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COALA NAIONAL DE STUDII POLITICE I ADMINISTRATIVE

FOCUS ON COMMUNICATION
TEXTS AND EXERCISES FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS

Lect. univ. drd. Di n Iu!i NASTASIA

C dru! "ener ! ! cur#u!ui


Cursul de limba englez, nivel mediu-avansat, i propune s dea studenilor care urmeaz cursurile Facultii de Comunicare i Relaii Publice n sistemul nvmnt esc!is la istan "# $ posibilitatea de a nva i e%ersa situaii comunicaionale i terminologia speci&ic teoriilor comunicrii, de la &oarte simplu la comple%' Fiecare curs este conceput n patru pri, de apro%imativ aceeai mrime i importan n structura general' Cea dinti component este una comunicaional, descriind modelele de conversaie i scriere corect i politicoas n limba englez, de la prezentare pn la scrisori o&iciale sau interviuri pentru obinerea unui post, de la modaliti de concepere a unui articol sau interviu pentru un ziar pn la organizarea unor con&erine de pres' ( doua structur cuprinde sc!eme de baz din gramatica limbii engleze, ncepnd cu verbul, cel mai important i mai di&icil subiect de discutat) &iecare problem este e%empli&icat cu e%erciii i traduceri care vor a*uta studenii s neleag mai bine partea teoretic' Partea a treia conine te%te de comunicare n care apar noiuni ntlnite n celelalte cursuri ce vor &i studiate n &acultate, te%te adaptate dup autorii clasici n domeniu despre componentele comunicrii, propagand, pres scris i electronic, relaii publice, creare de imagine, structura organizaiei, imaginea politic, imaginea comercial) ast&el, studenii vor nva cum se e%prim aceste noiuni n limba englez, pentru a putea &ace comparaia cu termenii romneti' ( patra component a cursului cuprinde e%erciii de vocabular uzual la nceput pentru ca pe parcurs s evolueze ctre probleme mai nuanate i ct mai apropiate de domeniul comunicrii sociale i al relaiilor publice'

Structur cur#u!ui
Cursul +, C$%%unic ti$n & P #t nd Future) Presentation) -!e #ndicative .ood Cursul /, Pr$' " nd nd Per#u #i$n) .a0ing P!one Calls) -!e #ndicative .ood 1 2imple and Continuous -enses Cursul 3, M ##e# $r E!ite#() 4riting letters) Passive 5oice Cursul 6, T)e P$*er $+ t)e Pre##) 7&&icial P!one Calls and 8etters) Conditional Clauses Cursul 9, T)e Ne*#' 'er# nd t)e M " ,ine#- Commercial Correspondence) -!e 2ub*unctive Cursul :, T)e R di$ nd t)e Te!evi#i$n) 2earc!ing &or a ;ob) .odal 5erbs Cursul <, Revi#i$n Cursul =, .) t i# Pu/!ic Re! ti$n#() Pro and (gainst 4ritten iscourses) 7ral ebates) #n&initive and >erund Cursul ?, .)$ I# t)e I% "e 0ui!der( ) Rules o& a 4ritten (rticle) -!e irect and t!e #ndirect 2peec! Cursul +@, T)e Or" ni# ti$n) -!e #ntervieA) P!rasal 5erbs Cursul ++, T)e I% "e $+ t)e P$!itici n) .emos, Reports, BeAsreleases) P!rasal 5erbs Cursul +/, M r1etin") -!e Press Con&erence) P!rasal 5erbs Cursul +3, T)e I% "e $+ Pr$duct) Begotiations) P!rasal 5erbs Cursul +6, Revi#i$n

M$d !it te de ev !u re Condiia de intrare n e%amen este rezolvarea prealabil n scris a e%erciiilor din curs n variant personal' C%aminarea propriu-zis va consta dintr-un test scris pe durata unei ore i dintr-o discuie de cinci minute cu pro&esorul' n acest &el evaluarea se va &ace dupa analiza tuturor componentelor care sunt absolut obligatorii pentru acordarea unei note la limba strain, activitate individual, scriere i vorbire' 2r +icu! de e3 %in re C%amenul &iind de an, materia de semestrul nti i cea de semestrul al doilea se vor da mpreun' 2tudenii vor &i e%aminai n &iecare vineri de la orele +:'@@ la orele /@'@@, de la + &ebruarie /@@+ la 3+ iunie /@@+' Prima or va &i testul scris, iar urmtoarele trei ore vor &i rezervate probei orale' Participarea la e%aminare se va &ace pe baz de programare prealabil'

COMMUNICATION & PAST AND FUTURE


A. Pre#ent ti$n People are generallD aAare t!at success in oneEs li&e and career depends to a great e%tent on oneEs abilitD to communicate e&&ectivelD' Fecause t!e &irst impression one ma0es is verD important, eac! person !as to 0noA certain rules o& greeting, o& presenting onesel& and o& !aving a brie& opening conversation' A1. Exchanging words with a new acquaintance. Read the following dialogue and try to write down a similar one taking place between your family and the family of a friend of yours. ;o!n 2mit! .ic!ael FroAn .arD 2mit! .ic!ael FroAn , .r' FroAn, Dou 0noA mD Ai&e, .arD, donEt DouG , Bo, # donEt t!in0 Ae !ave met' # didnEt !ave t!e pleasure' , HoA do Dou do' #tEs an !onour &or me to meet Dou, .r' FroAn' , HoA do Dou do' -!e !onour is on mD side' BoA alloA me to introduce Dou to mD &amilD' -!is is mD Ai&e, (ngela, and t!is is mD daug!ter, ;ane' (ngela FroAn , # am delig!ted to ma0e Dour acIuaintance' ;ane FroAn , >lad to meet Dou, madam, sir' .arD 2mit! , Jou !ave suc! a lovelD daug!ter' Have Dou alreadD graduated t!e !ig!sc!ool, ;aneG ;ane FroAn , Jes, # graduated t!e !ig!sc!ool last Dear, and noA # am a student' .ic!ael FroAn , 2!e studies social communication and public relations' 7ur c!ild !as alAaDs Aanted to do somet!ing neA and interesting, so t!is &ield suits !er' ;o!n 2mit! , 4!en Ae Aere Doung, Ae also dreamt o& doing t!e most &antastic t!ings' 4e also le&t our son t!e &reedom o& c!oice and noA !e studies t!e art o& painting' (ngela FroAn , -!is gives me an idea' (s .r' 2mit! and mD !usband are colleagues, A!D donEt Ae meet some time at our place to &ind out more about t!e plans &or &uture o& our c!ildrenG .arD 2mit! , -!an0 Dou &or Dour 0ind invitation, t!en Ae s!all paD Dou a visit soon and Ae !ope Dou Aill return t!e visit to us' A2. Describing a person ou are on the beach and you see an empty blanket on which there are a few ob!ects spread around. ou look at them and you wonder who is the person that owns these ob!ects. And you are waiting for it to appear" #he list of ob!ects is the following$ some c!eAing-gum a &ilm a comb a belt bag some car 0eDs a camera a picture o& tAo old persons some sun-tan lotion a pair o& !ead-p!ones a mirror a toAel a pencil 6

a boo0 a letter

%ow use your imagination$ #s t!is person a man or a AomanG 4!ere does !eKs!e come &romG HoA old is !eKs!eG 4!at is !isK!er *obG #s !eKs!e married or singleG 4!at is !eKs!e doing at t!e momentG 4!at colour are !isK!er eDesG

#ry to write a description of this person&s life' as you imagine it. A(. )emories *n the following fragment the famous actress +ophia ,oren recalls her first meetings with a film director' with the world of mo-ies and' last but not least' with glory. #ranslate the text' then try to write down se-eral memories about important encounters in your life. -!eD Aere golden daDs, t!e 9@s' 5ittorio e 2ica and Carlo Ponti, mD Carlo, Aere doing a pro*ect called #he .old of %aples' e 2ica said, L# need a Beapolitan girlM' Carlo told !im L# 0noA a girl, s!eEs called 2o&ia 2cicoloneM' # Aas given t!e role o& t!e pi//aiola "pizza street vendor$' #t Aas +?9/' # Aas +<, and # Aas completelD drun0 Ait! !appiness' For us Rome Aas an enc!anting place, a citD o& trams and palaces' # &elt li0e t!is because # Aas verD Doung, but t!ere Aere people 6@, 9@ Dears old A!o &elt li0e me, too, because o& A!at t!eD !ad gone t!roug! during t!e Aar' -!eD &elt t!eD could a&&ord maDbe to start a neA li&e' e 2ica Aas a sensitive man Ait! great instincts and a great sense o& !umour' 4e spo0e t!e same language 1 almost t!e AaD as A!en DouEre married a long time and Dou loo0 at Dour !usband and, Ait! *ust a glance or a gesture, Dou 0noA' -!en t!ere Aas (nna .agnani' 4!en e 2ica Aas planning to &ilm .oraviaEs neA boo0 #wo 0omen, !e Aanted .agnani to plaD t!e mot!er, and # could plaD t!e daug!ter' 4!en e 2ica Aent to see .agnani, s!e coc0ed t!at !ip o& !ers and said, LBo, # canEt plaD Ait! 2op!ia' 4!at are Ae going to do toget!er on t!e setG 4e are going to 0ill eac! ot!erNM (s e 2ica Aas leaving, s!e coc0ed t!at !ip again and t!reA up !er c!in Ait! t!at beauti&ullD &ree-spirited air Ae all 0neA so Aell' LHa!N 4!D donEt Dou trD to give 2op!ia t!e role o& t!e mot!erGM 4ell, # did plaD t!at role' -!e mot!er became Dounger, and t!e daug!ter "plaDed bD Cleonora FroAn$ became a girl o& +3' (nd # never plaDed a role betterN A1. 2hoose one of the following topics and write a dialogue$ a' Jou are strolling doAntoAn' 2uddenlD Dou meet an old &riend o& Dours A!om Dou !ave not seen since Dou Aere in elementarD sc!ool' Jou are surprised to learn t!at !e !as become a millionaire' b' Jou are Aal0ing doAn t!e street' 2uddenlD Dou see a &riend in &ront o& Dou' Jou run up to !im and saD !ello, but A!en !e turns around Dou discover t!at !e is a stranger' c' Jou are a teac!er in t!e &irst daD o& sc!ool' Present Doursel& in &ront o& t!e class and prompt t!e conversation Ait! t!e students'

0. T)e Indic tive M$$d #n t!e e%ercises and te%ts above, A!ile presenting c!aracters and introducing people, Ae used t!e tenses o& t!e #ndicative .ood' 4e practised present and past, tenses A!ic! Ae !ave in t!e Romanian language, too, but also present per&ect, A!ic! Ae cannot &ind in Romanian' 31. ,et&s compare the Romanian axis of tenses 4which is only one5 with the English axes 4two of them5 and discuss their different logic. 6ow is the Romanian manner7 4e !ave uni4ue 3i# $+ ten#e#, Ait! a main point "prezent$ Ait! tAo derivations, one going up "viitor$ and one going doAn "trecut$' 7& course, Ae 0noA t!ere are various 0inds o& past tense 1 Lper&ect simpluM, Lper&ect compusM and Limper&ectM 1 and t!eD di&&er &rom t!e point o& vieA o& usage "t!e &irst is in&ormal, colloIuial) t!e second is t!e most present in Aritten communication) t!e t!ird involves, in a AaD, continuitD$, but t!eD cover t!e same position in t!e sc!eme' -!ere is an intermediate tense A!ic! &unctions betAeen present and &uture "called Lviitor anteriorM or Lviitor apropiatM$, e%pressing an action in t!e &uture ta0ing place be&ore anot!er &act o& t!e &uture' (nd t!ere is anot!er relational tense, named Lmai mult ca per&ectM, A!ic! represents an action in t!e past !appening be&ore somet!ing else in t!e past' -!e Romanian golden rule is t!at t)ere i# n$ ru!e, Ae are alloAed to use anD tAo tenses on t!e a%is toget!er, Ait!out restrictions' 8et us !ave some examples, - 8pre/ent9 in combination with 8trecut9 , L( spus c vine'M - 8trecut9 in combination with 8-iitor9 , L( spus c va veni'M - 8mai mult ca perfect9 in combination with 8-iitor9 , L2pusese c va veni'M 2o, t!e Romanian structure seems to be verD permissive, t!e indicative mood being perceived as a succession o& tenses situated in a certain order on a continuous a%is' 6ow is the English manner7 #n Cnglis! t!ere are t*$ 3e#, eac! one Ait! a main tense, t)e +ir#t 3i# Ait! 're#ent ten#e and t)e #ec$nd 3i# Ait! ' #t ten#e as t!e central points' -!e most important t!ing is n$t t$ ' ## +r$% $ne 3i# t$ n$t)er , because t!eD are parallel, and Ae 0noA t!at parallels never meet' 2o, $n t)e +ir#t 3i# Ae !ave a complete structure o& +uture & 're#ent & t)e ' #t $+ t)e 're#ent ten#e 5're#ent 'er+ect6' 4e also !ave, li0e in Romanian, an intermediarD tense betAeen present and &uture, +uture 'er+ect' - future, sub*ect O s!allKAill O in&initive "Ls!allM is used &or t!e +st person, singular and plural$) - future perfect, sub*ect O s!allKAill O !ave O 3rd &orm o& t!e verb "-ed &or regular verbs$) - present, sub*ect O in&initive "-sK-es &or t!e 3rd person singular$) - present perfect, sub*ect O !aveK!as O 3rd &orm o& t!e verb' :resent perfect represents, as Ae !ave mentioned above, t!e past o& t!e present, used because in Cnglis! it is not permitted to use present lin0ed Ait! t!e proper past' -!ere are t!ree situations in A!ic! present per&ect occurs, +' an action in t!e past A!ic! continues in t!e present speci&ic adverbs, alAaDs, ever, never, o&ten, rarelD, seldom, since, &or e%amples, # !ave never met a person li0e Dou' # !avenEt seen !im &or &ive Dears' /' an action in t!e past A!ic! is verD close to t!e present speci&ic adverbs, *ust, Det, recentlD, latelD e%amples, # !ave *ust arrived' # !ave !ad a lot o& Aor0 to do recentlD' <

3' an action in t!e past A!ose results can be perceived in t!e present speci&ic di&&erence &rom past 1 e%ample, # lost mD pencil DesterdaD' # !ave lost mD pencil DesterdaD and # am loo0ing &or it noA' On t)e #ec$nd 3i#, Ae also !ave a complete structure, sDmmetrical to t!at o& t!e &irst one, composed bD +uture in t)e ' #t 5 n cti$n t 1in" '! ce /e+$re ' #t $ne6 & ' #t ten#e & ' #t 'er+ect 5 n cti$n in t)e ' #t t 1in" '! ce +ter ' #t $ne6 ' -!ere is also t!e intermediarD tense betAeen past tense and &uture in t!e past, &uture per&ect in t!e past, rarelD used' - future in the past, sub*ect O s!ouldKAould O in&initive "Ls!ouldM is used &or t!e + st person, singular and plural$) - future perfect in the past, sub*ect O s!ouldKAould O !ave O 3rd &orm o& t!e verb) - past, sub*ect O /nd &orm o& t!e verb "-ed &or regular verbs$) - past perfect, sub*ect O !ad O 3rd &orm o& t!e verb' ;uture in the past is a tec!nical tense, it is mec!anicallD used A!enever Ae trD to e%press a &uture action in a past conte%t' #n a translation, A!ereas in Romanian Ae need a single a%is, in Cnglis! Ae need bot! a%es' C%ample, 2pune c va veni' 1 He saDs !e Aill come' ( spus c va veni' 1 He said !e Aould come' :ast perfect represents in a AaD t!e Romanian Lmai mult ca per&ectM' Fut t!e di&&erence is t!at in Romanian Ae can use eit!er LtrecutM or Lmai mult ca per&ectM, A!ile in Cnglis! past per&ect !as a stronger meaning o& anterioritD' C%amples, L( spus c plouaseM is t!e same Ait! L( spus c a plouatM and is translated into Cnglis! as LHe said it !ad rainedM' LHe said it rainedM represents tAo actions ta0ing place in t!e same time and is translated into Romanian as L( spus c plouM'

T)e R$% ni n 3i#

T)e En"!i#) 3e#

5iitor 5iitor anterior Prezent -recut .ai mult ca per&ect

Future Future Per&ect Present

Future in t!e Past Future Per&ect in t!e Past Past

Present Per&ect

Past Per&ect

32. :ut the -erbs in brackets into the correct tense$ a$' +' #t "be$ &or t!e &irst time t!at ;o!n and .arD ever "be$ so late' /' #t Aas not until s!e "saD$ LDesM t!at s!e "Aonder$ A!et!er s!e "do$ Arong' (&ter all, s!e reallD "not 0noA$ !im' 3' He as0ed t!e butler A!et!er !e "notice$ anDt!ing di&&erent about !is master t!e previous nig!t' ;ac0son "replD$ t!at !e "notice$ not!ing o& t!e 0ind' 6' LHoA long Dou "be$ Ait! !imGM L/3 Dears, 2ir' Cver since !e "start$ to be anDt!ing at allM' 9' # told Dou Ae "!ave$ guests at = oEcloc0 and .r' ;o!nson "be$ t!e &irst and "smo0e$ a lot o& cigarettes' b$' (gent Cooper "Aa0e$ up at : s!arp, as !e alAaDs "do$, no matter A!ere !e "be$ or A!at !e "do$ t!e previous daD' His &irst t!oug!t Aas t!e realisation t!at !e "Aear$ t!e pinstriped suit, and A!en !is eDes "&all$ on t!e reports piled around !im, t!e events o& t!e previous evening "come$ bac0 to !im' He "go$ to !is club &or supper, *ust "&inis!$ !is turtle soup and "loo0$ &orAard to t!e second dis!, A!en !is meal rudelD "be$ interrupted bD a call &rom !is superior' 7nce !e "drin0$ !is blac0 co&&ee, Cooper "t!in0$ care&ullD A!at to put on' He "see$ .' at ? oEcloc0 t!at morning and "be$ 0een on impressing t!e latter' >lancing at !imsel& in t!e mirror, it "stri0e$ !im t!at !e "put$ on Aeig!t recentlD' He "!ave$ to paD more !eed to !is diet in t!e &uture' 3(. #ranslate into English$ a$' +' Copiii se *oac n parc n &iecare zi' /' uminica trecut am scris cteva scrisori, apoi am ascultat un concert la radio' 3' e cnd eti aiciG (m venit azi diminea i de atunci te atept' 6' - e ce nu pori oc!elariiG 1 #-am pierdut' 9' Prietenii notri nu vor veni n vacan la noi' b$' (cest biet, care s-a nscut acum, e nepotul meu' Pentru c s vedei domniile voastre, eu am avut ase &ete, dintre care cea mai mare, pe care m gndeam s-o mrit dup ginere-meu, dup ce va &i ieit dascl, s-a mritat dup dasclul din 2trntea, a doua s-a mritat dup .itrea lui Fuduc, care acum e ctitor la biseric, pe a treia a luat-o ginere-meu, popa din Cldeni, cele dou mai mici iat-le aici, iar .ili s-a mritat dup ginere-meu, protopopul, i a nscut pe acest copil, care acum e nepotul meu' "#oan 2lavici 1 3udulea #aichii$ 31 .Do the following exercises$ a' 4rite doAn a &unnD adventure &rom Dour c!ild!ood, using t!e tenses o& t!e past a%is' -!en retell t!e storD as i& it !appened in t!e present, using t!e tenses o& t!e present a%is' b' 4rite a telep!one conversation Dou !ave !ad Ait! Dour parents or Dour grandparents' -!en retell t!e storD, using t!e past a%is'

C. #n t!e contemporarD Aorld, t!e necessities o& li&e include not onlD basic supplies, li0e &ood or Aater, but also t!e deep !uman need &or communication and in&ormation' 4e all communicate or in&orm ourselves or eac! ot!er, but &eA o& us trD to de&ine t!e terms or describe t!e stages o& communication or even seriouslD t!in0 about t!e results o& t!eir gestures or sentences' (s t!is !andboo0 !as been conceived &or t!e students in social communication and public relations, t!e &irst course !as to comprise a series o& te%ts and e%ercises o& initiation in t!e &ield'

21.:lease answer the following questions' using your experiences and memories. #ry to use' as correct as possible' the tenses of the indicati-e mood. :ay attention to the differences between the :resent :erfect and the :ast #ense. a$ b$ c$ d$ e$ &$ o Dou !ave a best &riendG o Dou tell !imK!er everDt!ingG o Dou !ide anDt!ing &rom !imK!erG #& so, A!DG (re Dou an easD communicator or a person A!o !as di&&iculties in e%pressing !is t!oug!ts and &eelings &or t!e ot!ersG -rD to list t!e good and t!e bad parts o& eac! tDpe' o Dou li0e being in a croAd or being lonelDG 4!DG Have Dou ever &elt lonelD in a croAd and croAded Ait! Doursel& aloneG 4!enG HoA is Dour relations!ip Ait! Dour parentsG o Dou perceive a clas! betAeen generations or can Dou saD t!at Dou get along AellG Could Dou be a public spea0erG 4!DG Have Dou ever spo0en on be!al& o& a communitD "Dour class in !ig!sc!ool, Dour group o& students in t!e &acultD$G #n A!at situationG 4ould Dou li0e to be a pro&essional spo0esmanG 4!DG #& Dou Aere one, Aould Dou li0e to impress t!roug! t!e sinceritD o& Dour t!oug!ts or t!roug! t!e art o& r!etoric Dou ma0e use o&G C%plain Dour option'

22. Read' translate and comment upon the following text' adding examples for each de-ice or situation$ (t a general level, communication events involve t!e &olloAing, a source' a process of encoding' a message' a channel' a process of decoding' a recei-er' the potential for feedback and the noise' -o begin Ait!, the source initiates t!e process bD !aving a t!oug!t or an idea t!at !e or s!e Ais!es to transmit to some ot!er entitD' BaturallD, sources di&&er in t!eir communication s0ills' -!e source maD or maD not !ave 0noAledge about t!e receiver o& t!e message' 2ources can be single individuals, groups, or even organisations' #he encoding process re&ers to t!e activities t!at a source goes t!roug! to translate t!oug!ts and ideas into a &orm t!at maD be perceived bD t!e senses' 4!en Dou !ave somet!ing to saD, Dour brain and Dour tongue Aor0 toget!er to &orm Aords and spo0en sentences' 4!en Dou Arite a letter, Dour brain and Dour &ingers co-operate to produce patterns o& in0 or some ot!er substance on paper t!at can be seen' Cncoding in a communication setting can ta0e place once or more times' #he message is t!e actual p!Dsical product t!at t!e source encodes' 4!en Ae tal0, our speec! is t!e message' Human beings usuallD !ave a large number o& messages at t!eir disposal, &rom A!ic! t!eD c!oose to send simple or verD comple% ones' .essages can be c!eap to produce or verD e%pensive' 2ome messages are more under t!e control o& t!e receiver t!an ot!ers' 2hannels re&er to t!e AaDs in A!ic! t!e message travels to t!e receiver' 2ound Aaves carrD spo0en Aords) lig!t Aaves carrD visual messages' -!ere are natural and arti&icial c!annels' 2ome messages use more t!an one c!annel to travel to t!e receiver' #he decoding process is t!e opposite o& t!e encoding process' #t consists o& activities t!at translate or interpret p!Dsical messages into a &orm t!at !as eventual meaning &or a receiver' Fot! !umans and mac!ines can be t!oug!t o& as decoders' 8i0e encoding, decoding can also !appen more t!an once' (nd, in t!e same AaD, some people are better encoders t!an ot!ers' #he recei-er is t!e target o& t!e message, its ultimate goal' -!e receiver can be a single person, a group, an institution or even a large, anonDmous collection o& people' -!e receivers o& t!e message can be determined bD a source or can sel&-select t!emselves into t!e audience' -!e sender and t!e receiver can be in eac! ot!erEs immediate presence or can be separated bD space or time' +@

;eedback ta0es into account t!e responses o& t!e receiver t!at s!ape and alter t!e subseIuent messages o& t!e source' Feedbac0 represents t!e reversal o& t!e &loA o& communication'-!e original source becomes t!e receiver and t!e original receiver becomes t!e neA source' -!ere is the positi-e feedback &rom t!e receiver, A!ic! encourages t!e communication be!aviour in progress, and t!ere is the negati-e one, A!ic! attempts to c!ange t!e communication or even to terminate it' Feedbac0 can be immediate or delayed. -!e last &actor to be considered is noise, A!ic! is anDt!ing t!at inter&eres Ait! t!e deliverD o& t!e message' -!ere are t!ree di&&erent tDpes o& noise, semantic "occuring A!en di&&erent people !ave di&&erent meanings &or di&&erent Aords and p!rases$, mechanical "t!e &ault o& t!e mac!ine t!at is being used to assist communication$ and en-ironmental "&rom sources o& noise t!at are e%ternal to t!e communication process but inter&ere Ait! it$' (s noise increases, message &idelitD "!oA closelD t!e message t!at is sent resembles t!e message t!at is received$ goes doAn' -!ese are t!e components o& t!e communication process in its simplest and clearest de&inition' 7& course t!ere are ot!er possible, more re&ined, more comple% AaDs o& conceiving communication, as &or e%ample, it is di&&icult to ma0e artistic communication enter t!ese terms' 2(. 0e usually deal with communication between people' de-eloped o-er centuries of expression' but researchers ha-e pointed out the importance of transmitting messages and expressi-eness also in the world of animals. #hese ones communicate inside their species and sometimes with other species. *n this light' read the following text$ 7ur tAo pet don0eDs Aere reliable Aatc!men, and t!eir !earing Aas as s!arp as t!eir eDesig!t' # !ave seen t!em manD a time loo0 up &rom t!e grass t!eD Aere eating and stare !ard into t!e distance Ait! ears raised) and in a minute or so # Aould see someone coming doAn t!e road toAards t!e beac! or observe a &igure moving in a &ield a long AaD aAaD' 4!en somet!ing unusual !appened, Fred, t!e Dounger animal, Aould ma0e so muc! noise t!at !e could be !eard in t!e ne%t village and beDond' 7bviouslD t!is could be embarrassing A!en t!e Aeat!er Aas still, &or not everDone en*oDs t!e sound o& a don0eD in &ull crD' (t nig!t bot! don0eDs Aere usuallD silent' -!eD Aere undisturbed bD t!e Aild animals !unting in t!e &ields a&ter dar0' -!eD remained sleepilD rela%ed' Jet # Aas sure t!at t!eD Aould alAaDs raise t!e alarm i& t!ere Aas a stranger about, or some activitD A!ic! puzzled t!em' 7ne clear (ugust nig!t, &or instance, # Aas Ao0en up around t!ree in t!e morning bD Fred ma0ing a great deal o& noise' #t Aas a verD Iuiet nig!t and # immediatelD t!oug!t o& all t!e people in t!e neig!bour!ood A!o mig!t also !ave been aAa0ened bD !im' #t Aas a terrible noise, and it Aent on and on, and so # realised t!at somet!ing verD unusual Aas bot!ering !im' -!en !e stopped - and # !eard voices' 7n still nig!ts Ae o&ten !eard t!e voices o& t!e creAs o& &is!ing boats passing across t!e baD, sometimes spea0ing in Frenc!, but t!eD soon &aded aAaD into t!e distance' 7n t!is nig!t t!eD did not &ade aAaD' (nd as # laD in bed realising t!at t!eD !ad gone on &or &ar too long to belong to a moving boat, # 0neA t!at # !ad to get up and investigate' # pulled on some clot!es, Aent outside, and s!one mD torc! into t!e &ield bD t!e cottage A!ere # !ad put t!e don0eDs' -!e lig!t s!one on Fred A!o Aas standing Ait! !is !ead &acing toAards t!e sea, ears uprig!t li0e a 5 sign, s!oAing suc! an intense interest in A!at Aas mDsteriouslD !appening t!at # &elt li0e saDing to !im, LHere, ta0e t!e torc!, go and &ind out A!at itEs all about'M

++

Answer the following questions$ +' 4!D Aere t!e AriterEs tAo don0eDs good at 0eeping Aatc!G ( -!eD Aere dangerous animals' F -!e noise t!eD made Aas &rig!tening' C -!eD could !ear t!ings a long AaD aAaD' -!eD Aere nervous and e%citable' /' 4!en Fred Aas disturbed bD somet!ing unusual !e Aould ( sound li0e a babD crDing' F ma0e a verD loud noise' C run toAards t!e beac!' stand still &or several minutes ' 3' 4!en t!e Ariter Aas Ao0en up at 3'@@ a'm' !e ( immediatelD &elt &rig!tened' F t!oug!t !e oug!t to Aa0e t!e neig!bours' C s!outed at t!e don0eDs to be Iuiet' laD in bed and listened &or a A!ile' 6' 4!at !ad alarmed t!e don0eDs t!at particular (ugust nig!tG ( a Frenc! &is!ing boat F Aild animals C voices nearbD a strange lig!t 21. Explain the type of noise which led to the following funny miscommunications$ a' uring t!e +?=9 C!ristmas season, an =@@ "call and Ain$ number Aas set up so t!at c!ildren could call 2anta Claus and tell !im A!at t!eD Aanted &or C!ristmas' Pn&ortunatelD, t!e p!one lines got crossed and t!e little toddlers Aere connected to a 8as 5egas boo0ie A!o duti&ullD in&ormed t!em about t!e betting line on &ootball games' ( leading national s!oe companD premiered t!is slogan in +?=<, L4eEll onlD sell Dou t!e rig!t s!oeM' ( 2eattle neAspaper publis!ed a commemoration column in A!ic! iana, Princess o& 4ales, Aas re&erred to as t!e LPrincess o& 4!alesM' 4!en C!evrolet introduced its Bova model in 2out! (merica t!eD Aere puzzled bD t!e loA sales' 2omeone t!en pointed out t!at Lno vaM Aas 2panis! &or Lit doesnEt Aor0M' #n +?=6 t!e Coca-Cola companD introduced a neA advertising campaign to promote a so&t drin0, -ab' -!e t!eme o& t!e campaign Aas L8etEs taste neA -abM' -!e commercials on billboards and &lies Aere a success, but on radio and -5 people !eard L8ess taste, neA -abM' -!e companD !ad to remove t!e ads at considerable loss'

b' c' d' e'

D. V$c /u! r7 'r ctice. D1. .i-e the synonyms and the antonyms of the following words$ source) encoding) c!eap) original) response) noise) to initiate) to enter) to buD) to manage' D2. 2omplete the passage with these words$ +/

in&ormation uni&ied revolution

tec!nologies structure competition

accumulation development stabilisation

global signals productivitD Aors!ip s!ape unions labour survival

-!e !uman race is on t!e t!res!old o& a neA emerging civilisation, t!e QQQ civilisation' #t is an e%tension and a successor to t!e agricultural and industrial civilisation t!at !ave determined our QQQstructure until noA' (gricultural civilisation Aas t!e &irst to ta0e concrete QQQ' #t Aas establis!ed in &ertile alluvial areas in t!e .iddle Cast &rom t!e QQQo& agricultural production, &act A!ic! assured t!e QQQo& Homo sapiens and t!e QQQo& large amounts o& social surplus' -!e increasing dependence o& agricultural productivitD on t!e sun and manual labour !ad as result t!e QQQo& tAo social aspects, a religion o& sun QQQ and a sDstem o& agricultural slave QQQ #ndustrial QQQprovided t!e means bD A!ic! industrial civilisation &louris!ed' #ts origins laD in t!e natural sciences and t!e mac!inerD o& t!e industrial QQQmade t!is possible' BeA societD sDstems emerged, Ait! t!e &ree QQQo& private business, comoditD mar0ets, parliamentarD democracD and labour QQQ' -!e monuments o& t!e agricultural civilisation are t!e pDramids and temples and t!ose o& t!e industrial civilisation are &actories and s0Dscrapers' -!e in&ormation civilisation depends on computer and communication QQQ, being t!us invisible' #ts products are QQQsDmbols and images' #t is global, it does not ta0e into account soil or citD, because it spreads all over t!e Aorld in QQQ&orm' #t aims to t!e mutual understanding and QQQt!in0ing o& citizens overriding national interests and deepening di&&erent cultures' D(. <sing the -erbs to declare' to proclaim' to pronounce and to state' translate the following sentences into English$ a' b' c' d' e' &' g' !' i' *' 2'P'(' a declarat rzboi #ugoslaviei' 5 declar so i soie' 5 rugm s declarai tot ce tii i s nu ascundei nimic' n urma numrrii voturilor el a &ost declarat preedinte' ( &ost declarat cel mai bun *uctor al turneului' 5om declara poziia noastr presei dup pronunarea sentinei' (vei bunuri de declarat la vamG . declar cu totul mpotriva acestei aciuni' 5rei s &acei o declaraie acum sau dup ce v-ai consultat avocatulG Faimoasa eclaraie de #ndependen a 2tatelor Pnite ale (mericii a &ost proclamat pe 6 iulie +<<:'

Remember the following phrases$ to declare Aar) to declare somet!ing or somebodD to be somet!ing) to declare somebodD a Ainner) to issue a declaration) to declare oneEs !ands "a da crile pe &a$) to proclaim a president) to proclaim somebodD a traitor) a papal proclamation) to pronounce a *udgementKverdictKsentence) to pronounce a statement) to pronounce man and Ai&e) to state oneEs opinionKvieA) to state a case) to ma0e a statement) to state oneEs &ull particulars' D1. 0rite down the nouns deri-ing from the following -erbs$

+3

believe) t!reaten) agree) suggest) e%press) re&er, &orm, correct, intend, analDse, correspond, lose, promiss, irritate, damage, in!erit, decide, declare, insult, sustain'

+6

II. PROPA2ANDA AND PERSUASION A. M 1in" ')$ne c !!# -!e &irst person to patent an electric telep!one in t!e modern sense Aas t!e (merican inventor (le%ander >ra!am Fell' #n +=<:, !e conceived a device A!ic! Aas capable o& transmitting sound vibrations in t!e &orm o& !uman speec!' -!e p!one is a verD use&ul tool &or immediate communication, it can connect Dou to people A!o are &ar aAaD, at t!e ot!er end o& t!e Aorld, in an instant' Fut it can also be verD &rustrating, A!en Dou cannot get t!roug! to t!e person Dou Aant to tal0 to' 2an you present the ad-antages and disad-antages of the telephone as a means of communication7 A1. #o be effecti-e on the phone' both the caller and the person called must ha-e clear ob!ecti-es' the rele-ant information and a clear strategy and structure for the call. :ay attention to the steps which must be followed during the con-ersations on the phone both by the sender and by the recei-er and then try to exemplify$ p!one communication 1 caller&s steps greet sAitc!board operator reIuest person called greet person called introduce sel& e%plain purpose o& call

develop call divided into, point + point / etc' saD &areAell polite &ormulae con&irm &olloA-up summarise

p!one communication 1 the steps taken by the person called Rp!one ringsS identi&D sel& greet develop call divided into, point + point / etc' summarise

saD &areAell

polite &ormulae

con&irm &olloA-up

A2. #he following sentences are taken from phone calls. *magine the reply before or after each of them. #ell which type of con-ersational strategy they belong to. Establish in which part of the con-ersation on the phone it appears.

+9

a' b' c' d' e' &' g' !' i' *'

4!oEs calling, pleaseG -!an0s &or calling' ;ust a moment, please' #Ell put Dou t!roug!' 4!ic! e%tension do Dou AantG 7!, #Em sorrD' # must !ave dialled t!e Arong number' >ood morning, can # !elp DouG 2orrDG Can Dou repeat, pleaseG Could Ae meet some time soonG 4ould morning or a&ternoon suit Dou bestG 2orrD, t!e line is busD'

A(. #ranslate the following texts and comment upon the reasons why lack of communication becomes humorous$ a' ( &elloA dialled !is !ome telep!one number' LHelloM, !e said' L#s t!at .rs' FroAnGM LJesM' L-!is is ;ac0 spea0ing' # saD, dear, Aill it be all rig!t i& # bring !ome a couple o& &elloAs to dinnerGM LCertainlD, darling'M L id Dou !ear A!at # Aas saDingGM LJes 1 Dou as0ed i& Dou could bring !ome a couple o& &elloAs to dinner' 7& course Dou can, dear'M L2orrD, madamM, t!e &elloA said as !e Aas !anging up, L#Eve got t!e Arong .rs' FroAnM' b' LHello, is t!at t!e laADersE o&&ice o& .essrs' 2mit!son, 2mit!son and 2mit!sonGM LJesM, a voice replied at t!e ot!er end, Lt!is is t!e laADersE o&&ice o& .essrs' 2mit!son, 2mit!son and 2mit!sonM' LCan # spea0 to .r' 2mit!sonGM L#Em a&raid not' .r' 2mit!son is aAaD on a business tripM' L-!en, per!aps, # could spea0 to .r' 2mit!sonGM L#Em sorrD, .r' 2mit!son is being in court rig!t noAM' L7!, t!en give me .r' 2mit!sonM' L-!is is .r' 2mit!son spea0ingM' A1. 0rite dialogues beginning from the following stories' using your past experiences or your imagination in shaping the situation$ a' Jou are at !ome alone' 2uddenlD t!e telep!one rings' Jou pic0 up t!e receiver and !ear a strange voice at t!e ot!er end o& t!e lineQ b' Jou 0noA t!at a &riend o& Dours is verD upset because !eKs!e !asnEt passed an important e%am &or a sc!olars!ip in t!e Pnited 2tates o& (merica' 2o Dou p!one !imK!er to com&ort t!e person' HoA do Dou start t!e conversation and !oA do Dou continue itG c' ( slig!t acIuaintance calls Dou on t!e p!one to invite Dou at a partD' Jou donEt reallD li0e t!e person, so Dou !ave to Iuic0lD &ind good e%cuses &or not going t!ere' 0. T)e Indic tive M$$d & #i%'!e nd c$ntinu$u# ten#e#. +:

31. *n the English language the tenses ha-e two aspects' simple and continuous' with different usage and meanings' while in Romanian we ha-e only tenses' without aspect. #his is the first difficulty in understanding the English system. #he second one is the fact that the features of simple and continuous are different for present' on one hand' and for the other tenses' on the other hand. #his is the representation of the structure for the present tenses$ - present simple, 2ub*ect O #n&initive "O -sK-es at 3rd person singular$) - present continuous, 2ub*ect O Fe "present$ O 5erb in 1ing &orm Pre#ent Si%'!e - habitual' repetiti-e' permanent action in t!e present "+st a%is$ adverbs, alAaDs, ever, never usuallD, generallD o&ten, rarelD, seldom, sometimes everD QQQ e%ample, # rarelD go to concerts' - -erbs of human perception "considered permanent$ cannot be used in t!e continuous &orm and are onlD simple a' verbs o& p!Dsical perception see 1 a vedea 1 # see a bird' !ear 1 a auzi 1 # !ear a noise' smell, taste 1 a avea mirosKgust 1 -!e soup smells Aonder&ul' &eel 1 a simi 1 # &eel t!e pain' b' -erbs of will, Aant, Ais!, desire c' -erbs of pleasure, love, !ate, li0e, disli0e d' -erbs of cognition, understand, trust, believe, 0noA, t!in0 t!in0 1 a crede 1 # t!in0 #Em rig!t' e' -erbs of possession, !ave, oAn , possess # !ave a boo0' Have Dou a boo0G "au%iliarD verb$ - tDpes o& action A!ic! are alAaDs at simple &orm, alt!oug! t!eD are momentarD, so t!eD s!ould be in t!e continuous &orm, a' comments in the media "radio, -5, Aritten press$ 1 -!e Prime .inister arrives todaD' b. stage directions - present simple instead of future for official programme or schedule e%ample, -!e train leaves at ='@@ tomorroA' Pre#ent C$ntinu$u# - momentary actions in t!e present adverbs, noA, at t!e moment todaD, tonig!t t!is QQQ' e%ample, #Em going to a concert t!is evening' - t!e same verbs are used in t!e continuous &orm i& they change their meaning see 1 a se vedea cu 1 #Em seeing t!e doctor' !ear 1 a a&la 1 #Em !earing t!e neAs' smell, taste 1 a mirosi, a gusta 1 #Em smelling t!e soup' &eel - a se simi 1 #Em not &eeling Aell'

t!in0 1 a se gndi la 1 #Em t!in0ing o& Dou' non-possessive !ave #Em !aving a s!oAer' o Dou o&ten !ave a s!oAerG "normal verb$ - actions A!ic! are alAaDs at continuous &orm, alt!oug! t!eD seem to be in t!e simple &orm, t!ose actions A!ic! repeat so o&ten in a negative &orm t!at they start annoying us e%ample, Jou are never listening to meN present continuous instead of future for personal programme e%ample, #Em leaving &or t!e mountains tomorroA' -

;or the past tense' the situation is the following$ +<

2ub*ect O /nd &orm o& t!e verb "-ed &or regular verbs and /nd &orm in t!e table &or irregular verbs$ - past continuous, 2ub*ect O Fe "past$ O 5erb 1ing Past tense simple represents an action in t!e past A!ic! is momentarD or &or A!ic! duration is not important' Past continuous e%presses an action in t!e past A!ic! is durative, progressive, in development &rom moment + to moment / in t!e past' C%amples, # read DesterdaD' # Aas reading &rom t!ree to &ive DesterdaD' Pre#ent #i%'!e Pre#ent c$ntinu$u# :ermanent action in the present )omentary action in the present P #t #i%'!e P #t c$ntinu$u# )omentary action in the past :rogressi-e action in the past Comparing t!e tDpes o& actions in t!e table above, Ae notice t!at present continuous and past simple are momentarD actions and correspond to eac! ot!er on t!e tAo a%es, A!ile present simple and past continuous designate longer developments, but in di&&erent AaDs "present simple Ait!out e%pressing a progress and a certain beginning or a certain end o& t!e action, past continuous Ait! mar0ed progression and certain moments on t!e tra*ectorD$' All the other tenses' either on the axis of present or on the axis of past' function in the paradigm of past tense in what concerns the aspects$ ;uture 1 simple 1 s!allKAill O in&initive 1 non-progressive action in t!e &uture He Aill go on !olidaD ne%t Aee0' - continuous 1 s!allKAill O be O verb 1ing 1 progressive action &rom m+ to m/ in t!e &uture He Aill be travelling at t!is time tomorroA' ;uture in the past 1 simple 1 s!ouldKAould O #n&initive - continuous 1 s!ouldKAould O be O 5-ing "it &unctions t!e same as &uture simpleKcontinuous, but on t!e past a%is$ :resent perfect 1 simple 1 !ave O 3rd &orm 1 past action related to t!e present # !ave *ust arrived' - continuous 1 !ave O been O 5-ing 1 past action continuing in t!e present # !ave been Aor0ing &or t!ree !ours' :ast perfect 1 simple 1 !ad O 3rd &orm 1 past action be&ore anot!er past action #t !ad rained be&ore Dou came' - continuous 1!ad Obeen O 5-ing 1 past action continuing toAards anot!er past action #t !ad been raining A!en # came' - past simple, 32. Do the following exercises$ 1. :ut the -erbs in brackets into the correct tense$ a' # "ma0e$ ca0es' -!at is A!D mD !ands are covered Ait! &lour' b'# "not understand$ A!at Dou "Aait$ &or' c' # am sorrD # "not come$ to class latelD' # "Aor0$ late in t!e evenings &or t!is &ortnig!t' d' # reallD "en*oD$ mDsel& at t!at moment' e' # "t!in0$ to buD a neA !ouse last Dear, during t!e elections, but # "c!ange$ mD mind ever since' &' # donEt 0noA A!at time Ae "eat$, it "depend$ A!en Helen "get$ !ere' g' # supported Dou at t!e time because # "&eel$ Dou "be$ rig!t' !' # "live$ !ere' i' 2orrD # "not &i%$ t!e plug Det' # "mean$ to get round to it, but # *ust "not &ind$ t!e time' *' (t t!e meeting Peter "not understand$ A!at "be$ decided because too manD people "tal0$ at once' 2. #he sentences below contain one mistake each. 2orrect it$ +=

a' # !ave once studied t!e guitar &or t!ree Dears' b' # am !ere since t!ree oEcloc0, but nobodD !as come Det' c' 4!en s!e arrived, # Aas Aaiting &or t!ree !ours and a !al&' d' # !ave seen !im t!ree daDs ago' e' 4ill Dou !ave been !aving dinner out tonig!tG &' # 0neA s!e Aill arrive be&ore long' g' # t!in0 itEs raining tonig!t' !' Jou are !ating t!is partD' i' # am seeing a rabbit over t!ere' *' He alAaDs &orgets peopleEs names' 3(. #ranslate into English$ +' a$' Crede c se comport &oarte &rumos' b$' .ereu zice c mi cumpr o roc!ie nou' c$' e-abia am nceput s vorbesc c m-a i ntrerupt' d$' 7binuia s cnte cnd &cea du, dar asta s-a ntmplat nainte de accident' e$' ( plouat de la 3 la 9' /' Cra odat un moneag i o bab) i moneagul avea o &at, i baba iar o &at' Fata babei era slut, lene, &noas i rea la inim) dar pentru c era &ata mamei, se alinta cum s-alint cioara-n la, lsnd tot greul pe &ata moneagului' Fata moneagului ns era &rumoas, !arnic, asculttoare i bun la inim' umnezeu o mpodobise cu toate darurile cele bune i &rumoase' "Q$ Ct era ziulica de mare, nu-i mai strngea picioarele) dintr-o parte venea i n alta se ducea' "#on Creang 1 ;ata babei =i fata mo=neagului$' 31. Describe the actions you were doing at this time yesterday and those you will be doing at this time tomorrow. C. #n a time o& global communication, in&ormation travels &rom one place to anot!er Ait! an amazing speed and t!ere is suc! a large IuantitD o& data in eac! &ield t!at Ae could get mad i& Ae Aanted to 0noA all o& t!em' -!at is A!D Ae !ave to 0eep ourselves correctlD in&ormed, not t!roug! gat!ering all t!e pieces o& t!e puzzle, but t!roug! 0noAing t!e most sincere and open sources' o Ae live in a societD o& manipulationG #s anD piece o& in&ormation a &orm o& propagandaG Can Ae escape being c!eatedG -!ese are some o& t!e Iuestions eac! contemporarD conscious man as0s !imsel& Ait!out being certain about t!e ansAer' 21. Do the following exercises$ a$ Conceive a p!one conversation Ait! Dour parents, in A!ic! Dou trD to convince t!em to send Dou some more moneD &or Dour studies' -!en Arite a letter to t!em on t!e same topic' b$ HoA Aould Dou persuade Dour boss to give Dou a leave, alt!oug! Dou !ave !ad one &or t!is Dear and t!e ot!ers in t!e o&&ice !avenEtG c$ #& Dou Aere a teac!er, A!at do Dou t!in0 it Aould be t!e best AaD to convince students t!at t!e t!ings Dou teac! are important &or t!emG d$ 4!ic! do Dou t!in0 is t!e most propagandistic tDpe o& mediaG 4!DG e$ Can Dou give e%amples o& propaganda along t!e ages, be&ore t!e contemporarD periodG &$ o Dou consider t!at commercials are good or badG (re t!eD persuasive or notG >ive e%amples' g$ o Dou trust politiciansG o Dou &ind t!eir discourses convincingG >ive e%amples' !$ 4!at do Dou t!in0 about t!e in&ormative neAs bulletins on radio, television, in t!e Aritten pressG (re t!eD realisticG

22. Read and translate the following text' try to gi-e examples for each concept$ +?

Communication !as been de&ined as a convergence process in A!ic! sender and receiver, eit!er t!roug! mediated or non-mediated means, create and s!are in&ormation' 4!en t!e in&ormation is used to accomplis! a purpose o& s!aring, e%plaining or instructing, it is considered informati-e communication' People see0 in&ormation A!en t!eD need to understand t!eir Aorld and once gained it tends to reduce uncertaintD' -!e in&ormative discourse is considered neutral, it is communication about a sub*ect matter t!at !as attained t!e privileged status o& being beDond dispute' -!e in&ormative communicator !as t!e purpose o& creating mutual understanding o& data t!at are considered to be accurate, based on &acts' :ersuasion is a subset o& communication usuallD de&ined as a communicative process aimed to in&luence ot!ers' ( persuasive message !as a point o& vieA or a desired be!aviour &or t!e receiver to adopt in a voluntarD &as!ion' #t is a comple%, continuing, interactive process in A!ic! a sender and a receiver are lin0ed bD sDmbols, verbal and non-verbal, t!roug! A!ic! t!e persuader tries to in&luence t!e persuadee to adopt a c!ange in a given attitude or be!aviour' Persuasion is transactional, it promises to !elp people bD satis&Ding t!eir Aants or needs' Fot! parties, persuader and persuadee, Aill perceive t!e c!ange as mutuallD bene&icial in t!e end' -!e best e%ample is t!at o& a teac!er convincing !is students about a certain t!eorD' :ropaganda utilises in&ormative communication in a similar &as!ion, Ait! t!e di&&erence t!at t!e purpose e%ceeds t!e notion o& mutual understanding' -!e aim o& propaganda is to promote a partisan or competitive cause in t!e best interest o& t!e propagandist, but not necessarilD in t!e best interest o& t!e recipient' #he propagandist is a sender of messages who uses special talents and also scientific work to influence the attitudes of an audience' -o be e&&ective, propaganda s!ould be adapted to t!e particular needs o& t!e situation and t!e target audience' e&ining propaganda, Ae can saD t!at it is t!e deliberate and sDstematic attempt to s!ape perceptions, manipulate cognitions and direct be!aviour to ac!ieve a response t!at &urt!ers t!e desired intent o& t!e propagandist' #t is deliberate because it is Ail&ul, intentional and premeditated) t!e term sDstematic means precise and met!odical, carrDing out somet!ing Ait! organised regularitD) it attempts to direct communication toAards an ob*ective t!at !as been establis!ed a priori' -!e s!aping o& perceptions usuallD &ocuses on language and images, t!at is A!D slogans, sDmbols, posters are used' .anipulating cognitions means c!anging and &orming peopleEs trust, creating neA positive attitudes' -!e direction o& a speci&ic be!aviour is t!e &inal be!aviour o& a propaganda e&&ort, t!is representing t!e ac!ievement o& a response or a reaction &rom t!e part o& t!e audience' (lt!oug! propaganda ta0es manD &orms, it is almost alAaDs in some &orm o& activated ideologD' 2ometimes propaganda is agitati-e, attempting to arouse an audience to certain ends Ait! signi&icant c!anges, some ot!er times it is integrati-e, Ait! t!e aim o& rendering an audience in a passive, accepting and non-c!allenging AaD' Propaganda is also described as white, grey or black in relations!ip to an ac0noAledgement o& its source and its accuracD o& in&ormation' 0hite propaganda comes &rom a source t!at is identi&ied correctlD, and t!e in&ormation in t!e message tends to be accurate, trDing to build credibilitD Ait! t!e audience' For e%ample, some neAspapers are &or certain political parties openlD and present t!e vieAs o& t!ese &ormations' 3lack propaganda is credited to a &alse source and it spreads lies, &abrications and deceptions' For e%ample, Radio Free HungarD attracted Aorld attention and sDmpat!D in 4estern countries &or commenting t!e events o& +?9: A!en t!e Russians sent t!eir tan0s to Fudapest, but it Aas in &act a &a0e operated bD t!e T>F Ait! t!e intention to demonstrate t!at t!e Pnited 2tates could not be relied upon to !elp a countrD in revolt' .rey propaganda is someA!ere betAeen t!e tAo ot!er &orms, t!e source o& t!e message is

