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Hite 1 Sterling Hite Professor Katherine Sanders ENGL-1010-129 Human Cloning: ntrodu!tion "lthough humans ha#e $een su!!

essfull% !loning other !reatures for o#er a hundred %ears& the first su!!essful attem't at human !loning (asn)t until *!to$er 1+& 2001& a!!ording to S!ientifi! "meri!an maga,ine- Sin!e then& the ethi!al de$ate o#er (hether or not human !loning should $e allo(ed& has ! are four ma/or 'ers'e!ti#es in the human !loning0SCN.1 de$ate: s!ientifi!& ethi!al& religious& and 'u$li!- .hese grou's do not see e%e to e%e on the su$/e!t- .he s!ientifi!& and the ethi!al& 'ers'e!ti#es ma2e good& intelligent arguments- .here are man% m%ths a$out the SCN. 'ro!ess that gi#e it a $ad re'utation- (ill first gi#e some $rief histor%& and then some s!ientifi! $a!2ground on !loning $efore mo#ing on to the de$ate- n this manner& ho'e to 'ro#ide an edu!ated foundation to the readers in order to remo#e fantasti!al assum'tions a$out !loning& so that the% ma% form an intelligent o'inion of their o(n- .he o$/e!ti#e of this re'ort& is to gather& deli#er& disse!t intelligent information& and a!!uratel% 'ortra% the stan!es on the su$/e!t that ea!h of the four grou's ta2es- Geneti! engineering& stem !ell resear!h& SCN.& (hat is it)s $enefit to so!iet%3 " L ..LE H S.*45 n the late 1600s& a German s!ientist $% the name of Hans "dolf Eduard 7reis!h& 'erformed a !ellular regeneration e8'eriment on sea ur!hins- He dis!o#ered that& at the 2-!ell stage& se'aration of sea ur!hin $lastomeres (ould 'rodu!e another !om'lete ur!hin- n essen!e& 7reis!h (as the first to

Hite 2 !lone a li#ing !reature0 Sunderland1- Sin!e then& man% little !reatures ha#e $een !loned& su!h as: frogs& mi!e& !ats& fish& !o(s& and e#en a mon2e% 07rea1n 1999& 7oll% the shee' (as $orn- 7oll% (as the first su!!essful& large mammal 'rodu!ed $% the SCN. 'ro!ess- Steen :illadsen (as the s!ientist (ho 'erformed the e8'eriment- t (as this a!t that first ignited the !loning !ontro#ers% 0;the !lone ,one; 1- 7oll% the shee' reall% o'ened the e%es of the (orld to the 'otential of somati! !ell nu!lear trans'lantation& and it frightened mu!h of the (orldLess than a %ear after the su!!ess of 7oll%& there (as a lot of tal2 $% s!ientists a$out human !loning- .here (as an immediate negati#e res'onse to that t%'e of resear!h $% President Clinton& (ho restri!ted an% funding for that t%'e of resear!h& !reating $ans and la(s Currentl%& most of the (orld has a $an against the re'rodu!tion of a !om'lete human $eing& or an% definition thereof& $ut mu!h of the (orld is (illing to allo( stem !ell resear!h:H". S . .(ins are nature)s #ersion of !loning- .here is& ho(e#er& a differen!e $et(een the natural #ersion and the artifi!ial #ersion- Somati! !ell nu!lear trans'lant in#ol#es remo#ing the nu!leus of the egg !ell from a female su$/e!t& and re'la!ing it (ith a somati! !ell from a donor su$/e!t- .he t(o !ells are then ele!tri!all% fused- S!ientists then stimulate the fused !ells (hi!h a!ti#ates !ell di#ision- .he no( a!ti#ated egg is 'la!ed in a !ulture medium for a$out a (ee2 (hile the !ells di#ide and form an em$r%o- .hen it is 'la!ed in a surrogate mother for the remaining de#elo'ment& and $irth& 0<atra1- .he SCN. 'ro!ess 'rodu!es an e8a!t 7N" !o'% of the donor that the !ell (as e8tra!ted from onl%& and not of $oth the donor and the surrogate mother-

