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 FALL 2008

Psychology Notes:

OCT. 9th 2008

*Psychology began as a branch of philosophy. It was considered a

science after the Scientific Method began to be applied.

*1879-Leipzig, Germany: “Father of Psychology” Wilhelm Wundt set

up the first psychological laboratory to study conscious experience.

*Edward Titchner

-Structuralism: analyzing sensations and personal experience

into basic elements

*William James

-Functionalism: how behavior and mental abilities help people

adept to their environments.

>Charles Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection: evolution

favors those plants and animals best suited to their living


*Behaviorism is the study of observable behavior. (Watson)

*Conditioned Response (Pavolv)

-A learned reaction to particular stimuli.

*Actions are controlled by rewards and punishments (Skinner)

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

Gestalt Psychology

*Emphasizes the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole

units, not by analysis into parts.

-Gestalt in German for “pattern”.



*Sigmund Freud
-Exploring the unconscious mind



>Super ego

Fun fact: Freud developed the first form of “talk therapy”

Humanistic Psychology

*States humans exist on free will. Concerned with human experience,

problems, potentials, and ideas.

*Self-actualization: The ongoing process of fully developing one’s

personal potential (Maslow).

The Biological Perspective

*Explains human behavior in terms of underlying biological principals

The Psychological Perspective

*Behavior is shaped by psychological processes occurring at the level

of the individual

The Sociocultural Perspective

*Focuses on the importance of social and cultural contexts influencing

the behavior of individuals.

Critical thinking
*An ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, synthesize, and

The Scientific Method

*A form of critical thinking based on careful measurement and

controlled observation.

*6 Steps:

1. Observe

2. Define the problem

3. Propose the Hypothesis

4. Gather the evidence and test the hypothesis

5. Publish results

6. Build theories

*Creating a Hypothesis

-An educated guess between 2 or more variables

>Operational Definition: Defining a scientific concept by

stating the specific actions or procedures used to measure

>A theory is a system of ideas designed to interrelate

concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing data
and predicts future observations

The Psychology Experiment

*An experiment is a formal trial undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a

hypothesis about cause and effect.

-Directly vary a condition you think might affect behavior.

-Create 2 or more groups of subjects. These subjects should be a

like in every way except the condition you a varying.

-Record whether varying the condition has any effect on


*A variable is any condition that changes or can be made to change; a

measure, event, or state that may vary.

-Independent variable: conditions altered or varied by the

experimenter. Independent variables are suspected causes for
difference in behavior.

-Dependent Variable: measures the results of the experiment.

They reveal the effects that the Ind. Vars. have on behavior.

-Extraneous Variables: Conditions that a researcher wishes to

prevent from affecting the outcomes of the experiment.

*The Experimental Group: those exposed to the Independent Variable.

*The Control Group: those exposed to all the same conditions but NOT
the Independent variable.

*Random assignment: participants have an equal chance of getting

into either group.
Non-Experimental Research Methods

*Naturalistic Observation- study in natural setting(s).

*Correlation Method- discover relationships between events.

*Clinical Method- study psychological problems and therapies in clinical


*Survey Method: Use of questionnaires and polls

Naturalistic Observation

*Actively observing subjects in their natural environment.


>Observer effect

>Observer bias

>Anthropomorphic error (when observing animals)

Correlation Coefficients

*+1.00 and -1.00

-If the amount is closer to zero, the association between the two
measures is weak or nonexistent.

-If the correlation is +1.00, a perfect positive relationship exists;

if it is -1.00, a perfect negative relationship has been discovered

>Positive correlation: a statistical relationship is which

increase/decrease in one measure are matched by
increase/decrease in the other

>Negative correlation: a statistical relationship in which

increases in one measure are matched by decrease in

>Does not demonstrate causation

Clinical Method

*Case Studies

-An in-debt focus on all aspects of a single person

>Phineas Gage: frontal lobe and lobotomy

>The Genain sisters


>Little or no control is possible; no control group for


>Subjective interpretation is often necessary.

Survey Method

*Use of the public to answer psychological questions.

-A representative sample: a small, randomly selected part of a

larger population that accurately reflects characteristics of the
whole population.

>A population is an entire group of animals or people

belonging to a particular category.


>People may not actually do what they say; therefore,

responses may be inaccurate.

Chapter 2

Oct. 14th 2008

The Nervous System

*2 Parts of the Nervous System

-Central Nervous System (CNS)

>The central “computer” of the nervous system

>The Spinal Chord

-Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

>Carries information to and from the CNS

~Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): serves the

internal organs, glands, and body
~Somatic Nervous System (SNS): carries messages
to and from sense organs and skeletal muscles

*Hemispheres and Lobes

-The Cerebrum: 2 large hemispheres cover the upper part

of the brain. Each side of the brain controls functions on
the opposing side of the body.