/@

correctlD identi&ied but t!e in&ormation is inaccurate' #t is used in advertising and electoral campaigns most o& t!e time' 2(. Resume the following text' extracting the main ideas' in no more than fi-e lines$ 7ut o& t!e millions o& t!ings t!at !appen everD daD, print and electronic *ournalists decide A!at &eA t!ings are Aort! reporting' eciding A!at is neAsAort!D is not an e%act science, but t!ere are common elements t!at c!aracterise it' -!e most important &eature o& a neAsAort!D event is timeliness, because neAs is neA and DesterdaDEs neAs is old neAs' ( consumer A!o pic0s up t!e evening paper or turns on t!e a&ternoon neAs e%pects to be told A!at !as !appened earlier t!e same daD' BeAs is peris!able and stale neAs is not interesting' (not!er IualitD o& neAs is pro%imitD, because readers and vieAers Aant to learn about t!eir neig!bour!ood, toAn, countrD' (ll ot!er t!ings being eIual, t!ings &rom close to !ome are more neAsAort!D t!an neAs &rom a &oreign countrD' PsDc!ological pro%imitD is also important, &or e%ample subAaD riders &rom Fuc!arest Aill be more interested in a material about t!e BeA Jor0 subAaD t!an t!e people in t!e same toAn not travelling bD t!is means o& transport' Prominence is anot!er &eature, as t!e more important a person, t!e more valuable !e or s!e is as a neAs source' Political leaders, sports and entertainment &igures, but also dangerous criminals give media coverage' (not!er golden rule is t!at people are interested in events Ait! conseIuences on t!eir lives, Ait! impact' ( ta% increase, droug!t, in&lation, eart!Iua0es, all t!ese events !ave conseIuence and are AidelD mediatised' -!e last IualitD Ae mention is !uman interest, stories t!at arouse emotion in t!e audience bD being ironic, bizarre, tragic' -DpicallD, t!ese items concern ordinarD people A!o &ind t!emselves in circumstances Ait! A!ic! t!e audience can identi&D' -!us, A!en t!e Ainner o& t!e state lotterD gives !al& o& !is Ainnings to t!e elderlD man A!o sold !im t!e tic0et, it becomes neAsAort!D' (nD!oA, it is not easD to establis! A!at is neAs' 21. #ranslate into English$ Comunicarea este un cuvnt la mod azi' .ai ales comunicarea n mas s-a dezvoltat e%trem de rapid dup cel de-al doilea rzboi mondial, cnd e&orturile s-au concentrat asupra e&icienei propagandistice' #niial, s-a considerat logic s se nceap cu sursa, acest punct de vedere dovedindu-se o grav eroare care i are rdcinile n renumita teorie a glonului' Potrivit acesteia, sursa "cel care comunic$ &olosete o combinaie de mesa*e i strategii de media pentru a in&luena un public ce trebuie convins, aa cum un glonte urmrete o int precis' Comunicarea scris sau vorbit se constituia atunci cnd cuvintele ce urmau s constituie mesa*ul erau selectate i aran*ate pentru a &i emise pe pia' .ai trziu specialitii au a*uns la concluzia c impactul comunicrii este mai mare dac se ncepe cu publicul int, cel ce d sens mesa*ului, pe msur ce in&ormaiile primite sunt procesate n conte%tul credinelor, atitudinilor, motivaiilor i necesitilor oamenilor' (stzi teoria lui 2c!ramm, potrivit creia comunicarea este o relaie tranzacional ntre dou sau mai multe pri ntre care este sc!imbat in&ormaia, este comun acceptat' ac cel care comunic nu nelege publicul cruia i se adreseaz, trans&erul de semni&icaii nu se produce' Capacitatea sursei de a se pune n locul receptorului a &ost denumit empatie, aceasta ncepnd s &uncioneze n primii ani de via, atunci cnd copilul nva s preia rolul altuia'

/+

D. V$c /u! r7 'r ctice D1. .i-e the synonyms and the antonyms of the following words$ e&&ective) care&ul) publicitD) emploDee) stable) adeIuate) abilitD) manager) to persuade) to e%tend' D2. 0hat kind of personality do you ha-e7 ;ind out by sol-ing this qui/. #ick the statement you agree with$ +' #Ed love to do a parac!ute *ump' /' # donEt li0e telling ot!er people A!at to do' 3' # pre&er spending time on mD oAn rat!er t!an in a croAd' 6' # &ind it easD to set mDsel& ob*ectives' 9' # !ave di&&iculties in ma0ing decisions' :' # &ind it di&&icult getting to 0noA neA people' <' #Ed love to travel abroad' =' Friends sometimes complain t!at # order t!em around' ?' # li0e to !ave t!e advice and support o& e%perienced people' +@' # donEt li0e volunteering opinions in case t!eD are unpopular' ++' # li0e to trD to &ind neA solutions to old problems' +/' # Aould pre&er to be team captain t!an team member' +3' # get embarrassed easilD' +6' # donEt mind A!ere # go Ait! mD &riends as long as t!eD are !appD' +9' # li0e t!e latest &as!ions' +:' # li0e to be &ullD responsible &or anDt!ing # do' 2heck your scores now. #hree or four ticks in any category indicate personality characteristics you should take account of when choosing a !ob. (' Positive ansAer &or +, <, ++, +9 -!e entrepreneur Jou are adventurous' Jou en*oD c!allenges and ta0ing ris0s' Jou could &ind success in creative Aor0' F' Positive ansAer &or /, 9, ?, +6 -!e team Aor0er Jou Aor0 Aell Ait! ot!ers but disli0e to be given responsibilitD, so Dou pre&er to put into practice ot!er peopleEs plans' Jou Aould do Aell in t!e armD' C' Positive ansAer &or 3, :, +@, +3 -!e bac0room Aor0er Jou are a little s!D and &ind it di&&icult to mi% Ait! neA people' Jou Aould do Aell in anD be!ind-t!e-scene *ob A!ere Dou donEt !ave to come &ace to &ace Ait! strangers' Jou could be a researc!er' ' Positive ansAer &or 6, =, +/, +: -!e leader Jou are con&ident in Dour abilities and Dou Aant to be in c!arge not to ta0e orders' Jou en*oD !aving lots o& people around and organising t!em'

+coring

( F C

+ / 3 6

< 9 : =

++ ? +@ +/

+9 +6 +3 +:

D(. 2omplete the passage with these words. #here are two words in surplus in the table. //

public respected rising

reap

mar0et &ame Aealt! ambition *et set A!izz-0id success best-seller ac!ieve roc0eted e%panding potential

4!at is successG (c!ieving a long-!eld QQQ' G Carning a million bD t!e time Dou are tAentD &iveG ;oining t!e QQQ'G QQQ'to t!e top o& Dour c!osen pro&essionG 4riting a QQQ'G QQQ'means di&&erent t!ings to di&&erent people, but one !as managed to QQQ' all t!is in a verD s!ort space o& time' ;e&& ;o!nson Aas still at universitD A!en !e realised t!e QQQ'pro&its to be made &rom t!e sale o& posters to an eager public' -!e poster stall !e organised everD 2undaD Aas regularlD surrounded bD ent!usiasts eager to &ind somet!ing neA' 2o, a&ter graduating, !e too0 a loan, rented o&&ice space and acIuired a stoc0 o& posters' 2oon !is business Aas QQQ' rapidlD and !e Aas able to purc!ase a Aare!ouse, A!ic! !e renovated and used as a centre &or !is operations' 7t!er s!ops Aere opened in di&&erent parts o& t!e countrD and sales QQQ'' Hard-!eaded businessmen croAded to buD s!ares in t!is QQQ'Es companD A!en it Aent public and ;e&& Aas able to QQQ't!e reAards o& !is !ard Aor0 bD ta0ing time o&& to buD a !ouse and get married' He is still onlD in !is mid-tAenties, a &at!er o& tAo, and a QQQ'businessman Ait! a product A!ic! is a QQQ'leader' -o admirers o& !is accomplis!ments !e points out t!at !e !as !ad to ma0e sacri&ices' L#tEs di&&icult to maintain oneEs privacDM, !e saDs' L7nce Dou are success&ul, Dou !ave to live in t!e QQQ'eDe to a certain e%tentM' D1. <sing the -erbs to affirm' to allege' to assert' to claim' to contend' to insist' to maintain and to pretend' translate the following sentences$ a'2usine c n-a vzut nimic' b' (&irm cu toat rspunderea c n-am vzut-o la ora respectiv acolo' c' (cuzatul i menine declaraia' d' Ca susine c soul ei ar &i btut-o' e' (&irmai c ai &ost martor la accident cu toate c ai &ost vzut n alt parteG &' 2usine s i se plteasc daune n urma accidentului' g' Utiu c minte, dar susine acum c n-a spus nimic' !' Ca tot susine ntr-una c ei nu i s-a spus nimic' i' up toate acestea v mai susinei punctul de vedereG *' Cotidianul L-!e -imesM susine c are in&ormaii precise cu privire la scandal' Remember the following phrases$ to a&&irm readilD) to allege to be somebodD or somet!ing "t!at Dou are not$) to assert oneEs aut!oritDKclaimsKpoint o& vieAKrig!ts) to assert Ait!out proo&) to claim attention) to claim &or damages) to claim to be t!e bestKt!e rig!t) to contend a statement) to insist on somet!ing) to maintain an attac0Ka process'

/3

III. MASSES OR ELITES(


A. .ritin" !etter#. Correspondence Aas one o& t!e &irst means o& communication betAeen people and it !as alAaDs constituted a AaD o& 0eeping in touc! Ait! persons A!o are at a certain distance &rom us' #& Ae t!in0 o& t!e origins, Ae could consider t!e pictures on t!e Aalls o& t!e caves in t!e ancient times 0ind o& letters, as !unters Aere trDing to transmit t!eir &olloAers data about !unting possibilities o& t!e areaN (ll over t!e ages, !uman beings 0ept Ariting letters to t!eir lovers and business acIuaintances, to t!eir parents or t!eir emploDers, recalling or communicating certain t!ings' Cven t!oug! t!e telegrap! or telep!one diminis!ed t!e usage o& Aritten Aords, noAadaDs people 0eep communicating t!roug! letters, Ait! t!e !elp o& t!e postal sDstem or o& more modern c!annels li0e e-mail or #nternet' A1. )ake all the changes and additions necessary to produce' from the following sets of words and phrases' sentences which together make a complete letter' ear iana a' -!an0 DouKmuc!KDour letterKarriveK&eA daDs ago' b' #t be lovelDK!earKDou' c' # be sorrDK# not AriteKsuc!Klong timeKbut #Kbe verD busD' d' (s Dou 0noAKAe buDKneA !ouseK2eptember' e' #t beKverD bad conditionKand it needKa lotKAor0' &' 4e &inis!KmostKit noAKand it loo0KverD nice' g' Peter and #KdecideKgiveK!ouse-Aarming partDK.aD 3rd' !' Jou t!in0KDou ableKcomeG i' Please give meKringKletK0noAKDouKma0e it' *' #KreallDKloo0 &orAardKsee Dou again' 8ove, ;ennD A2. Read' translate and notice the construction of the letter in the text below. *t is a fragment included in the book entitled 8>f :lymouth :lantation9 by one of the first pilgrims from England to the 8new world9' America' 0illiam 3radford. 6e was the religious guide and then the elected go-ernor of the community which was established in :lymouth' )assachusetts' around 1?2@. #his is the letter of a certain Aohn Robinson who was writing to his brotherBinBlaw' which was in America. >bser-e the old forms of some words. >bser-e the old syntactic constructions$ .J C(R FR7-HCR, # received enclosed in Dour last letter t!e note o& in&ormation, A!ic! # s!all care&ullD 0eep and ma0e use o& as t!ere s!all be occasion' # !ave a true &eeling o& Dour perple%itD o& mind and toil o& bodD, but # !ope t!at Dou A!o !ave alAaDs been able so plenti&ullD to administer com&ort unto ot!ers in t!eir trials, are so Aell &urnis!ed &or Doursel&, as t!at &ar greater di&&iculties t!an Dou !ave Det undergone "t!oug! # conceive t!em to !ave been great enoug!$ cannot oppress Dou) t!oug! t!eD press Dou, as t!e (postle spea0s' -!e spirit o& a man "sustained bD t!e 2pirit o& >od$ Aill sustain !is in&irmitD) # doubt not so Aill Dours' (nd t!e better muc! A!en Dou s!all en*oD t!e presence and !elp o& so manD godlD and Aise bret!ren, &or t!e bearing o& t!e part o& Dour

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burt!en, A!o also Aill not admit into t!eir !earts t!e least t!oug!t o& suspicion o& anD t!e least negligence, at last presumption, to !ave been in Dou, A!atsoever t!eD t!in0 in ot!ers' BoA A!at s!all # saD and Arite unto Dou and Dour good Ai&e mD loving sisterG Cven onlD t!is, # desire, and # alAaDs s!all unto Dou &rom t!e 8ord as unto mD oAn soul' (nd assure Doursel& t!at mD !eart is Ait! Dou, and t!at # Aill not &orsloA mD bodilD coming at t!e &irst opportunitD' # !ave Aritten a large letter to t!e A!ole, and # am sorrD # s!all not rat!er spea0 t!an Arite to t!em) and t!e more, considering t!e Aant o& a preac!er, A!ic! # s!all ma0e some spur to mD &astening a&ter Dou' # do ever commend mD best a&&ection unto Dou, A!ic! i& # t!oug!t Dou made anD doubt o&, # Aould e%press in more and t!e same more ample and &ull Aords' (nd t!e 8ord in A!om Dou trust and A!om Dou serve ever in t!is business and *ourneD, guide Dou Ait! His !and, protect Dou Ait! His Aing, and s!oA Dou and us His salvation in t!e end, and bring us in t!e meanA!ile toget!er in t!is place desired, i& suc! be His good Aill, &or His C!ristEs sa0e' (men' Jours, etc' ;ulD /<, +:/@ ;o!n Robinson A(. #here is a standard and polite form of letters and of course each person adds his or her own skills to the pattern. 0e should learn the basic format in order to be sure that we do not make mistakes. >bser-e in the text bellow the structure of the letter$ sender&s address' date' inside or recei-er&s address' salutation' body of the letter' complimentary close and signature. / >eorge Cobuc 2treet Fuc!arest <++@ Romania +@t! 7ctober, +??? +-3 7%&ord (venue 8ondon C8: +/>F >reat Fritain ear 2ir, # am Ariting to complain about t!e car t!at # boug!t &rom Dou last mont!' #t is *ust a !eap o& scrap' 4!en # tried to start it one morning t!e 0eD Aould not turn in t!e loc0, as t!e batterD Aas &lat and tAo o& t!e plugs needed c!anging' 4!en # &inallD got it going, t!e bonnet Aould not staD closed and t!e driverEs side door &ell o&&' 4!en # tried to stop to pic0 up t!e door, t!e bra0es did not Aor0 so # cras!ed into a tree and smas!ed t!e radiator' (lso one o& t!e A!eels came o&&' o Dou reallD t!in0 t!is car is Aort! +,@@@ VG 4ell, i& Dou do, # donEt' 4!at are Dou going to do about itG Jours &ait!&ullD, #on Popescu A1. 0rite a letter to your internet supplier' showing that you are -ery pleased with the ser-ices rendered up to now and that you hope they will keep on working like that. 0. P ##ive V$ice /9

31. Coice is the grammatical category which shows the relationship between the sub!ect and the action. *n Romanian' we ha-e three 8diate/e94-oices5$Dacti-E&'Dpasi-E& and Freflexi-E&. 8Diate/a acti-E9 refers to an action in which the grammatical sub!ect of the sentence is also the logical sub!ect of the sentence' because it accomplishes the acti-ity expressed by the -erb 4)ama spalE rufe5. 8Diate/a pasi-E9 represents an action in which the grammatical sub!ect of the sentence is not the same with the logical sub!ect of the sentence' because the acti-ity accomplished by someone else 4complement de agent5 influences the sub!ect 4Rufele sunt spElate de cEtre mama5. 8Diate/a reflexi-E9 expresses an action through which the grammatical sub!ect of the sentence in the same time does the action and is influenced by it 4*on se spalE5. *n English there are only two -oices$ acti-e and passi-e -oice. #he Romanian 8reflexi-9is transferred either to the acti-e -oice 4Aohn is washing himself5 or to the passi-e -oice 4+e spune cE " B *t is said that"5. #he representation of the tenses in the *ndicati-e )ood at :assi-e Coice$ -ense (ctive 5oice Passive 5oice :resent +imple 2ub*ect O #n&initive "-sK-es, 3rd person, 2ub*ect O Fe "present$ O Past Participle singular$ "3rd &orm o& t!e verb$ ;o!n gives moneD to beggars' Feggars are given moneD bD ;o!n' .oneD is given to beggars bD ;o!n' :resent 2 O Fe "present$ O 5-ing 2 O Fe "present$ O Feing O 3rd &orm 2ontinuous ;o!n is giving moneD to beggars' Feggars are being given moneD bD ;o!n'K.oneD is being given to beggars bD ;o!n' :ast +imple 2 O /nd &orm o& t!e verb 2 O Fe "past$ O 3rd &orm ;o!n gave moneD to beggars' Feggars Aere given moneD bD ;o!n' .oneD Aas given to beggars bD ;o!n' :ast 2 O Fe "past$ O 5-ing 2 O Fe "past$ O Feing O 3rd &orm 2ontinuous ;o!n Aas giving moneD to beggars' Feggars Aere being given moneD bD ;o!n'K.oneD Aas being given to beggars bD ;o!n' rd :resent :erfect 2 O HaveKHas O 3 &orm 2 O HaveKHas O been O 3rd &orm +imple ;o!n !as given moneD to beggars' Feggars !ave been given moneD bD ;o!n'K.oneD !as been given to beggars bD ;o!n' :ast :erfect 2 O Had O 3rd &orm 2 O Had O Feen O 3rd &orm +imple -!eD said ;o!n !ad given moneD to -!eD said beggars !ad been given beggars' moneD bD ;o!n'K-!eD said moneD !ad been given to beggars bD ;o!n' ;uture +imple 2 O 2!allK4ill O #n&initive 2 O 2!allK4ill OFe O 3rd &orm ;o!n Aill give moneD to beggars' Feggars Aill be given moneD bD ;o!n' .oneD Aill be given to beggars' ;uture in the 2 O 2!ouldK4ould O #n&initive 2 O 2!ouldK4ould O Fe O 3rd &orm :ast -!eD said ;o!n Aould give moneD to -!eD said beggars Aould be given beggars' moneD bD ;o!n'K-!eD said moneD Aould be given to beggars bD ;o!n'

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( special case is constituted bD t!e Romanian Ldiate/a reflexi-Bpasi-EM, A!ic! !as t!e &orm o& a re&le%ive and a passive meaning "Cartea aceasta se citete uor$' -!e Cnglis! variant &or t!is mi%ed tDpe is a sentence Ait! active &orm and passive meaning "-!is boo0 reads easilD$' 32. Do the following exercises. 1. .i-e passi-e equi-alents to the following acti-e sentences$ a' -!e dog &rig!tens !er' b' -!e team is carrDing out an interesting e%periment' c' Jou &ound t!e door s!ut' d' 2!e Aas coo0ing dinner A!en !e came' e' -!eD !ave built t!ree bloc0s o& &lats bD noA' &' -!eD !ad been digging t!e garden &or tAo !ours A!en it started to rain' g' 2omebodD Aill do *ustice' !' 2!e said somebodD Aould announce !im' i' id Dour mot!er tell Dou Ae !ad le&tG *' -!eD !ave given !im t!e *ob !e Aas loo0ing &or' 2. )ake passi-e sentences using the tense required by the ad-erbials$ +' "promise, an electric train, little ;immD$ &or !is birt!daD' /' "arrange, t!e &urniture$ rig!t noA' 3' "embroider, mD grandmot!er, t!is tableclot!$ A!en s!e Aas a girl' 6' "destroD, t!e little !ut, t!e Aind$ during t!e storm' 9' "analDse, t!e problem$ tomorroA' :' "attac0, t!e mon0eDs, t!e e%plorers$ t!e previous daD' <' "congratulate, !e$ A!en # saA !im' =' "t!roA aAaD, t!at *un0$ t!is morning' ?' "loo0, into t!e matter$ ne%t Aee0' +@' "not live, in t!is castle$ &or /@@ Dears' 3(. #ranslate into English$ a' uminic noaptea s-a abtut asupra .arii Fritanii o &urtun puternic, care a provocat moartea a 9 persoane i rnirea grav a altor =' (u &ost nregistrate de asemenea zeci de rniri uoare' Bumeroase ntreruperi ale curentului electric au &ost determinate de vntul e%trem de violent' .ainile staionate pe trotuare au &ost purtate de vnt la zeci de metri deprtare' Pna dintre victime a &ost atins de un arbore smuls de vnt' #mportante pagube au &ost aduse i unor nave care staionau n porturi' (u &ost recepionate apeluri 272 lansate de o nav a&lat n larg' b' up ncazul acesta iute pru c se aeaz puin linite n gospodria lui -odera 8icea' Bumai c spltoreasa i &emeia care esea scoruri i lsar lucrul i sttur o *umtate de ceas la s&at (nica' 2e mirau, se bteau cu palma peste gur i &ceau &elurite presupusuri' (poi se duse &iecare la lucrul ei' Cucoana Catinca nu &u anunat dect ntr-un trziu, cnd iei palid la obraz, cu oc!ii strni, legat la cap cu o basma alb' "a&ter .i!ail 2adoveanu, :o-estiri$' 31. #ranslate the following text into Romanian and then concei-e a similar one about the Romanian uni-ersities' using passi-e -oice as much as possible$ For manD people, bot! among visitors to Cngland and among t!e Cnglis! t!emselves, t!e Aord LuniversitDM evo0es be&ore anDt!ing else t!e names o& 7%&ord and Cambridge' 4it! t!ese names it is evo0ed a picture composed o& suc! elements as ancient greD stone college buildings, green laAns, absent-minded pro&essors, undergraduates on bicDcles' -!e places are not conceived Ait!out a boo0s!op, a river, a c!apel and a toAer' #t is not surprising t!at t!is s!ould be so, since &or several centuries 7%&ord and Cambridge Aere t!e onlD universities in Cngland and even todaD t!eir prestige remains unc!anged' Fut t!e /@t! centurD !as seen an unprecedented increase in t!e number o& /<

universities and t!e development is still being continued' -!ere are at present 6: universities in Fritain, compared Ait! +< in +?69' C. (nD communitD is parted in several small groups o& people constituting t!e elites o& t!e political, social and cultural li&e, on one !and, and t!e croAd, t!e mass o& people o& an average level' (long t!e ages, t!ere !as alAaDs been a tension betAeen suc! small e%clusive groups o& educated and in&ormed men and t!e rest o& t!e population' #n certain periods, t!e elites tried to govern t!e people eit!er in a tDrannical AaD or Ait! t!e intention o& illuminating t!em' -!e communist regimes in Castern Curopean countries pretended to use t!e reversed met!od, t!at o& imposing t!e poAer o& t!e masses over t!e elites' Fut .ar%ist t!eories are not isolated in t!e attempt o& brea0ing t!e Aalls betAeen small educated groups and large uneducated croAds, t!e A!ole Aave o& /@t! centurD ideologies including globalisation and post-industrialisation !ave t!is purpose' 2an we concei-e a separation into masses and elites nowadays7 0hy7 2an you define the concepts of culture for the elites and massBculture7 21. #ry to answer the following questions$ a' b' c' d' e' &' g' !' o Dou consider Doursel& an educated personG 4!DG o Dou li0e reading boo0sG 4!ic! is Dour &avourite genreG 4!ic! is Dour &avourite aut!orG 4!ic! is Dour &avourite boo0G 4!DG o Dou li0e Aatc!ing televisionG 4!at 0ind o& programmesG 4!DG 4!ic! is Dour opinion about advertisingG #s it necessarD or notG o Dou t!in0 everDbodD s!ould Aear blue *eans or onlD Doung personsG 4!DG o Dou pre&er classical music or t!e music o& Dour ageG 4!DG Have Dou ever been part o& a small specialised group "a reading club in !ig!sc!ool or a debate group in t!e &acultD$G 4!at do Dou t!in0 about t!is 0ind o& activitDG 4ould Dou vote &or a Aell-0noAn cultural personalitD or &or a verD mediatised pro&essional politician in t!e elections &or presidencDG

22. Read and translate the following text. 2omment upon the de-elopment of mass communication and its results and try to gi-e more examples. -!e distinctive &eature o& modern times is t!e c!ange o& culture "t!e &ield in A!ic! t!e spiritual and creative activitD o& men is developed$ in Lmy cultureM "t!e spirit o& place and time imposing itsel& over t!e most elevated t!oug!t as Aell as over t!e simplest ordinarD action$' For t!e /@ t! centurD people, t!ere isnEt anD general principle to be applied in t!e spiritual universe, and t!ere isnEt anD possibilitD to isolate onesel& &rom communities and masses, because !uman being is not onlD an individual but also a social being' *ndustrialisation and democracy levelled people in t!e developed countries, so t!ere is no ma*or di&&erence in A!at concerns social class, living standards, and mentalities' .ost o& t!e population can !ave access to culture in its various &orms and is alloAed to 0eep in&ormed about t!e topics o& interest' 7& course t!ere are voices A!ic! raise against t!is 0ind o& Ldictatorship of the massesM and A!ic! trD to preserve culture in a pure elitist &orm, o& course t!ere are intellectuals A!o do not li0e democracD alt!oug! t!eD en*oD its bene&its, but t!e process is irreversible' L)ass culture has won' there is nothing elseM, sociologists assume' 4e !ave to start &rom the pyramid of needs, built bD Abraham Maslow in +?96, A!ic! places, at t!e loAest level, physiological necessities "&ood, se%, rest etc'$, t!en security "sa&etD, lac0 o& danger$, acceptance and lo-e "t!e desire to be part o& a group, social categorD, agreed bD t!e ot!ers$, /=

appreciation "a&ter ac!ieving a goal and ma0ing it 0noAn in t!e communitD$, knowledge "t!e Ais! to understand and e%plore$, the aesthetic component "sDmmetrD, order, beautD$, and, at t!e top, selfB esteem' -!e &orm is t!at o& a pDramid, t!e sc!olar e%plains, because t!e number o& persons Ait! certain needs decreases &rom t!e &irst to t!e last step, but also because t!e parts determine eac! ot!er' 4e Aill easilD recognise t!at at t!e beginning "&rom stage one to stage &our$ people cover material usage o& t!ings or practical actions Ait! speci&ic purposes' -!is is A!at normal men o& average intelligence and standard o& living usuallD act upon, do, t!in0' -!e last t!ree steps are verD !ig!, t!eD mani&est at individuals ac0noAledging t!e &act t!at t!ere are also superior possibilities &or !uman beings onlD' BoAadaDs, t!e societD o& 4estern capitalist countries tends to &ocus on massBaudience culture, commercial culture, 8popular9 culture, the culture industry, de&ined as opposing to elitism' -!is conception developed according to t!e evolution o& t!e Aorld a&&airs in t!e latest centurD, man0ind !ave striven to imagine and accomplis! sDstems o& government, economD, !uman relations, based on pluralism, eIual opportunities &or everDbodD, Aide participation' -!ese notions, toget!er Ait! t!e Iuic0 spread o& neA tec!nologies and means o& communication, A!ic! ma0e people be able to 0eep in touc! Ait! eac! ot!er at long distances and preserve stoc0s o& in&ormation, !ave strengt!ened t!e middle class and !ave maintained mar0et, customer-oriented economD, general elections in policD, democratic ruling' (ccordinglD, management and mar0eting, persuasion, propaganda, manipulation or image building are capital &or going on' 4!at is mass cultureG 4!ic! are its main componentsG -!e p!enomenon represents t!e attempt o& persons A!o !ave passed t!roug! &our parts o& .asloAEs sc!eme to go upper, Ait!out being prepared or trained &or it' -!e result is t!at t!eD ta0e sa&etD as 0noAledge, &or e%ample, or agreement o& a certain communitD as personal &ul&ilment and reason &or sel&-esteem, or appreciation as order' #he theory of reification e%plains !oA, under capitalism, Aorld is instrumentallD organised and LtaDlorisedM according to various rational models o& e&&iciencD, A!ic! means t!at ideas arenEt important &or t!emselves anDmore, but t!roug! conseIuences' CommoditD and consumption become 0eD Aords, instead o& t!e traditional triad trut!-beautD-good, and everDt!ing is measured in moneD and social position "poAer$' #he story, the narrati-e !as c!anged, it doesnEt tend to be situated at t!e top o& t!e pDramid, establis!ing ideals and trDing to e%plain e%terior and interior &orces) it is at t!e bottom o& t!e structure, Ait!out anD ot!er !ope or ambition but to ma0e a spectator be content and !appD Ait! A!at !e gets' Fut, in t!e same time, suc! a tale imitates, in a roug! copD, t!e superior part o& t!e stairs, a&ter all, ad-ertisement is nothing else but a rudiment of mythology' #n an (merican magazine t!ere appeared, in a proKcon advertising debate, t!e intervieA o& a copD c!ie& at an advertising agencD, and !is Aords seemed to me t!e most Ae can saD about 4estern capitalist commercial citD civilisation, L#he consumer is a great big gapping !aw we&re all trying to fill up with whate-er we can cram down there' and the great hope is that the !aw will keep getting wider and widerM' 7ne o& t!e most important reasons &or trans&orming culture &rom a privilege o& t!e elites into a &ield &or everDone Aas t!e development o& t!e means o& transmission and circulation o& its products' #n t!e .iddle (ges people Aere copDing t!e boo0s bD !and and manuscripts Aere too rare and e%pensive &or being read bD large groups' #n t!e +9t! centurD, >uttenbergEs invention "printing Ait! movable letters$ revolutionised t!e possibilities to spread culture' -!e idea o& massBcirculated newspapers &olloAed t!e invention o& printing' -!e earlD printed matter consisted o& books and religious tracts, but soon literacD greA and the periodicals containing e%citing stories &or t!e middle class taste appeared' #n Holland, printers began turning out corantos' or currents of news' around +:/@' #n t!e centuries to &olloA, printed materials constituted an important means o& neAs Iuic0lD /?

reac!ing t!e public, as &or e%ample t!e mani&ests issued bD t!e intellectuals &or t!e masses during t!e Frenc! Revolution, Aeapons &or t!e communards and lin0age betAeen t!e elites and t!e people' #n t!e /@t! centurD, t!e appearance o& faster means of communication, suc! as the telegraph' the telephone' radio and tele-ision' reduced more and more t!e distance betAeen elites and average people' #n contemporarD Aorld education is not so e%pensive as in t!e past so it is not t!e privilege o& small Aealt!D groups anDmore' (part &rom t!e good e&&ects o& culture globalisation, t!ere are also some bD-e&&ects o& t!is process, t!e standardisation o& !uman 0noAledge, A!ic! !as led to t!e creation o& certain stereotypes and patterns o& mind &rom A!ic! people are not generallD accustomed to escape) t!e danger o& vulgarising noble causes and ideas) t!e uni&ormisation and levelling o& persons Ait! di&&erent capacities and levels o& in&ormation' .aDbe t!e solution to a problem prompted because o& masses and communities is, parado%icallD, an individual one, eac! o& us s!ould care&ullD c!oose !is oAn sources o& in&ormation and s!ould trD to build up a personalitD and a sDstem o& t!oug!t in spite o& uni&ormisation and globalisation' 2(. Read the following text and then answer the questions$ .ass communicators !ave a set o& common c!aracteristics A!ic! distinguis! t!em &rom ot!er groups and institutions' First o& all, mass communication is produced bD comple% and &ormal organisations c!aracterised bD specialisation, division o& labour, &ocussed areas o& responsibilitD' -!is means t!at mass communication Aill be t!e product o& a bureaucracD' (s in most bureaucracies, decision-ma0ing Aill ta0e place at several di&&erent levels o& management and c!annels o& communication Ait!in t!e organisation Aill be &ormalised' (not!er important &actor t!at c!aracterises t!e mass communicator is t!e presence o& multiple gate0eepers' ( gate0eeper is a person or group A!ic! !as control over A!at material eventuallD reac!es t!e public' >ate0eepers e%ist in large numbers in all mass communication organisations, some being more obvious t!an ot!ers' -!e t!ird rule is t!at mass communication organisations need a great deal o& moneD to operate, so t!at t!eD !ave to !ave strong &inancial resources in order to penetrate t!e mar0et' -!at is t!e reason A!D small companies unite and &orm Lmega-media concernsM' (not!er c!aracteristic o& mass communicators is t!at t!ese organisations e%ist to ma0e pro&it' -!e consumer is t!e ultimate source o& t!is pro&it, but t!ere are various secondarD means o& &inancing' 8ast but not least, mass communication organisations are !ig!lD competitive' 2ince t!e audience is t!e source o& pro&it, mass communicators compete Ait! eac! ot!er as t!eD attempt to attract t!e public' Guestions$ a' 4!ic! are t!e &ive c!aracteristics o& mass communicatorsG b' 4!at is a gate0eeperG c' 4!D s!ould mass communication be &ormalisedG d' 4!ic! is t!e ultimate source o& mass communicatorsG e' 4!D do mass communication organisations competeG &' 4!at are mega-media concernsG 21. 2omplete the missing words in the following texts$ a' -!e struggles A!ic! QQQto trans&orm t!e legitimate !ierarc!ies t!roug! t!e legitimating o& a still QQQart or genre, suc! as p!otograp!D or t!e strip cartoon, or t!roug! t!e QQQo& minor or neglected aut!ors, are preciselD A!at creates legitimacD bD creating belie& in t!e value o& t!e 3@

QQQin A!ic! t!e value is produced and reproduced' -!ese arts, not Det &ullD legitimate, A!ic! are QQQor neglected bD t!e big !olders o& educational capital, o&&er a QQQand a revenge to t!ose A!o, bD appropriating t!em, trD to remove t!e e%isting sDstems, !aving in t!e same time a great impact over t!e QQQ' )issing words$ aim, disdained, game, illegitimate, re&uge, audience, re!abilitation' b' 4!at ma0es a best sellerG -!is is a si%tD-&our dollar Iuestion' #t can be ansAered, QQQlargelD bD guess and summarise, and never satis&actorD to t!e QQQA!o Aants a &ormula' -!e creation o& a best seller does not &olloA an e%act QQQanDmore t!an does t!e ma0ing o& a QQQman' .oreover, since t!ere is not *ust one QQQaudience, no single &ormula could be e%pected' -!ere are certain elements o&QQQappeal, as religion, sensationalism, in&ormation and guidance, or adventure, democracD, !umour, QQQ, *uvenile suitabilitD, timeliness and so on' )issing words$ t!oug!, best seller, pattern, success&ul, inIuirer, c!aracterisation, popular' 2H. 0rite an essay about the themes' plots' character type' spatial and temporal structures' stereotypes used in soap operas. #hink of examples from American serials 48Dallas9' 8Dynasty9' 8#he 3old and the 3eautiful9' 8#he oung and the Restless95 and from +outhBAmerican teleno-ellas 0hich of the two types is the purest' which of them do you watch7 #ry to define melodrama in the context. Do you consider comical serials' like 8#he 3undies9 or 8+einfeld9 as part of the popular culture or of the elite culture7 Explain your opinion. )ake use of the table below. *t would be suitable to watch the most popular serials for a week' to make a fresh opinion' and then to try to find se-eral theoretical materials. Aust after you ha-e passed through these stages write down your essay. :oint of comparison 6igh culture )ass culture 8e&t to mar0et media ;olk culture and 7riginallD neglected' BoA o&ten o&&iciallD protected

egree and tDpe o& Recognised, protected institutionalisation and promoted bD &ormal social bodies' Hig! social value -Dpe o& organisation Bot organised, one-o&& o& production and uniIue &or specialised mar0ets Content and meaning

Reproduced according to standard, traditional designs bD !and' .ar0et not essential, arti&iciallD e%!ibited (mbiguous, disturbing 2uper&icial, pleasing, Pnsel&conscious in and timeless unambiguous, almost meaning and purpose, universal, but in t!e #t is clear or obscure, same time peris!able decorative or rustic' Bot universal but persists in time 3+

.ass produced &or mass mar0ets, using tec!nologies in certain planned AaDs

(udience and e&&ect

RelativelD small, being trained or educated, connoisseurs' #ntellectual satis&action Prestige' Cnlarging e%perience

CverDone in principle, !eterogeneous' Consumption-oriented' #mmediate and direct grati&ication' iversion

(ll members o& t!e same culture, t!oug! also limited' ContinuitD, custom, solidaritD, integration

D. V$c /u! r7 'r ctice D1. .i-e the synonyms and antonyms of the following words$ pro&it) agent) e%tensive) irrational) popular) distinguis!ed) revenue) demand) to concentrate) to attac0) to gat!er) to conceal' D2. Aoin the hal-es$ a' #& moneD Aere not spent on advertising, it Aould give manu&acturers t!e opportunitD to b' 2ome &irms spend large sums o& moneD on advertising to c' -!e target audience is t!e selection o& t!e population to d' ( *ingle is a s!ort tune to e' Cgo bait is intended to &' .anD manu&acturers see advertising as an insurance policD A!ic! gives t!em t!e opportunitD to g' (dvertising can be seen as a means to !' -!e advent o& satellite television !as opened up possibilities &or international advertising agencies to i' ( !oaring is a site &or poster advertising A!ic! some &irms use to *' #& manu&acturers do not advertise A!en sales &all t!eD mig!t !ave to 0' -!e -rade escriptions (cts Aere passed to l' -!e purpose o& muc! advertising e%penditure on establis!ed brands is to +' &latter t!e target audience bD pandering to t!eir sel& image and ma0ing t!em more receptive to t!e advertising message' /' substantiallD reduce t!e cost o& t!e goods to t!e consumers' 3' remind t!e public t!e name o& t!e brand' 6' ensure t!at advertisers do not ma0e &alse statements about t!eir products, services' 9' attract t!e attention o& people suc! as pedestrians and motorists' :' communicate betAeen t!ose Ait! goods and services to sell and t!ose A!o mig!t bene&it &rom t!ose goods and services' <' Reduce large numbers o& t!eir Aor0ers' =' A!ic! t!e advertising message o& a television or radio is sung' ?' A!om t!e advertisement is intended to appeal +@' restrict t!e entrD o& competitors into t!e mar0et' ++' advertise t!roug!out t!e Aorld Ait! a single commercial' +/' Protect t!emselves against t!eir oAn toooptimistic &orecasts'

3/

Focus on Communication D(. #ranslate the following sentences' using the following -erbs and phrasals$ to account for' to elucidate' to explain' to expound' to interpret. #hen build up your own sentences containing the phrases gi-en at the end of the text$ +' ncearc s-i e%plici, sigur va nelege' /' (sta e%plic de ce n-au venit la timp' 3' (daug i o not e%plicativ la scrisoare' 6' -eoria aceasta trebuie s &ie e%plicat n detaliu pentru a &i neleas corect' 9' C o nenelegere care se cere e%plicat ct de curnd' :' C%plic acest pasa* n mod personalN <' 5a trebui s te e%pliciN =' 7boseala nu e%plic totulN ?' .ine va ine o prelegere i i va e%plica doctrina' +@' (daug un comentariu la lucrare, acesta va e%plica sensul ntregii aciuni' Remember the following phrases$ to account &or somet!ingKeverDt!ing) to elucidate t!e enigma) elucidatorD clues) to e%plain to somebodDKA!D) e%planatorD notes) to e%pound a doctrineKt!eorD) to interpret a dreamKte%t' D1. 2omplete the sentences with these phrases$ standing ovation prime-time +' /' 3' 6' 9' soap opera bo%-o&&ice success supporting roles sub-titles loA-budget &inal curtain

espite being a critical disaster, t!e &ilm Aas a !uge QQQ -!e orc!estra and t!eir conductor Aere given aQQQat t!e end o& t!e concert' People A!o are addicted to a particular QQQseldom miss an episode' #t AasnEt until t!e QQQ&ell t!at t!e audience voiced t!eir disapproval bD !issing and booing' (t t!e local arts cinema, &oreign &ilms are usuallD s!oAn Ait! QQQ, and onlD occasionallD dubbed' :' Compared Ait! most (merican bloc0busters, it Aas a QQQ&ilm, as verD little &unding Aas available' <' Programmes on QQQtelevision attract t!e greatest number o& vieAers' =' (lt!oug! t!e lead actor and actress Aere e%cellent, t!e QQQAere verD Aell acted, too'

33

Focus on Communication

IV. T8E PO.ER OF T8E PRESS


A. O++ici ! ')$ne c !!# nd !etter#. People o&ten &ind t!emselves in o&&icial situations, in t!e companD o& t!eir superiors or in relation Ait! public institutions, and t!eD &eel embarrassed, t!eD do not 0noA A!at to do or !oA to e%press t!eir opinion' 4e !ave alreadD seen t!at in&ormation is usuallD standardized according to certain criteria as c!annel o& communication or tDpe o& sender and receiver, and Ae !ave discussed t!e necessarD procedures &or sending and getting correct data t!roug! telep!one or in Ariting' 7&&icial situations ma0e us even more &ormal, more polite' A1. 2ompare the formal phone in-itation with the informal one. 2ompare the formal letter of in-itation with the informal one. #hen compare a phone in-itation with a letter of in-itation. a' LHelloN #s t!ere >eorgeGM LHi, Paul, t!is is >eorge' 4!atEs upGM L>lad to !ear Dou, #Eve been trDing to get in touc! Ait! Dou &or ages' Jou 0noA, #Em going to t!e opera on 2undaD and # Aas loo0ing &or someone to *oin me'M L#s someone else comingGM L# Aas t!in0ing o& inviting our colleague, .aria, too' .aDbe Dou s!ould also bring a &riend'M L>ood idea' Fut A!at is on t!at daDGM L.adame Futter&lD' o Dou 0noA t!e operaGM L#Eve !eard it, but # !avenEt seen t!e per&ormance' # agree, letEs go t!e tAo o& us Ait! .aria and ana'M L7T 8etEs tell t!e girls and meet eac! ot!er in &ront o& t!e 7pera House at a Iuarter to seven on 2undaD'M LConsider it done' (nd t!an0s &or t!e invitation'M LJouEre Aelcome' 2ee Dou t!ere'M LFDe'M b' L>ood a&ternoon, can # spea0 to .r' Flac0, pleaseGM L>ood a&ternoon, t!is is .r' Flac0 spea0ing' 4!at can # do &or DouGM L.D name is #rene P!illips, # am t!e secretarD o& .r' avid 4ilson, t!e director o& t!e 7pera House' #Em calling Dou on be!al& o& .r' 4ilson in order to 0indlD invite Dou at t!e premiere o& W.adame Futter&lDE at seven oEcloc0, on 2undaD evening'M L-!an0 Dou and please t!an0 .r' 4ilson &or t!e invitation' ( cultural evening aAaD &rom t!e o&&ice is alAaDs a pleasure' # s!all be t!ere' Fut could Dou be so 0ind so as to tell me A!et!er t!e invitation is &or tAo, because # Aould li0e to also bring mD Ai&eGM LC%cuse me &or not mentioning it &rom t!e verD beginning, o& course t!e invitation is &or tAo persons, and it Aould be muc! to our content i& Dou broug!t Dour Ai&e, too'M L#Em !appD to !ear t!at, Dou are being so 0ind' Fut #Ed also li0e to 0noA !oA # Aill receive t!e invitationM' LJes, sir, # s!all be at t!e main entrance o& t!e opera !ouse at a Iuarter to seven Ait! t!e invitations &or all our guests'M L 4e s!all be t!ere in time, &or sure' -!an0 Dou again' >ood bDe, .rs' P!illips'X L>ood bDe, .r' Flac0'M 36

Focus on Communication c' Consider t!e letter o& invitation at point (+ in course number 3 and t!en conceive anot!er one &rom Dour part to one o& Dour &riends A!om Dou Aant to invite to a sDmposium Dou 0noA !e Aould be interested in' d' Communication Researc! Centre +@ Riverside 2treet Cardi&& CF+ +;4 >reat Fritain +<t! Bovember, +??? ear 2ir, Jou are cordiallD invited to a special t!ree daDs seminar, A!ic! Aill be !eld at our !eadIuarters on ecember 9t!, :t! and <t!' -!e t!eme Aill be L.edia Communication in ContemporarD 4orldM' (ttendance is limited so Ae must !ave our con&irmation bD Bovember /9 t!' 4e sincerelD !ope t!at Dou Aill be able to *oin us on t!is occasion' Jours &ait!&ullD, (ndreA Patterson A2. #ranslate into English a letter of request and a letter of application$ a' omnule ecan,

2ubsemnatul QQQQQQQ, student n anul QQQ la Facultatea QQQQQQ din cadrul PniversitiiQQQQ', v rog s mi aprobai cazarea n unul din cminele universitii pentru anul universitar +???-/@@@' 2olicit acest lucru deoarece am absolvit anul universitar anterior cu media QQi nu domiciliez n aceast localitate' 5 mulumesc anticipat' ata,QQQQ' b' 2timate domn, Re&', (sistent 1 epartamentul Relaii Publice (m a&lat prin intermediul anunului aprut n ziarul LRomnia liberM din data de /9 octombrie +??? despre oportunitile de anga*are pe care &irma dumneavoastr de publicitate le o&er studenilor' (m &ost &oarte ncntat c e%ist n Romnia companii care dau studenilor posibilitatea s nvee practic i s dobndeasc e%perien' up cum vei vedea din Curriculum 5itae alturat, sunt sudent n anul QQ la &acultatea QQQQQ'(m obinut rezultate &oarte bune n anii de studiu anteriori, iar perioadele de practic au constituit nceputurile &ormrii mele ca viitor specialist n domeniu' ( dori s scot n eviden calitile pe care consider c le posed i care cred c vin n ntmpinarea cerinelor postului o&erit de dumneavoastr' 39 2emntura,QQQQQ''

Focus on Communication Caliti comunicaionale - tiu s m &ac uor neles i reuesc n multe cazuri s i conving pe ceilali s adopte ideile mele, lucrez &oarte bine n ec!ip' Cunotine teoretice de comunicare social i relaii publice - dobndite la cursurile i seminariile din &acultate' Cunotine temeinice de limba englez i computer - dobndite pe perioada liceului i a anilor de &acultate' ac aceste abiliti sunt de interes pentru &irma dumneavoastr, sper c m vei contacta la adresa menionat mai sus' n cazul unui interviu, v voi e%plica mai amnunit de ce consider c sunt potrivit pentru postul de asistent la epartamentul Relaii Publice' Cu respect, (drian #onescu ou ha-e already learnt the structure of the letter 4sender&s address' date' inside address' salutation' body of the letter' complimentary close and signature5' so you should complete the letter of application with the missing parts. 0e ha-e to learn a new part of the letter' used in the official correspondence' the reference number' which makes easier the filing and storing of information. 2ompare the Romanian polite formulas with the English ones. A(. Rearrange the following paragraphs in the correct order to make up a co-ering letter. 3ear in mind that extensi-e letters for !ob application are drafted nowadays in case the applicant sends his professional documents to all firms likely to employ his ser-ices e-en if they ha-e not made a public announcement of -acancies. #his is called the +6>#B.<% approach. #ry to apply this technique to your situation. a' (t t!e moment # am Aor0ing part time as an independent agent &or Romanian and >erman importers o& C!inese te%tiles and c!emical products' # &ind t!e relevant C!inese &actories &or t!e buDers, negotiate &or t!em and translate t!eir contracts into C!inese, Romanian or Cnglis!' b' # Aould appreciate i& Dou considered meeting or spea0ing Ait! me Ait!in t!e ne%t tAo mont!s about t!e possibilitD o& mD Aor0ing &or Dour companD' c' # am Ariting in order to enIuire about t!e possibilitD o& an opening in Dour companD' .D goal is to &ind a position in an international companD and # Aould be interested in eit!er researc! and development or mar0eting and sales' d' Please &ind enclosed mD C5 containing &urt!er details o& mD educational bac0ground e%perience' e' # am particularlD interested in &inding a position t!at Aould o&&er me management training, and t!at Aould involve mD 0noAledge o& c!emical processes and mD &oreign language s0ills' &' .D long e%perience o& activelD participating in committee meetings as a representative o& mD student unit !as given me good presentation s0ills, as # am able to present ideas clearlD and conciselD to an audience' g' -!e liaison Aor0 # !ave been doing !as been c!allenging' # !ave learnt a great deal about t!e cultural di&&erences in conducting business Ait! (sian and Curopean clients' !' # see mD strong points as mD abilitD to lead teams and manage tas0s and groups, ta0e t!e initiative, solve problems, ma0e decisions and open and maintain &riendlD relations!ips Ait! people &rom all Aal0s o& li&e, # !ave limitless energD and # am Ailling to Aor0 !ard to ac!ieve all t!e goals o& anD tas0 # am set' 3:

Focus on Communication A1. )ake up phone dialogues or letters on the following topics$ a' Jou are a student' (rrange t!roug! t!e telep!one an appointment at Dour dean Ait! t!e secretarD o& t!e &acultD' b' 4rite a letter o& t!an0s &or t!e sc!olars!ip o&&ered to Dou bD t!e board o& t!e &acultD' c' 4rite a polite letter o& re&usal to ta0e part in t!e opening ceremonD o& an organisation' 0. C$nditi$n ! C! u#e# 31. 2onditional sentences are made up of a conditional or 8if9 clause and a main clause. #he latter denotes an action whose fulfillment is conditioned by the fulfillment of the action expressed by the -erb of the former. #he conditional clause can be introduced by if' pro-ided 4that5' suppose' supposing 4that5' in case' so long as' on condition that' unless. 2onditional sentences are not difficult to understand' because there are three types of conditionals in Romanian and in English' too. #he difficulties come from the fact that future of any kind 4shallIwillIshouldIwould5 is not allowed in the English conditional clause' while in Romanian future can be used both in the main clause and in the 8if9 clause. M in C! u#e - ;uture 4shallIwill J *nfiniti-e5 - :resent +imple 4*nfiniti-e J BsIBes at (rd person singular5 - :resent :erfect 4ha-eIhas J (rd form of the -erb5 # s!all go to t!e mountains . voi duce la munte Jou !ave got a present (i primit un cadou :resent 2onditional 4shouldIwould J *nfiniti-e5 4equi-alent in form with ;uture in the :ast5 # s!ould go to t!e mountains .-a duce la munte :ast 2onditional 4shouldIwould J ha-e J *nf.5 4equi-alent in form with ;uture :erfect in the :ast5 # s!ould !ave gone to t!e mountains .-a &i dus la munte . duceam la munte I+ C! u#e :resent +imple 4*nfiniti-e J BsIBes at (rd person singular5 - :resent :erfect 4ha-eIhas J (rd form of the -erb5 i& Dou come Ait! me' dac vei veni cu mine' i& Dou !ave come Ait! me' dac ai venit cu mine' :ast #ense 42nd form of the -erb5 4it is actually considered a :resent +ub!uncti-e5 i& Dou came Ait! me' dac ai veni cu mine' :ast :erfect 4had J (rd form of the -erb5 4it is actually considered a :ast +ub!uncti-e5 i& Dou !ad come Ait! me' dac ai &i venit cu mine' dac veneai cu mine' V !ue J possible J achie-able 4achie-ed5

J possible @ achie-able "Ae do not 0noA A!et!er t!e action can be accomplis!ed or not, Ae onlD 0noA t!at t!e &irst clause depends on t!e second$ B possible B achie-able "t!e action Aould !ave been possible at a certain moment in t!e past, but t!e sub*ect missed t!e opportunitD, so it is not possible anDmore$