Hite 3 .HE 7E<".E The Scientific Perspective- Seen through the e%es of a s!ientist& SCN. has man% ad#antageous uses.heir idea is that human !loning !an sa#e man% li#es& and greatl% redu!e human suffering $% illness or in/ur%- <% using !loning te!hnologies to 'rodu!e needed organs and #arious tissues (ith no ris2 of re/e!tion due to the fa!t that the !loned tissue (ill $e of the 'atient)s e8a!t same 7N"- t is $elie#ed that (ith !loning te!hnologies& diseases& and e#en !an!er ma% $e !ured- =or those (ho are infertile& (ho ha#e !%sti! fi$rosis& leu2emia& $rain damage& or ha#e $een 'aral%,ed& there ma% $e ho'e& 0Smith are man% other maladies that ma% $e remedied $% the !loning 'ro!ess& $ut the use of stem !ell resear!h doesn)t sto' at !orre!ting& or e#en 're#enting health 'ro$lems& it is 'ossi$le to 'redetermine different as'e!ts of a !hild to $e $orn- =or e8am'le& if %ou (ould li2e %our !hild to ha#e $lue e%es& no 'ro$lem- Ho( a$out dar2 hair3 5ou got it- "nd e#en if %ou (ould li2e to ma2e !osmeti! alterations& %ou (ould no longer need 'lasti! surger%- 5our #er% o(n tissues !an $e manufa!tured and installed (ith no re/e!tion& or side effe!ts- t is also $elie#ed that the affe!ts of aging ma% a!tuall% $e re#ersed 0Smith 1So& the (orld of s!ien!e $elie#es that SCN. is a (ondrous a!hie#ement& something that should $e em$ra!ed& resear!hed& and used- .he% $elie#e that !loning (ould $enefit so!iet% in man% (a%s:ith all of these un$elie#a$le $enefits& (ho (ould argue other(ise3 The Ethical Perspective- .he a!tual >uestion $ehind the ethi!al !on!ern of 'erforming SCN. is? at (hat 'oint does an a!ti#ated egg $e!ome a human $eing- .his >uestion is a de$ate (ithin itselfS!ientists sa% that 'rodu!ing a !om'lete !loned human $eing& $rought to term and $orn is not 'ossi$le@While cloning is not the goal of the controversial new technique, scientists say it would be nave to ignore the fact that the new research brings them one step closer to being able to create human clones, sa%s Ste'hanie Pa''as& a re'orter and s!ien!e (riter for Li#eS!ien!e-!om -

Hite A .here are other >uestions--this is& after all& a #er% !om'li!ated su$/e!t- Su!h >uestions ma% $e: should stem !ell resear!h $e allo(ed& and if so& to (hat e8tent3 f human !loning (ere allo(ed& (here (ould it end3 :ould ne( !om'anies arises that 'rodu!e humans on a !ommer!ial s!ale3 :hat (ould the 'ur'ose $e for artifi!iall% !reating human $eings3 Ho( might artifi!iall% !reated humans $e integrated res'e!tfull% into so!iet%3 .here are lots of >uestions that arise (hen tr%ing to determine (hether something is ethi!al or not- "nd unfortunatel%& it)s usuall% the 'ros'e!t of ma2ing mone% that (ins the argument- .a2e this for e8am'le--a (oman in California 'aid BC0&000 to ha#e her dead !at !loned 0;Lo#e %our !at3 Get a !lone for BC0&000 ; 1 - n m% o'inion& it ta2es a si!2 'erson to 'a% that 2ind of mone% to 'rodu!e a !at (hen there are so man% !ats at shelters that need a home- <ut& the fa!t that these 'eo'le e8ist (ill $e all that the s!ien!e (orld (ill need to one da% mo#e on to human !loning- .he (orld of s!ien!e is more than ha''% to 'erform this sort of tas2 for 'eo'le $e!ause it !onditions 'eo'le to a!!e't human !loning in the future- =or e8am'le& if %ou ha#e a !hild that is lost due to !an!er& or is 2illed in an a!!ident& that !hild ma% $e !loned so that the 'arents don)t ha#e to suffer the loss 0Smith 1- .his idea has alread% $een o'enl% suggested $% s!ientists- .his !on!e't is a great (a% to sell their 'rodu!t& es'e!iall% (hen so!iet% has alread% $een 'rogrammed to a!!e't !loning as a normal a!t 0$% 'et !loning1.he ethi!al stand in the human !loning de$ate seems to $e against an% form of human !loningt is said that human !loning de$ases human dignit%& sin!e human dignit% deri#es from the uni>ueness of a 'erson 0'i!in!u 1- Peo'le ta2ing an ethi!al stand against SCN.& $elie#e that !loning (ould e8tra!t dignit% from humans- =urthermore& a ne( !lass of humans (ould $e !reated& the geneti!all% modified 0'i!in!u 1- .he ethi!al stand is that human !loning is in no (a% $enefi!ial to so!iet%The eligious Perspective- thought this (as going to $e a straightfor(ard se!tion& $ut (as sur'rised.he initial religious res'onse to human !loning (as as (ould thin2 it to $e& #er% negati#e-

