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Ariel Charette Kelly Dunbar Senior Seminar 10/1/13

The History of Special Effects Makeup

Throughout history, special effects has been used to entertain and transport an audience to a different time or place, !hich temporarily frees them of the difficulties and !orries in their life, therefore they can completely focus on and en"oy the performance in front of them# As an e$ample, one of the reasons horror mo%ies are so popular today is due to the fact that it ma&es the audience feel better about their li%es by sho!ing them a !orse reality, distracts them from daily stresses, and thus gi%es them relief and entertainment# Special effects ma&eup has been used since ancient times in plays, and since the beginning of T#'# and mo%ies# Today, it has become intert!ined !ith the use of computer(generated special effects# Special effects ma&eup has been used since ancient times, in )ree& and Kabu&i Theater plays# *n ancient )ree& plays, the actors !ere almost al!ays men, and the use of special effects ma&eup !asn+t %ery ad%anced at the time as they simply used mas&s for most of their performances# Some mas&s !ere left blan& and unremar&able, so the audience !as forced to focus on the sub"ect of the play to &no! !ho the characters e%en !ere, and to differentiate each actor from one another# ,-hen the mas& not painted !ith character features
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!as used, a greater proportion of the .scene., or the .action., !as located in the imagination of the spectators rather than in the actual, physical location before their eyes#/ 01onhagen, 12# Therefore, the only %isuals affecting the audience !ere the mas&s# 3onetheless, there !ere many different mas& types used, and each type of mas& had a specific use in the actor+s role in the play# As elaborate costumes !ere generally not used in )ree& Theatre, it all depended on the mas& to be able to distinguish the characters and their roles# This resulted in many different mas& types being used in ancient )ree& theatre, both plain and e$tra%agant 01onhagen, 12# As a conse4uence of the mainly featureless mas&s, a better state of physicality is re4uired for the actor in order for the mas& to ha%e ,life/, or in other !ords to not be boring# -ith a featureless mas&, it is only through the use of the body and physi4ue, and the mo%ement that comes along !ith it, that the actor has any potential for impact, due to the largely featureless mas&s# The inability of an actor to use their physi4ue in this !ay results in the mas& remaining simply a slightly decorati%e costume piece# 5o!e%er, proper use by the actor of both the physi4ue and mas& together can often create a sense of a ,mythical reality/ in the performance, !hich !as incredibly important, as special effects !ere not %ery ad%anced in these ancient plays 01onhagen, 12# Actors in Ancient )ree& Theatre, !hich !as popular from around 660 7C 8 990 7C, in their time are %ery similar to our actors today# 5o!e%er, they had one specific ob"ect that separated their true sel%es !hen they !eren.t acting, from their roles as characters in the plays# This ob"ect !as the mas&# *n many ancient artistic depictions, you see an actor loo&ing do!n at his mas&, as if he !ere confronting his other self, the character he plays and performs as# *n mas&ed performances, especially featureless mas&s, the actors must redefine themsel%es, their
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speech and actions, to properly fit the character they are portraying 01onhagen, 12# 5o!e%er, the Ancient )ree&s !ere not the only culture to ha%e an ad%anced and popular theatre style to pro%ide entertainment for the populace# Another type of ancient theater is Kabu&i Theater, an old :apanese tradition# *t began long ago, !ith ;&uni the Shrine 1aiden performing in the dry ri%er beds of Kyoto, the ancient capital city of :apan# <uic&ly, there !ere many competitors to the Shrine 1aiden, and then it gradually started becoming a group performance# =arly Kabu&i is %astly different from the Kabu&i !e see today# *n the early years, Kabu&i Theater largely consisted of ensembles and dances performed by groups of !omen# 1any of these !omen became an improper )eisha , or a prostitute, !hen not performing# >roper )eishas simply pro%ided entertainment by singing and dance# Due to this, and the go%ernment !anting to promote public morals, !omen !ere subse4uently banned from Kabu&i Theater# 0:ohnson, 12# Some belie%ed this ban on !omen !as a good thing for the theatre, as it increased the importance of s&ill, rather than beauty, to bring Kabu&i Theatre into more of a dramatic art form, putting more stress on the theatrical performance of the play rather than the dancing and beauty of the !omen# Another important de%elopment in Kabu&i Theatre, that is present e%en in :apanese anime today, !ere men !ho appeared to be feminine or an actual female# These man are referred to as ;nnagata female role(players, men !ho speciali?e in acting and loo&ing li&e !omen, on stage or off(stage# 0:ohnson, 12# After Kabu&i had been around for 4uite a !hile, se%eral hundred years, the )enro&u >eriod began, creating the basis for !hat Kabu&i theatre is today# To!ards the end of the 1@th century, the )enro&u period began# This period !as, in fact, a :apanese %ersion of the Aenaissance for their culture and to!nspeople# The main audiences
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for Kabu&i Theatre performances !ere common %illagers, and thus there !ere incredible amounts of creati%ity put into the sho!s, as they had no other form of entertainment# During the )enro&u >eriod, the styli?ations and forms that formed the base for today+s Kabu&i theatre !ere created# These traditions are still held in some Kabu&i performances today, ho!e%er after :apanese isolation ended, some traditions changed# 0:ohnson, 12# :apan had been %ery isolated as a country, not trading !ith other countries or mi$ing traditions up until around 1BCB, !hen the country !elcomed the -estern -orld# This !elcome of ne! people affected Kabu&i Theatre, and e%en more so the go%ernment, economy, and the rest of the country profoundly# =%en though Kabu&i had been freed from many go%ernmental restrictions, the Theater !as to face the immense challenge of ho! to adapt to their ci%ili?ation changing, changing traditions, and ho! to adapt it for non(:apanese audiences to en"oy# 0:ohnson, 12# *n the years and decades after the )enro&u >eriod, society sa! many different cycles of creati%e periods, follo!ed by the refinement of these periods# *n this time, Kabu&i Theatre also lost some of its popularity# *n the beginning of the 1Bth century, there !as a rise of more s&illed play!rights in the 7unra&u >uppet Theaters, !hich eclipsed the performances of the Kabu&i Actors, ho!e%er, only for a short time# Kabu&i Actors adapted the puppet plays to be performed by actors, and styli?ed their mo%ement to mimic the puppets in the plays# This started to bring Kabu&i Theatre bac&D ho!e%er, Kabu&i had another fe! obstacles coming its !ay# 0:ohnson, 12# =%en though Kabu&i Theatre sur%i%ed go%ernment penalties and oppression during the =do period in :apan, there !as a far greater loss in Kabu&i Theater during -orld -ar **# There !as an immense loss of actors, due to them being sent to fight in the !ar, and
