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THE EFFECTS DEBATE

Media violence and people


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nt2iHC GQjpg&feature=PlayList&p=989B03D634 37BC91&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL &index=6 Take notes on this clip and read the articles use the facts you read and see to formulate arguments for and against the idea that The media content needs regulating in order to protect vulnerable audiences

The central idea


Central to any debate about media regulation is the effects debate. Does the media have any effect on people? How does the media effect people? The idea that the media needs regulating is based on the idea that the media does effect people, so people need to be protected.

Media regulation the issues


When examining media regulation, social, economic and political issues are clearly linked. These provide the context for any discussion of media regulation.

Feedback and discussion

Effects theories
Newer theories: Read page 115 of your book and answer the questions. Feedback your ideas.

KEY AUDIENCE ISSUES


ACTIVE PASSIVE

WHAT THE AUDIENCES DOES WITH THE MEDIA


INTERACTIVITY WITH NEW TECHNOLOGY

WHAT THE MEDIA DOES TO THE AUDIENCE

CONTROL

CHOICE
AUDIENCES AS PRODUCERS

The power of the media

NICHE TASTES

Vulnerable people

Older and more complex theories


Uses and Gratification
Culmination Reception 2 Step Model Hypodermic Model How Do Audiences Receive Media Texts?

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE AUDIENCE


There are a number of ways of DESCRIBING audience. PASSIVE The audience simply takes in information with little interaction or effort on the part of the audience to make meaning from what they see. THIS IDEA SEES THE MEDIA AS EXTREMELY POWERFUL AND IT HAS THE ABILITY TO INFLUENCE PEOPLE ACTIVE AUDIENCE Creates the media as well as consumes it, uses it for their own purposes, and reacts to it in different ways, the audience creates their own meaning from what they see. THIS IDEA BELIEVES THAT THE MEDIA AS NOT POWERFUL ENOUGH TO BE HIGHLY INFLUENTIAL ON PEOPLE.

Audience Theories
By the end of this lesson you must have an understanding of a range of audience effects theories. We have already covered one. Log on to the following website http://www.mediaknowall.com/alevkeyconcepts /audience.html And fill out your worksheet. The websites on your sheet are excellent for this course.

Theories and the Audience


ACTIVE 2 STEP FLOW RECEPTION THEORY USES AND GRATIFICATIONS

PASSIVE HYPODERMIC MODEL

2 Step Flow Model


Opinion leaders watch and decipher the news. They make decisions about the meaning of what theyve seen and they pass on these meanings to a less active audience those they have influence over. Examples of Opinion Leaders: Teachers Politicians Community leaders

Uses and Gratifications in detail


This approach to looking at audiences states that audience use the media for particular reasons (USES) or to get particular pleasures i.e relaxation, humour (GRATIFICATIONS) from the media This approach suggests the following process occur: Selective Exposure: The audience only tend to allow themselves to be exposed to messages in the media with which they agree.

Selective Perception: The audience react to media messages differently depending on whether they agree or disagree with them.
Selective retention: The audience are likely to remember only the messages which they consider to be true or valid. So the media confirm and reinforce existing views, rather than having the power to change them.

Reception theory
States that audience react differently to media texts. This theory states that depending on who you are, your reaction will differ. Also it states that audiences although they have the ability to react differently to the same media text. A director or media producer has the ability to encourage preferred readings (therefore they can narrow down the meanings that audiences can take from their text) of their media text, by including well established codes and conventions. i.e: Horror directors can encourage all of the audience to react in the same way by including eerie music in a film. A preferred reading in this case will be that something scary is about to happen.