3<

Focus on Communication - unless Y i& not 1 it is used Ait! t!e verb in t!e a&&irmative &orm' C%ample, # AouldnEt as0 Dou to !elp me unless Dou Aere mD best &riend' - 8if9 maD be omitted A!en t!e subordiate comes &irst' -!is emp!atic structure is possible onlD &or tDpe / and tDpe 3' -!e topic o& t!e sentence is t!at o& t!e interrogative' C%ample, Had t!eD in&ormed me about t!e meeting, # Aould !ave attended it' 32. Do the following exercises. 1. +upply the correct tense of the -erbs in brackets$ a' # AonEt call Dou i& not!ing "to !appen$' b' #& t!e engine "not to be cold$, donEt pull out t!e c!o0e control' c' # Aill call t!e electrician i& t!e lig!ts "to &ail$ again' d' #& more governments "to Aa0e up$ to A!at is !appening, per!aps !e Aould be able to avoid t!e disaster' e' #t Aould be ris0D i& Dou "to drive$ t!is old car to 2pain' &' # Aould ta0e t!e daD o&& i& # "to !ave$ stomac! ac!e' g' # "to stop$ Aor0ing i& # Aon a lot o& moneD' !' #& t!eD "to c!ange$ more moneD, t!eD could !ave staDed in a !otel' i' Per!aps dad AouldnEt !ave been so surprised i& !e "to !ear$ t!e boDs tal0ing about it' *' Cven # !ad run as &ast as # could, # "to miss$ t!e bus' 2. 2omplete the following conditional structures$ a' b' c' d' e' &' g' !' i' *' #& it doesnEt rain &or mont!s QQQQQQ' #& a driver sees a zebra crossing t!e street QQQQQQ' # s!all be !appD i& QQQQQQ' # s!ould be ric! and success&ul i&QQQQQQ' # Aon t!e prize unless QQQQQQ' #& # Aent to visit 8ondon, QQQQQQ' # s!ould !ave called Dou i& QQQQQQ' # Aould !ave boug!t mDsel& a neA car in caseQQQQQQ' Had # been in Dour place QQQQQQ' Pnless !e !ad told me di&&erentlD QQQQQQ'

3(. #ranslate into English$ a' +' ac i vei &ace datoria, vor &i mulumii' /' ac ne-am &i oprit acolo, am &i a*uns napoi &oarte trziu' 3' Bu &ura merele dac ceilali biei nu-l ndemnau s o &ac' 6' ac l vei ntreba ce nseamn pentru el reclama, i va spune ceva ciudat' 9' ac ai lua un ziar, ai gsi probabil un numr de cuvinte pe care nu le nelegi' :' ac din ntmplare nu voi veni la timp, nu m atepta' <' ac a &i n locul tu, a &ace orice mi-ar spune' =' ac a &i &ost att de obosit, mi-a &i luat cteva zile de concediu' ?' n caz c m-ar &i cutat, sora mea nu m-ar &i dat la tele&on' +@' 2 &i tiut ce m ateapt, nu m-a &i anga*at acolo' b' Qi tot ast&el, dac nc!id un oc!i, vd mna mea mai mic dect cu amndoi' e a ave trei oc!i, a vede-o i mai mare, i cu ct mai muli oc!i a ave, cu atta lucrurile toate dimpre*urul meu ar pre mai mari' Cu toate astea, nscut cu mii de oc!i, n *urul unor artri colosale, ele toate, n raport cu mine pstrndu-i proporiunea, nu mi-ar pre nici mai mari, nici mai mici dect mi par azi' ".i!ai Cminescu 1 +Ermanul Dionis$ 3=

Focus on Communication 31.0rite compositions on the following topics$ a' b' c' d' 4!at Aould Dou do i& Dou Aere t!e president o& t!e stateG 4!at Aould Dou !ave done i& Dour best &riend !ad c!eated on DouG #n case Dou become t!e director o& an advertising companD, !oA Aill Dou treat Dour emploDeesG 4!ere Aould Dou !ave li0ed to use Dour s0ills unless Dou !ad been born in RomaniaG

C. #n t!e broadest sense o& t!e Aord, a medium is the channel through which a message tra-els from the source to the recei-er "LmediumM is singular, LmediaM is plural$' 4!en Ae tal0 about mass communication, Ae also need c!annels to carrD t!e message' 4e Aill re&er to t!ese c!annels as t!e % ## %edi ' 7ur de&inition o& a mass medium Aill include not onlD t!e mec!anical devices t!at transmit and sometimes store t!e message "-5 cameras, radio microp!ones, printing presses$, but also t!e institutions t!at use t!ese mac!ines to transmit messages' 4!en Ae tal0 about t!e mass media o& television, radio, neAspapers, magazines, sound recording, and &ilm, Ae Aill be re&erring to t!e people, t!e polices, t!e organisations, and t!e tec!nologD t!at go into producing mass communication' -!ere are se-en main and different mass media$ radio' tele-ision' film' book publishing' sound recording' newspapers, and maga/ines' 7& course, t!ese seven are not t!e onlD mass media t!at e%ist' #& Ae c!oose, Ae mig!t also include billboards' comic books' posters' direct mail' matchbooks, and buttons in our discussion' 21. Answer the following questions$ a' b' c' d' e' 4!ic! medium do Dou &ind t!e most in&ormativeKt!e most sensationalKt!e most biasedG 4!ic! medium in&luences Dou t!e mostG o Dou 0noA anD specialised Romanian neAspaperG 4!at 0ind o& Fritis! television do Dou 0noAG #s t!ere a gap in t!e media mar0etG 4!at 0ind o& neA magazine, neAspaper, -5 or radio programme Aould Dou launc! i& Dou !ad adeIuate &unds and a creative team be!ind DouG &' HoA important is t!e image or presentation o& an organisation or public &igureG #s emploDing a public relations &irm a good AaD o& improving t!isG 22. Read' translate and comment the following text$ 4e de&ine t!e term communication as the process of sending' recei-ing and interpreting messages through which we relate to each other and to our larger world' #t means t!at, i& &or centuries speec! !as been considered entirelD individual, at t!e moment it represents social interaction, Ait! establis!ed targets and e%pected &eedbac0' ContemporarD t!eories o& language prove our tendencD to conceive utterance as connection betAeen people, rat!er t!an sel&-e%pression o& personal ideas' For e%ample, ant!ropologist Bronislaw Malinowski distinguis!ed tAo &unctions o& speec!, link in concerted human acti-ity "as &or people s!i&ting &urniture$ and phatic communication "as A!en people Aant to s!oA t!at t!eD recognise eac! ot!erEs presence 1 greetings$' #n conclusion, communication is a process involving groups o& people, o& Aords, o& gestures, o& interests and o& neA realities "&acts$, so Ae can saD t!at starting &rom t!is point it is not di&&icult to reac! organisational communication, mass communication or issue management'

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Focus on Communication >rganisational communication centres on t!e process o& sending, receiving and interpreting messages Ait!in and betAeen organisations' 7rganisations consist o& independent goal-oriented activities o& people A!o Aor0 toget!er Ait!in a sDstem o& rules, norms and routines' )ass communication involves large numbers o& people and is mediated, somet!ing coming betAeen t!e sender and t!e receiver o& message, putting a distance betAeen t!em' *ssue management investigates !oA organisations a&&ect and are, in turn, a&&ected bD aspects o& t!e communicative environment "government regulatorD organisations, politicians, consumers, competitors and ot!er organisations$' 4!ile t!ere are important di&&erences betAeen t!e di&&erent media and betAeen national societies and tDpes o& social sDstem, t!ere are also some similarities on A!ic! to base a generalisation' (nD social institution comprises a set o& activities, carried out bD people occupDing certain roles, according to rules and s!ared understandings' #n t!e case o& mass media, Ae are tal0ing about t!e activities o& cultural and in&ormational production carried out bD Wmass communicatorsE o& manD 0inds and directed to audiences Ait!in a &rameAor0 o& regulation and custom' -!e special &eatures o& media institution, as it is AidelD constituted, are as &olloAs, - #t is concerned Ait! producing and distributing Fknowledge& in t!e &orm o& information' ideas' culture. -!is is in response to collective social needs as Aell as t!e demands o& individuals' - #t provides c!annels &or relating certain people to other people, senders to receivers, audience members to ot!er audience members, everDone to t!eir societD and its constituent institutions' -!ese are not onlD t!e p!Dsical c!annels o& t!e communication netAor0, but also t!e c!annels o& custom and understanding A!ic! de&ine A!o s!ould, or is li0elD to, listen to A!om' - -!e media operate almost e%clusivelD in the public sphere, t!eD comprise an open institution in A!ic! all can participate as receivers and, under certain conditions, also as senders' -!e media institution also !as a public c!aracter in t!at mass media deal Ait! matters on A!ic! public opinion e%ists or can properlD be &ormed "i'e' not Ait! personal or private matters or t!ose &or e%pert or scienti&ic *udgement$' - :articipation in the institution as audience member is essentially -oluntary , Ait!out compulsion or social obligation, more so t!an is t!e case Ait! ot!er institutions concerned Ait! 0noAledge distribution, suc! as education, religion or politics' Correlative is t!e association o& media use Ait! leisure and &ree time and its disassociation &rom Aor0 and dutD' Relate also is t!e &ormal poAerlessness o& t!e media institution, it can claim no aut!oritD o& its oAn in societD nor !as it anD organisation lin0ing W!ig!erE "message producers$ Ait! WloAerE participants "audiences$' - -!e institution is linked with industry and the market, t!roug! its dependence on paid work, technology and the need for finance' - (lt!oug! itsel& Ait!out poAer, t!e institution is in-ariably linked with state power t!roug! some o& its customarD uses and t!roug! legal mec!anisms and legitimating ideas A!ic! varD &rom one state to anot!er' -!ese &eatures are not all uniIue to t!e media, but t!eir e%istence in combination gives t!e mass media t!eir distinctive c!aracter and particular signi&icance in a modern societD' 4e can &ind ot!er c!aracteristics, o& course, but t!ese ones are t!e necessarD minimum &or a proper de&inition' #ry to find other possible feature of mass media and discuss them. #hink of the good and bad parts of the media' of written and electronic press. Discuss the ethics of mass media.

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Focus on Communication 2(. Read and translate the following text and then answer the questions. 0hat do you think about such an approach' is it functional or not7 6a-e you read about other theories of the kind7 2an you concei-e a theory of your own about the use of media7 (t t!e individual level, t!e &unctional approac! to media is given t!e general name o& t!e uses-andgrati&ications model' #n its simplest &orm, t!is model posits t!at audience members !ave certain needs t!at are satis&ied bD using non-media and media sources' -!e actual needs satis&ied bD t!e media are called media grati&ications' 7ur 0noAledge o& t!ese grati&ications tDpicallD comes &rom surveDs t!at !ave as0ed people a large number o& Iuestions about !oA t!eD use media' 2everal researc!ers !ave classi&ied t!e various uses and grati&ications into a &our&old categorD sDstem, cognition, diversion, social utilitD, Ait!draAal' Cognition means t!e act o& coming to 0noA somet!ing' 4!en a person uses a mass medium to obtain in&ormation about somet!ing, t!an !e or s!e is using t!e medium in a cognitive AaD' iversion can ta0e manD &orms, including, stimulation, or see0ing relie& &rom boredom or t!e routine activities o& everDdaD li&e) rela%ation, or escape &rom t!e pressures and problems o& daD-to-daD e%istence) emotional release o& pent-up emotions and energD' PsDc!ologists !ave also identi&ied a set o& social integrative needs, including our need to strengt!en our contact Ait! &amilD, &riends and ot!ers in our societD' -!e media &unction t!at addresses t!is need is called social utilitD, and t!is usage can ta0e several &orms, t!at o& conversational currencD "media provide a common ground &or social conversation$ or t!at o& parasocial relations!ip "t!e -5 set represents a voice in t!e !ouse &or people A!o mig!t ot!erAise be alone$' 7n t!e ot!er !and, !umans occasionallD need to escape &rom certain activities and t!eD use media not onlD &or rela%ation but also &or purposes t!at are best described as Ait!draAal uses' (t times, people use t!e mass media to create a barrier betAeen t!emselves and ot!er people or ot!er activities' For e%ample, t!e media !elp people avoid certain c!ores t!at must be done' Guestions$ a' b' c' d' e' &' -o A!at does t!e Luses and grati&ications modelM re&erG 4!ic! are t!e main grati&ications obtained t!roug! t!e mediaG 4!ic! are t!e basic &orms o& diversion t!roug! mediaG 4!at is social utilitDG 4!at is parasocial relations!ipG 4!at is Ait!draAalG

21. #ranslate into English and comment upon the categories of media described in the text. #ry to gi-e examples for each type. n general, mass media sunt clasate n categorii, n &uncie de cteva criterii, ntinderea audienei lor "potenialKe&ectiv, localKnaionalKinternaional$) natura mesa*elor "audiovizualeKte%tuale$) virtualiti i nclinaii spre anumite obiective "&uncii 1 a in&ormaKa distra$' Criteriul cel mai pertinent de a le deosebi const n modalitatea de comunicare "structura comunicrii$ deosebindu-se trei mari &amilii, mediile autonome, care nu au pentru transmitere un suport te!nic speci&ic "cri, ziare$) mediile de di&uziune, care au ca suport de di&uziune undele !ertziene i care pot acoperi simultan spaii i audiene &oarte mari "radio, -5$) mediile de intercomunicare, permind o comunicare la distan n dublu sens "tele&onul$' up alte criterii, mediile pot &i clasi&icate n, medii de prezentare "vocea, corpul, &aa$, cele care &olosesc limba*ul natural al cuvintelor, mimica, 6+

Focus on Communication gestica) medii de reprezentare "crile, pictura, &otogra&iile, ar!itectura$, cu caracter simbolic i mare coe&icient de creativitate) mediile mecanice "tele&on, radio, -5$' 2H. 0rite an essay gi-ing your opinion about the role of media in one of the following situations$ a' -!e rise and &all o& super-stars in music industrD "e%ample, .ic!ael ;ac0son$' b' -!e image o& t!e president o& a countrD &or t!e citizens "e%ample, t!e role o& media during t!e 4atergate scandal, A!ic! latelD broug!t to t!e resignation o& president Ric!ard Bi%on$' D. V$c /u! r7 'r ctice D1. Explain the following words and phrases and make sentences with them$ a' to ring, to pic0 up, to disconnect, to cut o&&, slot, signal, e%tension, receiver, telep!one boot!, to dial, to be out o& order, to ma0e a call collect, to be engaged, !oo0, long distance call' b' mail, post, postman, postage stamp, to deliver, to dispatc!, address, addressee, pillar bo%, registered letter, certi&ied letter, to &ill in, letter pac0age, parcel post' D2.Do the following exercises$ a. 2omplete each sentence with a word formed from one of these -erbs$ catch' censor' circulate' co-er' criticise. 1' -!e neA gallerD Aas given t!e seal o& approval bD t!e 7bserverEs art QQQ, A!o Arote several ent!usiastic articles about it' /' RoD Ric!ardson is one o& t!e FFCEs veteran cric0etQQQ'3' Pnder t!e >overnmentEs Aartime QQQrules, all neAspaper articles !ad to be c!ec0ed bD o&&icials be&ore being printed' 6, -!e tabloids !ave e%cellent QQQo& scandal and sport, t!e IualitD papers deal Ait! everDt!ing else' 9' -!e local neAspaperEsQQQ&ell dramaticallD A!en t!e editor Aas sac0ed' :' -!at *ingle &rom t!e teabag ad is so QQQt!at # canEt get it out o& mD !ead' b. 2hoose the correct word or phrase from the pair in brackets to complete each sentence$ +' -!e actors !ave been QQQt!e plaD all t!is Aee0' "re!earsingKrepeating$' /' -!e audience applauded AildlD A!en t!e director appeared on t!e QQQ to ta0e !is boA' "sceneKstage$ 3' #Eve been Aatc!ing a &ascinating neA QQQo& art programmes' "serieKseries$ 6' (lt!oug! t!e plaD !as a large number o& QQQ, it is comparativelD easD to &olloA t!e plot' "c!aractersKpersons$ 9' #& Dou donEt li0e t!at programme, Dou can alAaDs sAitc! over to a di&&erent QQQ' "c!annelKcanal$ :' -!e latest television dramatisation Aas &ilmed entirelD QQQin a countrD village not &ar &rom !ere' "in t!e AildKon location$ <' 4!ic! QQQdid .arlene ietric! plaD in !er last &ilmG "roleKper&ormance$ =' 4!at a Aonde&ul QQQo& L( .idsummer Big!tEs reamM t!at Aas in t!e Cvening HeraldG "criticKrevieA$ 6/

Focus on Communication D(..i-e the synonyms and antonyms of the following words$ to motivate, promotion, usual, satis&Ding, compliance, to recruit, abilitD, relevant, casual, s0ill, comple%, purpose&ul, *uicD, lin0, reliance, regulation, remar0, premise' D1.#ranslate into English the following sentences' using the -erbs to notice' to obser-e' to percei-e and to remark. #ry to make sentences with the phrases related to these -erbs' thus learning to use them in the suitable contexts$ +' (m observat imediat toate sc!imbrile din camer' /' ( observat cineva c am ntrziatG 3' Bici nu am observat cnd a venit tata' 6' (i &cut o observaie cam obraznic' 9' 7bserv-l cu mult atenie, s vezi ce &ace' :' Bu observ s &ie vreo di&eren ntre desene' <' 8-am observat de mult, &ii linitit' =' (m observat o uoar ezitare n rspunsul ei' ?' 8-am observat imediat n acel grup zgomotos' +@' (m observat c nu mai purta inelul de logodn' Remember the following phrases$ to notice somebodD or somet!ing immediatelD, to ta0e no notice o&, to observe closelDKt!oroug!lD, to observe t!e detailsKindicationsKtra&&ic rules, to perceive a motiveKdi&&erence, to perceive t!roug! senses, to perceive at a glance, to remar0 onKupon a plaDK&act, to remar0 rudelD, to remar0 in a sloA voice, to ma0eKpass a remar0'

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Focus on Communication

V. T8E NE.SPAPERS AND T8E MA2A9INES


A. C$%%erci ! c$rre#'$ndence #t is a Aell-0noAn &act t!at anD letter is t!e eIuivalent o& a visiting card &or t!e person A!o sends it' -!is is o& capital importance in t!e case o& commercial correspondence, because a &irm is appreciated bD t!e people Ait! A!om it establis!es connections t!roug! t!e IualitD o& t!e letters sent bD t!e members o& t!e organisation' -!us, Ariting business letters represents an essential element Ait!in a transaction, and t!e tec!niIues !ave developed and re&ined along t!e ages, commercial correspondence becoming almost a science' For being considered Aell done &rom t!e tec!nical point o& vieA, a business letter s!ould be clear, concise, polite, accomplis!ing a union o& t!e stDle Ait! t!e message' A1. Read and translate the following business letters. 3ear in mind their names. a' En4uire# 5#$!icit re6 2ate% 2'(' 6 5ia di Pietra #talD ear 2irs, 4e Aere impressed bD t!e selection o& sAeaters t!at Aere displaDed on Dour stand at t!e L.ensAear C%!ibitionM t!at Aas !eld in 8ondon last mont!' 4e are a large c!ain o& retailers and are loo0ing &or a manu&acturer A!ic! could supplD us Ait! a Aide range o& sAeaters &or t!e teenage mar0et' 4e Aould li0e to 0noA about Dour usual terms o& a contract' (s Ae commonlD place large orders, Ae Aould e%pect a IuantitD o& discount in addition to a /@[ trade discount o&& net list prices, and our terms o& paDment are normallD 3@-daD bill o& e%c!ange, documents against acceptance' #& t!ese conditions interest Dou and i& Dou can meet orders o& over +@@@ garments, please send us Dour current catalogue and price-list' 4e !ope to !ear &rom Dou soon' Jours &ait!&ullD, 8ionel Crane >eneral .anager #his type of letter contains in the body of the letter data about the source from which a firm has found out about the other firm' a brief presentation of the acti-ities of the requiring company' the description of the terms of a possible contract or understanding and the enquiry for catalogues and price lists. #he shortest form of this kind of letter would include a presentation and a polite request of information. Remember the structure' the pattern of this type of letter and try to concei-e an enquiry yourself. Don&t forget to write the addresses and the reference number. 8Dnc! Z Co' 8td' <9 BeAell 2treet Firming!am F3 3C8 >reat Fritain Re&, #nI' 39+ :t! FebruarD +???

66

Focus on Communication b' Letter# $+ re'!7 nd 4u$t ti$n# 2ate% 2'(', 5ia di Pietra, @@+6:, Rome 8Dnc! Z Co' 8td' <9 BeAell 2treet Jour re&', #nI' C39+ Firming!am F3 C8 7ur re&, K+63? >reat Fritain /3 FebruarD +??? (ttn, .r' 8' Crane, >eneral .anager ear .r' Crane, 4e are pleased to receive Dour enIuirD and to !ear t!at Dou li0ed our range o& sAeaters'-!ere Aill certainlD be no trouble in supplDing Dou &rom our Aide selection o& garments A!ic! Ae ma0e &or all age groups' 4e can o&&er Dou t!e IuantitD discount Dou !ave as0ed &or A!ic! Aould be 9[ o&& net prices &or orders over /@@@\, but t!e usual alloAance &or a trade discount in #talD is +9[, and Ae alAaDs deal on paDment bD sig!t dra&t, cas! against documents' HoAever, Ae Aould be prepared to revieA t!is once Ae !ave establis!ed a &irm trading association Ait! Dou' Cnclosed Dou Aill &ind our summer catalogue and price list' 4e are sure Dou Aill &ind a readD sale &or our products in Cngland as !ave ot!er retailers t!roug!out Curope and (merica, and Ae do !ope Ae can reac! an agreement on t!e terms Iuoted' -!an0 Dou &or Dour interest, Ae loo0 &orAard to !earing &rom Dou soon' Jours sincerelD, ' Causio %otice how' in the reply' )r. 2ausio does not turn down the request but suggests a counterBoffer. >bser-e two newly introduced parts of a letter' the letterhead 4antet5 and the attention note for the addressee 4attn.5.0rite a quotation of your own. A2. 2omplete the following sentences which open and close business letters$ a' b' c' d' e' &' g' !' i' *' 0' l' m' n' 7ur &irm is aAare t!at Dou are e%porters o& """ Jour name Aas given to us bD""" 4e are in&ormed t!at Dour &irm produces"""and Ae Aould be interested in""" #& Dou are interested in buDing our merc!andise Ae in&orm Dou t!at""" 4e are verD interested in Dour o&&er as so QQQ #& Dou agree Ait! our terms, please QQQ 4e are loo0ing &orAard to QQQ 4e t!an0 Dou &or Dour con&idence in us and QQQ Having &avourablD solved our &irst o&&er, Ae !ope QQQ 4e Aould certainlD appreciate QQQ Jou maD be sure o& QQQ Cnclosed to t!is letter QQQ 4it! our best t!an0s QQQ 4e 0indlD entrust Dou t!at Ae are able to settle t!e matter QQQ 69

Focus on Communication A(. #ranslate into English the following letters' adding to them the missing parts, . Letter $+ $rderin" 2timate domnule Causio, 5ei gsi alturat comanda noastr, Br' R63+:, de pulovere pentru tineri, toate culorile i mrimile pe care le o&erii n catalog' (m !otrt s acceptm reducerea de +9 [ i condiiile de plat pe care le dorii, dar insistm s rediscutm aceti termeni contractuali n viitorul apropiat' 5ei gsi alturat documentele de transport i ordinul de plat de la Fanca Bort!minster din Firming!am' ac nu avei n stoc obiectele solicitate, v rugm s nu ne trimitei altele care s le nlocuiasc' 5-am &i recunosctori dac ai &ace livrarea n termen de : sptmni' (teptm cu nerbdare rspunsul dumneavoastr' Cu respect, 8ionel Crane irector general /. Letter $+ c$%'! int 2timate domnule Causio, 5 scriu pentru a &ace o plngere n legtur cu transportul de pulovere pe care l-am primit ieri n urma comenzii noastre din data de +@ martie' Cutiile n care erau ambalate puloverele erau des&cute i preau c s-au rupt n timpul transportului' in documentele pe care ni le-ai trimis, am constatat c 3@ de obiecte au &ost &urate, avnd valoare general de +'9@@ \' in cauza deteriorrii cutiilor, alte cteva obiecte nu mai pot &i vndute ca articole noi' Pentru c vnzarea s-a &cut n bani g!ia, v rugm s ne contactai urgent pentru a stabili compensaiile' 5ei gsi alturat o list cu bunurile disprute i cele deteriorate, iar noi vom pstra stocul intact pn cnd vom primi instruciunile dumneavoastr' Cu respect, 8ionel Crane irector general A1. 2hoose a topic and write a letter$ a' ReIuest &or a catalogue &rom a &irm o& tapes and cassettes A!ose products Dou !ave seen at a &air' b' Jou are t!e director o& an advertising agencD, ansAer to t!e proposal o& co-operation o& a television station' c' (nsAer t!e tAo letters Dou !ave translated be&ore, on be!al& o& .r' Causio' d' 4rite a letter o& complaint &or t!e products Dou !ave ordered &rom a companD o& cosmetics' -!e items arrived to Dou verD damaged' e' Jou are t!e manager o& a &irm A!ic! o&&ers s!ipment &or goods' 4rite a replD to anot!er companD, e%plaining t!e AaDs in A!ic! Dou can !elp t!em Ait! transport' &' Jou are t!e manager o& a small companD' 4rite a letter to a larger companD in t!e same &ield, proposing to co-operate in certain activities'

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Focus on Communication 0. T)e Su/:unctive 31. #he English +ub!uncti-e differs -ery much form the Romanian 82on!uncti-9' as the English mood is syntactic' it can be expressed in different ways but it is requested by almost the same expressions all the timeK the Romanian 82on!uncti-9)ood is morphological' it represents any -erb which has a form beginning with 8sE9' no matter in which construction it appears. *n English' we should try to remember the phrases requiring +ub!uncti-e' which usually express$ order' demand' suggestion' necessity. #here are two types of +ub!uncti-e in English$ a' Su/:unctive ; 5#7nt)etic6, identical in &orm Ait! t!e s!ort in&initive "# be, He !ave, 2!e go$' Rules +' #n sentences e%pressing greetings exclamations' "it could be replaced bD M 7 < In+initive$ or C%amples 8ong live our ]ueenN 1 .aD our ]ueen live longN Happen A!at maDN 2o be itN Curse t!e AindN CverDbodD come !ere' "5enii cu toii aici$ 2omebodD go and tell !im to come "2 mearg cineva s-i spun s vin$ 1 8et one o& Dou go and tell !im to come' #t is better t!at !e go noA 1 #t is better t!at !e s!ould go noA' #t is strange t!at !e leave t!e con&erence' # doubt t!at !e be !ere on time' # doubt t!at !e s!ould be !ere on time' -!eD insist t!at t!e &actorD be modernised' #& need be, # s!all be t!ere' 2u&&ice it to saD t!at t!e pro*ect Aas accepted'

/' #n sentences e%pressing an order or a demand "it could be replaced bD I%'er tive$ 3' #n sentences introduced bD it is J ad!ecti-e J that, it is important, it is good, it is bad, it is strange, it is unusual, it is necessarD, it is remar0able, it is surprising, etc' "it could be replaced bD #)$u!d < In+initive$ 6' (&ter verbs e%pressing order' decision' suggestion' condition' doubt' purpose' fear' desire' request, to order, to command, to decide , to suggest, etc' "it could be replaced bD #)$u!d < In+initive$ 9' #n expressions ta0en &rom t!e .edieval Cnglis! 8anguage, i& need be "dac este nevoie$, be it so "aa s &ie$, &ar be it &rom me "departe de mine gndul$, su&&ice it to saD "este de a*uns s spun$' :' (&ter phrases li0e Aould rat!er, !ad better, !ad best, Aould sooner, Aould !ave b' Su/:unctive = 5 n !7tic !6, -

# Aould rat!er go to t!e mountains t!an staD in toAn' Jou !ad better leave noA'

:resent, identical in &orm Ait! t!e Past -ense o& t!e #ndicative mood "# Aere, # !ad, # Aent$'

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Focus on Communication - :ast, identical in &orm Ait! Past Per&ect &rom t!e #ndicative "# !ad been, # !ad !ad, # !ad gone$' For t!e verb Lto beM, t!ere is onlD one &orm o& 2ub*unctive / present, Aere, A!ile in t!e Past -ense #ndicative t!ere are / &orms, Aas and Aere' 4e !ave seen t!at +ub!uncti-e 1 !as several eIuivalents, t!e #mperative .ood, .aD O #n&initive and s!ould O#n&initive) +ub!uncti-e / !as onlD one eIuivalent &or all t!e cases, s!ould O #n&initive' 2ometimes 2ub*unctive / can be used instead o& 2ub*unctive + in situations 3 and 6 mentioned in t!e table above, but anD!oA t!e speci&ic &orm &or t!ese cases remain 2ub*unctive +' C%amples, #t is better t!at Ae Aent noA' # doubt t!at !e Aere !ere on time' Rules C%amples +' #t e%presses a desire introduced bD an 7!, t!at it Aere possibleN inter*ection or bD t!e verb Ais!' # Ais! # Aere Dou' "( vrea s &iu n locul tu$ # Ais! # !ad been Dou' "( &i vrut s &i &ost n locul tu$ /' (&ter p!rases li0e as if' as though' e-en if' # as0ed !im i& t!is Aere A!at !e Aanted' "8-am e-en though' rather than' than that. ntrebat dac aceasta este ceea ce dorete$ # as0ed !im i& t!is !ad been A!at !e Aanted' "8-am ntrebat dac aceasta &usese ceea ce dorea$ 3' (&ter t!e e%pressions Ait! Le-er, !oAever, 4!oever t!eD Aere # canEt see t!em noA' A!atever, A!ic!ever, A!oever, etc' 4!oever t!eD !ad been # couldnEt meet t!em' 6' (&ter be afraid that' fear that' be terrified # am so glad t!at Dou Aere !ere' that' for fear and lest. # am a&raid lest !e missed t!e train' ,est is a negative &orm, so it is used Ait! a verb in t!e a&&irmative &orm' 32. Do the following exercises. a. ;inish the sentences$ +' /' 3' 6' 9' #t is important t!at t!is paper QQQ .D mot!er too0 me to t!e cinema so t!at # QQQ He didnEt dare s0i lest !e QQQ # Ais! Dou QQQ # suggest t!at !e QQQ

b. Replace the *nfiniti-e in brackets with the appropriate forms of the +ub!uncti-e$ +' Jou !ad better "to listen$ to me' /' #t is li0elD t!at !e "to be$ aAarded a prize' 3' # Ais! Dou "to learn$ better' 6' # as0ed !er i& t!is "to be$ A!at s!e meant' 9' Jou loo0 as i& Dou "to be$ tired' :' 4!oever t!eD "to be$ tell t!em to Aait' <' Cven t!oug! s!e "to as0$ s!e Aould not !ave been given an ansAer' =' #t is !ig! time Dou "to ma0e up$ Dour mind A!et!er Dou Aant to do t!e *ob or

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Focus on Communication not' ?' 2!e !ad rat!er "to come$ Ait! Dou' +@' # s!ould li0e to !ave a rest rat!er t!an "to *oin$ Dou on t!e trip' 3(. #ranslate into English$ a' ( sugerat s ne petrecem vacana la mare' b' . ndoiesc c va &i aici pn mine' c' ac este nevoie putem s ne oprim acum' d' (i &ace mai bine s mergi cu noi' e' C!iar dac ai &i insistat nu l-ai &i convins' &' 2-a !otrt ca proiectul s &ie gata pn la s&ritul lunii' g' (r &i bine s notezi aceste lucruri ca s nu le uii' !' .i-e team s nu se strice vremea' i' Pre&er s nv totul de la nceput' *' .i s-a ordonat s-mi sc!imb programul de lucru' 0' 7riunde ar lucra, ea ntotdeauna va &i ludat de toat lumea' l' #ndi&erent ce gndeti despre mine nu-i dau roc!ia mea s-o pori la bal' b' Cnd vom povesti ntmplarea asta, lumea are s rd i are s spun c nu ne-am lsat de palavre vntoreti' -u ce prere ai, Fram, prietene FramGQ Fram mormi' ac ar &i tiut s vorbeasc, ar &i povestit c mai cunoate el undeva, ntr-un trib esc!imos, un copil care a pit la &el i, &r ndoial c s-a pomenit cu &aima de cel mai mare mincinos, nainte nc de a deveni mare vntor' .ormi' 2e uit cu neles spre coliba unde se a&la nuntru cutia minunat care cnta 1 Be roag s dm drumul la radioN Cgon' (cesta este ursul cel mai amator de muzic din ci am vzut eu n viaN #ntr n caban i rsuci resortul' "Cezar Petrescu 1 ;ram' ursul polar$ 31. 2oncei-e a composition on one of the following topics$ a' -!ings Dou Aould rat!er do' b' #& Dou Aere t!e &irst man on t!e moon, A!at Aould Dou Arite bac0 !omeG c' 4!ic! are Dour secret Ais!esG C. Ne*#' 'er# are publications usuallD issued on a dailD or Aee0lD basis, t!e main &unction o& A!ic! is to report t!e neAs' BeAspapers also provide commentarD on t!e neAs, advocate various public policies, &urnis! special in&ormation and advice to readers, and sometimes include &eatures suc! as comic strips, cartoons and serialised boo0s' #n nearlD all cases and in varDing degrees, t!eD depend on t!e publication o& commercial advertising &or t!eir income' Peri$dic !# are publications released at regular intervals, o&ten called *ournals, or re&erred to as magazines A!en designating t!ose &or recreational reading' Periodicals di&&er &rom t!e ot!er ma*or &orm o& serial publication, neAspapers' .ost neAspapers are issued dailD on pulp paper and !ave relativelD large, unbound pages) periodicals generallD appear on &iner paper, Ait! smaller bound pages, and at intervals longer t!an a daD "Aee0lD, biAee0lD, mont!lD, IuarterlD, or even annuallD$' (s a A!ole, periodicals &eature, o&ten e%clusivelD, material o& special interest to particular audiences' -!e contents o& periodicals are o&ten unrelated to current neA stories) A!en dealing Ait! t!e neAs, t!eD tend to do so in t!e &orm o& summaries or commentaries' 21. Answer the following questions$ a' o Dou regularlD read neAspapersG 4!ic! neAspaper do Dou pre&erG 4!DG b' o Dou read anD magazinesG 4!ic! one do Dou li0e &rom t!e Romanian mar0etG 4!DG c' #& Dou Aere t!e editor-in-c!ie& o& a neAspaper, A!at Aould Dou do to improve its circulationG 4!ic! target-audience Aould Dou c!ooseG 6?

Focus on Communication d' e' &' g' !' o Dou t!in0 Romanian neAspapers and magazines are comparable to t!ose in t!e 4estern countriesG (re t!eD better, are t!eD AorseG 4!DG 4!ic! part o& a neAspaper Aould Dou rat!er Arite, t!e political columns, t!e social, t!e economic or t!e cultural onesG 4!ic! articles do Dou consider t!e most interesting in t!e Romanian neAspapersG 4!at 0ind o& magazine Aould Dou li0e to Aor0 &or, one &or entertainment, one specialised on politics, one &or t!e teenagers, or one specialised on in&ormaticsG Can Dou give e%amples o& t!ese 0inds o& magazines on t!e Romanian mar0etG 4ould Dou li0e to be a *ournalist &or t!e printed pressG 4!DG o Dou consider our Aritten press to be a &ree oneG >ive reasons &or or against it'

22. Read and translate the following text. .i-e examples for each type of newspaper or maga/ine described. ;ind the Romanian terms for the English words and phrases related to newspaper and maga/ine industries. Ralp! 4aldo Cmerson, A!o !ad somet!ing to tell about virtuallD everDt!ing, once said L the newspaper" does its best to make e-ery square acre of land and sea gi-e an account of itself at your breakfast tableM' T)e ne*#' 'er indu#tr7 is currentlD e%amining !oA Aell it &its Ait! modern li&estDles and A!at it must do to 0eep and attract readers in an age in A!ic! competition &or t!eir time !as become intense' 7bviouslD, t!ere are manD AaDs to categorise an industrD as diverse as t!is one' 4e group papers bD frequency of publication "d i!ie# nd *ee1!ie#$, bD market si/e "n ti$n !> ! r"e> %ediu% and #% !!$ and, &inallD, bD their appeal to specialised interest groups "&or %in$rit7 "r$u'#, #tudent#, 'r$+e##i$n !# and #)$''er#$' #he departmental structure and staffing of a newspaper varD Ait! its size, but all papers !ave certain common aspects' -!eD !ave 'u/!i#)er and are generallD divided into three main departments, /u#ine## "!aving t!e responsibilitD o& 0eeping t!e paper &inanciallD solvent, Ait! subdivisions as advertising, promotion and circulation$, 'r$ducti$n "A!ic! prints t!e neAspaper, Ait! subdivisions as the composing room, A!ere computers and p!ototDpesetters are used to laD out t!e neAspaper pages) the platemaking area, A!ere sur&aces t!at Aill reproduce t!e printed page are constructed) the press room, A!ere in0 actuallD meets paper$, ne*#?edit$ri !, A!ic! !as t!e tas0 o& conceiving t!e te%t "comprising a managing editor A!o supervises the wire editor' the sports editor' the society editor' the food editor' the entertainment editor as Aell as the city editor) t!e department also contains reporters' photographers' copyeditors and a rewrite desk$' >etting out a neAspaper is a tAentD-&our-!our-a-daD *ob' BeAs !appens at all !ours and manD stories !appen une%pectedlD' -rDing to cope Ait! t!e never-ending &loA o& neAs and t!e constant pressure to 0eep it &res!, reIuires organisation and co-ordination among t!e paperEs sta&&' -!ere are two basic sources of news copy, !$c ! re'$rtin" and t!e *ire #ervice#' 4!ile the wire editor scans t!e output &rom t!e Aire mac!ines and the city editor c!ec0s !is or !er dailD calendar, the managing editor !andles t!e available space, called t)e ne*#)$!e, t!at can be devoted to neAs in t!at daDEs issue o& t!e paper' (s t!e daD progresses, reporters return &rom assignments and Arite t!eir neAs stories at the keyboard of a -ideoBdisplay terminal 4CD#5 ' -!e &inis!ed storD is transmitted electronicallD to a computer, A!ere it is stored' -!ese stories are called up bD copy editors, A!o trim and ma0e c!anges and code t!e articles &or use in t!e paper' -!e managing editor decides t!at t!e storD is neAsAort!D and sends it bac0 to t!e computer &or processing' ecisions about page ma0e up, t!e amount o& space to be devoted to a storD and t!e p!otograp!s are made as t!e deadline &or publication appears' .eanA!ile, in the composing room, !ig! speed computerised 9@

Focus on Communication photocomposition machines ta0e electronic impulses and translate t!em into images and Aords' -!e stories are printed on strips of photographic paper and go to the make up room A!ere t!eD are pasted up into &ull neAspaper pages' An offset plate is made bD placing t!e negative betAeen glass and a s!eet o& p!otosensitive metal and e%posing t!e plate to brig!t lig!t' -!en, !uge rolls of newsprint are t!readed into the press and the printing process begins' Finis!ed and &olded papers are sent bD t!e con-eyor belt to t!e distribution area' #& Ae trD to classi&D % " ,ine#, Ae can divide t!em according to two criteria, after the target audience 5"ener ! c$n#u%er % " ,ine#, /u#ine## 'u/!ic ti$n#, !iter r7 revie*# and c de%ic :$urn !#, ne*#!etter# and 'u/!ic re! ti$n# magazines$ and after the three traditional components of manufacturing "'r$ducti$n, di#tri/uti$n and ret i!in"$' A c$n#u%er % " ,ine is one t!at can be acIuired bD anDone, t!roug! a subscription or a singleBcopy purchase or bD obtaining a free store. 0u#ine## % " ,ine# or tr de 'u/!ic ti$n# serve a particular business industrD or pro&ession and are publis!ed bD independent companies t!at are connected Ait! t!e &ield t!eD serve' Liter r7 revie*# and c de%ic :$urn !#, generallD Ait! circulation under +@,@@@, are publis!ed bD nonB profit organisations and &unded bD uni-ersities, foundations or groups of professionals' Ne*#!etter# are publications o& tDpicallD &our to eig!t pages A!ic! trD to give t!eir readers inside in&ormation about highly specialised topics, establis!ing a personal tone betAeen Ariter and reader. Pu/!ic re! ti$n# % " ,ine# are publis!ed bD sponsoring companies and are designed to be circulated among t!e companDEs employees' dealers' customers and stockholders' ( second use&ul AaD o& structuring t!e magazine industrD is to divide it by function' T)e 'r$ducti$n +uncti$n consists o& appro%imatelD /,@@@-3,@@@ publis!ers and encompasses all t!e elements necessarD to put out a magazine 1 copy' art work' photos' titles' layout' printing and /indin"' T)e di#tri/uti$n +uncti$n !andles t!e *ob o& getting t!e magazine to t!e reader, t!roug! paid or free 4controlled5 circulation' T)e ret i! +uncti$n deals Ait! t!e sellers, A!ic! maD be corner newsstands' drugstores' supermarkets' tobacco shops' bookshops' ( tDpical magazine is generallD !eaded bD 'u/!i#)er A!o oversees +$ur % in de' rt%ent#, circu! ti$n "responsible &or getting neA readers and 0eeping current readers satis&ied$, composed bD the subscription manager, A!o tries to increase t!e number o& people on t!e magazineEs subscription list, the singleBcopy sales manager, A!o Aor0s Ait! t!e national distributors, and the subscription fulfilment director, A!o ma0es sure t!at t!e magazine gets to subscribers) dverti#in" nd # !e# "putting toget!er neA programmes to en!ance sales$) 'r$ducti$n "concerned Ait! printing and binding t!e publication$) edit$ri ! "!andling t!e non-advertising content o& t!e magazine$, directed bD a managing editor' Producing a magazine reIuires a great deal o& lead time' .ost issues are planned several mont!s or at least several Aee0s in advance' -!e &irst step in all magazine production is preliminary planning and the generation of ideas &or upcoming issues' 7nce t!is step is completed, the managing editor starts assigning certain articles to staff writers or freelancers' -!e ne%t step involves putting toget!er a miniature dummy' ( dummD is simplD a plan or blueprint o& t!e pages &or t!e upcoming issue t!at s!oAs t!e contents in t!eir proper order' -!e printing o& t!e magazine resembles t!at o& t!e neAspaper in t!e &inal stages' 2(. #ranslate into English$ a' Pentru aniversarea celor zece ani de la cderea ^idului Ferlinului, ministrul &ederal german pentru problemele tineretului, C!ristine Fergmann, i autoritile noii capitale a >ermaniei reuni&icate au invitat circa +@@@ de tineri din Curopa la o srbtoare ce va dura mai multe zile i care 9+

Focus on Communication va avea punctul culminant pe ? noiembrie, seara, de-a lungul urmei &ostului ^id i mai ales n &aa Porii Frandenburg' n plan politic, &otii preedini sovietic i american, .i!ail >orbaciov i >eorge Fus!, protagonitii reuni&icrii germane, &ostul i actualul cancelar, Helmut To!l i respectiv >er!ard 2c!roeder, vor lua cuvntul pe ? noiembrie n Fundestag "camera in&erioar a parlamentului german$' n perioada 9-+@ noiembrie, tineri cu vrste cuprinse ntre +: i /9 de ani, venii din >ermania i alte /6 de ri europene, vor avea ocazia s cunoasc oraul i istoria sa i s discute mai ales cu martori direci ai cderii ^idului Ferlinului' n zilele denumite de guvernul german Festivalul european al tineretului, tinerii vor asista la numeroase con&erine privind rolul Ferlinului n Curopa i relaiile Cst-5est, avnd ocazia de a-i &ace cunoscute opiniile privind edi&icarea n comun a continentului european, declara doamna Fergmann RQS' "RomMnia ,iberE, 6 noiembrie, +???$' b' Revoluia din decembrie +?=? a adus n spaiul cultural romnesc o problem puin dezbtut, rolul elitelor n societate' Pn la acel moment teoria social i politic avusese drept principale inte gruprile socio-pro&esionale, structurile i raporturile dintre clasele sociale' inamica sociopolitic postdecembrist a scos la iveal insu&iciena unui asemenea tip de analiz' iversitatea actorilor politici, coagularea raporturilor dintre liderii sau promotorii proceselor sc!imbrii i diversitatea structurii sociale ce se n&iripau n societatea desc!is de implozia totalitarismului, aduceau n prim planul re&leciei sociale nevoia de nuanare a discursului clasial' Ui aceasta ntruct, dincolo de clase i categorii sociale, de aciunea colectiv, spontan sau organisat, articularea structurilor politice democrate i a societii civile a &ocalizat interesul social asupra a&lrii i impunerii de lideri' 2 ne amintim de sloganul nceputurilor revoluiei L(vem nevoie de un Havel al nostruM, care, n a&ara conotaiilor antiiliesciene, a &ost e%presia o&ertei reduse de personaliti apte s-i asume promovarea trans&ormrii radicale bene&iciind, n acelai timp, de o acceptare social convenabil' Parado%al, odat clamat, acest imperativ nu a &ost prile* de compromis ntre personaliti sau grupri politice a&late n centrul evoluiilor politice' impotriv, orgoliul unora a prevalat n &aa oportunitilor revoluiei, iar sloganul i-a accentuat repede trsturile luptei staliniste pentru putere, trans&ormndu-se practic n L;os #liescuNM' Revoluia nu a &ost &urat ci a &ost ratat, unele dintre LeliteleM a&late la startul revoluiei ne&iind pregtite pentru a stpni comple%itatea partiturii, au optat pentru aria nvr*birii n sperana de a-i consolida poziiile' "(le%andru Florian L 8Elitele =i re-oluNiaM, in L+ocietate =i culturEM, +K+??=$' 21. Read the following text and then answer the questions. RQS -!e ongoing political and economic trans&ormations in t!e Republic o& .oldova !ave induced a process o& reorganisation in t!e sp!ere o& media and in t!e legal &rameAor0 o& t!e *ournalist Aor0' -!e lac0 o& proper legal regulation in t!e totalitarian era !as made it practicallD impossible &or t!e media to publis! anD critical in&ormation concerning t!e upper ruling circles and a A!ole range o& social p!enomena' -!e legislative vacuum engul&ing t!e sp!ere o& social li&e Aas a&&ecting t!e media as Aell' #n recent Dears, media situation !as c!anged considerablD' #n t!e course o& establis!ing a government o& laA, societD could not disregard t!e media' -!ere Aas an urgent need to establis! a legal basis &or t!e Aor0 o& *ournalists' -!e recent political and social c!anges disclosed manD social can0ers, drugs, prostitution, organised crime, corruption in t!e upper levels o& government, t!e e%isting problems o& multiet!nic relations, t!e decreasing social status o& t!e language o& t!e most numerous et!nic group in t!e countrD, t!e 9/

Focus on Communication need to adopt t!e 8atin alp!abet, t!e suppression o& various events and &acts concerning t!e national !istorD' -!e media Aere t!e &irst to sound t!e alarm) !oAever, t!e response consisted in t!reats and accusations aimed at t!e most intrepid and !onest *ournalists' -!e lac0 o& media legislation Aas more t!an obvious' -!e long-aAaited daD came in +??? Ait! t!e adoption o& t!e Press and .edia (ct "still Ait!in t!e &ormer 2oviet Pnion$' 7n its rati&ication, t!e act came into e&&ect in t!e Republic o& .oldavia' -!is act eliminated t!e strict political control over t!e press and provided acceptable Aor0 conditions &or t!e *ournalists' #t establis!ed t!e &reedom o& media and t!e inadmissibilitD o& censors!ip' BoA t!ere Aas more &reedom, but t!e responsibilitD o& t!e editorial sta&& and t!e aut!or &or t!e publis!ed in&ormation increased as Aell' Bevert!eless, t!e &reedom o& press is not absolute' -!e press is pro!ibited &rom disclosure o& state secrets, propaganda o& Aar, crueltD, and violence, race, national, and religious discrimination' (not!er important point is t!e legalisation o& t!e rig!t to publis!ing' -!e act establis!ed t!at media maD be &ounded bD government agencies, laA&ullD acting parties and organisations, as Aell as bD private persons o& legal age' -!e act also regulated t!e relations betAeen editors and &ounders, editors and aut!ors, stipulating also t!e rig!t o& t!e editors to collect in&ormation' -!us, conditions Aere set to grant &reedom o& speec! and &reedom o& press and to give all poAer structures t!e opportunitD to propagate t!eir vieAs t!roug! t!e mass media' -!is legislative act Aas in line Ait! t!e reIuirements o& t!e respective !istorical period, laDing t!e &oundations o& a &urt!er legislative progress in t!e sp!ere o& mass media RQS' "L ;reedom of +peech and ;reedom of :ress in the Republic of )oldo-aM, bD (lla FDelostec!ni0, C!isinau, in L3alkan )ediaM, t!e &irst media magazine o& t!e Fal0ans, vol' 5, no' /, summer +??:K+??<$' Guestions$ a' b' c' d' e' 4!at c!anged in t!e .oldavian legislation concerning media in t!e beginning o& t!e ?@EsG 4as it easD &or t!e .oldavian *ournalists to do t!eir *obG 4!at di&&iculties did t!eD encounterG 4!at Aere t!e main provisions o& t!e Press and .edia (ct o& +??@ in .oldovaG 4as t!is laA all t!at t!e *ournalists needed to protect t!eir Aor0 conditionsG o Dou t!in0 it is easD to Aor0 as a *ournalist in a small &ormer communist countrDG

2H. Accomplish a table with the best' the most well known and the most circulated newspapers in Romania. <se as a model the table of the most famous <.+.B3ritish international publications$ T)e Intern ti$n ! 8er !d Tri/une, Ait! a AorldAide circulation o& about +<@,@@@, publis!ed bD t!e BeA Jor0 -imes and t!e 4as!ington Post, !eadIuartered in France' -!e paper !as recentlD celebrated its !undredt! anniversarD' U.S.A. T$d 7 Intern ti$n !, a neAcomer to t!e scene, Ait! a circulation o& about 6@,@@@, a >annett-oAned paper, read most o& all bD P'2' citizens travelling abroad' .$r!dP 'er, publis!ed bD t!e 4orld -imes CompanD in Foston, distributed as a neAspaper supplement in 8atin (merica, (sia and t!e .iddle Cast, Ait! a circulation o& :9@,@@@' T)e Fin nci ! Ti%e# $+ L$nd$n, specialised in economic neAs, Ait! a circulation o& about 3@@,@@@' T)e Ec$n$%i#t, based in 8ondon, carrDing &inancial neAs and analDses, easilD available in t!e Pnited 2tates, Ait! about 3@@,@@@ readers' 93

Focus on Communication T)e . !! Street @$urn !, international editions &or Curope and (sia, reac!ing about <9,@@@ people'

D. V$c /u! r7 'r ctice. D1. Explain the following words and phrases$ circulation, gossip, domestic, &oreign, &ront page, bac0 page, inside page, top o& t!e page, bottom o& t!e page, cover, supplement, incident, accident, event, editorial, comment, announcement, report, re&utation, serial, cross-Aord puzzle, *ournalist, correspondent, reporter, editor, compositor, printer, reader, subscriber' D2. Do the following exercises$ a. )atch the words on the left with the correct definitions. +' /' 3' 6' 9' :' <' =' obituarD leader !oroscope revieA gossip column !eadline deadline cartoon (' F' C' ' C' F' >' H' critical assessment o& a boo0, &ilm leading editorial article regular article about celebrities announcement o& a deat!, Ait! a s!ort biograp!D p!rase or title at t!e top o& an article !umorous or satirical draAing time limit &or reporting neAs prediction o& someoneEs &uture according to t!e sign in t!e zodiac

b. +upply the suitable words$ ( person A!o sends neAs, articles, reports to a neAspaper A!o loo0s t!roug! t!e manuscript o& an article, corrects it, suggests c!anges and prepares it &or printing A!o sets up tDpe &or printing A!o buDs a neAspaper, magazine regularlD A!o is engaged in publis!ing, editing or Aor0ing &or a neAspaper is called QQQ'' is called QQQ'' is called QQQ'' is called QQQ'' is called QQQ''

