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dental pharmacology

Obtundants are the agents which are used to either diminish or eliminate the dentine sensitivity to make the excavation painless But due to the availability of local anesthetics eg. Xylocaine , their use is limited Classification based on mechanism of action

Obtundants cond
Act by destroying the nervous tissue Absolute alcohol Act by paralyzing the sensory nerve endings Phenol creosote Benzyl alcohol Camphor Thymol Menthol Eugenol (clove oil) Act by precipitating proteins Silver nitrate Zinc chloride

Mummifying agents
When astringents and antiseptics are used to harden and dry tissues of the pulp and root canal so that the tissues are resistant to infection, they are termed as mummifying agents. Following mummifying agents are used in dentistry

Mummifying agents contd

Tannic acid An astringent When used with glycerine , hardens tissues and precipitates proteins and therby avoids bacterial action Paraform (paraformaldehyde) It is a prodrug used in combination of zinc oxide or zinc sulphate glycerine and creosote act by slow liberation of fomaldehyde Iodoform acts by slow liberation of iodine has both antiseptic and local anodyne properties Toothache drops These are the preparations used for temporary relief of toothache by application of a small pledget of cotton soaked with the product into the tooth cavity

Styptics or local haemostatics are the agents used to arrest bleeding, or to control oozing of blood form minute blood vessel, by the formation of an artificial clot, or by providing a matrix which facilitates the arrest of bleeding. They can be classified as : Gelatin sponge Fibrin foam Human or bovine thrombin Oxidized cellulose Russels viper venom Vasoconstrictors ( Adrenaline 1%) Astringents (tannic acid in 20% glycerine)

Certain systemic haemostatics e.g. tranexamic acid, ethamsylate etc. are also used in the prevention and treatment of capillary bleeding in epistaxis, haematuria and after tooth extraction

Sialogogue are the agents or drugs which are used to increase salivation due to dryness of mouth or any other reasons. Classification Agents which increase salivary reflex Bitter food Hot food Spicy food Alcohol

Saliva substitute Antibacterial agent Complex mixture of salt Sorbitol or sweetner Flavouring agent Cholinomimetic drugs Pilocarpine Physostigmine Neostigmine

Explain why bitters are used as appetite stimulants.

Bitters stimulate the taste buds and these impulses are carried to the brain which increase salivary reflex. Thus salivary secretion is increased which is necessary for the processing of food with maximum efficacy . Hence appetite is stimulated.