHUDPLF
erau realizate manual, prLQ U VXFLUHD
D PDVHL FHUDPLFH GH F WUH RODU L finisate ulterior cu ajutorul unor
GLUHFW
palete, iar F WUH VIkULWXO PLOHQLXOXL DO ,9-OHD &KU HOH DX vQFHSXW V ILH
RE LQXWH SULQ PRGHODUH L ILQLVDUH GLUHFW

SH URDWD RODUXOXL

Arderea se realiza la tempHUDWXUL VF ]XWH RE LQkQGX-se astfel produse


poroase, nevitrifiate L DELD vQ DQXO  v&KU FHUDPLFD D vQFHSXW V ILH DUV
la temperaturi ridicate.
Cele mai YHFKL L PDL importante centre ale ceramicii erau situate n
2ULHQWXO vQGHS UWDW, respectiv n China, Coreea L Japonia.
&HUDPLFD FKLQH]HDVF  GDWDW
din anul 2600 .Chr., se caracteriza
printr-R WH[WXU ILQ D DUJLOHL, R FXORDUH J OEXLH SkQ OD PDUR-URFDW L HUD
SLFWDW
FX SLJPHQ L QDWXUDOL $UGHUHD VH I FHD vQ FXSWRDUH VLPSOH deschise,
SUHY ]XWH cu orificii, FDUH I FHDX FD IO F ULOH L F OGXUD V VH ULGLFH L V DUG
RELHFWHOH GLQ FHUDPLF 
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GLIHULWHOH

SHULRDG

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vQ

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L D

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- SXV DPSUHQWD DVXSUD RELHFWHORU


imprimndu-le anumite caracteristici. Q JHQHUDO EROXULOH

JXYHUQDW
GLQ
L

GH

FHUDPLF 

YD]HOH

HUDX

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Astfel, n China dinastiei Shang (1600-1050 .Chr.) se realizau patru


tipuri principale GH FHUDPLF  FHUDPLF FHQXLH, GHFRUDW cu motive
geometrice incizate n PDVD FHUDPLF VDX FX GHFRUXUL n relief, VXE IRUP GH
QXU; FHUDPLF
JUL vnchis, care imita vasele din bronz; FHUDPLF
DOE ,
GHFRUDW
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L GH FHOH PDL PXOWH

RUL QHJOD]XUDW 

n timpul dinastiilor 7DQJ L 6RQJ (618-907 d.Chr.) apare pentru


celadonul FDUH SRDWH IL FRQVLGHUDW XQ SUHFXUVRU DO SRU HODQXOXL
din care se realizau YDVH L EROXUL FX SHUH L VXE LUL L JOD]XUDWH FX HPDLOXUL
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SULPD GDW

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nedecorate sau decorate cu motive florale, FX S

V UL SHWL VDX

cu dragoni n

UHOLHI RE LQXWH SULQ VFXOSWDUH SULQ LQFL]DUH FX XQ FX LW VDX SULQ WDQ DUH 0DL
L prin pictare, motivele preferate fiind
WkU]LX GHFRUD LD VH UHDOL]HD]
dUDJRQL SHWL ORWXL L EXMRUL DOWHUQkQG SLFWDUHD VXE JOD]XU  vQ JHQHUDO GH
culoare albaVWU , cu cea SHVWH JOD]XU  vQ cuORUL WDUL URX de fier, maro,
YHUGH JDOEHQ L QHJUX
'HVFRSHULUHD vQ  D DUPDWHL GLQ WHUDFRW

dinastiei Chin (221-


FKLQH]HWL $FHDVW

D SULPXOXL vPS UDW DO

v&KU D DG XJDW QRL GLPHQVLXQL DUWHL FHUDPLFH

DUPDW  IRUPDW

GLQ  GH VROGD L ILHF

are cu alte

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J VLW
OXW

vQJURSDW

JUL

vQ S PkQW vQ IRUPD LH PLOLWDU  6WDWXHWHOH VXQW PRGHODWH GLQ

PDFURJUDQXODU

ridicate, fiind

FDSHWHOH

DWDDWH XOWHULRU 'XS

PkLQLOH

DUVH

VHSDUDW

OD

WHPSHUDWXUL

DVDPEODUH ILJXULOH DX IRVW SLFWDWH FX

SLJPHQ L PLQHUDOL GHVFKLL GDU GLQ S FDWH PXOWH VXQW DFXP H[IROLDWH

Cele mai faimoase sunt SRU HODQXULOH GLQDVWLHL


obiecte pictate cu oxizi de cobalt sub glazura LQFRORU

0LQJ


Cu

(1368-1644),
V-au

WRDWH F

UHDOL]DW L SRU HODQXUL SROLFURPH PRQRFURPH VDX DOEH SRU HODQXULOH 0LQJ

cu decoruri n cobalt au fost favoritele secolului al XVI-lea n Europa.


Noutatea aceastei perioade a reprezentat-R SRU HODQXO YLWULILDW Tou-ts'ai, un
SRU HODQ VWLFORV, decorat deasupra glazurii prin pictare cu email, n diferite
motive: flori, fructe, scene antropomorfe etc. Acestea erau marcate cu
semnul regal de avizare, care a reprezentat att un motiv de stimulare pentru
1

PHWHULL WLPSXOXL GDU L XQ RELHFW DO IDOVLILF ULL GLQ WRDWH WLPSXULOH


$SRJHXO

FROHF LLORU

SRU HODQXOXL

0LQJ

IRVW

DWLQV

vQ

(XURSD

vQ

secolul al XVIII-OHD GXS FDUH SRU HODQXO FKLQH]HVF QX D PDL SXWXW FRQFXUD
cu cel european.
E[SRUWXO SRU HODQXOXL chinezesc n Europa a culminat n secolul al
XVII-lea, FkQG DX IRVW UHDOL]DWH SRU HODQXUL QXPLWH familia roz (famille
rose), GDWRULW culorii roz-trandafiriu a glazurii RE LQXW cu pigment metalic
de aur coloidal. 'HFRUD LD FRQVWD vQ IORUL S V UL SHLVDMH UDPXUL GH FRSDFL
sau scene de interior. PH FHOH PDL PXOWH GLQWUH DFHVWH SRU HODQXUL DSDU
blazoanele marilor familii britanice.
n perioada dinastiei Qing (1644-1911) au fost realizate noi tipuri de
SRU HODQXUL DFRSHULWH FX glazuri GLYHUV FRORUDWH GHQXPLWH vQ IXQF LH GH
culoarea SUHGRPLQDQW D acestora: familia verde (famille verte
SRU elanuri acoperite cu glazuri colorate n verde, galben sau URX-violet),
IDPLOLD QHJU (famille noir - GDWRULW
IRORVLULL XQXL JUXQG QHJUX L

Braunstein F., Ppin J.F.


pag. 101;

FP0H &" !F@ 0A0C" A0$ 91 0 '( 0% &" 0( 0 &5 431 0( ' %" !   
"G I IG 'E ) (D ( B )@ & 8 ) & $ # ) ' 76 ) 2 ) & $ #     

Merceologie
IDPLOLD

JDOEHQ

culoare galben ).
La fel ca
manual L DUV OD

(famille jaune -

n China,

GDWRULW

XWLOL] ULL

FHUDPLFD QHROLWLF

XQXL

rund de

HUD PRGHODW

MDSRQH]

WHPSHUDWXUL MRDVH OD IRF GHV

chis. Masele ceramice aveau


FXORUL URLDWLFH VDX tonuri variind de la gri la negru, unele figuri de cult fiind
acoperiWH FX R[LG URX GH ILHU.
0XOWH

GLQWUH

SLHVH

DX

IRVW

japonezi, cum ar fi obiectele unice


FDVH

FRU ELL

IHPHL

YkQ WRUL

GHVFRSHULWH

vQ

PRUPLQWHOH

UHDOL]DWH GLQ DUJLO

PX]LFLHQL

URLDWLF

OXSW WRUL 

vPS UD LORU
QHJOD]XUDW

FXQRVFXWH

VXE

denumirea de haniwa (250-552 d.Chr.).


Ulterior, una dintre carateristicile ceramicii japoneze devine
XWLOL]DUHD JOD]XULL SH ED] GH FHQX QDWXUDO .
'XS
DQXO  G&KU., vQ -DSRQLD vQFHSH V
VH IDEULFH FHUDPLFD DUV
la temperaturi ridicate. Glazurile erau monocromatice (verde sau maroJ OEXL  vQ GRX

FXORUL YHUGH L DOE L PDL UDU vQ WUHL FXORUL

ntre 1338- LQIOXHQ D FKLQH]

D ULWXDOXOXL FHDLXOXL D S WUXQV L vQ

-DSRQLD FRQGXFkQG OD GH]YROWDUHD FHUDPLFLL L vQ VSHFLDO D SRU HODQXOXL SULQ


VWLPXODUHD
DQXPLW

IDEULF UL

IRUP

i veselei folosite la acest ritual, fiecare

SLHV

GH

DYkQG R IXQF LH L XQ QXPH VSHFLILF

De cele mai multe ori, obiectele erau glazurate n mai multe straturi
VXE LUL L arse ulterior n cuptoare, OD WHPSHUDWXUL VF ]XWH n timpul arderii,
cnd glazura se topea, obiectele erau scoase din cuptor L GDWRULW RFXOXL
WHUPLF FUHDW JOD]XUD VH FU SD DS UkQG R UH HD de fisuri fine, efect cunoscut
sub denumirea de glazuri fisurate sau cracle.
&HUDPLFD MDSRQH]
HVWH SLFWDW vQ SULQFLSDO FX R[izi maro de fier, iar
decorurile sunt mprumutate din cele folosite la decorarea materialelor
textile, ntrerupte pe alocuri cu stropi GH JOD]XU WUDQVSDUHQW YHUGH LQFOXV
vQ PDVD FHUDPLF GHFRU FXQRVFXW VXE GHQXPLUHD GH bob de orez).
Descoperirea unoU LPSRUWDQWH GHSR]LWH GH FDROLQ OkQJ $ULWD D
FRQGXV OD GH]YROWDUHD SRU HODQXULORU GH XQ DOE SXU decorate VXE JOD]XU
FX
albastru de cobalt, att de populare n Europa secolului al XVII-OHD L
imitate FKLDU L GH PHWHULL FKLQH]L Modelele erau de obicei GHQVH L foarte
complexe.
Tot n Asia, unul dintre cele mai vechi centre ale ceramicii a fost
situat n Anatolia (GDWHD] GLQ  v&KU.), unde se realizau n general
VWDWXHWH GLQ WHUDFRW  SLFWDWH vQ URX GDU L YDVH GH GLIHULWH IRUPH vQ JHQHUDO

monocrome, decorate cu linii orizontale.


$FHOHDL VWDWXHWH VXQW vQWkOQLWH L vQ Persia L vQ Mesopotamia
(mileniul al V-lea .Chr.), dar pictate n culori FDUH YDULDX GH OD URX OD PDUR
L QHJUX Q DFHHDL SHULRDG , PHWHULL SHUVDQL vQFHS V
SLFWH]H YDVHOH FX
moWLYH JHRPHWULFH L, de asemeneD DSDUH L YHVHOD PRQRFURP URLH VDX JUL

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

ncepnd cu mileniul al IV-lea .Chr. RELHFWHOH VH H[HFXW SH URDWD RODUXOXL


VXQW DFRSHULWH FX JOD]XUL JDOEHQ-verzui, decorurile ntlnite fiind n
general forme geometrice, planWH S V UL DQLPDOH L RDPHQL.
n Mesopotamia, cHUDPLFD JOD]XUDW ncepe V VH SURGXF GLQ DQXO
1500 .Chr., ILLQG vQWkOQLW QX vQ GRmeQLXO RELHFWHORU GH JRVSRG ULH, ci n cel

DO

F U PL]LORU

XWLOL]DWH

vQ

RUQDPHQWD LLOH

DUKLWHFWXUDOH

QLH

FRORDQH

acoperite cu mozaicuri ceramice colorate). n Babilon, teracota era fRORVLW


la fabricarea templelor D SDODWHORU L D SDYLPHQWHORU & U PL]LOH HUDX
GHFRUDWH SULQ VFXOSWDUH FX GUDJRQL OHL L WDXUL DUVH L DSRL JOD]XUDWH FX

emailuri variind de la alb, la galben L SkQ OD QHJUX PDURQLX SH un fond


bleu sau bleu-vert.
0HWHULL HJLSWHQL realizau n mileniul al V-lea .Chr. vase ceramice
FX SHUH L VXE LUL vQFKLVH OD FXORDUH ELQH OXVWUXLWH L FX GHFRUD LL VXE IRUP
GH QXUXUL

n relief

Q PLOHQLXO XUP WRU

apar obiectele ceramice pictate n


, dar care nu

URX VDX PDUR L GHFRUDWH FX DQLPDOH VDX PRWLYH JHRPHWULFH

s-au ridicat
UHDOL]DW

OD DFHODL QLYHO DUWLVLWLF (JLSWHQLL DX H[FHODW vQV

SHQWUX

SULPD

GDW

vQ

DQXO



printr-un email verde nchis sau albastru,


ERJDW

vQ FXDU  PDL DSURSLDW

GH VWLFO

v&KU

FDUH

SULQ IDLDQ
VH

DSOLFDW SHVWH R PDV

FDUDFWHUL]D
FHUDPLF

GHFkW GH PDVHOH FHUDPLFH $UWL]DQLL

egipteni foloseau aceaVW IDLDQ OD FRQIHF LRQDUHD ELMXWHULLORU a P UJHOHORU


a FXSHORU L vQ VSHFLDO a unor figurine cu care se ngropau n morminte2.
Pe continentul american, cele mai importante centre ale ceramicii
erau situate n (FXDGRU 3HUX L 0H[LF unde, n perioada 800-400 .Chr., se
realizau diferite figurine de lut, motivul cel mai des ntlnit fiind jaguarul,
DO WXUL GH DOWH DQLPDOH ILJXUL XPDQH L ]HLW

L 9DVHOH HUDX SLFWDWH vQ URX

DSULQV L PRGHODWH vQ UHOLHI

n perioada Epocii bronzului (1500- v&KU L OD vQFHSXWXO


Epocii fierului (1050-750 .Chr), cHUDPLFD ULORU GLQ ]RQD 0 ULL 0HGLterane
L (JHH vQ VSHFLDO GLQ &LSUX L &UHWD, se caracteriza printr-o culorare
3
ELFURP
L SULQ DSOLFDUHD XQRU GHFRUXUL JHRPHWULFH DEVWUDFWH VDX ILJXUDOH .
8QXO GLQWUH FHOH PDL LQWHUHVDQWH L PDL PLVWHULRDVH RELHFWH din DUJLO
HVWH
Discul din Faistos, datat din 1600 .Chr. L FDUH VH J VHWH DVW ]L vQ PX]HXO
de la HeraNOHLRQ 3H DPEHOH S U L GLVFXO DUH LQVFULS LRQDWH vQ VSLUDO
anumite hierogliIH D F URU VHPQLILFD LH QX D IRVW GHVFRSHULW QLFL DVW ]L
n Grecia FODVLF , OD IHO FD L vQ &KLQD modelarea L SLFWDUHD
RELHFWHORU FHUDPLFH D IRVW ULGLFDW
OD UDQJ GH DUW  Piesele se realizau pe
URDWD

RODUXOXL

cadrul socLHW
3

DYkQG

QXPH

L IXQF LH

a diverselor ceremonii: amforele

V V V & Y T 71 @ R
1 AEC#b a$ `X VWU70SR )AS3 &R Q

ILHFDUH IRUP

LL L

ELQH

GHWHUPLQDWH

vQ

YDVH vQDOWH FX GRX

Tutanchamun, Haus der Kunst Mnchen, 1981, pag.30-43, 140-144;


Vassilakis Sp. A. Crete, history, museums, archaelogical sites and monuments, Athens, 1998,
pag. 277-283;

Merceologie

toarte) erau folosite la depozitarea vinului, cerealelor, uleiului sau a mierii;


hidria HUD XQ ERUFDQ FX WUHL WRDUWH SHQWUX DS  lecitus HUD R VWLFO GH XOHL FX
XQ JkW OXQJ L vQJXVW IRORVLW
$O WXUL

GH

QHDJU  QHGHFRUDWH

FHUDPLFD

OD ULWXDOXUL IXQHUDUH HWF


GHFRUDW

VH

UHDOL]DX

RELHFWH

GLQ

FHUDPLF

, ambele stiluri de produse ceramice punndu-L amprenta


asupra ceramicii romane.
*UHFLL IRORVHDX SURFHVHOH GH R[LGDUH L GH UHGXFHUH FH DYHDX ORF n
cuptoare la diferitele temperaturi, pentru a produce, vQ IXQF LH GH WLSXO
argilei, o FHUDPLF PDURQLH, crem VDX FX QXDQ H GH RFUX-SRUWRFDOLX GHFRUDW
4
FX EHQ]L L OLQLL QHJUH OXFLRDVH . 'HFRUXULOH VH H[HFXWDX SH RUL]RQWDO  cu
EHQ]L

RUQDPHQWDOH

OXSW WRUL

DQLPDOH

GLYHUVH

mitologice. Temele favorite includeau oDPHQL

SURFHVLXQL

VFHQH

L ]HL OD PXQF  EDQFKHWH

E W OLL PX]LFLHQL GLYHUVH FHUHPRQLL IHPHL FDUH VH vPEU FDX VDX FDUH VH

jucau etc., contururile fiind SLFWDWH FX QHJUX LDU IH HOH FX DOE VDX URX SH XQ

IRQG GH DUJLO

2 DOW

URLH OXVWUXLW 

YDULHWDWH GH FHUDPLF
JUHFHDVF
HVWH FHD UHDOL]DW
n jurul
anilor 530 .Chr., n care fondul este pictat n negru, iar figurile din decor
DSDU FRORUDWH vQ URXO-PDURQLX DO PDVHL FHUDPLFH &kWHRGDW  pentru
5
VFRDWHUHD vQ HYLGHQ
D GHWDOLLORU GLQ ELMXWHULL VH DG XJD L aur .
Romanii erau admiratori ai unor mase FHUDPLFH URLDWLFH L lucioase,
RE LQXWH SULQWU-o WHKQLF
deVFRSHULW vQ SHULRDGD -310 .Chr. Produsele,
GHFRUDWH vQ UHOLHI FX DMXWRUXO XQRU IRUPH GH DUJLO

GLYHUVH ILJXUL L GHWDOLL HUDX DSRL LPHUVDWH


GH

DUJLO

RE LQHUHD

FX

XQ

XQXL

FRQ LQXW

OXFLX

ULGLFDW

SXWHUQLF

GH

vQ FDUH HUDX JUDYDWH

ntr-o suspensie de particule fine

VLOLFLX

FDUH

SULQ

OXVWUXLUH

SHUPLWHD

ArdereD VH I FHD n cuptoare de oxidare.