D(. *nsert in the blanks the right word$ a' 4e s!ould consider t!e ma*or c!anges in QQQ't!at Aere prompted bD t!e success o& t!e mass press during t!e +=33-+=:@ period' #n s!ort, Ae can identi&D &our suc! c!anges' -!e QQQ'press, sold &or a pennD dailD, c!anged t!e basis o& economic support &or QQQ', t!e pattern o& t!e neAspaper QQQ', t!e de&inition o& A!at constituted QQQ'and t!e QQQ'o& neAs collection' Fe&ore t!e pennD press, most o& a neAspaperEs economic support came &rom QQQ'revenue' -!e large circulation o& t!e pennD press made QQQ'realise t!at t!eD could reac! a large segment o& 96

Focus on Communication potential QQQ'bD purc!asing space' .oreover, t!e QQQ'o& t!e popular papers cut across political QQQ'and social QQQ'lines, t!erebD assuring a QQQ'advertiser o& a broadlD based audience' (s a result, advertisers Aere greatlD attracted to t!is neA QQQ'and t!e QQQ'neAspapers relied signi&icantlD more on advertising revenues t!an did t!eir predecessors' #he missing words are the following$ distribution, buDers, potential, mass, pennD, subscription, class, medium, readers!ip, tec!niIues, advertisers, neAspapers, neAs, partD, *ournalism' b' (ppearing Ait! t!e consolidation trend and en*oDing a s!ort but livelD reign Aas QQQ'*ournalism' (t t!e end o& 4orld 4ar #, t!e Pnited 2tates &ound itsel& &acing a decade o& prosperitD, t!e QQQ'tAenties' -!e radio, HollDAood, t!e airplane, pro!ibition and (l Capone Aere all QQQ't!at captured national attention' #t Aas per!aps inevitable t!at QQQ'Aould re&lect t!e times' -!e papers t!at best e%empli&ied *azz *ournalism all sprang up in BeA-Jor0 betAeen +?+? and +?/?) all Aere c!aracterised bD tAo &eatures, t!eD Aere QQQ', printed on a page t!at Aas about one !al& t!e size o& a normal neAspaper page) t!eD Aere all ric!lD illustrated Ait! QQQ'' -!e BeA-Jor0 ailD BeAs !ad a sloA start but bD +?/6 QQQ'on' #ts tabloid size Aas easier &or t!e people to QQQ'A!ile reading on buses and QQQ') it abounded Ait! p!otos and QQQ') Ariting stDle Aas simple and QQQ'' -!e LBeAsM also blended a large portion o& QQQ' Ait! its neAs' Comic QQQ', gossip QQQ', advice to t!e lovers, QQQ' and sports Aere given large c!un0s o& space' #he missing words are the following$ !oroscopes, roaring, subAaDs, gossip, *azz, tabloids, caug!t, !andle, topics, p!otograp!s, cartoons, neAspapers, strips, s!ort, entertainment' D1. #ranslate into English' using the -erbs to earn' to gain and to win$ a' b' c' d' e' &' g' !' i' *' Ct ctigi la &irma aceeaG Ctig bine, are o cas mare i o main &rumoas' Bu ctigi nimic dac nu spui adevrul' ( ctigat premiul nti la concursul de in&ormatic' C un tip interesant, a ctigat &aim internaional cu invenia lui' #-a ctigat ncrederea, a anga*at-o ca secretar particular' -rebuie s &acem ceva s ctigm timp' Finala a &ost ctigat la puncte' Ctigtorii vor primi cte un bilet de cltorie gratuit' i ctig e%istena cum poate, nu se descurc grozav'

Remember the following phrases$ to earn good moneDKsmall salarD, to earn a living, to gain timeKrespectKrecognitionKnot!ing bD doing somet!ing, to Ain a contestKa seatK&ameKt!e Aooden spoon'

99

Focus on Communication

VI. T8E RADIO AND T8E TELEVISION


A. Se rc)in" +$r :$/ 7& all t!e t!ings Dou do in li&e, &eA are more important t!an getting a *ob' 4!et!er it involves Dour &irst *ob or one &urt!er doAn Dour career pat!, *ob see0ing is directlD related to Dour success and Dour !appiness' #t is vital t!at Dou conduct t!e *ob searc! properlD, t!at Dou prepare AiselD and care&ullD and proceed diligentlD' Jou can begin Dour *ob searc! long be&ore Dou are readD to &ind emploDment, building relations!ips Ait! people A!o could !elp Dou &ind Aor0 A!en Dou need it' 2uc! persons include classmates, pro&essors and business people' 4!en Dou are readD to searc! &or Dour career *ob, Dou s!ould begin t!e e&&ort bD analDsing Doursel&, Dour potential and abilities, Dour desires and ideals and t!e real opportunities on t!e mar0et' Jou s!ould ta0e into account education, personal Iualities and special Iuali&ications, but in t!e same time t!e reIuirements o& t!e possible emploDers' -!e stages &rom pic0ing up a desired position to getting a certain *ob comprise Ariting t!e application letter "as Ae described it in t!e previous course$ and eventuallD completing t!e application &orm, Ariting t!e Curriculum 5itae and sustaining t!e intervieA' #& Dour sel&-analDsis and Dour be!aviour during t!e stages Aere Aell establis!ed and Aell prepared, t!en Dou !ave received t!e *ob Dou Aere loo0ing &or' #he following steps form an ideal chain in the process of applying for a !ob. 0hich of them do you think you could skip in reality7 Jou identi&D A!at Dou do Aell and en*oD doing Jou read an advertisement &or a *ob t!at interests Dou Jou netAor0, i'e' Dou ma0e suitable contacts in Dour &ield o& interest

Jou Arite an application &orm and a *ob-speci&ication "&uller details o& t!e post$ Jou complete an application &orm, Arite an application letter and a C'5' Jou receive a letter saDing t!at Dou !ave been s!ortlisted, i'e' selected &or intervieA Jou attend t!e intervieA Jou receive a letter o&&ering Dou a *ob Jou Arite a letter accepting t!e o&&er o& a *ob or declining t!e *ob Jou receive a letter telling Dou t!e position !as been &illed Jou receive a letter saDing t!at Dou !ave not been s!ortlisted, i'e' Dou !ave not been invited &or intervieA

9:

Focus on Communication

A1. 2urriculum Citae is an essential part of your !ob hunting. #here are many ways of writing it and on the following pages you will disco-er two of them. #he first one is -ery detailed and it describes your abilities and training widely' but it is not -ery comfortable for the future employer as he could ha-e to read many 2Cs in a short period of time and he would need synthetic presentations. #he second one is -ery easily readable and systematic' but maybe it does not always tell all the important things about you. CURRICULUM VITAE #' PCR27B(8 (-( 2urname, QQQ First name, QQQ ate and place o& birt!, QQQ (ddress, QQQ Civil status, singleKmarriedKdivorcedKAidoA"-er$ ##' C PC(-#7B - +?Q - # graduated t!e QQQ Hig!sc!ool in QQQ - +?Q, ;une - # graduated t!e QQQ FacultD at t!e QQQPniversitD inQQQ, QQQ specialtD, Ait! a &inal rate o& Q[' -!e courses # attended at t!e above-mentioned &acultD included, QQQ - in t!e Dear +?Q # graduated t!e .aster courses organised bD t!e QQQFacultD at t!e QQQ PniversitD in QQQ, specialtD QQQ -!e courses included, QQQ - in +?Q "mont!$ # attended a course in QQQ about QQQ and # received a diploma in QQQ ###' PR7FC22#7B(8 C_PCR#CBCC

9<

Focus on Communication - +?Q, "mont!$-+?Q, "mont!$ - # Aor0ed, as a QQQ "position$, at QQQ"institution$' .D responsibilities included, - QQQ - QQQ - QQQ"mont!$+?Q-present - trans&erred, a&ter a contest, at QQQ "institution$, A!ere # am Aor0ing as QQQ' .D responsibilities include, - QQQ - QQQ #5' F7RC#>B 8(B>P(>C2 - Cnglis! - &luent, bot! in oral and Aritten communication - Frenc! - medium level, oral and Aritten 5' C7.PP-CR2 - 0noAledge o& operation in 4indoAs, Borton Commander, 4ord &or 4indoAs, C%cel, 4ord Per&ect - 0noAledge o& operation in #nternet 5#' #B-CRC2-2 - QQQ - QQQ 5##' H7FF#C2 - QQQ - QQQ 5###' RCFCRCBCC2 (vailable on reIuest' CURRICULUM VITAE FamilD name, QQQ First names, QQQ ate o& birt!, QQQ BationalitD and Passport Bo, R7.(B#(B - QQQ Civil status, QQQ Contact address, QQQ tel', O6@ QQQ <' Cducation, *nstitution ;aculty of QQQ Date$ from 4monthIyear5$ >ctober 1O" to 4monthIyear5 >ctober 1O" Degree4s5 or Diploma4s5$ Fac!elor o& (rts *nstitution ;aculty of QQQ Date$ from 4monthIyear5$ >ctober 1O" to 4monthIyear5 >ctober 1O" Degree4s5 or Diploma4s5$ .aster o& (rts in QQQ *nstitution <ni-ersity of QQQ - ;aculty of QQQ Date$ from 4monthIyear5$ >ctober 1O" to 4monthIyear5 )ay 1O" Degree4s5 or Diploma4s5$ :ostBgraduate in """ +' /' 3' 6' 9' :' 9=

Focus on Communication =' 8anguage s0ills, ".ar0 + to 9 &or competence$ ,anguage Reading +peaking 0riting Romanian .ot!er tongue Cnglis! 9 9 9 Frenc! 9 6 3 ?' .embers!ip o& pro&essional bodies, - QQQ +@' 7t!er s0ills, computer literate ++' Present position, QQQ +/' Jears Ait!in t!e &irm, QQQ +3' TeD Iuali&ications, - QQQ +6' Pro&essional C%perience Record, Date$ from >ctober 1O" 4monthIyear5 Aune 1O" to 4monthIyear5 ,ocation QQQ' Romania 2ompany QQQ :osition QQQ Description QQQ "A!at Dour tas0s are$ +9' 7t!ers, - dDnamic, pro-active - good communicationKorganisational s0ills A2. *nter-iew )yths. 6ere are some assumptions about !ob inter-iews' some correct' some not. Decide which of them are real tips for success in an inter-iew situation. +' a' 4!ile Aaiting in t!e o&&ice, Dou s!ould *ust sit and Aait to be called' b' # can predict and prepare &or =@[ o& t!e Iuestions t!e intervieAer Aill as0 me' Preparation Aill !elp me do Aell' c' #& t!e intervieAer as0s me i& # !ave anD negative points or Aea0nesses # s!ould indicate t!at # !ave none' d' #t is per&ectlD acceptable to call t!e emploDer Ait!in tAo Aee0s o& submitting mD *ob application materials to as0 A!en # mig!t e%pect to !ear about t!e &inal decision' -!eD o&ten &ail to do t!at' e' -!e most important time o& t!e intervieA is t!e last &ive minutes, A!en # discuss salarD, as0 about !iring decision and close t!e intervieA' &' # s!ould 0eep mD ansAers as s!ort as possible, so t!e intervieAer Aill !ave time to as0 more Iuestions' g' # can also as0 Iuestions regarding t!e organisation o& t!e companD' !' # s!ould saD t!at # am loo0ing &or a *ob A!ic! can o&&er me greater c!allenge and more opportunities &or using mD s0ills' i' .ost emploDers issue invitations to intervieA bD p!one'

9?

Focus on Communication /' a' .D *ob intervieA begins as soon as # Aal0 t!roug! t!e o&&ice door' (s # mig!t be under observation all t!e time, # could as0 t!e secretarD some &riendlD Iuestions about t!e organisation, in case t!eD as0 !er opinion about me' b' -!e intervieAer is t!e onlD one A!o can as0 Iuestions' c' Fe tact&ul, bD turning a possible negative situation into a positive one' For e%ample, L# tend to neglect mD &amilD because # o&ten Aor0 too late'M d' # s!ould mind !oA # loo0 and sit' 4!at t!e intervieAer t!in0s about me in t!e &irst minutes Aill set t!e tone o& t!e intervieA' e' # cannot prepare &or an intervieA because, # do not 0noA i& # Aill get an intervieA) # do not 0noA A!at t!e intervieAer Aill as0) actuallD, once # am invited to an intervieA, # almost !ave a *ob' &' 7nce # submit mD application papers &or t!e *ob, t!e proper t!ing to do is to Aait until # !ear &rom t!e emploDer' g' -!e intervieAer is loo0ing &or t!oug!t&ul ansAers t!at indicate some dept! on mD part' 2o # s!ould go &rom general responses to speci&ics t!at indicate mD dept! o& 0noAledge and interest' !' #& as0ed A!D # am leaving mD *ob, # s!ould criticise mD colleagues or saD # &ind mD present Aor0 boring and underpaid' i' #nvitations to intervieAs normallD come bD letter or telegram' A(. Read and translate the following inter-iew' paying attention to the things people say to each other in this official situation. #hen try to simulate your answers to the questions comprised in the inter-iew. Do you think your answers could be firmer and better prepared7 0hy do you think the inter-iewers liked the fellow and' e-en though he seemed hesitating sometimes' in the end they were about to decide that he was the proper person for the !ob7 0hat do you think a possible employer would appreciate the most in your attitude7 0hich quality would you like to stress as being your dominant feature7 0hy7 2ecretarD, 7!, .r' ;o!n Pilgrim, Aould Dou go in noA, pleaseG ;o!n P', 7!, meG Jes, rig!t' .r' Ric!, Jou are .r' Pilgrim, arenEt DouG ;o!n P', Jes, t!atEs rig!t' .r' Ric!, 4ell, do sit doAn' .D name is Ric!, # am t!e assistant to t!e managing director) t!ese tAo gentlemen are .r' Hard, t!e Personnel .anager and .r' Frost, one o& our e%ecutives' BoA, .r' Pilgrim, # Aould li0e Dou to tell us A!at is it t!at ma0es Dou Aant to come and Aor0 Ait! us' ;o!n P', 4ell, # !ave alAaDs Aanted to Aor0 in a television station and #Eve noticed t!at Dours is one o& t!e best at t!e moment Q .r' Ric!, JesG ;o!n P', 4ell, # 0noA t!at Dour tal0s!oAs and entertainment programmes are verD pro&essionallD accomplis!ed and t!at Dou !ave verD s0illed emploDees A!o are also able to Aor0 in teams' .r' Ric!, 4ell, it is true, but t!ere are manD aspects o& a *ob in television t!at Dou !ave not considered Det' Fut, i& Dou did come and Aor0 &or us, DouEd soon learn about t!em' #Em sure, .r' Hard, t!at DouEve got a lot o& t!ings Dou Aant to as0 .r' Pilgrim' .r' Hard, Jes, # Aanted to as0 some Iuestions about Doursel& t!at donEt come out clearlD in Dour application' 4!D did Dou Aait so long be&ore deciding to &urt!er Dour education a&ter Dou le&t sc!oolG :@

Focus on Communication ;o!n P', 4ell, # Aas s!ort o& con&idence, reallD' #t Aas not until later t!at # t!oug!t to mDsel&, Aell, i& ot!ers can get on, A!D s!ouldnEt #G .r' Frost, >ood &or DouN Jou didnEt reallD li0e to Aor0 in a librarDG ;o!n P', #t Aas Iuite pleasant, but not verD demanding' -!en Q # t!oug!t o& becoming a public communicator, # Aent to a &acultD and !ere # am' .r' Frost, JouEd !ave to do some prettD basic *obs !ere, Dou 0noA, i& Ae accepted Dou as a trainee' ;o!n P', Jes, but t!at Aould be di&&erent' -!en #Ed 0noA A!ere # Aas going, .r' Hard, 4ell, .r' Pilgrim, t!atEs all &or t!e time being' Could Dou Aait outside &or a bit, pleaseG 4eEll call Dou in again later' .r' Hard, 4ell, gentlemen, A!at do Dou t!in0G .r' Frost, 4ell, # li0ed t!e c!ap, # t!in0 !e 0noAs A!at !eEs a&ter noA, #Ed recommend ta0ing !im on and giving !im a trD' A1. #ranslate and bear in mind the following words and phrases. #ry to make sentences with them$ 0hat sort of !obs do you know G -!ere are &ull-time *obs, part-time *obs, !ig!-paid *obs, loA-paid *obs, attractive *obs, dull *obs, clerical *obs, odd *obs, ris0D *obs, !umble *obs, dirtD *obs' 0hen applying for a !ob' what will you ha-e to do G # !ave to &ill in an application &orm, send in Iuali&ication documents, sustain a test, undergo probation o& personal abilities, e%amine a *ob description, sustain an intervieA and undergo medical e%amination' 0hat should the employee information system contain G #t s!ould contain controls to monitor leave and absenteism, c!ec0s to ensure paD increases, decreases and promotions, revieA o& *ob descriptions, applications and intervieA notes, medical !istorD and records, time s!eets, attendance records "sic0 time, vacation, overtime$, emploDment !istorD "promotions, trans&ers, grievances$' 0. M$d ! Ver/# 31. )odal -erbs express the attitude of the speaker in what concerns the process of communication in progress' in de-elopment' the action being considered possible' probable' obligatory' desirable' etc. 4example$ *t might rain later. +Bar putea sE plouE mai tMr/iu5. #here are two types of modal -erbs in English, a' n$ti$n ! ver/# e3're##in" % nner "Aant, Ais!, order, oblige, advise, intend, mean, pre&er, etc'$ A!ic! act li0e normal verbs "He Aants to see t!e plaD' onEt oblige !im to do t!is'$ b' de+ective %$d ! ver/# "can, could, maD, mig!t, must, !ave to, s!ould, oug!t to, Aould, s!all, Aill, need, dare) e'g' He can plaD t!e piano$, A!ic! also e%press manner, but &ormallD !ave certain c!aracteristics, +' t)e7 re de+ective> t) t i# t)e7 ! c1 cert in ver/ ! +$r%# ' (ccordinglD, t!eD can not be used at all t!e moods and tenses, most o& t!em !aving onlD indicative, present and past tense "can 1 present tense, could 1 past tense) maD 1 present tense, mig!t 1 past tense$' 2ome o& t!em !ave onlD indicative, present tense "must$' -!at is A!D t!eD !ave eIuivalents to e%press t!e ot!er moods and tenses "can 1 to be able to) maD 1 to be alloAedKpermitted to) must 1 to !ave to$' /' t)e7 d$ n$t receive &#A?e# t t)e t)ird 'er#$n #in"u! r "e%ample, He must see t!is plaD$' :+

Focus on Communication 3' t)e7 +$r% t)e interr$" tive nd ne" tive *it)$ut t)e id $+ u3i!i r7 ver/# , in t!e stDle o& au%iliarD verbs "e%ample, .ust Dou do t!isG 2!e cannot spea0 Cnglis!$' 6' t)e7 re +$!!$*ed /7 t)e #)$rt in+initive $+ t)e n$ti$n ! ver/# 5e3ce't $u")t t$6. 5erb C n .eanings - physical or intellectual ability B permission B possibility B polite request B abilities in the past B more polite request B requiring or granting permission B past tense of may B more polite request B obligation B moral obligation B ad-ice B obligation or duty 4synonym of should5 B polite request B intentionality 4the strong will of another person than the sub!ect imposed on the sub!ect5 B intentionality 4the strong will of the sub!ect imposed on the others5 B necessity B ha-ing the courage to do something C%amples # can s0i noA, #Eve learnt it' Can # borroA Dour umbrellaG Jou can s0i, t!ere is enoug! snoA' Can Dou Aait a littleG # could s0i A!en # Aas a 0id' Could Dou come Ait! meG .aD # go outG Bo, Dou maD not' He said !e mig!t come' .ig!t # use Dour p!oneG # must staD in bed, #Eve got &lu' Jou s!ould meet !im, !e is Dour &riend' Jou s!ould not do t!is' Jou oug!t to &inis! t!e boo0 be&ore going on !olidaD' 4ould Dou do me a &avourG "# saD$ Dou s!all &inis! Dour studiesN # Aill do t!is i& # Aant toN 4!D need s!e staD !ome &or t!e !olidaDsG HoA dare Dou contradict meG

C$u!d M 7 Mi")t Mu#t S)$u!d Ou")t t$ .$u!d S) !! .i!! Need D re

(ll t!e de&ective modal verbs !ave besides t!e proper meaning anot!er one A!ic! could be possibility' probability' certainty' -!e strongest one &rom t!is point o& vieA is %u#t "e%ample, He !as le&t an !our ago, so !e must be at !ome noA$, t!en t!ere &olloA #) !!, *i!!, #)$u!d, *$u!d, c n, c$u!d, % 7, %i")t' .ig!t is t!e most uncertain, improbable "e%ample, # mig!t come Ait! Dou tomorroA, but # donEt t!in0 so$' 32. Do the following exercises$

:/

Focus on Communication a. ;ill in the blanks with modal -erbs$ +' (s t!e ot!ers insist on it Dou QQQas t!eD saD' /' Jou QQQgo to Predeal, Dou loo0 verD tired' 3' LJou QQQ&inis! Dour Aor0 be&ore going on !olidaDM' L# 0noA #QQQM' 6' # QQQ ta0e t!ese pills t!ree times a daD' 9' Jou QQQsmo0e cigars, t!eD Aill ruin Dour !ealt!' :' # Aant to get t!inner' 4!at QQQ# doG Jou QQQsee a doctor about it' <' Jou QQQ stop drin0ing, or else Dou Aill get drun0' =' #& Dou QQQ0indlD Aait !ere, #Wll loo0 &or !im' ?' # e%pected !im to be reasonable, but !e QQQlistened to me' b. Rewrite the following sentences beginning with 86e said9' 86e didn&t know9$ +' 4!at Aill ;o!n do about itG /' Jou can go t!ere i& Dou trD' 3' .aD # leave t!e room noAG 6' 4ill Dou come to mD place tomorroAG 9' # must see !im immediatelD' :' Jou neednEt do suc! a bad t!ing' <' Can # come Ait! DouG =' Jou must read t!is boo0' ?' Jou s!all go to t!e universitD' +@' .ust # attend t!e meetingG 3(. #ranslate into English$ a' +' .ai bine ai sta acas pn te simi mai bine' /' -recuse de miezul nopii i am propus s plecm, dar el nici nu voia s aud' 3' ( pre&era s nu-i spun ce tiu despre el' 6' Fereastra nu se desc!ide, trebuie s o repari' 9' (r trebui s te duci la concert, de ce s-l pierziG :' 2 rspund la tele&onG <' mi pare ru, nu s-ar &i cuvenit s spun asta' =' Bu ndrzni s le povesteac prietenilor ntmplarea de team s nu rd de el' ?' -rebuie s m duc acolo c!iar acumG Bu, nu este nevoie' +@' Cram sigur c prietenul meu nu va avea cura*ul s-mi spun ce gndete' b' 2tau deseori pe un scaun n crciuma mea pre&erat, s beau un pa!ar de bere i s citesc ziarul de sear' (bia d cu oc!ii de mine, cnd -om i trage scaunul lng al meu i ncepe, LPoate am dreptate, sau poate greescM, spune el, Ldar e un lucru pe care trebuie s-l admit, Clena e sigur cea mai drgu &at din lumeNM Rareori m iart de povara de a-l asculta' Cteodat mi vine s-i zic, LHei, btrne, mai curnd mi-a citi ziarul dect s te ascultM, dar de obicei nu m las inima s-i spun' mi zic doar mie, LC!iar trebuie s vorbeasc att de mult despre eaG e ce uit c e%ist o limit a drepturilor prieteniei i c prietenii nu ar trebui s devin att de groaznic de plicticoiG (r trebui s e%iste o lege mpotriva acestui lucru' Ct despre mine, dac stau s l ascult de &iecare dat cnd m duc la crcium, nu-mi rmne dect un singur lucru de &cut, s-mi sc!imb crciuma' Ui apoi nici nu m intereseaz &rumuseea Clenei' 2igur, nu ndrznesc s-i spun toate astea lui -om' 31. #ranslate the following into Romanian$ aug!ter, #Em getting c!illed to t!e bone 1 A!at can FreddD be doing all t!is timeG !e !as been gone tAentD minutes' .ot!er, Bot so long' Fut !e oug!t to !ave got us a cab bD t!is time' 4e must !ave a cab' 4e canEt stand !ere until !al& past eleven' #tEs too bad' , #& FreddD !ad a bit o& gumption, !e could get us a cab at t!e t!eatre door' ., 4!at could !e !ave done, poor boDG , 7t!er people got cabs' 4!D couldnEt !eG "FreddD rus!es in out o& t!e rain$' , 4ell, !avenEt Dou got a cabG :3

Focus on Communication FreddD , -!ere isnEt one to be !ad &or love or moneD' ., 7!, FreddD, t!ere must be one' Jou canEt !ave tried' F, -!e rain Aas so sudden, everDbodD !ad to ta0e a cab' ., Jou reallD are verD !elpless, FreddD, go again' F, #Ell simplD get soa0ed &or not!ing' , (nd A!at about usG (re Ae to staD !ere all nig!t Ait! ne%t to not!ing onG ">eorge Fernard 2!oA, :ygmalion$ C. 0r$ dc #tin" is a ma*or industrD in most nations, and popular entertainment, neAs and educational programmes are transmitted directlD into peopleEs !omes' Fecause it represents a critical national resource &or communicating in&ormation and culture, and because t!e electromagnetic spectrum alloAs &or onlD a limited number o& broadcast stations, virtuallD all nations regulate t!eir broadcasting Ait!in t!eir borders' .anD nations operate t!eir broadcasting sDstems t!roug! a ministry of communications' #n some countries A!ere it is believed t!at broadcasting is an independent voice, ta% revenues support a public broadcasting authority t!at is independent o& t!e government' 7t!er countries simplD license pri-ate broadcasters A!o ma0e t!eir pro&its bD selling advertising time, or t!eD permit a mi%ed sDstem o& commercial and publicitD supported stations' .ass communication, mass media, eit!er Aritten or electronic, mar0eting and advertisement, image building, public relations are rules o& t!e game being called L% r1et ec$n$%7M or Lcu#t$%er?$riented ec$n$%7M, A!ic! is, at its turn, part o& 4estern Curope and (merican capitalist civilisation noAadaDs' 2o t!at Ae must t!in0 o& t!em, Ae must *udge t!em and analDse t!em in t!e conte%t o& contemporarD societies'

21. Answer the following questions$ a' 4!at do Dou pre&er, radio or televisionG 4!DG 4!ic! are t!e main &eatures o& eac! o& t!emG b' #& Dou !ad moneD, A!at Aould Dou &oundG ( radio station or a television stationG 4!ic! one could bring Dou more moneD bac0G 4!DG c' 4!ic! radio programme do Dou li0eG 4!at is it aboutG d' 4!ic! television programme do Dou li0eG #s it &or in&ormation or entertainmentG e' o Dou t!in0 Romanian radio and television programmes can be compared Ait! t!e ones in &oreign countriesG 4!DG &' #& Dou Aere t!e general director o& a neA-born television station, !oA Aould Dou e%plain, at t!e prompting press con&erence, t!e need &or a neA televisionG 4!ic! Aould be t!e target audienceG g' 4!at 0ind o& programme Aould Dou li0e to be t!e s!oAman o&G 4!DG !' 4!ic! do Dou t!in0 is t!e most in&ormative, radio or televisionG Fut t!e most entertainingG Fut t!e most educativeG i' o Dou t!in0 at t!e moment t!e Romanian legislation is developed enoug! to alloA a &ree mar0et o& radio and television stations, Ait! an open competitionG o Dou t!in0 mar0et is &ull noA or t!ere are certain needs o& t!e people A!ic! are not &ul&illedG *' HoA muc! is Dour li&e in&luenced bD t!e boom o& in&ormation t!roug! electronic mediaG

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Focus on Communication 22. Read and translate the following text' remember the new words' specific for this field' and comment upon the differences and resemblance between the two media. 2ompare this description with the one in the pre-ious course' concerning newspapers and maga/ines. 0rite an essay about the importance of written and electronic media in the last century. R di$ is everDA!ere, in t!e bedrooms, in 0itc!ens, in cars, in o&&ices, on citD streets, on beac!es, at ball games' #t is ubiquitous' -!ere are local radio stations, A!ic! operate in cities, toAns and villages across t!e countries, and national radio stations' Programming &or stations is provided bD networks and bD programme syndication companies, t!e distinction betAeen t!em being t!at all stations on a net carrD t!e net programme at t!e same time, A!ile sDndicated programming is carried at di&&erent times bD di&&erent stations' Radio stations spea0 in two -oices' 2tations are eit!er A) or ;)' A) stands &or amplitude modulation, one AaD o& transmitting a radio Aave, and ;) stands &or frequency modulation, anot!er &orm o& transmission' (ll p!Dsical &actors being eIual, radio signals sent bD (. travel &art!er, especiallD at nig!t, t!an signals sent bD F.' -!is is because (. radio Aaves bounce o&& a laDer o& t!e eart!Es atmosp!ere called t!e ionosp!ere and bac0 to t!e ground' AM #t ti$n# are classi&ied bD channels, and t!ere are three possible channels, c!e r "Ait! a single dominant station t!at is designed to provide service over a Aide area$, re"i$n ! "s!ared bD manD stations t!at serve &airlD large areas$ and !$c ! "s!ared bD large numbers o& stations t!at broadcast onlD &or t!eir local communities$' Per!aps t!e most meaning&ul AaD Ae can organise radio stations is according to t!eir format, a tDpe o& consistent programming designed to appeal to a certain segment o& t!e audience' T)e %u#ic +$r% t is t!e largest categorD and it includes manD subdivisions and variations, li0e adults, contemporary 4A25 and contemporary hit radio 426R5' T)e t !1 +$r% t attracts listeners in t!e t!irtD-&ive-to-si%tD-&ive-Dears-old age group' Common tDpes o& programmes t!at appear on stations using t!e tal0 &ormat are inter-iew shows &eaturing Aell-0noAn guests, ad-ice shows, callBin shows' T)e ne*# +$r% t emp!asises in&ormation' %ational' regional and local news reports are broadcast periodicallD t!roug!out t!e daD, Ait! sports' weather' editorials' public affair programmes' T)e de' rt%ent ! #tructure $+ r di$ #t ti$n varies according to its size' (t t!e top t!ere i# "ener ! % n "er, A!o coordinates four departments, # !e#, 'r$"r %%e#, ne*# and en"ineerin"' T)e # !e# de' rt%ent is run bD a sales manager, t)e 'r$"r %%e de' rt%ent is !eaded bD a programme director and comprises announcers' production and the music library, in t)e ne*# de' rt%ent t!ere are newscasters, reporters and writers under t!e guidance o& a news director and in t)e en"ineerin" de' rt%ent the chief engineer conducts the staff engineers and the maintenance personnel' Radio programmes are put toget!er bD the station&s programme director A!o laDs out the format wheel 4or the format clock5 , A!ic! is simplD a pie chart o& an !our divided into segments representing di&&erent programme elements' Radio stations earn t!eir moneD bD selling dverti#in" ti%e' -!e amount t!at a radio station c!arges &or time is included in its r te c rd' 8i0e t!e television industrD, t!e radio industrD !as three different sources of income &rom t!e sales o& commercial time' -!e &irst comes &rom the sales of spots on network programmes to national ad-ertisers trying to reach a broad market , t!e second is the sale of time on local stations to ad-ertisers who wish to reach a specific region and t!e t!ird is ad-ertising purchased by local establishments that want their commercials to be heard only in the immediate community' #n t!e case o& television, people !ave manD c!oices, &rom cable to independent stations, &rom satellite transmissions to superstations' -!ere are c$%%erci ! te!evi#i$n #7#tems, consisting in all t!ose local stations A!ose income is derived &rom selling time on t!eir &acilities to t!e advertisers, :9

Focus on Communication and n$nc$%%erci ! #7#te%#, consisting o& t!ose stations A!ose income is derived &rom sources ot!er t!an t!e sale o& advertising time' (s &or t!e radio, t!ere are three sources of production and programming, !$c !, #7ndic ted and net*$r1' 2ontractual arrangements ta0e di&&erent &orms' #n #tr i")t c #) de !, t!e station paDs a &ee &or t!e rig!t to s!oA t!e programme a speci&ied number o& times and retains t!e rig!ts to sell all t!e commercial spots available in t!e programme' #n c #) '!u# / rter de !, t!e station paDs a reduced &ee &or t!e programme but gives up some commercial spots to t!e sDndication companD, A!ic!, in turn, sells t!e spots to t!e national advertisers' #n #tr i")t / rter rr n"e%ent, no moneD c!anges !ands but t!e sDndicator 0eeps more commercial minutes to sell nationallD, leaving &eAer spots &or t!e local station to sell' 7ne important di&&erence betAeen -5 stations is a technical one' 2ome -5 stations are licensed to broadcast in t!e verD !ig! &reIuencD "V8F$ band o& t!e electromagnetic spectrum, ot!ers broadcast in t!e ultra-!ig! &reIuencD "U8F$ part o& t!e spectrum' 5HF stations !ave a signal t!at covers greater distances t!an PHF sDstems' Regarding the organisation, at t!e top o& t!e c!art is t)e "ener ! % n "er, t!e person ultimatelD responsible &or all station activities' -!e rest o& t!e sta&& is divided into fi-e different compartments' T)e # !e# de' rt%ent is responsible &or selling time to local and national advertisers, sc!eduling ads and sending bills to customers' .aintaining all t!e tec!nical eIuipment is t!e responsibilitD o& t)e en"ineerin" de' rt%ent' T)e 'r$ducti$n de' rt%ent puts toget!er locallD produced programming, comprising producers, directors, camerapersons' artists and announcers' T)e ne*# de' rt%ent includes the news director, anchorpeople, reporters and writers responsible &or t!e stationEs neAscasts' T)e d%ini#tr tive de' rt%ent aids t!e station manager in running t!e station' Pnder t!is umbrella are included legal counsel, secretarial help, personnel' accounting, and bookkeeping subsidiaries' Producing television programmes ranges &rom t!e incrediblD simple 1 tAo c!airs placed in &ront o& a camera &or an intervieA s!oA 1 to t!e incrediblD comple% 1 million o& dollars and !undred o& people' (nD!oA, everDt!ing &unctions according to #cri't, a planning o& t!e storD, t!e Aor0 o& t!e reporters A!o Arite t)e c$'7 and o& t!e editors A!o prepare t)e vide$t 'e #e"%ent#' 7ne important consideration is udience +!$*, A!ic! is calculated &rom one period o& transmission to t!e ne%t' .ind&ul to t!is, programmers tend to sc!edule similar programmes bac0 to bac0 so as not to interrupt t!e &loA "&or e%ample, A!en one television series is &inis!ed, it is &olloAed bD anot!er o& t!e same 0ind$' (not!er principle could be counterprogramming, airing a programme designed to appeal to a di&&erent segment o& t!e audience t!an t!ose on competing stations "&or e%ample transmitting a s!oA &or Aomen A!ile t!e ot!er stations transmit sports &or men$' Radio and television !ave been t!e most important communication devices t!is centurD' Cven t!oug! radio !as some!oA decreased because o& t!e prevalence o& television and even t!oug! t!ere !ave appeared manD ot!er modern and &ast means o& communication during t!is centurD, li0e -ideoplayers' *nternet' EBmail, people still mostlD listen to t!e radio and Aatc! -5 A!en t!eD Aant to 0eep in&ormed Ait! t!e !ottest neAs, A!en t!eD desire to be entertained and &orget about t!eir dailD problems and even A!en t!eD t!in0 t!eD !ave not!ing else to do or are too tired to do somet!ing else' 4e !ave lived &or !al& a centurD in a societD o& radio transmissions, Ae are noA living in a societD o& television, Ait! Peg FundD as t!e most important c!aracter' 4!at is going to be ne%t, &or t!e /+st centurDG 2(. #ranslate into English and comment upon the following text$

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Focus on Communication 2uscitate de televiziune, controversele asupra e&ectelor mediilor audiovizuale au continuat s agite spiritele' Pnele persoane au rmas obsedate de teama c televiziunea, prin impactul direct i masiv al mesa*elor, amalgameaz sistemele de valori i criteriile aprecierilor estetice, ducnd la degradarea vieii culturale, iar pe de alt parte, c aceasta ndeplinete mai curnd o &uncie conservatoare, n sensul c este utilizat de telespectator pentru a-i con&irma opiniile i valorile e%istente mai curnd dect pentru a le sc!imba' -eleviziunea, se subliniaz adeseori, are e&ecte puternice, dar acioneaz preponderent n direcia conservrii atitudinilor i valorilor dominante ale sistemului' 21 .#ranslate the following text and then summarise it in your own words' paying attention to the succession of stages in the e-olution of the electronic media. Do you agree with the sharing7 2an you suggest your own sharing7 Historians identi&D &our stages in t!e evolution o& broadcast programming' -!e &irst covers t!e debut o& commercial radio in t!e +?/@s' Having no precedents, e%periments and entrepreneurs Aere unsure about A!at 0inds o& programmes people Aould li0e to !ear' Radio attracted t!ousands o& personalities &rom manD &ields' Commercials Aere brie& and discrete' -!e second period is called Lt!e golden age o& radioM, beginning Ait! +?/=' (t t!e time, t!e airAaves Aere &illed Ait! action and adventure, Ait! vaudeville comedD, and t!e &irst entertainers appeared' -!e t!ird stage o& programming lasted &rom +?69 until t!e earlD +?9@s, A!en television began its e%plosive groAt!' Pnli0e t!at o& radio, t!e debut o& television Aas &ree &rom con&usion about A!at constituted e&&ective programming' -elevision Aas perceived as Lradio Ait! picturesM and t!e structure o& t!e industrD Aas modelled on t!ose o& radio) per&ormers and e%ecutives Aere draAn &rom radio' (t t!e beginning o& t!e &ourt! stage, t!e golden age o& television, t!e reconstituted radio programmes dominated t!e television ratings' -!e varietD s!oA Aas t!e most popular programme, t!en t!e action-adventure programmes too0 over' 2H. Accomplish a table with the best' the most well known radio and tele-ision stations in Romania. <se as a model the table of the most famous international broadcasters$ T)e V$ice $+ A%eric , noA Ait! its &i&t! decade o& operation, broadcasts neAs, editorials, &eatures and music in more t!an &ortD languages' -!e VOA estimates t!at more t!an +/@ million people in Central and Castern Curope listen to t!eir programmes T)e .$r!d Service $+ 0riti#) 0r$ dc #tin" C$r'$r ti$n 500C6 !as a AorldAide reputation &or accurate and impartial neAscasts because, at least, it is independent o& government oAners!ip' (long Ait! t!e neAs, t!e FFC also carries an impressive line-up o& music, drama, comedD, sports and lig!t &eatures, Deut#c)e .e!!e 5D.6 , B2er% n . veC, broadcasts about =@@ !ours per Aee0 in /: languages' 4 transmitters are located in >ermanD, (&rica and (sia'

D. V$c /u! r7 'r ctice D1. ;ind in the dictionary as many names of professions and trades you know and then make sentences with them. #ry to group these !obs in groups so that they should refer to the same group of acti-ities. Describe which part of the field each word co-ers. D2. ;ill in the blanks$

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Focus on Communication .otion pictures and Q Q Q are possible because o& tAoQ Q Q o& t!e !uman perceptional sDstem, t!e p!i p!enomenon and t!e persistence o& Q Q Q-!e p!i p!enomenon re&ers to A!at !appens A!en a person sees one lig!tQ Q Qgo out A!ile anot!er one close to t!e original is illuminated' -o our eDes, it loo0s li0e t!e lig!t is actuallDQ Q Q &rom one source to anot!er' #n persistence o& vision, our eDes continue to see an image &or a Q Q Q second a&ter t!e image !as actuallD disappeared &rom vieA' #hese are the missing words$ Iuir0, source, television, split, vision, moving D(. Remember the following words and phrases. #ry to make sentences with them' bearing in mind the most suitable contexts for them$ Electronic media, radio, Aireless set, tape-recorder, cassette recorder, record plaDer, transistor, Aal0ie-tal0ie, !i-&iKstereo eIuipment' 0a-e lengths, s!ort, medium, long, ultra-s!ort, 5HF' Acti-ities for radio and tele-ision, to broadcast, to be on t!e air, to turnKsAitc! onKo&&, to turn doAn t!e volume, to listen to, to turn over to anot!er c!annel' 0hat is wrong with your #C setG Flas!ing) !issing) stripes on t!e screen, it !as atmosp!erics, distortion o& t!e picture, t!e pictures go blan0' D1. #ranslate they following sentences' paying attention to the -erbs to rise and to raise$ +' Pltimul congres al partidului de guvernmnt i-a nc!is edina' /' .icii ntreprinztori au reuit s scoat din srcie numeroase &amilii americane n secolul trecut' 3' 8a ultima edin, nimeni nu a ridicat nici o pretenie re&eritoare la data urmtoarei ntrevederi' 6' Pentru a contracta un mprumut, orice &irm trebuie s prezinte o documentaie riguroas' 9' . tem c aceast problem s-a ridicat i n anii precedeni, dar nu a avut nici un ecou' :' Ui-a &cut o mulime de dumani din cauza &elului su arogant de a &i' <' ei se trezete &oarte devreme, ntrzie aproape de &iecare dat' =' 2e spune c marile companii americane au ridicat muli preedini la putere' ?' (ceast persoan reuete ntotdeauna s se ridice la nlimea situaiei' +@' (stzi este tot mai greu s &ii n ton cu moda' Remember the following phrases$ -o rise to t!e occasion, to rise late, to rise above t!e pre*udices, to rise in t!e Aorld, to raise somebodD to poAer, to raise somebodD &rom povertD, to raise a IuestionK an ob*ectionK a claimK a loanK moneDK capital, to raise up enemies'

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Focus on Communication

VII. REVISION
A. C$%%unic ti$n t #1# +' 4rite a s!ort letter to Pro&essor ;ane Fa0er o& 7%&ord PniversitD to t!an0 !er &or leading t!e Aor0s!op Dou organised at t!e &acultD in Fuc!arest' .ention t!at Dou !ope to invite !er ne%t Dear to tal0 about anot!er aspect o& t!e same topic' /' ( &riend recentlD recommended a !olidaD companD &or particular destination' Jou too0 !is advice and !ad a Aonder&ul !olidaD' 4rite a note to t!an0 !im &or !is recommendation and describe one or tAo !ig!lig!ts o& t!e !olidaD' 3' -!e local neAspaper publis!ed an article about Dour sister recentlD' Pn&ortunatelD, manD o& t!e details in t!e article Aere incorrect' 4rite to t!e editor e%plaining t!e inaccuracies and as0ing &or a &eA lines in ne%t Aee0Es paper to set t!e record straig!t' 6' 4rite a note inviting a &riend to staD &or t!e Aee0end and suggesting some places Dou mig!t visit toget!er' 9' C%plain A!at t!e tAo candidates &or *obs described belloA ignore, a' ( nineteen Dears old Romanian Aas &retting restlesslD in t!e secretarDEs o&&ice o& a &irm, nervouslD biting !is nails' He Aas Aaiting &or !is &irst *ob intervieA' 4!en !is turn came, !oAever, t!e secretarD said t!at t!e intervieA Aas o&&' b' #t Aas !is &irst C!ristmas in ;amestoAn and an Aas verD !appD' He !ad received ten con&irmation calls to t!e :@ C5s !e !ad sent to Aould-be emploDers' (ll callers !ad !ung up Ait! LAeEll 0eep in touc! a&ter C!ristmasM' Fut C!ristmas !ad passed &or a long time and an is still Aaiting &or !is &irst *ob intervieA' :' #& Dou Aere an intervieAer, in A!ic! order Aould Dou as0 Iuestions on t!e issues belloA, AaDs o& improving companD activities present duties reasons &or applDing and educational bac0ground leaders!ip position <' 4rite a letter o& application to an advertising companD A!ic! !as publis!ed in t!e local neAspaper t!e speci&ications &or t!e position o& copDAriter' =' 4rite a C'5' to be put on t!e #nternet &or all t!ose A!o o&&er sc!olars!ips to t!e students in social communication and public relations' ?' 4rite a letter o& application &or t!e *ob o& !ead o& a certain department in a television "mention A!ic! one$, and enclose Dour C'5' Fe as convincing as possible' +@' iscuss all t!e necessarD documents to be sent to a &irm &or emploDment' C%plain A!D Dou !ave to send eac! o& t!em' 0. 2r %% r te#t#. 31. #ranslate into English$ (r trebui s-l scrie' -rebuie s-l scrie' ( putut s-l scrie' 2e poate s-l &i scris' Probabil c l-a scris' (r &i putut s-l scrie' Poate s-l scrie' 5a putea s-l scrie' (r putea s-l scrie' 5a trebui s-l scrie' 2-ar putea s-l scrie' (r &i trebuit s-l scrie' Bu era nevoie s-l scrie' Bu i s-a permis s-l scrie' :?