- Occipital lobe: rear of the brain. Processes primary

visual information.

- Temporal lobes: located low on each side of the brain.

Processes auditory information and language.

- Parietal lobe: Mid Brain. Registers body sensations

(touch, temperature, pressure, etc.)

- Frontal lobe: Front of brain. Higher mental abilities,

reasoning, and planning.

*Sub cortex- life sustaining functions


>Hypothalamus: controls basic motives such as sex,

eating, drinking, sleep.

>Limbic System: Primitive core of the brain (fear system,


-Midbrain (connector)

>Controls vital life functions (breathing, heart rate,
swallowing, etc.)

Endocrine System

*Pituitary gland: Regulates growth

*Pineal Gland: Controls body rhythms and sleep cycles (melatonin)

*Thyroid Gland: Controls metabolism

*Adrenal Gland: Fight or flight response, secondary source of sex

Chapter 3

Human Development

*Heredity (“nature”): What you inherit from your parents (eye color and
hair color)

-DNA: recessive genes vs. dominate genes

*Environment (“nurture”): What you obtain from the world around you

-Congenital Problems (birth defects not disorders)

-Deprivation vs. Enrichment

Babies (“Neonates”)

*Grasping reflex- Grasping tightly to items placed in hands.

*Rooting reflex- reflexively turn head when touched on the cheek.

*Sucking reflex- reflexively suck to obtain food when touched on the


*Moro reflex-Make hugging motion when startled by a loud noise

Baby Facts

*At 6 months, babies can recognize categories of objects that differ in

shape and color.

*By 9 months, babies can tell the difference between different animals
(bird vs. dog).
*By I year, babies can see as well as their parents.

TEST HINT: Pay special attention to the motor development

cycle in figure 3.8 p. 107 in that text.

*Social development is important to the child’s maturation. This is how

the child creates attachments.

-Attachment is the close emotional bond that babies form with

their primary caregivers.

>Secure attachment

>Insecure attachment

*Parenting styles
-Authoritarian (rigid rules, demands, strict obedience)

-Overly permissive (little guidance, laissez-faire)

-Authoritative (firm and consistent guidance combined with love



Cognitive Development

*Piaget’s 4 stages of a child’s development

-Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years)

>The child develops better motor and sensory


>Learn object performance (objects exists even when not

in plain sight)

-Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)

>The child’s symbolic thinking and language strengthens.

>Child becomes egocentric; they are the world.

-Concrete Operations stage (7-11 years)

>The child begins to think more logical; yet still concrete.

>Child begins to understand the concept of conversation.

-Formal Operations stage (11 years and up)

>Abstract thinking emerges

>Full adult intellectual ability is attained

*Adolescence- culturally defined period between childhood and


-Not to be confused with puberty!

-Time when one develops a clear sense of right and wrong.

Kohlberg’s Level Of Moral Development

*Preconventional Level
-Moral thinking guided by consequences of actions: Punishment,
rewards, or mutual benefit.

>Avoiding punishment


*Conventional Level

-Moral thinking guided by desire to please others or to follow

accepted authority, rules, and values.

>Avoiding disapproval

>Traditional morality of authority

*Post-conventional Level

-Moral thinking guided by self-chosen ethical principles that are

general, comprehensive and universal.

*Childhood and Society (1963) by Erik Erikson

-Suggest we all face a crisis at each stage of life.

>He referred to these “crisis” as psychological dilemmas: a

conflict between personal impulses and the social world.

*Stage one: -First year of life: Trust vs. Mistrust

-Being loved, touched, and nurtured by parents (trust) vs. being

ignored or rejected by parents (mistrust).

*Stage two: 1-3 years: Autonomy vs. Shame

-Encouraged to be independent (autonomy) vs. being ridiculed or
overprotected (shame).

*Stage three: 3-5: Initiative vs. Guilt

-Parent reinforce making plans and following through (initiative)

vs. severe criticism or prevention of self-goals (guilt).

*Stage four: 6-12: Industry vs. Inferiority

-Praise for success in school (industry) vs. being told work is

messy or inadequate (inferiority).

*Stage five: Adolescence: Identity vs. Role confusion

-Building a strong sense of self (identity) vs. Low self-esteem, low
self worth (role confusion).

*Stage six: Young adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation

-Sharing a meaningful relationship with another (intimacy) vs.

feeling alone in life (isolation).

*Stage seven: Middle adulthood: Generativity vs. Stagnation

-Interest in guiding the next generation (Generativity) vs.

stagnant concern with one’s own needs (stagnation).

*Stage eight: Late adulthood: Integrity vs. Despair

-Ability to view life with acceptance and satisfaction (integrity)

vs. regret and/or remorse over one’s life (despair)

Five Stages of death and dying (Elisabeth Kubler-Ross)

*Denial and isolation

-“this is a mistake,” “I’m alone in this.” “This cannot be.”


