Sunteți pe pagina 1din 89

;;-\

.z-

:\

ti tl
itt

t:

--t'r ,'

flohertlHermite
. .
'' t.i

, a'la'I-i_.-*.*__.-

-.,.;--

It
r"l

li

r II
L -=-

rI rI

AU PIID DU |||UR
PAR

ROBER T L' HERM I TE


DESSINS D! PIERRE LEFOL

PNIFACI D

A NORE I lI E UNI E R

tsATOts
soctEt( o E Pn oPA c aNDE t l DE DTFFI J SI O NOE S r C H N T O U E S O 0 A A r l i l E N r , t t , A V i l v c l ( t c a E B P A t l sxvl .

Il l tl
PREFATA BETONUL

[ t i l [l r [ l

Pog'

PREZENTARE

C ON F E C T ION A R E A
l, Moteriile prime

I
q

l l . D o zo j u;i l l e g i l esolepr incipole


lll. Lucrobilitoteq lV. Punereoln operd: Vibrqreo PROCEDEE SPECIALE DE BETONARE l. E liminoreoopei in e x c e s ll. Injectoreomortorului. Includereo de oer lll. Betonoreo pe timp friguros gi trotoreo termacd

13
./l

)s
33 35 43 47 49 53 57
ol

DEFORMAREA BETONULUI l. ControcJ io


ll. Deformoreosub incdrcoregi curgereo lentd

lll. Rupereo AGR E S IU N IL C E H IMIC E PE CON T R OL U L 'A N T TERE 1) CONSTRUCTilLOR AUSCULTAREA

73 79 89

'" \'i'{.rry1

u'-l'l'."x rDURrSr PERETT

CARAMIZIDEARgItA ARSASIZIDAR,IE DECARAMIDA

NOTA EDITURII TEHNICE


5-a ftcut cu respectareastrictS a orjginalului, ferS a se introduce ln text modificaai in vederea adaptarii lui la prevederilestandardelor in vigoare li normativelorrepublicane ' ln consecinl: lucrarea prezenlate ln limba romina sub denumiria ,,Eetonul in imaginiu nu poate fi considerate declt cu titlu didactic. documentar; ea poate folosi ca indrumetor practic, numaisub acele aspecte care nu contravin prevederilorcondiliilor tehnice, instructiunilor cercetdrri. proiectSriiti executirii conslrucliilor, Prescripliiloretc. romlne$ti,din domeniul
r) Metode nedestructive de control dl const.uctiilor (.oto E. T.)

Editarea in limba romlnaa lucr6rii ,,Au pied du mur,, a prof. Robert L'Hermite (Franta)

bvrry ulruruuuuuff

!tBl"loTECA Cnt de Ctdturia Slhdteattlof

E
IN LIMBA ROMINA LA EDITIA

Betonuluiin imagini>> Robert L'Hermite, autorul << este bine cunoscutla noi intr-un cerc larg de constructori, prin activitatea sa ftiinfific: in domeniulcercet;riiproprietdgilor de construclii si in special fizico-mecanice ale materialelor ale betonului. generalal RILEM-ului (Reuniunea internalionalia laboratoarelor de incerclri Secretar gi cercetiri de materialeli construclii) R. L'Hermire este in acelasitimp ti director gi lucrlri publice>>. de studii li cercetariin construc-tii al << Centrului experimental sale,apirute in volum,in cei peste25 de ani de acrivitate Dintre publicagiile ftiinlifici, trebuie amintite: << Lecgiileasupraincercdrilorde materiale> (1938-40), <<Experienga (1945),< ale rezistengei materialelor>) Rezistenqa materialelor, teoretici li teoriilemoderne tehnologiei (1954), << ldei actuale asupra (1956). experimentale> betonului>> ;i << Be tonulin imagini>> (origina lu lp o a rt i t it lu l < < A u p ie d d u mu r> > ) a a p iru t in a n u l pe qare L'Hermite 1955,avind ca punct de plecareo serie de articolede popularizare, le-a redactatsuccesiv Bitir>. Dentru revista<< prezinte, princiintr-o forml strins5, Publicindu-le, autorula urmirit si dar accesibili, piile gtiingifice ale tehnologiei betonuluisi zidiriilor. In cele 100de paginiau fost cuprinse fabricareagi punereain lucrare a betonului, deformagia,ruperea ;i durabilitatea sa, de beton, proprietigilede rezistengd controlul construcliilor $i izolare ale zidSriilor. de concis. Citili de descrierea procesului ruperii Textul estein general extrem exemplu betonului,la o. 57: << ln beton, rupereapropriu zisl este precedati de o prerupere, caracterizatlprin conducla formareade cripituri formareaunui marenumir de fisurifine care,reunindu-se, gi la separare. care pot acestor fisuri esteinsolitede mici pocnituricaracteristice Formarea prin preruperea acustici a betonului arate ci fi detectatecu un microfon. Examinarea de rupere.Aceastlsarcini pare si corespundi compresiune aparela 50-75% din sarcina )). limitei de obosealisub eforturi repetate I Cigi dintre cititori ar fi dispugisi parcurgi 50-60 pagini redactateatit de concis gtiintificsub forma unui albumamuzant textul acesta Probabil ci nu prea mulgi.Prezencind care ilustrat,L'Hermite ne pune in fagi o lucrareplicuti, curgitoare,de loc obositoare, fixeaz; aten!ia,firi si o oboseasc6. urmiregte evident Procedeele de ilustrare a textului sint diverse.Uneori, imaginea din josul p.25: o broasci care sare in balti. numai amuzarea cititorului. Privigidesenul Este redareadirecti a ultimei fraze din text, care compari efectul vibririi betonului unei la p. 51, apa de mare este evocati prin peisajul cu saltul unei broa;te.De asemenea faleze. In tehnologia textul, sugerind explicagii suplimentare. Alteori insi, desenul completeazi betonuluise utilizeazi pentru limurirea rolului aerului oclus,comparaliaspumeicu un ; a r p e ma r g i n e r u lm e n t cu bile. ln textul de la p.41 n u s e re c u rg ela a c e a s t da n a lo g ie d unui rulment. ao a r ede senul Deseori ilustragiareprezinti o simpli schemi didacticl a unei faze tehnologice: gi turnareabetonuIui, gi malaxoare. Alteori la p. 18,schema de betoniere la p. 15,amestecul ' prezentat simbolul unui fenomen complex. insi, sub forma unui rebus amuzant, este --stoarcerii La p. 37 omulelii care evacueazi apa cu gileqile, reprezinti mecanismul contrac!ia prin intrarea iar lap.49 betonului estesugeratA apeidin beton prin vacuumare, l a ap i a u nei cimigi. R. L'Hermite merturiselteci a alcituit acest album distrindu-se. In prezentarea.sa, lucrarea de fatl. Si daci, in acelagi Sintconvins ci gi cititorul nostruse va amuzaparcurgind gi hieroglifici, cititorul i;i va puneintrebiri suplimentare timp descifrind acegti determinangi putea prima publispuneci lucrarea de fagi, va dori si adinceasci notiunile intilnite,se va calie de acestfel la noi, 9i-aatinsscopul. Prof. ing. V. NICOLAU

LA ED|TTA lN LTMBA FRANCEZA

Numerogi scriilori au suslinul ideea ci arla- {olosind mijloace pin5 ;i in minlilecele simple-poates5 inlroduciordinea gi armonia mai refraclare la gindirea abslraclS.DimpotrivS,unii savanfi au pretins, vreme preaindelungafS, pisnu pol sE-5i ci faplelegtiinlifice lreze caraclerul lor minunaf,daci nu rimin inconjurale de un oarecare mister.inlr-o epoc5,in care {ranceziiduc lipsi de locuinfe, Roberl L'Her.mife, aulorulaceslui volum,a aprecial ci {olosind arla expresivS la cunoagfereaapro{undalS a subiecfelor pe care le expune,va pufea{ace ca unele problemede bazi ale conslrucliilor si {ie asimilatede oricine. Prezenlaculegerede plan;e in culori apare, asf{el, ca o slrilua cunosculului cilE demonslrafie dicfon ,,Ceeace se concepebine, se enunf6 cu clarifafe". Prin {orma sa afrigitoare el va stimula alenlia ciliforului care va avea posibililalea si se inslruiasci{iri elorturi deosebite.Di{erite spirile crilice vor a{irma, desigur,ci meloda ulilizal5 se bazeazi pe arfi{iciile bine cunoscuteale filmelor animafe. Dar tocmai aceaslaplace {izicianului R. L'Hermife, fiindci el esle convinsci ,,decil mullS vorb5, mai bine o schif; bun5" ci desenulesle mijlocul de expresienafural gi permanent afil al mecanicului cil 9i al arhifecluluigi ci sprijinulartei lrebuie loldeaunaciutat, penlru a da gfiinleiun caracler plicuf 5i accesibil. imi {ace deci pldcere si subliniez aceasfi initiativi, pe cil de fericilS, pe atit de rodnici, gi de a salula in aceaslS pre{af5, prelioasa conlribulie a aulorului la dezvollarea cunogfiinlelor in gi al lucrSrilorpublice. domeniulconslrucfiilor

DR AN E MEUN IER il-Ti'.,P. l,l,:.[" I i I I i;f i i, : lJ-? ""

Deseorise aduc crilici oamenilorde gliinli penlru {olosireaunei limbi greu inleleasi de public 5i penlruc5 nu se exprimi infr-un mod ugor accesibilcelor ce au o meseriededicafi realizirilor pracfice. Alleori se a{irmi ci oamenii de meserieneglijeazi si-gi per{ectioneze gi si se menfini la nivelulprogresului. cunoglinfele Poafe nici unii nici alfii n-au incercats5 se inleleagS. Oamenii de gliinfi {olosesco limbi incircalS de formule care sinl ideale mijloace de exprimare, {iregfe penlru ei, dar care rimin slriine in mod curenf. de cei care nu le {olosesc Ceilalfi, avindalle griji, renunli si le adinceasci sensul ascuns gi inclini si nu le mai Oamenii de gfiinfi, pe cil se acorde imporlanlS. Cine gregegle? pare, care n-au gliul si.gi exprimeideile ?ntr-o{ormi mai simpli sau caren-au vrul s5-5iinchipuieo lume {icufi gi penlru alfii, nu penfru numai ei. Cind revisfa,, B6lir" mi-a cerul s5 redaclezo serie de arlicole pe infelesulfuluror, am acceplal, gindind ci voi reugi si gisesc un mijloc de exprimare, capabilsi apropiecele doui lumi, care sl5ruie si nu se cunoasc;.Acesl mod de exprimare l-am gisil in imagini. Am crezul ci o schifi insoliti de un lexf este capabili si se inlipireasci in memorie cu alil mai frainic,cu cil schila esle mai alrigitoare. $i alunci, am incercaf, am alciluil cileva fexfe, am schilat cileva desene,dar cum sint lipsil de talenlul am incredinlal perfecfarealor unui arfistic 5i ribdarea necesarS, linir desenalorlalenfat, Pierre Le{ol. succesiv in aceslalbum care reunelleo serie de plan;epublicale limp de doi ani, cililorul va observadesigur o lipsi de unitale. Aceasla se dafore;le faptului cJ a lrebuil si cercelim, si modificim meloda, s5 linem seamade crilici gi s{afuri.Penlru deseprocedeului de exprimarearlislici, nalor, a fosl necesarischimbarea penlru a se putea adapla procedeelorfipografice.Toale acestea n-au {osl de loc utoare gi apelez la bunivoinfacililoruluipenlru primS incercare.Doresc, in lol cazul, acelora care-l vor aceaslS pl5cere pe care am avul.o celi, ca albumulsi le faci aceeagi eu scriindu-1.

R. L.

Primo griie o conslructorului esle olegereo compozilieicorecteo betonului. Pornind de lo moteriileprime (ciment, ogregote, opd) ole c6ror colitdli trebuiesc verificole,moi este necesor studiul dozqiului 9i ol compozifiei gronulometrice. Acesteosint descrisein poginile urm6IOOr e.

Vom vorbi opoi desprepunereoin operd o betonului si de mijloocele qdecuote pentru oceosfo,cum sint vibroreo, vocuumoreo 9i opoi despreonumitebetoone 9i lrotomenfespeciole. Vom vorbi, in sfirgit, despre betonoreo pe iimp friguros 9i pe timp cold.

B ETONUL
CONFECTIONAREA
t

R l tl E l. 1 ' l AT ER l lP tE
Cw ^;t'tsz*Y
ll

tlvfaiien Nilr4e dot$c dj,tlwtrv;

G4nnb

APa'

bU,;afuV htfist ,$' WA'u^'wnrwleJia!,t


0,rEroRruRi REzisrENT rini atnFisunrzr.. . RrzisrrHr 0a, ATAcuniLE AI
Co n o ziu IiL ECHiHicE

5u!ratl

)tn?dim

dr _o&_ zy/6 W 6W nuo


il,nlr, aAnioe t+y.c," &e'1,* 2,,1 t!/c
bz' * ahli.tttlc C"sdtitcaho"
ew E'tl,u(Nre d4gg"l,ht" C4*4eh lc d:n, Er'tt!Xar'6,

Atqitc-* r1gd,d{i4tuh I'ffiIi

Spc"taw lv},ttl,+'vteui+1
,wdt dtn)o+nw 6,e,&r) , b'rtw aAt lin w',atry.'dt WW A.itW' jui'urYi' cot6i$snu

afiJn.-lci;;irl^tittt b' nt fon


nlfi" pll* TUunuL At rttWLQLe,

lw Wtni* *lu4irAin lAnsi,ttrztttC*tW, w:vth*$", ry W,IAA

cat* nafilru U4otf"o

Vc4"

W,Wr.W,,yry]e..Yy u
XW:y'iiiY'ttan*'
,calt qd;t]ttL, 1U'\ c1a, o "+oe,pht, eIaW,

\r;,;iA-';"6{:;;,-;iW uw''1ar.^Y'

t$nL 2,4ou oo\fiwVubui* itit

tyltti o i"hLri,z ,^"$tlaa,lL . lh/,& tu,@


wfizn4l

N',,/ritr*l, t;wv

zoory1fuu;'n-

Aan+L cunlilalz

7 /4u I Utrun

w w&,aLL

&,tA/

tl.tt

Coflitt 61.,dAa,i/ ,ti,i,I, c'+thafo | . .

' ..t+c,tt"^W otwtti P ry b ^c,or4i.wfd, lrrttdrr& aIwut*I"tt-

'"

y poi,rlrlt;he

tt-*. 'l"i{-.. 6e|* uwt *tu,rmLX W& dtfl:l4/*L'fa {-ot, tta$ih4h 6. W"at rlal,,t r,;;L"i,ffifffr^;tr Pffu!/ y* ,'r7ya ,'tA ^dl4^bh O1tllr' Wfu,nOlA ^IIAW ,,e
c&tAllunaar.o0rLa,

aal*tota t fc"^fr ^ y "ehannYtF' ltdiu,,

$OUIOZ

9*lid2^,{^^I/ wlun**. ,w-e .Yjl*b a& lAe,*ron, {rl'o.Jlo


dzcil/ O,tSi,ertarLlrhltLa,*L At 41,5b ?,5-^ ti"t$a+

ivtaLz Ae o,t5 lo +it\*iue ae .la. 25 5on^ .

Afo ds arwe"WlJlv

yu 1"6"j'e \it cnvtnL notn)L otaa,wcz, +nak_ w wv. .ttrDfLt"r\$& r*oi swk dz | \L la Q;In* , i.ty

"^*y^yfA& 14 {J0rtL ( at.