Pentru restul maselor ceramice, n general se foloseau glazuri SH ED] GH
plumb6.
Mergnd mai departe pe firul istoriei, secolul al XIV-lea a marcat
dezvoltarea ceramicii germane. Caracteristic acesteia este folosirea unui
HPDLO SH ED]
GH VDUH VDUHD HUD LQWURGXV
vQ FXSWRU, LDU VRGD RE LQXW
SULQ
topirea ei conducea la formareD SH VXSUDID D SURGXVHORU FHUDPLFH D XQXL

VWUDW VWLFORV L JUDQXODW FX DVSHFW GH FRDM

GH SRUWRFDO 

n Spania, ceramica s-a dezvoltat ntre secolele al XIII-OHD L


al XV-lea sub R SXWHUQLF LQIOXHQ LVODPLF , vQ DFHDVW SHULRDG fiind
realizate obiecte ceramice acoperite FX JOD]XU SH ED] GH VWDQLX L cu
JOD]XU
luster SH ED] GH DXU L DUJLQW SLFWDUHD VH UHDOL]D FX DXU L DUJLQW
L, ulterior, vasele erau rearse ntr-un cuptor, la
SHVWH JOD]XUD DUV
WHPSHUDWXUL PDL VF ]XWH 

FP0H &" !F@ 0A0C" A0$ 91 0 '( 0% &" 0( 0 &5 431 0( ' %" !   
"G I IG 'E ) (D ( B )@ & 8 ) & $ # ) ' 76 ) 2 ) & $ #     

Braunstein F., Ppin J.F.


pag. 32;

X X X Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1994-2001;;


X X X Roma dalle origini al 2000, Lozzi Roma Edizione turistiche, 2000 Italia, pag.38; 86-88;

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

2 YDULDQW
D DFHVWHL FHUDmici este majolica, IRDUWH U VSkQGLW
n
secolul al XV-lea vQ PXOWH RUDH DOH ,WDOLHL Numele provine de la Insula
Majorca sau Maiolica, de unde DFHVW WLS GH FHUDPLF a fost adus n Italia de
F WUH PDXULL VSDQLROL

Ea HVWH R PDV FHUDPLF FH SUH]LQW modele n relief, DFRSHULW FX R


gOD]XU DOE GH SOXPE L VWDQLX, peste care se pictea] cu diferite culori:
galben, verde, SRUWRFDOLX WXUFRD] L DOEDVWUX adaugndu-se ulterior, n mod
IUHFYHQW XQ DOW VWUDW GH JOD]XU
WUDQVSDUHQW . Fabricarea acestui tip de
FHUDPLF D IRVW IRDUWH H[WLQV vQ VHFROHOH al XVI-OHD L DO ;9,,-lea n )UDQ D
L n Belgia.
'XS

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HPDLOXUL SH ED]
SURGXF LH

D DFHVWHL PDVH FHUDPLFH JOD]XUDWH FX

GH VWDQLX HVWH FXQRVFXW

FXQRVFXW

PDUH

VXE GHQXPLUHD GH IDLDQ

GH]YROWDUH

, D F UHL
Germania secolului

vQ

al XVIII-lea.
9DVHOH

JOD]XUDWH

FX

SRSXODUH vQ (XURSD SkQ

HPDLOXUL

SH

ED]

GH

VWDQLX

DX

U PDV

IRDUWH

OD vQFHSXWXO VHFROXOXL DO ;,;

-lea. Acestea erau


realizate prin imersarea biscuitului ars ntr-XQ JUXQG SH ED] de plumb, n
FDUH VH DG XJD R[LG GH VWDQLX SHQWUX RSacizare sau pentru albire. Acest
ePDLO SURGXFHD R JOD]XU GHQV GH FXORDUH DOE  FDUH DFRSHUHD vQ WRWDOLWDWH
PDVD FHUDPLF

EUXW

ELVFXLWXO L FDUH UHSUH]HQWD ED]D GH SLFWDUH XOWHULRDU

cu emailuri diveUV FRORUDWH XUPDW GH R DUGHUH OD R WHPSHUDWXU MRDV 


$SDUL LD L GH]YROWDUHD n secolul al XVII-lea a manufacturilor de
FHUDPLF vQ RUDHOH RODQGH]H Antwerp L Delft D FRQGXV OD DSDUL LD XQXL QRX
WLS GH PDV FHUDPLF QXPLW Delft.
6XE LQIOXHQ D SRU HOanurilor Ming, SRU HODQXULOH GH 'HOIW au cunoscut
n secolul al XVII-lea SHULRDGD ORU GH JORULH 3HUH LL RELHFWHORU GLQ SRU HODQ
DX GHYHQLW GLQ FH vQ FH PDL VXE LUL LDU GHFRUD LD PDL GHOLFDW  'HFRUXULOH HUDX

la nceput trasate FX URX GH PDQJDQ n biscuit vQDLQWH FD DFHVWD V ILH DUV


apoi VH WUDVDX FX FXORDUHD DOEDVWU sXE JOD]XU L, la final, VH DSOLFD R JOD]XU
GH SOXPE L VWDQLX 'HQXPLUHD GH 'HOIW D IRVW vPSUXPXWDW
HQJOH]HWL IDEULFDW

CHUDPLFD
al XVII-lea FHD
IDEULFDW

L FHUDPLFLL

vQ FHQWUHOH GLQ /RQGUD /LYHUSRRO %ULVWRO L 'XE

HQJOH]HDVF
PDL

s-D

FXQRVFXW

GH]YROWDW
ILLQG

SH

VFDU

ceramica

ILQ

ODUJ

GXS

lin.
VHFROXO

de Straffordshire

vQWUH -  D F UHL JOD]XU


DOE
HUD SH ED]
GH VDUH 'H
asemenea, n centrul de la Straffordshire se IDEULFD L R FHUDPLF SRSXODU
de lut amestecat cu flLQW FDOFLQDW L DFRSHULW FX JOD]XU GH SOXPE Q
1754, chimistul Josiah Wedgwood a nceput H[SHULPHQWHOH SHQWUX RE LQHUHD
FHUDPLFLL FRORUDWH SH ED]
GH OXW, realiznd astfel ceramica de jasp, din lut
alb, FRORUDW SULQ DG XJDUHD GLIHUL LORU R[L]L PHWDOici L GHFRUDW FX RUQDPHQte
albe n relief, n special cu portUHWH VDX VFHQH FODVLFH JUHFHWL &RQWULEX LD
HVHQ LDO
D OXL Wedgwood U PkQH vQV
ceramica de lut de culoare crem,

Merceologie
QXPLW

L FHUDPLF

SHUODW

SOXPE $FHDVWD HUD GHFRUDW

DFRSHULW

FX XQ HPDLO WUDQVSDUHQW SH ED]

GH

SULQ SLFWDUH FX HPDLOXUL DOEDVWUH VDX FX PRGHOH

imprimate prin transfer.


3ULPHOH SRU HODQXUL PRL

, de culoare mai mult crem dect albe, au


fost realizate abia n secolul al XVI-lea, n Italia, iar tehnica SRU HODQXULORU
tari a fost GHVFRSHULW n Germania, GH F WUH Friedrich Bttiger n anul
1707, SULPD IDEULF ILLQG DPSODVDW OD 0HLVVHQ n anul 1710. Ca urmare a
IDSWXOXL F
Bttiger D H[SHULPHQWDW SRU HODQXULOH L OD 'UHVGD SRU HODnurile
de Meissen PDL VXQW FXQRVFXWH L VXE QXPHOH GH SRU HODQXUL GH Dresda,
succesul lor fiind datorat nivelului artistic deosebit de ULGLFDW DO GHFRUD LLORU
)DLPD DFHVWXL WLS GH SRU HODQ D IRVW vQORFXLW , ncepnd cu 1756, cu cea a
SRU HODQXULORU IUDQ X]HWL de Svres IDEULFDWH LQL LDO OD Vincennes, fabrica a
IRVW PXWDW
GH /XGRYLF DO ;9-lea VXE LQIOXHQ D OXL Madame de Pompadour
la Svres  $FHVWH SRU HODQXUL PRL sunt cunoscute prin GHFRUD La lor bogat
colorat L SULQ DXULUHD DSOLFDW GLQ EHOXJ.
n secolele al XIX-OHD L DO ;;-lea, dezvoltarea SURGXF LHL GH PDV
vQ

(XURSD

vQ

$PHULFD

FRQGXV

OD

UHGXFHUHD

QLYHOXOXL

DUWLVWLF

DO

GHFRUXULORU L DO SURGXVHORU

ceramice n general, n paralel cu extinderea


SURGXF LHL maselor ceramice de uz industrial, preFXP L D FRPSRQHQWHORU
7
DHURVSD LDOH .
n Romnia FHUDPLFD D RFXSDW vQ SHUPDQHQ XQ ORF LPSRUWDQW vQ
cadrul produselor artizanale. Q WUHFXW SURGXVHOH GH RO ULH HUDX Srezente att
n mediul rural, ct L n cel XUEDQ ILLQG DSUHFLDWH GDWRULW GLYHUVLW LL
formelRU L D GHFRUXULORU SUHFXP L GDWRULW SURSULHW LORU ORU $VW ]L HOH VH
IRORVHVF vQ PHGLXO UXUDO L vQ DPHQDMDUHD XQRU LQWHULRDUH UXVWLFH

Ceramica D IRVW SURGXV SH WHULWRULXO


timpuri, fiind descoperite o serie de YHVWLJLL

ULL QRDVWUH GLQ FHOH PDL YHFKL


FDUH GDWHD]

vQF

GLQ epoca
(oale pentru
ODSWH , iar formele variau de la simple la complicate (diverse forme

QHROLWLF  Q JHQHUDO FHUDPLFD GH X] PHQDMHU QX HUD HPDLODW


DS

VDX

GH XOFLRDUH  RE LQXWH GLUHFW SULQ PRGHODUH SH URDWD RODUXOXL VDX SULQ DSOLFD LL

ulterioare (coarne de bou). &kWHRGDW  RELHFWHOH HUDX L HPDLODWH GDU


ntotdeauna cu email incolor. Decorarea se executa n relief, cu ajutorul unor
perii sau piepteni, cu care se trasau VWULXUL GUHSWH VDX Y OXULWH VDX prin
pictare. Cel maL GHV vQWkOQLWH PRWLYH HUDX FHUFXULOH VSLUDOHOH L OLQLLOH
RQGXODWH FDUH VH DUPRQL]DX FX IRUPD YDVHORU &XORULOH IRORVLWH HUDX SH ED]
GH R[L]L PHWDOLFL VXOIXUD GH SOXPE SHQWUX FXORDUHD JDOEHQ  R[LGXO GH ILHU
SHQWUX

URX

R[LGXO

GH

FREDOW

SHQWUX

DOEDVW

ru etc. Astfel, una dintre

FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH FHUDPLFLL SRSXODUH URPkQHWL HVWH FRQWUDVWXO GLQWUH WHKQLFD


VLPSO

IRORVLW

L HIHFWXO DUWLVWLF UHPDUFDELO

Ceramics- Enciclopaedia Encarta 2000;

M
&HOH PDL LQWHUHVDQWH YDULHW
FHUDPLF

L FHUDPLF

QHDJU

Ceramica
DOH

QHDJU

L GH FHUDPLF

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

URPkQHDVF

VXQW

cele de

de Cucuteni.

VH S VWUHD]

GLQ SUHLVWRULH L DVW ]L vQ XQHOH ]RQH

ULL FHUDPLFD QHDJU  QHHPDLODW

, de Marginea). Decorarea, n motive


florale sau cu linii ondulate sau drepte, se executa cu ajutorul unei pietre pe
fondul mat al ceramicii.
Ceramica de Cucuteni GDWHD] vQF GLQ HSRFD QHROLWLF L HUD
U VSkQGLW vQ 0ROGRYD 0XQWHQLD GH QRUG-HVW L 7UDQVLOYDQLD GH VXG-est. Era
R FHUDPLF

GH IRDUWH EXQ

FDOLWDWH ERJDW L YDULDW SLFWDW  FDUDFWHULVWLF ILLQG

GHFRUXO vQ VSLUDO  FDUH HUD SUHGRPLQDQW

MulWH GLQ SURGXVHOH GH RO ULH YHFKH URPkQHDVF erau decorate prin


tehnica sgraffito (decorare cu motiv zgriat pe ciobul ceramic crud, nainte
GH JOD]XUDUH VDX SH DQJRE  RELHFWHOH GHVFRSHULWH vQtr-o serie de situri
istorice remarcndu-se prin LQIOXHQ HOH scito-GDFLFH URPDQH EL]DQWLQH L
persano-WXUFHWL
&HUDPLFD URPkQHDVF
FXUHQW

DFHVWRU

FHUDPLF

GHVWLQD LL

SRSXODU

HVWH

VH vPSDUWH vQ GRX

GHFRUDWLY 

RELHFWHOH

8QD GLQWUH FHOH

DOF WXLW

GLQ

PDL

RELHFWH

PDUL JUXSH FHUDPLF

DYkQG

IRUPH

LQWHUHVDQWH

]RRPRUIH

GH X]

FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH

FDWHJRULL

GH FHUDPLF

DQWURSRPRUIH

UHDOL]DWH

ntr-XQ VSLULW GH XQ UHDOLVP SULPLWLY GDU FX YDOHQ H XPRULVWLFH L H[SUHVLYH


deosebite.
Cele mai vechi centre de fabricare a ceramicii erau situate la Curtea
GH $UJH n zona
ULL 2DXOXL 9DPD , n Valea Izei etc., iar n vremea
domniei lui Constantin Brncoveanu VH GH]YROW centrele GH RO ULH de la:
+RUH]X 6LVHWL WHI QHWL 0DUJLQHD, Trgu Frumos, Cacica etc.
Q

7UDQVLOYDQLD

al XVII-OHD

FX

FHUDPLFD

SUHF GHUH

vQ

VH

VHFROHOH

GH]YROW
DO

vQ

SHULRDGD

;9,,, OHD

DO

VHFROXOXL

;,;

-lea sub
de

LQIOXHQ D FHUDPLFLL JHUPDQH UHPDUFkQGX VH SUHGLOHF LD SHQWUX DOEDVWUXO

cobalt decorat cu alb, n motive foarte dense, n special florale8.


'XS
GH]YROW

GHVFRSHULUHD

QLVLSXOXL

FDROLQRV

GH

OD

RUHFDQL $JKLUH

VH

L LQGXVWULD IDLDQ HL L D SRU HODQXOXL

n prezent, cele mai imporante centre de fabricare a produselor


-Napoca, Alba Iulia,

FHUDPLFH VXQW OD &XUWHD GH $UJH 6LJKLRDUD &OXM


7XUGD L %XFXUHWL

Lart populaire en Roumanie, Edition Roumain pour les relations culturelles avec letranger, Bucarest,
1955.

Merceologie
 0DWHULL SULPH L DX[LOLDUH IRORVLWH vQ RE LQHUHD

produselor ceramice
Q

PRG

anorganice,

RELQXLW

FX R VWUXFWXU

PDVHOH
DWRPLF

FHUDPLFH
FULVWDOLQ

GH ID]H VWLFORDVH L FULVWDOLQH $FHDVW


FKLPLF  OH FRQIHU

UH]LVWHQ

HOHFWULF

reduse

FKLPLF

SUHFXP

PDWHULDOH

VDX VXE IRUPD XQHL FRPELQD LL

VWUXFWXU  DO WXUL GH FRPSR]L LD ORU


OD

DF LXQHD

ED]HORU DFL]LORU L D V UXULORU GXULWDWH UH]LVWHQ


WHUPLF

FRQVLGHUDWH

SURGXVHORU FHUDPLFH R VHULH GH SURSULHW

PHFDQLF 

UH]LVWHQ

VXQW

DSHL

L L DQXPH
D

R[LJHQXOXL

OD X]XU  FRQGXFWLYLWDWH

FDSDFLWDWHD

GH

IL

ILQLVDWH

SULQ

decorare.
Masele ceramice VXQW RE LQXWH SULQ DUGHUHD XQRU Dmestecuri de
VLOLFD L VDX GH R[L]L naturali sau artificiali, FDUH SULQ DUGHUH VXIHU R VHULH GH
WUDQVIRUP UL L UHDF LL vQ IXQF LH GH WHPSHUDWXU
L FRPSR]L LH are loc o
vQPXLHUH VXSHUILFLDO  FkQG SDUWLFXOHOH VH OLSHVF vQWUH HOH FRQIHULQG PDVHL
FHUDPLFH R UH]LVWHQ

PHFDQLF

VXSHULRDU  'XS

FDUDFWHUXO ORU DFLG VDX

bazic SDUWLFXOHOH SRW UHDF LRQD vQWUH HOH UH]XOWkQG R WRSLWXU

ID]

FDUH XQHWH SDUWLFXOHOH VROLGH U PDVH vQ DPHVWHF )D]D VWLFORDV

VWLFORDV

XPSOH PDL

PXOW VDX PDL SX LQ JROXULOH GLQWUH SDUWLFXOH FDUH U PkQ VXE IRUPD XQRU
FDQDOH SRUL GHVFKLL VDX L]RODWH SX LQ URWXQMLWH SRUL vQFKLL 

n timpul arderii, la diferite temperaturi, au loc o serie de fenomene


fizico-FKLPLFH L DQXPH sinterizarea, vitrifierea L clincherizarea.
Sinterizarea UHSUH]LQW SURFHVXO SULQ FDUH SDUWLFXOHOH FRQVWLWXHQWH DOH
masei ceramice se unesc ntre ele prin nmuierea lor superficiDO conducnd
la apDUL LD XQRU FULVWDOH QRL OD OLPLWD GLQWUH SDUWLFXOHOH vQPXLDWH
Vitrifierea UHSUH]LQW SURFHVXO GH XQLUH D SDUWLFXOHORU SULQ DSDUL LD
XQHL ID]H VWLFORDVH L separarea unei faze cristaline noi, reducndu-se astfel
porozitatea masei ceramice.
Clincherizarea HVWH XQ SURFHV LQWHUPHGLDU VLQWHUL] ULL L YLWULILHULL
SULQ