-“Why me?”


-Making a deal with God- “Just let me live a little while longer.”


Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception

*Sensation refers to the process of sensing our environment through

touch, taste, sight sound, and smell. This information is sent to our
brains in raw form where perception comes into play. Perception is
the way we interpret these sensations and therefore make sense of
everything around us.

*Psychophysics can be defined as, the Vitreous
study of humour-
how physical stimuli
are translated into
Aqueous psychological experience.
everything else

Sensation humour-
*Sensation is the process by which our senses gather information and
send itCornea-Light
to the brain.
pass through eye
-Room temp, brightness of the lights, someone talking, a distant
train, or the smell of perfume.

-We don’t notice radio waves, x-rays, or the microscopic

parasites crawling on our skin.

-Note: We don’t sense all the odors around us or taste every

individual spice in our gourmet dinner.

Absolute Threshold

*The absolute threshold is the point where something becomes

noticeable to our senses.

-The absolute threshold is the point at which a stimulus goes

from undetectable to detectable to our senses.

Difference Threshold

*The difference threshold is the amount of change needed for us to

recognize that a change occurred.

-This change is referred to as the Just Noticeable Difference.

*The visual system works on sensing and perceiving light waves. Light
waves vary in their length and amplitude.
-Wave length (also referred to as frequency, since the longer a
wave, the less often/quickly it occurs) – affects color perception
(ex: red=approx 700, yellow=approx 600).

-Wave aptitude (this is the size/height of the wave) - affects

brightness perception.


Retina- receives the
Pupil-controls info about light using
amount of light that rods and cones
enters the eye (Contains rods
Lens- focuses light
Iris- gives your eye onto the retina
color Optic nerve-
transfer info to

The photoreceptors- Rods and cones are considered photoreceptors

*Cones daytime vision- perceive surrounding environment as

accurately as possible (daylight vision and color).

*Rods: Night vision and peripheral vision

3 Visual Problems

*Myopia (aka: nearsightedness)

-Those with myopia see nearby objects but distant objects

appear blurred. With myopia, the eyeball is too long, or the
cornea is too steep.

*Hyperopia (aka: far-sightedness)

-Those with hyperopia have an inability to focus on nearby

objects and in extreme cases unable to focus on objects at any
distance. With hyperopia, the cornea is too flat or the eye is too

-Defects in the cornea, lens, or eye that cause some areas of
vision to be out of focus.

*We can see many colors, but only have 3 types of cones that receive
information about color. We have cones that pick up light waves for
red, green, and blue.

Color Vision Theories

*Trichromatic Theory- this theory indicates that we can receive 3

types of colors and that the cones vary the ratio of neural activity (like
TV). The ratio of each color to the other then determines the exact
color that we see.

*Opponent-Process Theory- color perception depends on the

reception of pairs of antagonist colors. Each receptor can only work
with one color at a time so the opponent color in the pair is blocked
out. Pairs=redgreen, blueyellow, blackwhite (lightdark).

-After images

Structure of the Ear-pg 164, 166

*Cochlea- excited hair like vibrations allow hearing sending message to


*The ear is the sense organ that produces sound

-Sound is a form of energy that moves through air, water, and
other matter, in waves of pressure.

>Place theory: higher and lower tones excite specific areas

of the cochlea

Sense of Smell “Olfation”

Sense of Taste “Gustation”

*Bitter, Salty, Sweet, Sour

Oct. 23rd- Perception

*Perception refers to interpretation of what we take in through our

*Perceptual constancy refers to our ability to see things differently
without having to reinterpret the objects properties. There are typically
three consistencies discussed, including size, shape, and brightness.

*Size constancy refers to our ability to see objects as maintaining the

same size even when our distance from them makes things appear
larger or smaller.

*Shape constancy allows us to perceive that plate as still being a

circle even though the angle from which we view it appears to distort
the shape.

*Brightness constancy refers to our ability to recognize that color

remains the same regardless of how it looks under different levels of

*Much of our understanding of how we perceive things comes from

Gestalt Psychology.

*Gestalt Principles of perceptual Organization

-Figure-ground-this is the fundamental way we organize visual

perceptions. When we look at an object, we see that object
(figure) and the background (ground) on which it sits.

-We attempt to organize this information into certain groups. This

allows us to interpret the information completely without
unneeded repetition.

>The Gestalt principals of grouping include four major

types: similarity, proximity, continuity, and closure.

*Similarity refers to our tendency to group things

together based upon how similar to each other they
*Proximity, or nearness, refers to group things
based on how close they are to one another.
*Continuity refers to our tendency to see patterns
and therefore perceive things as belonging together
if they form some type of continuous problem.
*Closure refers to our tendency to complete familiar
objects that have gaps in them.
Depth Perception

*The ability to see 3D space and to accurately judge distance.