,A.una uaL wu,&td,r.ls sL


d,ltia, ca ki

1,& Az -tctt ? a.,,tz.aa4 I ,6d..rl+t lie wiynilXak aZl+tDu l+dau5l11afu I .

ron4.aLl;4

az

AcurYo,-&
c:wtenA.fui
UrUlDlWL

5e il.ot'

PRlllGlPAtE ll. 0(lzAJUt $ALE $l tEolLE

|r..l1;iit-,'in wet;tx.r,, * aa|a'4ef;el* & eoz dhturltrtluultw * 'b &nli+** i,* cma+f:&L" crle n""i $rmc,i.*'ortwi$ru9V1c.r& fJLctil;. ,r6,-L W, *rv,lia^' qr&n;low,z6L& 1,ryrnxn,l.L t{a.&i&;tua, can ULII$" d..*fr* cdtz kt/, V;'w b.tt dt d,irr*t*t>ut,+L
dtl.t'Wv\i4dQ,".. .'

X* Nure

n;,'J,gef4ri"{*1, (utd* r>L Atbtwint,cg"^.

lne(-48

4 t,a% tL 3rr'l^..4 6,t^1" ..4 :tt

hre t,s tr$. t,t5

f^tu 5,t

l!/.ltg tt.9

i a^h f
att

Jr$t 25

) 50 -/6 ?talot

'o^h
A

1 1 5 1 9 4 7\ . ,<" : ; ,* r

da L'Dllurt , ff{
{| l l

J* q.Atta^t, cuLltalr Dir* dd, t* v:t**rc ehotgtC clr

a;* t, u"Jl;mo LeIg'"'&*cd qi

i,,a,lx'an* tot rv't.*&_iffi sqL.lALc aiapri&itr, truttxil sd, * Dfetilblia,

iA cate

ud6?t
aiJ+Lrjea s4:.4.r. ' & cJl,ftp

taat ;ri ] tt I 898. I a* o" .it rur"a UitV.l,o rnE;rni.r.r o ?:,.tgt*il*


kfi6.d,t

ui*'v,,trSt,Ciw+sitlaU d"L

{'.u,n4.cliLrl(n o"lc Ln"rlnt.t^r,tu uovf'.ru[ .rqir4.rleLrr irrr'rL ]t t'ofrrrnuf .'iuno.t ll.' t*l.rrr. .

* a' tivfnut a cahfa.d A


m*fiut o.rrae (*ig&{/l-'st.. 'f.tuat(o...
tttvJ;i^I& qza^LLlivxlhb,

Urir*c'*fo " u.Lbf& w dtuLue

fbur

vtl.L oiAh.f ee

llr'?r:tuLr;*a cry C^)i,E,fw


enl:- di o, ntab'tli ia m* rrtosre

cttrtltc.cti.fa$. cow'b,aAfuA ou Aozal.ul . Tze&'t;,e .ti letina

uar;"'o,WAAIL, h qM

& Filxrt' ?' *{0r."+

o\nilurLfat.

6r4/u'hL wotL eb c.a.|a,eafi*li corrl pil+ in co$act c* cdluilut ao* 6* Dc Wi ataoa;tac c* os,w6.tL+nito wth ni wsl*, dL z44iltL ncAi+ o, 'Eb lot'tutati d.(i' tAhl & qolurzi *ai rtrlit{'.ltrit n+laflh:oL urn Aht tnbulauV,

dt atuqelzcmdL l:rrrt, Eow dsL rcciaa &Arr.ln;t d,r.*ranufu ttnc %, qta*uloe niac u'4nAlafun" Fntt;t* catts'atL

Accrtecola. tl$ruieaL fu s*glutc

aufa'Vtaafa, Na1;t

yrylt'; ffiy Y:{y k!!?. aALc;' ;Hn:. A).vzitutrio' *"4.;4q"3. :xan'... atoL ,r"L
t&e*rafi,w dt la,, fs,q 1! * aetavtL , . "1.n fuut eayraL,dc.dbrL cu4vtiw,, 44Lw to >i do.i-i-fiiir;,
,te ft Wu4ot la.*il6, - ww cu^rl i,E4i4r1{ilta,v

t'ta.w*rA

D oL oclnq;,I+v dun",l-L

,+Ant

Raq,a. $eait R , $o<t de. gecu,tatr,la"ca)tc ae f/r^L A,Arfie 4a c*,,i. dr,_F-wfu,,.

& betsn S '.:qlr{nit lL &tL. ;e4h,,,'/i; wr*?L 48.'gC + Clirilrrl&fihfn* t


CWC.Ut4tnI.ar,i"t'vf4 uqr|

. R'a'to meAi+ o luApvgi wttu q\t lLa+ortt,t A,fL e*ft ndti, cr+.rltr.4ralr.ll,

R-

'

'

re-l s

U;W

A B C D * I- _ ,L , ! . ! . _

a.tllel leol.t, Y'ttct-

&L

I
r: * * * " ." ag

)wrw. *g
.:* r,

0^4e^,

ti^Mtnf4e1. ar4.,o%r.ew

v\ar. e r'rl.h
t'* 01rt ^'

,:).t. . ,.- - t l . , ", . , , . '

Yov tvwd"* N,*caa,lnt Vatt* naL khanla,.,

ix: ;ti,z*t nrluow It;ilwaw" rtuflittiri a;SptVtt+ cl:lnirlrs\wlL rit' * atwor:ta a'*W i;rlh &; )vulo+&+&, 4- qiir,ryhi'll.rfl.',a-t" "

,tt,i

Oetaw diln& at eh.wwh.b,lt'

;,lt.,.irr."l, r,.

U Tntr^^ f,o-.11o6i. [

"&;*u;

Ain),: mato ' J!b

I (\rA{.LETTE}. AWd" iudA ,:{i.:,;l,.ir'.'r.,r.:i.

v,tct+'tw\e' eh'wtuft \nttlmtfi'attz "i

l1:v"1ryWnbun:il" Nir^"fu^

e,M-&,
?chn natzo
6 auutlszjk hu. druo$inua uVc

,lnilulr't clttirt,u* v lolo*aW

d).nl/- 4, 64u4okh lL ttr',,'dt.

YY'n'

'2 ..)

\:!*pytu'"f rY ^t.* '

* '{

ie

,dL

i3'.-W co*x,{ ...


7* 912$,'ut' bf)rdaWi^'r qo iu lwcj.zdr 1"ai{nli'Xilih Jl& ia,nVidi* &iuaW

Y'.

)+y b4tr4vtd.na,

Ot#Caai'rLrt|Y I

ryVrU

Vlottd&;/vrhtdbt, 7w!z-o *n"tn|"(i,

i- ,t*iaai r.oao* Arntiaia',pt'r*"rL Luupb,>qo


aornX' ac'a++ UutcozL ^r"t,rtul, . n d;nio' IA.L.. il;,Ahu.oe

-i \*, ..itlii , e f:or|! /u.L nu*xtv .tf,h, y niw-tc y*t*. ! o y1+ d;vy, op;-

Jo fino a4u$dc maz",1+ ^tWtn6" ooii.t).rniL ot*lua. ttutc&nt*


'

J* c+lw $*oAu*
d4gtufilL

ac i,$.Lui AzcL I

0 lA'.lL 4.tn aaryolol+ mo&

Pi.tiq^l n\ar4L aXuXar'iloz Ratail, e{rtll,&iniL .u., kilnip e Durrat'^'

Hl^tA^+L

fu *

+rr, aanft

l^*qi,. -*.Vr

J"$ Lt^ke, oW^htu4, -"+brt, wr* belai ila;n , Mrar; dz antt(ecate h',"\v-v* +uaLuol. A'evU^^^;,
,*anL d.

tA o, l,ua.fa, Au a,sznnnt aatu na*inul Da*6, a;r'r^w&"trri& ov,^,1^, zthfnbt cunh c^, ,tAlnotna nilaai| * &a,*db.^lN;'. 0' Auaafo, ' utlA' f1a^LaL a,rulfra^e , ute azlarma&ita Srfoytuhn , &tstlrL t+v o4u1ailn, pt^uvoto' StldLuzta, >ycht cazul w Betavtt&*t cw 1oilz | r 4 '* J,e.an+,'t9nea ^l\'rvt. At lwalc godtr,c *odatua aau, liilw,ttt* aAtrAalltl,
datA, ^^.i,1 tturt"t|lL: ' I t o

III. I.UGRABITITATEA

?u,Inuo &.ni nrnru in" dunn, Sdou^g

^W^

?*'Y1t$:-g1llit'tt$lLl'aL

cyts'ttltllla

'

'

cLU&l&v'yribtu . . -Motlufuie (rrirrW rtut{llnu.rleiu tunW *&lifuIo vtfw6, ult lt^Lr^Inlihxrt/.


I

f r' [{| n u ir &n th a o lr a l.r .

iii c I'ol^1crr .,iut"rtuf ;\d1t .1.1rf,:un,i ,5lq.,trt, )i lurotn',u,i?rJldylri?{., tutni c{r

t1,*ritlr rir,:,i',,iiiu,

dolr,iiut:r fdornlr

I
I

r.r

Jtft.L-ml*tu

iatcttr'oltr.r,.,l

n-utrrt drk vnui iwrqwrllu,l.n.. Acro5fu. A(to )ld ,)ir )a ll4xtt(

s,

u1111ooilc^ !*F [n Jc,[r^peuY -t-r^, wqro. q' y*J"*y, g{-.h;*r&^

r.g|"
I

lotft/4'14

^lttUilrr[&.. ,r' t'rlarr.*tlti, . . . . .

It----lFF--*

dik

dck^4uiftBnu.paacW o' NaallffiXA\ .., ?.!,th*. ,.,


vtQEo r,: '

bcbu,Jal an***

Alla/ttlb,lru, anntLdbau, lva.**,* copilot, con lu ta*tt & nlai,v z tu .pntrA d&t" i* hut4oJtra, d. fuin4ln&;
d, ct'w 1tt

, . ?t;no, azi*ttrab& cnnt"t,lrn

butAira, I

Taaarra, mfurl.rar; ?,w artvh^rhL, exdmn nlalfu:llak* 3tu /t41,,,fi* ar Ul*vvL utt^'nfoo4.tl oi+*; Xa
MA NUA L A

cotuf4rtaL

Adrv V*+,*,r*.*t*

oL w" Wtvb 4 ry1v,l,k*.i 1^rL vi

uitfirura. larl& bur;ttAit&l*

A dw* m{odL, d't1r,M;fi; l:cn$lL hn464nu.z h. I cowiL i,tt drcobLirao, drAn" vruL finole de 0+Iotr lL o rnab,4 i ,x 'vhlvitti, 42 \qLdiYahr, at, iwalt!',o!{L dL dA.nz dl 1,2,ow.

tlsrt

r50%

10 rA ?07d - agTon c^tt rltluG - lcroi ?!^!ltc

n6rv[, trtl 3on?Actt !0 rAto%- lEror folift tutric

I EAltvE ! l llTon Ai|r^r

rl0 la t50% - lttoi

6E 0n rLUrD 80lA 130%Plirtu IEToI AinAr

-'--

\ l" l.r* x tri.ri,^;roo& m.,irr.lo cxff..,rut,,t .1{dr^(4ff{^rUu q, bdfirr hri , oa! uifi u & onotl r,t_r',r
0, m,4itJuJ. 4 new o u.rru. pr4liru t u. l+ ttut , ynoti'r.11 iv outu , or/.$L t r i"cn:.ir'J ^6a.l X

ffi?J"itr3
.,t . : 1'

nrd.ii o rrh.rir iu ftr..rr.


r,.l :r t\rtil

, . ^1r . 1

r ' ! r r r r ljr r :

l^- qt

.:

,..:,' '

f r t,1 ...i | )l ' n i i i ,ti t,li' ii

mufhi

r- ltJ.PUIIEREA lll 0PERA: UIBRAREA

jaAda^Li

S; y^r'zr- ,^
'wtlna!.i l'l^\LuL ,r-l W

: -n\

at Volr; tt o
l tbv'/.eI

w ab.1ltz

:t Fn u-t l^$^f-

r* fal- f.

tg Fir ra 4auwt l,anta - "+ W,^4 txal-^X.1vcrJrt-t14.& *cnaia cu dn*"aatfuctr unhnt z,xlala n fu ',u,lri tl' il lnzt,u.r p*ne y lurw.
tn't \a aac6, vtowcnxt+ t"antaxinAu'tt" 'wl1^l^.ri d;,{A"t-i W ?tllbru ,h cr,otttr r'tai sr.r* 6nt, l"'^n'Att -i rrn wUnlat, cultut at fu^na' Lla^ t i +iueun,lani s' lu.a^l. nwiw id-t inl.tttqu,*tt, &ilor" t^t o i,'Lil;^o^. looak Miaa J n*^rn; .

ii,r'"" ,,."o' \

" v i BR A R t A AN U L I.A Z rR Ai cA R i LitN T r.RN[ "


- $u"llo ltlultrtu d n h4l^,'l c4, t^ lttrt, oluf^4 uh;ai, lriaJ.zouti auqtali itt, li wtUnL & li4"n lnoilr , nh,n ottut "N aitca ea rur ut; eiYziL ca.h.L c^t ad.&Lttf& .

Ea uU o"h*ut w\u"td ocV^ n qud;U ,r^tt^n *r; Vt+a* catuo la'1 a^i' col,our.c'rn " rti<.t
Yali , lt llrtnx'i * loll.u,,tt '* ^hr v^latl*nr; ,tal rr'al"l , ca o ...

'9

o"'ItnLw D or;" aPr;,t* Y'o M-'6

'ln* "^."tr;h;-w-;;"* ;;' b;, $At"i' [,&


E" iti' J'it*t

fin w Y'ra' ccou"tutLycL ^t';*'tl

Pt't'm9,trwu't'tto' "' pin'ati ,t* xn'y

t a'* W'YY-

"f,ffiiiri

W"n

ililN aftLt{ v;kntn 'niun;'w UY^t/,irnn aUntro' W\I/-{Fu ff ranA y*tvtt* * [Amo

Ar i,'n'y'X"e *yxylr !"i^t^1i'ltt'

"' '"f.it*lF' "'f^ {dn

a aaafu lAli tlow,, cantYala uh, nuXn I'o it:,'*4ul 'l,rtww .1au

MrxffiffW

t"n fi tn"w o-dLlvrdu.'r' o VtctatL t$ut^' iri *Un^"" VLi'r1 '"$iL'P" cd?o'

'fnxxY!ae|??.ffi*

eo w fifu,raL

o'afrnY.B,.