Focus on Communication 32. #ranslate the following text and comment upon the modal -erbs in italic$ 2tret!er !esitated' LBo 1 s!eEs not Aell, #Em sorrD to ha-e to tell DouM' L(!M, said C!ad, L# must ha-e had t!e instinct o& it' (ll t!e more reason t!en t!at Ae should start straig!t o&&M' 2tret!er !ad noA got toget!er !at, gloves and stic0, but C!ad !ad dropped on t!e so&a as i& to s!oA !e Ais!ed !e would make his point' He 0ept observing !is companionEs t!ings) !e might ha-e been !udging !oA Iuic0lD t!eD could be packed' He might e-en ha-e wished to !int t!at !e would send !is oAn servant to assist' 3(. :ro-ide an alternati-e sentence beginning with the words in bold$ a' b' c' d' e' &' g' !' i' *' # t!in0 !e s!ould leave at once' #tEs time QQQQ ;o!n t!in0s !e 0noAs all t!e ansAers' He tal0s as i& QQQQ # Aould li0e Dou to clean t!e blac0board instead o& telling *o0es' #Ed rat!er QQQQ 4!D didnEt Dou tell me &irst t!ing in t!e morningG # Ais! QQQQ .D sister is getting married to a croo0' # !ope s!eEll c!ange !er mind' #& onlDQQQQ ;o!n Aants to plaD t!e piano in order to earn moneD' He Aants to plaD t!e piano in order t!at QQQQ # Aill tell !im t!e trut! to avoid being punis!ed' #Ell tell t!e trut! &or &ear t!at QQQQ >o c!ange t!at dress immediatelDN # insist t!at QQQQ #t Aould be better &or Dou not to obeD t!e order' Jou !ad better QQQQ HoA about teac!ing t!em a lessonG # suppose QQQQ

31. 2hoose the correct form$ +' 4!at do Dou usuallD do in Dour &ree timeG a' # am sAimming and reading a lot' b' # go sAimming and do a lot o& reading' c' # !ave been sAimming and reading a lot' d' # am alAaDs reading and sAimming' /' 4!D do Dou &eel so tired noAG a' # !ave been Aor0ing too muc! recentlD' b' 4e painted our &lat' c' # am being ill so # am receiving treatment' d' # !ave got a &lu' 3' -!an0 Dou &or t!e lovelD dinner' -!is roast Q Q Q a' tastes superb' b' is tasting superb' c' !as superb taste' d' !as been tasting superb' 6' # Aonder Q Q Qto ma0e it' a' !oA long it did ta0e b' !oA long did it ta0e c' !oA long it too0 <@

Focus on Communication d' !oA long too0 9' Here Dou are at lastN Q Q Q&or Dou &or 39 minutes' a' # !ave been Aaiting b' # !ave Aaited c' # !ad been Aaiting d' # Aaited :' He Q Q Qto me about !is &uture plans over a Dear ago' a' !as spo0en b' !ad last spo0en c' last spo0e d' recentlD spo0e <' -!e parties Q Q Qagreement last Aee0 i& t!eD !ad !ad more time' a' must reac! b' could reac! c' could !ave reac!ed d' mig!t reac! =' # am sorrD # !avenEt given Dou a ring, # Q Q Qtoo busD over t!e past Aee0' a' Aas b' !ave been c' !ad been d' am ?' #t is !ig! time Q Q QA!ere to go t!is summer' a' Dou Aill decide b' Dou decided c' Dou s!ould decide d' &or deciding +@' #& Dou Q Q Qdecide verD soon, Dou Aill end up staDing at !ome' a' AonEt b' donEt c' AouldnEt d' arenEt to ++' #tEs a pitD Dou didnEt come to Cngland' (s Dou Q Q Qt!ere be&ore, Dou Aould !ave en*oDed everD minute o& t!e trip' a' AerenEt b' !avenEt been c' !adnEt been d' !ad been +/' # Q Q Q!er somet!ing con&idential, but # c!anged mD mind' a' Aas to tell b' Aanted to saD c' Aas going to tell d' Aas going to saD +3' Q Q Q!al& o& t!e villa !ad burnt doAn' a' FD t!e time t!e &iremen arrived b' FD t!e time t!e &iremen !ad arrived c' 4!en t!e &iremen arrived <+

Focus on Communication d' 4!en t!e &iremen !ad arrived +6' 4!en Dou Q Q Q!im again Dou Aill surelD notice t!e di&&erence in !is appearance' a' see b' Aill see c' are going to see d' are seeing +9' He said !e Q Q Qto go to t!e t!eatre as !e !ad seen Hamlet t!ree times' a' didnEt Aant b' doesnEt Aant c' AouldnEt d' AonEt +:' # Q Q Qt!at mD teet! are in a bad state' a' told b' am said c' !ave been told d' !ave been said +<' # Q Q Qit Aas a good idea, but noA it is too late' a' AouldnEt t!in0 b' t!in0 !ardlD c' donEt t!in0 d' mustnEt t!in0 +=' # Aonder A!at t!e problem is' -!e guests Q Q Qcome about seven' a' s!ould b' oug!t to c' s!ould !ave d' oug!t to !ave to +?' Jour !air is verD untidD' Jou Q Q Q' a' can !ave it cut' b' need !ave it cut' c' s!ould !ave it cut d' need cutting' /@' # Ais! ;o!n Q Q Qdrin0 so muc! at everD partD' a' did not b' does not c' Aould not d' not to C. C$%%unic ti$n t)e$rie#. +' /' 3' 6' 9' :' <' 4rite an essaD e%plaining t!e general pattern o& communication and t!e critics addressed to it' C%plain in an essaD t!e resemblance and t!e di&&erences betAeen propaganda and persuasion' 4rite on tAo columns t!e arguments &or and against mass culture' C%plain in no more t!an +@@ Aords t!e special &eatures o& a media institution' >ive t!e de&initions o& magazines and neAspapers and e%plain t!e concepts' -rD to give de&initions o& radio and television and sustain Dour opinion about t!ese media' -rD to &ind interesting data and Arite doAn a brie& !istorD o& one o& t!e media' </

Focus on Communication =' iscuss in one page t!e et!ics o& media' D. V$c /u! r7 'r ctice. D1. #ranslate into English$ +' Pro&esiile necesit o pregtire special' .eseriile necesit munc manual cali&icat' /' ^idarii, zugravii, geamgii, dulg!erii, electricienii, instalatorii i tmplarii lucreaz cu toii s construiasc o cas' 3' Cconomitii sunt specializai n management, mar0eting, comer, &inane sau contabilitate' 6' 8a aceste birouri sunt anga*ai &uncionari, dactilogra&e i secretare' 9' (vocatul aprrii s-a ntlnit cu avocatul acuzrii i cei doi au !otrt s cear sc!imbarea *udectorului' :' Regizorul, actorii i actriele au &cut grev pentru c nu erau pltii su&icient' <' .ecanicul de locomotiv s-a plns o&erului de ta%i c are o munc &oarte grea' =' `estoarea a dus pnza croitoresei care a &cut o roc!ie &rumoas i apoi s-a ntlnit cu plrierul pentru ca acesta s &ac o plrie potrivit' D2. #ranslate into English$ Puine ntreprinderi au ca scop comunicarea' .a*oritatea ntreprinderilor au un alt scop, de a vinde un produs sau serviciu, de a satis&ace o nevoie social, de a realiza planuri sau de a duce unele politici' Ui totui, pentru a &ace toate acestea, ntreprinderile consum enorm de mult timp, energie i bani comunicnd' 7amenii din ntreprinderi comunic n multe &eluri, de la om la om, discuii n doi, n grupuri neo&ociale, n edine, oral, la tele&on, n scris, cu a*utorul calculatoarelor sau terminalelor, prin scrisori i rapoarte' -oate aceste metode alctuiesc aa-zisa comunicare verbal' D(. #ranslate into Romanian and comment upon the following text$ Fusiness Ariting is a cra&t, not an art &orm' 8i0e carpentrD and 0nitting, it can be learnt even bD t!ose o& us A!o !ave no particular artistic s0ill' (s a cra&t, it !as a !eavD reliance on &ormulas, a Aide use o& grap!ics, and an intense aAareness o& purpose and audience' -!ese &ormulas ma0e t!e business Ariter more organised and t!e in&ormation conveDed more easilD accessible to t!e reader' -!eD also !elp speed possible, t!e Ariter AonEt Aait &or inspiration, AeEll !ave a &ormula at !and &or anD in&ormation to be transmitted' D1. Explain the differences between the following -erbs$ to declare and to pronounce) to a&&irm and to allege) to e%plain and to elucidate) to notice and to perceive'

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Focus on Communication

VIII. .8AT IS PU0LIC RELATIONS(


A. Pr$ nd " in#t *ritten di#c$ur#e#- $r ! de/ te# People Arite and tal0 a lot during t!eir li&etime' -!eD Arite in order to e%press attitudes and t!oug!ts &or people A!o are not around t!em, to 0eep t!eir ideas into a more &i%ed and organised &orm, to transmit in&ormation over ages' -!eD tal0 Ait! anot!er person A!o is near t!em or in groups, in order to persuade, to con&ess or to e%press emotions' A1. 2omment upon the following basic concepts applied both to the written and to the oral communication' and gi-e examples, 7pinion 1 conception o& Dour values and attitudes) (rgument 1 e%pression o& a belie& to be sustained bD o&&ering at least one reason &or in&luencing a personKa group o& persons over t!at &act) Reason 1 lin0 betAeen pieces o& in&ormation) e&inition 1 presentation o& t!e 0eD terms clearlD, preciselD, ob*ectivelD) -Dpes o& de&initions 1 logical, &igurative, developed) HoA to de&ine 1 bD attributing &eatures - bD analDsing parts - bD comparing and contrasting - bD giving e%amples - bD &ormulating &unctions 4aDs o& persuading 1 arguments t!roug! de&inition - arguments &rom cause to e&&ect - arguments t!roug! circumstances - arguments t!roug! comparison - arguments t!roug! proo&s - continuations o& t!e ot!er tDpes

A2. Read the following pro and against discourses on the theme of the importance of hiding inside one&s self in :R and try to write one opinion pro and one against on one of the topics indicated below$ a' Cver since t!e birt! o& t!is &ield, Public Relations !ave been naturallD lin0ed to t!e idea o& communication, and t!is abilitD o& t!e PR practitioners !as been continuouslD cultivated and speculated all t!roug! t!e s!ort !istorD o& t!is activitD' Jet, overA!elmed bD t!is L&everM o& communication, most o& t!e PR specialists ignore a ma*or compound o& t!eir success, t!e need o& !iding inside oneEs sel&' -!is concept maD seem contradictorD &or t!e PR &ield onlD i& AronglD associated Ait! t!e idea o& alienation' -!e &act is t!at !iding inside oneEs sel&, so muc! promoted in (ntiIuitD bD t!e great p!ilosop!er 2eneca, is eIual to t!e dissimulation o& oneEs oAn ego, A!ic! means covering up oneEs true personalitD so as to create an appearance meant to serve oneEs purpose' Regarded &rom t!is perspective, !iding inside oneEs sel& becomes a vital element in PR, as it parado%icallD represents t!e verD essence o& t!e persuasion attempt' -!e e%planation o& t!is <6

Focus on Communication situation lies in t!e &act t!at t!e person A!o is to be persuaded must not be aAare o& t!e real t!oug!ts and &eelings o& t!e PR agent, but onlD o& t!ose Ltrut!sM A!ic! serve t!e best t!e goals o& a certain organisation' FD t!e nature o& !isK!er *ob, t!e PR practitioner is not alloAed to promote !isK!er oAn image, but !eKs!e is supposed to build up and represent t!e image o& t!e organisation !eKs!e Aor0s &or' -!is e%traordinarD abilitD o& dissimulation can onlD be ac!ieved bD means o& !iding inside oneEs sel&' (s a conclusion o& t!is s!ort speec! in &avour o& !iding inside oneEs sel&, it is remar0able !oA a &amous adage, belonging to a great antiIue p!ilosop!er, !as LlivedM over so manD centuries to prove itsel& still valid and become noAadaDs one o& t!e main principles o& a verD modern activitD 1 Public Relations' Hope&ullD, somedaD all PR practitioners Aill become aAare o& t!e importance o& dissimulation, A!ic! does not restrict communication, but adapt it to a certain goal' b' -!e s!ort speec! beloA is meant to plead &or t!e absolute necessitD o& &ig!ting against a psDc!ic p!enomenon, A!ic! stands &or a real danger &or t!e &luencD o& !uman communication and, conseIuentlD, t!reatens t!e Public Relations &ield, as Aell) t!is !arm&ul p!enomenon is 0noAn as !iding inside oneas sel&' ue to its speci&ic role o& immaterial lin0 A!ic! creates and mediates all 0inds o& relations!ips betAeen people, communication is considered noAadaDs to !ave been t!e most important condition &or t!e evolution o& t!e !uman0ind, ever since its birt!' .en and Aomen are born to communicate, as t!eD are bot! p!DsicallD and spirituallD endoAed Ait! t!is abilitD' ConseIuentlD, t!eD are permanentlD involved into t!is interactive process, t!e purpose o& A!ic! is getting accustomed to and in&ormed about t!e Aorld outside, on one !and, and becoming sel&-aAare, on t!e ot!er !and' (s &or t!e Public Relations &ield, communication stands &or t!e verD essence o& t!is activitD, A!ic! means building up oneEs image bD means o& persuasion' Public Relations need communication to e%ist, t!ere&ore a good PR specialist must !ave a great abilitD to communicate' -!is is t!e reason A!D all t!e practitioners o& t!is pro&ession must be aAare t!at t!eir most dangerous common enemD is t!e so-called !iding inside oneEs sel&, A!ic! is t!e verD opposite o& communicating' 8i&e in t!e modern Aorld, dominated bD stress and tension, maD, sometimes, give birt! to t!e natural temptation o& running aAaD &rom t!e !arm&ul Aorld outside and !ide inside oneEs sel&, in searc! o& an ultimate re&uge' Pn&ortunatelD, t!is apparent escape is !ardlD a solution &or t!e person in trouble, as it doesnEt actuallD lead to a peace&ul living, but to gradual alienation' Hiding inside oneEs sel& means LenclosingM oneEs personalitD and t!is permanent state o& mind is able to in!ibit oneEs communication abilities step bD step' 2pirituallD, suc! a person lives in a Aorld o& !isK!er oAn, dominated bD solitude, A!ic! tends to re*ect anD e%terior in&luence and, &inallD, t!is person becomes unable to connect people and !ave normal relations!ips' LHide as Dou can inside Doursel&M, as t!e great 8atin p!ilosop!er 2eneca advised, is t!e principle t!at L0illsM communication, A!ic! is almost vital &or all !uman beings and e%tremelD important &or t!e Public Relations &ield, as e%plained above' -!ere&ore, unli0e ot!er people, t!e PR practitioner !as never got t!e rig!t to submit to t!is temptation o& !iding inside !isK!er sel&, in order not to lose t!e communication abilities and become unsuitable &or t!is *ob' +uggested topics$ +' FantasD is Aort!ier t!an 0noAledge' /' -!e pen is more poAer&ul t!an t!e sAord' 3' 2c!ools destroD t!e personalitD' <9

Focus on Communication 6' -!e place o& t!e Aoman is in t!e 0itc!en' 9' -!e engine o& societD is sel&is!ness' :' .arriage is an obstacle in personal development' <' C%ams s!ould be abolis!ed' =' 4e live in an immoral Aorld' ?' ivide et impera' +@' JouEd better groA cabbage t!an roses' A(. #he oral communication differs from the written communication through the features mentioned below. 2omment upon them and try to gi-e examples. a' 7ral communication is direct, t!at is t!e source and t!e receiver are placed in t!e same p!Dsical and mental environment, interacting Ait!out anD obstacle' -!e advantage is t!e e&&ectiveness o& transmitting and decoding t!e message, because o& t!e speed o& t!e &eedbac0) t!e disadvantage is t!e appearance o& certain barriers li0e comple%es, s!Dness, poAer&ul position o& one o& t!e spea0ers' b' 7ral communication is personal, all t!e spea0ers are present t!ere in &ull personalitD, even i& t!e lin0 betAeen t!em is &ormal' -!e non-verbal language sometimes unAillinglD transmits even t!ings A!ic! are censored bD t!e spea0er' -!e advantage is t!e possibilitD o& a better understanding because o& t!e empat!D) t!e disadvantage is t!e need &or a !ig! degree o& sel& control, as Ae can never direct vivid discussions' c' 7ral communication is irreversible, it cannot be repeated' L5erba volantM, saDs t!e 8atin proverb' 2o, it is more &le%ible t!an Aritten communication and t!e instant s!ould be caug!t &or convincing t!e ot!ers or negotiating Ait! t!e ot!ers' A1. Rules for a debate$ tAo teams o& t!ree members) a re&eree) a moderator) a person A!o measures t!e time'

2onditions for the contest$ eac! member o& eac! team tal0s once, &irst t!e !eads o& t!e groups, t!en t!e second member o& eac! group, t!en t!e persons draAing t!e conclusions) eac! spea0er greets t!e audience, introduces !imsel&K!ersel&, e%presses !isK!er point o& vieA, Ait! arguments, de&ines t!e 0eD Aords in t!e argumentation, ansAers t!e counter-arguments o& t!e opposite team) t!e audience can as0 Iuestions a&ter eac! intervention and t!e person A!o !as been as0ed s!ould ansAer brie&lD) t!e moderator !as t!e rig!t to interrupt t!e spea0ers onlD i& t!e rules are bro0en' -!e observations o& t!e moderators and t!e re&erees are to become public in t!e end'

#ry to exercise debate with your friends' on one of the topics mentioned abo-e. <:

Focus on Communication 0. In+initive nd 2erund #n t!e e%ercises and te%ts above Ae o&ten used #n&initive and >erund' 4e s!ould discuss in t!is part o& t!e course t!e AaD in A!ic! t!eD loo0 and be!ave, t!e verbs reIuiring e%clusivelD #n&initive or >erund and t!e situations in A!ic! bot! o& t!em can occur, but Ait! di&&erences in meaning' 31. ,et&s compare the forms and usage of the *nfiniti-e and .erund. ;orms of the *nfiniti-e$ L$n" In+initive "Ait! t!e particle LtoM$) e' g' to be, to !ave, to do) S)$rt In+initive "Ait!out t!e particle LtoM$) used a&ter t!e modal verbs "can, maD, must, etc$ and t!e causative verbs "to !elp, to ma0e, to let) e'g', He !elps me do t!is'$) S'!it In+initive "Ait! an adverb betAeen LtoM and t!e verb) e'g', to clearlD understand$'

#ense' aspect' -oice of the *nfiniti-e -ense Pre#ent Per+ect +imple Aspect Acti-e Coice :assi-e Coice Aas! be Aas!ed a spla a &i splat !ave Aas!ed !ave been Aas!ed a &i splat a &i &ost splat 2ontinuous Aspect Acti-e Coice be Aas!ing a spla !ave been Aas!ing a &i splat

#he noun features of the *nfiniti-e$ (t t!e beginning o& a sentence, t!e #n&initive can be a #u/:ect, #o err is human' (&ter nouns, t!e #n&initive can be an ttri/ute, 6e is not the man to do it' (&ter copulative verbs, t!e #n&initive can be a 'redic tive, #o see her is to like her'

Accusati-e with the *nfiniti-e 5erb # +' # Aant, # Aould li0e /' # alloA, order 3' # t!in0, suppose, 0noA, suspect, imagine, believeQ 6' # Aait &or ## +' # see, !ear /' # ma0e, let, "!elp$ # s!all !ave "Y !ave cauzativ Y l pun s$ Examples$ # 0noA !im to be clever to be reading noA to !ave &inis!ed DesterdaD to !ave been reading at seven (ccusative !im #n&initive #' long &orm to go ##' s!ort &orm come e detept citete a terminat citea <<

!im

Y tiu c

Focus on Communication %ominati-e with the *nfiniti-e Bominative He 5erb #' Passive +' is alloAed, ordered, etc' Y i se permite, i se ordon, etc' /' is 0noAn, is supposed Y se tie, se presupune 3' is seen, !eard 6' is made, let 9' is said, reported Y se spune ##' (ctive seems Y pare !appens Y se ntmpl caQ appears Y se pare proves, turns out Y se dovedete is li0elD Y e posibil is unli0elD Y e puin probabil is 0noAn is said seems to come todaD, tomorroA to be reading noA to !ave &inis!ed DesterdaD to !ave been reading at &ive 8ong #n&initive

to go

to be a t!ie&

He

.erund 5oice -ense Pre#ent Per+ect Acti-e Coice # en*oD learning Cnglis! mi place s nv engleza' He denies !aving ta0en t!e boo0s' Beag c a luat crile' :assi-e Coice He cannot stand being interrupted' Bu poate su&eri s &ie ntrerupt' He denies !aving been invited to t!e partD' Beag c a &ost invitat la petrecere'

.erund can ha-e the following functions$ Inde'endent e3're##i$n#, generally speaking' Su/:ect, ,o-ing the children means being a good person' Predic tive, 6e stood ga/ing at the brightly lit shop windows' Attri/ute, +he looked at the children playing in the garden' C$%'!e%ent, +he heard somebody knocking at the door'

Verbs that compulsory require an Infinitive in the complement: agree, appear, arrange, as0, claim, consent, decide, demand, e%pect, &ail, !esitate, !ope, intend, learn, manage, need, o&&er, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, re&use, seem, tend, t!reaten, Aait' C%ample, # agree to come Ait! Dou tomorroA 1 right # agree coming Ait! Dou tomorroA 1 wrong <=

Focus on Communication Verbs an verb phrases that compulsory require an !in" form in the complement: admit, appreciate, avoid, complete, consider, delaD, denD, discuss, en*oD, &inis!, 0eep, mention, miss, postpone, practice, Iuit, recall, recommend, regret, ris0, stop, suggest, tolerate, understand, approve o&, be better o&&, canEt !elp, count on, do not mind, &orget about, get t!roug!, insist on, 0eep on, loo0 &orAard to, ob*ect to, t!in0 about, t!in0 o&' C%ample, # am loo0ing &orAard to seeing Dou 1 right # am loo0ing &orAard to see Dou 1 wrong Verbs that a mit both Infinitive an #erun $ but have ifferences in meanin": 5erb, noun, ad*ective ) te> !i1e> di#!i1e> 're+er re%e%/er> +$r"et re"ret O#n&initive O>erund .eaning C%ample .eaning C%ample B referring to a # !ate to get up earlD on B the action in # !ate getting certain occasion .ondaDs' general up earlD' B following action B action which is simultaneous with the regret B in-oluntary action B the purpose of the action B colloquial # must remember to B pre-ious # remember post t!e letter' action posting t!e letter' # regret to saD it AasnEt B action which # regret true' has been saDing it pre-ious to the AasnEt true' regret #t began to rain' B -oluntary He began He began to realise t!e action Ariting A!en mista0e' !e Aas 9@' He stopped to tal0 to B the end of the He stopped !er' action tal0ing to !er' # intend to spend t!e B correct written # intend !olidaDs at t!e seaside' English spending mD !olidaD at t!e seaside' His statement needs to JActi-e Coice His s!oes be c!ec0ed' need mending'

/e"in> ce #e #t$' c$ntinue> dre d> +e r> intend> ne"!ect de#erve> need> re4uire> * nt tr7

J :assi-e Coice

%e n !!$*> 'er%it

B to make an -rD to Arite Ait! Dour B to pass He tried effort le&t !and' through an Ariting Ait! experiment !is le&t !and A!en !e Aas a c!ild' B to intend # meant to tell Dou but # B to ha-e a -!is means &orgot' meaning Aar' J *ndirect He doesnEt alloA pupils B without He doesnEt >b!ect to tal0 during tests' *ndirect >b!ect alloA tal0ing during tests' <?

Focus on Communication $''$rtunit7 B good occasion -!is Aill be a good B possibility opportunitD &or Dou to meet !im' # am a&raid to disturb B in general !im at t!is late !our' # !ad t!e opportunitD o& meeting !im' # canEt plaD records !ere as # am a&raid o& disturbing !im'

+r id

B in a certain situation

32. Exercises$ a' :ut the -erbs in brackets at the correct ,ong or +hort *nfiniti-e$ +' He !as decided "become$ a mec!anic' /' 4ill Dou "come$ to t!e t!eatre Ait! meG 3' Jou oug!t "revise$ &or Dour e%ams t!is Aee0' 6' 4e can "Aait$ &or Dou !ere' 9' # saA t!em "cross$ t!e street' :' # as0ed !er "repeat$ t!e Iuestion' <' #Ed rat!er "Aait$ &or Dou outside' =' He is "return$ tomorroA' ?' -!eD Aere seen "compare$ notes' +@' -!is boo0 is too di&&icult &or !er "understand$' b. :ut the -erbs in brackets at the correct *nfiniti-e or .erund$ +' # Aill remember "give$ Dour mot!er Dour message' /' # remember "meet$ !im at Dour birt!daD last Dear' 3' Please stop "interrupt$ me in t!e middle o& a sentence' 6' He stopped "tal0$ to !is &ormer pupils' 9' id Dou &orget "give$ !im t!at messageG :' # de&initelD recall "leave$ mD coat in t!is room' <' # li0e "cDcle$' =' # li0e "Aal0$ in t!e rain' ?' # meant "tell$ Dou, but # &orgot' +@' He tried "sell$ neAspapers, "Aor0$ in a ca&b and various ot!er *obs be&ore !e too0 up "Arite$' 3(. #ranslations$ a' +' 2unt sigur c argumentele mele o vor &ace s se rzgndeasc' /' 8-am s&tuit s renune la slu*ba aceea' 3' (m auzit-o pe Carolina cntnd asear la concert) nu m-am ateptat s aib o voce att de &rumoas' 6' 8e voi permite copiilor s mearg la plimbare mine diminea' 9' #-am cerut s nu spun nimnui ceea ce vedea acolo' :' Bu are nici o scuz c a ntrziat' <' .ulumesc c m-ai a*utat s gsesc acest !otel' =' Ci au insistat s m duc acolo n seara aceea' ?' Faptul c i tie numele este surprinztor' +@' 2e gndete s participe totui la acest concurs' b' C, vezi, mintea e nsetat de priceperea lucrurilor, de ptrunderea tainelor) i osnda de a n&rnge aceast sete, de a tri &r potolirea ei, nsemna osnda de a te ntoarce la una din &ormele trecute, de care natura n-a &ost mulumit, nseamn osnda de a ucide n tine tocmai nsuirea cu adevrat i cu deosebire omeneasc' "#'(l'Frtescu-5oineti 1 2ele mai -echi amintiri$' 31. a . 0rite about the future plans you ha-e for your life and career' using as many *nfiniti-e and .erund forms as you can. b. 0rite about things you should and things you shouldn&t do 4dos and don&ts5 while sustaining a public speech.

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Focus on Communication C. .) t i# 'u/!ic re! ti$n#( 21. Read' translate and comment upon the following text' explaining the role of the :r specialist in the modern society. Discuss the key words and gi-e examples of situations in which they can be applied effecti-ely$ Human0ind !as at its disposal tools o& communication so sAi&t, so abundant, and so pervasive t!at t!eir potential !as not been &ullD compre!ended Det' .essages &las! around t!e Aorld bD satellite Ait!in seconds' Computers produce almost instantaneous calculations and pour out in&ormation at t!e rate o& t!ousand o& Aords a minute' #mmense Aare!ouses o& in&ormation stored in electronic databases are available at t!e touc! o& a 0eDboard' Jet in t!e midst o& t!is in&ormation revolution, and in t!e general agreement t!at Ae live in a 8global information societyM, misunderstanding, lac0 o& compre!ension and antagonism abound' -ime a&ter time, a crisis or con&lict is caused bD t!e &ailure to communicate e&&ectivelD' Researc! and analDsis !ave also provided 0noAledge o& t!e motivation be!ind individual be!aviour, !ig!lig!ting t!e dDnamics o& group conduct and t!e sociological &actors t!at create con&lict among di&&erent groups' 7ur tools and accumulated 0noAledge, !oAever, &ar surpass our abilitD to !arness t!e concepts &or e&&ective con&lict resolution, negotiation and compromise among groups t!at ta0e di&&erent sides on suc! varDing issues as economic development and preservation o& t!e environment, abortion, cigarette smo0ing, etc' .ore t!an ever, noAadaDs t!e Aorld needs not more in&ormation but more sensitive communicators A!o can e%plain t!e goals and met!ods o& organisations, individuals and governments to ot!ers, in a sociallD responsible manner' CIuallD, t!ese e%perts in communication and public opinion must provide t!eir emploDers Ait! 0noAledge o& A!at ot!ers are t!in0ing, to guide t!em in setting t!eir policies AiselD &or t!e common good' Patric0 ;ac0son, a &ormer president o& t!e Public Relations 2ocietD o& (merica "PR2($ and publis!er o& PR Reporter, ma0es t!e case &or t!is role o& t!e public relations &ield, L(s soon as t!ere Aas Cve and (dam, t!ere Aere relations!ips, and in everD societD, no matter !oA small or primitive, public communication occurs, needs and problems inevitablD emerge and must be solved' Public relations is devoted to t!e essential &unction o& building and improving !uman relations!ips'M People o&ten de&ine public relations bD some o& its most visible tec!niIues and tactics, suc! as advertising in a neAspaper, television intervieAs Ait! t!e spo0espersons o& certain organisations, or t!e appearance o& a celebritD at a special event' 4!at people &ail to understand is t!at public relations is a process involving manD subtle and &ar reac!ing aspects' #t includes researc! and analDsis, policD &ormation, programming, communication toAards and &eedbac0 &rom numerous publics' #ts practitioners operate on tAo distinct levels 1 advisors &or t!eir clients and tec!nicians A!o produce and disseminate messages in multiple media c!annels' -!ere !ave been &ormulated manD de&initions over t!e Dears, &rom t!e simple to t!e comple%, >ood per&ormance, publicitD appreciated) PR stands &or Per&ormance and t!en Recognition) oing good and getting credit &or it) 8:ublic relations is the deliberate' planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organisation and its publicsM' "L-!e Fritis! #nstitute o& Public 7pinionM, A!ose de&inition !as been adopted in a number o& CommonAealt! nations$) =+

Focus on Communication 8:ublic relations is the conscious and legitimate effort to achie-e understanding and the establishment and maintenance of trust among the public on the basis of systematic research9 "L eutsc!e Public Relations >esellsc!a&tM o& >ermanD$) 8:ublic relations practice is the art and social science of analy/ing trends' predicting their consequences' counseling organisation leaders and implementing planned programmes of action which ser-e both the organisation&s and the public&s interest9. "de&inition approved at Lt!e 4orld (ssemblD o& Public RelationsM in .e%ico CitD in +?<= and endorsed bD 36 national public relations organisations$'

-!e 0eD Aords to remember in de&ining public relations &olloA, De!i/er te. Pubic relations activitD is intentional' #t is designed to in&luence, gain understanding, provide in&ormation, and obtain &eedbac0 "reaction &rom t!ose a&&ected bD t!e activitD$' P! nned. Public relations activitD is organised' 2olutions to problems are discovered and logistics are t!oug!t out, Ait! t!e activitD ta0ing place over a period o& time' #t is sDstematic, reIuiring researc! and analDsis' Per+$r% nce. C&&ective public relations is based on actual policies and per&ormance' Bo amount o& public relations Aill generate goodAill and support i& t!e organisation is unresponsive to communitD concerns' ( Paci&ic Bort!Aest timber companD, despite an advertising campaign Ait! t!e t!eme 8;or <s' E-eryday is Earth Day9' became 0noAn as t!e villain o& 4as!ington 2tate because o& its insistence on logging old-groAt! &orests and bulldosing a logging road into a prime el0 !abitat' Pu/!ic Intere#t. -!e reason &or anD public relations activitD is to serve t!e public interest, and not simplD to ac!ieve bene&its &or t!e organisation' #deallD, t!e public relations activitD is mutuallD bene&icial to t!e organisation and t!e public) it is t!e alignment o& t!e organisationEs sel&-interests Ait! t!e publicEs concerns and interests' For e%ample, t!e .obil Corporation sponsors IualitD programming on public television because it en!ances t!e image o& t!e companD) bD t!e same to0en, t!e public bene&its &rom t!e availabilitD o& suc! programming' T*$?. 7 C$%%unic ti$n. ictionarD de&initions o&ten give t!e impression t!at public relations consists onlD o& t!e dissemination o& in&ormational materials' #t is eIuallD important, !oAever, t!at t!e de&initions include &eedbac0 &rom audiences' -!e abilitD to listen is an essential part o& communication e%pertise' M n "e%ent Functi$n. Public relations is most e&&ective A!en it is part o& t!e decision ma0ing o& top management' Public relations involves counseling and problem solving at !ig! levels, not *ust t!e releasing o& in&ormation a&ter a decision !as been made' Public relations is de&ined bD ennD >risAold, &ounder and oAner o& PR BeAs, as 8 the management function which e-aluates public attitudes' identifies the policies and procedures of an organisation with the public interest' and executes a programme of action 4and communication5 to earn public understanding and acceptance.9 22. 2onsider the following text about the roots of public relations as a model' summarise it and try to gi-e other examples of the kind$ Public relations is a tAentiet!-centurD p!enomenon A!ose roots e%tend deep into !istorD) in a sense it is as old as !uman communication itsel&' #n succeeding civilisations, suc! as t!ose o& FabDlonia, >reece, and Rome, people Aere persuaded to accept t!e aut!oritD o& government and religion t!roug! tec!niIues t!at are still used, interpersonal communication, speec!es, art, literature, stage =/

Focus on Communication events, publicitD, and ot!er suc! devices' Bone o& t!ese endeavours Aas called public relations, o& course, but t!eir purpose and t!eir e&&ect Aere t!e same as t!ose o& similar activities todaD' For e%ample, 2t' ;o!n t!e Faptist !imsel& did superb advance Aor0 &or ;esus o& Bazaret!' >enerating publicitD &or t!e 7lDmpics in ancient (t!ens demanded t!e same s0ills as it did in +?=6 in 8os (ngeles'2peec! Ariting in PlatoEs time meant t!e same t!ing as it does todaD at FDoir) Dou must 0noA t!e composition o& Dour audience, never tal0 doAn to t!em, and impart in&ormation t!at Aill enlig!ten t!eir ignorance, c!ange t!eir opinion, or con&irm t!eir oAn good *udgements' #n t!e elevent! centurD, t!roug!out t!e &ar-&lung !ierarc!D o& t!e Roman Cat!olic C!urc!, Pope Prban ## persuaded t!ousand o& &olloAers to serve >od and gain &orgiveness o& t!eir sins bD engaging in t!e HolD Crusades against t!e .uslims' 2i% centuries later, t!e c!urc! Aas among t!e &irst to use t!e Aord propaganda, Ait! t!e establis!ment bD Pope >regorD _5 o& t!e College o& Propaganda to supervise &oreign missions and train priests to propagate t!e &ait!' Fusinesses in t!e Republic o& 5enice in t!e latter !al& o& t!e &i&teent! centurD practised as &ine an art o& investor relations as #F. does in t!e Pnited 2tates in t!e latter !al& o& t!e tAentiet! centurD, per!aps even &iner since it Aas practised one-on-one, &ace-to-&ace, everD daD on t!e Rialto, *ust as it Aas under t!e spreading elm tree on 4all 2treet in t!e earlD daDs o& t!e 2toc0 C%c!ange' -!e stories t!at t!e 2panis! e%plorers publicised t!e never-discovered 2even Cities o& >old, and even t!e &abled Fountain o& Jout!, induced ot!ers to travel to t!e BeA 4orld' 2ome o& t!e e%plorers probablD believed t!ose stories t!emselves' -Ao more blatant deceptions 1 e%amples o& actions unacceptable to public relations people todaD 1 occurred A!en Cric t!e Red, in (' ' +@@@, discovered a land o& ice and roc0 and, to attract settlers, named it >reenland) and A!en 2ir 4alter Raleig! in +9=6 sent bac0 gloAing accounts o& A!at Aas actuallD a sAamp-&illed Roano0e #sland, to persuade ot!er settlers to travel to (merica'

#t is clear, t!en, t!at t!e idea o& using all &orms o& !uman communication 1 drama and storDtelling among t!em 1 to in&luence t!e be!aviour o& ot!er people is not!ing neA' 2(. #ranslate the following text' think about the four models of public relations and try to make comments and gi-e examples$ -o aid in understanding t!e !istorD o& &ormal public relations as Aell as its practice todaD, Pro&essors @ %e# E. 2runi" o& t!e PniversitD o& .arDland and T$dd 8unt o& Rutgers, -!e 2tate PniversitD o& BeA ;erseD !ave constructed &our models o& public relations' (ll &our models are practiced todaD, but t!e LidealM one 1 t!at in increasing use 1 is t!e tAo-AaD sDmmetric model' -!eD e%plain t!eir models in t!eir +?=6 boo0 )anaging :ublic Relations$ Pre## A"entr7APu/!icit7. Propaganda is t!e purpose, soug!t t!roug! one-AaD communication t!at is o&ten incomplete, distorted, or onlD partiallD true' -!e model is source receiver' Communication is vieAed as telling, not listening, and little i& anD researc! is underta0en' P.T. 0 rnu% Aas t!e leading !istorical &igure during t!is modelEs !eDdaD &rom +=9@ to +?@@' 2ports, t!eater, and product promotion are t!e main &ield o& practice todaD'

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Focus on Communication Pu/!ic In+$r% ti$n. issemination o& in&ormation, not necessarilD Ait! a persuasive intent, is t!e purpose' -!e model is sourcereceiver' Researc!, i& anD, is li0elD to be con&ined to readabilitD tests or leaders!ip studies' Iv7 Lee is t!e leading !istorical &igure during t!is modelEs earlD development period &rom about +?@@ into t!e +?/@s' >overnment, nonpro&it associations, and business are primarD &ields o& practice todaD' T*$?. 7 A##7%etric. 2cienti&ic persuasion is t!e purpose and communication is tAo-AaD, Ait! balanced e&&ects' -!e model is sourcereceiver Ait! &eedbac0 ") to t!e source' Researc! is bot! &ormative, !elping to plan an activitD and to c!oose ob*ectives, and evaluative, &inding i& t!e ob*ect !as been met' Iv7 Lee is t!e leading !istorical &igure during t!e modelEs period beginning in t!e +?/@s' Competitive business and public relations &irms are t!e primarD places o& practice todaD' T*$?. 7 S7%%etric' >aining mutual understanding is t!e purpose, and communication is tAoAaD Ait! balanced e&&ects' -!e model is groupgroup Ait! &eedbac0 ")' Formative researc! is used mainlD bot! to learn !oA t!e public perceives t!e organisation and to determine A!at conseIuences t!e organisation !as &or t!e public, resulting in t!e counseling o& management about policies' Cvaluative researc! is used to measure A!et!er a public relations e&&ort !as improved bot! t!e understanding publics !ave o& t!e organisation and t!at A!ic! management !as o& its publics' Ed* rd L. 0ern 7#, educators, and pro&essional leaders !ave been t!e main !istorical &igures o& t!e tAo-AaD sDmmetric model, &olloAed bD some organisations since t!e +?:@s and +?<@s.

7ne-4aD Press (gentrDK Public PublicitD #n&ormation Pur'$#e Propaganda issemination o& in&ormation Or" ni# ti$n ! (dvocacD issemination c$ntri/uti$n o& in&ormation N ture $+ 7ne-AaD) 7ne-AaD) trut! c$%%unic ti$n complete trut! important not essential C$%%unic ti$n 2ourceRec' 2ourceRec' %$de! "Receiver$ N ture $+ 8ittle) 8ittle) re#e rc) Lcounting readabilitD, !ouseM readers!ip

-Ao-4aD -Ao-4aD (sDmmetrical 2cienti&ic persuasion (dvocacD -Ao-4aD 2Dmmetrical .utual understanding .ediation

-Ao-AaD) -Ao-AaD) balanced balanced e&&ects e&&ects 2ourceRec' >roup>roup &eedbac0 Formative) Formative) evaluative o& evaluative o& attitudes understanding

21. :ublic Relations ,iterature. A measurement of the growth of public relations in the twentieth century also may be found in its literature. ;rom 1O@@ to 1O2P' only two books with 8public relations9 in their titles were listed in the catalogue 3ooks in :rint. ,andmark publications include the following books' maga/ines' re-iews$

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Focus on Communication +?@/, L4!at #s PublicitDGM bD H'C' (dams, in t!e A%eric n Revie*' Per!aps t!e &irst magazine article dealing Ait! public relations as a topic' +?+9, Pu/!icit7 nd Pr$"re##, bD H'H' 2mit!' +?/@, .innin" t)e Pu/!ic, bD 2'.' TennedD' +?//, 2ettin" D$ur N %e in Print, bD Fun0 Z 4agnalls, t!e dictionarD publis!er' +?/3, Cr7#t !!i,in" Pu/!ic O'ini$n, bD CdAard 8' FernaDs' -!e &irst boo0 to reac! a Aide audience about !oA public relations can be used to s!ape public opinion' +?/6E Pu/!ic Re! ti$n#E A 8 nd/$$1 $+ Pu/!icit7, bD ;o!n C' 8ong' +?66, Founding o& Pu/!ic Re! ti$n# @$urn !, t!e mont!lD magazine o& t!e Public Relations 2ocietD o& (merica' +?6<E Pr ctic ! Pu/!ic Re! ti$n#, bD Re% HarloA and .arvin Flac0' Per!aps t!e &irst regular public relations te%tboo0' +?6?, Pu/!ic Re! ti$n# in M n "e%ent, bD ;' HandlD 4rig!t and FDron H' C!ristian' -!e &irst attempt to lin0 public relations Ait! management' +?9/, E++ective Pu/!ic Re! ti$n#, bD 2cott Cutlip and (llen Center' -!e best-0noAn basic te%tboo0 &or manD Dears' S$ci ! Science Re'$rter, &ounded bD Re% F' HarloA' -!e &irst neAsletter in t!e &ield to emp!asize t!e relations!ip betAeen public relations and applied social science t!eorD' +?99, Founding o& Pu/!ic Re! ti$n# Fu rter!7' S$ci ! Science in Pu/!ic Re! ti$n#, bD Re% F' HarloA' -!e &irst boo0 applDing social science t!eorD to public relations' +?<@, Founding o& IA0C C$%%unic ti$n .$r!d, mont!lD magazine o& t!e #nternational (ssociation o& Fusiness Communicators' +?<6, Founding o& Pu/!ic Re! ti$n# Revie*, &irst IuarterlD re&ereed *ournal in public relations' FD t!e Foundation &or Public Relations Cducation and Researc!' +?<:, Founding o& IPRA Revie*, &irst magazine devoted to international public relations' FD t!e #nternational Public Relations (ssociation' +?=?, Founding o& Pu/!ic Re! ti$n# Re#e rc) Annu !, edited bD ;ames C' >runig and 8arissa (' >runig' +??/, E3ce!!ence in Pu/!ic Re! ti$n# nd C$%%unic ti$n M n "e%ent , edited bD ;ames C' >runig' -!e results o& a massive researc! studD sponsored bD #(FC t!at laDs out a general t!eorD o& contemporarD public relations'

#ry to find at least one of the books and articles mentioned on the list' read it and write a summary of it. #ry to compare the book you ha-e succeeded too analyse with those of your colleagues. 2an you notice an e-olution of the printed materials in the field7 *n which way7 6ow do you think the domain will e-ol-e in the future7 D. V$c /u! r7 Pr ctice D1.Do the following exercises$ a. 2ombine the following sentences so that they should form a -ery short story$

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Focus on Communication (nnie Aas a verD good painter' -!e street Aas Iuite emptD' .r' FroAn 0ept on saDing, L2omebodD !as stolen mD easelM' #t Aas a cold Ainter nig!t' 2!e painted onlD landscapes and ancient !ouses' (t last .r' FroAn le&t &or a Aee0end in t!e mountains' (nnie entered t!e studio and too0 some o& !is brus!es, a Aater colour bo% and t!e easel' -!e storD could not !ave a !appD end' He realised at once A!at !ad !appened in !is absence' .r' FroAn Aas a graD-!aired gentleman, blac0-spectacled and 0ind-!earted' HoAever, (nnie 0ept silence' #n !is Dout!, .r' FroAn !ad been a clever s0etc!er' 2!e Aas &orced to tell t!e trut!' b. *magine a dialogue between )r. 0akefield and his wife in the text below$ L8et us noA imagine 4a0e&ield bidding adieu to !is Ai&e' #t is t!e dus0 o& an 7ctober evening' His eIuipment is a drab greatcoat, a !at covered Ait! an oilclot!, top-boots, an umbrella in one !and and a small port-manteau in t!e ot!er' He !as in&ormed .rs' 4a0e&ield t!at !e is to ta0e t!e nig!t coac! into t!e countrD' 2!e Aould &ain inIuire t!e lengt! o& !is *ourneD, its ob*ect, and t!e probable time o& !is return) but, indulgent to !is !armless love o& misterD, interrogates !im onlD bD a loo0' He tells !er not to e%pect !im positivelD bD t!e return coac!, nor to be alarmed s!ould !e tarrD t!ree or &our daDs) but at all events, to loo0 &or !im at supper on FridaD evening'M "L 0akefieldM, bD Bat!aniel HaAt!orne$ D2. )atch the words listed below with the dictionary definitions which follow$ s!are!olders, dividends, strategic, tactical, e%pertise, eminent, &reIuentlD, obligations, remuneration, delegation, curtness, co-ordinate, diversi&D, ob*ectives, ta0e-over, integritD, e%ecutive, enterprise, administration, con&licting, ma*oritD, arbitrarD, initiate, compliance, generalist' +' -o avoid t!e situation A!ere all t!e eggs are in one bas0et' /' 2omeone in a position o& aut!oritD' 3' (n underta0ing Ait! a vieA to pro&it' 6' -!e IualitD o& being reliable and straig!t&orAard' 9' FrevitD to t!e point o& rudeness' :' PaDments made to t!ose A!o oAn t!e eIuitD o& a companD' <' -o bring toget!er e&&ectivelD' =' -!e decision A!ic! c!ooses t!e direction in A!ic! t!e companD is going' ?' -!e part o& a business concerned Ait! daD-to-daD problems' +@' 7pposing or varDing ++' .eeting Ait! t!e set reIuirements' +/' 2omeone A!o is able to contribute to a business in a varietD o& its departments' +3' Having a reputation in a particular branc! o& business, suc! as laA' +6' -!e sort o& decision A!ic! is not based on &acts' +9' -!e opposite o& rig!ts' +:' -argets or goals' =:

Focus on Communication +<' -o commence or start' +=' .ore t!an !al&, &or e%ample, o& votes cast' +?' Part proprietors o& a companD' -!ose A!o collectivelD oAn t!e eIuitD' /@' 2pecialised s0ill or 0noAledge' /+' ( description &or salarD, usuallD reserved &or more senior o&&icers' //' -!e act o& giving aut!oritD to oneEs subordinates, A!ile retaining t!e responsibilitD &or t!e outcome' /3' -!e situation A!en a ma*oritD o& a companDEs voting s!ares are acIuired bD outsiders' /6' 7ccurring o&ten' /9' -!e decision A!ic! concerns using t!e resources A!ic! !ave been allocated to t!e best possible e&&ect' D(. <sing the -erbs to look for' to seek and to search' translate the following sentences into English$ a' b' c' d' e' &' g' !' i' *' Caut bine, sunt sigur c l-am pus acoloN Ce cauiG Pot s te a*utG Ci, ai gsit ce-ai cutat, ce s-i &aciN Hai s cutm bine prin toate sertarele' 8a treizeci de ani Fudd!a a plecat n cutarea nelepciunii' 7 ec!ip de salvare a i plecat de*a n cutarea ec!ipa*ului pierdut' up ce l-au cutat bine prin buzunare i-au dat drumul' (m scotocit toate !rtiile degeaba, n-am gsit ce cutam' -e-am cutat prin mulime dar nu te-am gsit' 2e pare c o caui cu lumnarea, o s-o ncurciN

Qeep in mind the following expressions$ to loo0 &or troubleKAor0, to loo0 &or a needle in a !aDstac0, to loo0 &or a mareEs nest, to see0 !appinessKremedDKsolutionsKAisdom, to searc! &or a boo0Ka 0eD, to searc! in manD places &or) searc! lig!t, searc! partD, searc! Aarrant) to searc! oneEs conscienceK!eart, to searc! a&ter t!e trut!, to searc! to t!e bottom' D1. ;ind synonyms and opposites for the following words$ mobile, public, to con&irm, to reveal, to distinguis!, to decline, ras!lD, autocraticallD, decisivelD, purpose&ullD'

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Focus on Communication

IX. .8O IS T8E IMA2E 0UILDER(


A. Ru!e# $+ *ritten rtic!e.

A1. Read and comment this text about the reporter and his role in the !ournalistic process. -!e meetings o& t!e neAspaper or magazine board resemble t!e business meetings' Round a table, t!e persons in t!e !ig! part o& t!e !ierarc!D analDse o&&ers, negotiate and ma0e plans' -!e page must be &illed up' -!e !eads o& departments suggest topics and articles' -!eD decide A!at s!ould appear on specialised pages and on general interest pages' Priorities are to be establis!ed' -!is is a process ta0ing place everD daD (s a rule, reporters are specialised on certain topics' -!eD are responsible, alone or in small groups, o& t!e relations!ips Ait! t!e police, t!e !ospitals, t!e courts o& laA, t!e political parties, t!e parliament, t!e government, t!e counties, t!e sportsmen, etc' -!eir Aor0 is o&ten repetitive, it !as not!ing in common Ait! t!e adventures seen in t!e &ilms about reporters' #t is about t!e same and t!e same press con&erences, t!e same old &aces and sources, not!ing neA' -!oug!, t!e gi&t o& t!e *ournalist consists in discovering interesting t!ings in dailD routine' #he qualities of a reporter$ t!e sense o& t!e neAs "t!e L&lairM$) t!e sense o& urgencD) t!e capacitD to meet t!e deadlines &or deliverD o& materials) t!e capacitD to &it into a given space) t!e good sense in t!e selection o& t!e most signi&icant details o& an event and even in selecting A!at is or is not Aort! including in a neAspaper material) t!e obsession o& precision and accuracD) t!e tolerance "all t!e persons coming in touc! Ait! reporters s!ould be treated in t!e same AaD, Ait!out irritation and pre*udices$) t!e capacitD to c!ange registers "a good reporter succeeds not to disagree Ait! t!e interlocutors$) t!e abilitD to listen) t!e curiositD) t!e perseverance) t!e abilitD to Arite about &acts, not suppositions "a common temptation &or *ournalists is to rapidlD launc! suppositions, Ait!out veri&Ding t!e in&ormation$'

A2. Read and comment upon this passage about the !ournalistic text$ #s t!ere a manner o& Ariting A!ic! is speci&ic to t!e *ournalists in presenting t!e eventsG (re t!ere AaDs o& conceiving t!e articles &or t!e neAspapersG Has t!e *ournalistic te%t a speci&ic, alloAing us to tal0 about a *ournalistic discourseG #t is obvious &or anDone A!o reads a s!ort storD, a letter or a report t!at t!eD are not to be &ound in a neAspaper as autonomous *ournalistic materials' Fot! t!e report and t!e letter could be support ==

Focus on Communication elements &or an article, but t!e *ournalistic te%t could onlD be t!e reportage, t!e investigation, t!e intervieA' -!is observation ma0es us reac! t!e conclusion t!at t!ere are certain particularities o& t!e *ournalistic te%t' 4e e%pect to &ind in a neAspaper e%citing and co!erent te%ts, signed bD pro&essionals, in&orming us about t!e neAsAort!D events' 4e also e%pect to read te%ts A!ic! are conceived in a certain manner, so t!e presence o& s!ort stories, letters or reports in a neAspaper Aould amaze us' -!e &inal &orm o& t!e *ournalistic te%t is t!e result o& t!e activitD o& collecting, selecting, ma0ing !ierarc!ies and condensing t!e in&ormation' -!e neAspaper article does not o&&er roug! in&ormation, as it is &iltered in order to respond to t!e e%pectations o& t!e audience' -!e &iltering o& t!e in&ormation is not accomplis!ed bD c!ance, it is a scienti&ic process, ta0ing into account t!e nature o& t!e in&ormation, t!e c!annel o& transmission and t!e tDpe o& te%t t!e aut!or !as t!e intention to Arite "neAs, reportage, investigation, intervieA, comment$' (lbert Tientz o&&ers a general model o& dealing Ait! t!e in&ormation in t!e Aritten press, using as analDsis criteria &or &iltering t!e in&ormation$ 415 the originality of the messageK 425 the intelligibility of the messageK 4(5 the degree of in-ol-ement of the audienceK 415 the psychological depth of the information. 4!at is originalitD in t!e *ournalistic practiceG -!e in&ormative press considers as being neAsAort!D onlD t!e une%pected, unusual pieces o& in&ormation, A!ic! transmit c!anges o& a tradition and modi&D t!e common perception o& realitD' -!e second criterion &or dealing Ait! t!e in&ormation re&ers to t!e degree o& intelligibilitD o& t!e message' -!e *ournalist Aill avoid abstract terms, long sentences, complicated sDntactical structures, inversions' For retaining t!e in&ormation t!eD use 0eD Aords and redundancies' -!e evaluation o& t!e in&ormation according to t!e degree o& involvement o& t!e audience is accomplis!ed ta0ing into account t!e tDpes o& reactions certain neAs mig!t provo0e "immediate or delaDed reactions$' -!is &actor Aill ma0e t!e *ournalist c!oose t!e genre and t!e lengt! o& t!e article' -!e &ourt! criterion in dealing Ait! t!e in&ormation re&ers to t!e impact it !as over t!e public mentalitD' -!e deeper t!e in&ormation gets into t!e !uman minds, t!e greater t!e possibilitD to be retained' -!at is A!D t!e sensational press addressing to Aide categories o& public use t!emes as violence, se%, &amilD li&e, A!ic! !ave great impact' #n&ormation about economic ' social, political issues a&&ect super&icial levels o& !uman minds, being intended &or t!e educated public' A(. Read' translate and comment upon the following article from #he #imes and try to concei-e an article about the daily acti-ities of the :resident of Romania$ A! n 8 %i!t$n Aatc!es t!e ]ueen venture into a strange Aorld o& trainers and plastic Aas!ing-up boAls -!ose determined to portraD t!e monarc! as a peopleEs ]ueen could !ardlD !ave designed a more populist daD out &or !er DesterdaD, s!e spent t!e morning in Cllesmere Port, s!opping &or 0itc!enAare and a pair o& trainers, sustaining !ersel& Ait! a visit to a drive-in .c onaldEs' Feing t!e ]ueen, s!e boug!t neit!er canvas s!oes nor plastic Aas!ing-up boAl, and no Fig .ac passed t!e roDal lips' Fut as an e%ercise in care&ullD stage-managed AindoA-s!opping, it opened t!e eDes o& bot! 2overeign and sub*ects' Her visit to t!e C!es!ire 7a0s esigner 7utlet 5illage &itted t!e neA pattern t!at !as emerged to counter criticisms o& remoteness t!at sur&aced a&ter t!e deat! o& iana, Princess o& 4ales' -DpicallD on an aAaD daD, t!e ]ueen noA meets &ar more ordinarD people in everDdaD situations and &ar &eAer &lun0eDs' =?

Focus on Communication (s t!e roDal limousine dreA up outside t!e burger bar, t!ere seemed a momentarD danger t!at t!e ]ueen mig!t !ave to go inside to learn t!e mDsteries o& ]uarter-Pounders and C!ic0en .cBuggets) but s!e Aas spared, and !er meeting Aas restricted to meeting t!e sta&& on t!e pavement outside' 2!e loo0ed a mite glum' Pausing brie&lD to tal0 to members o& a s!opping motabilitD group, and to be told t!at it Aould cost !er \3 to !ire a batterD A!eelc!air, t!e ]ueen decided to Aal0, &irst to 4!ittardEs Co&&ee and Titc!enAare store to broAse among t!e utensils' L2!e Aas &ascinated bD t!e plastic boAls) s!e couldnEt ma0e out A!at t!eD Aere made o&M, t!e manageress Tatie Fellis said later' -!e s!op presented !er Ait! a green glass boAl and some barbecue tools, A!ic! maD Det &ind emploDment at Falmoral' -!e roDal s!opping entourage moved on to t!e Reebo0 store, A!ere s!e engaged t!e manager arrDl Peacoc0 in conversation on t!e latest in sports s!oes' L# as0ed i& s!e Aould li0e to buD a pair, but s!e *ust smiled' 2!e did ta0e an interest in one sAeater A!ic! s!e said Prince P!ilip mig!t li0eM, .r' Peacoc0 reported' Carlier t!e ]ueen, accompanied bD t!e u0e o& Cdinburg!, !ad toured t!e nearbD Flue Planet aIuarium, t!e largest in Fritain, to come &ace to &ace Ait! a sand tiger s!ar0) &ortunatelD t!ere Aas stout protective glass betAeen t!em' -!e rest o& !er daD, A!ic! included visiting a !ospital and a poAer station, seemed deeplD traditional bD comparison' A1. Answer the following questions$ a' Jou receive at t!e editorial o&&ice a press communicate o& t!e miners in t!e ;iu 5alleD, announcing t!e organisation o& a meeting in Fuc!arest during t!e ne%t daD' 4!at steps do Dou underta0e in order to veri&D t!e in&ormation and to accomplis! a comple% materialG b' Jou receive an anonDmous telep!one in&orming Dou t!at t!e !eadIuarters o& an important political partD is on &ire' 4!at do Dou do as a reporterG c' Jou are t!e reporter responsible &or t!e &ield o& public transport at a national neAspaper' 4!at sources Aould Dou use &or obtaining in&ormationG d' 7rder according to t!e importance t!e &olloAing topics discussed at t!e press con&erence o& t!e maDor, critics addressed to t!e toAn counselors o& t!e opposition) announcement regarding t!e closing o& !ot Aater &or tAo Aee0s &or maintenance Aor0s) announcement regarding t!e opening o& a neA subAaD station' >ive reasons &or Dour ansAer' e' Conceive t!ree pieces o& in&ormation A!ic! could be trans&ormed into articles' 4!D !ave Dou c!osen t!emG &' Could t!e description o& t!e Fotanical >ardens in Fuc!arest be a te%t to be publis!ed in an in&ormative neAspaperG 4!DG 0. T)e Direct nd t)e Indirect S'eec) -!ere are onlD tAo AaDs o& telling about t!e saDings o& anD person, bD reproducing !isK!er Aords, t!at is in t!e irect 2peec!, and bD re-telling in Dour oAn Aords A!at t!e person !as said, t!at is in t!e #ndirect 2peec!'