*We determine distance using 2 different cues: Monocular and


-Monocular Cues: those cues that can be seen using only one
eye. They include size, texture, overlapping, shading, height, and

-Binocular Cues: those depth cues in which both eyes are needed
to perceive. There are two important binocular cues,
convergence and retinal disparity.

*Monocular cues:

-Relative size refers to the fact that larger images are

perceived as closer to us, especially if the two images are of the
same object.

-The texture gradient of objects tend to become smoother as

the object gets farther away, suggesting that more detailed
textured objects are closer.

-Due to overlap, those objects covering part of another object is

perceived closer.

-The Shading or shadows of objects can give a clue to their

distance, allowing closer objects to cast longer shadows which
will overlap objects which are farther away.

-Objects that are closer to the bottom of our visual field are seen
as closer to us due to our perception of the horizon, where higher
(height) means farther away, therefore, cleaner or crisper
images tend to be perceived as closer (clarity).

*Binocular cues:

-Convergence refers to the fact that the closer an object, the

more inward our eyes need to turn in order to focus. The farther
our eyes converge; the closer an object appears to be.

-Since our eyes see two images that are then sent to our brains
for interpretation, the distance between these two images, or
their retinal disparity, provides another cue regarding the
distance of the object.

Perceptual Learning
*Changes in perception that can be attributed to prior experience; a
result of changes in how the brain processes sensory information.

*Hallucination- an imaginary sensation (seeing, hearing,

smelling something that does not exist)

*Illusion- a distorted perception

-Muller-Layer Illusion

Chapter 5: States of Consciousness

*Consists of all the sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings

you are aware of at any instant

-Altered states of consciousness

-Walking consciousness

*Altered states of consciousness: changes occur in the quality and

patter of mental activity.

-Drug, alcohol, long distance running, meditation, hypnosis.

-Sleep: Sleep is an innate biological rhythm that can never be


>The measurement of eye movement during sleep is used

to divide sleep into the two broad types of Rapid Eye
Movement (REM) and Non-Rapid Eye Movement
(NREM) sleep.

>Sleep proceeds in cycles of REM and the four stages of

NREM, the order normally being: Stages

+In humans this cycle is on average 90-110 min,

with a greater amount of stages 3 and 4 early in
the night and more REM later in the night.

+Drugs can suppress certain stages of sleep that

exhibits loss of consciousness but does not fulfill its
physiological functions.

*Stages of Sleep: NREM

- Accounts for 75-80% of total sleep time in normal human adults

-In NREM sleep, there is relatively little dreaming.

-Non-REM encompasses four stages; stages 1 and 2 are
considered ‘light sleep’, and 3 and 4 ‘deep sleep’ or slow-wave sleep,

*NREM Stage 1:

-Light sleep-heart rate slows, breathing becomes slightly

irregular, and muscles relax.

-More hypnotic state, drowsy.

*NREM Stage 2:

-Sleep deepens, body temperature drops.

*NREM Stage 3:

-New large and slow brain waves appear.

-Sleep terrors, nightmares, bedwetting, sleepwalking occurs

*NREM Stage 4:

-Deep sleep reached within 1 hour.

*Stages of Sleep: REM

-In adult humans, typically occupies 20-25% of total sleep, about

90-120 minutes of a night’s sleep.

-During a normal night of sleep, humans usually experience

about 4 or 5 periods of REM sleep: they are quite short at the
beginning of the night and longer toward the end.
-Most people tend to wake, or experience a period of very light
sleep, for a short time immediately after a bout of REM.

*Sleep Disturbances: serious risk to health and happiness

-Insomnia: The inability to fall asleep and stay asleep.

-Sleepwalking and sleep talking: usually takes place during stage

3 and stage 4 of NREM sleep.

-Nightmares and Night Terrors

>Nightmares are bad dreams that occur in REM sleep

>Night terrors cause total panic, hallucinations, and high

physiological arousal (NREM)
>Narcolepsy: Sudden irresistible sleep attacks; May last a
few minutes to ½ hour; Victim sleeps while standing, talking
or driving.

-Sleep Apnea: Breathing stops for periods of 20 seconds to 2

minutes causing person to gulp for air

-Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)-crib death: Affects 1 of

500 babies per year; baby stops breathing
after apnea.


-Most people dream 4-5 times a night.

-Most associated with REM sleep

>In Children, REM may stimulate the developing brain.

>In adults, REM may prevent sensory deprivation and help

process emotional events.

+Activism-Synthesis Hypothesis: Several parts of the

brain are activated during REM sleep, and the
cortex of the brain synthesizes this activity
into stories and visual images

+Freud(Psychodynamic Dream Theory)

*Other altered states of consciousness

-Hypnosis (Greek for sleep): Thought to be “a trance-like state

that resembles sleep but is induced by a person whose suggestions
are readily accepted by the subject”

-Meditation: mental discipline by which one attempts to get

beyond the conditioned, “thinking” mind into a deeper state of
relaxation or awareness. It often involves turning attention to a
single point of reference.