'rf^tW,**
*;tr;;;;i4^;ii;',@to,*r'* Econtad.l
ffi;
'drlav.4.'!, a' 7a* aaat6' ^'.'^^rL lo*5. b at4an
tt lne u aqatw *' lii& q$t41V. T*Wltlw

it*t

f? i ro n .uunt"

I i unctr si fie mci Ex Pon 'dccit Presiunea' mcre

lN BET0lf

: itlotaten)^oaart'*rx& o^^lr"Xt''

ttlfri" At rL doa&)c tt&1t ,I!, aPtWL 4otAttL fiwffL' lnilfalil

!ldt--od*a",q'unuW d'

i,+ ttoA' wfi,wnt

i. Edit dntdl&. E".'*oP',,. a


t.ti*rA dwiodu , q\utJdlu' $tf ca hqaT2.i^capt'uU.ltnl:l.t \

ri..ilri, cani dr:V4nl@ Iinurra'L

,j,bl h \t/iiA.AAi,ItL Oltt^te dW-

aoeli.. . I mahi 1nti44u',Aabtiln'

ir.riL a. tJ"+, al vnt'Q+ta

tr.l^ttt at>{tttI;Il-. I u; 'nll'll dr4;tthlb' Ci"d" rt(zl,o..n&.,&$ano & * pt ^s

27

A^WWT0ARELEWW

b aaL ribt,nt tiaf,rtz-Wrrrtnt! eWtwtnn* aa* o Vu AnLc* un Xi efit lrnfr.4L

f wt*s*a', ^ *iuf^n

rW*

p^ryahu/u';v&&wlvv.l,rl"l AL lililali tp

Utwitbi

*, r rr$d nXlatorit'dt8itaE -AW, tu1id4Ii l*nwnt in

ItL ,'

y,,e alaaA &LzaAnL A, "itotto ,. '-:.-:r*t nL hlen;4r . PtR\liBRAR\\ ^a, '":; Wil'1atu.^ ^tcdta o uiu naLtt ;t4'^. lL4hA a !. aA44n4 t iotr4aatanr . :{.rt&1. uWoa;u^ tz"ltt*' A^ nu" yihh^ -*.arc; ts.-i t'tkit' !. J! a.h l;aa :-y i,*ctL tn'rw ,te woi ka*ttiltt&, ' :-.:-1 ir|rh tt^ lr'"t ah ;^.") ar hltrz

;l \d 4 )/

vv

Tarri,rbrt ioae(rrr.) n*v t* vivocatu aanaluLnan,lamL& (twti 6dpo)lac rntlii rc ihue fuhbil rridfu,"l.alu'vuttLnpbI
(tZ Ooo nnfail {o 2t000)44Wd"
y AN Crfiwr & UWL,'ilnnit

li' drnt \hL.

Vilrltttta" aL )botA hterrr6, rvlcmi vw


@. lvt,!.i4|t

r,^il{Aru oXuXaJttL' nato.itc nui rryo\fLrw,

Viltlru^ din6UA httwr6 w l:r,l,rrc dq.lx not.flu.;alt. r* wrAcattL ctto *aat, iu'utt ut'ni tizAll.^A n ArL oU tiai, tsvwivL.

RA,ZA DE ACTIUNE O, yltqttt aiai* * dlnan . uu. ditt>!4^t& -*i ^aru vlt4t
luf

tllrtlan tbnaii b

,?*.w

lr'rrn* atnt nt;^ot t- ann e a&'us a. vnt* nlrzat+z , cou ,v*a** AL havn 4<taosl cohti .rL 'ai"- ot,owlvnAz dh4f-24t it' a^b.'.. adia),"t I &L at ?o^'1, atantut 4 ra t44in*, 6c ia. a+ov o ^tu ' uJ?2na aAro/i' ru kton i to hl2 ow ,tnfuo 14 dik^itl dhta'{' dt- rr'tro' *Loc lon ,oarl* +di"w 4L ttL.DQ att; aa a.itta. batt*'tvt- ztc',aalvaL ,tc awtT'ic eiu az rih*t, u. lc ar.uhlaaL wi itw&.' ?o waapt L ac

U4uf. 4,,W?.

ryttay Az dl,'z^tdt, fLlLv,nJt $^,L A,$ Wl h-

@+aW.

canzInto y;Wr,,'at W

Rua, az attu

rL a. i&zaldurl^rL t*to &t<a'w;+atd. A.' &tfo^b

lrr^A^,1

a." k^'rl dL urt' mimit'' @/'a/+bt^;'

t&

q"'* ,1" odj'. t'r cltllu- d^riL dL (Vtfttitol Vrrt^t4 dnaloulL t +iAi<i.+,a $ah4rL). 1r\4^rI o^r 14 a44; l+ nl,zal'tt i* lr^.fttt da 4 nL $n W" .r(xla , o u^; 'duW; . dr, aclb^*.'2

.:'*:l(;

1ui. {cr.rr{n s ,4.oo1i.5nlifr?4.r ;'f1.4...f.{i, J'lr}r. I L+...',1?, e.r' t * +i-lir.r{ 1viir. tulni'.r! cm.l.atA.tJiUl 1 ct'c!u.r *"f.-

Vr,irr t, aa.n rvr hrrr.lq

*.n^*

ltl,iJ^hr^l,lr,r beliuJ.^i,

(Lert t

ltr
Ltl

$t
3l

PR()DUCT. 5F* sEGRTGARE

? etl
t

1t
S E GE RGA REA

STUDIUL GRANULOZiTATii BL.TOT{ ULUI TREEUIE E F E c r uArrinino s e rmAi r sPEciAL oE viBRARL

lN COllCLUZlL: ,.rtlrt^r,rrrr-, r,rtr ur,, .lr,tr,'cr.1rrt f,,,r,ltcl;"n J. -rf +n ,r bCfunuir.; tl lut,lrult ?tJrllr,t., lfil Ar.r1r.i P4114, '.11r4.r -."rrJf & omeiluani * yLt^r Jru^Lr , f Fl,ri,,a.. itniAtnV\ .

P R O CEDEE SPECIAL E DE B ETONARE

lll EXGES APEI l. Etlttlll{AREA


tt lMll{/\tl i \
c",tt o lot

a;

uantit

e*t t * ta Wrrrr,"nL,

b.;.o''ul wotnin,

^
Y*rA^

nwtf, rriliu.aL.

irti:

rI
Fo*^ crnll^h'Aa $Iloltr' teai qtaru^Ltl.rl'cu.tq.ro afttiot n ltn4, tt ottl..taoL rtroaz.i,erh ilu;tJiL h wnito(.& un& Itoh f\ dL^l'l$n4[i.

iIECriFf

n t J rs rt d rA

Ltim,b,tar"a. tt"to-l,i dt apir.'styoon ep.W* 1u^ ." ,

t V uILUnalL Certta^lrr4,1,tia

ta Witlwo' rtnl+rWrrtn Uu.'ti^d^&clarfr*t i o.


hrlruh^l&'.

s-flpminaJred grelhl; er qur Aemci lteof elulta y.ri l-'itr,''','


AE R C OTIP }IIP IA T

v.
TE S U I

l^tat^L
cai dc fREYSSltltl'2c- aita, wtani&wta di{, HAVng.

Au,tLfiotenut.

%oton&-

r xr RAsi
.r45A VtBRAnTA

E** wrvnno<tdu.AeLcaLco& fntl^iA tlr.toliLtt o akaiL, dL i'r'Alla lar/t r,tdA m (trnput djvmtni'ni' or.r,tlu; &, ail.

Un il,L

&.lbn,arrtLt -VooAsL li" eta, alatolo ttlt z

a ,tut"1l;lll/'lui dL fir,cov

titdr ro rc

VACUUMAREA:
?,rocr*ttl' con;ni r^ afnl..l,^z4, h^A+L/,l'!Ll],i dr a+A, il b.f$ , ow a^ulotut MtL $^hnt.
As?itAria

/:i

{'lr

vE!TU zA

rl(arAnl

!*:.3i:i s,F:'.Ft

t.../

REZt RV0r

Yu,*tna ehu l&nar; w L*ttltul^\. irch)s c* wv d'Latrzp ,.a/.aloI,e " bdtlilttur" *,^ arn mcta,t tr t|uif'n| . et Unt hqoL di4'clrydi tt 4re!;^r4!2L h^W &. utl'r14r,aa6.fr'V"tr.t . ilhtuAmL; c* o lror4it . Af* " ah, beI.nj" ehfL'art'(t^Ldi. + AUnA^.^Ia.inIL' $/^ Itnzintv. --'fi"aU o W 'tnntnlol dr wt h\)'sz B|Jtottr' ,* Nt l,nt,.ll . ' lolotll t* SlahIL $tfilt uwfu L lual t\un\lh dL Vaavui C.foLaXL.

VINTUZA

ASPIRATIT

U^4rL dAil^L dua n* nutvv'a'.lL o.tw\tanea a+uL d$\ * ln 'r+Atwtn aru,+ktuU ol


iiiAL .'ltol,. 4rr /rf' sivholNAnA,,

'e.o
rf
aa

ApAL tn^ala"ryln jtoduet c{"tr\ro.raita bdau^W l"^^ a+i"-

el;w;+atto ^lr'/j;' .raat Ir . {aa

d"t, bettlt L eVL ^'

uu| aL Wfol^A

l'rar|t"-"L-

'

0 otmosfcre (vid toral)


0.2;[mosfere

l oLrnostrrl

15 min

22 min

30 rnin

I no-

I ?oc'n
t.
|

jiu Dworo r^.d,it" waaa @4*-",t *".,,^nta \^u xtlriu^L" ). Ltn , i" c'r , rDh fu ' h x 'l '5 (m"rr^^re
ConAUnt di o,tfa o<AaIL dr ber$\ w\r d,rfa"tqll d'L* lLtu 50 % d4.rr ,1*+a dt drwffitc e4L . DWi ^,,^eIotrrt vaawnoai , rutL 7 Y\ura te-7i'tli^^nl4U,f4^4 c^'
. f 0il.211cWLotLr Itwwtorr 't-a
'0 e

r?lb,ut"& . ;" La voli^rJi n;d ,^'+t^


dr-

t.Q

iu'tv X1a4uW fXlrXil*V, i"lY.,WY i;nAiW to d{r^r^U:; I cuaw


Jica\L '

lrtlitu(.a' fu axi cou

TatWL

!: u e

n[i:
...,.'.

kr3;

Coeaiunea ri vliunM.4, C u DL dolilLrc vot^r.uvv.-cLtLii , dLt bdtu'li trttaunil o ULL|f@b d'r 0,5 eL 1 lq/^' , cu& c!. lutltult d,LCc't *ta'ali' . lnaua La Lb,mnlt& fruhburtl! \ulrto fiiJtdft aiulittn a,tza' iNnLdIi a tfoutn.-..

t-

R0

60

A alt aa'onlai pttrtik tra-0itau.r Jr {.rh/fl'lu ti, irttaq lru. I Jr c}/r'1(at. ,tr rtlli.r4r.t 50 0o l0o \ 0r, vnrlau cub.
.!,<I
ulLtftt ,
.=

z
F

I zl

5l

50 z .

90z.

'"-r-7
,l

z '1 . t

.' "

Bt'ira,,r&& cr M wrtaaa aln o*kl I tilotl. t{t$uir ra h *.rd ah i''''. lair'oL gtanutarilnot.r&i(. .rtil yn .t nrri
tr]l' cit ,{ .ialiLi&4 Jr orra ar ,1t'lrllltunr r !t'nrdl4 |t rt uvtrtutt^i .

g Es

ll. IilJECTAREA I'!0RTARUIU|. ltlCtU0EnEA 0EAER


h4na4 r,'A4jiin'W o, oquAo&abt marrr,, i o+nr,W$ap ,-,rnltn^ trb/t,, lr4r!! .!^iuXur4a' nl,nLt^D/4|.]u; a, ; c{l*.41,1.nkco,tttl ih*a

BET0NUL CU M0RTARINJECTAT at,uolntaai"wt;w. I


, .

?dVun'l,cua mutu.u].ui N

c LLrrtt i {{1!r1ry+ t+
Y^d+ 'ln

6q\4o..ltl.ot' l.a* u,liltnna

$aan I{.4

l!t\,L

1i/'3LA'..,0-wta^9*

'r'd.n q' r'ih^o,tot llri ^rlr4. 'N''{/',.foul., Vr*&t c,rt. trluqL4q| . .

taturl ti&unv*. lntltaao l.rrniLAt

ate.ta.1',

Wlil

Tubul d! injictor!

firac^"$tt

fi+itr h\.Ar , Ilaidit.{lb. + r,L rir./'tatu , ol*innnAt+ - at' ,tmiwtrub


g,gtvv bJiit^Ia.

-'- n @-'ffi'T"* *t',tu,

b( nd \.\tlrAtu fidt ilJfl^ /i _rnui arVotwrt.' fui&tvtit^ ha* attwun iry.''fJ^|..e$"'u fot laa v calt dt't ikn" x,* tiucati,lL;" .'

<Faoia

oa at.r.luir

a vlaa^torurirl

...+

Au,:ft' Wcila* ,i,t* ,ntq-ita: priEnAhT , COtcftt Tt lloiau Jt ma,u Unbsk ,. . eI4. 'tL t Acq,nil*vq*|, urt vnm6llr.;u;L
o 't inr alt- wnlL* w. ^t |}yit^Lc^nt tcwa. *ta il,fiii' 1.* lt+r^itlir| . Aaly''' Wont* ^b& ,zy w't yruL lll'culaxc. ' | Itu;teruo, ltw..tuliL tt\ br|,c\,\f.ey!a .ita^4^Al at il^4,lt'I'" aL of'ttA't Vtntdt^?i. e Aqvprl ,

Co16 R o u r

^ Yu.$iv !rl'/rala ,r, cianuW dL h^e* -aAA o

I
!

a5
I I
--a:al

W \4U, o Wa Nal^a,abm o4a. . t t cdw


Dfotg\t ;b; lu_ ^fl,ocvtuso ;q&,rrt & vclm.uluL cun cn"ib dt^rr t w\n wbt mo&rtaL tL

M eJ&\irr)14f

r LouL(a

)L

l** + w"n'yil'* ryy^tu:

lrotutt*t

!f? y<t^+ uy

...-.*

* e

Vly* ao
'0t

ci," .ycnlnu * piwpo,o tn"n-

?!u!.Wry 4 lry!,cuu rc cp,.-i g .,rruca t4 \\.a{Al{il'{]/Je f"un couau+UU rNrbl^liu * Ni.-1l'/'tu U)zrcil",

" v x. ttrl/.rol.llt csx*tu^n4

t,

fu1..L;"'d{l;e,

c&a l& o&l''rimittl catu Wo:aw mii l^rt q alL ,* o trD.oo^L!a/.1y.l{jr^L a a.y+rttluu.tuL .

_:;*Hu*w,H":: ,^\tr,,nt fut,tr lr:it --:l: {,N++'- WW I'iiiiilil


+ourr, W
,6".* Wd,qc^ nA"6^ u ^to' ^"rtalirin Y(n{tu, utodl,+ * anasL
.sru/4. I vrlt tt ... 1-X: .ruJ'ttra\a Jo n{ ,pwvrr4rr, t<4uq,aiiL, ca^i n..

tus.Lm,,yyt,Wky,@
g,.,r,t ltrra; d-iL C*rffii'X.
aL r4rq l{rrwltLL v 4a,e.Lr& Ana-

t4

^It.

l+tiliuW.
1;

714:

-^,+-^

r. ' + ' 1 . 1 1

^u^ro

lvivttt@

ltiuau^tr+ Yqt*t.

-."t1-"t){ii
,l , ,r

\y vonWl{^,yrt.tth ftue ^,.!W aXLrn L a mmlotitut, )ar'rp^.rr ti^^ .r"


<t

|triWvWi Yry.Y"^" Ilt? .fanh,#^:xn


""

wt^xiu,* v^ln-, jion|-1i.691, r*muWU.

m&*
i[ltD}tjr

o1t*" ai4;"tttuyu-

vu' toa'L ut;tl.pio 1u"^hf t "i, IL ,Wffiffiyr.r,!,#*:,-I.?:itil,i vl.,t'W;';;T;lh.;;r;",trt r 1;-;;' t'4oli1jfalr.. d, U ,l.rn&t^tcnae;a, wo,ttan:t l &_ ,...:rryq ,ry V,"o,rA+

t * W dlqt ta-,iil* #",t#"WtH^

Jt! .r'crttno4 x lotmuni

WFffivr'y*Yy: Attuxezl,ea po"au ti.AU u,* flr.ai[


WWe

Wd/l.;c, t6tr';i.b(,^k ?!r,Ir!*iasv y. l*1, ry ryq*-Gjt'{,W;-;; .1:Wu*) ?yyy rb {t;ffir* \e-a{qv ta"artaya
c.0,it^.ILLdIr ^t/1,'^i'kh; it&aA VJue^! a oe wt!,a lo, _ rv,iluo" al fLla^g'Llta" qra W^-itauqdi,It.

eL' qta,,l{{l/t;rl,i,Itr riri{u^hi b.