FDUH DUH ORF

VXSHUILFLDO

XQLUHD SDUWLFXOHORU vQWUH HOH

SDU LDO

SULQ

vQPXLHUHD ORU

L DSDUL LD XQRU FULVWDOH QRL vQ ]RQHOH GH FRQWDFW L

SDU LDO SULQ

DSDUL LD XQHL ID]H VWLFORDVH


GRX

Materiile prime folosite la fabricarea maselor ceramice se mpart n


FDWHJRULL SULQFLSDOH, L DQXPH
PDWHULL SULPH SHQWUX RE LQHUHD SURGXVXOXL FHUDPLF EUXW,
QXPLW L FLRE VDX ELVFXLW

PDWHULL SULPH SHQWUX UHDOL]DUHD JOD]XULORU L

a decorurilor.
Din prima categorie, aceea de materii prime pentru realizarea
ciobului, fac parte:
9 materiile prime plastice, respectiv: argilele minerale;
9 materiile prime neplastice: QLVLSXO GH FXDU L feldspatul;

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

materii prime auxiliare: SODVWLILDQ L OXEULILDQ L IOXLGL]DQ L


La rndul ORU vQ IXQF LH GH FRPSo]L LD FKLPLFR-miQHUDORJLF L GH
structura lor, materiile prime plastice se mpart n: argile comune L
caolinuri.
Argilele comune VXQW PDWHULL SULPH SODVWLFH FX R VWUXFWXU ILQ (cu
particule mai mici de 0,005 mm) L XQVXURDVH OD SLS LW n amestec cu apa,
HOH

SHUPLW

PRGHODUHD

SURGXVHORU

FHUDPLFH

QHDUVH

UHSUH]LQW

ED]D

GH

IRUPDUH L GH DGHUDUH D HPDLOXOXL vQ WLPSXO DUGHULL &XORDUHD DUJLOHORU GLIHU


vQ IXQF LH GH FRPSR]L LD ORU SUHFXP L GH LPSXULW

LOH PLQHUDOH VDX RUJDQLFH

cRQ LQXWH
Caolinul PDL HVWH FXQRVFXW L VXE GHQXPLUHD GH DUJLO GH SRU HODQ
L HVWH VLQJXUXO WLS GH DUJLO FDUH SHUPLWH RE LQHUHD unor mase ceramice albe,
WUDQVOXFLGH L YLWURDVH Q IRUPD VD QDWXUDO  FDROLQXO HVWH R SXOEHUH DOE
PRDOH DOF WXLW

GLQ FDROLQLW 1XPHOH SURYLQH GLQ OLPED FKLQH]  .DR

-ling
ILLQG XQ GHDO GLQ FDUH FDROLQXO D IRVW H[SORDWDW VHFROH vQ LU n Europa apare
vQ MXUXO DQLORU  ILLQG WULPLV GH PLVLRQDULL IUDQFH]L FD PRVWU
SULP

IRORVLW

vQ &KLQD OD IDEULFDUHD SRU H

$UH EXQH SURSULHW

20-35%),

GH PDWHULH

UHIUDFWDUH

lanurilor.
plastice (n amestec cu apa ntr-R

SRDWH IL

DUV

GHIRUP UL L QX FRQ LQH LPSXULW

OD

WHPSHUDWXUL

ULGLFDWH

I U

SURSRU LH GH
DSDUL LD GH

L

n procesul de fabricare a produselor ceramice, caolinul este de


RELFHL DPHVWHFDW FX FDQWLW
L DSUR[LPDWLY HJDOH GH VLOLFH L de feldspat.
$WkW DUJLOHOH FRPXQH FkW L FDROLQXO VXQW PDWHULL SULPH LQGLVSHQVDELOH

n fabricarea maselor ceramice GDWRULW SURSULHW LORU SH FDUH OH SUH]LQW  L


anume:
plasticitatea reprezint
SURSULHWDWHD GH D IRUPD vQ DPHVWec cu apa
paste carH SRW IL PRGHODWH FX XXULQ  vQ IRUPH GH OD FHOH PDL VLPSOH OD FHOH
PDL FRPSOLFDWH L FDUH SULQ XVFDUH VH ULJLGL]HD] 
SXWHUHD OLDQW

paste de rezistHQ H

reSUH]LQW

PHFDQLFH

FDSDFLWDWHD GH D IRUPD vQ DPHVWHF FX DSD

GLIHULWH

vQ

IXQF LH

GH

FDQWLWDWHD

GH

DS

DG XJDW 

higroscopicitatea VW OD ED]D
materialelor argiloase de a absorbi apa;

FRQWUDF LD

OD

XVFDUH

HVWH

SODVWLFLW

LL L UHSUH]LQW

GDW

PLFRUDUHD

GH

FDSDFLWDWHD

GLPHQVLXQLORU

produselor ceramice fasonate, FD XUPDUH D HOLPLQ ULL DSHL SULQ XVFDUH (VWH R
SURSULHWDWH QHGRULW , FDUH FRQGXFH OD DSDUL LD XQRU GHIRUP UL L ILVXU UL DOH

Merceologie
SURGXVHORU

FHUDPLFH L, GH DFHHD HD WUHEXLH FRUHFWDW


temperaturii de uscare.
Materiile prime neplastice se vPSDUW OD UkQGXO ORU

SULQ

vQ

UHJLPXO

GRX

PDUL

JUXSH L DQXPH

materii prime neplastice fondante IRQGDQ LL ;


materii prime neplastice refractare.
)RQGDQ LL VH WUDQVIRUP
UROXO

GH D UHGXFH vQ

SULQ WRSLUH vQ ID]

PDVD FHUDPLF

OLFKLG  DYkQG WRWRGDW

WHPSHUDWXUD QHFHVDU

DSDUL LHL ID]HL

topite. 3ULQFLSDOLL IRQGDQ L VXQW IHOGVSD Li (DOXPLQRVLOLFD L GH VRGLX de


potasiu sau de calciu), FDUH VXQW IRORVL L OD IDEULFDUHD PDVHORU FHUDPLFH ILQH,
FHQXD GH RDVH GRORPLWD (FDUERQDW QDWXUDO GH FDOFLX L PDJQH]LX L
calcarul.
CRPSXLL UHIUDFWDUL, FDUH UH]LVW OD WHPSHUDWXUL GH SHVWH & DX
UROXO GH D GHJUHVD PDVD FHUDPLF
FHOHODOWH

PDWHULL

PHFDQLF  OD X]XU

SULPH
L ID

OD

vQDLQWH GH DUGHUH GH D SDUWLFLSD DO WXUL GH

IRUPDUHD

GH DJHQ L

FLREXOXL

GH

P UL

UH]LVWHQ HOH

i corozivi ai produselor ceramice. Printre

DFHWLD VH QXP U  QLVLSXULOH FXDU RDVH FXDU XO DOXPLQD L DPRWD

Din categoria materiilor prime auxiliare fac parte:


- SODVWLILDQ LL: EHQWRQLWH JXP DUDELF  SDUDILQ  GH[WULQ  DOFRRO
polivinilic etc., care au UROXO GH D P UL UH]LVWHQ D PHFDQLF D SURGXVHORU
QHDUVH L de D vPEXQ W L SURSULHW
LOH GH prelucrare a pastelor ceramice;
- OXEULILDQ LL: PRWRULQD SHWUROXO ODPSDQW ROHLQD VWHDUD L GH EDULX
magneziu, aluminiu, zinc etc., FX URO GH vPEXQ W LUH D IDVRQ ULi maselor
ceramice prin presare;
- IOXLGL]DQ LL: FDUERQDW L VLOLFDW GH VRGLX OLJQLQ  DFLG WDQLF, cu rol
9
GH VWDELOL]DUH D EDUERWLQHORU FHUDPLFH FX XQ FRQ LQXW UHGXV GH DS
.
MDWHULL SULPH SHQWUX UHDOL]DUHD JOD]XULORU L a decorurilor
&KLDU GDF

produsele ceramice nu au IRVW HPDLODWH vQ DGHY UDWXO


GH OD nceputuri, WRWXL vQF
GLQ FHOH PDL YHFKL
timpuri, ele au fost acoperite cu o serie de glazuri naturale, cum ar fi:
glazura de DUJLO OLFKHILDW XQ DPHVWHF ILOWUDW GH DUJLO L DS  QXPLW
DQJRE ), glazura de FHQX L JOD]XUD GH YDSRUL GH VDUH
FXYkQWXOXL

V # (7
Ch &1 ) X r( )A1 !q pX b41hh67 6f VX bd%EF0$A@ c
p V i a
V i g ) e a @

DO

Merceologie

xGGV g1w"vu IG E )(D( B V V V d & 8


AhfF0ft& ' @ 0AH" H# Ps 3b6 ' %"

vQ HOHV

-123;

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

Q IXQF LH GH RSHUD LLOH FH LQWHUYLQ vQ WLPSXO SUHSDU ULL JOD]XULORU

acestea pot fi: glazuri crude, RE LQXWH SULQ VLPSOD P FLQDUH D FRPSRQHQ LORU
L glazuri fritate (frite).
Frita HVWH R PDV VWLFORDV FRQVWLWXLW din oxizi (n special de siliciu
L GH EDULX  OD FDUH R SDUWH GLQ FRPSRQHQ Li VROXELOL vQ DS
VH WRSHVF VDX
VLQWHUL]HD]
DS

FX R SDUWH GLQ VLOLFH IRUPkQG XQ DPHVWHF GH VLOLFD L LQVROXELOL vQ

GHVWLQDW

HPDLO ULL

UH]LVWHQ D PHFDQLF

SURGXVHORU

FHUDPLFH

SHQWUX

OH

vPEXQ W

L vQ VFRS GHFRUDWLY

La fabricarea emailului sunt necesare o serie de materii prime, care


VH vPSDUW vQ GRX

JUXSH SULQFLSDOH

YLWULILDQ L: oxizi de plumb, GH DOXPLQ  GH ERU, de fosfor, oxizi


alcaOLQL L DOFDOLQR-S PkQWRL
R[LGDQ L SHQWUX R[LGDUHD LPSXULW LORU , R[L]L SHQWUX DGHUHQ 
RSDFL]DQ L L FRORUDQ L.
Q IXQF LH GH FRPSR]L LH JOD]XULOH SRW IL

FRPXQ

glazuri plumbice, folosite pentru

DUWLFROHOH

GH

RO ULH

(FHUDPLF

);
glazuri alcalino-plumbo-FDOFDURDVH L JOD]XUL
;
JOD]XUL DOFDOLQH L DOFDOLQR-S PkQWRDVH SHQWUX

SOXPER

-borice,

SHQWUX SURGXVHOH GLQ IDLDQ

SURGXVHOH

GLQ

SRU HODQ L JUHVLH

Opacizarea glazurilor se poate face cu VXEVWDQ H VROLGH sau prin gaze.


2SDFL]DUHD FX VXEVWDQ H VROLGH sH ED]HD]
SH SUH]HQ D XQRU SDUWLFXOH FX
VWUXFWXU

FULVWDOLQ  ILQ GLVSHUVDWH FDSDELOH V

SURYRDFH RSDFL]DUHD HPDLOXOXL

iar opacizarea prin gaze presupune introducerea anumitor


DSURDSH vQWRWGHDXQD RUJDQLFH  FDUH vQ WLPSXO IL[ ULL SULQ DUGHUH D

VXEVWDQ H

emailului
VH GHVFRPSXQ VDX VH HYDSRU  GkQG QDWHUH XQRU FRPELQD LL JD]RDVH Drept
RSDFL]DQ L VH IRORVHVF R[LGXO GH WLWDQ GH DQWLPRQLX Ge fluor, de zirconiu,
de stibiu etc. Q IXQF LH GH FDQWLWDWHD GH RSDFL]DQ L IRORVLW  IULWHOH GH HPDLO
pot fi: transpDUHQWH VHPLRSDFH RSDFH L VXSHURSDFH
Colorarea emailurilor VH DVLJXU SULQ DG XJDUHD XQRU R[L]L DL
VDX VODE
PHWDOHORU JUHOH SLJPHQ L VDX V UXUL FRORUDWH, vQ IULWD WUDQVSDUHQW
RSDFL]DW  3HQWUX FRORUDUHD WUDQVSDUHQW
VH IRORVHVF R[L]L GH: cobalt, nichel,
FXSUX PDQJDQ L fier. Drept SLJPHQ L VH IRORVHVF XUP WRDUHOH FODVH tip
dispers, tip spinel, pH ED] GH FDGPLX SLJPHQ L JDOEHQL GH 1HDSROH SH ED]
de aur coloidal, tip Pink, de zirconiu etc.

Merceologie
3ULQFLSDOHOH FXORUL L QXDQ H GH HPDLOXUL SRW IL

o emailuri DOEDVWUH SH ED] GH R[L]L GH FREDOW


o HPDLOXUL YHU]L SH ED] GH R[L]L GH FURP
o HPDLOXUL JDOEHQH SH ED] GH VXOIXU GH FDGPLX
o HPDLOXUL SRUWRFDOLL SH ED] GH FRPSXL GH XUDQLX
o HPDLOXUL URX-GHVFKLV SH ED] GH SLJPHQW URX-coral;
o HPDLOXUL URX-brun, pe ED] GH R[L]L GH ILHU
o emailuri brun, brun-YLROHW YLROHW vQFKLV SH ED] GH R[L]L GH
mangan;
o HPDLOXUL QHJUH SH ED] GH R[L]L GH QLFKHO ILHU FURP FREDOW
FXSUX L PDQJDQ DPHVWHFD L L FDOFLQD L

HPDLOXUL FHQXLL SULQ LQWURGXFHUHD vQ HPDLOXUL DOEH D SLJPHQ LORU

negri;
o emailuri tip majolica
DSOLFDW

WRSLWXU

GH VWLFO

FRORUDW

SH XQ VWUDW VXE LUH GH HPDLO DOE

L WUDQVSDUHQW 

FX XQ FRQ LQXW IRDUWH

ridicat de plumb10.
3LJPHQ LL VXQW IRORVL L GUHSW PDWHULL SULPH L vQ UHDOL]DUHD GHFRUXULORU

produselor ceramice.
Decorarea se poate face VXE JOD]XU sau SHVWH
FDUH

SLJPHQ LL

IRORVL L

WUHEXLH

DLE

IRORVL L SHQWUX GHFRUDUHD SHVWH JOD]XU


VH GHVFRPSXQ

DQXPLWH

WUHEXLH V

GH

S WUXQG

vQ WLPSXO DUGHULL S VWUkQGX L WRWRGDW

LDU FHL IRORVL L OD GHFRUDUHD VXE JOD]XU


ULGLFDW

JOD]XU

DUGHUH

culoarea. 3H OkQJ

JOD]XULL

I U

WUHEXLH V

VH

 vQ IXQF LH GH

FDUDFWHULVWLFL

3LJPHQ LL

vQ JOD]XU

L V

QX

LQWHQVLWDWHD FXORULL

UH]LVWH OD WHPSHUDWXUD

GHVFRPSXQ

VDX

-L

PRGLILFH

SLJPHQ LL GH PDL VXV VH PDL SRW IRORVL DXUXO L SODWLQD vQ

VWDUH FRORLGDO 

 2E LQHUHD SURGXVHORU FHUDPLFH

3URFHVXO WHKQRORJLF GH RE LQHUH D SURGXVHORU FHUDPLFH HVWH DOF WXLW


GLQ XUP WRDUHOH HWDSH

1.

3UHJ

, reprezentate schematic n figura nr. 2:


WLUHD
PDVHL
FHUDPLFH
Structura argiOHORU

SDUWLFXOHORU SUH]LQW

P ULPHD

SHQWUX YLLWRUXO SURGXV ILQLW 7RFPDL

Hapan R.

f0000d F A 0 F 0 fC0C y SA


i hdgffe y

y y y y
A F A3H F!h 0bF  y FF 0b0 A FUhFP F0APf 0 h UF  y  CA%  yFh0U0 A y

10

R PDUH LPSRUWDQ

116-168;

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

GH DFHHD DUJLOHOH VXQW OD vQFHSXW P FLQDWH SHQWUX DWLQJHUHD XQHL P ULPL

optime a particulelor (de la 1

P SkQ

OD  PP 

5HFHS LD PDWHULLORU SULPH L DX[LOLDUH

'R]DUHD PDWHULLORU SULPH L DX[LOLDUH UHDOL]DUHD DPHVWHFXOXL


P

FLQDUHD L RPRJHQL]DUHD

)RUPDUHD SXOEHULORU FHUDPLFH L DG

XJ

area apei n vederea

RE LQHULL SDVWHORU FHUDPLFH L D EDUERWLQHL

)DVRQDUHD SURGXVHORU FHUDPLFH SULQ IDVRQDUH SODVWLF

 WXUQDUH

L SUHVDUH

Uscarea produselor ceramice fasonate

Arderea I a produselor ceramice fasonate

pr
Glazurarea produselor ceramice fasonate

Arderea a II-a a produselor ceramice glazurate

)LQLVDUHD SURGXVHORU GLQ FHUDPLF


prin: pictare, transfer de
decalcomanii , pulverizare, VHULJUDILH WDPSLODUH JUDvare etc.