-Sensory deprivation: deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli

form one or more of the senses. Though short periods of sensory
deprivation can be relaxing, extended deprivation can result in
extreme anxiety, hallucinations, and depression.

*Psychoactive drugs: affect attention, judgment, memory, time sense,

self-control, emotion, and/or perception.

-Effects on the brain:

>Increase neurotransmitters (stimulant)

>Slows or blocks stimulation (depressant)

*Stimulants (“Uppers”): Temporarily increase alertness and awareness

-Increase the activity of either the sympathetic nervous system,

the central nervous system (CNS) or both.

>Sympathetic Nervous System: becomes more active

during times of stress. Its actions during the stress
response compromise the flight or flight response

>CNS: It contains the majority of the nervous system, and

consists of the brain, and the spinal chord.

-Stimulants include: Amphetamines, caffeine and nicotine

*Depressants (“Downers”): A chemical agent that diminishes the

function or activity of a specific part of the body like a sedative.

-Many depressants acting on the CNS do so by increasing the

activity of a particular neurotransmitter known as gamma-amino
butyric acid (GABA).

>CNS depressants require a period of adaptation. Typically,

initial side effects include slurred speech and alcohol is a

*Hallucinogens: merely amplify familiar states of mind, but rather

induce experiences that are qualitatively different from those of
ordinary consciousness
-Hashish, LSD, PCP, and Marijuana


-Physical dependence: A person compulsively uses a drug to

maintain bodily comfort.

>Drug tolerance: reduced response to a drug

>Withdrawal symptoms: When physical illness follows

removal of a drug.

-Psychological dependence: A person feels that a drug is

necessary to maintain feelings of comfort or wellbeing.

Chapter 6
*Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior that can be
attributed to experience

-Merely repeating a response will not necessarily produce


-Reinforcement is the key to learning- Reinforcement is any

event that increases the probability that a particular response will

*Antecedents: events that precede a response- classical conditioning

*Consequences: effects that follow a response- operant conditioning

*Classical Conditioning- a form of learning in which reflex responses

are associate with new stimuli

-Based on what happens before a response is made (antecedent)

>Involves passive behaviors

>A neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned

stimulus that leads to an unconditioned response.

>Learning happens when the neutral stimulus is able to

elicit the same response, now called the conditioned

*“Unconditioned” simply means that the stimulus and the response are
naturally connected. They just came that way, hard wired

-“stimulus” simply means the thing that starts it while

“response” means the thing that ends it. A stimulus elictts and a
response is elicited.

* “Conditioning” means the opposite of unconditioned. It means that

we are trying to associate, connect, bond, link something new with the
old relationship. And we want this new thing to elicit (rather that be
elicited) so it will be a stimulus not a response.


-Unconditioned Stimulus: a thing that can already elicit a


_Unconditioned Response: a thing that is already elicited by a

-Unconditioned Relationship: an existing stimulus-response

-Conditioning stimulus: a new stimulus we deliver the same time

we give the old stimulus

-Conditioned Relationship: the new stimulus-response

relationship we created by associating a new stimulus with an old

*This is the essence of classical conditioning. It really is that simple.

You start with two things that are already connected with each other
(food and salivation). Then you add a third thing (Bell)…

Operant conditioning-

*Classical conditioning forms an association between two stimuli.

Operant conditioning forms an association between a behavior and a
consequence. (it also called response-stimulus or RS conditioning
because it forms an association between the animal’s response
[behavior] and the stimulus that follows [consequence])

Four possible Consequences

*Something Good can start or be presented (positive) 

*Something Good can end or be taken away (negative) 

*Something Bad can start or be presented (negative) 

*Something Bad can end or be taken away (positive) 

*Anything that increases a behavior- makes it occur more frequently,
makes it stronger, or makes it more likely to occur- is termed a

*Anything that decreases a behavior- makes it occur less frequently,

makes it weaker, or makes it less likely to occur- is termed a punisher.


Reinforcement Punishment
Positive Positive Positive punishment
Negative Negative Negative Punishment
Partial Reinforcement and Stimulus Control

*Ratio Schedules-based on number of responses

-Fixed ration and –variable ratio

*Interval Schedules- based on time elapsed

-Fixed interval and –variable interval

Chapter 7:Memory

Memory is defined as the mental system for receiving, encoding,

storing, organizing, altering, and retrieving information.

*Encoding: Converting information into a form in which it will be

retained in memory.

*Storage: Holding information in storage for later use.

*Retrieval: Recovering information from storage in memory.

Memory Systems

*Sensory Memory -Registers incoming information from the

environment through our senses for a few seconds or less.