5E GFr6Il ri

. q*wlIth

dL qn

trrrh* ai*ba to

1A

a i, .at

h* y* Wq11,*V roy
dL wt la^,. w^.daL, (^)tinfu.L-bt

o*kt vusul rtwtttnuWw;n co ALfn q4 3,r. a\enur4e.o.


x.wAtcd, la,

nit*dx,trt' w, o.fr ,n llt' tL " r. . X qouul ! ., aPry o.$4" urya,\e eaamu" hrhut e4bvvilrt), nd. Ltabur ad. fnor1llnoJ1" w d.nL 4+ gal* MtL&a *n;',twi |L tol(o& ar arl.x,ar&, r1&d4e&

"
|

W*,WyY.* nv,h.'Y"rt i'r14hbnr-0"'onfuittltlo,. rl'ntobAIIU{L


\. ..1 o1 . o

Hotla,ut. otlmL nat nlr,h.

tt-

lii4\d.

ArnlfA& afut _agsla!rt@.B4aaj!A$_4,.0d44_@{L -"u""amn,

f)#*^

Qp;.';{N,'w,W
(
U^XrnL,& dL

Avuyeutl.| dl v^aL dt tttmd a!. . Ntuodtttttil'au,ulu cotr,tti,w arulliotauo

Itt&&,tro atutb u'll.ilnn cannhl +birltoettit$t lr,ti^p"o{g tu3! @ t ). ahr<oU''ai*eirt in'e i,Jtl. 'crll a+o' n*
hoo!

& a. adrbqi to,w..t'.4N

gart rrnoi lvthtA ap. f";$'* T"etpl,"tu opo dnlt"- c'tntta "tn*roIa- ea' .. 0,t n 14/ Ar tt. tw{h + 06,W6tui W^& WsL lr<IsrvrLlL . he lant hbi6 ,tv oJttl catt clnd a.a lmtL n'Jlu uni'tb$&. Anl. tlu.' ia^flrt&tda'* ilr li^In abl//'ne fifuru

vnoi cir.-6 drdt M;il coni,9a]lirah lrntft c unLUiILL^6-'$ tn'htl cr^d calaouani . r'jlAtL tvl./|lttJtutrt ' BtIrill. 'dr oir,ot t*t' sJno<^ilre ftra; <

iilai i,mqhra{d. Su[ su r$ NulliJtru to, Y&nr iL 606,htn. bl{l\rd .t!U^i. l,s.ctr caliltrt \L hn - Al4t6&li altnet rl'ar- lna4Aann vn+Lt

tqio@

&e.

oL YIALIifiiAituL tltAltuL *rvilMLWL nlxilr, rrL Zaiunl tn:autwotc o I o - /Al"

fua:e Ma ua o x4a1"n ag r.c.$4at.'ata|o;.rr,n'v. l rqW. il lrn tuiv+llfituwilm.i Ltnur,4,t+L Xl*g+. -Betoruil. aL ou, edult urll dr4 D Ru n u n - rB nnlr r

F4i4t!t abrvrqi' oll.rly't; ala diw alu,.oln i* dlA'$U hw r$bwev

- LUCR ARI DEARTA...cT;

;:.+,;

III. OET(IilANEA PEI|MP Fnt0un0s $l INAITNEI rElilfctr B E TON UL


E ST ESENSI EI L LA F RI

ua&a
tL(.tt

-----

.WW,WytW

fff

oY'

'tt,,L "avi",t' X'/tttlal' utt, wvnah..

W;w!"ffi
iewfr
loq.)rEr ' {d^t&.

2,"otnUtaih.wl*;l n fu - " -C.{'!4tlt 4l?1!!t AL'hj^. ur.nro& zo@aa bL ftWn 6olt , r..,ai.li,r*ffi Xl^lry, ru atfA. eU ftuhiL na \u, int;UA.*"*'

,W

9rrQJUtr,wvL&t, C^ttulf. tlriy. geX6L, 8....:' i0J4 ilji4 !x oJtr.rl/l.ol.l'l aI;.,+r.' co, o 9.'t11to\lA ,thtnu' _::!-1 lt4/,^tu+ti, av dgd.MN dr c l Temattuiittt }1JLU1" , iahl 60',' lLrJ^'itlitr 'oblimt,/.a zanidri,' o ,^nt; ,t nifirt" --yrai 'Wbr" "wqfurul -arlr-eliil-.'-

tlvcauItlqL Etu.t^k6. LL4.AtLL.Ca, CdVrNn cryxil$ i* Wu* ry''YT 3*1,.9tft 1.q 9,t'^

krhie a.tt$. W

rr&tr bo ,. lti,tttuN u"tu.itL\ \ / ,:fu E ,r \4F/'/6x E 6?

'ffiWfJ*M",*nx
cak nu

uirl

nf; '"

BITOF|UL ESrE SJIISIF_IL LA CALDURA:


i'lico u.r ;all.,t.r :.nua ifl]4tifia
iniil CillrrarfiiL(. oLwtiNt'

.ure[e/00fr"?! ] ol,..L .iin 6ef.ro

It,jtt 55".

Oe

. Vlltrul aU ilUAt ou utlrfi o ciufra.tir h,mhttal; aIn tfm$t wiutu,t ar -t. % lturryno lyil,rwlcU.

fl";

Wry.o

\.''r''u{r, lTtlt.

F+, ,rtvaut milttw ^ trt ilal;4utia" la lr,Awota$

yrooow ywr{for t/r'.lr lJLDdJr^ ,iltu;Al C4tt f,w ,h't ,t"


(n.w*nu. fil$^tn .cX0^.t6

t'l4n, ar fam4.ul, aaa,qL 1tA;iulo, ilajuu.l.

l\tv$LL U.dl,,'.traa,r- /r$tdd ,

to, cal4ahl, o, txl'cn S ora,$,,1i'hbo" lU", pnr*

oyt;tntu'

ocabla.lt* dL ,anbr&t rIL

T RA T A RE A T E R M IC A A BET O I I ULUI Uu,AILi,,|l/",tx,l,/r'rJ&i, tt,(l/rilt 'mr* e.li,^.il;,tatl;Ai"

Papulral o/'t" ,t&Uftrt ta, c4wVtvttstud $t^drv Wlcttirr&.. flenrl at wcilant ^ctl vtraL Hdt t$t tncoJdtttt a* ahsu" t*

fao

WL ctat,..oinluoitii;l"rtt - o ltuu,tn ^il:unbd' a, cunbd' o &t*u'tlbv drtttu'tlbv ttonil. tnalalt . Chau'wn C&ndtnoo|tr, ol, ir/rorrrcoutt\lawil. flu;,rWfa' ilwL 4 etz dt o&l,lt'tti-

Qetllana 2t, at 4utt; W*,f^^U '- lw vw* oltl)AnblnLVutNn wc'tnwtaLb

Ad'?L ti^tautatil,-

eb{L t^di{tL

W*t .YW..ry;.
itl a te d'taL
5re

nr.#,#\ffiW.w
pJL deuW durri^

.F.* W1*l.--U--spi+L_@eA /tLrLdL d1r."


o4,u4oIL rv cot^ta, dine o,c$lra: Rlnit VLtdL

"'

i"3*

Al

,W"
f^qL M$A
turil" .'irnr-a.

It* I 4v':.*: Tula,nt,uh'L c*-nnd-clW .firtnut


$tgt .

iLtu dt 2\

ltduthdra!,

V"ry'$,

o trAullnt

prtnnilL aao.
oft
uha ,tr,t

a. vo*o-

10o o

gu/rlujc ni|,ilr+iqehaci75' ltrd tircaiL u umwi,ttLaL titluiurr*d f'.tfun 474,&t

24 aL
. i.ry'lr

rl*r'1!rr.orrii ,' .'i,rv( l!t!t{a^

tulluhfe

D EF O RM AREA B E T O UL N UI

Betonul molorol, pur in operd, sd intd. regte, devine rolid. El posedi otunci proprietdlicqre lrebuiccunoscule penlrv q i re do o bund utilizore. Ceo noi proprielqlr cu.ioqs6 srl conlroclio. l6tonul te conlrqcldprin urcorc re umfl6 in op6. 'i Co oricc corp rolid, bclonul rc deformeozdrub rorcind,intd qccortd defor|t|olic poo?erd re producdlinp dr nulli oni: occqsloeste curgeroo lcnl6. In line, cind rorcino oplicol6 dcpdplte g onumil6volocre,corerpunzdloore compoziliei 9i virslei, betonul re rupe. Vom exornino ccerle fenomene precunr penlruconfrolul ;i mijlooceleodecuote pc colitilii betonului ;onticre ti in conslrucli.

r. G0ITIRACIIA
B ET O NUL
ca..b WAII JtLf.,

seCONTRACTA USCARL prin

orfL gu$brdAl'

Lt utt ;a ,'nn ltweh. cal,,t - su ilnrulq vrtl'trJ * gt;.^Lr^ru, \t/i,


l"ttcatij.rnL voh^m',^l* qlt Wi,o. I cintL x aui.
w a$l', )dL at1'

0,2nm

fi

d^rL

Rtodl;it, c'ta uIuA,L at a+i x hu c+ cttrhaclta vcluv+uhrt' atnt +t , dat ar Ul/r+ufuu oll r"aLt , ;y.fit,tta "vo$tntutui. LlLt UtLcrL aXfLULL CwYrt Lla+puo''a" JrA, Cwr'lr ),10, ')uara. Lino oJnlwnali fLB, !o00y."

, ..Al1a. tiifn 'Y:+

. x bya.r.trt, \^,cU

.^. i::'. lt*+ vn ara.,'lraat

posto ciment lo in( ep!t lo 10Z.

l,'ur^9yJur & uev(I(4 duL rl qul ca. tn but,ut ' ol!, c4\u;, qobiL v*alult d! o6n , in b^n. ,U* va{.luurlyst". '

trr.*ll

I oti w*+lblu'l- N alfi,t'tip ar orui o,'atl0uiorrL ctrrrcl^t


4LAI CL Ua^*fe[l|, t^r (trrtlt cr{

talx,ttt at 3 tn.

1l{ IIfil tI
ta incepu t
J Zi l

til ril TH rfj ltl

ln'*'

10z.

" ;;r' ;;;r'

Ouiu tt,uun"L te vlntrti


ofi 'nar, rrro'rr,;rr elt utut ttlt
y$U" WcdL. ltt"ra$aLl. ' r.r c{14.. c^oilJracbn ,L lDfr .L

tooor; ^ lol.iL iruhaUa h+ilIbr^d, h ,r on&r.aai ai6Lt


ln>$ ctuhorUi;fu.dt|r..llJ"lL'r'r dL cuntnWnX*' tnudnd' ctt'
<tttr.

c6r*lr.r71*/J

'MiLfd|J.t D&t d.ih c'ikitt \ttuLlIAIt , fu,t*riL l0 at L & ttin.

on'tocat 150%\,' hdu i',1


Portlo nd z50-!t5

Zglrd

_'

Cirnrnt -

De fthn*
ll.rrr

ttrt'lLuw cantLlalt*

@"@ 8,,,@ &,@


-2 mi pa rn.lru - 2,5 n 'n pe meltu - 3.2 md pa matru

.Y- #!: *y *!/y+ v&tr/r AlL( UlN+l/L, p wbr- d,Ls QXu'\ru D e.

ttt/.uu cor,ra;r'"w

alte dt a,'"t'>l4cd.tra-

-l,a nn

pe tnetru

l:"16, inli .*,r;ff#V*

in v*b at patt+ d, OwoiL. " W ub w,o;'*4Li, M6,r.t, bt.Lonufui

x qrr,,r' lgtl*& 1O, fiu,r,tnatLt


.toqt'trruLatu ^ . o"

Cowlnrcfuuft

ort ar;l

''.oL

tlabo, c.u at dttluL


-o.crrf l'j ".

2 50 19 c'm . ir

&s
oi i[at

lo m i

40 0 1 9

&&
(rn.nt

",#"H^"
Nr lrtar rh1. :
-0,06

16 ft!

!l|.o.L $rt^LtA,

.C* d,* 6"ao" u l*tort uv


aL of'l

9tte+4a.OrW0,tJt^X,a0. dl,rL - .. srrw& 1$^^i|(,rl4hro. co#}.r.ct: ,. I

utttao,ctia.

E f,vo LQ

^ [L i,$r a{r-a urtt oa,L aj 6rt/rrL'r. dr anv^h,@,\f. ^no .,'!b\^.lin


.

lmtr.,oducuco,taud.Jr

rI -t l

ChMt"

tJ0i ' (
qcqundlo+ dL co{nadi{ l^.1^-

za,

O,s7" (o.bondt d sod, u

tu, calr;'+,

:!!!L^ - t:;:lJ
i c/of!rd de c6tci u

-0 --l- -t j

1%

!'Loar^Ia4ul ddar.4{t

1W i.lita4f
f,r nt.

\ t t . t , r ^r . ^,

r^ aL 5oo kq U 5oo kI LL+tst Qmtla*t 'ltlarrL Aaatt;t anllt6ly


&aout19a.oUol i.

-.--- r. 4a*U,t-xur.y'0"! ,m u ukni b W-

.i -.:.r.

YrW*:,d":? X,/o diiL


t c

uh wi
4+& t.t{

4tn^UG

tl
l^L J,yU|L
ry\t t.
a,tlt W4t!. Lzd4r^d. . g e o z in i

I lt

l4rjLaar

&,t co*f*il\a

b" a4a, 1*lalih


Apo Di5trlotd

dlrae +{ .m+ d;44Ll4fA

6n oU tmlw"w,l ., la4^aita dllanA t a nal^n a U4t^idulaL .


t4 t4 A4".4

"n*ir
p. det.u ' i ,a n m

trF ll./

]-

lwolr, a;qrL &L $^u^oue * L,,.$tte V,bvv, ttt ' la asJJ.Wa. d'l* 0f,a,ntu* ciilrA.lb d*dt , i"!t , t+ rlrvu^L -uil;IoJl

I rrt4t&a,cotLa4- c^t-aaatj"d

4 ztte

t2 Ztle

ekLL dL ilu"itttu. caru firrlL' drllioL f^r*lt4 rJhilrtu,ne Jt',luntw. ' '
I

tlrt, toalt a;fitrxllv.rJb ttwiiliL a4.uA t, tmilnlnnl U, aaril arAY fu$l^dl litvuJtArt , d. ii.Jtrto dt cfinutit , + a, "i* aqw^tt, ulta^t!$i; ta, i'r.tn^dlM,

a
!

ctL autrut uunul;"i tuI;,t";. r|r'.liliLI^.

xrr&l;.l/..a/o Acp^to" f,r.tn "lr" .

l''1oi pulin

P E RICOL l rwltdtttv," l$u^i^',I

., \Jn ,nll-di^ i'a,tl au.{orJ' UrA foflrAf. in ;v"tt-t w+i djtc dt *L t" iibtill i,'+ otv i^L 50% u^ iALhtt . ' TL^+ut at Li\unatu w qtw dva+ta" U eu . at 'pi*O:oxt iv, a1A, &+inL ta0. ww uttk*& "t ^^;n^L culilifn orln4tveu.ltr-, eu'{n + iLwolcb ftn4tttak , {ounau.n,auli L4 eu utz' um ai,hair at ht -

X@*'w'
t ixfu;t, l.ll.'l.tr B$inoglLtV
tr.;^ab..
Lapte da crme.t -------t-

. Qd .r: we. a+aril;^o" W,aL & u^cwt aa, il4*4,o4a.