?@

Focus on Communication #n t!e Direct S'eec) t!e Aords o& t!e person are usuallD introduced a&ter a coma and betAeen inverted comas, He as0ed me' 80here is Dan79. -!e verb in t!e reproduced sentence is tDpicallD at Present or Present Per&ect in t!e #ndicative .ood' #n t!e Indirect or t!e Re'$rted S'eec), t!e reproduced sentence re-tells t!e discourse o& t!e cited man in t!e t!ird person singular, t!e clause becoming a direct ob*ect o& t!e predicate in t!e &irst sentence' 2hanges occurring when passing from the Direct to the *ndirect +peech$ T)e 'er#$n !> re+!e3ive nd '$##e##ive 'r$n$un# c!ange, according to t!e meaning, &rom t!e &irst or t!e second person to t!e t!ird person'

C%ample, #om said to )ary$ 8 ou should ha-e asked me first9. #om said to )ary that she should ha-e asked her first9. -!ere are still cases in A!ic! t!e second person singular c!anges into t!e &irst 48 ou are right' Diana9' :aul said that * was right5, or in A!ic! t!e &irst person remains t!e same 48* think that we should lea-e immediately9' * said * thought we should lea-e immediately$' T)e de%$n#tr tive d:ective# nd 'r$n$un# o& place and time, as Aell as t)e dver/#, are c!anged, so t!at t!eD e%press distance not closeness, today becomes that day yesterday becomes the day before tomorrow becomes the nextIfollowing day next week becomes the nextIfollowing week last week becomes the pre-ious weekIthe week before

this becomes that these becomes those here becomes there now becomes then

T)e u#e $+ ten#e# is c!anged, passing &rom t!e a%is o& t!e present on t!e a%is o& t!e past'

:resent c!anges into :ast :resent :erfect and :ast #ense c!ange into :ast :erfect ;uture c!anges into ;uture in the :ast. C%amples, 8* ha-e been waiting for you for three hours9' 6e said he had been waiting for me for three hours. 8*t rained yesterday9' 6e said it had rained the day before. T)e interr$" tive #entence# become a&&irmative sentences, and t!e order o& t!e Aords in t!e sentence c!anges into t!at o& t!e a&&irmative structures. C%ample$ 86ow old are you79, # am as0ing Dou !oA old Dou are' T)e e3c! % t$r7 nd i%'er tive #entence# c!ange into declarative ones or into in&initive p!rases,

C%amples, 80hat a funny !okeR9' 6e exclaimed it was a funny !oke. ?+

Focus on Communication 8+it downR9' 6e told :eter to sit down. 32. :ass the following sentences from the Direct to the *ndirect +peech$ a' +' .arD said to me, L#Ed li0e to go outM) /' -!eD alAaDs saD, L-!ese e%ercises are too di&&icult &or usM) 3' oris is saDing, LFe!ave Doursel&, PeterNM) 6' an is alAaDs saDing, L# !ave le&t mD noteboo0 at !omeM) 9' -!e teac!er !as said to t!e pupils, L# Aant to !ave a loo0 at Dour !omeAor0M) :' ;o!n and -om are saDing, L4e !avenEt done our !omeAor0M) <' L# am leaving &or t!e seaside tomorroAM) =' L4e Aatc!ed -5 last nig!tM) ?' L4e !ave never been !ere be&oreM) +@' L# 0noA A!at t!e teac!er Aill saDM' b' 4!ere does Dour &at!er Aor0G 4!o are Dour &riendsG 4!at is Dour dailD programmeG 4!at time do Dou get up in t!e morningG 4!en did Dou move to t!is sc!oolG 4!en Aill Dou &inis! sc!oolG 4!en did Dou buD t!is cameraG 4!en are Dou going to ta0e Dour &irst p!otoG Can t!eD develop Dour &ilms at t!e p!otograp!erG o Dou t!in0 t!e pictures Aill come out clearlDG 4ill Dou ta0e pictures o& Dour &riendsG 4ill Dou give me a p!oto, tooG 3(. #ranslate into English$ a' +' Clevul l-a nterbat pe director cnd trebuie s se prezinte la cabinetul su' /' Funcionarul ne-a s&tuit s citim atent instruciunile nainte s desc!idem cutia' 3' 2ecretara ntreab dac trebuie s bat la main toate rapoartele' 6' .ama mi-a atras atenia s nu uit de ntlnire' 9' octorul ne-a spus c nimeni nu are voie s vorbeasc cu pacientul pn a doua zi' :' 5oia s tie de ce prietenii mei au plecat aa de devreme' <' Ftrnul ne-a spus c el nu ncuie niciodat ua din spate' =' Pro&esorul i-a ntrebat pe elevi dac au neles lecia sau nu' ?' >eorge s-a scuzat spunnd c nu e vina lui' +@' Pro&esorul voia s tie cine a participat la olimpiada de matematic' b' -ranslate into Cnglis! t!e &olloAing dialogue, t!en c!ange t!e te%t into an #ndirect 2peec!, L omnul e& se uit de mai multe ori, cnd la &lcu, cnd la banii din porto&el, i dup o lung tcere ntreb, - .ai era cineva cu tineG - Bimeni' - (i spus la aliiG - 8a nimeni' (m venit p-ici pe poteca din dos, drept la dumneavoastr' omnul e& tace, apoi, - #a ascult, mi Biculi, parc aa te c!eamQ - (a' - 2 nu mai spui la nimeni, pn nu s-o ivi pgubaul, c te aude spunnd cum e porto&elul i se scoal vreunul i zice c el l-a pierdut, &r s-l &i pierdut el' Bici mtii, nici lui tat-tu s nu le spui pn nu se arat pgubaul, auziG - (uzN - Fine ai &cut c l-ai adus, bravoN Cti biat cinstit' Ui s tii c-o s spui eu pgubaului s te cinsteasc &rumos'M 31. ReBtell an important dialogue you ha-e had lately. ?/

Focus on Communication

C. .)$ i# t)e i% "e /ui!der( 21. Read' translate and comment upon the following text$ BoAadaDs, image !as become a common nouris!ment &or our sensitivitD, intelligence and ideologies, leading to t!e !uge increase o& t!e tendencD to use certain means o& action in order to in&luence t!e representations o& people) Ae live inside a Lcivilisation o& t!e imageM, as modern sociologists saD' 7ne s!ould mention t!at t!e term LimageM does not re&er, restrictivelD, to t!e material reproduction o& a given realitD, but to an attribute o& t!e inner sel& 1 based on t!e capacitD o& t!e !uman mind to build up mental representations 1 o& utmost importance &or t!e communicational relations!ip' 2o, image can in&luence t!e decision-ma0ing abilitD o& a person or o& a collectivitD because, along t!e !istorD o& man0ind, li&e !as been related eIuallD to images and to concrete realities' 8atelD, t!e image builder !as become a c!aracter o& !uge importance, a Aell paid person, as it is clear &or everDbodD t!at it does not matter !oA good a product is, as long as it !as not been imposed over t!e public consciousness) &or t!is purpose, it s!ould be presented in t!e most proper lig!t) ot!erAise, it is lost in an immense mass o& anonDmous, similar items' -!e essential idea, A!ic! motivates t!e appearance o& t!is neA *ob, is t!at a LproductM disappears, is not success&ul on t!e mar0et, is not success&ul in t!e political li&e not because it is not good but because it is not 0noAn' R$/ert .i!#$n, a specialist in t!e &ield o& public image, A!o !as become vice-president o& t!e P&itzer corporation, de&ines e%actlD t!is relations!ip betAeen t!e image builder and t!e product o& !is Aor0, L.r' President 1 A!D s!ould # build an image t!at Aill ma0e t!e people love DouG HoA muc! Aill t!is consume o& t!e enterpriseEs budgetG 4!om do Dou Aant to address toG -!e large audienceG -!e large audience does not e%ist' -!ere e%ist onlD clients'M (not!er specialist, 8er/ Sc)%ert,, states, 8we sell ideas' we are the managers of an election campaign that ne-er ends9. #n anD case, it is not about t!e Aor0 o& a cler0, neutral and mac!ine-li0e, A!ic! trans&ers data &rom t!e interior o& a sDstem toAards its e%terior' #& t!ings Aent on li0e t!is, e&&iciencD Aould be zero' -!e image built a&ter a real creation process, Ait! artistic and scienti&ic co-ordinates, must be vivid, in order to test t!e imagination o& a possible consumer, to provo0e a certain reaction, to induce a series o& strong belie&s' For being e&&ective, t!e image !as to evo0e somet!ing, !as to tell somet!ing, !as to invite, in &act, to a possible and permanent dialogue' For t!is reason, t!e image itsel& Aill be t!oug!t as an open creation, it Aill contain a great number o& messages, bearing in mind t!e basic principle stating t!at attention is !ard to be retained &or a long period o& time, and A!en Dou !ave gained it Dou !ave to transmit t!e ma%imum o& in&ormation' -!e image builder intervenes A!en t!e product does not e%ist Det and, in t!e public consciousness, t!ere !as to be implemented t!e belie& t!at people need it' -!e image builder as0s t!e &olloAing Iuestions and Aill start t!e action i& !e is convinced t!at !e can generate a certain tDpe o& social reaction, - 0hy will my product exist7 - 3ecause it has to exist. *t will appear because it is logical to appear' you will benefit from it and it is not the result of some accident' but it exists because our organisation 4the firm' the party' the go-ernment' etc.5 knows that you ha-e needed it.

?3

Focus on Communication -!is is t!e moment A!en t!ere comes t!e real necessitD &or a pro&essional image builder' 7nlD t!is person can create a belie&, in a time in A!ic! mass media !arder and !arder succeeds to convince t!e large audience) t!e image builder proves to be sociallD necessarD e%actlD A!en advertising !as become more t!an aggressive, !as become redundant, turning against its oAn purpose' (dvertising does not attract anDmore, it creates, t!roug! overloading, a reaction o& re*ection' -!e image builder Aill trD to identi&D t!e rig!t areas &or inserting !is message into t!e Aidest in&ormative spaces o& t!e mass media' His arguments Aill be presented in succession, in order to create an image o& t!e social need t!at !as provo0ed t!e appearance o& !is product' 2o, it is not about a simple, conventional publicitD, but about a demonstration, t!e creation o& a belie&, o& a state o& benevolent e%pectation' -!e more credible motivations are &ound, t!e easier t!e product Aill be accepted, t!e easier its presence Aill be tolerated in a space t!at is alreadD overcroAded 1 t!e noAadaDs public consciousness' 22. Read the following text about the preparation of a :R plan and then try to concei-e one of your own' on a topic presenting interest to you in the field. #ry to think how your plan and schedule could work' could be made effecti-e$ 4riting a plan &or a public relations activitD is not!ing more t!an preparing a blueprint o& A!at is to be done and !oA it Aill be accomplis!ed' FD preparing suc! a plan, eit!er as a brie& outline or an e%tensive document, t!e practitioner can ma0e sure t!at all elements !ave been properlD considered and t!at everDbodD involved 0noAs A!at t!e procedure is' Qetchum :ublic Relations' 2an Francisco, uses t!e &olloAing outline in preparing program plans &or clients, +' De+ine t)e 'r$/!e%' 5alid ob*ectives cannot be set Ait!out a clear understanding o& t!e problem' -o understand t!e problem' 415 discuss it with the client to find what the public relations effort is expected to accomplish' 425 do some initial research' and 4(5 e-aluate ideas in the broader perspecti-e of the client&s longBterm goals. /' Identi+7 $/:ective#' 7nce t!e problem is understood, it s!ould be easD to de&ine t!e ob*ective' ( stated ob*ective s!ould be evaluated bD as0ing 415 does it really sol-e the problem7 425 is it realistic and achie-able7 and 4(5 can success be measured in terms which are meaningful to the client7 3' Identi+7 udience' #denti&D, as preciselD as possible, t!e group o& people A!o comprise t!e primarD audience &or t!e message' #& t!ere are several groups, list t!em according to A!at group Aould be most important in ac!ieving t!e clientEs primarD ob*ectives' 6' Deve!$' #tr te"7' -!e strategD describes !oA, in concept, t!e ob*ective is to be ac!ieved' 2trategD is a plan o& action t!at provides guidelines and t!emes &or t!e overall e&&ort' -!ere is usuallD one, and o&ten several, strategies &or eac! target audience' 2trategies maD be broad or narroA, depending on t!e ob*ective and t!e audience' 9' S'eci+7 t ctic#' -!is is t!e bodD o& t!e plan t!at describes, in seIuence, t!e speci&ic activities proposed to ac!ieve eac! ob*ective' #n selecting communication tools 1 neAs releases, broc!ures, radio announcements, videotapes, special events, etc' 1 ma0e sure t!e communication tools are appropriate &or t!e designated audience' :' Deve!$' c !end r' #t is important to !ave a timetable, usuallD in c!art &orm, t!at s!oAs t!e start and completion o& eac! pro*ect Ait!in t!e &rameAor0 o& t!e total programme' Psing a calendar enables practitioners to ma0e sure t!at pro*ects 1 suc! as broc!ures, slide presentations, neAsletters, and invitations 1 are readD A!en t!eD are needed'

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Focus on Communication <' A#cert in /ud"et' HoA muc! Aill it cost to implement t!e public relations planG 7utline, in seIuence, t!e e%act costs o& all activities' Fudgets s!ould include suc! details as postage, car mileage, labor to stu&& envelopes, tDpesetting, o&&ice supplies, telep!one, etc' (bout +@ percent o& t!e budget s!ould be allocated &or contingencies' =' S'eci+7 ev !u ti$n 'r$cedure#' etermine A!at criteria Aill be used to evaluate t!e success o& t!e public relations program' Cvaluation criteria s!ould be realistic, credible, speci&ic, and in line Ait! client e%pectations' 4!en determining ob*ectives, ma0e sure t!at eac! o& t!em can be adeIuatelD evaluated at t!e end o& t!e program' 2(. Read the following passages which build up a public relations perspecti-e' comment upon each point and gi-e examples$ a' P tric1 @ c1#$n, editor o& :R Reporter and a public relations counselor, saDs communicators s!ould as0 t!emselves a series o& Iuestions be&ore preparing anD communication materials, +' #s it appropriateG a' For t!e senderG b' For t!e recipientG /' #s it meaning&ulG a' oes it stic0 to t!e sub*ectG b' #s it geared to t!e recipientEs interests, not to t!e senderEsG 3' #s it memorableG a' #n p!raseologD or metap!orG b' -!roug! t!e use o& visual or aural devicesG 6' #s it understandableG a' #n bot! denotative and connotative languageG b' >rap!icallD or orallDG 9' #s it believableG a' oes t!e audience trust t!e spo0espersonG b' oes t!e communication e%!ibit e%pertise in t!e sub*ect matterG b' #n addition to e%amining t!e proposed content, a communicator s!ould determine e%actlD A!at ob*ective is soug!t t!roug! t!e communication' @ %e# 2runi", pro&essor o& public relations at t!e PniversitD o& .arDland, lists &ive possible ob*ectives &or a communicator, +' Me## "e e3'$#ure' Public relations personnel provide materials to t!e mass media and disseminate ot!er messages t!roug! controlled media suc! as neAsletters and broc!ures' #ntended audiences are e%posed to t!e message in various &orms' /' Accur te di##e%in ti$n $+ t)e %e## "e' -!e intended audience ac0noAledges t!e messages and retains all or part o& it' 3' Acce't nce $+ t)e %e## "e' Fased on its vieA o& realitD, t!e audience not onlD retains t!e message but accepts it as valid' 6' Attitude c) n"e' -!e audience not onlD believes t!e message but ma0es a verbal or mental commitment to c!ange be!avior as a result o& t!e message' 9' C) n"e in $vert /e) vi$r' .embers o& t!e audience actuallD c!ange t!eir current be!avior or begin a neA be!avior' ?9

Focus on Communication >runig saDs t!at most public relations e%perts usuallD aim at t!e &irst tAo ob*ectives, e%posure to t!e message and accurate dissemination' -!e last t!ree ob*ectives depend in large part on a mi% o& variables 1 predisposition to t!e message, peer rein&orcement, &easibilitD o& t!e suggested action, and environmental conte%t, to name a &eA' -!e &irst tAo ob*ectives are easier to evaluate t!an attitude c!ange' (lt!oug! t!e communicator cannot alAaDs control t!e outcome o& a message, researc!ers recognise t!at e&&ective dissemination is t!e beginning o& t!e process t!at leads to opinion c!ange and adoption o& products or services' -!ere&ore, it is important to revieA all components o& t!e communication process' c. P)i!i' Le#!7, president o& t!e :hilip ,esly 2ompany' outlined some guidelines &or e&&ective communication, Approach e-erything from the -iewpoint of the audience&s interest L A!at is on t!eir minds, A!at is in it &or t!em' .i-e the audience a sense of in-ol-ement in the communication process and in A!at is going on, so t!at Dou Aill get t!eir interest' )ake the sub!ect matter part of the atmosphere the audience li-es with L A!at t!eD tal0 about, A!at t!eD !ear &rom ot!ers' -!at means getting t!e material adopted in t!eir c!annels o& communication' 2ommunicate with people' not at t!em' Communication t!at approac!es t!e audience as a target ma0es people put t!eir de&enses up against it' ,ocalise L get t!e message conveDed as close to t!e individualEs oAn milieu as possible. <se a number of channels of communication' not !ust one or two. -!e impact is &ar greater A!en it reac!es people in a number o& di&&erent &orms' )aintain consistency L so, A!at is said on t!e sub*ect is t!e same, no matter A!ic! audience it is directed to or A!at t!e conte%t is' 2till, tailor-ma0e eac! message &or t!e speci&ic audience as muc! as possible' Don&t propagandise but make sure that you make your point. 4!en a communicator draAs conclusions, it is more e&&ective t!an depending on t!e audience to draA its oAn conclusions' )aintain credibility L A!ic! is essential &or all t!ese points to be e&&ective'

2omment upon the notions you ha-e !ust acquired. #ry to complete the list with other features and discuss the new concepts. 0hich is the most important quality of the public communicator' in your opinion7 21. #ranslate the following text and then make a summary' emphasising the main features of the image builder$ Creatorul de imagine va ncerca, ori de cte ori i se o&er posibilitatea, s-i lege mesa*ul de persona*e sau imagini de*a intrate n mitologia modern, ncercnd s pro&ite de suportul de credibilitate o&erit de acestea' Pentru a vorbi despre o reclam comercial, s ne-o amintim pe cea a unui produs cu totul nou n Romnia n momentul respectiv, -R7P#T(B(, care a intrat n contiina public prin racordarea la c!ipurile unor &oarte cunoscui &otbaliti romni' 8a un cu totul ?:

Focus on Communication alt nivel de pro&esionalism, &olosind e&ectul de sinergie, bazat pe imensul succes la public al emisiunii .PPPC-2, realisatorii &rancezi au imaginat un serial ce a pornit de la aceeai baz "ppui de un grotesc neagresiv$ pentru a evolua spre un spectacol de satir politic, ppuile n&ind persona*e reale' eparte de a se supra, politicienii &rancezi sunt &oarte &latai de interesul pe care l trezete persoana lor, c!iar dac, n aparen, propaganda este negativ' Creatorul de imagine a neles c adevrata consacrare a politicianului, intrarea sa n mitologia contemporan, era simbolizat de trecerea sa n LimagineaM ppuilor din &amilia .PPPC-2' e ceG Foarte simplu' ( neles aceast lege &undamental a psi!ologiei mass media, politicieni sunt cu miile, emisiunea .PPPC-2, n contiina public, este unic' n te!nologia speci&ic muncii de creare a imaginii, acest procedeu se numete trans&erarea imaginii de marc, &iind &olosit de cte ori se poate, i la toate nivelele, prin selectarea a tot ceea ce, n memoria a&ectiv a publicului standard, poate trezi un re&le% de plcere sau de interes' in momentul n care s-a stabilit un slogan, s-a ales purttorul principal de imagine, urmeaz identi&icarea imaginilor de marc cu care ne putem asocia sinergetic sau pe care le putem con&isca, &olosindu-ne de un eventual e&ect de pro%imitate' Fazndu-se pe cunoaterea valorilor ce ntrunesc consensul n cazul publicului standard, creatorul de imagine poate analiza rapid nivelul de amplitudine al mesa*ului trimis, ca i natura, &ora i durata &eedbac0-ului' D. V$c /u! r7 Pr ctice D1. Do the following exercises$ a. De-elop the following sentence using the words and phrases gi-en below$ 2!e li0es all 0inds o& music' Her sister doesnEt' -!eir parents are verD &ond o& musical instruments' 7nlD ;immD, t!e elder brot!er, is suc! a lazD boD' (s &or t!eir grandmot!er, Aell, s!e Aill never be able to en*oD a musical partD' to !ave a musical ear, barrel-organ, strings, to be a music &an, cello, to 0eD an instrument, Ainds, to &iddle about, musical conductor, to set a poem to music, to plaD t!e second &iddle, *u0e bo%, to be as &it as a &iddle, to &ace t!e music' b. 2hoose the right word to complete the following sentences$ an Aas a "+,/$, but sometimes !is be!avior "3$ !is &riends' 7ne summer nig!t as !e "6$ in an armc!air bD t!e AindoA and tried "9$ a detective storD, t!e door &lung open and t!e lig!ts ":$' #t Aas rat!er "<$ &or !im to realise A!at "=$' HoAever, a "?$ panic seized !im' He could onlD "+@$ and "++$ beating o& !is !eart' He "+/$ to !is &eet and ran "+3$ t!e AindoA' Can Dou "+6$ A!o "+9$ t!e lig!t againG + 1 genial, innocent, inspired, diligent, clever / 1 s!op-assistant, c!emist, librarian, antiIuarD, con&ectioner 3 1 to astound, to upset, to beAilder, to puzzle, to ve%, to con&use 6 1 to sit, to stand, to staD, to set 9 1 to remind, to recall, to remember, to recollect : 1 to bloA out, to Iuenc!, to e%tinguis!, to turn o&&, to go out < 1 lig!t, easD, slig!t, !eavD, di&&icult, !ard = 1 to !appen, to occur, to go on, to come about, to be&all ? 1 vast, !uge, big, large, great +@ 1 to !ear, to listen ?<

Focus on Communication ++ 1 strong, poAer&ul, &ierce, !ard, intense, toAering +/ 1 to *ump, to spring, to leap, to bounce, to bound +3 1 to close, to &asten, to s!ut, to loc0, to bolt, to bar +6 1 to realise, to &ancD, to guess, to &oretell, to divine, to &ind out +9 1 to lig!t, to 0indle, to sAitc! on, to stir up, to put on D2. A number of words ha-e been omitted from the following passage. ou should find appropriate words to complete the text. 0hen you ha-e done this' reBwrite the passage including these words$ #n t!e 4estern democracies emp!asis is laid on t!e &reedom o& t!e individual, bot! as a consumer and t!e oAner o& resources' (s a QQQQ!e e%presses !is c!oice o& goods t!roug! t!e price !e is Ailling to paD &or t!em' (s t!e oAner o& a &actor o& production "!is oAn labor$, !e see0s to obtain as large a QQQQas possible' #& !e Aants more o& t!e good t!an is being QQQQat t!e current price, !e Aill Lbid upM t!e price' (s a result, resources are attracted so t!at QQQQindustrD and supplD e%pands' 7n t!e ot!er !and, i& consumers do not Aant a particular good or service, its price &all, QQQQma0e a loss and resources leave t!e industrD' -!ere is no QQQQo& labor) people are &ree to Aor0 A!erever t!eD c!oose' -!e role o& government is simplD to correct anDQQQQ A!ic! mig!t develop in t!e sDstem' HoAever, 4estern governments do not settle &or a passive role' Rat!er t!eD ta0e it upon t!emselves to re-distribute QQQQincome, succour t!e sic0 and t!e underprivileged, generate national Aealt! and provide &or national de&ense' -o ac!ieve t!ese ends, t!eD are QQQQto raise ta%es &rom t!e population and in doing t!is t!eD are almost bound to become QQQQ' D(. Read the following passage carefully. #hen gi-e it a title and summarise it in about 1@@ words. -!e Aorld &aces an energD crisis in t!e not so distant &uture' For t!e time being, t!ere are plenti&ul supplies o& oil, but t!e situation Aill not last' 7il supplies are &inite, and A!at !appens A!en t!e AorldEs reserves are e%!austedG Fritain is comparativelD &ortunate' #t !as Bort! 2ea oil and gas, and t!eD Aill give sel&-su&&iciencD &or anot!er couple o& decades' #t also !as substantial reserves o& coal' (ccording to some estimates, t!ese reserves could last &or ot!er :@ Dears' -!at s!ould give Fritain a breat!ing space at least until alternative &orms o& energD are developed' -!ere is a AorldAide searc! &or neA sources o& energD' -!e government o& 2audi (rabia !as been ma0ing encouraging progress in t!e development o& solar energD' Plants t!eD !ave built in t!e desert are turning t!e race o& t!e sun into A!at can onlD be described as permanent sources o& energD' 2o success&ul !ave t!e e%periments been t!at A!en t!eD eventuallD run out o& oil 1 as run out o& oil t!eD must 1 t!eD Aill be sAitc!ing to an even more durable &orm o& energD' Bot onlD !as t!e government o& 2audi (rabia been Aor0ing !ard to develop solar energD, t!eD !ave also been Aor0ing !ard to convert t!e desert to ric! agricultural land' #mpossibleG FD no meansN Feneat! t!e (rabian esert lies an enormous Aater basin' -!e problem is to bring up t!ose Aater supplies &rom t!e boAels o& t!e eart!' HoA to do itG 2in0 Aells deep into t!e eart!, see0ing Aater t!is time instead o& oil' (s t!e Aater is draAn &rom t!e eart!, it is spread over t!e crops o& A!eat and vegetables and o& course t!eD &louris! in suc! an environment' Per!aps it is unrealistic to e%pect all governments to plaD suc! a positive role in t!e development o& t!eir economD and t!e long term Aellbeing o& t!eir people, but t!eD do set t!e standards bD A!ic! ot!er governments can be *udged'

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Focus on Communication D1. #ranslate the following sentences' using the -erbs to conduct' to direct' to dri-e' to guide' to lead' to see off$ a' b' c' d' e' &' g' !' i' *' Cine a condus aceast campanieG Condu-l a&ar pe domnul, te rog' Condu-m i arat-mi ce merit vzut pe aici' (re stil, conduce campania publicitar &oarte e&icient' Cc!ipa gazd conduce cu dou goluri la zero' Utii s conduciG (tunci condu-m, te rog, la gar' C%perienele acestea sunt greu de condus, sunt prea multe implicaii' 8-a condus pn la reuita &inal' -oate aceste urme ne conduc uor spre &ptai' #a-l de mn i condu-l s nu se rtceasc'

Qeep in mind the following phrases$ to conduct a campaignKlaA suitKpolicD) to conduct an orc!estra) to conduct electricitDK!eat) to direct t!e a&&airs) to direct a companDK&ilm) to drive a ve!icle) to guide oneEs steps) to lead bD t!e !and) to lead a partDKsection) to lead somebodD to do somet!ing) to lead in a matc!) to see o&& to t!e airportKstation'

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Focus on Communication

X. T8E OR2ANISATION
A. T)e intervie*. #t is not correct to consider as an intervieA a declaration made in a !urrD bD a personalitD or even a detailed discussion Ait! a specialist in a certain &ield' -!ese are conversations or materials &or documentation' #& it Aere so simple, t!e role o& t!e reporter Aould be t!at o& an investigator and !is Iuestions Aould be o& no use' -!e intervieA is a conversation, usuallD ta0ing place betAeen tAo persons, &or obtaining in&ormation &or t!e bene&it o& an unseen audience' #t is an in&ormational e%c!ange A!ic! provo0es a neA level o& understanding' A1. Read the following texts and comment upon them. #ry to accomplish an inter-iew of your own' on a social topic. 6ow do we choose a certain interlocutor in a certain moment7 -!e person occupies an important position' -!e person !as accomplis!ed somet!ing important' -!e person !as been accused o& serious Arongdoings' -!e person 0noAs somet!ing or somebodD important' -!e person !as Aitnessed an important event'

0hich is the purpose of accomplishing the inter-iew7 -o gat!er &acts' -o gat!er anecdotes' -o c!aracterise a situation' -o con&irm data Dou !ave alreadD gat!ered' -o prove t!at Dou !ave been t!ere'

6ow can you con-ince a person to speak7 (ppeal to t!e pride and !onestD o& t!e person' (ppeal to t!e personEs need to get to be 0noAn' (ppeal to t!e personEs capacitD to present a point o& vieA' (ppeal to t!e personEs need to use t!e opportunitD to clari&D a situation' (ppeal to t!e personEs need to ansAer t!e accusations o& !is opponents'

#he structure of an inter-iew$ -!e &unnel tDpe, beginning Ait! a general idea and coming doAn toAards details and particularities "resembling t!e court investigations$'

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Focus on Communication -!e reversed &unnel tDpe, beginning Ait! a verD Aell determined topic and enlarging toAards a general t!eme' -!e tunnel tDpe, gat!ering a series o& Iuestions grouped round a certain t!eme, in order to obtain rapid comments about an important event' -!e intervieA Ait! mas0ed order, in A!ic! t!e reporter tries to Lc!eatM t!e interlocutor bD alternating t!e easD and t!e di&&icult Iuestions' -!e intervieA Ait! &ree &orm, used A!en t!ere is no time limit and A!en t!e reporter Aants t!e interlocutor to e%press !is t!oug!ts &reelD'

0hich questions should not be asked7 ]uestions proving t!e absence o& documentation' 5ague, general Iuestions' .ore Iuestions in one sentence' 8ong Iuestions' C%planatorD Iuestions' HDpot!etical Iuestions' ]uestions Ait! enclosed ansAers' ]uestions Ait! JesKBo ansAers, alt!oug! Dou need an e%planation'

6ow to write the inter-iew. 4!en Ariting an intervieA t!e reporter s!ould select t!e necessarD in&ormation, give it t!e best &orm and correct t!e grammar and t!e stDle o& t!e oral discussion' -!e reporter s!ould not modi&D declarations, renounce certain pieces o& in&ormation A!ic! could c!ange t!e conte%t or provo0e meaning modi&ications'

A2. #ranslate the following text and then answer the questions below. 2oncei-e an inter-iew of your own with a professor from your faculty' on the theme of an international workshop organised by your faculty this year. BPentru +uncGi$n re d%ini#tr Giei 'u/!ice din R$%Hni > cun$ Itere e3'erienGei +r nce,e e#te uti!JC #nterviu cu dl' .ic!el aDnac, pro&esor la Pniversitatea de Utiine 2ociale din -oulouse - omnule aDnac, n primul rnd, spunei-ne cu ce ocazie ai venit la -imioara' - (m venit pentru un seminar organisat de Consiliul ;udeean -imi, privind problemele de dezvoltare economic local, seminar care este o parte dintr-o serie mai larg de seminarii "din care cteva s-au des&urat de*a$' (ceste sc!imburi, s le spunem, &ac parte din sc!imburile generale &ranco-romne, iar n particular ele sunt posibile datorit relaiilor ce e%ist ntre Pniversitatea din -oulouse i Consiliul ;udeean -imi' - Pentru c ai avut contacte cu reprezentani ai Consiliului ;udeean -imi, v-a ruga s caracterizai aceste ntlniri cu autoritile locale'

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Focus on Communication - (preciez &aptul c, la rndul lor, participanii la aceste seminarii i contacte au considerat util sc!imbul de e%perien' Pentru ca serviciile de administraie public din Romnia s &uncioneze normal, cunoaterea e%perienei &ranceze n domeniu a &ost, cred eu, &oarte interesant' (sta i dac inem seama de similitudinile dintre sistemul administrativ &rancez i cel romn' - Cum vedei pe viitor aceast colaborareG - in punctul meu de vedere, sunt &oarte interesat de aceste seminarii' -ocmai de aceea am acceptat un prim contact n domeniul meu de activitate' 8a o adic, a putea &oarte bine analiza anumite probleme crora specialitii dumneavoastr le caut nc rezolvarea' - n aceast sear ai avut un prim contact cu Ucoala de nalte 2tudii Curopene Comparative, mai precis cu viitori specialiti n probleme europene' Ce impresie v-au lsat cursaniiG - #mpresia lsat este una &oarte bun' (ceast con&erin 1 improvizat 1 la care am participat a &ost una cald, iar ntrebrile ce mi s-au pus au &ost &oarte interesante' 48Realitatea bEnENeanEM, mai +??9$ a$' 4!at could ma0e interesting t!e publication o& t!is intervieA, t!e topics o& t!is seminar) t!e !Dpot!esis t!at it Aould !ave been organised &or t!e &irst time) t!e &act t!at it is done Ait! a personalitD &rom abroad) - t!e &act t!at somet!ing important and Ait! real c!ances to be applied !as been decided on t!is occasion' b$' Re&ormulate or ma0e better t!e title' c$' Re&ormulate t!e &irst Iuestion and, implicitlD, t!e &irst ansAer' d$' 4!at else s!ould Ae !ave &ound out &rom t!is intervieAG e$' 4!at pieces o& in&ormation as0ed bD t!e reporter go beDond t!e topic announced in t!e titleG A(. #he negotiation and preparation of an inter-iew by the :R specialist. 4!en a reporter Aants to ta0e Dou an intervieA, Dou s!ould &olloA certain rules' Rule a. Adopt a 8public relations9 beha-ior$ be polite, !onest and !elp&ul) !ig!lig!t Dour need &or certain in&ormation) be pro&essional, control Dour be!avior, negotiate) avoid t!e unrecorded conversation) donEt saD t!ings Dou AouldnEt li0e to see Aritten or to !ear recorded) donEt saD LBo commentM) be calm'

Rule b. Guestions you should ask the reporter$ Jour name, pleaseG 4!om do Dou representG 4!ic! aspects are Dou interested inG +@/

Focus on Communication 4!at ot!er people Aould Dou li0e to tal0 about t!e sub*ect toG 4!at do Dou 0noA about our organisationG 4!ic! is t!e deadline &or Dour articleKneAsG Can # call Dou bac0 laterG Rule c. +upplementary elements for negotiation$ spea0 onlD about t!ose sub*ects Dou !ave previouslD agreed to tal0 about) send a C5 and supplementarD in&ormation about Dour organisation bD &a% or e-mail be&ore t!e intervieA) ma0e suggestions about ot!er e%perts related to t!e topics Dou discuss) i& t!e reporter Aants to record, negotiate be&ore t!e recording A!at Dou Aill saD) be brie&, Dour time is limited'

A1. 0rite a pro discourse and an against one about the ad-antages and the disad-antages of using the inter-iew' from the point of -iew of the !ournalistIfrom the point of -iew of the :R specialist. 0. P)r # ! Ver/# #n t!e Cnglis! language, A!ic! is a language Ait! verD developed vocabularD, p!rasal verbs are vital &or being able to e%press Doursel& and to understand A!at is said bD t!e ot!ers' -!eD enric! t!e language and Ae s!ould learn as manD as possible' 31. Remember the following -erbs with the particle own$ to be doAn Y a &i la pmnt, a avea depresie, a &i clcat n picioare to brea0 doAn Y a s&rma, a nimici, a strica, a se prbui, "despre sntate$ a se ubrezi to bring doAn Y a dobor, a reduce to come doAn Y a scdea, a reduce to get doAn Y a cobor to get doAn to Y a se apuca de to go doAn Y "despre preuri$ a scdea) "despre soare$ a apune to let doAn Y a cobor, a dezamgi, a lsa la anang!ie to loo0 doAn Y a privi de sus to pull doAn Y a drma, a slbi, a deprima to put doAn Y a nbui, a micora, a scrie, a nscrie to run doAn Y a de&ima, "despre autove!icule$ a clca to sit doAn Y a se aeza, a sta *os to step doAn Y a reduce, a prsi un post to turn doAn Y a respinge, a da *os, a dezamgi

32. 2omplete the sentences below with a suitable -erb' making sure that it fits grammatically into the sentence$ a' -!e an%ious !usband QQQQdoAn t!e door A!en !e smelt gas coming &rom t!e 0itc!en' +@3

Focus on Communication b' c' d' e' &' g' !' i' *' Prices o& all sportsAear are going to be QQQQbD /@[' -!e rebellious boD Aas told to QQQQdoAn to studDing bD !is concerned parents' -!e psDc!iatric nurse QQQQdoAn DesterdaD because o& t!e strain o& Aor0' -!e !Dpoc!ondriac got a s!oc0 t!e ot!er daD A!en !e QQQQdoAn Ait! &lu' -!at irresponsible Dout! Aas alAaDs QQQQdoAn !is parents until !e got married and le&t !ome' 7ur snobbis! neig!bour QQQQdoAn on us because Ae arenEt as Aell o&& as !e is' 7n t!e last daD, t!e boD scouts QQQQdoAn t!eir tents, pac0ed t!eir bags and caug!t t!e bus !ome' -!e insurance underAriter QQQQdoAn t!e details o& t!e accident on !is notepad' Fill Aas QQQQdoAn bD t!e police because !e Aas too s!ort'

F3. Rewrite the sentences' using a phrasal -erb with own' to produce the opposite meaning of the words in italics$ a' b' c' d' e' &' g' !' i' *' 4e all stood up A!en t!e managing director came in' -!e building societD !as set up a branc! in 4armsleD' #n&lation !as been rising steadilD since C!ristmas' 4!en Caroline !eard t!e terrible neAs, s!e remained calm' Rain Aas gentlD &alling' -!e teac!er IuietlD put t!e boo0 on t!e table' -!e companD Aill probablD Aant to publicise t!e results' -!e old ladD Aas adamant t!at !er cat s!ould be 0ept alive' (&ter t!ree daDs o& continuous bombardment, t!e 4!ite -oAer remained standing' Having Fruce to staD !as reallD c!eered me up'

C. T)e $r" ni# ti$n -!e organisation is a social sDstem in and t!roug! A!ic! people get in touc!, co-operate, in order to accomplis! common purposes' 21. Read' translate and comment upon the following text' gi-ing examples$ -!e simplest and most signi&icant classi&ication o& t!e organisations ta0es into account t!eir degree o& ordering' From t!is perspective, t!e organisations can be divided in tAo main tDpes, in+$r% ! and +$r% ! ones' (s it is !ard to &ind pure &orms, eac! organisation comprising bot! informal and formal parts, it is more proper to analDze t!e in&ormal level and t!e &ormal level o& an organisation' #he informal le-el of an organisation is constituted bD t!e spontaneous, inde&inite relations betAeen its members' -!e norms and regulations o& t!e organisation are spontaneouslD agreed upon and are not imposed, so t!at t!e degree o& acceptance is !ig!' 2imilarlD, t!e members o& t!e organisation can adopt an in&ormal leader, A!ic! is not t!e &ormal and o&&icial one, A!o !as moral aut!oritD t!roug! !is or !er abilitD to establis! stimulative relations' #he formal le-el of an organisation ta0es into account t!e o&&icial structure, clearlD de&ined t!roug! t!e description o& t!e establis!ment and be!avioural norms, o& t!e roles and relations betAeen t!e members o& t!e organisation "o& poAer, aut!oritD and responsibilitD$, t!roug! t!e speci&ication o& t!e leaders, t!e !ierarc!D, t!e conditions o& access into and Iuitting t!e organisation'

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Focus on Communication 8u")e# identi&ies &ive di&&erent tDpes o& organisations occurring in contemporarD societies, according to their purpose$ v$!unt r7 ##$ci ti$n# "religious, scienti&ic, etc'$) %i!it r7 $r" ni# ti$n#) c) ritie# "social assistance organisations$) c$r'$r ti$n# "industrial and &inancial organisations5K + %i!7 $r" ni# ti$n# "small enterprises, .a&ia$'

0! u nd Sc$tt propose a ta%inomD in &ive tDpes ' according to the clients' the persons who benefit from the specific organisation acti-ity$ $r" ni# ti$n# $+ %utu ! /ene+it, A!ic! !ave as bene&iciaries subscribers and members "political parties, trade unions, clubs$) /u#ine## $r" ni# ti$n#, A!ic! !ave as main bene&iciaries oAners and managers "&irms, ban0s, insurance companies, s!ops$) $r" ni# ti$n# 'r$vidin" #ervice#, A!ic! !ave as bene&iciaries clients "!ospitals, sc!ools, social securitD agencies, emploDment agencies$) 'u/!ic $r" ni# ti$n# *it) ! r"e udience "state institutions, armD, police, &iremen$'

A%it i Et,i$ni classi&ies t!e organisations according to the beha-ior of the organisation&s members, establis!ing a 0ind o& con&ormist be!avior, o& ad!erence to t!e purposes and t!e speci&ic o& t!e organisation' People !aving poAer over t!eir subordinates e%ercise it t!roug! punis!ment, reAard or norms' -!us, t!e members o& t!e organisation adopt a con&ormist be!avior, o& submission to punis!ment, reAard or norms' Ctzioni classi&ies t!e organisations a&ter t!e tDpes o& con&ormation, establis!ing t!ree dual structures "betAeen t!e leaders and t!e people A!o are led$, 'uni#)in" $r" ni# ti$n# "prisons, concentration camps$) uti!it ri n $r" ni# ti$n# "&irms, researc! institutes, &arms, militarD organisations on peace time$) n$r% tive $r" ni# ti$n# "c!urc!es, !ospitals, sc!ools, pro&essional organisations$'

-!e dual structures !ave as conseIuences t!e &olloAing combinations$ 'uni#)in"?n$r% tive $r" ni# ti$n# "armD$) uti!it ri n?n$r% tive $r" ni# ti$n# "almost all structures$) uti!it ri n?'uni#)in" $r" ni# ti$n# "traditional agricultural and industrial corporations$'

22. >rganisational decision making. +ummarise the following paragraphs and compare the conclusions they reach$ a' ecision-ma0ing ordinarilD presumes an ordering o& t!e con&usions o& li&e' -!e classic ideas o& order in organisations involve tAo closelD related concepts' First, it is assumed t!at events and activities can be ordered in c!ains o& means and ends' 4e associate action Ait! its conseIuences, +@9

Focus on Communication and participate in ma0ing decisions in order to produce intended outcomes' -!us, conseIuential relevance arranges t!e relation betAeen solutions and problems and t!e participation o& t!e decision ma0ers, second, it is assumed t!at organisations are !ierarc!ies in A!ic! !ig!er levels control loAer levels and in A!ic! policies control implementation' 7bservations o& actual organisations suggest a more con&using picture' (ctions in one part o& an organisation appear onlD looselD coupled to actions in anot!er' 2olutions seem to !ave onlD a vague connection to problems' Policies arenEt implemented' (nd decision ma0ers seem to Aander in and out o& decision arenas' -!e A!ole process !as been described as a 0ind o& &unnD soccer game, 2onsider a round' sloped' multiBgoal soccer field on which indi-iduals play soccer. )any different people 4but not e-eryone5 can !oin the game 4or lea-e it5 at different times. +ome people can throw balls into the game or remo-e them. *ndi-iduals' while they are in the game' try to kick whate-er ball comes near them in the direction of goals they like and away from goals they wish to a-oid. isorderliness in organisations !as led some people to argue t!at t!ere is verD little order to organisational decision ma0ing' ( more conservative position, !oAever, is t!at t!e AaDs in A!ic! organisations bring order to disorder is less !ierarc!ical and less a collection o& means-ends c!ains t!at is anticipated bD conventional t!eories' -!ere is order, but it is not t!e conventional order' #n particular, it is argued t!at anD decision process involves a collection o& individuals and groups A!o are simultaneouslD involved in ot!er t!ings' Pnderstanding decisions in one arena reIuires an understanding o& !oA t!ose decisions &it into t!e lives o& participants' -!e logic o& order is temporal' Problems, solutions, and decision ma0ers &it toget!er because t!eD are available at t!e same time' -!us, decisions depend on attention, and important elements o& t!e distribution o& attention are e%ogenous to anD speci&ic decision process' b' .ost t!eories o& c!oice assume t!at a decision process is to be understood in terms o& its outcomes, t!at decision ma0ers enter t!e process in order to a&&ect outcomes, and t!at t!e point o& li&e is c!oice' -!e emp!asis is instrumental, and t!e central conceit is t!e notion o& decision signi&icance' 2tudies o& organisations, on t!e ot!er !and, seem o&ten to describe a set o& processes t!at ma0e little sense in suc! terms' #n&ormation t!at is ostensiblD gat!ered &or a decision is o&ten ignored' #ndividuals &ig!t &or t!e rig!t to participate in a decision process, but t!en do not e%ercise t!at rig!t' 2tudies o& managerial time persistentlD indicate t!at verD little time is spent in ma0ing decisions' Rat!er, managers seem to spend time meeting people and ma0ing managerial per&ormances' Contentiousness over t!e policies o& an organisation is o&ten &olloAed bD apparent indi&&erence about t!eir implementation' -!ese anomalous observations appear to re&lect, at least in part, t!e e%tent to A!ic! organisational decision processes are onlD partlD concerned Ait! ma0ing decisions. M rc) nd O!#en observe, 8*ndeed' the acti-ity within a choice situation may be explicable only if we recogni/e the other ma!or things that take place within the same arena at the same time. A choice process pro-ides an occasion for a number of other things' most notably$ an occasion for executing standard operating procedures' and fulfilling roleBexpectations' duties' or earlier commitmentsK an occasion for defining -irtue and truth' during which the organisation disco-ers or interprets what has happened to it' what it has been doing' what it is going to do' and what !ustifies its actionsK an occasion for distributing glory or blame for what has happened in the organisation' and thus' an occasion for exercising' challenging and reaffirming friendship and trust relationships' antagonisms' power or status relationshipsK +@:

Focus on Communication an occasion for expressing and disco-ering 8selfBinterest9 and 8group interests9' for sociali/ation' and for recruiting 4to organisational positions' or to informal groups5K an occasion for ha-ing a good time' for en!oying the pleasures connected to taking part in a choice situation. #he se-eral acti-ities are neither mutually exclusi-e nor mutually inconsistent. #hey are aspects of most choice situations and illustrate their complexity. Decisions are a stage for many dramas9. ecision ma0ing is an arena &or sDmbolic action, &or developing and en*oDing an interpretation o& li&e' -!e rituals o& c!oice in&use organisations Ait! an appreciation o& t!e sensibilitD o& organisational arrangements and be!avior' -!eD tie routine organisational events to belie& about t!e nature o& t!ings' -!e rituals give meaning, and meaning in&orms li&e' -!e meanings involved in decision ma0ing in an organisation maD be as grand as t!e central ideologD o& a societD committed to reason and participation' 7r t!eD maD be as local as t!e ego needs o& individuals or groups Ait!in t!e organisation' 2(. 2omplete the following text about Executi-e Directors with the words below$ ( modern business enterprise is o&ten a QQQQ sDstem reIuiring a lot o& QQQQ, A!ic! is provided bD t!e public A!en t!eD QQQQ s!ares in t!e companD' 2ince t!eD !ave QQQQ t!e capital, it is appropriate t!at t!eD c!oose t!e people A!o are to QQQQ t!e companD &or t!em, namelD t!e board o& directors' .anD o& t!e QQQQ also !ave e%ecutive responsibilities' -!us, a mar0eting director maD be a &ull director o& t!e board, QQQQ bD t!e s!are!olders at t!e annual QQQQ meeting li0e t!e ot!er directors' Jet !e mig!t also be responsible &or t!e daD-to-daD QQQQ o& t!e mar0eting department' .ost o& !is time Aill be QQQQ on administrative matters, organising mar0et researc!, dealing Ait! QQQQ and generallD ensuring t!at t!e QQQQ sales are ma%imised' Fut !e Aill &unction as a director A!en t!e board o& directors meets' -!e QQQQ o& managing director also QQQQ t!e roles o& c!ie& e%ecutive Ait! members!ip o& t!e board and t!is alloAs !im to act as a vital QQQQ betAeen t!e board o& directors and t!eir QQQQ management team' -!e managing director is also c!airman o& t!e board o& directors' C%ecutive directors !ave t!e advantage t!at t!eD are QQQQ involved Ait! t!e QQQQ a&&airs' #& t!e board o& directors Ais! to move in a QQQQ direction, t!e e%ecutive directors Aill 0noA A!et!er suc! a QQQQ o& action is practicable' For e%ample, t!e board mig!t Ais! to QQQQ t!eir products in a particular QQQQ mar0et' -!e mar0et Aould be pro&itable &or t!e companD, but t!e QQQQ director 0noAs t!at !is team o& salespeople lac0 t!e e%perience to ta0e advantage o& t!e situation' 7r per!aps t!e board Aould li0e to QQQQ t!e advertising e%penditure during t!e QQQQ Dear but t!e QQQQ director 0noAs t!at t!e companD Aill !ave to meet some !eavD commitments during t!e QQQQ mont!s and it Aould be better to QQQQ t!e campaign' Per!aps t!e best board is one A!ic! contains a QQQQ o& e%ecutive and non-e%ecutive directors' #n t!is AaD t!e board !as t!e QQQQ o& some directors A!o 0noA t!e practical problems QQQQ bD t!e business, A!ile ot!ers bring t!eir oAn QQQQ to e%pertise to t!e boardroom discussions' 0ords$

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Focus on Communication lin0, increase, capital, certain, combines, bene&it, general, directors, companDEs, delaD, provided, mi%ture, course, appointed, advertising, management, activelD, sell, run, brand, coming, mar0eting, comple%, post, coming, companDEs, spent, overseas, &aced, &inancial, buD, appointed' 21. #ranslate the following organisation charts' discuss their structures and gi-e examples$
Foard o& irectors

C!airperson Z .anaging irector

M r1etin" Direct$r

Pr$ducti$n M n "er

Per#$nne! M n "er

Fin nci ! Direct$r

7verseas 2ales .anager

.ar0et Researc! .anager

Recruitment 7&&icer

4el&are 7&&icer

P'T' 2ales .anager

-raining 7&&icer

( 8ine F 8ine .anager .anager

C 8ine C!ie& Cost .anager Cngineer (ccountant

Computer 4ages Fudget C!ie& .anager 7&&icer 7&&icer (ccountant

#he Department for *nformation and :ublic Relations 4D*:R5$


C!ie& o& #PR eputD C!ie& o& -!e epartment &or Co-ordination o& Communication and Public Relations Head o& epartment 7&&ice &or (nalDsis (nd Communication Planning 7&&ice &or Relations Ait! Public (dministration and Civil 2ocietD 7&&ice &or Communication Cvaluation and .ass .edia #PR -!e epartment &or Press and Public #n&ormation 2po0esman (dministrative2ecretariate 7&&ice

Head o& epartment Press 7&&ice 7&&ice &or #nternational #n&ormation 7&&ice &or 2Dnt!eses and #n&ormation

ata Processing 7&&ice

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Focus on Communication

D. V$c /u! r7 Pr ctice D1. Do the following exercises' paying attention to the way in which you express things. #ry to write as refined and elegant as you can. <se as many phrasal -erbs as you know' matching them in the suitable contexts. a. Ask questions to recei-e the following answers. +ay in which situation you could ha-e these samples of dialogues. # imagine it Aas di&&icult to get used to it' #t Aas verD stupid o& me to lose Dour !at' He believes t!at DouEve *ust stepped on !is toe' -!eD saD DouEve spo0en ill o& !er' -!eD con&essed t!at t!eD !ad never seen a dressing table' b. +how your agreement or disagreement with the following statements. Explain your choice in brief essays. De-elop your answers in longer compositions' gi-ing examples from the real' concrete life for each situation. He !ad alAaDs !ad an odd &ancD &or cloc0s' # believe in g!osts' -!e Aorst t!ings in t!e Aorld are t!e gnats and t!e Aeeds' Fen ;o!nson Aas not onlD a verD good coo0 but also a s0ill&ul musician' # Aould rat!er be a barber t!an a Ariter' D2. 2hoose the word or phrase that best keeps the meaning of the original sentence if it is substituted for the underlined word or phrase$ +' a' b' c' d' /' a' b' c' d' Flamingos Aere about to !ave died out until laAs Aere passed to protect t!em' become con&ined become e%tinct become in&ected become de&ormed Caves are o&ten &ormed bD selective Aearing aAaD o& cli&&s bD t!e sea' erosion evasion e%tension eradication

3' (ll drin0s t!at include sacc!arin must be mar0ed Ait! a Aarning label because sacc!arin maD cause cancer' a' pac0ages b' medications +@?