-Iconic Memory: an exact copy of what you see (less than 1 sec)

-Echoic Memory: An exact copy of what you hear (less than 4


*Short-Term Memory: holds a small amount of memory to be used

-Limited capacity of information

-Sensitive to interruption and interference

-A working of sorts

*Features of Short-Term Memory

-STM’s capacity is typically about 7 bits of information (+2).

STM’s duration is typically 12-18 seconds.

>Chunking: Reorganizing information into chunk. (phone


>Rehearsal: Repeating information

*Long-Term Memory-Acts as lasting, nearly limitless, storehouse for

-Stored on basis of meaning and importance.

*Features of Long-Term Memory

-The brain does not store memories in one unified structure.

Instead different types of memory are stored in different regions of
the brain.

-LTM is typically divided into two major headings: declarative

memory (facts) and procedural memory (skill).

-Declarative memory

>All memories that are consciously available

>Episodic memory refers to memory for specific events

each time

>Semantic memory refers to knowledge about the external

world such as the function of a pencil

-Procedural Memory- the use of objects or movements of the

body (using a pencil or riding a bike)

Measuring Memory

*Memories from past experience that are consciously brought to mind

are explicit. Memories outside of awareness are implicit.

-Explicit: Recall, Recognition, and Relearning

-Implicit: Priming


*Encoding Failure, Repression (memory you repress), Memory Decay,

Suppression (porously forgetting), Cue-Dependent Forgetting, State-
Dependant Learning, Interference

Improving your memory

*Spaced practice, whole vs. Part learning, Organization, Overlearning,

and Memory cues

Chapter 8: Intelligence
Intelligence- the global capacity to act purposefully, to think
rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment.

*General mental ability (g-factor)





-Successful adaptation to one’s surrounding


*Fluid Intelligence- consists of reasoning ability, memory capacity, and

speed of information processing. It involves such skills as those
requiring spatial and visual imagery and is generally believed to be
much less affected by experience and education that crystallized

*Crystallized Intelligence- concerns the application of knowledge to

problem solving. It includes abilities such as reasoning and verbal and
numerical skills and is generally believed to be affected by experience
and formal education.

Intelligence Test

*Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale- 5th edition

-A standardized test that assesses intelligence and cognitive

abilities in children and adults aged 2-23
-Tests intelligence across four areas: fluid (verbal) reasoning,
quantitative reasoning, spatial/visual reasoning, and working

>15 subtests, including vocabulary, comprehension, verbal

absurdities, pattern analysis, matrices, paper
folding, cutting, copying, quantitative, number series,
equation building, memory for sentences, memory for
digits, memory for objects, and bead memory.

IQ= Intelligence Quotient

*Mental age (average intellectual performance)

*Chronological age- MA/CA multiply 100=IQ

*Standard Deviations (points above or below the mean)

*Mean (Average)

Intelligence Test

*Weschler Scales

-Wechsler Preschool and primary scale of intelligence (WPPSI)

-Wechsler intelligence Scale for Children- Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)

-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- Third Edition (WAIS-III)

*Measures on three main scales:

-Verbal IQ

-Performance IQ

-Full-scale IQ

*Measure four subscales

-Verbal comprehension

-Perceptual organization

-Working memory

-Processing standard


*Cognition is the process by which we mentally process information.

-Images- pictures like mental reproductions

-Concepts- ideas that represent categories of objects or events

-Language- words or symbols and rules for combining them

*Images- mental nonverbal representations of sensory experiences,

affect our thinking and learning, particularly when dealing with
physical skills and certain nonverbal materials such as mathematical

-For example, the images we hold of a champion’s suburb golf

strokes may govern our own attempts to develop similar skills.
*Concepts- the mental categories used to organize events and objects,
are often arranged in hierarchical order from general to more specific

-For example, organism, animal, vertebrate, quadruped, dog,

collie. Such categories help people to understand new

*Language- is a system of communication using gestures, sounds, or

written symbols that have significance for those who use the language
and follow its rules

-Phonemes: the smallest unit of sound in a language.

>Have no meaning they acquire it when combined

-Morphemes- smallest unit of meaning in a spoken language

>The word overcoat is compressed of two morphemes.

*Semantics- refers to the study of meaning in a language

*Syntax- are the rules used when forming words into sentences

*Grammar- refers to the rules for combining language units to form

meaningful speech and writing

*Sign language (gestured language)

*Problem Solving

-Trial and Error- Guessing or randomly trying an approach (least


-Information Retrieval- retrieval of pertinent information from

long-term memory

-Algorithms- the methodical development of a step-by-step

method to solve a problem.

-Heuristics- rules of thumb to deal with a problem, sometimes

based on information easily available in memory.