Arderea a III-a a produselor ceramice finisate, pentru fixarea


decorului

Figura nr. 2 Principalele faze ale procesului tehnologic


GH RE LQHUH D RELHFWHORU GLQ FHUDPLF

QV

R DQXPLW

FDQWLWDWH GH SDUWLFXOH JURVLHUH DMXW

IRUPHL RELHFWXOXL GH FHUDPLF


GH DUJLO

ILQ

VFRLF  DUJLO

VH DGDXJ
DUV

OD PHQ LQHUHD

vQ WLPSXO DUGHULL L

, tocmai de aceea, n masa

GHVHRUL FRPSXL JURVLHUL FXP DU IL QLVLS QLVLS GH

SXOYHUL]DW

HWF

Merceologie

Pentru realizarea unor produse ceramice de calitate, deseori masele


FHUDPLFH QHFHVLW

L R SXULILFDUH SHQWUX vQGHS UWDUHD WXWXURU LPSXULW

LORU

XQD GLQWUH PHWRGH HVWH IRUPDUHD GH VROX LL L SUHFLSLWDUHD ORU 


$SRL VXQW DG XJD L FRQIRUP XQHL UH HWH VWULFWH IRQGDQ LL GHJUHVDQ LL
L FHOHODOWH PDWHULL SULPH DX[LOLDUH
8UPHD]

cantit

R RPRJHQL]DUH D DPHVWHFXOXL L DG XJDUHD XQHL DQXPLWH

L GH DS  vQ IXQF LH GH PHWRGD GH IDVRQDUH FH XUPHD]

SODVWLFLWDWHD

DUJLOHORU

SHUPL kQG

PRGHODUHD

ORU

SULQ

D IL DSOLFDW 

GLYHUVH

PHWRGH

1HUHVSHFWDUHD SURSRU LLORU GH PDWHULL SULPH FRQIRUP UH HWHORU GH IDEULFD LH


FRQGXFH OD DSDUL LD XQRU GHIHFWH FXP DU

fi: ILVXUL FU

WXUL

etc.

Q IXQF LH GH DGDRVXO GH DS  PDVHOH FHUDPLFH VH SRW SUH]HQWD VXE


IRUP


GH SDVW
DS

 FX XQ FRQ LQXW GH DS

L SXOEHUH FHUDPLF

XVFDW

GH 

 EDUERWLQ

 FX XQ FRQ LQXW GH

Deseori, pentru mascarea unor defecte datorate impXULW Li materiilor


prime folosite la fabricarea ciobului, VH SUDFWLF L FRORUDUHD SDVWHL FHUDPLFH
nglobndu-VH vQ PDV R[L]L PHWDOLFL VDX VXEVWDQ H FRORUDQWH SUHSDUDWH
VSHFLDO

&RORUDUHD VH SRDWH UHDOL]D

GH DVHPHQHD

metalice colorante (tincturi).


2. Fasonarea (modelarea) maselor ceramice

L FX

VROX LL

GH V UXUL

SHUPLWH RE LQHUHD XQRU

SURGXVH GH IRUPH L P ULPL GLIHULWH Q IXQF LH GH PRGXO GH SUH]HQWDUH D

masei ceramice, fasonarea poate fi:


SODVWLF , prin care pDVWD GH FHUDPLF
SRDWH IL PRGHODW
SULQ diverse
tehnici:
9 prin presare: SDVWD FHUDPLF
se QLYHOHD] DSODWLzea] L se
PRGHOHD] vQ IRUPD GRULW SULQ SUHVDUH vQWU-R PDWUL
GH SLDWU  DUJLO  lemn
sau ipsos). 3ULQ DFHDVW PHWRG VH RE LQ SLHVHOH FHUDPLFH DUKLWHFWXUDOH
cahlele pentru sobele de WHUDFRW L LJOHle;
9 SULQ U VXFLUH SDVWD FHUDPLF
VH UXOHD]
vQWUH PkLQL, formndu-se
VXOXUL OXQJL FDUH DSRL VXQW U VXFLWH VXE IRUP
9

care

GH LQHOH VXSUDSXVH

prin extrudere (tragere sau trefilare): este un proces continuu prin


HVWH IRU DW
V
WUHDF
SULQ QLWH ILOLHUH, FDUH SUH]LQW

SDVWD FHUDPLF

SURILOXO FRUHVSXQ] WRU SURGXVXOXL GRULW L DSRL HVWH W LDW


(VWH PHWRGD IRORVLW
L

OD OXQJLPLOH GRULWH

vQ FD]XO WXEXULORU GH GUHQDUH L FDQDOL]DUH D F U PL]LORU

LJOHORU
9

prin modelare

PDQXDO  RODUXO IRUPHD]

PDQXDO

VDX

strunjire DXWRPDW  Prin modelarea


un calup care este modelat pe

GLQ SDVWD FHUDPLF

roata olarului; OD VWUXQMLUHD DXWRPDW RELHFWHOH VXQW IDVRQDWH SH VWUXQJ


Roata olarului a fRVW LQYHQWDW vQ PLOHQLXO al IV-lea .Chr L FRQVW
ntr-un mecaQLVP UXGLPHQWDU DOF WXLW GLQWU-un disc orizontal fixat pe un
arbore rotitor PLFDUHD GH URWD LH D GLVFXOXL ILLQG LPSULPDW FX DMXWRUXO
picioarelor. Ambele mini ale olarului sunt libere, astfel nct cu una

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

M
PRGHOHD]

FDOXSXO

GH

H[WHULRU L FX FHDODOW

SDVW

FHUDPLF 

GLVSXV n centrul discului, prin


prin interior. n secolul al XX-lea, roata

vO PRGHOHD]

RODUXOXL D IRVW SUHY ]XW

FX XQ PRWRU HOHFWULF FX YLWH]H YDULDELOH IDSW FH D

SHUPLV RE LQHUHD XQRU IRUPH PDL UHJXODWH

Prin strunMLUHD

DXWRPDW

VDX

VHPLDXWRPDW

DF LRQkQG PHFDQLF DVXSUD FDOXSXOXL GH SDVW


vQ

PLFDUHD

GH

URWD LH

SULQ

LQWHUPHGLXO

SURGXVHOH

VH

RE LQ

FHUDPLF  DFHVWD ILLQG DQWUHQDW

XQHL

IRUPH

GH

LSVRV

Prin acest

SURFHGHX VH RE LQ IDUIXULL L FHWL GH GLIHULWH P ULPL L IRUPH


prin turnare PDVD FHUDPLF
VXE IRUP
GH EDUERWLQ
HVWH WXUQDW
vQ
forme din ipsos. $SD GLQ EDUERWLQ HVWH DEVRUELW GH F WUH LSVRV IRUPkQGXse astfel XQ VWDW SDU LDO GHVKLGUDWDW GH IRUPD L FRQWXUXO PDWUL HL Turnarea se
UHDOL]HD] DWkW PDQXDO FkW L VHPLDXWRPDW SHUPL kQG UHDlizarea unor obiecte
decorative GH IRUPH FRPSOLFDWH GDU L D RELHFWHORU GH X] FDVQLF
Q

IXQF LH

GH

IRUPD

GRULW

GH

JURVLPHD

SHUH LORU

RELHFWXOXL

ceramic, turnarea se poate efectua:


UVDUH GXS

9 SULQ Y
H[FHVXO

VH

vQGHS UWHD]

GHSXQHUHD VWUDWXOXL GH EDUERWLQ


U VWXUQDUH

prin

6H

RE LQ

SURGXVH

vQ PDWUL
FX

IRUPH

FRPSOLFDWH L SHUH L VXE LUL


9

prin umplere: turnarea are loc ntr-R

S U L H[FHVXO GH DS

Se folosHWH

PDWUL

DOF WXLW

GLQ GRX

ILLQG DVWIHO DEVRUELW GH DPEHOH S U L DOH IRUPHL GH LSVRV

SHQWUX UHDOL]DUHD XQRU SURGXVH FX IRUPH PDL VLPSOH L SHUH L

JURL
9

la cald, sub presiune: barbotina se iQMHFWHD]

forP

PHWDOLF

XQGH GDWRULW

UDSLG

VXE SUHVLXQH vQWU

-o

SHUH LORU UHFL DL DFHVWHLD DUH ORF R vQW ULUH

D PDVHL FHUDPLFH

prin presarea pulberilor ceramice: pulberile sunt puternic presate


, QHFHVDU DGHUHQ HL SDUWLFXOHORU
ntre ele. &HUDPLFD WUDGL LRQDO  FXP DU IL SRU HODQXO LJOD GDU L SURGXVHOH
ceramice tehnice, este realizat SULQ DFHDVW PHWRG din pulberi minerale de
arJLO  VLOLFH WDOF L IHOGVSDW 3UHVDUHD VH PDL SRDWH UHDOL]D L SULQ LQMHF LH
folosindu-VH XQ SLVWRQ FDUH IRU H] WUHFHUHD SXOEHULL FHUDPLFH SULQWU-un tub
vQ PDWUL H PHWDOLFH VXE R SUHVLXQH ULGLFDW

vQF O]LW F WUH R PDWUL

 3ULQ U FLUHD SXOEHULL RELHFWXO FDS W

IRUPD GRULW

HVWH H[WUDV SULQ GHVIDFHUHD PDWUL HL


7RW R PHWRG
SXOEHUHD FHUDPLF

GH IDVRQDUH D SXOEHULORU FHUDPLFH HVWH L FHD vQ FDUH

HVWH LQWURGXV

L DSRL PDWUL D HVWH XPSOXW

vQWU R PDWUL

YD VFXUJH DWkW SULQ SXOEHUHD FHUDPLF

11

strat solid ceramic n interior .

11

GLQ LSVRV FX PDUH SRUR]LWDWH

FX DS  3ULQ FDSLODULWDWHD SHUH LORU SRURL DSD VH

X X X Enciclopaedia Britannica, 1994-2001;

ct

L SULQ PDWUL

 O VkQG vQ XUP

XQ

Merceologie

n urma IDVRQ ULL SURGXVHORU


printre care: JURVLPL QHXQLIRUPH
VXSUDID

FHUDPLFH SRW DS
DOH

SHUH LORU

rea o serie de defecte,


ului; fisuri pe

SURGXV

VDX OD PDUJLQH EDYXUL OD OLQLLOH GH vPELQDUH DOH IRUPHL JROXUL SH

VXSUDID D SURGXVXOXL GHIRUP

UL OD VFRDWHUHD GLQ IRUP

 ILVXUL L FU

WXUL

etc.
3. Uscarea produselor ceramice fasonate conduce la trecerea masei
ceramice din foUPD VD SODVWLF ntr-R IRUP ULJLG  GHYHQLQG DVWIHO PDL
UH]LVWHQWH 8VFDUHD VH UHDOL]HD]

GXS

XQ JUDILF GH WHPSHUDWXU

ELQH VWDELOLW

DVWIHO vQFkW FRQWUDF LD SURGXVHORU FHUDPLFH V


HWDS
VSUH

DUH ORF R FRQWUDF LH D SURGXV

VIkULW

HVWH

HOLPLQDW

ILH FkW PDL PLF  QWU-R SULP


ului prin eliminarea apei superficiale, iar

DSD

GLQ

FDSLODUH

FHUDPLFH VH DSURSLH vQWUH HOH L VH IRUPHD]


U PkQH FRQVWDQW (OLPLQDUHD SUHD EUXVF

ceramice conduce la

ILVXUDUHD VDX OD FU

DVWIHO

vQFkW

SDUWLFXOHOH

SRULL LDU YROXPXO SURGXVXOXL

D DSHL VDX VXSUD


SDUHD GLUHFW

-uscarea produselor

D SURGXVHORU DWkW vQ

WLPSXO XVF ULL GDU PDL DOHV vQ WLPSXO SULPHL DUGHUL

4. Decorarea produselor ceramice. Unele produse ceramice sunt


decorate prin diferite tehnici nainte de prima ardere, iar altele ulterior. Cnd
DUJLOD HVWH SDU LDO XVFDW  FRUSXO YDVXOXL VH SRDWH GHFRUD SULQ LQFL]DUH FX XQ

vrf metalic
DVHPHQHD

VXE LUH SULQ WDQ DUH VDX SULQ SUHVDUH FX GLYHUVH PRGHOH

VXSUDIH HOH

YDVHORU

SRW

IL

OXVWUXLWH

DVWIHO

vQFkW

De

GHYLQ

VWU OXFLWRDUH L QHWHGH


7RWRGDW  VH SRW DSOLFD

, pe obiectele crude sau pe biscuitul poros,

VROX LL GH V UXUL PHWDOLFH FRORUDWH FDUH GDWRULW

SRUR]LW

LL VH vPELE

vQ

SDVW  /D DUGHUH VDUHD VH GHVFRPSXQH L VH RE LQH R[LGXO FRORUDQW FDUH


UHDF LRQHD]

FX FRPSXLL PDVHL

Decorarea prin angobe se poate realiza, de asemenea, att pe


produsele crude ct L pe biscuit. Angobele sunt paste albe sau colorate care
VH DSOLF  SULQ LPHUVLH VDX SULQ WXUQDUH VXE IRUPD XQXL VWUDW VXSHUILFLDO GH
EDUERWLQ  $QJRED WUHEXLH V
ED]
L V

DLE

DFHHDL FRQWUDF LH FD PDVD FHUDPLF

SHQWUX D QX VH GHVSULQGH GH SH SURGXV  V


DLE

UHDOL]HD]

DUG

GH

OD DFHHDL WHPSHUDWXU

DFHODL FRHILFLHQW GH GLODWDUH FD FLREXO &XORDUHD DQJREHORU VH


FX R[L]L VDX FX FRORUDQ L VSHFLDOL

5. Arderea I a produselor ceramice fasonate (ardere de


densificare). Produsele ceramice primitive erau arse direct n foc, la
temperaturi cuprinse ntre 650-750C, primele cuptoare de ardere a
produselor ceramice DS UkQG DELD n mileniul al VI-lea d.Chr. Cuptoarele de
DUGHUH DX IRVW DOLPHQWDWH PDL vQWkL FX OHPQH DSRL FX F UEXQL L PDL WkU]LX FX
JD]H

cu electricitate, necesitnd un regim din ce n ce mai strict de


t.
n timpul arderii, cnd se de]YROW WHPSHUDWXUL GH SkQ OD 00C, au
loc o serie de reaF LL L de WUDQVIRUP UL VWUXFWXUDOH SLHUGHUHD XPLGLW LL
UHVSHFWDUH D WHPSHUDWXULORU SHQWUX RE LQHUHD HIHFWXOXL GRUL

M
U PDVH vQ XUPD XVF ULL DWkW GLQ DUJLO
GHVFRPSXQHUHD FDUERQD LORU

FkW L GLQ FHOHODOWH PDWHULL SULPH

VXOID LORU

12

FRQVWLWXHQ LORU FHUDPLFL FULVWDOLQL

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

VLQWHUL]DUH

Q DFHDVW

SULP

LQWHUQ

FRPSDFW

YLWULILHUH

DSDUL LD

DUGHUH DO F U

L H[W

ei scop
reP GH GXU  SURGXVHOH
SLHUG FFD 
GLQ GLPHQVLXQLOH ORU LQL LDOH Produsele ceramice rezultate
GXS SULPD DUGHUH SRDUW QXPHOH GH biscuit sau ciob.
HVWH GH D VH RE LQH R VWUXFWXU

3ULQ

FRQWURODUHD

R[LG ULL

IO F ULORU

DVLJXUDUHD

XQHL

YHQWLOD LL

DGHFYDWH vQ YHGHUHD SURGXFHULL XQRU IO F UL PDUL VDX UHGXFHUHD R[LJHQXOXL


SULQ REVWUXF LRQDUHD LQWU ULL DHUXOXL vQ FXSWRU VH SRW RE LQH HIHFWH YDULDWH

De exePSOX

R DUJLO

ERJDW
vQ ILHU YD F S WD SULQ R[LGDUHD IO F ULORU o
, iar prin reducerea acestora va deveni JUL VDX QHDJU 
Nerespectarea temperaturii sau a duratei de ardere a produselor

FRORUD LH URLDWLF
FHUDPLFH

FRQGXFH

VXSUDDUGHUHD

FHHD

OD

DSDUL LD

FH

XUP WRDUHORU

FRQGXFH

OD

GHIHFWH

FUHWHUHD

ILVXU

SRUR]LW

UL

LL

VSDUJHUL

VXEDUGHUHD

WLUELWXUL DOH PDUJLQLORU HWF

6. Emailarea (glazurarea) produselor ceramice. Emailul se poate


aplica att pe produsele nearse ct L SH FHOH FDUH DX VXIHULW R SULP Drdere,
avnd nX QXPDL XQ URO HVWHWLF FL L XQXO IXQF LRQDO GH UHGXFHUH D SRUR]LW LL
conferindu-L WRWRGDW SURGXVXOXL FHUDPLF LPSHUPHDELOLWDWH OD DS L JD]H
Q IXQF LH GH QDWXUD PDVHL FHUDPLFH D RELHFWXOXL HPDLODW JOD]XULOH
SRW IL GH RO ULH GH IDLDQ

 GH JUHVLH GH SRU HODQ HWF

De asemenea, ele pot fi transparente (masele ceramice colorate se


DFRSHU
OD VXSUDID
vQWRWGHDXQD FX R JOD]XU
WUDQVSDUHQW L RSDFH (prin
introducerea n email a unui opacizant), lucioase sau mate (prin cristalizarea
fin D XQXL FRPSRQHQW vQ H[FHV VDX SULQ DUGHUHD OD WHPSHUDWXUL LQIHULRDUH
LQFRORUH DOEH L FRORUDWH FX GLIHUL L SLJPHQ L L Jlazuri artistice sau de
efect.
*OD]XULOH

FRORUDWH

VH

DSOLF

RELHFWHORU VDQLWDUH L SURGXVHOR


*OD]XULOH

SH

ED]

GH

WUDQVSDUHQWH JOD]XULOH SH ED]

SURGXVHORU

GH

X]

FDVQLF

GLQ

IDLDQ

SOXPE

XWLOL]DWH

vQF

GLQ

DQWLFKLWDWH

GH VWDQLX VXQW RSDFH L DOEH L IRUPHD]

VXQW
ED]D

GH RE LQHUH D DOWRU HPDLOXUL


VH

(lustre, tip PDMROLF etc.).


n unele tipuri de emailuri (angobe) aplicate pe produsele ceramice,
WUDVHD]
FX XQ YvUI metalic (se zgrie emailul) anumite modele care apar

DVWIHO SH PDVD FHUDPLF

EUXW 

QHFRORUDW

L QHJOD]XUDW  WHKQLF

QXPLW

sgraffito.

12

r ceramice arhitecturale.