Hite C .he mostl% unanimous de!ision (as that human !loning (as a $ad thing& an unnatural a!t& an a$omination& an insult to God- <ut as information gre(& religions $egan to $e!ome a little more o'enminded a$out the !on!e't- Christianit%& Dudaism& slam& <uddhism& of these four ma/or religious grou's& onl% Christianit% is against all forms of !loning- Dudaism and slam ha#e a!!e'ted stem !ell resear!h $ut not the !loning of a !om'lete human& and <uddhism a!!e'ts an% form of !loning 0"ldona E$i2o(s2a 1.he religious stand in the de$ate of !loning is that the ma/orit% of ma/or denominations are in a!!e'tan!e (ith stem !ell resear!h& $ut not the !loning of a !om'lete humanThe Public Perspective- .he 'u$li! rea!tion to this su$/e!t is of great di#ersit%- .he ma/orit% of the 'o'ulation seems to $e against human !loning& for man% reasons- Some !laim that (e should not 'la% God- Some re/e!t !loning $e!ause of the im'erfe!tion of the 'ro!ess& sa%ing that a great man% human li#es (ill $e destro%ed in the resear!h- "!!ording to a 'oll ta2en $% !ebate"org& (hen as2ed if human !loning is (rong& C9F of res'onses (ere %es& (hile AAF (ere no- "fter reading man% of these res'onses& noti!ed a trend- .he ma/orit% of the no res'onses (ere made $% 'eo'le (ho seem to $e full% a(are of& and understand& (hat the SCN. 'ro!ess in#ol#ed- .he ma/orit% of the %es res'onders did not seem to full% understand the 'ro!ess& $elie#ing that !loned humans (ould $e mindless ,om$ies& or the li2e- " good 'oint $rought u' $% the 'eo'le (ho $elie#e !loning to $e (rong& is that the militaries around the (orld (ould ta2e ad#antage of human !loning in attem'ts to !reate the ultimate soldier- :h% thin2 that the trend noti!ed is im'ortant& is $e!ause it suggests that the 'eo'le (ho are edu!ated a$out the SCN. 'ro!ess tend to a!!e't it as $enefi!ial to so!iet%& (hereas the 'eo'le (ho are not edu!ated a$iut the 'ro!ess tend to $e afraid of it& and feel as though it is dangerous and goes against God<ased on the 'u$li! res'onses to human !loning& it a''ears that the more %ou 2no(& the more

Hite 9 %ou a!!e't- *f !ourse& that is not a rule- .here (ere man% (ho disagreed (ith the 'ro!ess e#en though the% understood it- <ut the trend of res'onses seemed to indi!ate that edu!ation of the SCN. 'ro!ess led to a!!e'tan!e#y Perspective- am still some(hat mi8ed on this su$/e!t- .here are o$#ious and #er% useful $enefits to SCN.- "t the same time& there are man% dangers and !om'li!ations asso!iated (ith !loning- :hen loo2ing at histor%& these t%'es of situations ha#e arisen !ountless times- .here ha#e $een man% te!hnologi!al and medi!al ad#an!es made around the (orld& and man% of those met se#ere o''osition as has human !loning- Gan% of those ad#an!es also (ere dangerous and ha#e !ome at a high !ost to human li#es& %et ended (ith understanding& a!!e'tan!e& and de'endan!e on that te!hnolog%G% offi!ial stan!e in this de$ate (ould $e that agree (ith stem !ell resear!h $eing $enefi!ial to so!iet%& in that it !an redu!e suffering and !ure man% diseases (ith minimal !ost to human li#es- do not see an% $enefit in !reating an entire human $eing& and feel it should not $e allo(ed- .he 'ro$lems (ith !reating (hole humans greatl% out(eigh the $enefits- .hat ha#ing $een said& there is one more as'e!t to this su$/e!t (ould li2e to mention- .he here and no( is #er% different from the tomorro(G% 'oint is& that toda%& (e are told that (e do not 'osses the !a'a$ilit% to 'rodu!e a (hole human& and that all of the stem !ell resear!h is for medi!al use- .hat sounds good- <ut& the future holds 2no(ledge that (e %et do not 2no(& and it is human nature to see2 that 2no(ledge- .herefore& it is m% a$solute $elief that this te!hnolog% (ill $e ad#an!ed& and a$used on a gross s!ale- E#en if there are se#ere 'enalties for #iolating an% regulations against human !loning& e#entuall%& it (ill ha''en- thin2 that (e need not (aste our time tr%ing to sto' it from ha''ening& $ut find a #alid 'ur'ose for !loning and 're'are e#er%one for its ine#ita$le arri#al-

Hite H :or2s Cited Sunderland& Gar% E-& ;Hans "dolf Eduard 7ries!h;- Embryo Pro$ect Encyclopedia 0200H-11-011SSN: 19A0-C0+0- :e$- N-'-- :e$- 20 No# 201+Gatthe(s& Kirstin- *#er#ie( of :orld Human Cloning Poli!ies- Conne8ions- + "ug- 200H- :e$<atra& K-- N-'-- :e$- 20 No# 201+7rea& - N-'-- :e$- 20 No# 201+- I20-animals-that-ha#e-$een-!lonedSmith& S- Human Cloning =oundation& 1996- 0- :e$Pa''as& Ste'hanie- ; Human Cloning3 Stem Cell "d#an!e 4eignites Ethi!s 7e$ate-; :e$;Lo#e %our !at3 Get a !lone for BC0&000 -; Te%as woman pays a &alifornia biotech company for a carbon copy of her beloved '(ic)y"- 200A- :e$Pi!in!u& andra- ;.HE HJG"N CL*N NG 7E<".E -; 2006- :e$"ldona E$i2o(s2a & - N-'-& n- d- 21 No# 201+- *uman &loning+ eligious ,iews- N-'-- :e$- 21 No# 201+-