Creative Thinking

* Convergent thinking: thinking directed toward discovery of a single

established correct answer; conventional thinking

*Divergent thinking: thinking that produces many ideas or alternatives;

a major element in original or creative thought.
Stages of Creative Thought






Chapter 9: Motivation

*Motivation is the ways in which our actions are initiated, sustained,

directed, and terminated.

*A model of motivation

-Need  Drive  Response  Goal  Need Reduction  Need

again (p372)

Three Categories of Motives

*Primary Motives- Based on biological needs for food, water, air, etc.
to ensure survival of the individual.

*Stimulus Motives- Our needs for stimulation and information appear

to be innate, but not strictly necessary for survival.

*Secondary motives- based on learned needs, drives, and goals.

Hunger Thirst Pain and Sex

*Hunger- a physical response to a mental need

-As the brain receives signals (via the hypothalamus) that the
body needs nourishment.

>Emotional eating, yo-yo dieting, eating disorders

+Anorexia Nervosa, bulimia Nervosa

*Thirst- 2 types

-Extracellular. Thirst develops when there is a loss of fluid

volume between body cells. (Perspiration)

-Intracellular. Thirst develops when there is a loss of fluid from

within body cells. (Eating salts)
*Pain- An episodic drive that prompts us to avoid damage to the body-
partially learned.

*Sex- sex drive refers to ones motivation to engage in sexual behavior.

-Sex in not necessary for individual survival. It is necessary for

the survival of a species.

-What attracts us? Pheromones.

>Estrogen (women) Androgens (men)

-What can “kill” a sex drive: alcohol, cocaine, LSD, barbiturates,


Arousal, Achievement, and Growth Needs

*Arousal- Theory: we try to keep arousal at a workable level

*Achievement: Learned motives are acquired as a part of growing up in

a society or culture.

*Growth: Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs places growth needs at

the top.

Emotion and Physical Arousal

*Emotion is characterized by physiological arousal, subjective feelings,

and change in behavior

-Reactions to threats are innate. Caused by arousal of the

autonomic nervous system (ANS).

>Fight or Flight (sympathetic)

>Parasympathetic rebound (aka: sudden death)

*There are 8 primary emotions

-Fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, anticipation, joy, trust

-They are different from moods (mood is a low intensity long

lasting emotional state.)
Chapter 11 Health Physchology

*Concered with understanding how biology, behavior, and social

context influence health and illness

-Clinical health (CIHP)

-Occupational health (OHP)

-Public health (PHP)

-Community health (CoHP)

-Critical health psychology (CrHP)


*Mental and physical condition that occurs when we adapt to the

*Origins of actual stress may vary with the individual, but in general,
stress arises from frustration, life changes, conflict, lack of
control, and uncertainty.

*The amount of stress we feel depends on how we perceive the

situation; threat or a thrill?

-Primary appraisal- is this situation relevant to us?

-Secondary appraisal- what can we do about it?

*There are 2 ways to cope with stress

-Problem-focused coping: facing the problem head-on

-Emotion-focused coping: control of emotions through redirection

*Conflict occurs when contradictory choices must be made

-Approach-approach conflict occurs when an individual must

choose between 2 equally desirable goals

-Avoidance-Avoidance conflict- occurs when an individual

must choose between 2 equally undesirable goals or activities

-Approach-Avoidance conflict is the resulting of having

concomitant but incompatible goals.


*Frustration occurs when obstacles prevent us from reaching desired


*Frustration can motivate aggression

*When coping with frustration:

-Identify source of frustration: avoid misplaced aggression

-Can it be changed?

-If it can be changed, are the efforts worth it?: Distinguish

between real barriers and imagined ones.

*Anxiety is apprehension toward an unclear threat- similar to fear.

-Defenses: Defense Mechanism is a habitual and often

unconscious psychological process used to reduce anxiety (table
11.4 in text)
-Learned Helplessness: an acquired inability to overcome
obstacles and avoid aversive stimuli (even in the face of power)

-Depression: emotional problem with marked features of

powerlessness, despondency, and overwhelmed helplessness


*4x as many men commit suicide then women.

-Male suicides are typically more lethal due to their methods of


-Women tend to use drugs more often

*In the U.S. Native Americans have the highest suicide rate, followed
closely by Caucasians.

-With in the global community, suicide rates are highest in

aboriginal people of Australian and New Zealand

*Suicide is the second largest cause of death among college-aged


*Suicide rates increase with advancing age.

-More than half of all suicide victims are over 45 y/o (White males
65+ are particularly at risk)

*Causes: there isn’t one major cause for suicide, but there are factors.

-Alcohol abuse, depression, or a mood disorder, aggressive

behavior, extreme failure, prior suicide attempt, family history.