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performers also faced oppression from occupational forces after the !ar !as o%er# 5o!e%er, Kabu&i Theater+s biggest obstacles !ere ne! de%elopments in technology, such as mo%ies and tele%ision# *ts reputation as ,traditional theatre/ calls to mind stuffiness and formalities# Another aspect is people are not %ery familiar !ith the special traditions in Kabu&i, as the society used to be# 5o!e%er, today popular actors in :apan are attracting audiences to the old Kabu&i Theatre+s, resulting in todays ,Kabu&i 7oom/# These ancient theater productions !ere the %ery beginning of special effects ma&eup, ma&eup and costume being used to create different loo&s for the audience to percei%e and be effected by# 1as&s, primiti%e ma&eup made of odd ingredients, and costumes !ere the basis for the progression into the huge industry special effects ma&eup has become today# *n the beginning of special effects ma&eup in T#'# and mo%ies, the art !as mainly used to create monsters or other scary creatures for horror productions# ;ne e$ample of an early special effects ma&eup !as Eran&enstein in 1F31, and the se4uel, the 7ride of Eran&enstein# 5er ma&eup included a different s&in(tone, and large teased ,3efertiti(li&e/ 0almost a beehi%e hairstyle2 hair !ith !hite stripes running up the sides# *t also included a fa&e scar going under her chin from one ear to the other, and simple beauty ma&eup including lipstic&, eyeliner and fa&e lashes, and a beauty mar&# 5o!e%er, this !as all done !ith a dar& t!ist to create more of a horror feel, as it !as a horror mo%ie# There !ere many limitations to ma&eup in mo%ies bac& then compared to today, as color T#'# !asn+t introduced until the 60+s# Therefore, actors and actresses !ere literally limited to many shades of grey# 05annigan, 12 *n the beginning of the tele%ision and mo%ie industries, there !ere no special effects ma&eup artists# Actors and actresses ali&e did their o!n ma&eup for their theatre and tele%ision productions# )oing bac& to the Eran&enstein mo%ie of 1F31, he created a s&ull(li&e
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appearance to his face by coloring his eye(soc&ets blac&, and using a small !ire to pull his nose into a ghastly shape# This !ire caused his nose to bleed profusely and almost constantly during the film, but !as effecti%e in creating a scary effect# 5e !as also gi%en fa&e "agged teeth to complete the loo&# 5o!e%er, in 1F36 Gni%ersal studios began hiring ma&eup artists to do special effects ma&eup, and the industry began to ta&e off 05annigan, 12# Today, a ma&eup artists+ "ob is much more difficult than many people anticipate, especially a special effects ma&eup artists+ "ob, as they ma&e and deal !ith features that are nether(!orldly and inhuman# Some of the challenges of being a ma&eup artist are changing shape of the human form, creating a good color balance, learning the different types of foundation and ho! to use them, and ho! to create effects and molds for prosthetics 0Da%is, )retchen B2# Shape is a %ery important factor in all types of ma&eup, regular or special effects# Creating shado!s and depth to ma&e some features appear smaller or more recessed, along !ith ma&ing other features stand out and seem larger can create a completely different loo& to someone+s original shape# These techni4ues can be used to create stunt(double loo&s for mo%ies, they are also used in e%ery day ma&eup !ith highlighting and contouring features# Another important factor in shape is the colors you use to create the shape 0Da%is, )retchen 1B2. Color can balance, conceal, contour, highlight, correct, and sho! emotion or a state of !ell(being# The color !heel is incredibly important to &no! and utili?e for ma&eup artists, as opposite colors mi$ed neutrali?e themsel%es# To learn !hich colors are opposites, you must learn ho! the color !heel !or&s# There are three main color groups on the color !heelH !arms, cools, and neutrals 0Da%is, )retchen IB2# Sometimes a ma&eup artists+ "ob re4uires
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you to correct a s&in tone, or balance a color in it# Eor e$ample, someone !ith a pin& or red undertone in their s&in !ould need to be corrected !ith a green under toned foundation to create a neutral s&in color, as red and green are opposites# Eoundation is the base for any ma&eup, for special effects or e%ery day !ear# There are three main components that a ma&eup artist must consider !hen choosing the right foundationH the Three C.sH Color, Consistency, and Co%erage# These are the most important things to consider !hen ac4uiring a foundation product, or choosing the right one for a client# Eoundation is the base of e%ery ma&eup, hence the name# 0Da%is, )retchen, @32 Costumes are immensely important in theater, tele%ision sho!s, or mo%ies as they portray the characters. status in society, personality, and many other things# Costumes include the outfit itself, the hairstyling, and the ma&eup# 05olt, I62 Costumes can e%en portray a different time(era, as !e see in many historical fiction productions# 5airstyling and -igs are important in costumes, as different hairstyles can portray different time periods, or status, "ust as much as the full costume can# 05olt, B92 >reparation for a costume or ma&eup is %ery important, as in theater all of the costumes and ma&eup must ha%e one common element, or contrasting elements, and so the artist must &eep in mind that the character fits in !ith the story# 05olt, F62 >ro%iding other(!orldly %isuals pro%ides immense entertainment to audiences, as they are ta&ing in ne! sensory information that they ha%e usually ne%er seen before# This is much more e$citing for %ie!ers, as opposed to seeing the e%ery(day fi$tures of our !orld, !hich is much more commonly portrayed# 0The Art of 1a&eup2 The reasoning for this is special effects, !hether it be ma&eup or computer(generated, is %ery time consuming and costly# *n