Sa * i,t **AU utolw.a^t^, 'Lu tru+u;tJl iNi^L14lrl. .wmta:ur ,L^u P yr^M eefLUnt. - ltntLtL a. iulad,a, walrttalet,. eront6, UAt\n dl Wucll.) .\-bnldL tu
. Sa^" lo x apl;"u o vtlr^ut \m!n-

cturir r.roa-ceffi;:iJT Si u.. rc utlir itt -!\-' tAA^t1artaTct agcr o,futftl ut$tan.l ,t' a utxau.ll: u I ! ' !.- '' \

o^Y*"":-l 4'b L n n'@ y 0..-.^P1Y+ !^TWF".t&


^
VAJIo l'*tr aJiILba" d! (MLaXtL .

ffiz

II. IIff(INMREA ITGTRGIRE $UB ETTT $ GUNffiNEA


6erall/-, co"ais

r## fD
l$i, oltA"ai

wolltnl",loti^d,, ^cra4aywwa NuI nri^^i,.

tr$$
d K tt*,
tttwt J*0r.. Lil/'L et&r0,11.

dtbrYLol+L c t ttL ow dutAto e

s'E
I

b,cittuat*.

'w tH*f
'i;tlt' do^$lL ' twl oltmali-

Al)

Drlor.r;ati&cfwil"E ^y-w,J,L
lttJrto,/'/,h.fl *,

try'ry:,.

ell i;"tL M;.,,l.

Eup p'WT it;Wtil'i;ffi1;Te#ffi,,

corr.<rit

t{rta{,!n', dt taJrww b4 ct &aa&, cir x'ant 1afulul tl,uti o* rt'ttt


,unlrh

Atungi16

lHTr dDERE
COMP RE S IUTIE

afu & $ola^+. ^L 'Rg*^e*ut di*hc dtlou'atb hamtuoll *'atkv. 'v$,6ii:.tsvaiUu!;r^dli l^fi Ul' co&Atfii't"l* msawtlul
Act* codiit'v* ..(r lt^L&,loi fii4 ALdLh, drA,t$n"

Lo A,j,tt fiJ.L-

'

Pp!ss0r1.

Cr^r^t$Itut" 4o$.4ifalii $ct,nulr.r, oa' &o rt nt<i'tat&v** cota&rrrhilcr,, catr,uluI dtltvv*aX,uln, ^L t'ilovvb qp *$^4.t',.$ ,1iT1\nrnt'NuAa WJ, ditrnl.t Modl^ri, dL d,abnilt

ri,'f
'^' tf
. =-

eb.>t'rLaapr-

Kg/cmr

E= lrr'},l.o.r$ funlr* * n' - di@ tt ll-t crir^i u zE tilt. ^t<int'na ooo4lh^1. ;r\tu zooooo,ti, 5oo
(A c,U* odoJa,ou u/n^u^)/,
N .:orlqLavwr,o- cowwartit(alt a,. lo, ogtal v$t; kf.qr art aorA'urLe 350 t.q,
|Lb, thlL ,\4L' dt-'

d2 Sto oo0 k+/olz la a+A e &-290 0ooYq/hl te ?30


IiALL dL ant" .

to

"*ant 190 Wi

_wf

wtt/iljeIAXL.L o,' quiattl"ee.

EL vLL di&nL ;

c,w wJ*o.

a* r-i!, Moa-l:tl E cr$lr, c.t" vilralt. i c* a$L uu tu+uAr vwd'. lst* fitd la, wr, b*"s, a4300l9/ctr., wuairil" aryl^a* ttlt wran

E riE liE EIi E

'&r&ti.i calc rC luwianri,rrr rlwtllfulawut

Detor*"{." blatd iru iarr c.l d;oy\k6 vnurtlr,tn,. e+,^,[rtitri.\t, ee o- {,\Lrfi&{q^i ,ti, bitrwnr^&i.
\e CgrnAurMa djv\ibL - o ^|.l/9|to,if(^/ tL ,t o dt-

tx A|ltTE
deformotie

DUPA

blutit, coht- cttui\t 'r* Yd."\ani Atc^.ttr;.,,',tYtryv.lnu.lu ch;.a; doa \ncdttttar,ts aiiwtir,l.;- c.otrtfadi'.

^ Le Mdl.,MAiJ

?|

$
* li

dr'3t0 kq, Ar{,$.u, la SOzih, Lo"'tytt qc,J, dL e\'y'bt.ll.,ve dr, 8S hX/an .


- 0,60 nn - o,70 ^n !-1 t,; |
- 1,30mh

AL fi; /w!. h ^ LLxrJ,uN,L tltt .la. ln 6*ow o* ahain&

- ?.0 mo

il
{

Elosticd

Totord

Totold lolzi

to 10zile

lo '1luno

lo

3luni

lc lon

lo 3 oni

incdrcore

DebLo4t h*a u.,b iriwa vLQfL$ii", 3 otrl . , d,u,+n"


ItL1tX\c

6'wo;,*ta, &fr',tLoLtrnlaitki,
50 k9

Wlyrulcatu

l,'tr,i.{L

'l i-- -l tsr--- \- _ -__

19 100

150k9

t>uuoai> fu, oxrunt" t& |wttL


dz tvwt.ilbnt, v^tdjq;ll;;.

9 {qlll.alt-q

Itl^Al-L

ALR
umrdi tl l r! 507 .

Co*rat tufrrtau aatilrr,fa'r;h!, srtr wr& I!!4d;'


't'" qllr d&it it tttu trtio.L.

$*n ilnlritr,''tL 'g. St l41c^2, v lhu* at 3 ai ( tuir.nl iotcta ), t4 i &..d att/.,o. ,ciwt:g .

J&ii

6e;\,"ilrLl wi

&Wnin,t rrll.tn tu.

De ur)nwL c;., i* c,)'r.rr:/ItUo^,l";,

rdlot t^. x d[Id;.lk iatieladi vrtorti'oltt* c,*+w^tr ri lr.t{r(d ur/.r;l,yvL an volalilillrl 1uulu. la qoLui AW"I^; o itb)tet.r i"a; nnb Jr loo fi/cv'r. .

ftLratii^i tur1)u(4r.rLi ct& riqf,iir&lj. 5* a$* ta1+

Defrrf-i.rl.,r p0o*ial d,nitdt' tt dr rt+ia;.*t at i^kirrv al btl:owN'uL i,^

$6v$4'"fral,'t'*<anrl ;. E rlt r"i 'ttA^^li t^'*d i+r<itr,ca,wr * laa b, o rtitoli w\aL i4\ti,'vJaLl,,

,-" - 0.9 mh pa matru

U&wo|tlt d,tLpn t oaL " iratiur;casu'. dtt Lo, lt, v.rytelet Lrorr.l,t,LJ,r, 125 \/aa' Lo" inLnfurc, dtkt ^oltLU A', nIuILu tt aw co*titrU.

Lxt+wW dntunl annri

Jffi
$, I ll"ut alh/t$+nn .' YgXL

3 d.t^,;, alL u,t-i, ttiloy. I*6aL

&bvqu;ib

au+a

, lL v't^Ujut4l 1rt c.u 75 o, um)AL 9r9

if:
!cm!

D$avw,aj;& $.aa+to ^ |! V.f,8,/4luL mo,L d,tfu,rnA, "u


dt dYac|,, 9|,'y,^'ltw.*ttt , a; dr d.r\.1/>ItiArl, e.k'.' 1tru4wy,t li & aN.lLaI^iuI di,F tobolr'

itatu l,;bil Ww $u\au t' Utweuotiln' $ t4Jlulutxt.

ITAR E D IS P OZITIVOE S OLIC LA C Ot4P FE S !i Tl i E

III. RUPEREA
Rl+t&e
63.

beLor+'"i.
atru i.<L

&tt'CL

6'.LL ^.Jt 4L ltnud,t, corwd|a&a dt ar 6u{\,ari4


DatLd'lr'a,a$}aaf6, .

5r.^B
d- /)&

e"fe,ro'.
q!l''t4,r4

,.

J,alourb. I

Alcil^/,itnc
\'

. VaI^swrL
.bh ftffi"

'--d

-_-:-.

Itr

c*

fOtVwtatto" d<rAlotv l\i,CWi,{i,,tellx; 4L |tt++W erfl i+oate l,.ffiiltu'.L, atra.IL ir1i.r. I catt,r ftrt E &kdall

PRERUPERE

RUP E RE

lulst^L

tiw;'

wnoto(o*.

Lxo*r,imana, aausli.6 a, btlau,.1lui', 4sI44rA i* asr| r^d4 dda,eL $tr.ttxt r.M-^ ltu ca pir/tutt/tt/ a. irt,.d,rbL l,t 5075% di,/w tatLa ,a, dL UMt L,

qnlftrt^

Aua$L udni,

roat a,
04

aWAL u4.utIt ( a, u u.ato naltt+arfL ) .

AL V'L',^;UL dL o[roieil;;

ri
215 kg/cm

Rwole,nto Cr, tum,r.r


o ['cLo1ru.{er.! t'ri4 lan -

;.ffiff1$]f ilffi
. ,o(hr
*nt*A b cany*t't*.t 260 kglcnz &1J./|'Ju- dunomrnu ae uo&.,,nurgd!nolrr 'at c4r't4ttt'4rli" 26O kg/cmz

230 kg/cn2

"

,"- j

i.ro---frj

j.-t--

?tiks/cnz

*ntr

WJ (m 10
230 k g / c n z

-' Fa

1L...-

r-=iz

..f

1*.y a^qio ryq'


WL

'^";x\.d.u1t

u;a'

WJ ) < .15cm

T_J ( zoch )
-f

190 kg/cmz

ta.it aL ca+L A.45 wt taI"ti6 '

atu.oA d..L \rair.bnfa, dL catt @rrlturfaurl r'w cala&li ;aL. ^tanL ?


t tlnrAl L& Ii,"d,

fo cm

4oc m

q.t role ai lttqL 1ttu,r"cit,i e[,ect*.ab. lw *lo**+ a^ ot.itf c^;" *;to*n" d:6lc4q.d, e+& moL ryiin dr..4t' o ou&slul dt 45 b 20 ot p x .qrloflir aa,o dlwdtwfuL at eto"r,*ie,u^l'i^ Ax"b .l"ln 'wi!-itw*. Re?.ite^ro -"",u Fl

ix meott s-A srABtltr cA -------------E=


Ar ttrL\Laaq^,tv\- 1O'/".

0.80

Dt ntw c,t aadna. dt ry,..t$t. tu-d,lJ.rt 6e d,,\.d" 't;XLr4 at i;.i&-ail,


lblr

Rezrslenld l" t'u ' fI dt^dlbtl : aaatli' lu'(,.ilati,

Sldovnt* btblly.uful, dtetnf/- dL csr.Iwliti,-, tua1*, iret$* &u'rrl4lrl.L. b,, dt, cali&{r& -

ca",Ulal* dL ^l4t:.1f,,,t'e ( wrL aqqd$,v^lo. btkiut ^.tLlir*e L I, u. r; u j.' Lo i,,uJiUut , \^!rubr b*ovuLUL uA h.ta<a,, AalotL rduttttiti .ttt l@tl Lloti" iw lag c/; car lrrui;^nt&.
S p r ilo r e q o 9 r e9 0t elo r

E-o llan;una4b

-"4'i

1i. iat&aitri!

tx. nAtt, *ilnst&,& ,u4 ALatrn+lii


calta,.

tto'-

la, hnn&u, tttlt

ara*4L,

batorvrJl,uL

b &hJt/vrn/y;rb A&lte pl;,', i.+utlvao dL 'r,tr1ornLtttt lL 41iit,tt', d..j*. la,

- l* sa^ttal. rufutouto

E+a wwb mr.t,

dr.
l4

urjirlrtLt4,dAkar& <4J6 ea ?A' 'llyt$nfurt

&.,

qh

dA. dL cati.tali,, wrJ eulb\L

& ccnWLlv Sonfu*.

,J(."l"o'int;*rAw, ^Rorjatt nt naL $t;i, f+ auw,t;,non p&w Lo$tirlta i,t/ML cil.rrAi4.

uHFi h#

{ . P'

r
o Re ziste n;o
r n c o v o r er e

Rt.= 1,5 Ptbs

ltw t/ufr1til, a, y'rrll, qilab\alaanl.

iHcERclnrq BRAztLtANi
(g,piltttt\& l* aqfnaul

il+n

Rt= 2

rI01

'r'ilt*u\Jhfg a.rl,L$lilL ^,tA,, AL n*fuilt at Ltw*d,t cztt


It)tgtt tan" o UAtL4&tr2, , crt alit 'n+* 't+rt1ol*qdA tu dr d44t''lzrl'I4 i riitli * beIotnrlin 4/tu, 1,4a. wN|t,

g,t/tt"54xrX4, KnLr\,t la, 't/,U/t.&rL lat

Ro3(p.riat uscot Ror! Ptriqt um.d ulr.lrNuARtA


RLZISTLNTEI 1Ll \

______tw
--1-osz

-----1
--\

^t44L liLL CILtDLl ^oil-. w&...fa\.


v. . Ao* ilAustL

I eiw

'r,tnie ,..rthr,.

orrIREnli 0EvtRst

-zoz
o%

T-zsz

R;grlurilL t- ts' la6 at alrrrrclj.o dD\L,Li dL 'ir4l;'ntu.

t zile ----l DrfERalrri Dr viRsri f,-sol: 28 : r ie DrrERENri ------\


DI VIRSTA

-goz --------1 -zoz

a-lsz,
-tooz-\ -tooz

(tnuc*

rv.<.L jariij-

------l-roor ----l

h nq*\.
't L4.il^*o
',

-sox

T,.af,a\n

r,v''fortgdA *,Wva,

LOIW LottulLi
,r.irli

dt Uprtnat* vyb, o .qaaamlie,

Do.; belny.'lt" t rlL trqwo, , ai.,w\aya^, , tn c;l'rytr*at +',znt, x b c riJ,rratr'a 07a,$,)!j/dIrro/.L' ly'^tn - o , wzi.tt<,.+tia b. Ju,t Nt$Le{tL iu'l+"t'viatL. ' Aczi.>ro tL d,aIni2DIL a.cljaniL At 'i.'/'/!liq.^a,iri W 4n4 Y\.ytrpa L?L' co,tr.t

y"r,^rdleu.
TaI'ltu.L uvwiXc"z lw d;, . It ^4\^/*^t 735
lgtnr

c iAq.
12aO\/cnc

as>pu

trt/+Brl4qqa, a4rrll.L ?500kgfrnr 177O lgft,lnt

RuPrRE2t0 k9lch,

Bctil,l, tqu^^ \a' ir^lrJlciaL q&^IL aiL s ,uiDfz^IA $<i, fiw!'n, d!.iL ls,aa, c4hr- 5e ,&i^4r ttt o intJtttortt ./f.'4\;i,vi, . Aurtv yJ^st/\^t^+ 52 d^.X,vv,rI& o&alniL. La,).nl'if,o.dL o$Ltrlrta, u*
valoo,lt1.o cA,2L..