-Of every 10 suicides, 8 give warnings

>Withdrawal, giving away items, change in personality,

preoccupations with death, death
imagery art, depression/ hopelessness

*An estimated 2/3 of all suicide attempts are made by people who do
not really want to die

-Only 3-5% of suicide cases involve people who really want to


-Suicidal behavior is a cry for help

>Establish a rapport with the person, seek help, “are you

thinking of suicide?” be vigilant in the help of your friend

Chapter 13 Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis

*Psychoanalysis (Freud)

-Created over 100 years ago

-Stressed neurosis and hysteria as effects of repressed

memories, motives, and conflicts.

-Common techniques used include

>Free association
>Dream analysis

>Analysis of transference

Insight Therapies

*Humanistic Therapies:

-Client centered therapy

>Non-directive, allowing the patient to lead the therapy

>Goal: Uncover the “true self” hidden behind a screen of


-Existential Therapy

>Focuses on the problem of existence

>Goal: Emphasizes the ability to make your own personal

choices- you choose to be the person you want to be.

-Gestalt Therapy

>Integration of fragmented experiences into a whole

>Goal: Helps rebuild thinking, feeling, and acting into

connected wholes

Behavioral Therapy

*Use learning principles to make constructive changes in behavior

-Behavior modification refers to any use of classical or operant
conditioning to directly alter human behavior

>Aversion Therapy and Desensitization

*Operant and Cognitive Therapies

-Operant Therapies: use of operant conditioning

(positive/negative reinforcemtn)
-Cognitive Therapies: help change thinking patterns that lead to
troublesome emotions or behaviors

>Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)- Core

irrational beliefs (You must treat me fairly. Conditions
must be the way I want them to be)
Other Therapies

*Group Therapy: Psychodrama, Family Therapy, Group Awareness


*Medical Therapies: Psychopharmacology, Electroshock, and


*Self-management (thought stopping)


*Core factors: Therapeutic alliance, safe, confidential setting for

catharsis, clients have a new perspective about themselves and their

*Basic Counseling skills: Active listening, clarify problem, focus on

feelings, avoid giving advice, accept the person’s frame of reference,
use of silence, reflection of thoughts and feelings, ask open-ended
questions, maintain confidentiality

Chapter 12 Psychopathology

*The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental Disorders


-Axis I- Clinical Disorders

-Axis II-Personality Disorders, Mental Retardation

-Axis III- General Medical Conditions

-Axis IV- Psychosocial and Environmental Problems

-Axis V- Global Assessment of Functioning

*Normal refers to socially acceptable. Things that fall outside of what’s

socially acceptable is abnormal

-Subjective discomfort-Disordered Behavior-Socially

Nonconformity-Statistical abnormality-Insanity

Personality Disorders
*Defined by maladaptive personality patterns

-Paranoid PD -Schizoid PD –Antisocial PD (Sociopaths) –Borderline


–Histrionic PD –Narcissistic PD –Avoidant PD –Dependent PD –

Obsessive Compulsive PD

Stress and Dissociative Disorders

*Stress disorders occur when people experience stresses outside the

rang of the norm

-Acute stress Disorder –Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

*Dissociative disorders are a disruption in normal memory, recall,

consciousness, identity, or perception.

-Amnesia –Fugue –Identity Disorder – Depersonalization Disorder

Anxiety Based Disorders

*Refers to uncontrollable feelings of apprehension, dread, or


-Panic Disorders –Phobias –Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder–

Somatoform Disorders

Psychosis and Delusion Disorders

*Psychosis –A loss of contact with reality

-Delusions –hallucinations –Organic Psychosis –Paranoid

*Delusions Disorders- an unmistakable break with reality that may
involve paranoia, jealousy, delusions etc.

-Erotomanic type – Jealous type –Somatic type –Grandiose type –



*Consists of delusions, hallucinations, inappropriate emotions and

thinking, abnormal effects.

-Disorganized –Catatonic –Paranoid –Undifferentiated

Mood Disorders
*Major disturbance in emotion

-Depressive Disorder: exaggeration, prolonged, or seasonal

sadness or despondency.

>Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymic Disorder

-Bipolar Disorder: depressive disorder that alternates with manic

episodes of varying degree

>Bipolar I and II

Others Disorders

*Child Disorders

-ADHD –Oppositional Defiant –Conduct Disorders –Learning


*Substance Related Disorders

*Somatoform Disorders

-Body Dysmorphic Disorder -Hyponchondriasis

*Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders

-Sexual Dysfunction –Paraphilias

>Exhibitionism >Fetishism>Pedophilia>Arousal
Disorders>Sexual Pain Disorders

*Eating Disorders
*Sleeping Disorders

-Dysomnias (Insomnia, Narcolepsy) –Parasomnias (Nightmare

and night terrors)

*Factitious Disorders

*Impulsive Control Disorders

-Kleptomania –Intermittent Explosive Disorder -Trichotillomania

*Adjustment Disorders

*Mental Retardation and Pervasive Developemental Disorders