Focus on Communication c' beverages d' desserts 6' a' b' c' d' 9' a' b' c' d' 8i0e sna0es, manD insects groA up bD t!roAing aAaD t!eir s0in several times' digesting stretc!ing discarding mending ( c!ance sample can o&ten provide in&ormation about a larger population' prudent genuine random modi&ied

D(. #ranslate the following text and then answer the questions$ -!e nuclear &amilD, consisting o& a mot!er, &at!er and t!eir c!ildren maD be more an (merican ideal t!an an (merican realitD' 7& course, t!e so-called traditional (merican &amilD Aas alAaDs more varied t!an Ae !ad been led to believe, re&lecting t!e verD di&&erent racial, et!nic, class and religious customs among di&&erent (merican groups' -!e most recent government statistics reveal t!at onlD about one t!ird o& all current (merican &amilies &it t!e traditional mold and anot!er t!ird consists o& married couples A!o eit!er !ave no c!ildren or !ave none still living at !ome' 7& t!e &inal one t!ird, about /@[ o& t!e total number o& (merican !ouse!olds are single people, usuallD Aomen over :9 Dears o& age' ( small percentage, about 3[ o& t!e total, consists o& unmarried people A!o c!oose to live toget!er) and t!e rest, about < [, are single, usuallD divorced parents Ait! at least one c!ild' -odaD, t!ese varied &amilD tDpes are tDpical and t!ere&ore normal' (pparentlD, manD (mericans are ac!ieving supportive relations!ips in &amilD &orms ot!er t!an t!e traditional one' Guestions$ 4it! A!at topic is t!e passage mainlD concernedG 4!at does t!e aut!or implD about t!e (merican &amilDG HoA manD single people Aere identi&ied in t!e surveDG 4!o generallD constitutes a one person !ouse!oldG D1. #ranslate the following sentences' using the -erbs to breed' to grow' to increase' to raise' to rear$ +' /' 3' 6' 9' :' <' =' 8-au crescut cu greu, erau &oarte sraci n tineree' C un tip bine crescut, distins i politicos' Hai s-l vizitm, e un cunoscut cresctor de cini' ntotdeauna i-am admirat pentru &elul cum i-au crescut copiii' (u rase selecionate, se ocup de mult de creterea cailor' -uritii s-au prezentat la biroul lor n numr crescnd' e ce nu ncerci s creti ceva n grdina aceea enormG -rebuie s cretem cantitatea de mr&uri livrate &irmei lor' ++@

Focus on Communication ?' Cresc animale din tat n &iu. +@' 5nzrile din luna aceasta au crescut simitor' Remember the following phrases$ to breed dogsK!orsesKs!eep) an ill-bredKAell-bred man) to groA cornKvegetables) to groA in bul0KIuantitD) to groA in Aisdom) to increase developmentKintensitDKproductionKpoAer) to raise cattleKa &amilDKsalarDKprices) to rear c!ic0enKpigsKc!ildren'

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Focus on Communication XI. T8E IMA2E OF T8E POLITICIAN A. Me%$#> re'$rt#> ne*#re!e #e#. -!e internal and e%ternal communication o& an organisation are vital &or its &unctioning, t!at is A!D Ae s!ould 0noA certain rules o& conceiving t!e Aritten messages in several standard &orms' A1. #he internal information. )emoranda. Read the following text and comment upon the utility of such documents. Remember the rules of concei-ing a memorandum. ( memorandum mig!t be described as an internal note "or letter$ circulating Ait!in an organisation' ]uite o&ten t!e memorandum Aill be !andAritten' Cac! organisation Aill !ave its oAn design &or memoranda "t!e plural &or memorandum$, but a tDpical &ormat is s!oAn beloA' (lp!a Cngineering Co 8td -o >ra!am olbD C!ie& 2a&etD 7&&icer /9t! 2ept' +??c Su/:ectE Accident t$ @u!i St7!e# # !ave been as0ed to prepare a report &or t!e .anaging irector and need to 0noA A!at instructions t!ere are &or Aelders c!anging gas canisters' -!ere seem to be con&lict accounts o& A!at actuallD !appened' Can Dou see me be&ore -!ursdaD i& possibleG Please, give mD secretarD a ring to &i% a mutuallD convenient time' .emoranda are used &or a varietD o& reasons, but tend to be in&ormal and brie&, A!ic! e%plains A!D t!e &orms are o&ten printed in t!e smaller paper sizes' -!eD need to be addressed su&&icientlD to enable t!em to land on t!e rig!t des0 a&ter going t!roug! an internal mailing sDstem, and t!e date and t!e initials "i& not t!e signature$ o& t!e originator are essential' )emoranda might be used to$ see0 in&ormation or cooperation) give instructions or advice) o&&er ideas and suggestions) noti&D, clari&D and e%plain events A!ic! !ave occurred. -!e tDpe o& memorandum s!oAn !ere is an alternative to t!e telep!one message' .ost internal communication in organisations is &ace-to-&ace or bD telep!one, but A!en t!ese avenues are closed &or one reason or anot!er "per!aps t!e person Dou are trDing to contact is Lout o& o&&iceM or ot!erAise unavailable$, t!e memorandum comes into plaD' #ncreasinglD in modern o&&ices des0top visual displaD units "5 Ps$ are used to conveD in&ormation &rom one part o& t!e organisation to anot!er, and t!is !as t!e e&&ect o& reducing t!e &loA o& paper' ++/ .emorandum From Peter Robinson Personnel .anager

Focus on Communication A2.#he internal information. Reports. Read the following text and comment upon the importance of such documents. Remember the rules of writing a report. Report -o .r' C' Houseman 4or0s .anager From Conn .cFride 2upervisor "4elding 2ection$ /9t! 2eptember +??c

Re$ Accident to Aulia +tyles (s reIuested # !ave loo0ed into t!e circumstances o& t!e accident t!at !appened to ;ulia' # understand t!e purpose o& t!is report is to ascertain A!et!er s!e can claim against (lp!a Cngineering "or its #nsurance CompanD$ &or t!e in*uries s!e received' Cause o& accident #t seems t!at A!en !er gas canister ran drD, ;ulia Aent to t!e reloading baD in compliance Ait! t!e normal sa&etD drill, but A!en s!e Aent bac0 to t!e Aor0station s!e &ound t!e neA canister mal&unctioning' 2!e t!en plaDed Ait! t!e &astening nut to tig!ten it, but instead loosened it' (s a result, some o& t!e liIuid gas spread on to t!e &lame o& a Aor0mateEs gun' Result o& t!e accident -!e bloA bac0 &rom t!e na0ed &lame to t!e mal&unctioning canister caused t!e casing to crac0 and release t!e rest o& t!e gas' -!ere Aas a massive e%plosion and, alt!oug! ;ulia !ad t!rust t!e canister aAaD &rom !ersel& *ust be&ore it !appened, !er !air caug!t &ire and t!e le&t !and side o& !er &ace Aas badlD burned' ( Aelding gun and some aluminium casings Aere completelD destroDed' #n*uries incurred # !ave visited ;ulia tAice in !ospital' -!e &irst time s!e Aas !ardlD able to spea0, but A!en # saA !er DesterdaD s!e Aas recovering' 2!e Aas com&orted bD t!e neAs &rom t!e doctor t!at t!eD Aould be able to repair all t!e damage Ait! t!e aid o& plastic surgerD' (pparentlD, t!ere Aill be no permanent scars' Conclusion # cannot see t!at ;ulia Aas in anD AaD to blame &or t!e accident, but on a strict interpretation o& t!e rules applied in t!e 4elding 2ection, s!e s!ould !ave gone to t!e reloading baD to ad*ust t!e gas canister' #he report is usually reser-ed for the more important deliberations. #he matters considered are likely to be more complex and the contents aimed at helping management to make rational decisions. +till on the sub!ect of the accident to Aulia +tyles' the 0orks )anager has asked for a full report on the accident from the super-isor in the 0elding +ection. #he accident would ha-e been reported in the official logbook for accidents.

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Focus on Communication D teATi%e //nd 2ept' aD .ondaD Accident ,og 3ook epartment 4or0er involved 4elding ;ulia 2tDles Bature o& accident >as canister e%ploded' 4or0er burned &ace and !ands' -a0en to !ospital'

#he entries in this log are -ery important as the accident would ha-e to be reported to the appropriate authorities. ;or example' a formal report arising from the accident might be presented to the 0orks )anager at Alpha by the super-isor in the 0elding +ection where the accident happened. A(. #he external information. %ewsreleases. BeAsreleases can comprise roug! in&ormation, as t!at regarding an appointment &or a position or t!e &oundation o& a neA department in an organisation, or t!eD can be articles presenting a neA product, a neA client, an event' -!e main di&&erence betAeen an article in a neAspaper and t!e neAsrelease is t!e structure' -!e neAsrelease s!ould be muc! more concise and t!e &inal paragrap! s!ould contain precise in&ormation, &or e%ample, LQingsford :roducts is a subsidiary of the 2lorox 2ompany. 6a-ing headquarters in >akland' 2alifornia' 2lorox produces food for the American marketM' Ne*#re!e #e T)e n %e $+ t)e c!ient nd it# 'u/!ic c$$rdin te# "(ddress, telep!one number, &a%, email, !ome page, etc'$ D te $+ i##uin" D te Re!ev nt tit!e> indicating t!e topic T)e '! ce *)ere t)e rtic!e c$%e# +r$% C$ntent & t)e +ir#t ' r "r ') & containing t!e most important elements o& t!e neAs - t)e $t)er ' r "r ')# & gradual details (t t!e end o& eac! page t!ere s!ould be Aritten Lto be continuedM' -!e main Iualities o& a neArelease are precision and claritD' Ne*#$% nd C rre!! distinguis! &our tDpes o& neAsreleases, announcements' short news' replies and presentations' #he announcement tDpe is verD o&ten used bD t!e PR agencies' -!eD seem not to !ave onlD commercial contents' #he short news tDpe appear in t!e periods A!en t!e client is in a crisis' #he replies contain speci&ic in&ormation as an ansAer to t!e pressure o& t!e public opinion, Iuestions or accusations' :resentations are neAsreleases but t!eD are more t!an a roug! accounting o& &acts' -!en, t!e PR agent s!ould be!ave li0e a reporter !imsel&, searc!ing &or t!e most interesting approac!'

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Focus on Communication A1. Exercises$ a' Peter Robinson, t!e Personnel .anager at (lp!a, !as called &or a meeting o& !is sta&& ne%t FridaD a&ternoon at 3 p'm' Jou are a member o& !is team but !ave arranged to visit a couple o& local sc!ools on FridaD, !oping to recruit some neA clerical sta&&' Jou are not sure !oA long t!is Aill ta0e and mig!t not be able to get to t!e meeting until later' ra&t a memorandum to t!e Personnel .anager e%plaining t!e situation' b' Having received t!e report on t!e accident, t!e 4or0s .anager Aants t!e supervisor to ma0e sure all t!e Aelders &olloA t!e sa&etD rules in t!e &uture' He also Aants to 0noA t!e address o& t!e !ospital and t!e visiting !ours so !e can go and see !er' -a0ing into account t!e guidelines &or a report "conciseness, precision, t!e use o& !eadings and sub!eadings, t!e use o& title and sub*ect speci&ications, t!e use o& conclusions and recommendations$ Dou are as0ed to dra&t a proper memorandum &or !im to sign' c' 4rite a neAsrelease on t!e topic o& t!e c!ange o& t!e >eneral .anager in t!e &irm in A!ic! Dou Aor0' 0. P)r # ! Ver/# 31. Remember the following phrasal -erbs with in and into. )aken sentences with each of them' using them in the most suitable contexts. )ake comparisons between the meaning of the phrasal -erb and the meaning of the 8mother9 -erbs. to brea0 in Y a se bga n vorb to brea0 into Y a intra ntr-o cas prin e&racie to bring in Y a duce "un venit$ to do in Y a e%ecuta, a lic!ida to drop in Y a trece pe la cineva to &ill in Y a completa "un &ormular$ to get in Y a intra, a strnge, a recpta, a plasa, a nva to get into Y a ptrunde, a se deprinde cu to give in Y a nmna to give into Y a se da btut n &aa unor argumente to go in Y a intra, a sosi to go in &or Y a se prezenta la un e%amen, a se ocupa de ceva to go into Y a intra n, a se implica n to pull in Y a veni, a sosi "despre mi*loace de transport$ to read in Y a introduce date n calculator to ring in Y a anuna sosirea cuiva to run in Y a conduce la poliie, a aresta, a alege un candidat, a roda o main to ta0e in Y a po&ti nuntru, a nela, a strmta "despre !aine$ to turn in Y a trans&orma, a presc!imba, a se culca

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Focus on Communication to turn into Y a trans&orma n, a deveni

32. 2omplete each of the sentences below with a suitable -erb' making sure that it fits grammatically into the sentence$ a' b' c' d' e' &' g' !' i' *' He QQQQinto t!e &iling cabinet and !elped !imsel& to t!e top secret documents' QQQQin t!e ne%t laDbD' #Ed li0e to get out and stretc! mD legs &or a bit' -!eD saD t!eDEll QQQQin t!e !ostage i& t!e ransom isnEt paid bD tomorroA' (nd a&ter t!e gameEs over, # maD QQQQin &or a cup o& co&&ee' Jou mig!t trD .rs' 4illoA across t!e road' 2!e QQQQin lodgers' Bo matter !oA cruel and o&&ensive Dou are to me, # AonEt QQQQin and give Dou a divorce' (s soon as !eEd QQQQin t!e coupon, !e Aent out to post it' C%cluding overtime paD, !oA muc! do Dou QQQQin a Aee0G C%cuse me, A!at time does t!e 8ondon to .anc!ester train QQQQinG 4!en DouEve &inis!ed Ariting QQQQin t!e test paper to t!e invigilator'

3(. Add it where necessary to the following sentences' and say what it means or might mean$ a' b' c' d' e' &' g' !' i' *' Here is t!e !air-drDer' Jou can plug in over t!ere' -!e door Aas &lung open and >loria burst in' #Ell probablD staD in tonig!t as #Eve got a cold' Have Dou &inis!ed t!e reportG Hand in tomorroA, please' Rol& pulled in &or petrol at t!e motorAaD services' -!e neA cler0 needs to be t!e rig!t sort o& person to &it in !ere' # donEt t!in0 poor .rs' >ates can ta0e all in' 4ell, # give inN #Ell do A!atever Dou li0eN -!at !orse is completelD Aild' JouEll !ave to brea0 inN #& DouEd li0e a li&t, get inN

C. T)e i% "e $+ t)e P$!itici n (mong t!e c!aracters o& t!e modern Aorld, t!e politician is admired and !ated, made responsible &or all t!e bad parts o& our social li&e and praised &or t!e evolution and t!e accomplis!ments o& t!e state' (s specialists in t!e &ield o& public relations, Dou s!ould 0noA almost everDt!ing about t!e building-up o& !is image' 21. Answer the following questions in little essays ha-ing no more than 1@@ words$ a' 4!at Romanian politician Aould Dou li0e to consider &or being part in !isK!er public relations teamG b' #& Dou Aere a politician, A!ere Aould Dou start Dour image building campaign &romG 4!at slogan Aould Dou useG c' 4!ic! tDpe o& media do Dou t!in0 is t!e most important in a political campaignG 4!DG d' 4!en establis!ing t!e agenda &or t!e political campaign, A!ic! part o& Romania s!ould a politician startG 4!DG e' 4!ic! events Aould Dou introduce, as a possible image builder, in t!e program o& t!e politician Dou adviseG #n A!at orderG 4!DG ++:

Focus on Communication &' 4!at do Dou t!in0 about t!e et!ics o& a political campaignG 22. Read and translate the following text about the image of the politician' comment upon it and try to gi-e examples for the situations described$ #t is a &ive-minute biograp!ical &ilm, one t!at manD (mericans vieAed on t!eir -5s earlD in t!e +?=@ presidential campaign' #t opens Ait! Ronald Reagan accepting !is partDEs nomination' ( &las!bac0 ta0es t!e vieAer to pictures o& t!e candidateEs Dout! in 8America&s heartland' smallBtown *llinois9' to HollDAood A!ere Ronald Reagan attracted audiences because !e Aas 8so clearly one of themM, to !is 4orld 4ar ## militarD record, to ReaganEs Aor0 as 8dedicated union manM and, t!en, to !is success as Cali&orniaEs governor a&ter ta0ing over L a state in crisisM' -!e overall message$ 8.o-ernor Reagan dealt with 2alifornia&s problems. 6e will do as much for the nation9. -!ere Aas not!ing particularlD unusual about t!e Reagan -5 ad' Candidates &or public o&&ice routinelD emploD a varietD o& spot advertising, mini-documentaries, lengt!D biograp!ical s0etc!es, televised toAn meetings, call-in radio s!oAs, and ot!er electronic devices to campaign' 7t!er propaganda pops up in broc!ures, neAspaper advertising, Dard signs, lapel buttons, bumper stic0ers, even 1 Aould Dou believeG 1 on toilet paper' Considerable time, moneD and artistic talent is e%pended on convincing voters t!at eac! candidate is a man or Aoman &or all seasons, capable o& anDt!ing t!e times, situation and constituents demandQ "2andidates, o& course, are in a position to act out t!eir &antasies' -!eD dramatise t!eir &antasies bD creating r!etorical visions' -!ese visions appear over and over again in eac! candidateEs propaganda' Cac! speec!, broc!ure, position paper, slogan, -5 or radio advertisement and so on is a care&ullD cra&ted e&&ort to portraD t!e candidateEs r!etorical vision' 2uc! cra&ting is an artistic enterprise' Hence, campaign propaganda can be regarded as an e%ample o& &antastic art, t!at is, t!e use o& artistic devices to promote a candidateEs r!etorical vision o& !is presidencD' #& success&ul, t!e candidateEs &antasD c!ains out to become t!e neAs mediaEs and t!e votersE &antasD as Aell' Campaign propaganda aims at mediating tAo closelD related, overlapping &antasies . ;irst' propaganda constructs fantasies about the candidate' his qualities' qualifications' program and destiny. +econd' propaganda mediates realities about the nature of the world' the array of forces' dangers' threats and enemies that must be confronted and -anquished. #he linkage of the two fantasies is essential' that is' the destiny of the candidate becomes the destiny of the political world. (n entire industrD noA e%ists to construct suc! &antasies, cra&t appropriate propagandistic arti&acts &or t!em, and espouse eac! candidateEs r!etorical vision' -!is industrD o& L propartistsM consists o& specialists Ait! a varietD o& s0ills' -!ere are, &or instance, organisers, &und raisers, pollsters, -5 producers, &ilmma0ers, advertisers, public relations personnel, press secretaries, !airstDlists and all manner o& consultants' -!e industrD !as developed an aest!etic stDle consistent Ait! t!e artistrD o& modern advertising' -Ao devices in t!at artistrD are particularlD 0eD mec!anisms, positioning t!e candidate and &as!ioning t!e image' #n commercial advertising positioning places a product at a particular point or Ait! a particular stance as a means o& distinguis!ing it &rom competing products t!at, in substance, are stri0inglD similar to t!e product being !uc0stered' -!e attempt is to carve out a s!are o& t!e mar0et' Fut it is not t!e uniIue traits or Iualities in!erent in t!e product t!at are stressed' Rat!er, advertisers mold a picture o& t!e product as distinct because o& t!e people A!o buD or consume it' Consider beers' .anD are indistinguis!able in taste, but -5 ads alert us t!at .iller 8ite is &avored bD &ormer at!letes, 2c!litz is t!e cool and toug! breA o& mac!o ;ames Coburn and Batural 8ite is t!e &avorite o& discerning Aomen' BoA consider candidates' #n +?<:, ;immD Carter and !is team conceived a ++<

Focus on Communication success&ul pre-campaign scenario o& t!e neAs media, ;immD CarterEs pollster, Pat Caddell, advised against CarterEs positioning !imsel& on t!e liberalKconservative continuum, Caddell noted t!at !is polls indicated a large portion o& (mericans Aere disenc!anted Ait! government and Ait! t!e &ailure o& t!e politicians, liberal or conservative, to solve problems' He advised Carter to position !imsel& as t!e anti-4as!ington candidate' Carter did, carved out a A!ole neA mar0et, and ended up Ait! t!e nomination' Positioning puts a candidate in a place to run &rom in a campaign' #mage ma0ing is A!at t!e candidate runs as' -!e progress is not one-AaD' 5otersE impressions on candidatesE Iualities derive onlD in part &rom campaign propaganda) !oA voters contrast t!e candidateEs &antasies Ait! t!eir oAn ma0es a di&&erence' ( !ouse!old cleanser or tras! bag maD position itsel& to carve out a mar0et segment, but i& L3ig 0allyM or t!e Lman from .ladM does not con&orm to A!at t!e pop song calls Ldreams o& t!e everDdaD !ouseAi&eM, t!e desired image maD not &olloA' Fas!ioning image t!emes t!at stri0e responsive c!ords reIuires s0ill, resources and luc0' #n +?=@, Ait! varDing degrees o& success, t!e process gave us >eorge Fus! *ogging A!ile !e Aaved and tal0ed, to remind voters t!at !e Aas not li0e t!e older Reagan) ;o!n F' (nderson telling t!at !e Aas a 8candidate with ideas9' to mar0 !imsel& o&& &rom t!e republican pac0) and ;immD Carter dramatising !imsel& as LmoralM and La good &amilD manM, to denote !e Aas no TennedD' 2(. 2ase study$ <dall and the *owa caucuses. 2omment the situation' discuss the weak points of the campaign and try to find a similar example from the Romanian electoral campaigns. From t!eir initial decision-ma0ing in earlD +?<9 to Bovember o& t!at Dear, t!e Pdall campaign planned to ma0e t!eir &irst solid e&&ort in t!e BeA Hamps!ire primarD under t!e assumption t!at, in t!e Dears past, t!e print and broadcast media Aould devote a great deal o& attention to t!e build-up and results o& t!at &irst primarD' Campaigning in BeA Hamps!ire, Pdall Aould attract considerable press coverage) Ainning BeA Hamps!ire "&olloAed, !ope&ullD, bD a Ain in .assac!usetts$ Aould catapult !im into t!e &ront runner status' #t Aas a &amiliar route $ 8>ur strategy9' e%plained 2teAart Pdall, t!e candidateEs brot!er, in an intervieA ' 8has to be a strategy in the key states' which are %ew 6ampshire' )assachusetts and 0isconsin9. Feginning on 7ctober /<, t!e national political reporters began to devote so muc! attention to t!e upcoming #oAa caucuses t!at it soon became apparent t!at t!e &irst big splas! o& t!e +?<: race Aould occur t!ere, rat!er t!an in BeA Hamps!ire' R'4' (ppleEs piece in t!e 7ctober /<t! %ew ork -imes signaled t!e &act t!at t!e #oAa caucuses Aould be an important event &orm t!e perspective o& neAs reporting organisations' -!e signi&icance o& (ppleEs piece Aas en!anced bD t!e clairvoDance o& !is reporting in +?</, interpreting t!e caucus results in #oAa as demonstrating une%pected .c>overn strengt!' (s in +?</, #oAa could be t!e &irst opportunitD to observe A!ic! candidates Aere 8emerging from the pack9. (ll t!e attention caused t!e Pdall campaign to reconsider its decision to staD out o& #oAa' (s &reIuentlD !appens, t!e decision caused a split Ait!in t!e campaign' -!e e&&orts o& 0eD participants to e%plain t!eir positions a&ter t!e &act provide a uniIue opportunitD to observe t!e importance o& predicted media coverage in ma*or political decisions' -!e campaign political director argued &or ma0ing a ma*or, albeit elevent! !our, e&&ort in #oAa' His position Aas rein&orced bD a memo prepared bD a 0eD advisor a&ter an e%planatorD trip into t!e state' -!e important passage o& t!at memo read$ 8*owa !ustifies the expense. *t will be co-ered like the first primary always has been in the national press. *f we can emerge as the clear liberal choice in *owa' the payoffs in %ew 6ampshire will be enormous.9

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Focus on Communication espite t!e argument bD ot!ers in t!e campaign t!at it Aas bD t!em too late to ma0e a success&ul e&&ort in #oAa, t!e political directorEs side &inallD Aon Ait! t!e additional argument t!at even i& t!at did not Ain #oAa, at least t!eir presence t!ere Aould 0eep t!e liberal &rontrunner &rom emerging in t!e !eadlines until BeA Hamps!ire' -!e Pdall campaign committed =@,@@@ V and, an even more precious resource, ten daDs o& t!e candidateEs time to t!e #oAa e&&ort' 4!ile it can never be ascertained A!et!er t!is decision to sAitc! resources aAaD &rom t!e BeA Hamps!ire e&&ort resulted in a poorer s!oAing t!ere, it certainlD did not improve t!eir BeA Hamps!ire campaign' 4it! !indsig!t, Pdall sta&&ers admitted t!e preeminence o& t!e media considerations in t!eir mista0en venture, 8*owa was regrettable in that we had no inclination or desire to de-ote resources and time and money to *owa. 3ut it became such a media e-ent that * think some of our staff people panicked in the face of it and we rushed in headlong9 "Press secretarD Robert Beumann$' -!eir discoverD t!at t!e media planned to cover t!e #oAa caucuses as e%tensivelD as t!eD Aould, t!e earlD primaries led PdallEs advisors to conclude t!at t!eD could not let t!e ot!er candidates "principallD FaD! and Carter$ get t!e *ump on t!em eit!er in s!eer amount o& coverage or in &avorable perceptions o& political progress communicated bD t!e media to BeA Hamps!ire voters' Beedless to saD, bD anD standard, t!is Aas a ma*or campaign decision' 21. #ranslate into English' then comment upon the consequences of the annal/sis in the following text$ Prima problem care apare, din punctul de vedere al creatorului de imagine din Romnia, este c aceste semnale ale realitii cotidiene ndreptate n &lu% continuu ctre &iltrul colector al mass-media nu sunt dect arareori pre-elaborate la nivelul imaginii sau, atunci cnd e%ist asemenea intenie, ea se realiseaz !aotic, cel mai adesea nepro&esionist' n acest caz, selecia se mut e%clusiv n zona de aciune a editorilor de programe sau e&ilor de secii de la marele ziare' Ci se vor a&la n &aa unei mase enorme de &apte brute ce reprezint tot attea mesa*e potenial interesante, lipsindu-le ns &orma, e%presia simbolic adecvat' eoarece n ara noastr nu e%ist nc o preocupare pro&esionist din partea creatorilor de imagine pentru o codare a mesa*elor n sensul &ormulrii lor corecte i desci&rabile la nivelul &iltrului in&ormaional, greelile din acest domeniu vor avea consecine importante, genernd e&ecte paralizante n contiina publicului' Problemele devin i mai complicate, gradul lor de gravitate crete, n msura n care spre &iltrul mass-media se ndreapt elemente componente ale unor &apte politice' 2 ne aminitim de perioada nu &oarte ndeprtat denumit Lera comunicatelor de presM' Cra timpul n care mass-media di&uza, obositor i cu relevan mic pentru publicul standard, comunicate, contracomunicate, replici multiple la prima sau la a doua categorie, cel mai adesea date simultan i prezentate publicului n bloc comun, pentru respectarea principiului ec!idistanei' (muzante pentru ziaritii pro&esioniti, poate utile pentru comentatorii i analitii politici, ele nu produceau din punctul de vedere al creatorului de imagine dect con&uzie i, la limit, adversitate' D. V$c /u! r7 Pr ctice. D1. Do the following exercises$ a. 2omplete the following sentences$ Ric!ard couldnEt enter !is !ouse because QQQQ He realised t!at !is umbrella QQQQ ++?

Focus on Communication He made up !is mind to brea0 t!e AindoA because QQQQ He bro0e t!e parlor AindoA bD QQQQ He Aas climbing t!roug! t!e AindoA A!en suddenlD QQQQ b. 2omplete the following sentences paying attention to the sequence of tenses$ # told .aggie t!e storD be&ore QQQQ 4!ile Ae Aere tal0ing a man QQQQ 4!en !e came in QQQQ He said in a most dread&ul voice, LJouEll leave t!is !ouse as soon as QQQQM L>o to !elp !er be&ore QQQQM, !e added 0eeping on smiling' Had # 0noAn A!at Aould !ave !appened, # QQQQ LJou can as0 !im i& QQQQM, A!ispered .aggie &rom under t!e table' Pn&ortunatelD t!e man !eard t!e Aords and muttered, L4e s!all !ave a good time i& QQQQM' L# am going to see i& QQQQM, # replied Iuic0lD and made &or t!e door' L#& # met Dou be&ore, # QQQQM, laug!ed t!e man' 4e could !ave escaped &rom t!e room i& .aggie QQQQ' D2. >ne way of extending your -ocabulary is by learning to use all the forms of a word. ;or example' to access 4-erb5 L access 4noun5 L accessible 4ad!ecti-e5. 2omplete the following table with other parts of speech besides the -erb$ Cerb to administer to supervise to manage to operate to applD to in&orm to account to maintain to acIuire to realise to c!oose to remember %oun 2oncept administration %oun Agent administrator Ad!ecti-e administrative

D(. 2omplete the expressions by matching the -erbs on the left with the appropriate phrase on the right$ +' to clear /' to &i% 3' to pic0 up 6' to cut 9' to appeal to :' to pull out o& <' to get toget!er a' a big order b' &or a meeting c' Ait! a neA product d' /@@,@@@ V Aort! o& sales e' Dour problem &' an optimistic target g' Doung consumers +/@

Focus on Communication =' to appreciate !' an opportunitD ?' to miss i' t!e recession +@' to be success&ul *' stoc0 levels D1. #ranslate into English' using the -erbs to detect' to disco-er' to find out$ a' b' c' d' e' &' g' !' i' *' (m publicat de curnd o lucrare despre epoca marilor descoperiri geogra&ice' n cele din urm s-a descoperit totul i s-a dat publicitii' Ci, ce-ai descoperit, e bine sau nuG .aterialul are unele de&ecte dar sunt greu de descoperit la prima vedere' 2-au descoperit urme de vopsea verde pe !ainele celui accidentat' 2-a descoperit cine i trimitea scrisorile acelea anonimeG Pite ce am descoperit n pod, cri vec!i i valoroase' B-am reuit s-i descopr numele' C mare scandal pe antier, s-au descoperit vicii ascunse la elicea cea nou' n &inal, dup multe investigaii, am descoperit totul din relatrile lor separate'

Remember the following phrases$ to detect traces o&) lie-detector) to discover neA lands) t!e (ge o& trut!Kt!e meaning' iscoverD) to &ind out t!e

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Focus on Communication

XII. MARKETIN2
A. T)e 're## c$n+erence -!e image o& an organisation is made in an ongoing process, bD appealing to a verD diversi&ied range o& modalities' Fut t!ere are some moments in its evolution in A!ic! it is absolutelD necessarD t!at t!e target audience &ind out neA pieces o& in&ormation' -!e press con&erence is !eld in suc! moments' BoA is t!e moment A!en one can &ind t!e need &or in&ormation and t!e in&ormation o&&er, A!en t!e !Dpot!etical is con&ronted Ait! t!e real, t!e opinions Ait! t!e proo&s and t!e terms o& t!e communication strategies are rede&ined' A1. Read the following text and keep in mind the factors for accomplishing a good press conference. #hink what you should do for properly organising a press conference. #hink of dos and donts for the good management of a press conference. -!e press con&erence is t!e best AaD to create in&ormational transparencD' -!is can sometimes be even an occasion &or di&&erent c!annels o& spreading t!e in&ormation, tributarD to certain political or economic interests, to use a prete%t, A!ic! is apparentlD serious, to ma0e some &acts or ideas 0noAn, Ait! t!e purpose o& manipulating public opinion' Fut normallD a press con&erence is to be announced onlD i& t!ere is somet!ing reallD important to be told or A!en t!e reIuests o& t!e press "as it !appens during crisis periods$ are too numerous to be considered separatelD' -!ere are various rules to be applied to press con&erences, but Ae can mention several common &actors sustaining t!e possibilitD o& organising a good press con&erence$ %o-elty' #t is essential &or press con&erences, t!e progresses obtained s!ould be clearlD mentioned' >pportunity' #& t!e implications o& t!e neAs reIuire discussions, t!en a press con&erence represents t!e ideal opportunitD &or interpreting t!e in&ormation' #he personal aspect' #& Dou !ave a good neAs and a prepared spea0er, t!is person s!ould come in touc! Ait! t!e accredited *ournalists, A!o Aould li0e to establis! contacts Ait! t!e o&&icial representatives o& t!e organisation' Duration' onEt organise and event A!ic! is longer t!an necessarD' 2uccess&ul press con&erences are organised earlD in t!e morning or late in t!e a&ternoon' elaD t!e con&erence Ait! a &eA minutes &or t!e late *ournalists' 0elcoming' ( person &rom t!e public relations team s!ould Aelcome t!e guests, veri&D t!e list o& t!e accredited *ournalists, !and in t!e Aritten in&ormation to t!e representatives o& t!e press and present t!e o&&icials' *n-itations' .a0e sure t!at Dou give enoug! in&ormation &or alloAing t!e *ournalists to decide A!et!er t!eD Aant to ta0e part in t!e event' (s0 &or con&irmations' 2ontinuity' -rD to give stDle to t!e event' (void unnecessarD descriptions' Pse &ilms, maps, c!arts' .a0e sure t!at t!e spea0ers are Aell in&ormed' .a0e positive presentations' (ccept di&&icult Iuestions' +//

Focus on Communication A2. #ranslate the following text and then make a briefing on it$ First comes t!e Iuestion, L2!ould Ae !old a neAs con&erence or notGM' FreIuentlD t!e ansAer s!ould be, LBoNM' -!e essential element o& a neAs con&erence is news' #& reporters and camera creAs presumed t!at in a con&erence t!eD !ave !eard propaganda instead o& &acts, or in&ormation o& minor interest to a limited group instead o& neAs A!ic! is relevant to t!e large audience, t!eD go aAaD disgusted' -!eir valuable time !as been Aasted 1 and it is valuable' Cditors complain t!at t!eD never !ave enoug! sta&& !ours available to cover everDt!ing t!eD Aould li0e to cover) i& t!eD send reporters to a con&erence t!at !as been called merelD to satis&D t!e !ostEs sense o& sel&-importance, t!eD resent t!e &act' -!e ne%t time, t!eD probablD AonEt send reporters' #& t!e material involved &ails to meet t!e criteria o& signi&icant neAs, a Aise public relations representative Aill distribute it t!roug! a press release' -!e in&ormation !as a c!ance o& being publis!ed based on its degree o& merit Ait!out irritating editors and reporters' Botices usuallD are sent bD &a% or mail, but some organisations use special deliverD met!ods &or ma*or con&erences in t!e belie& t!at t!e e%tra impact *usti&ies t!e additional cost' CverD neAs outlet t!at mig!t be interested in t!e material s!ould be invited' (n ignored media outlet maD become an enemD, li0e a person A!o isnEt as0ed to a partD' -!e invitation s!ould describe t!e general nature o& t!e material to be discussed so, an editor Aill 0noA A!at tDpe o& reporter to assign' 4!at !our is bestG -!is depends upon t!e local media situation' #& t!e citD !as onlD an a&ternoon neAspaper, ? or ?,3@ a'm' is good, because t!is gives t!e reporter time to Arite a storD be&ore a middaD deadline' #& t!e citDEs neAspaper publis!es in t!e morning, : p'm' is a suitable !our' (not!er prime goal o& neAs con&erence sponsors is t!e earlD evening neAs casts on local television stations, or even netAor0 -5 neAscasts i& t!e in&ormation isnEt important enoug!' ( con&erence at / p'm' is about t!e latest t!at a television creA can cover and still get t!e material processed at a com&ortable pace &or inclusion in a dinner !our s!oA' -!is time period can be s!ortened in an emergencD, but t!e c!ances o& getting on a s!oA diminis! as t!e processing time decreases' A warning$ a public relations representative in a citD Ait! onlD an a&ternoon neAspaper A!o sc!edules a neAs con&erence a&ter t!at paperEs deadline, Det in time &or t!e neAs to appear on t!e earlD evening television neAscasts, ma0es a grave blunder' BeAspaper editors resent suc! &avoritism to television and !ave long memories' TnoAledge o&, and sensitivitD to, local neAs media deadlines are necessarD elements o& a public relations representativeEs Aor0' eadlines &or radio neAs are less con&ining t!an t!ose &or neAspapers and television, because radio neAscasts are aired manD times a daD' -!e con&erence !ours suggested &or neAspapers and television are suitable &or radio as Aell, t!oug!' 2ome organisations provide co&&ee and possiblD sAeet rolls &or t!e media guests as a courtesD' 7t!ers &ind t!is gesture unnecessarD because most o& t!e neAspeople are in a !urrD, more concerned Ait! getting t!e storD t!an Ait! en*oDing social amenities' 8iIuor s!ould not be served at a regular neAs con&erence' 2uc! socialising s!ould be reserved &or t!e press partD' (t some neAs con&erences, p!otograp!ers are given tAo or t!ree minutes to ta0e t!eir pictures be&ore Iuestioning begins' 2ome p!otograp!ers complain t!at, t!us restricted, t!eD cannot obtain candid s!ots' #& &ree s!ooting is permitted, as usuallD is t!e best practice, t!e p!Dsical arrangements s!ould give t!e p!otograp!ers operating space Ait!out alloAing t!em to obstruct t!e vieA o& reporters'

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Focus on Communication Relations!ips betAeen print and television reporters sometimes become strained at neAs con&erences' ( practitioner s!ould ta0e particular care to arrange t!e room in suc! a AaD t!at t!e electronic eIuipment does not impede t!e print reporters' ( &inal problem in managing a neAs con&erence is 0noAing A!en to end it' -!e public relations representative serving as bac0stage time0eeper s!ould avoid cutting o&& t!e Iuestioning prematurelD' -o do so creates antagonism &rom t!e reporters' 8etting a con&erence run doAn li0e a tired cloc0 is almost as bad' (t everD con&erence t!ere comes a moment A!en t!e reporters run out o& Iuestions and t!e danger o& dull repetitions arises' ( spea0er maD or maD not recognise t!is' #& not, t!e practitioner maD step &orAard and saD somet!ing li0e L#Em sorrD, but # 0noA some o& Dou !ave deadlines to ma0e' 2o, Ae !ave time &or *ust tAo more IuestionsM' A(. #ips on combating rumors. Discuss each principle and try to gi-e concrete examples$ Here are general guidelines &or combating rumors, +' (nalDse t!e nature and impact o& t!e rumor be&ore ta0ing corrective action' .anD rumors are relativelD !armless and dissipate in a s!ort time' /' (ttempt to trac0 t!e cause o& t!e rumor and t!e geograp!ical locations A!ere it is prominent' -!is Aill !elp determine A!et!er t!e rumor s!ould be dealt Ait! on a local, countD, or national level' 3' Compile complete, aut!entic in&ormation t!at Aill eit!er re&ute or con&irm t!e rumor' 6' 4!en denDing a rumor, avoid repeating it more t!an necessarD' 9' Pse outside e%perts and credible public agencies to re&ute t!e rumor' -!e public vieAs a public institution as more trustAort!D t!an t!e president o& a companD de&ending t!e &irmEs product' #& t!e rumor is onlD among certain !ig!lD identi&iable groups, enlist t!e support o& t!e groupEs leaders' Exercise$ -!e national !eadIuarters o& t!e Continental 7il CompanD in 8os (ngeles' For t!e past mont!, a &alse rumour !as been circulating t!at t!e companD Aill move its !eadIuarters to Houston' #n &act, plans are on t!e draAing board &or a neA, larger !eadIuarters building in 8os (ngeles' -!e rumour probablD started because t!e companD !ad a managersE con&erence in Houston several mont!s ago' -!is Aas rumoured to be a !ig!-level meeting to ta0e a loo0 at Houston real estate and decide on a sig!t &or t!e neA !eadIuarters' -!e rumour is beginning to a&&ect t!e emploDee morale in 8os (ngeles' -!e president o& Continental 7il, upon t!e advice o& public relations council, decides to put t!e rumour to rest in a speec! at t!e annual emploDee recognition banIuet ne%t Aee0' Jou are assigned to Arite t!e ten-minute speec! &or t!e president' 4ould Dou include in t!e speec! a direct re&erence to t!e rumourG 4ould Dou ta0e t!e opportunitD to ridicule t!e rumourG 4rite a dra&t o& t!e speec! &or t!e president' A1. 2oncei-e a press conference on one of the following topics$ a' -!e board o& a universitD !as been rein&orced Ait! a series o& businessmen' -rD to e%plain t!e good e&&ects o& suc! a decision to t!e press' b' -!e (lp!a CompanD presented in t!e previous course tries to e%plain to t!e press A!at !as !appened during t!e accident at t!e 4elding 2ection and A!ic! are t!e conseIuences' +/6

Focus on Communication c' d' e' 0. ( &irm launc!es a neA product on t!e mar0et' ( politician e%plains A!D !e !as c!osen to run &or a place in t!e senate' ( politician e%plains A!D !e !as lost t!e elections' P)r # ! Ver/#

31. Remember the following phrasal -erbs with off$ to be o&& Y a pleca, a porni, a renuna to brea0 o&& Y a ntrerupe "din vorb, din conversaie, relaii$) a rupe to call o&& Y a opri, a anula, a c!ema napoi to come o&& Y a se produce, a se desprinde to drop o&& Y a scdea, a aipi, a disprea, a lsa to &lD o&& Y a se ndeprta, a se desprinde to get o&& Y a scoate, a dezbrca, a da *os, a trimite pe cineva undeva, a scpa uor to give o&& Y a scoate, a scpa de, a nva pe de rost, a se da *os to go o&& Y a pleca, a leina, a muri, a se produce, a se des&ura, a e%ploda, a se descrca to laD o&& Y a renuna la, a lsa, a prsi, a concedia to let o&& Y a elibera to put o&& Y a mna, a mpiedica to set o&& Y a scoate n eviden, a separa to ta0e o&& Y a scoate, a dezbrca, a scdea, a da *os, a decola to Arite o&& Y a compune, a anula

32. 2omplete each of the following sentences with a suitable -erb' making sure that it fits grammatically into the sentence$ +' -!e colonel QQQQo&& in mid sentence as soon as !e saA t!e soldier DaAning on parade' /' 7vercome Ait! tiredness, t!e cleaning ladD QQQQo&& A!ile polis!ing t!e managing directorEs des0' 3' His attempt at Ainning t!e singing competition didnEt QQQQo&& because !e lost !is voice t!e daD be&ore' 6' -!e gardener got angrD Ait! t!e little boD &or QQQQo&& a branc! &rom t!e apple tree' 9' #n all !is Dears as a criminal, -edd Fellon never once QQQQo&& &or committing an o&&ence' :' 4e s!ould QQQQo&& noA, ot!erAise AeEll miss our bus' <' 4!en t!e alarm QQQQo&& everD morning at si%, !e *umps out o& bed' =' #t Aas a pleasant surprise &or Farbara to QQQQo&& earlD &rom Aor0' ?' # Aanted to order roast bee& but t!e Aaiter told me it QQQQo&&' +@' -!at ca0e smells aA&ulN #t must !ave QQQQo&&' ++' #tEs been Dears since a bomb QQQQo&& in our district' +/' -!e *udge QQQQo&& t!e accused as it Aas !is &irst o&&ence' +3' 4eEd better QQQQo&& t!e picnic i& itEs going to rain' +6' -!at &loAer QQQQo&& beauti&ul &ragrance'

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Focus on Communication

3(. Decide whether the definitions are true or false. .i-e the correct definition if necessary$ +' pic0 o&& /' live o&& 3' round o&& 6' be o&& 9' scare o&& :' sAitc! o&& <' s!oA o&& =' set o&& ?' see o&& +@' rip o&& collect a person &rom a place survive complete, give t!e &inis!ing touc! to separate someone &rom anot!er person &rig!ten someone aAaD stop concentrating ma0e someone &eel embarrassed bD be!aving badlD cause to e%plode be present at someoneEs departure steal &rom or c!eat someone'

C. M r1etin" #n contemporarD societies, mar0eting is everDA!ere' 4!en Ae sell or buD somet!ing, not onlD products, but also ideas, A!en Ae ma0e presentations o& anDt!ing t!at Ae Aant to s!oA or to o&&er to t!e ot!ers, Ae are consciouslD or unconsciouslD in&luenced bD t!e mar0eting concepts' 21. Read' translate and comment the following text abot marketing. #ry to find in the books you ha-e at your disposal other definitions of marketing and explanations about it. 5irtuallD everD Ariter and lecturer on mar0eting !as &elt t!e need to p!rase !is or !er de&inition o& mar0eting' 2o, t!ere is no s!ortage o& de&initions' Here is one o& t!e simplest, marketing takes the guesswork out of hunch' (nD neA business starts Ait! an idea) anD c!ange o& business direction !as t!e same beginning, an idea' #& an advertising agencD creates a purelD speculative campaign &or one o& its clients, t!e cost is mainlD time, a &eA materials and some s!are o& total over!eads, not a vast sum' Fut it can save spending a &ortune, imagine trDing to build a nuclear reactor !oping t!at someone mig!t Aant to buD itN Cven door !inges are e%pensive to produce, i& Ae ta0e into consideration t!e cost o& t!e iron or plastic, t!e cost o& t!e mac!ine operators, t!e propertD and all t!e ancillarD costs o& boo00eeping, selling and so on' #& someone !as a !unc!, A!et!er about nuclear reactors or door !inges, it can be tested t!roug! appropriate market research' -!is Aill not eliminate ris0 entirelD but it maD !elp to reduce t!e ris0 bD t!e in&ormation obtained about t!e needs and pre&erences o& potential customers' (lso, mar0et researc! can !elp to Iuanti&D t!e ris0 t!at Aill be ta0en bD a person and give !im or !er some ideas o& t!e potential reAards, in order to see A!et!er it is Aort! to ma0e t!e investment' Pro&essor Peter Druc1er !as reac!ed t!e conclusion t!at L)arketing is the whole business seen from the point of -iew of its final result' that is' from the customer&s point of -iew M' 2ome people consider t!at L)arketing is the creati-e process of satisfying customer needs profitablyM'

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Focus on Communication -!e most AidelD accepted definition of marketing is provided bD t)e C) rtered In#titute $+ M r1etin" 5CIM6, L)arketing is the management process of identifying' anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitablyM' .ar0eting is a management s0ill) it is neither a science nor a technique ' .ar0eting is a matter o& identi&Ding opportunities and o& deciding A!at ris0 to ta0e A!en anticipating !oA customers mig!t act or be persuaded to act' (ppropriate tec!niIues can be used but, in t!e end, itEs a matter o& *udgement' Jou see0 to satis&D customerEs reIuirements &or t!e purpose o& ma0ing a pro&it' -!e C#.Es de&inition is sometimes criticised &or dealing inadeIuatelD Ait! social mar0eting "t!atEs t!e applications o& mar0eting p!ilosop!D and mar0eting tec!niIues to non-commercial activities$' HoAever, t!e concept o& Lwelfare benefitM can easilD be include under t!e !eading o& L satisfying customer requirements profitablyM' 2o, what is marketingG .ar0eting is more t!an selling or advertising, it is A!ollD A!at business is about, but itEs concerned Ait! t!e essential matter o& investigating t!e most pro&itable direction &or anD business' #t t!ere&ore, +$' A##e##e# % r1et#' #t measures e%isting and potential mar0ets, de&ines mar0et segments, recommends A!ic! one is to be attac0ed, monitors progress' /$' S'eci+ie# 'r$duct# nd #ervice#' -a0ing bot! mar0et assessment and product potential into account, it ensures t!at t!e end userEs vieAs and opinions are adeIuatelD represented in t!e goods andKor services o&&ered' -!at is t!e AaD in A!ic! customers are o&&ered products or services emp!asizing Lbene&itsM rat!er t!an production L&eaturesM' 3$' Ev !u te# 'ricin" '$!ic7' .ar0eting recommends policies A!ic! Aill a&&ord ma%imum o& pro&its at t!e minimum o& ris0' #t Aill also consider possible competitive reactions and devise responses to t!em' 6$' Rec$%%end c) nne! '$!ic7, or !oA goodsKservices s!ould reac! t!e end user' .ar0eting establis!es t!e levels t!roug! A!ic! goodsKservices Aill pass' #t as0s A!et!er sales are to be entirelD direct, onlD indirect or some combination o& t!e tAo' 9$' Ev !u te# # !e# nd ')7#ic ! di#tri/uti$n '$!ic7 , on t!e basis o& t!e &unctional conseIuences o& c!annel decisions) t!e size and duties o& t!e sales &orce) t!e number and location o& Aare!ouses and departments) call and deliverD rates and so on' #n ot!er Aords, mar0eting e%amines t!e Iuestion o& pro&it versus volume' :$' M 1e# rec$%%end ti$n# re" rdin" dverti#in" nd 'r$%$ti$n 1 !oA muc!, A!en, to A!omG 2uc! areas as pac0aging, service manuals and training need to be analDsed and researc!ed' <$' C$$rdin te# t)e *$r1 $+ t)e di++erent re # $+ t)e /u#ine## and ensures total IualitD management' -!is is vital, i& t!ere is anD single role t!at transcends all ot!ers in distinguis!ing a mar0eting person &rom ot!er managers' #hese are the main features of the field . 2an you think of others7 22. Read the following text about the marketing mix and try to exemplify the concepts$ L*t ain&t what you do' it&s the way that you do it. #hat&s what gets results M "popular song o& t!e +?6@s$' -!e simplest de&inition o& t)e % r1etin" %i3 is Lt)e +$ur P#M, 'r$duct> 'rice> '! ce and 'r$%$ti$n. +/<

Focus on Communication #t is sometimes t!oug!t t!at LsellingM oug!t to be added to t!e ingredients t!at go to ma0e up t!e mar0eting mi%' Proponents o& t!e L&our PsM include LsellingM under LpromotionM because t!e L&our PsM provide a simple and easilD remembered de&inition' HoAever, a less memorable and more accurate de&inition o& t)e % r1etin" %i3 is$ those elements that are capable of manipulation and -ariation in order to impro-e the effecti-eness of marketing programmes, t!e AaD in A!ic! t!eD are planned and combined, t!eir relative importance and t!e proportion o& eac! used to produce a desired e&&ect' -!is de&inition can be e%plained as &olloAs, +$' LM ni'u! ti$n# nd v ri ti$n#M means t!at one can c!ange t!e order o& importance, varD t!e moneD spent, ma0e s!ort term tactical c!anges or long term strategic ones' /$' LT$ i%'r$ve e++ectivene##M e%plains t!e need &or eac! companD to discover its optimum mi%ed, A!ic! mig!t be de&ined, simplD, as t!e least amount o& moneD and e&&ort needed to ac!ieve pro&it ob*ectives' 3$' LP! nned nd c$%/inedM' FeA o& t!e items in t!e mi% are complete substitutes, so t!e AaD in A!ic! t!eD are used toget!er is verD important' 6$' LRe! tive i%'$rt nceM' -!is element can c!ange &rom time to time' 9$' LPr$'$rti$n $+ e c) u#ed t$ 'r$duce de#ired e++ect M' -!is is t!e area A!ere t!e di&&erences betAeen competing companies reallD s!oA' 7t!erAise, t!e ma*or di&&erences betAeen mar0eting approac!es are caused bD t!e &act t!at certain elements o& t!e mar0eting mi% are not available, appropriate or simplD donEt Aor0 in t!at particular &ield or Ait! t!at particular product' 2(.#he ideal plan. Read the following text and' bearing its recommendations in mind' try to concei-e a marketing plan of your own$ -!e AaD in A!ic! plans are draAn up di&&ers &rom organisation to organisation, but t!ere are certain t!ings t!at all plans !ave in common' #n particular, senior managers Aant &irm recommendations 1 not a set o& alternatives A!ic! leaves t!em Ait! t!e !ard Aor0 o& !aving to ma0e a c!oice betAeen t!em' -!eD maD not necessarilD agree Ait! t!e recommendation presented to t!em, but it is still !elp&ul to !ave a set o& reasons A!D one is pre&erred to anot!er' #n addition, t!eD Aant to 0noA !oA muc! pro&it Aill result &rom a plan, over A!at period and Ait! A!at degree o& certaintD or ris0' -!e 0eD &actors to ensure t!at Dou !ave t!e rig!t planning process and t!ere&ore get t!e rig!t sorts o& plans are, t!e e%tent to A!ic! t!e past is e%amined) !oA &ar plans are pro*ected into t!e &uture) !oA muc! detail is included) A!at emp!asis is placed on strategD, tactics and e%ecution) t!e number o& alternatives to be considered) t!e degree o& &le%ibilitD permitted during t!e plans li&e'