W &{WWV flm"'r
&nt i+'ty*if&" tr,rlu.u. 'moL nttLait^o, dia
r8c [

,L

Fpot/-

Comp.eriono inrrrde,e

,7 197s.'

aOrV.62

A GR ESI UNI L E CHI M I CE

dtqlAAaL
C'Ylrml'C.'t"',

gtx4,^,i,
dL

frn ,l
r::_\

t"

I
.dlAI-?, dL cal.dtt teIL 'a4r, zX$16,,e i4bt,.. drt\ il-t (l'rlcr\ L'dtt. .14/dta,., IlJtr4'JgtltL I d.4 ailt ltw ALtltx{, ,fc . . .' &tW @.g t'

Acttbr , l;* cL ht etttai'tooar' nnrL 8;:Ij.teorl, rrLlr-t iL e &rX"^L m4i, rrl /f 4 o,a I.* Ot S/e /itu{6, noXttw uilln4bt dhrtlt;e.
E| ] S.'to, s,'lot I

El n'onmum I " l" I Efl lo lilru I cor.i! lmoqi.tiul {g I o'5Elo.ze.

+"dta,,rf

clt't Eft t o[ z6uFi suu^TAri

C II' IEN T AL U M T fi 0 S

in z6uRi BoGAT

C IME Il T

CIMETIT PUZZOLANIC (cu tiass)

CI 11E NT D E FU R IIA L

63

w,lli

dr oya' dt,+nuz Dutaddr& ruooorotr afu* othotc+U h


vunw.

" -" . \) ,l

Aclitt** n ltb ;, 'gor/.rrrnfur.*

Wffi1
i,tt Ee X Wtt&t ct itl'- brurtiLj.I' tiotbtil altrl* torr4.d2 l{,ti,Dfu o. l* u.al*. onin fuaunlo, jiwrbLluL ally.L & v'rA;' nail" n*'za.llh a{* ,yu;g olni,.
ZONA DE VARIATIE

w\Eor@

Aurv ate. ll.tab, lL Upwtt* tvtj"nltt.o &/.l,/.L cownocfay *" nt)n udilllrll,a dffirnlloijltl olt t;ab, u wi, cnwfui,ulattus e'cilo lilcd.

Cjmnt d rourd Sultdfotn-

Cim.nt Pu:rotonic (.u trd33)

Ciment !reloluJgic In:gurd Dogor

tf-

ottotzo lvti'i dW4,oJUL ?(,;l'i't. U,* qttd" dt dai,)tllalrn L wia Ai, 4b. uu hrn^ar,Ler.

h^onosno&a&-

or. W
& i&&t;p

{d,an

pi&.+rnr*.

catlonir ilwtnx

can, alas!, in ot* tiriJr- o hrrlrtwrl;;A t.rx,,IL 14,tr,ulL ^tlylot;n;t 6 ttels^ubi qL Wo,tlrtL 'e d,Nrrt, w aLaLcor$ir.t d, cdliL UJ'+uL. ^;

Cimenl Pu!rolqnic

C ime n tm. t d lu rq ic

CimenlAl!minos

l''fo.trtu{r
a^1, i, ,cw$\t

oqanLo.
d4rL\Lral.Lv6"

CU"W

di^,!,J14 btnuJi,

Utdoti& le c*r'hr'; c^1, a&ttra i mtt&,;\b. oWLr*;,u-

i. r.)
J'- !

;U

'

Srnzf fl

.a.rt

A1^dt di,,r, caa,,'l/. orlLr^r4rA Pti^,r rl,,tfrt'ni& cohli^tuk .4\r WutLalii iut-8.rJi { ' M*r! ' mal-uir& or4o.+ug.t L olr|cll ' i& btll{.i.ot ',i'rL ^l z.)L^,J" , h"ttr vkil"l"n arf o.oi.C,at^ L' tlu"{. lad*c . ^^2a

L x*r&t

l+i.'ty'olJLl , uir4 4{

tr' m^r,rt rl . ri - q,.. e ocLlA w ,l4fa.fur.I"

?.' t'.+&&

( a{4rri dr. 11,i{:t{d) ._

n,.'.r',tg rirt a!\iril1fu tiJl. o.l,r.nn Pt*<h^


trttt.r,1,'lr14 !rt

Lr&a i*t+tt't tnLelo coa.ootttq;


Cg'/v"l4a.oozq bc got

baott].;

ln,,norttun
'Wv,,4.O

-lAffirLL ',,tw , o qlar'utot*tlng rtaq boqa,t .

,{"t+d,+do >t" v*

-b1.^M4

V'^!6, .AruAnWw

1tca.b N"*

+ a ya.olufu .Va t lr.ilo,tlr- tagl; '

!P.4
0 fluotore c!

0 vo psrre et o. s o, c ! hai. , ole p rort ce so! s po c l6 de b f r r

:. ;r

a^q*rt BLto"\4^l Lual"ttz i a^^yAntttLt CAv ytl !'\ilrfu^ li co"" rcdilL i, f,tn wmlluuo daletili

l4qw^^j;, f6 tdornljcr t+La>anw b<ttt<ovfunl;.ot. 6ndil.

Atl.lt fir,r &. alot etv lu.&"to.t" tt k^ev;lt , cJ L liwa ,:olorart dL ,' att:.'t z'w; , luotD u.' d*ttn^t

w\Abvr*b,t; ,trar'oX4".

rn,i"d u{4!& itl, a4rt4'r';'4.t.lr-

A,lt++,ttaat* dlgren $,/\hfu.t*rtilt'Vrio& wt*


qi, in

u1nle^

te

D v at^nvl\; iN !u,u,tl ,l\ilrtl! Ar l'*u s'.\** cary, A u,n@rL hi/nf dxsL$.ol,a, 4 rr^utt, Pennw oduuo wtfat ru'nl,i*u,Lfuhn! ,tu'Un!;'., lA\ta,r. ;.ttt&rL dt

RattnjJj at l*twJJ4 WAuu V'r'tt* ar gu14. Wf tt.4LtLU lL VutttLt \it+ \alt & ;il^14 l'bis.
*

cttu n^* cn; d&rcfiolhwil*, corel"'N, i&{'raf.

Deauurua UtXt;un^+kar:"ta lc/..r"aa 'lri^4b^

6at>tuta at, puoh4ry ar b*ot' , neuba\L $24tr\' o crr\)rhLLdil,a^D\uXn, il*ttt^A^'/ti V'JJr;t 'f-L tt\t'.&^&, ^rX{ Un t'tto,t W conrlu4r I ou. ci,+*wJ ct7.61vra'zittr alJ^ , ut'le4;x.t, u;al/i-r:n , ,6" a.t,.lttttt a \&s'&,.f.,-L! *t*laZ,taattt . yroxt 'wt Ulrtarala

H
A tm osferd ?en u.bai d A tmosf..6 mo.i na pi ni l o 3 ( m

ddmore:5l o7cm

C ONTROLUL 5ANTIERE

u
("0 ',{l Rnlt , l l! i ! t i\ t l L l

I I
I

{1u4att

r.liflr t ', I

rl tti.r,

D u|ro )t{.d.r-t. :MAtt^+d *t. , tbrt 'ftrar.$i,; vf.,Li.rua

+4=+
Ueburt t1lot' ;rn/ovu.taL tt ^dsN;arau,t. dtn tetoifu';ttt'' ttnLtu o, .5L tl/4ft 6. cducta, t\r\xi)^L olrl/\X^L rll.Ju- it\t ilL dt con*szie .
I'

|I;:

?bq^t:al;, lt,,e.l.o/r',') t o rrutituil Vt\4"tu,i JdrrLi:itii qv\ d.!.o.*t&D[.a^.t,

cnru', h XnrtaL, uA i^ ut/.:


Pmbut

4;g,atLo ,rL lto- $;)irr

d 2 K9 beton

) * i'q".'L,LAn i ,fe oorrr.i o.tr'. l/Z Ut'au dt aLcott , ainuo, L ti 65, l*c , c,;.b, Vti
1Jfuta, onldu cs Lvrr , t! x dflc, -

0 c*wlLr.ou ( r |rt ..Wu 4 ry"^ uonqrtr, e$t v|lwdL h b,iaLL


. 4a 6 So'r_.i ac $,e,t vru crn, se va,t+i tulalli 9 "*1 i.,"^i{4r. tr.il;lra. t, ti^tt ( q"<n ' 1.r .t .re "td*:a,.utt . q.It^^Ir,k, i\r^e/.l].1L; ar a4t. I

\-,

+ s.x U,.L,tude aktot.

DtlwA ;cdlra&o

Vw,|uau, qzcawlswvnki $efan*,|'i,-ri 'poorpfu * poah.lau,cu


u.t\L\t'r'r\; , aL o 6uiz Ahi).Wo, aa o.r1L. d4 'ih

, lr i,1,t

3e no+ Laatvtn;aa a.ttl,tL ol1tAi*+ib olJJ"ve tu lrunaittrau" d, lglsliovl. Se va ,,rot^Nuoarrlr. luoolnlitotra, a'L altrlolrt i:on^&li A('ta.rnll l.u-. u vlrato, At hn'\;44diaL.
OrfliaatZ a ilttt [.oaiLIsL bL rt lrf,;hl+ vktXoLt fu4" (1'< L " nho'u.t'). lJLr,x

D a6. te l"4r41&A , \i,tra &.

Ca\$rroh( Wawlt* intottLVVr]wi;o


|i" l\Ot^tli"Ui' V.Jlip,l,o[rA, dn<it Wj"tt0/y.-

UU @$Wd'

,/1" An6'l! dt l"t'"\W

^cor*.qf/-, Puw asaaA ,* tru tna|u+ il','\ fr*flr'Ll WMfi* i ,e t'oo,u'i


dAlcaotl t4 .

c,r',uL

Luotrrl' -/0^o+Ld!he W l.a,Loarl


0!,UL4.

' - B abtlrn thb, uamuhcqL auo aair d rlrot'dr ti/v,L We f,.t-.


LLtIt- ca W6Ia. di,rr Atr]r,L ,rr$t^&a.

SEC' TI UNI

a^* o+*, tar-lanin. Wr"y., 1* , t tv'rrd)rL<! . tu'bul


l^Lt (r tt2o.
0

fuxnw'n<amrlz at,ahrqtLai^uLe

Un lJ^JfsL ALL\d,A&

LrV.eAdll at dub&t

d,ia'arta\24L.
-

funn" i.wnrnz;bb u,vwoune


t ttt\rrytLlLa , ort Watuh $Lt tic$+wu TcJaafL. La LtdtL V+an& , y4a**L ta f,l^aw;A*; lvtuhlm ott' at tlto dttt nm , +* Lo,f'attofulUxu,l k$t\ dt almaaz a o7.1.a. 'TwNVb di; U;uv biltL

uqedE'u*itnqo.

W d/bw;.i ry *,^ry.04a?.c.,

Ufl&ilt'

fi+aul* ,:eW

l"-t-r^r'fC, {i. i'w"d^rL tLLoturi l,o" g*,AAtL.

y,ochttr"o p o n,ui',,;6hv, .te -lau c,1L uuoaa


Vtul'L\\:tu. _^-

.^ Duit c twLlo- dr.,w" $Uo, rrz1Ft\o.L,confadatuL lni.alurjJ.or. !+ W p', tlJ*$^Lt, v,/dr; boJu d2 o{tL Uttw 'd/.. t2 la t6 r,.n. N"nh.," alrrt. kML a,t*A* "^^,$+i,$A4d, At^ 1,6L ry W u4F tl(att, o tvr;1ct r. cab,liiutt oL'Iitndlrxin'A|. 'l1f" coar+t ltttorw;tn c*.ilw,

'l*Jit'tu ry-Wf dt4'i.turo"


Lib

\uttoua tuo&dor

Pittra. t ,b

Try.'

DWt &cbliatu, Molto, bb ir\LrA ^ t {}L- o crt"L,L umatbii, c* n;;i l*, 6 a+buni6'+t. vl& ,. cW l,*calioc"n

ffi

_l#%"

t/"(v rot"Lt tnXtotvhz

o . ilWue u&. vdo& alr^a4,y,)c, EuntiA dd&, il*i" ^tcftaru. i" U"lM,)tL r1," etx w ct*1*polxtt , fV
Wtwut $l,\b,\uJt U oAi,+tctV. din l* tttt\uid6pl^' 4anWttu+lt+L,'

(-

il"tfrffiffimWk j,.1 *^" * t'" 20" '


Pn.I^A 'vnuzcowoLt ccwAnui*tt +, ^ bwbuLc tut"l*tu, Il'J;/.tla' rs;n tc.c;M, W dw coirq,,Uati. *J iwet* &wvwL,io 2/i lt/s '?o*ea,",a), * I,e w anp>ltc at a,;';tl-ri.t* ,tttrk^. a +Lontltalte la'ub< obiUL at
Vttas<.5/'tOO mm.

ll
lnattuuo la comnzaU,,rt 7 zttt Vtdrrriefc c^t4il"t\Aa caL hxtn E h. :ui.t.*i+ dt''',.na.ur,lte. Vtlt( ltrdu 23 nte er ri'r.lui ir.{:;ru L jir.:, *. 1.1;)ii -)[r iilr*r li xnr,rl',;.1:-i. 90 au

-----------

?t

CI

al a1

a1

cMILt cs\t\t - fltla^2 dL .r'&),^r't, ,'ar. b_ hrtl4tt tA.Il,l vLlak d.L n$r Zftctol,lr.

Swnl"UIAh* pue+ Vuhuit re W dL t{:'\ulL ZI. di^ ,atd&o,


Wr,rtWtra 'rttllAall4" . rlrJ$141r ltr r :ar t'1.liJt( l.-di..L.i

ttt .l,i r .tu[.:nrL . f'ta

Y pqA

l!rari!.17.1 [.r i,rr,'ntutt:. tro,r,tl,

ru[' rr,r,,rr"r,11 I *'rrLrart.

i":.,;Hf" , ;.4UrL;'F,a
. .ga a;.L t. 6rAt.<t wi*r.nl4" t"s
znn\4nlg 1o intv,UetuJ tr4)16 e tr. 'wtlCi*aOa. b,/,10 ljvn ry i^U^414 Lt
sut4 Wcjltth!, .

ilolt"l.ll.Il'tt t1 u&. aU,aL l,:,

| |

__.-ru
,/2

lJ
M = Ft

AfIA,,{n' dluu^+a* *er--E Ittt, ,lalili,,tto- 1^)1^ttt at' JtcoW

{r ^t-.'*;*i, ratii,ur ,oulrlt.rt.r r-';#fi,;",;i-ih * n ,^fiffffi""irr:e,# mi,*; +4


efy.A^ab vl hu\

lnir.r"atu

lo

-F

in;,.rn'rru y+

---

_L.+ u

---)'

ti

- 15

PL
b3

Vtut* d+ l\Ov,r.!J,l

lnrrt:rinitr truwtir,,ttlttiqt
,tar^!&t,.
Uld;a(r. ia\PL- \ n )r Fot fr ehcfxa\L riti.r' liljeuloz at

fl

AUSCULTAREA CONSTRUCTIILOR

i: ii ,lid ,il l::;;11. i!:f-;i rLi,l.il , !!.1i.rf,t;-r1.t;1 *l1a l,l{,:... i: .rr ! 1". l!;.*: Lt j' '!t

Ertf]' o iwltu,lta)U, ciil

tta

cL rwtv 6li), l4rtcrL, e*lLl dL ' \uLrtr. INL af /fI.qL vori^U.L' L4via.ulo oJd4 ca , &l- |fid, rdtr'/r!-, \2zeiltnlo cw$uilm tdi^u di^ v^ald ? L \4^At wilt dti,t a- a+lnu.j'lg vaaateq;,.