Rhodes D. Stoneware and Porcelain, The Art of High-Fired Pottery, Pitman Publishing, Great Britain,
1978, pag. 62-73;

Merceologie
Q FDWHJRULD JOD]XULORU DUWLVWLFH VH LQFOXG XUP WRDUHOH
glazuri aventurin FDUH FRQ LQ XQ H[FHV GH Rxid de fier sau de crom
, prin ardere, vQ FRQGL LL VSHFLDOH FRQGXFe OD DSDUL LD XQRU FULVWDOH

L FDUH

VWU OXFLWRDUH vQ IRUP

GH IOXWXUL PHWDOLFL
VH RE LQ

glazuri strnse:

prin introducerea unui anumit oxid, care

FRQGXFH OD FUHWHUHD WHQVLXQLL VXSHUILFLDOH D HPDLOXOXL /D DUGHUH JOD]XUD VH


DGXQ

VXE IRUP

GH SLF WXUL FDUH DOWHUQHD]

FX ]RQH QHJOD]XUDWH PDWH

glazuri cracle (fisurate): VH UHDOL]HD] SH ED]D GLIHUHQ HL GLQWUH


coeficientul de dilatare aO JOD]XULL L FHO DO FLREXOXL prin introducerea unui

H[FHV GH DOFDOLL vQ JOD]XU  (IHFWXO FRQVW


JOD]XUDW

vQ IRUPDUHD DUWLILFLDO

SH SURGXVXO

D XQHL UH HOH ILQH GH ILVXUL FDUH VH XPSOX XOWHULRU FX FRORUDQ L

coUHVSXQ] WRUL XUPDW GH R DOW DUGHUH;


glazuri metalizate: DX OD ED]
un oxid metalic n exces, care se
reduce SULQ DUGHUH SkQ OD PHWDOXO UHVSHFWLY SH VXSUDID D SURGXVXOXL
DS UkQG XQ HIHFW GH RJOLQG

PHWDOL]DW 

au OD ED] XQ H[FHV GH R[LG


FLULL produselor ceramice emailate

JOD]XUL FULVWDOL]DWH IORUL GH JKHD


GH ]LQF L ELR[LG GH WLWDQ FDUH vQ WLPSXO U
SUH]LQW

R WHQGLQ

13

GH FULVWDOL]DUH

;
emailuri cu pete: SH VXSUDID D XVFDW D XQXL HPDLO DOE VDX FRORUDW
QHDUV VH DSOLF
un HPDLO ILQ GH R DOW FXORarH LDU GXS R QRX XVFDUH
produsul se arde din nou etc.
Emailarea produselor ceramice se face aplicnd diferite metode,
printre care: pulverizare (n special pentru glazuri multicolore); imersare a
RELHFWXOXL vQ EDUERWLQD GH HPDLO L, mai rar, pensulare.
7. Arderea produselor ceramice emailate (arderea a II-a) se
UHDOL]HD]
OD WHPSHUDWXUL PDL VF ]XWH GHFkW FHOH de la SULPD DUGHUH L DUH FD

VFRS DGHUDUHD HPDLOXOXL OD ELVFXLW L IRUPDUHD XQXL VWUDW QHWHG XQLIRUP L


OXFLRV GH JOD]XU 
1HUHVSHFWDUHD UH HWHL GH IDEULFD LH D HPDLOXOXL L

a regimului termic

FRUHVSXQ] WRU GLQ WLPSXO DUGHULL FRQGXF OD DSDUL LD XUP WRDUHORU GHIHFWH
QHXQLIRUPLWDWHD JURVLPLL VWUDWXOXL GH HPDLO E

LFL pori; fisuri; exfolieri de


email; email prea ars; email neaderent; puncte negre n email (datorate
LPSXULW

LORU GLQ PDWHULLOH SULPH  HPDLO RQGXODW GDWRUDW QHUHJXODULW

VXSUDIH HL FLREXOXL DSOLF


SRUWRFDO

ULL QHRPRJHQH D VWUDWXOXL GH HPDLO HWF  FRDM

DUGHUHD D IRVW UHDOL]DW

LL
GH

OD WHPSHUDWXUL SUHD ULGLFDWH VWUDWXO GH

email a IRVW SUHD VXE LUH VDX PDWHULLOH SULPH DX IRVW LPSXULILFDWH FX R[L]L GH
fier) etc.
8. Decorarea produselor ceramice se poate face peste sau sub
JOD]XU  DYkQG XQ URO HVWHWLF VDX GH DFRSHULUH D XQRU PLFL GHIHFWH

Merceologie, Lito A.S.E.,

e sei hdrq fe
tfF00ft y F 0Hp

i o
HhA l r A l r4hh  il Uk9F0A j
n i n i h m

13

-133;

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

M
'HFRUXULOH DSOLFDWH VXE JOD]XU

VXQW PDL UH]LVWHQWH OD DF LXQHD DSHL D

fDFWRULORU PHFDQLFL L FKLPLFL LDU YDORDUHD esteWLF OH HVWH SXV vQ HYLGHQ


de luciul glazurii. 6H DSOLF vQ VSHFLDO OD DUWLFROHOH GLQ SRU HODQ GHFRUDWLYH
Q FD]XO DSOLF ULL GHFRUXULORU SHVWH JOD]XU  pentru fixarea acestora
HVWH QHFHVDU
R QRX
DUGHUH, la temperaturi mai VF ]XWH, n cuptoare
DFRSHULWH FX IODF U
LQGLUHFW . $FHVWH GHFRUXUL SUH]LQW
XQ OXFLX PDL VODE L
VH GHVFRPSXQ vQ WLPS VXE DF LXQHD VROX LLORU DOFDOLQH L DFLGH
3LJPHQ LL
QHROLWLF

OD

FHUDPLFL

GHFRUDUHD

R[L]L

FHUDPLFLL

PHWDOLFL 

FDUH

QHJOD]XUDWH

VXQW

VXQW

IRORVL L

XWLOL]D L

vQF

DWkW

GLQ

SHQWUX

FRORUDUHD SDVWHORU FHUDPLFH VDX D EDUERWLQHL DQWHULRU PRGHO ULL ORU SHQWUX
FRORUDUHD

JOD]XULORU

FkW

SHQWUX

GHFRUDUHD

SULQ

SLFWDUH

RELHFWHORU

ceramice glazurate sau neglazurate.


3LJPHQ LL FHUDPLFL IRORVL L OD GHFRUDUHD SURGXVHORU FHUDPLFH WUHEXLH
V

SRVHGH DQXPLWH FDUDFWHULVWLFL SULQWUH FDUH


9 V

UH]LVWH OD WHPSHUDWXULOH QHFHVDUH DUGHULL SHQWUX IL[DUH I U

D VH

GHFRPSXQH L D L DOWHUD FXORDUHD

9 V
DLE
XQ coeficient de dilatare compatibil cu cel al suportului
ceramic pentru a nu se exfolia;
9 V

QX ILH WR[LFL

9 V

UH]LVWH OD DF LXQHD DFL]LORU L D ED]HORU FX FDUH SRW YHQL vQ

FRQWDFW SH SDUFXUVXO XWLOL] ULL


9 V

VH DSOLFH FX XXULQ

SULQ

diversele procedee de decorare etc.

8QHOH GLQWUH FHOH PDL XWLOL]DWH PHWRGH GH GHFRUDUH VXQW XUP WRDUHOH

- pictareD PDQXDO
ULGLFDW

L R vQDOW

FX HPDLOXUL

DUW  6H SRW

ERUGXUL HWF 1X HVWH IRORVLW

artistice

QHFHVLW

un consum de timp

H[HFXWD GLYHUVH GHVHQH DUWLVWLFH

vQ SURGXF LD GH VHULH GDWRULW

FKHQDUH

SURGXFWLYLW

LL

VF ]XWH

, FL OD IDEULFDUHD XQLFDWHORU L a SURGXVHORU GH VHULH PLF 


- lustrele VXQW V UXUL DOH DFL]LORU UH]LQLFL FX GLIHULWH PHWDOH FD DXU
DUJLQW SODWLQ  FXSUX ILHU FURP ELVPXW GL]ROYDWH vQ XOHLXUL Hterice. Acestea
VH

DSOLF

SH

SURGXVHOH

JOD]XUDWH

FDUH

& 3H VXSUDID D JOD]XULL VH IRUPHD]

DSRL

VXQW

R SHOLFXO

DUVH

OD

FXORULOH FXUFXEHXOXL GDWRUDWH LQWHUIHUHQ HL UD]HORU GH OXPLQ

GH

UHIOHFWDWH

WDPSLODUHD SHUPLWH DSOLFDUHD GHVHQXOXL FX DMXWRUXO XQRU WDPSLOH

FOLHH GH FDXFLXF FDUH VH DFRSHU


JURDV

WHPSHUDWXUL

IRDUWH ILQ  FX LUL]D LL vQ

GH

VLWRJUDILHUH

'XS

ILH FX

un email colorat, fie cu o vopsea

vQO WXUDUHD

WDPSLOHL

SURGXV

UROH $FHDVW

U PkQH

SHUPLWH L RE LQHUHD XQRU GHVHQH SROLFURPH

PHWRG

tampila

SRDWH IL SODQ  FRQYH[

SH

amprenta desenului.

VDX VXE IRUP

GH

VH DSOLF
SH SURGXV XQ DEORQ L, cu ajutorul unui
pe locurile neacoperite un HPDLO IRDUWH ILQ P FLQDW
6H SRW RE LQH GHVHQH vQ PDL PXOte culori, iaU SULQ SXOYHUL]DUHD I U DEORQ se

- pulverizarea:

pistol,

VH SXOYHUL]HD]

SRW RE LQH HIHFWH GH GHJUDGH

Merceologie

- aplicarea de decalcomanii HVWH ODUJ U VSkQGLW PDL DOHV SHQWUX


produsele de uz casnic. Permite o decorare cu desene complicate, policrome.
3URFHGHXO FRQVW
vQ WUHFHUHD LPDJLQLOor imprimate, de pe hrtie pe produs,
SULQ WUDQVIHU XUPDW

GH R QRX

DUGHUH

- imprimarea prin transfer


FRQVW

D IRVW LQYHQWDW

vQ DFRSHULUHD FX R FXORDUH FHUDPLF

XUPDW

vQ MXUXO DQXOXL  L

D XQHL SO FL GH FXSUX JUDYDWH

GH FRSLHUHD SH KvUWLH D PRGHOXOXL GH SH SODF  $SRL DFHDVW

SUHVDW

RELFHL

vQ

SH

VWDPS

a
YDVXOXL moment n care modelul, de obicei
monocrom, este transferat de pe hrtie pe produsul ceramic. Transferul, de
HVWH

VXSU ID D

QHJUX

DOEDVWUX

VDX

URX

SRDWH

IL

UHDOL]DW

vQDLQWH

VDX

GXS

glD]XUDUH LDU GHFRUXO RE LQXW VHDP Q FX R JUDYXU  8QHRUL VH LPSULP GRDU


borduri care ulterior VXQW SLFWDWH PDQXDO Q  DX DS UXW L SULPHOH
stampe multicolore;
- gravarea (iQFUXVWD LL GH DXU XWLOL]HD] SURSULHWDWHD DFLGXOXL
fluorhidric de a intra n UHDF LH FX ELR[LGXO GH VLOLFLX GLQ JOD]XUL FX IRUPDUH
de fluoruri gazoase, care SULQ HYDSRUDUH SURGXF GHQLYHO UL SH JOD]XU  Q
DFHVWH GHQLYHO UL VXE GLYHUVH IRUPH (medalioane, benzi etc.) VH GHSXQH DXU L
apoi produsele se ard;
- sitografierea (serigrafia) SRDWH IL XWLOL]DW DWkW SHQWUX RE LQHUHD
XQXL

GHFRU

PRQRFURPDWLF

FkW

XQXLD

SROLFURP

XWLOL]DUHD XQXL FDGUX SH FDUH VH vQWLQGH R SkQ]


VDX P WDVH L

care

SUH]LQW

REWXUDWH

OLEHU XQ VSD LX FRUHVSXQ] WRU IRUPHL


HIHFW VH UHDOL]HD]
PHWDOLF 

3URFHGHXO

IRDUWH GHDV

OD

XWLOL]kQG XQ DEORQ GH KkUWLH PDV


WUHFHUHD

XQHL

vQ

GH Q\ORQ PHWDO

cu un liant anumite zone, O VkQGX-se


care se doreWH D IL FRORUDW  $FHODL
SODVWLF

Caseta se umple FX XQ HPDLO DUWLVWLF YRSVHD FHUDPLF

VLWRJUDILHUH

FRQVW

UDFOHWH

HVWH

LPSULPDW

VDX IRL

VDX SDVW
SH

GH

VXSUDID D

produsului, vQ FXORDUHD UHVSHFWLY  ]RQD OLEHU GLQ DEORQ $SRL VH VFKLPE


culoarea, folosindu-se L XQ QRX DEORQ VDX VLW FH SUH]LQW R DOW VXSUDID
QHREWXUDW ;
- PHWRGD IRWRJUDILF FRQVW vQ DSOLFDUHD SH VXSUDID D FH XUPHD] D IL
GHFRUDW
SURGXVH GLQ IDLDQ
L SRU HODQ YD]H SODWRXUL HWF a unui strat
IRWRVHQVLELO SH FDUH VH RE LQH, prin diferite metode, reproducerea unor
fotografii (portrete de scriitori, muzicieni, peisaje etc.) cu culori vitrificabile,
fixate apoi prin ardere etc.
'DF
PHWRGHOH L PDWHULDOHOH GH GHFRUDUH VXQW DWkW GH YDULDWH, L
motivele de decorare sunt foarte numeroase:
9 OLQLL VDX EHQ]L GH GLIHULWH O

anumite zone ale vasului (spre bord,

LPL VLQJXODUH VDX JUXSDWH GLVSXVH vQ


PLMORF VDX ED]

, n diferite culori sau

vQ DXU DUJLQW VDX SODWLQ 


9 motive geometrice, florale, fructe, cercuri etc., realizate prin
sitografiere;

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

9 buchete de flori, peisaje, motive zoomorfe, decoruri pentru copii


bogat colorate, prin folosirea decalcomanLLORU VDX SULQ SLFWXU PDQXDO 
9 decoruri gen luster realizate prin pulverizare, la care, DO WXUL GH
emailuri divers colorate, SRW IL IRORVLWH L SDVWH FHUDPLFH SH ED] GH V UXUL GH
DXU VH SRW RE LQH GH DVHPHQHD GHJUDGHXUL vQ GLYHUVH FXORUL L QXDQ H
9
SHUPLW

piFWXUD

PDQXDO  FD L PHWRGD SULQ WUDQVIHU VDX FHD IRWRJUDILF 

UHDOL]DUHD XQRU GHFRUXUL JHQ

SHLVDMH

SUHFXP

L UHSURGXFHUL GXS

GLIHULWH RSHUH GH DUW 

Una dintre caracteristicile produselor ceramice este marcarea. Marca


SULn pictare, gravDUH WDPSLODUH VDX VLWRJUDILHUH L D vQFHSXW V
VH
practice, ncepnd din secolul al XV-OHD vQ &KLQD L GLQ VHFROXl al XVIII-lea
n Europa, pentru identificarea obiectelor, conferindu-le acestora
VH DSOLF

DXWHQWLFLWDWH L SHQWUX D OH SURWHMD GH IDOVLILFDUH

La fel FD L FHOHODOWH ID]H DOH SURFHVXOXL WHKQRORJLF L GHFRUDUHD


poate genera o serie de defecte, printre care: desprinderea pastei decorului;
HPDLO DSOLFDW vQ VWUDW SUHD VXE LUH VDX SUHD JURV VXOIXUL SRUL E

LFL ILVXUL

pe decor; decor incomplet; decor incorect conturat; stropi, pete de


FRORUDQW LPSULPDUH QHXQLIRUP

 DVLPHWULF

 GHFRU VXSUDDUV VDX QHDGHUHQW

etc.

2.4 3URSULHW

LOH PDVHORU FHUDPLFH

0DVHOH FHUDPLFH SRVHG


VWLFO

R VHULH GH SURSULHW

VDX GH PDVHOH SODVWLFH L FDUH GLIHU

PDWHULLORU

SULPH

DX[LOLDUH

IRORVLWH

L FDUH OH GHRVHEHVF GH

vQ IXQF LH GH WLSXO L GH FDQWLWDWHD

SURSULHW

FDUH

VXQW

GHWHUPLQDQWH

pentru folosirea lor n diferite domenii.