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mold(ma&ing, one of the most important components in special effects ma&eup, !hile using late$ and most other products it must dry for four or more hours in bet!een each coat or layer !hen being brushed on# 5o!e%er, the process can be sped up greatly using a hairdryer# 0Da%is, )retchen, FI2 *n e%ery production, there is a ne! theme, and thus a special effects artist must ad"ust their !or& to fit this theme# *n !or&s !ith di%erse ma&eups, there must be a contrast, ho!e%er a still constant theme to tie it all together# A good e$ample of a series of films !ith di%erse ma&eups but a still unifying theme is The Jord of the Aings trilogy 0The Art of 1a&eup2# The use of animatronics 0robots animated !ith the use of computer generated effects2, puppetry, prosthetics., fa&e bodies, or e%en "ust simple ma&eup and prosthetic !ounds are used in almost e%ery tele%ision sho! and e%ery mo%ie# Today, due to technological ad%ances, this ma&es it almost impossible to discern !hat is created and !hat is real in a production# Sometimes audiences also ha%e difficulties discerning bet!een !hat is computer generated and !hat is hands(on special effects in mo%ies these days, as both industries ha%e become so ad%anced in loo&ing real 0The Art of 1a&eup2# -hen artists create real de%ices and then add computer generated effects to it, they often use the colors blue, green, or put !hite rods on the ob"ect or person# ;ne e$ample of this is the actor !ho played )olemn/Smeagle in The Jord of the Aings Trilogy and in The 5obbit trilogy# 5e !as dressed in a blue "umpsuit !ith !hite rods, as that color and the rods help transfer the data and ma&e it easier to manipulate !ith computer effects 0The Art of 1a&eup2# Today, there are se%eral mo%ies that ha%e been created almost completely by computer generation# ;ne e$ample of these mo%ies is the Einal Eantasy mo%ies, as they pro%ide hyper(

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realistic graphics in the mo%ie# 5o!e%er, the computer generation industry is still many years off from creating a completely realistic mo%ie completely out of computer(generation# Eor right no!, though, fully reali?ed C)* animated characters are for the most part mapped off of the real human mo%ements of bona(fida li%ing/breathing sentient human beings# 05olt, 12 Therefore, a computer(generated, or C) character has to ha%e prior information in order to be created# Due to this and the high costs of C)(creation, it has not caused much of an impact on the ma&eup special effects industry# Special effects !as created thousands of years ago, to pro%ide entertainment and ne! sensory information# *t has e%ol%ed o%er time to be used in plays, tele%ision and mo%ie productions, and e%en on 5allo!een# ;%er time, it has e%ol%ed to be a multi(billion dollar industry that is used in almost e%ery T#'# and mo%ie production today, !hether it be hands(on special effects or if it+s created by a computer#

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