1r'**t 7t 6uL

dir4hb, W-

Pe'vrnu Xaltliar auf&lt', .kh^x d tdt. ului , tdvLatie'i nto. o- lnkriL Li, ,e cau!!
o '/roud, r aftn'i, d!, crLz,|dtr , fud,otttluti,0ral 6a0^lo a,tt tutgL$a^tt ,

mU\tnt^Le

|'4wtufu; ;,ry,ttrvn"noparyau aolj.l, ta. laat h{g I dr vAdt. I+'INV I

AuW unat vr/. ltc fu4Latna c^L seLr, Wh.. dr wuiAr. tu ai,/,.vuiu^4. -. *
AT &+l4n(a,iA w;, ,uvrAt 'drdL Vll$ul

_.,_r\___*

T4rru.l, a. uwAt

tqli

1ffi

E>o

..

.-. ...\ ^ /',.r\n,f\,


\

T r .n d e u n d e d e 0 i s to .5 ru n .

Vw,oo,t*tno, de:a4 v+"2 dt J4$,4\^ont iuln s,* tol;a, . , Wuw.t? ^arrta'L dtlrril"i4ahto. w\o&,\tulaL Ar u4Du,jnolJ4 i o, m+Juttl*L 9ri ?otmon lutzi D l'4li.r'a4l{4 ;u$ iltd,lrcaw). 9it luit"" o [ow dt kWn & llMAWe, L r! ,n

a+lkitaa l^0,' u\utrih;t o. A . * ,vi'lu^l^ (r.oc). Au.lt ot 1ttolocf, h buzi @ gL

AP,*ra et exttu:tlttttu,B (tirri, 0. u"$aox uwi,


taB @ o mia4t I\t ^^a{roL v'x l\lItIL .4" naJi/. i; A vat ,\priLti E anA.fn.. MA otrL nniTil n. itt o,aar+a. c(4i AE /ta dt^ ua tw,t wtvl,;, Wr,^'ix^ft4. &- coPtor ldI'l$A@t N r Ma+tuo di:_
otlo, o Mv&ti ,tanLrl,,

1trllio.

v .

ffiq
-J\-/1y
dL i,*tuni^tt^rto& tt*uplu:

4. ytwllud^td

F^lr

wri,yA&" n

6 t. lre A.at41 ilnt do6 'wnl!!.D^IIL blta<ttirv( cau)ttu d' ctL tutul4 dL tuu-ivntU e l4nuL. 5c ,t4,wrt ci, boj/(l. Ltiu. ii ' lt tlur A'.

Wlr.l4rl. Lo uttunila&o B o Inatt uA4bAA^ 1!L w;+eiod, r|ft ctil1^a-!mAar o,fr#t cird" tt^turf

Eo dlnna6. , lau'+v4a p'o1ttrle f,|,/r^A dr UIox, W;LII It rta, CatoL,t(,o.t! &. cattula, .DU $t^tinu/- la vtt ca4irfct uu e,ui.

. S(ry4

tpu^ * viun'"Wotttl'tln4ildL'iliiirfi; rt" d"--&;; ";rai;4-;";; iu^rt^; caarw^tt , .i ," i a .te^^r^) ,


wuXtal carodi. -^v^): - ' ^ntariit*r;-'&

(1.r-a). cq,rct lab, * y*, +"e."u*u * .."r.' vlri"Ai,o,

Se rd,ro'arrli ar&;ilus!<r.l4 ( h, uior4tii lta )lrrl,adii) calu dtl(''r,*iwiistt+litt,A.",u, wati"ra.

AW Uy*
O s c ilo gr o f Cot o di c

oh. 4c n aL dtLAAt'rL

d, u^ta lw w lt:cwA(' or@rA a1'A.:i/,nry ri uiL v v 1zctL$&


V=?wL

"r/

^,2
,i
.E E

LO t l c r r l J D r n A ! t

;!t

ruxi' * nw llau lL l;<ul' atat

Acorli d!Ja.tr,'4ahr a ltoy,qol.n lyu.ndll.tut .i,rd,t-rr,r *trd tNL uiJL-

e ' U"\^twlt. ienn;,narl(- dLtLklL ro o .or\tnu/(4t rilt ftiLlf,. 0 l"sfut b aati inl;.-r;iv-wavv,

o f'

I
A &4^lA a.ettvnb@r'J' fto t lL Wz.'ti qlj', 14 M' uolo.lri oir y in qtotrmea . e4fs ^y'.r* .,zi- . *li'.lo!o Ci,.,.t r..,Lr,l rt tcli,'rr i'.r. I. ttilrLui."" ,.i tr;a.

TljttLrtL| wcrJrnL a\w.orut c& Ww*L ' dt vl nr Ai, l&arL dL t4 vnoan A la. Ltrr Va& w'a.LdL' idd4f 8 , ftr"tlilt cqla^.laMa w-

'wztt U yioy',a1utt a. uihrr4ia,

lrlrnwl dr' w^dL ULlig ,tL o Do,L'o' ui^'(L a I\tur., tt \tilt cltL cL Mmtuu.6. o i^Linn^thl, w Lvano cihio c:wa lautitl.

r"6

lo ltl' .re l*u)awpti .p, wu tulecv nX'un,a c,tta& ;^i :ittuj loziit + ir'ift\tat""ta \\ooILIL d$rtiLl^LLtn $rr/1'nrnuu,o" 'J,J-O^ln/aL dL fn,a(ta?c.\z

ttL lrwrLort t I, y)iblralL to. ota, alualL, A4U; ti;ll


r:g.r'rlr'|i,LtlL t

,u*

*-

U1U,JJrA d,"tfi.t viltno u,tttlul " "!.T*.."

culr.^/ftl c^^. yyw


WAIiA ou{lt:(rtL

, trodl!Llf & tktf^rilat

calltano.b<xon.uL,VuI-i, larv/ia
+L hrz^^+r;6.

Gtut*o

Y!li;tt"'ut;

n'\i6^ar
0

AttubL dt eLa&dhat+E
bA eAat aa' llhodlrNX, Ai'^-

w qttutant d1u;fua aaua-

UA ii, vttqll iJi^n u^Ailot ta$alh'AnalL.


Rui,,Llr,{IA.lo cj,'ywruJ"rt uur+loJt, 4ruirit4^A V;,ILArtLl, ,'lrodtlalaj. &. eloqlidJnL lo X, IALIAIAL \^tr^ii" cot$<;t* 2, c+)LotsAL dt U 000 4/0r cNtL pe d&Inri"Lo,L at, wtLL '$4UL W W)i4l, 1t cittw eptu.lttt &n os.Ui $tbw. ftldtrr\n" oltt, lt)Loddlll ba lrtlrlr dtLi, dttlw^l^o, rLfibrlr\ta. uoli o- btoauhL cn coutrtncitt. Uw o+atatoi lr.ol'il ,ril a.Iuilfta\It ttt,"st,../uiAu ta i,t'tttIttirrAui"lnL. dit{tt4i4
MOD U L tcrl aTe 0t t LA S T

teo Greulo s p e c r' rc d

tttrt k ol4hdr c^r.l)*lil;.t',a

( i<l'
Re z is t e n t o Co mp re s iu n e

(-+-l'

CtrNiilEI DE AROITtr AR$A

ZIDtrRIE DE GtrNiMNi

$l

M AT ERIALEL E ; C A R A M IZI s I M o R TA R
+ltn', cnxiuwnAa,, ciuiwjdiu pwa", e* cil<im)AnA"
ciL\nnlnL f,tifotali

ZtA,aue, dilxut, t6"-n

'

X[*L

* * vni.&p.dad" o* cedL nfu$t:auato.

Act]/ocati,til+ A*, !waw;vu4\LcduL(L flwjNt**


At\.t/)('
,=

sua'eiliv _o

Eto.lJtti,o' dt,a$

'Ae,9

W4, 350

fu, ui";naitlll;rtls u!.otL nJn,ltltc dt

L-J T
_k.* graolultL *:
wr,^LAIL -dt,aiafuut.

l"lI'l

lltl

l-l 19 "r.-' z
125 r71,,nt

lil to
7
trttt'drit,

LI IDJ
lv,4Ar* lo' catlL wL eDh,
mait nnbWUit .

ll1latv..+*'*. o mit/, t-tW,"rtqulbL

ttorro,ht4lil* p, Bolw alu,Ittul

dutw tucano" chin;,a:J* i* etu/vn lA, 400o, pr;^, outud',4 e\.L 4L a+n culit,,AautaWa Utn'a Sn 4 *.' Dl/l,M"qo di,r$q.q\aLtatta. C&wnnb. ti" WA c;&nAata + a+i., tAt:dnb U *tW cAniuwt*w ;uult,,
dojtL (t;o,ttlLila,, i^L dlr.i" ll^tl, dL

AI$o"&UA, st dtxgytti"nA.

ffi
O o'
Oot

aa catt poan1i,<il.wlnt;.

lil-

t*

trtttrd.ixL ojaatj. qattravt" l\ta^tu4ta tu

l ,f"fQ--aQ
+15 lo' + 200 ?tJAtltIA, puAd,ot de wv 6: (6alL _ dltl.,vltr''ju!^A. ry"

Lo, i,tulutr,olua,, dt q.l,^Nnah, aa"a*$a ( eL. ,WtL,'rultaluru)Slr,L wtAL 4//dlL cr.hL^dee.' itL Ww ^in U d& 48 eu , aitt" ,$"{ tyartvn 25 a,ch^L *fu*r, dL irl.4fuLdu;4lLq, i* a+L tn + 15, "i, irltL'L<tbLlrnLally.t l' eb 4w ltft, firbuia' Vltil,\1h, d$ann; , )etv ^a, $n Atttl- * Eu^Xak ltA n* $rL4%. bzorci.
;,,

tl.,n" Iu,rytlu. b - ns".

, -;il,}#*,
{u
kl)\itUtt^. CAha/w1L/uL,trlL

(ql

) l.ryl,),

,16 t|",W dL 3 a\t',

Nl.\m

?nnnr.a" 4tc.tl/.l.l/!.;rv,UA,nAut|u
+L ItL,.r/L hirLA' tinL ow c ciiinjd,.d,

r,lg{tralh

dL ;Vr,"prtr<n)ori.L4tLcal,tu",

.?+ ;o.M, o1ntLlrutlwt ,

,ilrr,^fn W4e ur,c!r.ra^t+


dt dL caIlaIL

ow iw hLtnA qi' uw,+a,4iilttt dnnotc^tli/w, n lo outwttxt* *ott "!ara. o +au upl ol6{rllitt, etsthrd, fiLttL wtAL waJw A{.t tt|aL mia.LdL dL ali" &Wft\i.t u rt/$tL - IttitINLL

y. +tab a+ %2 a, Lu4uBntL

po,o, 1tl 1au ca;.ar';'*.

hl'atil'

tnelnfu aav'w L5"df$AL wtetawl': N',Al1ttvirhfu, *lu cn* ctq^o W ar4il;d. at nr^ottru.i
hi{! (udlt Berrr!). tx doQofitotto ovmenX.v,Lnraiu[ uor" VL&'L c.fuAi i4+ Aljr*U 0o intintaru,* P tt*o& iLLtio TAtLVut,"b rs-o cowtAU,)a" lr^y*rW'u. 4+

Se, auva< 4o^. nir-rLL ,frLt /t+,alt fu. b,an\L:,


\';1';. l.il il t.!rii,i. 1 0 -tO ++ 30- 60 (roo-reo), (ro-ro), -

gl,ut"

!.1rl.td,t ,1c' lrlrt 50 - 100

{j.irlrr,nt' 100- 160

(160-?50) c,W . . . .
'thtilLLi, \tAI'J.ai^t

\ttil>l^ra,

vio*a"-

cavlitw itqgtrL,t;tb. dL UXqal.tL.

ruW l^* Lo 7 ri 26-zi&

,,'it'. .-,, i

A?.50- 3r5 Cirnr-.trl trtS - 400

150- a50

Eg L'oa' wiJo nr rlt r.$;,kL dvmtxfunb. dL \4\rtl.a, barL N & lpvi'o|' * +'tt* cu" fltatu .l\tt&ct& ar zq;;,;L, MU uaJJu4 lulo qnt TntnnuitL* Ui lLr,aai; b' cot, ' sz rsct"vJt)llw in i.L

@-

**r*r,D@
Mort4]t At43

dta@

le $tt)w ovh M' ilJbrin fohrt' V4^N"dL


l4{tlar, Xti,A +50 \ ot'vun*

Y ortfoe wLaA^L''

?5oAtso, ty

ooo \ ,,^t^,

rlorttnfoun1ut

0 *tddt

cio,nwiuxL ,

'tnl*cu* ct* o' da ttArJ" d.+,* c.v*sl,,L 12 @ .to'", - ynL't* qdduwxA & o mci Urat6' I' rf p wra! &q^ t lt oiob\It&

lo.ti+ a,c.+yvw, c Xtlto" ut/tia,o,4L $.e*,eta.l.tr.


TiAiaia, cata yu,t,
lirlL - o

ini^,-n B
tiLb\e

CirtiwtuziC ac.nD: lE lia.& ioy'oo

I fn

A r, ,|,ab

ffiu GF\t
<E> Z l<1/onz nj,..tahrnar'n dr\00-|60

aLZSo ta/& t'O \ dr, lia,* .x* ElaL tnitat" ilr^tie^lL


3!,E/cmz

./h

uatv

fAIo t*.t'*i.

t.-)

ss:;
*

A dbL Cnannlat" Fli^{ B !r,! g

fr
rOb t+ h/.m, l?,14.1f k9l.n. tS la, ?011l.rn
iro||t\ $lAiaa,
.tL ObitiL

p tort.u.

@*

":l^:

idt4ibt
-

lLrtar,
<tLwiL

J r25

250

100-t50

LltlL
l5 lt /ctn
t{rtaL rediat,

utrilort .lt^sardtt tb L0 $/cnz Zs 14/ariz


n\o\fa). q4h, ngtf& loanttgtdr, d. eri'l. L dL dn ,,L25,:95

dt dneht 166- fiO

fr o

150-u0

\\ tr-.'
\t\l!=!]

. O B S E R V A T II:
/-r---'

a.,nfuv*
$o^.f4tv Yt\^x,V

EXE,C UT
n o-1,'u't**. ' lrui, /itL tI&^/;L t4&;l'on a* qA, pld,,a! dauL utwitr; la,, *atW ta'.tto,.to,'a. r|bt)<t^$..
I-ID lrnatlr/rLdL rnf,l.ctw,,rJnu, cittiwAilt VriluU uAan Vr&vl, cri tt&n* dl* ilr'y.ni\n&..AL d-'o&'d.tlL u:a, d;w naroL

IXr
l& inu).L v^AL 44no& & 22 r,m, Lu'itulto 1rc,@ t^t bi'<rat. ealill'At 4 doirtfurL-a4.r.art ?_*nAL .4;, @ltlrittl W^$ul +@. . {r4tt itrro, \srf"&L & nctxa, trL al$ trt lnr4d.Ul dL arrlt rr.Vril h^L d,ctil,'ril6A wia;ma d,cril,'vil^awiaima \ .W^ !.. D,t rufiiur&n d4t/$fe fu W Xt17t;n1o tdi.
l4& dr, cLl, ti^tl!"rr 5 ^^ r.rtL dr, 5 l,t, 'tS mn r''ivtrpdL 0.06 Cq, o'lt nn
|o.ti,al.ll.