3URSULHW
Lle chimice. Masele ceramice sunt mai rezistente la
coroziune dect metalele. n generaO QX UHDF LRQHD] FX FHOH PDL PXOWH
GLQWUH OLFKLGH JD]H DOFDOLL L DFL]L U PkQkQG VWDELOH SHQWUX R PDUH SHULRDG

de timp.
3URSULHW
LOH PHFDQLFH Masele ceramice sunt materiale foarte
rezistente, cu o EXQ WHQDFLWDWH L UH]LVWHQ H PHFDQLFH OD FRPSUHVLH L
ncovoiere ridicate. Una dintre cele mai rezistente mase ceramice, dioxidul
GH ]LUFRQLX SUH]LQW
R UH]LVWHQ
OD vQFRYRLHUH VLPLODU FX FHD D R HOXOXL Cu
toate acestea, masele ceramice sunt destul de fragile, putndu-se sparge prin
F GHUH OLEHU VDX SULQ RFXUL WHUPLFH.
3URSULHW
Lle fizice. Cele mai multe dintre masele ceramice sunt
FRPSXVH GLQ DPHVWHFXUL FXSULQ]kQG R[LJHQ FDUERQ D]RW PHWDOH XRDUH VDX
VHPLPHWDOH 'H DFHHD PDVHOH FHUDPLFH VXQW PDL SX LQ GHQVH GHFkW marea
majoritate a metalelor, dar aproape tot att de rezistente ca acestea. De

Merceologie
DVHPHQHD

PDVHOH

DEUD]LXQH L

FHUDPLFH

OD X]XU 

SUH]LQW

IDSW FH GHWHUPLQ

PDUH

GXULWDWH

ILLQG

UH]LVWHQWH

OD

IRORVLUHD ORU

la fabricarea unor
materiale dure L UH]LVWHQWH (o serie de scule acoperite cu aOXPLQ  JKLGDMH
DOH ILUHORU vQ LQGXVWULD WH[WLO HWF .
3URSULHW
Lle termice. Cele mai multe dintre masele ceramice au un
punct de topire ridicat, astfel nct ele sunt rezistente la temperaturi mari,
I U D VXIHUL GHIRUP UL (fapt ce permite utilizarea lRU vQ GRPHQLL FH QHFHVLW
temperaturi ridicate - IDEULFDUHD URWRDUHORU GH WXUELQH  vQV QX UH]LVW OD
RFXUL WHUPLFH DPSOH L IUHFYHQWH FDUH OH SURYRDF

VSDUJHUHD

le electrice. Q IXQF LH GH FRPSR]L LD ORU FKLPLF L GH


WHPSHUDWXU , materialeOH FHUDPLFH SUH]LQW
R JDP
ODUJ
GH SURSULHW L
HOHFWULFH L, tocmai de aceea, ele vor fi folosite ca izolatori (ceramicele pe
ED]
GH WULR[LG GH DOXPLQLX VXQW EXQH L]RODWRDUH, neconducnd deloc
curenWXO HOHFWULF L GH DFHHD VXQW IRORVLWH FD L]RODWRUL OD OLQLLOH GH vQDOW
tensiune, LDU SO FX HOH GH R[LG GH DOXPLQLX, FDUH U PkQ FKLPLF L HOHFWULF
stabile, VXQW XWLOL]DWH OD VXV LQHUHD PLFURFLSXULORU , semiconductori sau
conductori electrici. 'H H[HPSOX SRU HODQXO HVWH L]RODWRU HOHFWULF OD
temperaturi joase, SH FkQG OD WHPSHUDWXUL ULGLFDWH HVWH EXQ FRQGXF WRU GH
electricitate.
3URSULHW

3URSULHW

LOH HOHFWULFH DOH XQHL UHFHQW

GHVFRSHULWH IDPLOLL GH

PDVH

FHUDPLFH ED]DW

SH XQ DPHVWHF GH R[LG GH FXSUX DX FUHDW SRVLELOLWDWHD ca


masele ceramice V fie ncadrate n categoria materialelor superconductibile
(care conduc electricLWDWHD I U QLFL R UH]LVWHQ 
3URSULHW
Lle magnetice. 0DVHOH FHUDPLFH SH ED]
GH R[L]L GH ILHU
(Fe2O3) QXPLWH L IHULWH, DX SURSULHW L PDJQHWLFH VLPLODUH FX cele
magQH LORU GH ILHU QLFKHO L FREDOW 0DJQH LL FHUDPLFL IRORVL L OD IDEULFDUHD
PRWRDUHORU HOHFWULFH L D FLUFXLWHORU HOHFWURQLFH SRW IL IDEULFD L FX R vQDOW
UH]LVWHQ

OD

GHPDJQHWL]DUH

De asemenea, feritele sunt folosite


14
.

la

IDEULFDUHD DSDUDWHORU UDGLR YLGHR L FX PLFURXQGH

2.5 TLSXUL GH SURGXVH FHUDPLFH FRPXQH L GH DUW


&ODVLILFDUHD

SURGXVHORU

FHUDPLFH

VH

SRDWH

IDFH

GXS

PDL

PXOWH

criterii.
8QD GLQWUH FODVLILF UL

LQH FRQW GH P ULPHD SDUWLFXOHORU PDVHORU

ceramice FDUH GHWHUPLQ WH[WXUD FLREXOXL  vQ IXQF LH GH FDUH H[LVW 


produse ceramice brute, FDUH SUH]LQW
particule cu diametrul de
maxim 5 mm. Aceste produse, fabricate din argile comune sau refractare,
14

Ceramics-Enciclopaedia Encarta 2000;

M
VLOLFH VDX DO L VLOLFD L DX R WH[WXU

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

JURVLHU  ]JUXQ XURDV  LDU GXS

FXORUL GLIHULWH vQ IXQF LH GH FRQ LQXWXO GH LPSXULW

SUH]LQW

DUGHUH

L vQ VSHFLDO

de

R[L]L GH ILHU 3URGXVHOH VXQW PDVLYH vQ JHQHUDO QHJOD]XUDWH L VH IRORVHVF FD


PDWHULDOH GH FRQVWUXF LL SHQWUX ]LG ULH L vQYHOLORUL F U PL]L
HWF  FD PDWHULDOH UHIUDFWDUH SHQWUX FXSWRDUH L LQVWDOD LL

LJOH RODQH

tehnice industriale

etc;

produse ceramice semifine, cu diametrul particulelor de maxim


D FLREXOXL VHPLILQ : SURGXVHOH GH RO ULH FRPXQ  GH

L FX R WH[WXU

1,5 mm

JUHVLH VHPLILQ

HWF

produse ceramice fine, la care diametrul particulelor este de maxim


0,06 mm L FDUH SUH]LQW R WH[WXU ILQ D FLREXOXL PDMROLF  VHPLSRU HODQ
JUHVLLOH ILQH L SRU HODQXO
'XS

FRPSDFWLWDWHD SH FDUH R SUH]LQW

FHUDPLFH VH FODVLILF
FHUDPLF

vQ XUPD DUGHULL SURGXVHOH

vQ

SRURDV

RO ULD

FRPXQ 

IDLDQ D

HWF

$FHVWH

SURGXVH

prH]LQW SRUL GHVFKLL IDSW SHQWUX FDUH DEVRUE DSD vQWU-R SURSRU LH PDL PDUH
de 6%. La rndul lor, acestea pot fi: cu ciob poros, colorat (produsele din
PDMROLF  FDKOHOH SHQWUX VREHOH GH WHUDFRW
HWF  FDUH DEVRUE DSD vQWU-o
SURSRU LH GH 
L cu ciob poros, alb IDLDQ HOH  FDUH VXQW SHUPHDELOH OD
lichide (absorb apa ntr-R SURSRU LH GH - L JD]H;
FHUDPLF
VHPLYLWULILDW
sau FOLQFKHUL]DW , care poate fi: cu ciob
semivitrifiat alb VHPLSRU HODQXO VDX colorat. Porii acestor produse sunt
SDU LDO vQFKLL IDSW SHQWUX FDUH DEVRUE LD GH DS HVWH FXSULQV vQWUH -6%. n
DFHDVW

FDWHJRULH VH vQFDGUHD]

VHPLSRU HODQXO FHUDPLFD EUXW

L VHPLILQ 

gresia;
FHUDPLFD YLWULILDW
L

(produse cu ciob vitrifiat): gresiile comune, fine


HVWH GH PD[LP 
, ca urmare a

SRU HODQXO OD FDUH DEVRUE LD GH DS

nchiderii porilor.
Q IXQF LH GH GHVWLQD LH SURGXVHOH FHUDPLFH VH FODVLILF
SURGXVH

GH

PHQDM

GHFRUDWLYH

GH

DUW

IDUIXULL

vQ
F QL

YD]H

platouri, articole de menaj termorezistente, GHFRUD LL SHQWUX FRQVWUXF LL,


bibelouri etc., fabricate din DUJLO FRPXQ  IDLDQ  VHPLSRU HODQ SRU HODQ,
sau din IDLDQ L SRU HODQ WHUPRUH]LVWHQWH;
SURGXVH FHUDPLFH VDQLWDUH L WHKQLFR-sanitare: obiecte sanitare
IDEULFDWH GLQ VHPLSRU HODQ SRU HODQ IDLDQ  JUHVLH VHPLILQ ;
proGXVH FHUDPLFH SHQWUX FRQVWUXF LL: placaje ceramice, tuburi,
LJOH F U PL]L FDKOH HWF fabricate din FHUDPLF
EUXW  JUHVLH IDLDQ
DUJLORDV , PDMROLF  mase silicoceramice etc.;
SURGXVH FHUDPLFH SHQWUX LQGXVWULD FKLPLF : YHVHO
de laborator:
capsule creuzete, mojare etc., GLYHUVH SLHVH SHQWUX DSDUDWXU FKLPLF 
robinete, discuri, dispozitive de pulverizare etc., fabricate din FHUDPLF ILQ

Merceologie
DQWLDFLG 

din SRU HODQ FKLPLF DQWLFRUR]LY FX VWDELOLWDWH WHUPLF L UH]LVWHQ


;
produse ceramicH SHQWUX LQGXVWULD HOHFWURWHKQLF : izolatori de
vQDOW L MRDV WHQVLXQH GLQ SRU HODQ L JUHVLH etc.;
produse ceramice refractare: SRU HODQ L F U PL]L UHIUDFWDUH SHQWUX
cuptoare, termoelemente, recipiente pentru calcinare etc.
produse
ceramice pentru aeroQDXWLF  unele mase ceramice
PHFDQLF

ULGLFDW

VSHFLDOH VXQW IRORVLWH OD IDEULFDUHD XQRU FRPSRQHQWH DOH YHKLFXOHORU VSD LDOH

etc.
Ceramica de lut

HVWH XQ PDWHULDO DVSUX L SRURV FDUH VH DUGH vQ

FXSWRDUH OD WHPSHUDWXUL UHODWLY VF ]XWH

aUJLO

(900-1200C  Q IXQF LH GH WLSXO GH


rea, n urma arderii, colorate n

IRORVLW  SURGXVHOH FHUDPLFH SRW DS

RFUX GHVFKLV URX PDURQ VDX QHJUX


'DWRULW

SRUR]LW

LL ORU FHOH PDL PXOWH GLQWUH SURGXVHOH FHUDPLFH

lut sunt glazurate, pentru a le conferi impermeabilitate OD DS


WLS GH JOD]XU

SHQWUX FHUDPLFD GH OXW HVWH FHO SH ED]

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de
vechi

GH VWDQLX OD FDUH VH

DG XJDX XQHRUL R[L]L GH DXU DUJLQW VDX FXSUX SHQWUX D VH FUHD XQ OXFLX
PHWDOLF QV

FHO PDL XWLOL]DW HUD HPDLOXO DOE-RSDF SH ED]


GH SOXPE L R[LG
de staniu, care confereD FHUDPLFLL FXORDUHD L DVSHFWXO XQXL SRU HODQ
3URGXVHOH GLQ IDLDQ
sunt produse ceramice poroase (8-12%),
SHUPHDELOH OD OLFKLGH L JD]H IDEULFDWH GLQ FDROLQXUL FXDU  DUJLO  FDOFDU
GRORPLW

feldspat, la temperaturi cuprinse ntre 850-1250C. Pre]LQW R


VDX J OEXLH L sunt acoperite cu glazuri lucioase sau mate,
transparente, opace sau semiopace, albe sau colorate. Ele sunt cunoscute sub
diferite denumiri: PDMROLF n Italia, Delft n Olanda, tip Delft vQ $QJOLD L
IDLDQ
vQ )UDQ D i Germania.
FXORDUH DOE

9DVHOH GH SLDWU
GHQV  IRDUWH UREXVW
vQF

FHUDPLFD GH SLDWU

L GXUDELO

UHSUH]LQW

R YDULHWDWH GXU 

D SURGXVHORU FHUDPLFH

. Realizate de chinezi

GLQ DQWLFKLWDWH vQ (XURSD HOH DX GHYHQLW FXQRVFXWH DELD GXS

5HQDWHULL

Acest tip

SXWHD IL PRGHODW

GH FHUDPLF

FX XXULQ

FDUH GHYHQHD LPSHUPHDELO

SkQ

VH UHDOL]HD]

GLQWU R DUJLO

LPSXULW

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FDUH

OD RE LQHUHD XQRU JURVLPL IRDUWH UHGXVH L

SULQ DUGHUH OD WHPSHUDWXUL FXSULQVH vQWUH  L

1280C.
Cele mai multe obiecte din ceramica dH
FDIHQLH GDWRULW

SHULRDGD

SLDWU

VXQW

GH

FXORDUH

LORU GH ILHU SUH]HQWH vQ DUJLO  Q JHQHUDO GHFRUDUHD

VH UHDOL]D FX RUQDPHQWH DSOLFDWH JUDYDWH VDX LQFL]DWH FX XQ YkUI VXE LUH Q

secolul al XV-OHD
ED]

FHUDPLFD GH SLDWU

vQFHSH V

VH

GH VDUH FDUH IRUPD XQ VWUDW VXE LUH GH JOD]XU

YDVXOXL &HOH PDL FXQVRFXWH P UFL GH FHUDPLF


(OHUV

ED]DOWXO

QHJUX

:HGJZRRG

%ULVWRO

acopere cu un email pe
, bine aderent la corpul

GH SLDWU
'RXOWRQ

VXQW 6WDIIRUGVKLUH
L

/HDFK

P UFL

ermania)15

HQJOH]HWL  SUHFXP L 0HWWODFK *


JHUPDQL

vQ

FHUDPLF

GH

HIRUWXO
SLDWU

ORU

GH

URLH

FUHD

QXPLW

SRU HODQ

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

Q MXUXO DQLORU  PHWHULL


DX

GHVFRSHULW

Jaspisporzellan

GDWRULW

YDULHWDWH

GH

DVHP Q ULL

FX

MDVSXO VHPLSUH LRV


3URGXVHOH GH JUHVLH ILQ

GLQ FDUH VH H[HFXW

ornamentale glazurate etc. sunt prodXVH

YDV

e de menaj, vase
sau

GH FXORDUH DOE  DOE FHQXLH

FRORUDWH LPSHUPHDELOH FRPSDFWH RSDFH L FX

bune

UH]LVWHQ H PHFDQLFH L

chimice.
3URGXVHOH

GLQ

VHPLSRU HODQ

caracteristici intermeGLDUH
alb-FHQXLL RE LQXWH GLQ

vQWUH IDLDQ
DFHOHDL

(mase ceramice semivitrifiate, cu


L SRU HODQ) sunt produse albe sau

PDWHULL

SULPH

FD

IDLDQ D

vQV

FX

XQ

FRQ LQXW PDL ERJDW vQ IHOGVSD L

iar tHPSHUDWXUD

GH

DUGHUH

n general, sunt acoperite cu glazuri opace


HVWH FXSULQV
vQWUH -1250C. Produsele

RE LQXWH VXQW FRPSDFWH GXUH FX UH]LVWHQ H PHFDQLFH PDUL L FX R DEVRUE LH D

apei de maxim 5%.


3RU HODQXO HVWH R PDV

, GH RELFHL JOD]XUDW  cu un grad


GH YLWULILHUH PDL SURQXQ DW GHFkW DO JUHVLLORU FX R JUDQXOD LH ILQ  omoJHQ
L de obicei translucid, spre deosebire GH FHUDPLFD GH OXW FDUH HVWH SRURDV 
RSDF

L DVSU  Q DFHDVW

FHUDPLF

DOE

FDWHJRULH LQWU

SRU HODQXULOH SHQWUX RELHFWHOH GH

ODUJ FRQVXP L SHQWUX RELHFWH GH DUW 


6H SUHVXSXQH F

GHQXPLUHD GH SRU HODQ vQ LWDOLDQ 

porcellano)
OULHQW D F UHL
IRUP  FXORDUH WUDQVSDUHQ
L URWXQMLUH DPLQWHD GH XQ porcellino (mic
SXUFHOX VDX FREDL  cuvnt utilizat de Marco Polo pentru a descrie ceramica
Y ]XW vQ &KLQD. AFHDVW HWLPRORJLH HVWH FUHGLELO  PRQHGD UHVSHFWLY DYkQG
provine de la conchiglia, PLF

PRQHG

IRORVLW

vQ ([WUHPXO

L VWU OXFLUHD SRU HODQXOXL 0DUFR 3ROR HVWH FHO FDUH D DGXV vQ (XURSD vQ DQXO
 XQ PLF YDV DOE GH SRU HODQ GHQXPLW vQ HSRF

16

7HVRUR 6DQ 0DUFR

.
n China (GH XQGH L
GHQXPLUHD GLQ OLPED HQJOH] D PDVHORU FHUDPLFH china), n timpul dinastiei
T'ang (618-907) L SHUIHF LRQDW GH-a lungul timpului, ajugnd n forma de
DVW ]L vQ MXUXO DQLORU  $FHVWD HUD XQ SRU HODQ WDUH DOF WXLW GLQWU-un
amestec format dintr-R URF IHOGVSDWLF SLDWU GH FHUDPLF P FLQDW , cu
3HQWUX SULPD GDW  SRU HODQXO D IRVW IDEULFDW

FXDU

L FDROLQ $UGHUHD VH UHDOL]D OD & FkQG URFD IHOGVSDWLF

YLWULILD

iar caolinul asigura stabilitatea formei, rezultnd un material ceramic alb,


ILQ VWU OXFLWRU WUDQVOXFLG L Fare putea fi modelat, pictat sau incizat cu
diferite modele decorative.

15

Rhodes D. Stoneware and Porcelain, The Art of High-Fired Pottery, Pitman Publishing, Great Britain,

1978, pag. 3-43;


16
Backer E. H. Collana di arti decorative diretta da Guido Gregorietti, Instituto Geografico de Agostini,
Navara, 1968;

Merceologie
0DWHULD SULP

GH ED]

HVWH FDROLQXO R DUJLO

GHVFRPSXQHUHD JUDQLWXOXL )LLQG H[SORDWDW


WUDQVSRUWDW
LPSXULW

SULPDU

GH UkXULDD FXP HVWH DUJLOD VHFXQGDU 

L FDUH V

FRQGXF

'LVWLQF LD

GLQWUH

IRUPDW

SULQ

vQ ORFXULOH GH IRUPDUH L QHILLQG


FDROLQXO

QX

SUH]LQW

OD PRGLILF UL GH FXORDUH
SRU HODQ

FHUDPLFD

GH

SLDWU

VDX

DOWH

PDVH

FHUDPLFH YLWULILDWH HVWH PDL SX LQ FODU  Q &KLQD SRU HODQXO HVWH GHILQLW FD
ILLQG R PDV
vQ

FHUDPLF

UH]RQDQW

SULQ ORYLUHD FX R EDJKHW

ULOH HXURSHQH SRU HODQXO HVWH GHILQLW FD R PDV

WUDQVSDUHQ

 QV

PHWDOLF  SH FkQG

FHUDPLF

WUDQVOXFLG

vQ

DPEHOH GHILQL LL QX SRW IL GHFkW SDU LDO H[DFWH DWkWD WLPS

FkW SRU HODQXO JUHX FX SHUH L JURL

, este opac,

LDU FHUDPLFD GH SLDWU  FX

SHUH L IRDUWH VXE LUL HVWH WUDQVOXFLG 


&HOH WUHL WLSXUL SULQFLSDOH GH SRU HODQ VXQW SRU HODQXO DXWHQWLF
SRU HODQXO WDUH SRU HODQ GH SDVW
PRDOH SRU HODQ GH SDVW
QFHUFDUHD
GHVFRSHUL

PRDOH L

PHWHULORU

VHFUHWXO

WDUH  SRU HODQXO DUWLILFLDO

sau

sau SRU HODQXO

por HODQXO GH RV.

