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VOCABULARY

Us government non-negotiable items to know

PERJURY
Lying under an oath The witness was accused of perjury when the victim was found guilty.

PORK BARREL LEGISLATION


Laws that congress pass to appropriate money for local federal projects. Pork barrel legislation may not be the most ethical , but creates the ability to carry out a federal project.

EXPRESSED POWERS
Article one section three Expressed powers are stated word for word in the constitution

NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSE


Elastic clause. Last clause in section 8. Implies that congress has powers beyond those expressed in the first 17 clauses.
If a law may not necessarily be constitutional, the necessary and proper clause allows for it to be stretched, so that it is constructional.

APPROPRIATIONS BILL
Proposed laws to authorize spending money If money is needed for the government to spend, an appropriation bill may need to be passed.

INTERSTATE COMMERCE
Commerce among states Interstate commerce allows laws and regulations to be carried between states.

25TH AMENDMENT
When office of VP becomes empty , present appoints a replacement. According to the 25th amendment , If Joe Biden can no longer be vp , then president Obama appoints a replacement.

RIDER
A provision on a subject other than the one covered by a bill. Usually dont have anything to do with the bill that occurs at the end of the session. A rider is random and a chance for the idea to just be heard.

VETO
When president refuses to sign a bill and returns it to congress including reasons for the actions. A president may veto a law that he does not agree with.

STANDING COMMITTEE
A permanent committee The agriculture committee is an example of a standing committee.

SELECT COMMITTEE
A temporary committee The joint committee of library is an example of select committee.

JOINT COMMITTEE
A committee made up of members of both chambers in a bi cameral legislation. The conduct of foreign war is an example of a joint committee.

CLOTURE
Closes a debate The ending word , sentence, or idea is known as the cloture.

WAYS AND MEANS COMMITTEE


A committee that has a total jurisdiction on taxation, tariffs and other revenue- raising bills. They cannot serve on any other committees. Members of the ways and means committee can only be members of this specific committee.

APPROPRIATION
An approval of government spending. An appropriation is a congressional responsibility.

LOBBYING
The work of the lobbyist do to persuade officials to support their views. Lobbying is a way of manipulating things to make them favorable to your side.

PACS
Political actions committee. Fund raising organization established by corporations, labor unions and other special interest groups. Funds come voluntarily by company employees, stock holders and union members. PACs use funds to support law makers who favor their position on issues.

CONCURRENT RESOLUTION
Deals with matters where laws arent needed. Require actions of the house and senate.
Concurrent resolutions are usually done to regulate internal affairs.

SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE


Member who presides , appoints some members to committees, refers bills to standing committees, puts questions to vote and follow up in succession. John Boehner is currently the speaker of the house.

THE GREAT COMPROMISE


A bicameral legislation with a house of representatives based on population , and a senate with equal representation for all states. The great compromise helped the small and large states both be happy.

THE NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSE


Allows congress to make all laws that appear to be necessary and proper, also known as the elastic clause. The elastic clause stretches to allow unconstitutional laws to be constitutional.

FEDERALISM
The system of government under which the national government and local governments share powers. With federalism , both the states and the nation have some powers.

CONFEDERATION
A system in which many decisions are made by an external member state legislation. Belgium is an example of a country with confederation aspects.

RESERVED POWERS
Powers that belong exclusively to the states. Reserved powers are not powers of the national government, but rather the states.

CONCURRENT POWERS
Powers shared by the nation and states government. Some powers are better to be shared by the state governments and the national governments, these are known as concurrent powers.

JUDICIAL REVIEW
The power of the supreme court to declare laws and executive actions unconstitutional. Judicial review is part of the checks and balance systems of the united states.

CONSERVATIVE
Individuals should be responsible for their own well being and should not rely on government assistance. Typically conservatives are reluctant to accept change and also hold traditional values.

LIBERAL
Believe that the government should be used to remedy the social and economic injustices to the marketplace, support government regulation of the economy. A liberal may be very supportive of Obama care.

POLITICAL PARTIES
Groups of people with common political goals which hopes it influence policy through the election process, run candidates for office who represent the political agenda for party members. There are many political parties , but the two biggest are republican and democratic.

SUPER TUESDAY
Many primaries are held on the same Tuesday early in march. Super Tuesday is a big day in politics.

ELECTORAL COLLEGE
Created by the framers as a mean of insulating the government from whims of a less educated public.

VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965


Encourage states to take measures to increase minority representation in congress.

EAR MARKS
Provisions within legislation that appropriate money to a specific project. Ear marks help organize where money is designated to be used for.

POCKET VETO
If a president doesnt sign a bill during the 10 days before a congressional session ends. A pocket veto is not the president saying no, its that he didnt say yes within the designated time.

PLEA BARGAINING
An agreement with the prosecution to agree to a less serious crime an sentence. A plea bargain lets the criminal off with a less serious punishment.

APPELLATE JURISDICTION
Can only decide issues of law, not the facts of the case. Appellate jurisdiction is not interested in the story of the case, but the facts of the laws involved.

JUDICIAL RESTRAINT
When judges are reluctant to overturn the acts of legislation. judicial restraint encourages judges to exercise their powers.

JUDICIAL ACTIVIST
A judge who has no qualms over turning legislature. Judicial activism is sometimes based on personal opinions rather then the law.

WRIT OF CERTIORARI
A legal document used to request the lower court transcripts. The writ of certiorari is sometimes a judicial review from a higher court to a lower court.

SUPREME COURT
The highest judicial court in a country or state. Having a job as a member of the supreme court, is very respectable. The supreme court deals with critical cases.