EI
I II

c'w ..w W!' b)bruu ryrahL' Ldba,

&-lolf,a+.'N o44aa cw riq?1, 'dtlttw*W


"dt

zid, dr'22cn rh, & ttc,n,

r-r
II
lotr, dt lrblL 15 n\,1,

r: W
L -5 m n trA6tjj,,b

l-

-I LS

[-

f,D

\ryP

i:iih

?u tj,v,* $d@5

ti Wbie poltiatt au
fn&dtt . ^art

.ew{a
rtaL Ata V&t*
I"(AAL,

| +r* ng ^^

lw ulioo.b d!' i,$.lrtl A06tile' ljLtnfu oiilk-! 6t' tw tnla' cw Eilp eatuvc;tatn fuW;. $adtftU, pbv dnalali* ,u ^ot/r,w.

cdl.i..;vv.i,A*" a4@u*i, 9ry.W@4.6" .&,N " ,te Lo-tlu*\Le " Vttll^ao , IL*
,- Rottulajll atu* attilalc LAhtair*a/ ,e a4tL tJfu,Ir,. t /'ltAtl- SLA^ dt etnw& It ?.-lcm

Ua.tail,tL dL rtrhiec

tla^& +nbt .

160 -'L50,

w h st

ui. ffi..* f*.t^LU,.h

Rortq'u& WL a.$rLn. Vry!" *4.q./..r tt S1L\,ttnL To&&U wtw*ist lrcb..L+ frnu,/ \L . ?ufu" w|atuo l).Lutioj* u,

t&aonro;la/Ut &$rrbo", l+lorrrao ,' vt1,4L O' tJtDIAr^tUu. &, 1m)v tut, rrr4.ltciuly',a;wit|, d.rAl o matarutL &. tinuL.

f.' <Afu&k fuh'LL bL olb+ owintrqt;1 tL',uL y\"+"2,! "! , l, ^6'fL nat wlh bIrral/lttL
STi L P
LA eta'c^rttJrlA, ltf{^ttuxo1v /t+ o. I:rLA,&ALLriLloL te t'rcirvww&i ca,

W
Urrl.1o lltta

N\.\

* *"1* d& cd,ldhia4".

bttm'wL ry ^ai,yt

ryL& t \, lnldi,

* o Wnh.a

Dc o'lwrtnto n& tua$,\.t AL Ai be 6u WrwLi! ,ULAM,, @rry.L',e,.I&. b& +,tttt)l^. iiA'iLA di quroo,illr.

Ew<liilt I\e e(qtL ttl ciinA',yiAn . ' E|.+ ag la4u'cU dt ilalota< $wuf* *b,?iL, tuarzl,,fi;^raL dL vanoli;lt dt uryliUiau . ' iul+d.ti' aru .+tL ^bina.' d*'cih.ntdql * coy, ^r{tl, c*;AL ttrttxtn' ua;onbn o&q,iL tkaLld, dhi ci4'@e

@2 '. TI^II; W"*

tinua;Jov^

o tldrto" a:tt+ ilwswtt't, r* Uui'rffi#Fd Aal.t Dd,he vl;&atnz cbuAnAA 4nllhUt wa4L,
d.

Un txo,lat* vr^4W ao vovfl;ap daa, ^ ub dt lil)^i; caIJob.'L'con*;riL l*owllu.L


u$oiwtLtx.IArtl" onitalL alhl$jvL.

v?"...

o*'DrffirW

n* t&' lwv qno" w

M4L dL =i',1

wWW WWU*ry EY

orr^ottar/.

ffi-

rcrew
#GF

g,ffi' W 'E #$

y.T:T-:T::

ww&
*IW Y#M'
lo"f.a vnullad't
\ta|t'

wtbr"

ettruttt'ctvvu t

a/rnL,trL

aot\

la,' mz
=, :E -- 500 lt4

aaxa'yl* rrrs

i--1
==

1oOIt
-

3ook*
e tt

1000,q
It.

g&
t00 k4

gffi
500 tt{

too le

10001o

i* ka/,

Rtnrattml+ "tw kq/ cmt

B5

J:o

50

J6

ht

-Ki?

45

.$l FS 1u 7E

if"-H
125

/a r.Lt +vLe*{tv ow d*z4-trug E W 4a,*;, .M4ol4+r.lodt t '{.lLzo'naa. ;,t,:*L 5 oo L* Ua"NL'l,L tvvltll' ouh . "

I' I
I
l

zLd W d)'.\ cdrdadAL, o4n* p o {&uaa. ilt -/it \tl$l,L il*,1, u$aA bonti;,\o. i't mo& tx';low 1o duycbauo.

:--:bf
bair6a,

5e,ryrodw o bd.ti at d,trci,:lauat


fLu,^to clAkoli o qu,naL tw tr\4&l6 dui,L o ,tLtd'*i" \9d&b6., '+iL \m+ e utatto e& qtnto& +1\'w}.ui,n.rttt ^t' .n^a, hiirl.l.L|lt, IAL$afu .
_1 t--1/r--+-./J --+ 1,/r

To , lW
wi

Au\WA, i/t\ l4nrd, rurtlaa,4t,i+ iniffin*a"

d,r S n iwttu 1@t,

0 t^Lc;tratLt eil4tfi4ti, ta^attc AL 4ooo \.


i'

0 bdtrate w*uala- onal\ IL dL trlbtL ? 0 0 0\.

l),rr" pluIl atn ciainta* qalu.ib, ( 6 rau'I qolo;) ow wrlrtl$. qnrr^.dr. 7,5 on qAtitttttw n'.rl!,4l", itiltrt ttttztrno t"o.5 i : , l"rtlL PJ{tt&o i* wrod"

0 iw,aMou d^&"f^l;, d', 509 \.

0 rdnaat
tttXita% afunal;

maL vv6lt

dt,

tuldt ii, wil'{r to o inratiiii Jd4friiL-T1i6-\',7i,'t"<twu


^th^Altu ?fru dL 5OOva,

la-o\,wilsau. " Eaii*n i rci*x 4'; b;;rr),^r.iiii"tJi zooi{.

t* frl,j:'rrl,^r" 1l,itt dL ,yA4't,fitfutL bo, oovvpaiofu, 4tr,rtt

z tD u R t
$l

PEREII

PBINCIPALA FUNC?IUNE A ZIDULUI ESTE APARAREA IN?ERIORULUI CASEI IMPOTRIVA PEBTURBA. TIILOR EXTERIOARE: VABIATII DE TEMPERATURA, PLOI, UMIDITATE, ZCOMO1, SOCURI. ETC.

-_--l
Coefictbnl PROPR]ETATILE d. tnosoriterc ZlDURILOR e cdldurii
L ploeie

lncovoen stdpangcn loceli

risu rqloii Incercdri ti rn de loborotor I

I
t=-|-^..
I-f'

0bservetii
2m

n
10 mnute

K.1,83

.t
R
1,5 22
d

Ft
1.5

K.1,62

& 1."","
5 ore

Itu primeftc cuh sea ,suruauri firi diblari

.$ I?NUI B 2 /e|t
N

Zid din hcton o0itnat

s
\

@
KE 750

Pcstc
21 otE

1""'
prin.stc
caic gu

Paste 2000 kg

.S

E
t\r . t a11- '

.E
NI
|

. lt:. zld /,i, 0et9o deagregate uton g l',1 I teDcu:r etz felc. L
" '.r.
,. 1 i'

s
:t
N

fl
Pcste 24 ore

,sarahuri liri
diblari

K= 0,59

Pcste 2 000 k9

40

fl
K= 1,06

Primeftc cuie 50 k9 naprinet,tl sarubari Primefte cate 50 k9 nupnncplb . faruburi

4gtom erab deagrelatcufoafe Tnttt pe2 ?!.,ea ldt/rih

24 ore

Peste 20 00 k9

uwq Ury4 a.

Coefictent a ci/durii

Slr;pungere

II
/f

0.E0n

..fl'
1500kg

0bseryetii

a-

Zrd dc l0 din cirimizi gturr?? ca 6 golari


p .ls

Hai puSin de , ninul

$
i .s t

K =2,/0

Nu 1000kg

t
x

6 ore

t\U

$ .s
Hai pulin de I minu!

I
1500kg

pine$o cule sau slJruburi

zid d. ,5,5 dh ctimizi giur e ca 6 golari

a
*

/000 kg

K=2,10

.R

7 ore

t
2

s
.is

I I
Pesle

pfimctt.

cuie sau furuburi

s' x

K= 1,50

Peste 24 ore

27000 kg Primeste
cute 450 k9 ft suraburi 190 kg

s
!

t
t:

2000ks

Coeficicnt detreDtmite.t e cdldu.ii K

lncoyoier Strdxtotrre localC


o,oofi I

{l
Mai pultb

l--t.-lor

zid
inci.itiriti

Peste
:?

Primcste cuia saa

5 ore

.ts *

2000 t9
dibluri

x 's
d N

Perete
dcttdrlilo. dlh pllci de pros cu tcncaieli qatpsospc
t,t 5

250 kg

/ncercirile de lronsmiterc cii /du rii si d. permeebilitete la ploae na s-aa afectuel ti pc pereli dcsplr/to.i e

0
ll00 k9

200 k9 i

caic 5kg

tl

J5 kg | 000 k9

da.tptVlitor dc dio cirimizi plioa ca EncaitE d ,Psos

prime;tc Eea

1500 kg
I{a
dctpirlilor dc ,l dio ciriorhi .

olrnc utaubli
d. iptot

1,5 ,ll

t5

suruburt

Stripungerc
0,80n

rl
-[

Stripungerc
tl

0.80m l--0,i5 t

F*
ln ca-rimidi gdunli 6u6 seu 6 golari,

900 k9

1400 kg

1,5 1.57,5

I
900 kg 1000 kg

Pcrele dtn penouri def/bre aglotrerate al

100 kg

200 k9

1,5

I
7000 kg

t|
75O0kg

dn beton zidite

r,58 1,5

/tanoa de flbre ye9elale

1.5

S A CONSIDERAT CA AR PUTEA FI NECDSAR SA SE P R E C I Z E Z E C O N D I T I I L E M I N 1 M E L A C A R E T R EBU IE SA CORESPUNDA ZIDURILE SI PDRETII PENTRU A SATISF,4CE PE LOCATARI. IN ACEST SCOP S-A FACUT O ANCHETA PRINTRE A R H I T E C T I , C O N S T R U C T O R I , I N C I N E R I S I L OC ATAR I. REZULTATELO ANCHETEI NE-AIJ PERMIS SA FIXAX1 RDCULILE CARE REUNESC CELE MAI MULTD OPINII. ACOSTE REGULI INDICA EEZULTATELE INCERCARTLOR LA CARE TREBUIE SA SA'IISFACA PERETII. TABLOUL FICURAT IN PAGINA URMATOARE LE ENUNTA SI IN ACELASI TIMP TREBUIFJ SA PERIIITA CONTINUAREA ACESTEI ANCHETE.

TBANSMITAREE CALDURII COEFICIENTUL DE TRANSMTTE' RE A CA LDURI I A L U N U I Z ID TIIEBUIE SA FIE EGAL CU CEL AL UNUI ZID DE 0,33 M, DIN CARA. MID A , PENTRU PENETII CARE DES' PAAT CAMERA DE LOCUIT DE IN CA P E RI NE I N C A L Z IT E, C U M E'STE CASA SCARII, COEFICIEN' TUL DE TRANSMTTERE A CAL' D URI I . T RE E UI E S A F IE E C A L SAU MAI MIC DFJCAT AL UNUI ZID DI N CA RA M I Z I OA U R IT E D E 0 ,tt M .

l((t.4

REZISTENTA LA FORTE ORIZONIALE ZID U LTR E R U IDS A R E ZIS fE LA P R E S IU N D A V IN A U LU I IN P LU S O IN C A R TR E B U 1ES A S U P OR TE CABE ORIZONTALA LOCALA DE { TIONE INTR UN PUNCT OARE' CARE PINA LA I M INALTIIVIE D E A S U P R A TE R E N U LU I D A C A ZID U L E S TEP OR TA N TS I S ITU A T S P R E S TR A D A IN CELEL/\LA}: CAZIJRI _ ZID S P R E C U R TE S A U D E U MP LU TU II , IN A FA R A D E IN C A R C A B IJA D IN V TN T.TR ' B U TE S A MA I S U P oR TE C E T,P U TIN I TON A

4 tone

or5.
f (2,1

E?NNSEIT.ITE LA PLOAIE TN M O D P RA CT IC .Z ID IJ L T R Esu l E s A F t E E T A N S L A P t,O A tE. IN S A I NCE RCAR EA D I]SC R IS A FIIN D P RE A S E V ER A.D S ' | ES U F IC IE NT S A S t : A S IG U IT EC A A PA NU FA T RUNDEI N A T N T I:T ' I:6o R E SE V O R P RE V E D EA T O T U SI STR ' A $I NI S I CO S N IS !:C AR E S A INDE P A RT E Z E PI.OA IA O I' Z ID , CIND DURA T A D E P AT R U N D E R E ESTE MAI MICA DE 2.I ORE

BA'fEREA CUIEII)R P E N TR U C A U N ZID S A FIE C ON S ID E R A T B U N P E N TR U B A TE R E A C U IE I,OR , TR E B U TE C A T' OR TA LON C ITU D IN A LA D E SMULGERE SA FIE D PESTE IO K G A C E F:A S I C ON D ITIE S ' IMP U N E S I P E N TR U S U R U A U R I, S D S P U N EC A U N ZID E S TE ,,B U N P D N TR U A N C OR A R E ' C IN D U N BUT,ONDE SCDI,MENT VA PUTDA R D ZIS TA LA O TR A C TIU N E D I: IOO K G

1 0 0k9

IZOLAREA ACUSfICA IN I,OCUtNTEI,E UR BA NE , I Z O LA R E A ACUSTICA TREBUIE SA F I E CE L P U T IN EG A LA CU A UNU I Z ID DE O,{5 M- ADICA DE 55 DECISELI. IN LOCUINTELE RU8 A I - E I Z O LA R EA ACUS T I CA A Z I D U L U I TRE B UI E S A F I E C E T , PUTIN EGALA CU A U NUI Z I D DE 0.2 2 M . ADICA DE 50 DECI, BE LI . ACELEASI RECULI SE APLICA SI PERE. TIT-OB DESPARTITORI D E A P A RT M E N T E.

REZISTENTA LA CALDUBA U N ZID N U TR E B U IE S A S U FE RE NICI O DEGRADARE, DACA O SURSA DE CALDURA, FORMATA DE UN DISC DE 20 CM. DIAMETRU SI LA O TEMPERATUBA DE 2000, ESTE A$EZATA LA m CM, $t Nu PROVOACA NICI,O DEC A A D A R E D U P A {E OR E . ACEASTA REPREZINTA APRO, X IMA TIV IN FLU E N TA U N E I S OB E S A U A U N E I MA S IN I D E GA TI' I'

200'

p
deab

50

-' 0,e0hi

t'i,,'

- /---.!

----51 Ir\ | I . 1 '

lq

altt#|l'

'.rq

rrltl

TII