HXURSHQL

SRU HODQXOXL

vQ

SHULRDGD

FKLQH]HVF

(YXOXL

FRQGXV

OD

0HGLX

GH

GHVFRSHULUHD

SRU HODQXOXL PRDOH SRU HODQ DUWLILFLDO  XQ DPHVWHF GH DUJLO

FX VWLFO SLVDW ,
care necesita o ardere mai moalH GHFkW SRU HODQXO WDUH OD & $FHVWe
SRU HODQuri, cu WUDQVSDUHQ
L WUDQVOXFLGLWDWH GHRVHELWH, IRORVLWH FX SUHF GHUH
la IDEULFDUHD DUWLFROHORU GH DUW  se pot deosebi de SRU HODQXULOH tari prin
FRORUD LD PDL FHQXLH prin duritatea PDL UHGXV  SXWkQG IL W LDWe FX R SLO
IDSW

LPSRVLELO

OD

SRU HODQXO WDUH

L SULQ

UH]LVWHQ HOH PDL UHGXVH

OD RF

PHFDQLF L WHUPLF 8QHOH WLSXUL PDL SRURDVH GH SRU HODQ PRDOH VXQW DFRSHULWH
FX JOD]XU 
3ULPHOH SRU HODQXUL PRL DX IRVW UHDOL]DWH OD )ORUHQ D vQ 
DWHOLHUH SDWURQDWH GH )UDQFHVFR , GH 0HGLFL vQV

vQ FDQWLW

, vQ QLte
L PDUL QX Du fost

produse dect n secolul al XVIII-lea.


Secretul SRU HODQXOXL WDUH chinezesc a fost descoperit abia n anul
1707 n Saxonia, fiind cunoscut L sub numele de SRU HODQ GH Meissen.
$FHVWD VH FDUDFWHUL]HD]

GDW

SULQ JOD]XUL GXUH FDUH VH GHSXQ SH ELVFXLW L VH DUG

FX FLREXO OD WHPSHUDWXUL FXSULQVH vQWUH 

DFHHD GHFRUDUHD SRU HODQXOXL VH H[HFXW

evita descompunerea culRULORU

-1450C. Tocmai de

vQ JHQHUDO SHVWH JOD]XU  SHQWUX D VH

SULQ DUGHUHD DFHVWRUD R GDW

FX JOD]XUD

FD]XULOH PDL UDUH GH GHFRUDUH VXE JOD]XU  DFHDVWD VH HIHFWXHD]

QXPDL FX

SLJPHQ L GH FREDOW FDUH VXQW IRDUWH VWDELOL


3RU HODQXO HQJOH]HVF GH RV sau SRU HODQXO IRVIDWLF a fost produs n
jurul anilor 1800 SULQ DG XJDUHD vQ IRUPXOD SRU HODQXOXL WDUH D XQRU FDQWLW L
(ntre 20-60%) de oase animale calcinate, temperatura de ardere fiind
FXSULQV vQWUH -1300C.
Spre deosebire GH SRU HODQXO WDUH, FDUH HVWH IRDUWH IUDJLO L VH VSDUJH
FX PXOW
XXULQ
GDWRULW
QDWXULL VDOH YLWURDVH SRU HODQXO GH RV este mult

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

mai rezistent, mai dur, mai translucid, cu un grad de alb mai ridicat (peste


L PDL VWDELO GDWRULW

FRQ LQXWXOXL GH IRVIDW WULFDOFLF VDX GH DSDWLW 

IDFH VXE JOD]XU 

Decorarea se poate
straturi de glazuri.

peste glazXU

 SUHFXP L vQWUH GRX

Q WLPS FH SRU HODQXO WDUH HVWH U VSkQGLW vQ (XURSD SRU HODQXO GH RV


DUH R PDL PDUH U VSkQGLUH vQ 0DUHD %ULWDQLH L vQ 68$
3RU HODQXO

GLQ

HVWH

VWLFO

XQ

SURGXV

WLS

SRU HODQ

RE LQXW

SULQ

cristalizarea diriMDW

D PDVHL YLWURDVH FX DMXWRUXO XQRU JHUPHQL GH QXFOHD LH

3RU HODQXO GLQ VWLFO

FX FRQ LQXW GH IOXRUXUL VHUYHWH OD RE LQHUHD YDVHORU GH

menaj rezistente la foc.


&HOH PDL IDLPRDVH P UFL GH FHUDPLF

3RU HODQXO

0LQJ

este sinonim

GH DUW
SHQWUX

VXQW XUP WRDUHOH


PXO L

FX

SRU HODQXO

ILQ

FKLQH]HVF 2ELHFWHOH VXQW SLFWDWH FX SLJPHQ L GH FREDOW FHO PDL GHV vQWkOQLWH

motive fiind cele florale,


QRURFXOXL IHULFLULL ERJ

DSOLFDWH SH VSD LL ODUJL L PRWLYHOH VLPEROLFH DO

LHL HWF

Ceramica de Delft
SRU HODQXOXL

FKLQH]HVF

17

.
tip Delft

LPSRUWDW

PDVLY

,QGLLORU GH (VW $FHDVWD HVWH R FHUDPLF

D DS UXW vQ 2ODQGD FD R FRSLH D


GH

F WUH

&RPSDQLD

GH OXW DFRSHULW

2ODQGH]

FX HPDLO SH ED]

D
GH

plumE L VWDQLX ,QL LDO

s-au folosit decorurile albastre de cobalt, specifice


SRU HODQXULORU FKLQH]HWL SLFWDWH FX PDUH ILQH H WUHFkQGX-se XOWHULRU vQV
la
motive decorative specifice: flori, frunze de stejar, portrete de monarhi etc.
3H OkQJ
vQV

FHQWUHOH GLQ 2ODQGD FHUDPLFD GH 'HOIW D IRVW IDEULFDW

eramLFD

HQJOH]HDVF

GH 'HOIW QX V

L vQ $QJOLD

-a ridicat la nivelul celei olandeze,

GHFRUXULOH ILLQG OLSVLWH GH ILQH H L GH DWHQ LD SHQWUX GHWDOLL LDU HPDLOXO FX

tente de albastru VDX UR]  H[IROLD FX XXULQ 


3RU HODQXO GH 0HLVVHQ QXPLW L SRU HODQ GH 'UHVGD, este
reprezentat printr-R VHULH GH ELEHORXUL ILJXULQH FDUH DX vQFHSXW V ILH
produse n fabrica de la Dresda ncepnd cu anul 1710. Acesta a fost primul
SRU HODQ

GH

VXFFHV

SURGXV

vQ

(XURSD

PDUFD

VD

VLPEROL]kQG

GRX

V ELL

vQFUXFLDWH ILLQG DVW ]L ELQHFXQRVFXW 

3RU HODQXO GH :RUFHVWHU D vQFHSXW V

HVWH XQ SRU HODQ PDL JUHX GDWRULW

ILH IDEULFDW GLQ DQXO  L

FRQ LQXWXOXL GH VWHDWLW DFRSHULW FX XQ VWUDW

fin de email. n general s-DX SURGXV VHUYLFLL GH FHDL GH FDIHD YHVHO


articole decorative. Toartele VXQW vQ IRUP GH QXU U VXFLW VDX UDPXUL
DSOLFD LLOH VXQW VXE IRUP

Braunstein F., Ppin J.F.


pag. 197;

LDU

SRU HODQXULOH GH

FPhA%d !F 0Hfd A0 9U 0 y 9 d 0 0 rU 0 y 9fd 0!A { } Uy0xw vft


de ffe y p o y o | ~y y ~ |{z w u

17

GH IORUL vQ UHOLHI FRSLDWH GXS

Merceologie
0HLVVHQ /D IHO FD SRU HODQXULOH GH

Svres, L DFHVWHD VXQW GHFRUDWH FX FDVHWH


contururi aurii.

FX IORUL L S V UL H[RWLFH PXOWLFRORUH vQFDGUDWH vQ

3RU HODQXO

GH

Svres

IRVW

IDEULFDW

vQ

FHQWUHOH

GH

OD

3DULV

Svres vQFHSkQG FX  WUDGL LH FDUH VH S VWUHD] L DVW ]L QV  n timp ce


OD 3DULV VH UHDOL]D SRU HODQ WDUH OD Svres GDWRULW
GHSR]LWXOXL GH FDROLQ GH
la Limoges, se IDEULFD XQ SRU HODQ DOE PRDOH *DPD GH SURGXVH YDULD GH OD
VWDWXHWH UHSUH]HQWkQG S VWRUL H FXSLGRQL QLPIH HWF QHJOD]XUDWH VDX PDL UDU
JOD]XUDWH

OD

YDVH

DPIRUH

EROXUL

GHFRUDWH

FX

S V UL

H[RWLFH

VXELHFWH

marine etc. Decorurile erau sub forma unor picturi fine n albastru de cobalt
sau multicolore (roz, turcoaz, verde deschis, galben etc.), reprezentnd
VXELHFWH

FODVLFH

DUDQMDPHQWH

IORUDOH

PXOWH

ILLQG

FRSLDWH

GXS

SLFWXUL

celebre. Albastrul turcoaz (bleu celest) a fost utilizat deseori drept culoare
de fond, peste care se aplicau casete cu flori pe un fond alb, ncadrate n
ERUGXUL

DXULL

SRU HODQXUL

UHDOL]DW

WULGLPHQVLRQDO
YUHRGDW

vQ

GH

PDL

YROXWH
PXOWH

HVWH FRQVLGHUDW

D IL

$XULUHD

VWUDWXUL

FHD

PDL

GLQ

FDUH

EHOXJ
FUH D]

VRPSWXRDV

DFHVWRU

XQ

DXULUH

HIHFW

DSOLFDW

SH SRU HODQXUL

DQXO

vQFRQMXUDWH

3RU HOD



FD

nXO

GH SLDWU

DOWHUQDWLY

SRU HODQ HUD R PDV

0DVRQ D vQFHSXW V

PDL

FHUDPLF

LHIWLQ

VH IDEULFH vQ $QJOLD vQ

SRU HODQXOXL

FKLQH]HVF

$FHVW

GHQV

L JUHD GH FXORDUH DOE-cHQXLH L FDUH


re a condus la fabricarea multor servicii de

S VWUD IRDUWH ELQH F OGXUD IDSW FD


PDV 

GDU L D YDVHORU RUQDPHQWDOH

Q JHQHUDO GHFRUXULOH vQ UHOLHI HUDX

DXULWH SHQWUX IL[DUHD DXUXOXL VH IRORVHD PLHUHD FDUH FRQIHUHD DXUXOXL L XQ

luciu cald), LDU SLFWXULOH HUDX vQ QXDQ H GH FREDOW EHLJH L URX


3RU HODQXO GH %HOOHHN HVWH XQ SRU HODQ H[WUHP GH ILQ L WUDQVOXFLG
FXQRVFXW

PDL

DOHV

SHQWUX

HPDLOXO

JURV

LUL]DW

VLGHILX

SRU HODQ D vQFHSXW vQ ,UODQGD vQ DQXO  L FRQWLQX


SURGXVH

UHDOL]DWH

EXVWXUL

RJOLQ]L

HVWH

IRDUWH

VHUYLFLL

GH

ODUJ 
FHDL

YD]H
vQ

FRXUL

IRUP

VSHFWDFXORDVH VXQW YDVHOH L FRXULOH FX OXFU WXU

GH

3URGXF LD

i n prezent. Gama de

vPSOHWLWH

VFRLF

HWF

y F 00Cd H P Sk WC 0 y 09d v F004h0!~hb0 v } vfu vz H


p i i i i o } | }ywv y~ w
}

Miller J.

ILJXULQH
&HOH

PDL

GHVFKLV  UHDOL]DWH PDQXDO

prin mpletirHD XQRU IkLL GH SRU HODQ n modele complicate


deseori cu capace GHFRUDWH FX IORUL PXOWLFRORUH IUXQ]H L WULIRL18.

18

DFHVWXL

, pag. 126-143;

SUHY ]XWH

2.6 Identificarea L YHULILFDUHD FDOLW

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

LL SURGXVHORU FHUDPLFH

Verificarea maselor ceramice ncepe cu identificarea tipului de


FHUDPLF 

UHVSHFWLY

FHUDPLF

GH

OXW

IDLDQ

JUHVLH

VHPLSRU HODQ

VDX

SRU HODQ. Identificarea presXSXQH OXDUHD vQ FRQVLGHUD LH D XQor criterii,


printre care:
9 culoarea masei ceramice neglazurate FXORDUHD vQ VHF LXQH  Q
cazul n care produsul este gla]XUDW WUHEXLH GHVFRSHULW R ]RQ QHDFRSHULW
GH HPDLO YL]LELO

vQ JHQHUDO OD ED]

RELHFWHORU YHFKL WUHEXLH F XWDW

VDX SH ERUGXUD SLFLRUXOXL LDU vQ FD]XO

R ]RQ

XQGH VH REVHUY
R ILVXU  Q JHQeral,
e culori ale maselor ceramice:
FHUDPLFD GH OXW FRPXQ  brun-URLDWLF DOE-murdar, negru;
gresie: FXORDUHD YDULD] GH OD DOE-murdar la cafeniu-nchis;
IDLDQ
 alb-J OEXL FDIHQLX-J OEXL FHUDPLFD GH 'HOIW  PDURQ-

VXQW vQWkOQLWH XUP WRDUHO

URFDW FHUDPLF

GH 6WUDIIRUGVKLUH 

alb-FHQXLX
SRU HOan: alb, alb-J OEXL

VHPLSRU HODQ

9 DVSHFWXO
XUP UHWH

PDVHL

JUDQXOR]LWDWHD

FHUDPLFH
L

vQ

SRUR]LWDWHD

VHF LXQH
SUHFXP

vQ
L

FLRE 

prin care se

H[LVWHQ D

VDX

DEVHQ D

glazurii. Din acest punct de vedere, produsele pot fi identificate astfel:


FHUDPLFD GH OXW FRPXQ  aVSHFW JURVLHU SRURV GH S PkQW
JU XQ RV L, vQ FD]XO vQ FDUH HVWH JOD]XUDW  HPDLOXO VH REVHUY FD XQ
strat bine definit, sticlos;
IDLDQ

 DVSHFW JURVLHU L SRURV FX VWUDWXO GH HPDLO ELQH GHILQLW

VHPLSRU HODQ

aspect semicompact, sticlos, cu particule semifine,


iar glazura se distinge cu greu de restul masei ceramice;

SRU HODQ SDUWLFXOH IRDUWH ILQH PDV

FRPSDFW  VWLFORDV  LDU JOD]XUD

nu se distinge de restul masei ceramice. 3RU HODQXO


deosebire GH FHO WDUH DUH WRWXL XQ DVSHFW PDL
SDUWLFXOHORU

3DVWD

RELHFWXOXL GDF

PRDOH

ILLQG

PDL

HVWH QHJOD]XUDW  V

DEVRUEDQW 
DSDU

YD

PRDOH
JUDQX

IDFH

PDL GHFRORUDW

, spre
lat al

FD

ED]D

L PDL

PXUGDU  /D FRQWDFWXO FX REUD]XO SRU HODQXO PRDOH DSDUH PDL FDOG

dect cel tare.


VXSUDID

QHWHG

9 PDVD VSHFLILF

3RU HODQXO WDUH SUH]LQW

SDUWLFXOH IRDUWH ILQH L R

L VWLFORDV 
L JURVLPHD SHUH LORU OD FHUDPLFD GH OXW IDLDQ

JUHVLH L VHPLSRU HODQ JURVLPHD SHUH LORU HVWH PDL PDUH VSUH GLIHUHQ
RELHFWHOH GLQ SRU HODQ FDUH DX SHUH L VXE LUL L IRDUWH VXE LUL
FHUDPLFH FX R VWUXFWXU
PDL UHGXV
FRPSDFW

SRURDV


GH

Masa produselor

FHUDPLFD GH DUJLO  IDLDQ D JUHVLD YD IL

GHFkW FHD D SURGXVHORU FHUDPLFH FX R VWUXFWXU


VHPLSRU HODQ L SRU HODQ 

VHPLFRPSDFW

VDX

Merceologie
9
GH PDV

tipul glazurii

RIHU

L DFRSHULUHD FX JOD]XU

LQGLFLL

asupra tipului

FHUDPLF  SUHFXP L DVXSUD SURYHQLHQ HL DFHVWHLD

produsele ceramice din lut sunt acoperite n ntregime (inclusiv


VXSUDID D GH VSULMLQ cu mai multe tipuri de glazuri, predominnd
FHD DOE  SH ED]
GH VWDQLX $FHDVWD QX DGHU ELQH Oa corpul vasului
L DUH R WHQGLQ
GH H[IROLHUH;
culoarea glazurii de staniu DSOLFDW
SH SURGXVHOH GLQ IDLDQ
RIHU
L LQGLFLL DOH SURYHQLHQ HL XQXL RELHFW FHUDPLF YHFKL JOD]XUD DOEO SWRDV

HUD IRORVLW

vQ FD]XO FHUDPLFLL WLS 'HOIW IDEULFDW

iar glazura bleu-FLHO HUD DSOLFDW


IHO

FD

vQ

FD]XO

OD /RQGUD

SH RELHFWHOH IDEULFDWH vQ )UDQ D /D

FHUDPLFLL

GH

OXW

RELHFWHOH

GLQ

IDLDQ

VXQW

glazurate n ntregime;
RELHFWHOH GLQ SRU HODQ L VHPLSRU HODQ

, n general, nu au

GH

VSULMLQ

JOD]XUDW

. La poU HODQXO

GXU

VWUDWXO

GH

VXSUDID D

JOD]XU

VXE LUH L GXU LDU OD SRU HODQXO PRDOH VWUDWXO GH JOD]XU

HVWH

HVWH vQ

JHQHUDO PDL JURV L

, uneori, verzui;

9 VXQHWXO SURGXV SULQ ORYLUHD FX R EDJKHW


OD FHUDPLFD GH OXW L IDLDQ

PHWDOLF

va fi:

 VFXUW L vQIXQGDW

la semLSRU HODQ FODU L VFXUW

OD SRU HODQ FULVWDOLQ L SUHOXQJ


9 SURED

vQ

OXPLQ

WUDQVPLV

vQ

WUDQVSDUHQ

GLIHUHQ LD]

WLSXO

maselor ceramice:
FHUDPLFD GH OXW L IDLDQ D GDWRULW

SRUR]LW

VHPLSRU HODQXO HVWH WRW RSDF GDWRULW

LL ORU YRU IL RSDFH

JURVLPLL

n general mai mare a

SHUH LORU SURGXVHORU

este vQ
translucid GDWRULW

SRU HODQXO
'XS

GHWHUPLQDUHD

YHULILFDUHD FDOLW

JHQHUDO FX R JURVLPH D SHUH LORU VXE  PP


VWUXFWXULL FULVWDOLQH SH FDUH R SUH]LQW 
WLSXOXL

GH

GHQXPLULL L GHVWLQD LHL FDQ

alb-J

culorii

PDV

FHUDPLF

DO

XQXL

RELHFW

LL DFHVWXLD SUHVXSXQH L VWDELOLUHD


FDUH VH DSUHFLD]

FHDL IDUIXULH RUQDPHQWDO

HWF 

PHQ LRQkQGX VH L QXDQ D DOE FHQXLX

OEXL HWF

dimensiunilor VH P VRDU GLPHQVLXQHa SULQFLSDO vQ O Lmea sau


GLDPHWUXO L produsul sH vQFDGUHD] vQ XQD GLQWUH XUP WRDUHOH JUXSH
SURGXVH PLFL FX GLDPHWUXO VDX vQ O LPHD VXE  PP L FDSDFLWDWHD
sub 250 ml;
SURGXVH PDUL FX GLDPHWUXO VDX vQ O LPHD SHVWH  PP L
capacitatea peste 250 ml.
masei SULQ FkQW ULUH

modului de decoUDUH

GH

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

JOD]XUDUH

: decorarea poate fi sub


, cnd desenul se
VLPWH OD SLS LW L QX HVWH WRW DWkW GH OXFLRV FD JOD]ura. De asemenea, se
DSUHFLD]
PHWRGD
GH
GHFRUDUH
IRORVLW 
pictare (cnd apar unele
LPSHUIHF LXQL LQHUHQWH picturii manuale: eventuali stropi de culoare, mici
DVLPHWULL
OD
UHSHWDUHD
GHFRUXOXL
XUPH
GH
SHQVXO
HWF 
sitografiere
 FkQG GHVHQXO HVWH QHWHG L OXFLRV L SHVWH JOD]XU

JOD]XU

vQF UFDUHD

FX

SDVW

FRORUDW

GHFRUXOXL

SHUIHFW

VLPHWULH

HWF 

decalcomanii (desene complicate, perfect executate, n strDWXUL IRDUWH VXE LUL


etc.7RWRGDW  VH IDF DSUHFLHUL L DVXSUD JOD]XULL LQFRORU VDX FRORUDW  PDW
VDX OXFLRDV  WUDQVSDUHQW
'XS

VDX RSDF  GH HIHFW HWF

FDUDFWHUL]DUHD SURGXVHORU FHUDPLFH

sus, se poate trece la verificarea propriu-]LV D


mai multe etape:
1) YHULILFDUHD DVSHFWXOXL L vQFDGUDUHD
XUP UHWH

YL]XDO

WDFWLO

SUH]HQ D

vQFDGUHD]

pe baza criteriilor de mai


FDOLW

GLIHULWHORU

vQ

LL ORU FDUH FRPSRUW

FODVHOH

WLSXUL

GH

GH

FDOLWDWH

GHIHFWH

se

vQ IXQF LH GH SURYHQL

VH

en D Oor schema nr. 6;

2) verificarea culorii VH UHDOL]HD] ILH SULQ FRPSDUDUH FX PRVWUD


etalon de culoare, fie prin determinarea gradului de alb (n cazul
SRU HODQXULORU FX OHXFRPHWUXO =HLVV
VXSUDID

LL VXSUDIH HL GH VSULMLQ VH DD]

YHULILFDUHD SODQLW

3)

SHUIHFW SODQ

L VH DSDV

XRU

cu mna

FD]XO XQXL SURGXV FRUHVSXQ] WRU QX WUHEXLH V

SURGXVXO SH R

OD SDUWHD VXSHULRDU  Q

H[LVWH QLFL XQ EDODQV

4) YHULILFDUHD RYDOLW LL VH HIHFWXHD] SULQ P VXUDUHD D GRX


diametre perpendiculare ale SODQXOXL JXULL 'LIHUHQ D SURFHQWXDO GLQWUH FHOH
GRX

GLDPHWUH GHWHUPLQ

vQFDGUDUHD DUWLFROHORU GH SRU HODQ VDX GH IDLDQ

vQ

una dintre clasele existente (SHQWUX DUWLFROH GH SRU HODQ FODVD , SUH]LQW R
ovalitate de 1%, clasa a II-a: 1,5%, clasa a III-a: 2%, clasa a IV-a: 2,5% iar
SHQWUX DUWLFROH GLQ IDLDQ  FODVD , 
 FODVD D ,,-a: 2% iar clasa a III-a:
3%);
5) YHULILFDUHD GHIRUP ULL PDUJLQLORU ID GH SODQXO RUL]RQWDO
SURGXVHOH VXQW DH]DWH FX JXUD vQ MRV SH R VXSUDID
DS VDWH

FX

GHJHWXO

GHIRUP ULORU

19

6)

vQ

FHQWUXO

OR

L VXQW

YHULILFDUHD

UH]LVWHQ HL

SUHVXSXQH vQ UHDOLWDWH GRX

PDUJLQLORU

FX PDVD GH  J VXVSHQGDW

reziste la zece

FLFOXUL I U

IDUIXULHL

la

RFXUL

PHFDQLFH

YHULILF UL YHULILFDUHD UH]LVWHQ HL PDUJLQLORU OD

ciobire: SH PDUJLQHD XQHL IDUIXULL HVWH O

VDW

VXE IRUP

vQ F GHUH OLEHU

R ELO

PHWDOLF 

GH SHQGXO )DUIXULLOH WUHEXLH V

D VH ILVXUD VDX D VH FLREL YHULILFDUHD UH]LVWHQ HL

A F 0C C P 3 xz U AzAz F~ AFy AAA vz Fb |AA{9 PF hyA~Ayx  v }0A vz |%
y v vu v y v }z |y y | }y ~ y w ~ v | z | y

~ { PFy H W A rP P%F0A f CxA!FhSA f CxA f r A !FP r3hh hf bhF
v ~z | yw } v

19

SHUIHFW SODQ

r. Nu se admit balansuri datorate

pag. 181-190.

Merceologie
PDUJLQLORU OD FLRELUH vQ WLPSXO DPEDO
OLEHU

ULL IDUIXULLOH VXQW O VDWH vQ F GHUH

SH XQ WRERJDQ PHWDOLF vQFOLQDW OD XQ XQJKL GH  L SUHY ]XW OD FDS W

FX

a
XQ SHUHWH PHWDOLF )DUIXULLOH VH ORYHVF DWkW GH PDUJLQHD PHWDOLF
toboganului ct L vQWUH HOH LDU pentru D IL GHFODUDWH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH trebuie
V UH]LVWH OD zece FLFOXUL I U D SUH]HQWD ILVXUL VDX FU S WXUL
7) YHULILFDUHD UH]LVWHQ HL OD RF WHUPLF Produsele ceramice sunt
supuse la zece cicluri alternative de vQF lzire timp de 30 de minute ntr-o
HWXY 

OD

&

GH

U FLUH

vQ

ED]LQH

FX

DS 

OD

WHPSHUDWXUD

PHGLXOXL

(20C). La examinDUH QX VH DGPLW ILVXUL VDX FU S WXUL


8) YHULILFDUHD WR[LFLW LL JOD]XULL VH YHULILF SUH]HQ D SOXPEXOXL GLQ
JOD]XU

FX

DMXWRUXO

XQHL

VROX LL

GH

DFLG

DFHWLF

KLGURJHQ

VXOIXUDW

Produsele sunt umplute cu acid acetic, acoperite pentru a se evita evaporarea


acesWXLD L LQXWH  GH PLQXWH SH R EDLH GH DS  OD R WHPSHUDWXU GH
75-85C. 'XS U FLUH VH LDX GLQ SURE 10 cm3 peste care VH WRDUQ DO L
10 cm3 GH KLGURJHQ VXOIXUDW 1HPRGLILFDUHD FXORULL L OLSVD XQXL SUHFLSLWDW
LQGLF QHWR[LFLWDWHD JOD]XULL L, respectiv, lipsa plumbului;
9) 'HWHUPLQDUHD UH]LVWHQ HL FKLPLFH D GHFRUXOXL L a glazurii la
VS ODUHD DXWRPDW . Pentru a se verifica modul de comportare a decorului
RELHFWHORU GLQ FHUDPLF
OD VS ODUHD FX PDLQD DXWRPDW
GH VS ODW YDVH, se
IRORVHVF GHWHUJHQ L cu un caracter alcalin PDL SURQXQ DW GHFkW FHL RELQXL L
produsele WUHEXLQG V reziste la 100 de cicluri I U V SUH]LQWH GHWHULRU UL DOH
decorului.

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

6FKHPD QU  0DWHULL SULPH IRORVLWH vQ RE LQHUHD RELHFWHORU

din mase ceramice


1. Materii prime pentru RE

LQHUHD FLREXOXL ELVFXLWXOXL

- materii prime plastice DUJLOD L FDROLQXO


- materii prime neplastice:
- fondante IHOGVSD LL FHQXD GH RDVH GRORPLWD L FDOFDUXO
refractare QLVLSXULOH FXDU RDVH FXDU XO DOXPLQD L DPRWD
- materii prime auxiliare:
SODVWLILDQ L-OLDQ L EHQWRQLWH JXP
DUDELF  SDUDILQ  GH[WULQ 
alcool polivinilic;
- OXEULILDQ L PRWRULQ  SHWURO ODPSDQW ROHLQ  VWHDUD L GH EDULX
magneziu, aluminiu, zinc;
- IOXLGLILDQ L FDUERQDW L VLOLFDW GH VRGLX OLJQLQ  DFLG WDQLF
2. MaWHULL SULPH SHQWUX JOD]XUL L GHFRUXUL
- pentru glazuri:

VLOLFH

FRPELQDW

FX

R[L]L

S PkQWRL R[L]L GH SOXPE GH DOXPLQ 


vPSUHXQ

FX

RSDFL]DQ L

R[LG

GH

WLWDQ

DOFDOLQL DOFDOLQRoxizi de bor, de fosfor,


GH

]LUFRQLX

GH

IOXRULQ  FULROLW L FRORUDQ L R[L]L PHWDOLFL L V UXUL FRORUDWH

- pentru decoruri: SLJPHQ L GH GLYHUVH FXORUL

VWLELX

Merceologie

Schema nr. 4 Principalele metode de fasonare a maselor ceramice

IDVRQDUHD SODVWLF
(paste ceramice):
- prin presare;
- SULQ U VXFLUH
- prin extrudere (tragere sau trefilare);
- SULQ VWUXQMLUH PDQXDO VDX DXWRPDW 

Metode de fasonare

fasonarea prin turnare (barbotine):


- SULQ Y UVDUH
- prin umplere;
- la cald, sub presiune

fasonare prin presare (pulberi ceramice):


- presarea sub presiune;
- presarea SULQ LQMHF LH
IDVRQDUHD

SXOEHULORU

FHUDPLFH

LSVRV SULQ XPSOHUH FX DS

vQ

PDWUL H

GH

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

Schema nr. 5 Principalele tipuri de produse ceramice,


vQ IXQF LH GH GHVWLQD LD ORU

1.

3URGXVH

FHUDPLFH GH DUW

FRXUL ELEHORXUL VWDWXHWH YD]H YHVHO

FHUDPLF

IDLDQ

 GHFRUDWLYH

L GH X] FDVQLF

vase,

HWF GLQ

GH OXW GH DUJLO

);
 majolica, Delft, tip Delft;

FHUDPLF

VHPLSRU HODQ

SRU HODQ DXWHQWLF

WDUH 

SRU HODQ

SDVW

GH SLDWU

sau SRU HODQ tare (por HODQ GH SDVW


artificial sau SRU HODQ PRDOH SRU HODQ GH

moale) L SRU HODQ GH RV IRVIDWLF 


 3URGXVH FHUDPLFH SHQWUX FRQVWUXF LL F U PL]L
FHUDPLFH GLQ IDLDQ

LJOH SODFDMH

 JUHVLH PDVH VSHFLDOH RELHFWH VDQLWDUH GLQ SRU HODQ

IDLDQ

 JUHVLH VHPLSRU HODQ WXEXUL GH GUHQDM HWF

WH[WLO

3. Produse ceramice pentru iQGXVWULD HOHFWURWHKQLF


PHWDOXUJLF

HWF

SRU HODQ

UHIUDFWDU

WHUPRHOHPHQWH SRU HODQ UH]LVWHQW OD X]XU

SHQWUX

 HOHFWURQLF

FXSWRDUH

SHQWUX

VXSUDDOXPLQRV SHQWUX LQGXVWULD

WH[WLO  XWLOL]DW OD RE LQHUHD FRQGXF WRDUHORU GH ILUH SRU HODQ L JU

esie pentru

L]RODWRUL GH vQDOW

L MRDV

WHQVLXQH SHQWUX VHPLFRQGXFWRUL FHUDPLF

SHQWUX

DEUD]LXQH L DFKLHUH HWF


 3URGXVH FHUDPLFH SHQWUX LQGXVWULD FKLPLF

 SRU HODQXO FKLPLF

L FHUDPLFD ILQ
DQWLDFLG
pentru piese ale aparaturii chimice, vase de
laborator etc.;
5. Produse pentru alte domenii: DHURVSD LDO QXFOHDU,
ELRFHUDPLF
(implanturi) etc.

Merceologie

Schema nr. 6 Defecte ale produselor din mase ceramice


1.

'HIHFWH GH IRUP

DVLPHWULH

 GLPHQVLXQL L PDV

FXUEXU 

nHFRUHVSXQ]

WRDUH

FRQLFLWDWH

unghi

REOLFLWDWH

GHIRUPDW

RYDOLWDWH

PDUJLQH

PDV

GHIRUPDW 

GLPHQVLXQL QHFRUHVSXQ] WRDUH H[FHQWULFLWDWH IXQG FRQFDY VDX


FRQYH[ QHSDUDOHOLVPXO IH HORU QHSODQLWDWH HWF
 'HIHFWH GH VXSUDID
EDYXU 

FRDM

degradat

GH

 JOD]XU

RX

FRDM

GH

SRUWRFDO 

OLPE 

FXORDUH

RQGXODW  UXODW  VFXUV  vQ HS WXUL XUPH GH

UHWXDUH YDOXUL HWF

3. 'LVFRQWLQXLW L
- FU S WXUL ILVXUL H[IROLHUHD JOD]XULL KDULVH OLSLWXUL OLSV
PDUJLQH

GHIHFW 

SROL]DUH

QHFRUHVSXQ] WRDUH

SRUL

JOD]XU 

UXJR]LWD

te,

WLUELWXUL ]JkULHWXUL HWF

4. Incluziuni
- LQFOX]LXQL vQ JOD]XU

 JUL WRSLWXU  SURHPLQHQ H E LFL JUDQXOH

JU XQ L SXQFWH FRORUDWH HWF

5. 'HIHFWH GH VWUXFWXU
- JOD]XU DIXPDW  PDWLVDUH PHWDOL]DUHD FRORUDQ LORU
6. Defecte de decorare
- GHFRU GHSODVDW QHDGHUHQW VXSUDDUV OLSV GHFRU SHWH L
FRORUDQW H[IROLHUHD FRORUDQWXOXL OLSV

VWURSL GH

GHFRU vQWUHUXSHUL GH OLQLL

L EHQ]L QHXQLIRUPLWDWHD OLQLLORU VDX D EHQ]LORU HWF

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

Bibliografie
1) BACKER E. H. Collana di arti decorative diretta da Guido
Gregorietti, Instituto Geografico de Agostini, Navara, 1968;
2) BRAUNSTEIN F., PPIN J.F.

*KLG

GH

FXOWXU

JHQHUDO

Editura

2UL]RQWXUL (GLWXUD /LGHU %XFXUHWL 

3) HAPAN R.
SULYLQG

WH]

FDOLWDWHD

LQWHUQD LRQDO

4) MILLER J.

GH GRFWRUDW &UHWHUHD UROXOXL DQDOL]HL FRPSDUDWLYH


SURGXVHORU

PHWDOLFH

HPDLODWH

SLD D

SH

QD LRQDO

1995;
$QWLFKLW

L R DERUGDUH PDL GHWDOLDW

Editura M.A.S.T.,

%XFXUHWL

5)

5('(

$/

3(75(6&8

0HUFHRORJLH LQGXVWULDO

6)

5('(

$/

9

'8&$18

,

3/(($

'

 (GLWXUD (ILFLHQW %XFXUHWL

)2512*$

, 1999;

&

36/$58

&

DIAMANDESCU E.; BRNZEI S.; OLARU M. -

&DLHW

,$1
GH

(

OXFU

DSOLFDWLYH OD 0HUFHRORJLD SURGXVHORU PHWDOLFH HOHFWULFH L FKLPLFH

UL

Lito

A.S( %XFXUHWL, 1987;


7)

5('(

$/

)2512*$

&

36/$58

&

,$18

(

Merceologie, /LWR $6( %XFXUHWL, 1980;


8) RHODES D. Stoneware and Porcelain, The Art of High-Fired Pottery,
Pitman Publishing, Great Britain, 1978;
9) VASSILAKIS SP. A. Crete, history, museums, archaelogical sites and
monuments, Athens, 1998;
10) ZIMMERMANN M.; WILD E.
Mnchen, 1981;

D

Tutanchamun, Haus der Kunst

Merceologie

11) X X X

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Microsoft 1994-2001;

12) X X X

Ceramics - Enciclopaedia Encarta Microsoft 2000;

13) X X X

Lart populaire en Roumanie, Edition Roumain pour les


relations culturelles avec letranger, Bucarest, 1955;

14) X X X

Roma dalle origini al 2000, Lozzi Roma Edizione turistiche,


2000 Italia;

15) X X X

VWDQGDUGH JUXSHOH $  +  +  +  L + 1.

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH

UIXULOH FHUDPLFH