Prices maD !ave to be c!anged, di&&erent product lines maD !ave to be pus!ed, neA service pac0ages maD !ave to replace planned ones and so on' (ll t!ese s!ould be given &irst prioritD rat!er t!an reducing t!e target or c!anging t!e strategD'

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Focus on Communication -!us, ac!ieving t!e ideal plan is a matter o&, care&ul pre-planning) t!e rig!t seIuence) reasonable c!ance o& success) controlling per&ormance during t!e planEs li&e' 21. :ay attention to the following schemes' charts or structures which are so familiar for any person working in the field of market research. 2omment upon them and try to find others with the same rele-ance for the domain$ T)e d7n %ic# $+ % r1etin" 2et mar0eting ob*ectives +elect target market raA up sub-ob*ectives Cstablis! mar0eting plan Cstablis! control procedures M r1etin" # t)e inter+ ce

Customer needs Promotion

Product

Consumer needs Price

M r1etin"

>oods

Place

2ervices

D. V$c /u! r7 Pr ctice. D1. Do the following exercises$ a. Answer the following questions paying attention to the modal -erbs$

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Focus on Communication 4!ic! are t!e t!ings Dou can K cannot K maD K maD not K must K must not K s!ould K s!ouldnEt K need K neednEt K dare K dare not K Aould K AouldnEt K s!all K s!anEt K Aill K AonEt do A!en Dou are invited to deliver a speec!' b' 0hen will you say that one is$ all sugar and !oneD) all over onesel&) all legs and Aings) all abroad) as cross as tAo stic0s) drDKAet be!ind t!e Dears) in deep Aaters) oneEs oAn man' D2. ;ind the words or expressions which are the closest in meaning to the words in italics in the expressions below$ +' -!ere are t!ree issues Ae need to discussQ /' Q!ave to settle for 2eptember Q 3' Q a trade &air coming up at t!e end o& Q 6' (ugust is out Q 9' HardlD time to get o-er to 8ondon Q :' CanEt Ae make it t!e second Aee0endQG <' #Eve &ound t!e ideal spotQ P. Does that include e-erything7 ?' Qto sort out t!e detailsQ +@' 4!atEs Dour -iew, RonG 0ords$ a' travel) b' &i%) c' is t!at all inclusiveG) d' items) e' location) &' agree to) g' arrange) !' opinion) i' ta0ing place) *' cannot be considered' D(. )atch the words below with their opposites$ +' overstate) /' ma*or) 3' vital) 6' !ome-groAn) 9's!ort-term) :' genuine) <' maveric0) =' obvious' a' unimportant) b' con&ormist) c' long-term) d' une%pected) e' super&icial) &' understate) g' minor) !' e%ternal' D1. #ranslate into English the following sentences' using the -erbs to make and to do$ +' /' 3' 6' 9' :' <' =' ?' 7 s &ac tot ce o s pot' F-mi o ca&ea, te rogN Ce s-i &aci, trebuie s te mpaci cu situaia' Ce mai &aciG 8-am &cut s-i taie prul' Cine i-a &cut roc!ia astaG F-mi, te rog, acest serviciu' Ce &aci cu pensula aia aici, o s te ptezi' ( &cut o grmad de bani' +3@

Focus on Communication +@' . duc s-mi &ac un permanent' ++' Cum &aci tu maionezaG +/' (m &cut o mare descoperire' +3' .-ai &cut &oarte &ericit cu aceast veste' +6' Fine ai &cut c mi-ai spus la timp' +9' Fiatul sta pare &cut pentru not' +:' F-mi i mie loc pe so&a lng tine' +<' F-i temele i du-te la *oac' +=' .i-a &ost greu s-i spun adevrul, dar am &cut-o totui' Remember the following phrases$ to do businessKcarpetsKdis!esKe%ercisesK!omeAor0KroomsKs!opping) to do t!e best) to do oneEs !air) to do &ineKAell) to do goodK!arm) to do oneEs best) to do t!e grandKpolite) to ma0e co&&eeKa messKt!e bedsKa discoverDKe&&ortsKinIuiriesK&riendsK a gestureKloveKmoneDKan o&&erK a remar0Kroom &orKa speec!) to be made &or) to ma0e somebodD angrDK!appD) !andmade) !ome-made) readD-made) sel&made man'

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Focus on Communication

XIII. T8E IMA2E OF A PRODUCT


A. Ne"$ti ti$n#. A1. #he negotiation techniques. Read' translate and comment upon the following text. #ry to gi-e concrete examples for each situation. Begotiation is a process in A!ic!, &rom an et!ical point o& vieA, all t!ose involved must be Ainners' (t times, an apparentlD success&ul negotiation, i& it !ides un&avorable terms &rom one o& t!e partners, can c!ange destinies and destroD social positions' Begotiation !as as main ob*ective t!e &ul&illment o& a Aill agreement, o& a consensus and not o& a victorD' Fot! partners must end t!e process o& negotiation Ait! t!e &eeling t!at t!eD !ave accomplis!ed t!e ma%imum possible &rom A!at t!eD intended to do' -!e main purpose in t!e negotiation process is to obtain a consensus' -!at is A!D t!e negotiators must trans&orm t!e diverging interests into common purposes, ad*usting t!eir demands in a &le%ible AaD and 0eeping some reserves &rom A!ic! to be able to cede &rom t!e verD beginning' Bo negotiation starts &rom Lthe minimum acceptableM Ait! t!e idea Lthis should be the fair thing to doM and Ait! t!e !ope t!at t!e partner Aill appreciate t!is LrealisticM approac!' #n realitD, a negotiation is not!ing else but t!e most elementarD application to practice o& t!e demand and o&&er laA' Coming to a negotiation, everDone s!ould be prepared to plaD a role A!ic! is speci&ic to t!e mar0et economD' Fecause o& t!is reason, one s!ould be accustomed, in time, Ait! t!e products, services or even similar concepts "as it is t!e case o& political programmes$ o&&ered on t!e mar0et, t!e advantages and disadvantages o&&ered bD one compared to anot!er' (n elementarD aspect is t!at o& 0noAing A!en to stop' #n all negotiations t!ere is a L critical pointM, a&ter A!ic! all t!e agreements &all doAn, annulling all t!e communication e&&ort made up to t!at moment' ( good negotiator Aill 0noA to stop be&ore reac!ing t!at point' (nD verbal agreement s!ould be con&irmed in Ariting as Iuic0lD as possible' -!at gi&t o& accepting t!e compromise and o& getting accustomed Ait! neA situations is an important t!ing in a negotiation' -!e one A!o Ains a negotiation is t!e one A!o t!in0s better and A!o plans better' 2pontaneitD, t!e capacitD o& acting promptlD and t!e abilitD to improvise are important Iualities in t!e process o& negotiation' -!e process o& negotiation s!ould comprise at least t!ree elements, t!e list o& t!ings to be negotiated) t!e classi&ication o& issues A!ic! !ave been agreed upon) topics o& disagreement' A2. :rinciples of negotiation. (s long as tAo parties consciouslD negotiate in order to &ind a solution to a common problem, t!e approac! involves et!ics and certain principles' (s a rule, Ait!in a negotiation, eac! partD ad*usts its claims and revises t!e initial ob*ectives' -!e &inal agreement is a good compromise' -!e principle o& t)e %utu ! dv nt "e 5.IN?.IN6 does

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Focus on Communication not e%clude, t!oug!, t!e &act t!at t!e advantages obtained bD one o& t!e parties are bigger t!an t!e advantages obtained bD t!e ot!er partD at t!e negotiation' #ypes of negotiations -!ere are t!ree main tDpes o& negotiations mentioned in t!e specialised literature, T)e di#tri/utive ne"$ti ti$n 5*inner?!$#er $r vict$r7?de+e t6' -!is LeitherBor9 negotiation is t!e negotiation bringing &ace to &ace tAo adversaries Ait! completelD opposed interests and it becomes a con&rontation in A!ic! one o& t!e parties !as to Ain' Cac! compromise seems to be a sign o& Aea0ness' Cac! success&ul attac0 is a sign o& poAer' -!e result is decisive &or t!e opponentsE strengt!s' (mong t!e usual tactics o& t!is 0ind o& negotiation, t!ere are, polemics, attac0, intimidation, dissimulation, r!etorical maneuvers' T)e inte"r tive ne"$ti ti$n 5vict$r7?vict$r76 is t!e one in A!ic! t!e aspirations and interests o& t!e partner are ta0en into consideration, even i& t!eD contradict t!e ones o& Dour oAn organisation' -!is tDpe is based on mutual respect and tolerance' -!e advantage is t!at t!roug! t!is tDpe o& negotiation t!e parties can reac! good, durable solutions in an atmosp!ere o& &riends!ip and trust' 2o, people can avoid con&licts and reallD communicate' -!e speci&ic tactics are based on mutual compromises' -!e negotiation starts &rom &ormulating t!e problems A!ic! must be solved, t!roug! Iuestions li0e, 0hat is not going on well7 0here is the bad side7 0hich facts are not desired7 (&ter de&ining t!e problems, t!e parties s!ould analDse t!e reasons and &ind solutions' A(. #actics of negotiation. Qeep in mind the following tactics' discuss the definitions and try to gi-e examples for each type. #hink of building an argumentation in a negotiation' starting from each of the following types. -!e &undamental principle in a negotiation is the use of tactics and techniques for putting a strain to the interaction of wills that confront each other at the table of treaties' in order not to let them become open conflicts' #n t!e same time, to control t!e interaction o& t!e Aills involved in a negotiation means not to let Doursel& &all preD to t!e spontaneous reactions, Ait!out anD logical and reasonable determination' >enerallD, an impulsive reaction o& t!e adversarD ma0es t!e ot!er partD c!oose t!e tactics o& negotiation' -!e tactics could be an e&&ective communication tec!niIue, a r!etorical trap or a psDc!ological tric0' -!eD !elp us ta0e initiative or control' -!e DESL0UT tactics' LB7M is direct and categorical negation A!ic! !urts and cuts' #t presents t!e ris0 to o&&end t!e partner and to bloc0 t!e discussion' #t is not delicate' JC2QFPleaves a possibilitD but maD also mean B7' #t alloAs &ormulating a personal opinion as a continuation o& A!at t!e ot!er partD !as said' -!e tactics o& 'r$v$1in" #tre## nd di#tur/in" t)e dver# r7 ' (s an e%ception and as rarelD as possible, A!en Ae negotiate Ait! a di&&icult or disagreeable adversarD, A!o !as t!e intention o& negotiating Ait! tric0s and &or a long time, it is recommended to use tactics o& provo0ing stress' -!is can be about t!e room in A!ic! t!e negotiation ta0es place, t!e lig!t &alling on t!e &ace o& t!e adversarD, repeated and irritating noises in t!e environment, !eat' 4e !ave to do t!is under t!e mas0 o& complete innocence'

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Focus on Communication -!e tactics o& ti%e 're##ure' #t is based on t!e simple idea t!at t!ere is alAaDs a negotiation programme and a Aor0 agenda o& t!e negotiators' -!ese elements s!ould be organised and manipulated so t!at t!e most delicate issue remains at t!e time limit o& t!e process o& negotiation' -!e tactics o& !tern tin" t)e ne"$ti t$r#' -!e basic idea is t!at A!en t!e partner c!anges t!e negotiator, Dou are &orced to ta0e everDt!ing &rom t!e beginning' (not!er version o& t!e tactics is t!at t!e !ead o& t!e negotiating team seems 0ind and reasonable but totallD unable to &ace t!e pressures o& t!e specialists in !is team' -!e ot!er members o& t!e team seem toug! and stubborn'

A1. *magine negotiations on the following topics$ a' b' c' d' e' &' g' !' -!e trade union o& t!e teac!ers reIuires a 3@[ raise in salarD &rom t!e .inistrD o& Cducation' -!e personnel o& a researc! institute reIuires a variable Aor0 !our &rom t!e management' -Ao parties negotiate t!e places in t!e government in case t!eD Ain t!e elections toget!er' ( partD negotiates Ait! t!e ruling partD to support its initiatives in Parliament' -!e representatives o& tAo countries negotiate a peace treatD' -!e representatives o& tAo countries negotiate t!e end o& a con&lict' Romania negotiates t!e accession to t!e Curopean Pnion' -!e representatives o& t!e CP countries negotiate a common agreement &or agriculture'

0. P)r # ! Ver/#. 31. Qeep in mind the following phrasal -erbs with the particle up$ to be up Y a se scula to brea0 up Y a drma, a mprtia, a se des&ace, a se destrma, a se despri, a s&rma, a dezbina to bring up Y a crete, a educa to come up Y a crete, a progresa, a veni to do up Y a repara "o cas$) a-i aran*a prul, a mpac!eta, a-i nc!eia nasturii to drD up Y a muri, a disprea to &ill up Y a completa un &ormular, a ocupa un post to give up Y a prsi, a ceda, a nmna, a declara pierdut, a renuna to go up Y a merge la ora, a se ridica, a crete to !old up Y a e%pune, a arta, a opri, a ntrzia, a *e&ui, a se &ace de rs to 0eep up Y a dura, a se menine) to 0eep up Ait! Y a ine pasul cu to loo0 up Y a cuta un cuvnt n dicionar, a ridica oc!ii, a privi cu respect pe cineva, a cuta, a vizita to ma0e up Y a se &arda, a da din nou un e%amen) to ma0e up oneEs mind Y a se !otr) to ma0e up Ait! Y a se mpca cu to put up Y a ridica, a gzdui, a mani&esta, a nscoci, a se acomoda, a se instala, a ridica mna, a monta un cort) to put up to Y a aa pe cineva la) to put up Ait! Y a suporta) to put up at Y a se instala la un !otel to set up Y a nla o statuie, a organisa o instituie, a n&iina, a pcli +36

Focus on Communication to s!oA up Y a demasca, a se arta to stoc0 up Y a aduna to ta0e up Y a ridica, a ocupa, a primi to t!roA up Y a vomita, a arunca la to turn up Y a se ivi, a sosi pe neateptate

32. 2omplete each of the sentences below with a suitable -erb' making sure that it fits grammatically into the sentence$ +' HavenEt Dou ever considered QQQQup smo0ingG /' #t mustnEt !ave been t!e curdled mil0 t!at made !im QQQQup !is dinner' 3' # tried to QQQQup -im A!en # Aas in 8os (ngeles, but !e must !ave c!anged !is address' 6' #& Dou QQQQup anD more o& mD time, #Ell 0ic0 Dou' 9' Come on, stop arguing' 8etEs QQQQupN :' 2pring term usuallD QQQQup *ust be&ore Caster' <' -!e rebels couldnEt Ain, so t!eD decided to QQQQup' =' 4e are t!in0ing o& QQQQup a small car !ire &irm' ?' Bo amount o& moneD can QQQQup &or t!e damage DouEve done' +@' -!e doctor saDs (rt!ur Aill QQQQup and about in a couple o& daDs' 3(. )atch each phrasal -erb with the correct definition. +'stir up) /' sum up) 3' oAn up) 6' draA up) 9' !ang up) :' call up) <' liven up) =' dress up) ?' settle up) +@' spea0 up) ++' staD up) +/' &lare up' a' con&ess, admit) b' come to a stop "o& a ve!icle$) c' summon &or militarD service) d' put on smart clot!es) e' trD to cause "trouble$) &' raise Dour voice) g' not go to bed earlD) !' summarise) i' ma0e more livelD) *' suddenlD become angrD) 0' paD all t!at is oAed) l' &inis! a p!one call' C. Adverti#in" 21. Read' translate and comment upon the following text$ Fusinesses need to advertise' #& t!eD did not advertise no one Aould ever learn o& t!e e%istence o& t!eir Aares' #n part, advertising is aimed at conveDing in&ormation to potential customers and clients, but it is also used to persuade t!e public to buD' -!is is t!e area in A!ic! advertising is o&ten criticised' (dvertisements are sometimes misleading' (lt!oug! it is illegal &or advertisers to ma0e untrue statements about t!eir goods, services or prizes, t!eD still ma0e t!eir Aares seem undullD attractive' -!eD pander to our egos and our vanities' -!eD create a demand A!ic! Aould not ot!erAise e%ist' 2uccess&ul advertising is a c!allenge' -!e &irst &eA seconds are t!e 0eD' (dvertising is t!e most visible and !ig!lD criticised element o& t!e mar0eting mi% and an important aspect o& promotion' (dvertising is de+ined as anD paid &orm o& nonpersonal presentation o& goals, services or ideas bD an identi&ied sponsor' -Ao terms are !ig!lig!ted, paid distinguis!es advertising &rom publicitD and nonBpersonal separates it &rom personal selling' +39

Focus on Communication #t is easD to saD L*&m not influenced by the ad-ertsRM' CverDone is in&luenced to a certain e%tent' -!ere Aas recentlD some researc! on subliminal advertising' -!e Aord Lco&&eeM Aas &las!ed on t!e television screen' #t !appened so Iuic0lD t!at no one Aas aAare it !as !appened' For *ust a &raction o& a second it registered on t!e vieAersE subconscious' -!e resultG ( surprising number o& people c!ose to ma0e co&&ee at t!at precise moment' 7& course, it could !ave been a coincidence but it Aas !ig!lD unli0elD' (dvertising is a AaD o& communication and t!e purpose o& communication is to in&orm and in&luence peopleEs be!aviour' #he 1 elements of communication' the sender' the message' the media and the recei-er' are all found in ad-ertising. (dvertising can be classi&ied into two broad categories, in+$r% tive and 'er#u #ive' -DpicallD an advert contains elements o& bot!' 4!en a product is &irst launc!, sales are loA because verD &eA customers are aAare t!at it e%ists' -!e role o& advertising !ere maD be to in&orm t!e public o& t!e productEs e%istence and its particular uses' -!e same applies A!en a product !as been modi&ied or improved' #n ot!er cases, &or e%ample neA cars and scienti&ic calculators, t!e nature o& t!e product can be suc! t!at large amount o& tec!nical in&ormation !as to be supplied, and advertising again maD !ave to be in&ormative' (dvertising t!at in&orms and educates consumers gives t!em greater c!oice in t!eir selection o& goods and services' #t can be seen as a &orm o& competition betAeen &irms and maD encourage manu&acturers to improve t!eir products to t!e bene&it o& t!e consumer' Persuasive advertising, as its name implies, is used to trD to convince t!e consumers to buD a particular product' #t is sub*ective and contains manD statements o& opinion rat!er t!an &acts' Persuasive advertising is normallD associated Ait! consumption products and is used !eavilD A!ere t!e di&&erences betAeen t!e products are minor' Persuasive advertising !as been criticised because it emp!asises t!e advantages o& a product and attempts to ma0e t!ose A!o do not use t!e product &eel as i& t!eD are missing somet!ing' #t plaDs on *ealousD, envD and Lkeeping up with the AonesesM' #n&ormative and persuasive contents can be combined in t!e &orm o& an appeal to provide a basic reason &or t!e consumer to act' (lt!oug! t!e mar0eter can use manD di&&erent tDpes o& ''e !#, common advertising appeals include +e r ''e !#, #e3 ''e !# and )u%$r$u# ''e !#' Fear appeals suggest to t!e consumer t!at !e or s!e can avoid some negative e%perience t!roug! purc!asing and using t!e product' 2e% appeals suggest to t!e audience t!at t!e product Aill increase t!e attractiveness o& t!e user' Humorous appeals implD eit!er directlD or more subtlD t!at t!e product is more &un or e%citement t!an t!e competitorsE o&&ers' *n relation to the life cycle of the product , advertisement can be 'i$neerin", c$%' r tive and re%inder' Psed in t!e introductorD stage o& t!e li&e cDcle, pioneering advertising tells people A!at a product is, A!at it can do and A!ere it can be &ound' -!e 0eD ob*ective o& a pioneering ad is to in&orm t!e target mar0et' #n&ormative ads !ave been &ound to be interesting, convincing and e&&ective according to consumer *udgement' (n increasinglD common &orm o& competitive advertising is comparati-e advertising A!ic! s!oAs one brandEs strengt!s relative to competitors' Firms t!at use comparative advertising need mar0et researc! and test results to provide legal support &or t!eir claims' Reminder advertising is to rein&orce previous 0noAledge o& a product' #t is good &or products t!at !ave ac!ieved a Aell recognised position and are in t!e mature p!ase o& t!eir product li&e cDcle' -!ere are several regulations t!at control t!e content o& advertisements' For e%ample, Fritis! &irms are reIuired to &olloA t!e Fritis! Code o& (dvertising Practice' 2ome important e%tracts &rom t!e code are,

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Focus on Communication 1. All ad-ertisements should be legal' decent' honest and truthful. 2. All ad-ertisements should be prepared with a sense of responsibility to the consumer. (. All ad-ertisements should conform to the principles of fair competition as generally accepted in business. 1. %o ad-ertisement should bring ad-ertising into disrepute or reduce confidence in ad-ertising as a ser-ice to industry and to the public. 22. ;or or against ad-ertising. Read the following text and try to add new points both on the pro and on the against list. 2ome Aould go so &ar as to saD t!at advertising actuallD enric!es our lives' Commercial television is able to provide us Ait! &ree programmes t!an0s to its advertising revenues' Bational neAspapers derive muc! o& t!eir income &rom advertising' 8oo0 at a tDpical neAspaper and Dou Aill discover t!e proportion o& t!e pages devoted to advertisements' 4e also !ave advertisers to t!an0 &or t!e &ree caller supplements accompanDing t!e neAspapers' Arguments for ad-ertising, +' (dvertising tells consumers about t!e products t!at are available, alloAing t!em to ma0e a Aider and more in&ormed c!oice' /' #t encourages competition betAeen &irms, A!ic! !ave to produce c!eaper and better products' 3' FD creating a Aider mar0et &or products, advertising ma0es large-scale production and sales possible' .ass production also ma0es goods and services c!eaper &or consumers' 6' 4it!out advertising, media suc! as neAspapers and television Aould be more e%pensive' .anD sporting clubs and ot!er organisations also bene&it &rom advertising revenue' Arguments against ad-ertising$ +' (dvertising is e%pensive and maD lead to prices being !ig!er t!an necessarD' Hig! advertising costs maD also prevent neA &irms &rom entering t!e mar0et because t!eD cannot a&&ord t!e e%pense' /' (dvertising is o&ten Aaste&ul, sometimes involving t!e same &irm advertising virtuallD identical products against eac! ot!er' 2ome Ariters claim t!at advertising !as little or no e&&ect upon t!e total demand &or goods or even upon t!e demand &or a particular tDpe o& good or service' -!is argument is supported bD cigarette manu&acturers, A!o claim t!at advertising onlD causes a s!i&t &rom one brand to anot!er' 3' (dvertising can be misleading' HoAever, t!ere are substantial controls upon t!e industrD' 6' (dvertisers can e%ert control over media suc! as t!e Aritten press and t!e television, A!ic! o&ten design t!eir content speci&icallD to reac! target groups suc! as t!e Doung or t!e better-o&&' #t can be argued, !oAever, t!at suc! LtargetingM onlD Aor0s bD providing consumers Ait! t!e reading or entertainment t!at t!eD Aant' 2(. De-eloping the ad-ertising programme. Read the text and try to concei-e a programme of your own' for your own business and product.#hink of all you ha-e learnt about marketing' at the English courses or elsewhere. 0hich product would you like to launch7 0hy7

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Focus on Communication 7nce t!e &irm !as decided t!at advertising is going to plaD some role in t!e mar0eting o& its product, it must t!en decide on t!e message, t!e media and t!e receiver' (ll t!ese &actors Aill be lin0ed' #t could be t!at t!e receiver 1 t!e so-called target audience 1 Aill determine t!e message and t!e media' +' *dentifying the target audience' -o t!e e%tent t!at time and moneD permit, t!e target audience &or t!e advertising programme is t!e target mar0et &or t!e &irmEs product, A!ic! is identi&ied &rom t!e mar0eting researc! and mar0et segmentation studies' -!e more a &irm 0noAs about its target audienceEs pro&ile "including t!eir li&estDle, attitudes and values$, t!e easier it is to ma0e an advertising decision' /' +pecifying ad-ertising ob!ecti-es' Consumers can be said to respond in terms o& !ierarc!D o& e&&ects, A!ic! is t!e seIuence o& stage a prospective buDer goes t!roug! &rom initial aAareness o& a product to eventual action' Awareness, t!e consumerEs abilitD to recognise and remember t!e product and brand name' *nterest, an increase o& t!e consumerEs desire to learn about some o& t!e &eatures o& t!e product and brand' E-aluation, t!e consumerEs appraisal o& !oA !e or s!e &eels about t!e product and t!e brand' #rial, t!e consumerEs actual &irst purc!ase and use o& t!e product and brand' Adoption, t!roug! a &avorable e%perience on t!e &irst trial, t!e consumerEs repeated purc!ase and use o& t!e product and brand' 3' +etting the ad-ertising budget' etermining t!e ideal amount &or t!e budget is di&&icult because t!ere is no precise AaD to measure t!e e%act results o& spending advertising moneD' HoAever, t!ere are several met!ods used to set t!e advertising budget' :ercent of sales, &unds are allocated to advertising as a percentage o& past or anticipated sales, in terms o& eit!er moneD or units sold' 2ompetiti-e parity, matc!ing t!e competitorEs absolute level o& spending on t!e proportion per point o& mar0et s!are a competitor !as' All you can afford, common to manD small businesses, moneD is allocated to advertising onlD a&ter all ot!er budget items are covered' >b!ecti-e and task, t!e best approac!, t!e companD "+$ determines its advertising ob*ectives, "/$ outlines t!e tas0s to accomplis! t!ese ob*ectives and "3$ determines t!e advertising cost o& per&orming t!ese tas0s' 6' +electing the right media' CverD advertiser must decide A!ere to place t!e advertisements' -!e alternatives are the ad-ertising media, t!e means bD A!ic! t!e message is communicated to t!e target audience' -!is media selection decision is related to t!e target audience, tDpe o& product, nature o& t!e message, campaign ob*ectives, available budget and t!e costs o& t!e alternative media' .edia buDers spea0 a language o& t!eir oAn' 2o, everD advertiser involved in selecting t!e rig!t media &or campaigns must be &amiliar Ait! some common terms' Reach is t!e number o& di&&erent people e%posed to t!e message, term o&ten used to describe t!e total circulation o& a neAspaper' -elevision and radio stations describe t!eir audience using t!e term rating, t!e percentage o& !ouse!olds in a mar0et t!at are tuned to a particular -5 s!oA or radio programme' 4!en advertisers Aant to reac! t!e same audience more t!an once, t!eD are concerned Ait! frequency, t!e average number o& times a person in t!e target audience is

+3=

Focus on Communication e%posed to a message' 2ost per thousand 42:)5 re&ers to t!e cost o& reac!ing +,@@@ individuals or !ouse!olds Ait! t!e advertising message in a given medium' 0riting the copy' -!e central element o& an advertising programme is t!e advertising copD, t!e messages t!at t!e target audience is intended to see or !ear' -!is usuallD involves identi&Ding t!e 0eD bene&its o& t!e product t!at are deemed important to a prospective buDer in ma0ing and adopting decisions' #n designing t!e message t!e advertiser needs to consider t!e &olloAing, t!e content o& t!e message, A!o t!e receiver is, t!e person used &or sending t!e message, t!e timing and number o& messages' 2reating the actual message' -!e Mcreative peopleM or copDAriters in an advertising agencD !ave t!e responsibilitD to turn appeals and &eatures suc! as IualitD, stDle, dependabilitD, economD into &ocus, getting believable advertising copD' -!is o&ten relies on creative use o& &ear, se%, !umor, sound or visual e&&ects' -ranslating t!e ideas into an actual advertisement is also a comple% process, including artAor0 and laDout' +cheduling the ad-ertising' -!ere is no correct sc!edule to advertise a product, but t!ree &actors must be considered' First, t!e issue o& buyer turno-er, A!ic! is !oA o&ten neA buDers enter t!e mar0et to buD t!e product' 2econd, purchase frequency, A!ic! means t!at t!e more &reIuentlD t!e product is purc!ased, t!e less repetition is reIuired' -!ird, companies must consider t!e forgetting rate, t!e speed Ait! A!ic! buDers &orget t!e brand i& advertising is not seen or !eard' 2etting sc!edules reIuires an understanding o& !oA t!e mar0et be!aves' .ost companies tend to &olloA one o& tAo basic approac!es, +teady 48drip95 schedule, A!en demand and seasonal &actors are unimportant and advertising is run regularlD t!roug!out t!e Dear' :ulse 48burst95 schedule, A!en advertising is distributed unevenlD t!roug!out t!e Dear because o& seasonal demand, !eavD periods o& promotion or introduction o& a neA product' E-aluating the ad-ertising programme' -!e purpose o& evaluating advertising e&&orts is to trD to ensure t!at t!e advertising is not Aasted' Cvaluation is done usuallD at tAo separate times, be&ore and a&ter t!e advertisements are run in t!e actual campaign, ta0ing into account t!e intended or accomplis!ed ob*ectives' )aking needed changes' Results o& post-testing t!e advertising copD are used to reac! decisions about c!anges in t!e advertisement programme' #& t!e posttest s!oAs t!at an ad is doing poorlD in terms o& aAareness or cost e&&iciencD, it maD be dropped and ot!er ads run in its place in t!e &uture' 7n t!e ot!er !and, sometimes an advertising maD be so success&ul it is run repeatedlD or used as t!e basis o& a larger advertising programme'

9'

:'

<'

='

?'

21. #hink of the ad-antages and disad-antages of each medium and gi-e examples of concrete situations. *n the space remained on this page' write a brief and as brilliant as possible comment on ad-ertising and its consequences.

+3?

Focus on Communication

.C #P. -elevision

Radio

.agazines

-rade magazines

BeAspapers

( 5(B-(>C2 #2( 5(B-(>C2 - e%posure on a national scale) - e%pensive) - t!e advert reac!es all socio- - t!ere maD not be a economic groups) nationAide interest in t!e product, so -5 advertising - sound, vision, movement and Aould be inappropriate) color can all be used) - reac!es e%tremelD large audience - s!ort e%posure time and peris!able message) - di&&icult to conveD comple% in&ormation' - loA cost) - no visual e%citement) - can target speci&ic audiences) - s!ort e%posure time and peris!able message) - ads can be placed Iuic0lD) di&&icult to conveD comple% - can use sound, !umor, intimacD in&ormation' e&&ectivelD' - can target speci&ic audiences) - long time needed to place ad) - !ig! IualitD color) - limited control o& ad position) - long li&e o& ad) - relativelD !ig! cost) - ads can be clipped and saved) - can conveD comple% in&ormation' - competes &or attention Ait! ot!er magazine &eatures' - circulation is rising) - onlD reac! small percentage o& t!e population) - read bD people A!o ta0e an interest in trade adverts) - tend to be publis!ed less &reIuentlD' - less e%pensive t!an neAspapers' - e%cellent coverage o& local - ads compete &or attention mar0ets) Ait! ot!er neAspaper &eatures) - ads can be placed and c!anged Iuic0lD) - canEt control ad position on page) - ads can be saved) s!ort li&e span) - loA cost and Iuic0 consumer response' - canEt target speci&ic audiences'

D. V$c /u! r7 Pr ctice D1. Do the following exercises$ a. #ranslate into English$

+6@

Focus on Communication - C cineva la voi acasG l ntreb Bang oprindu-se i vorbind cu copilul peste umr' Fiatul ddu din cap a&irmativ' - Cine e G relu Bang' Copilul spuse c e vorba de dou surori ale lui mai mari' - Bumai ele sunnt acasG ntreb Bang' - Pi cine s mai &ieG se mir biatul i adug c tata e plecat i c i-a lsat singuri, n-a mai venit pe acas de mult' Pnde era dusG Copilul rspunse c el nu tia, c tiau cele dou surori ale lui, dar acum ele erau n cas i nu puteau s ias a&arQ e ceG Bu rspunse n prima clip la aceast ntrebare, apoi i ridic privirea i spuse c el trebuie s atepte, acuma nu poate s mnnce orezulQ ".arin Preda, SntMlnirea din pEmMnturi$ b.;orm positi-e and negati-e ad!ecti-es from the following nouns' according to the model$ Friendliness 2peed ]uali&ication C&&iciencD 2trengt! C&&ectiveness C%tent 2ecuritD 2op!istication Rain &riendlD un&riendlD

D2. .roup the words below under the four headings' according to the model$ <pward trend to increase #he -erbs$ to rise, to roc0et, to &all, to predict, to go up, to pro*ect, to plummet, to sin0, to accelerate, to anticipate, to calm doAn, to decrease' D(. +ummarise and explain the following text$ #t Aas t!e &irst p!otograp! t!at # !ad ever seen, and it &ascinated me' # can remember !olding it at everD angle in order to catc! t!e &lic0ering lig!t &rom t!e oil lamp on t!e dresser' -!e man in t!e p!otograp! Aas unsmiling, but !is eDes Aere 0ind' # !ad never met !im, but # &elt t!at # 0neA !im' 7ne evening A!en # Aas loo0ing at t!e p!otograp!, as # alAaDs did be&ore # Aent to sleep, # noticed a s!adoA across t!e manEs t!in &ace' # moved t!e p!otograp! so t!at t!e s!adoA laD per&ectlD around !is !olloA c!ee0s' HoA di&&erennt !e loo0edN -!at nig!t # could not sleep, t!in0ing about t!e letter t!at # Aould Arite' First, # Aould tell !im t!at # Aas eleven Dears old, and t!at i& !e !ad a little girl mD age, s!e could Arite to me instead o& !im' # 0neA t!at !e Aas a verD busD man' -!en # Aould e%plain to !im t!e real purpose o& mD letter' # +6+ Downward trend to decline ;uture estimate to e%pect +peed of change to sloA doAn

Focus on Communication Aould tell !im !oA Aonder&ul !e loo0ed Ait! t!e s!adoA t!at # !ad seen across !is p!otograp!, and # Aould most care&ullD suggest t!at !e groA A!is0ers' Four mont!s later A!en # met !im at t!e train station near mD !ome in 4est&ield, BeA Jor0, !e Aas Aearing a &ull beard' He Aas so muc! taller t!an # !ad imagined &rom mD tinD p!otograp!' L8adies and >entlemenM, !e said, L# !ave no speec! to ma0e and time to ma0e it in' # appear be&ore Dou t!at # maD see Dou and t!at Dou maD see me'M -!en !e pic0ed me rig!t up and !e 0issed me on bot! c!ee0s' -!e A!is0ers scretc!ed' L o Dou t!in0 # loo0 better, mD little &riendGM, !e as0ed me' .D name is >race Fedell, and t!e man in t!e p!otograp! Aas (bra!am 8incoln' D1. #ranslate into English the following sentences' usinng the -erbs to abuse' to affront' to insult' to offend' too outrage$ +' Utiu c nu e uor, dar ncearc s ng!ii aceast o&ens' /' Bu vreau s te *ignesc, dar cred c nu ai dreptate' 3' e ce ai n&runtat-o, tii c nu o s i ierte niciodat aa o insult n public' 6' Felul tu de a vedea lucrurile e de-a dreptul *ignitor, ai reuit s insuli pe toat lumea' 9' 7 insuli dac rzi de ea' :' (ccidentul e vina lui, nu pot suporta s &iu vtmat i insultat' <' Bu pot s m las ultragiat de ziarul dumneavoastr, aa c v voi da n *udecat pentru insult' =' (m considerat o insult &aptul c nu mi-a adresat nici un cuvnt la petrecere' ?' 8-a insultat dar el nu s-a suprat' +@' Bu trebuie s te simi insultatN Remember the following phrases$ to abuse oneEs opponents, to &eel a&&ronted, to o&&er an a&&ront to somebodD, to insult oneEs memorD, to be o&&ended bD somebodD, to o&&end against t!e laA, to &eel outraged, outraged &eelings'

+6/

Focus on Communication

XIV. REVISION
A. 2ommunication tasks +' a' b' c' d' e' &' g' 4rite pro and against discourses on t!e &olloAing topics, -!e national c!aracter is largelD in&luenced bD climate) ( politicallD and economicallD united Curope is desirable) LReligion is t!e opium o& t!e peopleM "Tarl .ar%$) L(ll art is uselessM "7scar 4ilde$) -!ere can be no &reedom Ait!out discipline) Propaganda is t!e Aorst &orm o& argument) LCverDt!ing t!at enlarges t!e sp!ere o& !uman poAers, t!at s!oAs man !e can do A!at !e t!oug!t !e could not do, is valuableM " r' 2amuel ;o!nson$) !' L>ood &ences ma0e good neig!boursM "Robert Frost$) i' (dvertising is one o& t!e most unpleasant &eatures o& modern li&e) *' L-!e !uman raceEs prospects o& survival Aere considerablD better A!en Ae Aere de&enseless against tigers t!an t!eD are todaD A!en Ae !ave become de&enseless against ourselvesM "(rnold -oDnbee$' /' Jou are a neAs reporter &or a popular neAspaper and !ave been sent to cover a serious tra&&ic accident' 4rite an article "o& about /9@ Aords$ &or Dour neAspaper' Fe&ore Dou begin to Arite, as0 Doursel& t!e &olloAing Iuestions, a' 4!at !appened, in brie&G 4rite doAn all t!e Aords Dou can t!in0 o& on t!e topic "e'g' cras!, s0id, in*ured, trapped, rescue services, etc'$) b' 4!o Aas involvedG 4ere t!ere anD AitnessesG id Dou get an intervieAG) c' id Dou get a storD &rom a spo0esperson in overall c!argeG) d' 4ere t!ere anD lessons to be learnt &or t!e &utureG 3' #magine an intervieA Ait! a person A!o is in c!arge Ait! t!e development o& an important event "e'g' a ceremonD, a demonstration, etc'$' 6' 4rite notes or messages &or t!e &olloAing situations, a' (n Cnglis! spea0ing &riend is coming round to see Dou t!is evening but DouEve been as0ed to go and babDsit at s!ort notice' 8eave a message &or Dour &riend telling A!ere Dou are and apologising) b' Jou are on a language course in Fritain but one daD Dou are ill and canEt attend sc!ool' 4rite a note &or Dour teac!er A!ic! a &riend can ta0e &or Dou) c' Jou Aor0 &or a Fritis! companD' Jour boss is out A!en someone calls to ma0e an appointment &or t!e secretarial *ob advertised in t!e paper' 4rite a memo &or Dour boss, telling !im A!at arrangements Dou !ave made) d' -!e -5 isnEt Aor0ing' JouEve p!oned t!e repairman and !eEs coming t!is a&ternoon A!ile Dou are out' 8eave a note &or Dour Cnglis! spea0ing &latmate, as0ing !im to staD in &or !is call' 9' 4rite doAn t!e advantagesKdisadvantages o& organising a press con&erence in t!e a&ternoon' :' 4!at is a rumourG 4!ic! are t!e main rules o& combating a rumourG <' C%plain brie&lD t!e main tDpes o& negotiation and argue &orKagainst eac! tDpe' =' #magine a negotiation Ait! a trade partner, in order to reac! a better agreement and to close a neA contract'

+63

Focus on Communication 3. .rammar tests. 31. #ranslate into English$ e prisos s mai spun ct am rmas de uluit de ceea ce s-a ntmplat n ultimul s&ert de or) ct despre (ng!el, e&ortul pe care trebuie s-l &i &cut l-a dat gata, cuprins, cum spunea, de o migren cumplit, ne-a rugat s-l nsoim ntr-o ncpere ntunecoas, unde s-a lungit pe o canapea, cernd s i se aduc i un ervet ud pe care s i-l pun pe &runte' Cnd am repovestit, i eu i ceilali, mai pe urm, aceast ntmplare, nimeni n-a reuit s ne e%plice nimic i de &apt mi-am dat seama c nici nu regretam realmente c nu cunoteam cauza tainic a incidentului' 32. 0rite statements consistent with the -erbs and ad-erbs gi-en and then change them into *ndirect +peech$ +' LQQQM, !e complained' /' LQQQM, !e promised' 3' LQQQM, !e snapped' 6' LQQQM, !e groaned' 9' LQQQM, !e announced' :' LQQQM, !e said angrilD' <' LQQQM, !e said passionatelD' =' LQQQM, !e said brutallD' ?' LQQQM, !e said accusinglD' +@' LQQQM, !e said &iercelD' ++' LQQQM, !e declared' +/' LQQQM, !e said sDmpat!eticallD' +3' LQQQM, !e gasped' +6' LQQQM, !e said complacentlD' +9' LQQQM, !e retorted' 3(. ReBwrite the following text in the Direct +peech$ L.r' Harding told t!e (rc!deacon t!at !e !ad in&ormed 2ir (bra!am !e Aould resign and t!at conseIuentlD !e must do so' -!e (rc!deacon couldnEt agree t!at t!is Aas at all necessarD, and pointed out t!at not!ing .r' Harding said is suc! a AaD to !is oAn counsel could be in anD AaD binding on !im' He !ad simplD been t!ere to as0 !is laADerEs advice' -!e (rc!deacon &elt sure t!at 2ir (bra!am !ad not advised suc! a step' .r' Harding agreed t!at !e !adnEt' -!e reverend crosse%aminer Aent on to saD t!at !e Aas sure 2ir (bra!am !ad advised !im against it, A!ic!, again, .r' Harding could not denD' Pressing !ome !is advantage, t!e (rc!deacon e%pressed !is assurance t!at 2ir (bra!am must !ave advised .r' Harding to consult !is &riends' .r' Harding !aving been obliged to assent to t!is proposition also, t!e (rc!deacon concluded bD saDing decisivelD t!at .r' HardingEs t!reat o& resignation t!ere&ore amounted to not!ing and t!at t!eD Aere *ust A!ere t!eD !ad been be&ore'M "#he 0arden, bD (nt!onD -rollope$ 31. Do the following exercises$ +66

Focus on Communication a. 2hoose one of the four possibilities closest in meaning to the sentences you will see below$ +' #& Dou touc! mD daug!ter again # Aill 0ill Dou' -!e parent saDs !e Aill a$' &ill in somebodD' b$' do in somebodD' c$' ta0e in somebodD' d$' pull in somebodD' /' ;o!n earns Iuite a lot' ;o!n a$' brings in a lot' b$' pulls in a lot' c$' gives in enoug!' d$' gets in too muc!' 3' # am so pleased mD !olidaD starts tomorroA' # canEt AaitN -!e spea0er is a$' putting &orAard !er !olidaD' b$' loo0ing &orAard to !er !olidaD' c$' bringing &orAard !er !olidaD' d$' !aving !er !olidaD broug!t &orAard' 6' -!e climbers !ad to stop and return !ome as t!e Aeat!er Aas so bad' -!e climbers Aere &orced to a$' !old bac0' b$' ta0e bac0' c$' turn bac0' d$' 0eep bac0' 9' -!e HoAards are decorating t!eir &lat at t!e moment' -!e &lat is being a$' done up' b$' made up' c$' &illed up' d$' bro0en up' :' # donEt 0noA !oA ;im survived a&ter t!at car cras!' ;im managed to a$' get t!roug!' b$' pull t!roug!' b$' loo0 t!roug!' d$' go t!roug!' <' 2!e li0es to imitate people' 2!e a$' puts t!em o&&' b$' Arites t!em o&&' c$' ta0es t!em o&&' d$' laDs t!em o&&' =' -!e li&t is out o& order' -!e li&t !as a$' come doAn' b$' run doAn' c$' gone doAn' d$' bro0en doAn' ?' ic0 canEt tolerate t!is *ob anD longer' ic0 canEt a$' 0eep up Ait! t!e Aor0' b$' put up Ait! t!e Aor0' c$' ta0e up !is *ob' d$' give up !is *ob' +@' 7n t!e second daD o& t!eir !oneDmoon t!eD Iuarrelled' -!e couple a$' Aere 0noc0ed out' b$' ran out' c$' &ell out' d$' carried out' b. ,ook at the phrasal -erb headlines below and then try to work out what each of them means. a$ b$ c$ d$ e$ 8( J #5#B( CP- PP T#B87CT -7 4R(P PP H(-CHC-E2 R(4CR2 >7BC -HR7P>H PTC RPB2 74B (B#.(8 R#>H-2 2PPP7R-CR2 PR#BCC -(TCB #B FJ PR7

0hen you ha-e tried to explain the headlines' consider the explanations pro-ided below. #here are two possibilities which can be matched up with each headline. +' Customs o&&icers strip searc! e%-P. bD mista0e /' .aid caug!t snooping in e%-P.Es bedroom 3' Conman tric0s Prince out o& 9,@@@ pounds 6' .agicianEs tric0 goes !orriblD Arong 9' 7pposition leader catc!es pneumonia :' ivina distressed at deat! o& gold&is! <' u0e orders c!au&&eur to drive into animal rig!ts supporters =' 7pposition leader told to cool it ?' Prince put up bD call girl a&ter being 0ic0ed out o& Palace +@' u0e criticises animal rig!ts activists &or sabotaging grouse s!oot' +69

Focus on Communication 4rite doAn one o& t!e articles &or, a serious neAspaper) a tabloid neAspaper) a AomenEs magazine' C. Pu/!ic Re! ti$n# t)e$rie#. +' /' 3' 6' 9' 4rite Dour oAn considerations about t!e Public Relations &ield' -rD to be as original as Dou can' C%plain A!at an image builder is and A!ic! t!e personEs main &eatures s!ould be' >ive e%amples o& possible organisation structures and e%plain t!em' Comment on t!e organisation c!art and trD to applD it at an organisation Dou are &amiliar Ait!' 4!at tactics Aould Dou c!oose as a Public Relations specialist &or t!e campaign o& a politician A!o runs &or t!e position o& maDorG 4!DG :' Conceive a slogan &or t!e politician Dou pre&er in t!e Romanian political arena' 4!D do Dou t!in0 it suits t!at personG <' e&ine mar0eting and e%plain t!e de&inition' =' Conceive a slogan &or a product Dou li0e on t!e Romanian mar0et' 4!D !ave Dou c!osen itG HoA is it in comparison Ait! t!e e%isting slogans &or t!e productG ?' 4rite an essaD about t!e latest political campaign in Romania, speci&Ding runners, AaD o& doing t!ings, e&&ectiveness, analDsing t!e results' +@' 4rite an essaD about t!e e&&ects o& a possible integration in t!e Curopean Pnion over t!e political li&e o& Romania' D. V$c /u! r7 'r ctice. D1. #ranslate into English$ Cei patru tigri mici ai (siei, Coreea de 2ud, -aiAan, Hong Tong i 2ingapore au demonstrat n *umtatea a doua a secolului nostru posibilitatea decolrii economice, a ieirii din subdezvoltare, a intrrii n marea &amilie a economiilor avansate i prospere' (u urmat tigri mi*locii, la distan de zece-douzeci de ani, din zona (2C(B, .alaezia, #ndonezia, -ailanda i Filipine' Ui &iindc mai rmnea timp pn n /@@@, surpriza s-a produs' C!ina a adoptat ritmurile de cretere ale tigrilor' .ai nti s recunoatem c n lume primul indice care este lipit pe &runtea unei ri, paaportul sau buletinul ei, clasi&icarea absolut i &inal, este produsul pe cap de locuitor' 2ociologi, umaniti, istorici ncearc n zadar alte semne distinctive, spiritualitatea, &ericirea, armonia, creativitatea' Pentru literatur toate sunt bune, dar nu in loc de criteriul economic, universal admis, ce rezist oricrei dezbateri' ar dup el urmeaz imediat alt indice, rata creterii acestui produs' 2pune-mi ct produci ca s-i spun cine eti, spune-mi cum creti, ca s-i spun pe cine contez' D2.+ummarise the following text$ ( basic and reasonablD accurate AaD to divide concepts, s0ills and values into tAo clumps 1 t!ings adaptable to being taug!t bD tec!nologD at reasonable cost and t!ings not adaptable 1 is to create a di&&erentiation betAeen LtrainingM and LeducationM' (nD tDpe o& instructional programing Aill be most e&&ective &or sub*ect matter Ait! a limited range o& rig!t ansAers "training$, because de&ining an incorrect learner response and c!anneling student e&&ort in an appropriate direction are muc! easier' 4!ile creating good Lmultiple rig!t ansAerM instructional units "education$ is tec!nicallD possible, t!e di&&iculties and costs o& doing so are pro!ibitive compared to using !uman teac!ers' +6:

Focus on Communication -!us, training in sub*ects suc! as reading, basic mat!s, accounting, carburetor repair, nuclear poAer plant operation and coo0ing Aill be done bD mac!ines) and education in creative Ariting, clinical psDc!ologD, salesmans!ip and e%ecutive decision ma0ing Aill be done bD !umans' D(. ;ind the usual partner for each of the following words$ revenue, net, pro&it, supplD, A!olesale, stoc0s, t!e private sector, state-oAned enterprise, credit, blue-collar Aor0ers, boom, s0illed labour, ta0e on neA sta&&, lending, t!e s!op &loor' D1. Explain the differences between the following -erbs$ to loo0 &or and to searc!) to conduct and to lead) to groA and to increase) to detect and to &ind out'

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Focus on Communication 0I0LIO2RAP8D 1. .rammar and Cocabulary (le%ander, 8'>', Essay and ,etter 0riting, 8ongman Press, 8ondon and BeA Jor0, +??? Fanta, (ndrei, Engle/a pentru admitere, Cditura -eora, Fucureti, +??9 Fanta, (ndrei, Essential English, Cditura -eora, Fucureti, +??/ Fdescu, (lice, .ramatica limbii engle/e, Cditura Utiini&ic i Cnciclopedic, Fucureti, +?=6 Fell, ;an, >oAer, Roger, Cunning!am, >illie, )atters. Elementary L Ad-anced, 8ongman Press, 8ondon and BeA Jor0, +??? Flac0man, aniel, #est our :hrasal Cerbs, Cditura -eora, Fucureti, +??9 C!ioran, ', Panov&, #', Poenaru, #', English .rammar Exercises, Cditura Utiini&ic, Fucureti, +?</ CroAt!er, ;onat!an, editor, >xford .uide to 3ritish and American 2ulture , 7%&ord PniversitD Press, 8ondon, +??? Frnoag, >', 8ecca, ', English 2on-ersation #opics, Pniversitatea Fucureti, +?=9 Fielder, Cr0!ard, ;ansen, Reimer, Borman-Risc!, .il, America in 2loseB<p, 8ongman Press, 8ondon and BeA Jor0, +??@ >leanu-Frnoag, >eorgiana, ExerciNii de gramaticE engle/E, 7megapress, Fucureti, +??6 >leanu-Frnoag, >eorgiana, Comiel, Ccaterina, .ramatica limbii engle/e, 7megapress, Fucureti, +??: >roza-Filip, (driana, ^a!arescu, orina, +ynonyms in :ractice. Exercises, Cditura acia, Clu*Bapoca, +??: Had&ield, ;ill, 2ommunication .ames. 3eginner L Ad-anced, 8ongman Press, 8ondon and BeA Jor0, +??? #arovici, Cdit!, .are, 8iliana, ExerciNii lexicale de limba engle/E, Cditura Utiini&ic i Cnciclopedic, Fucureti, +?=+ 8evic!i, 8eon, .ramatica limbii engle/e, Cditura -eora, Fucureti, +??9 .c oAall, avid, 3ritain in 2loseB<p, 8ongman Press, 8ondon and BeA Jor0, +?== Pop, .a%im, Engle/a -orbitE, Cditura 2port--urism, Fucureti, +?<= 2oars, ;o!n and 8iz, %ew 6eadway English 2ourse. Elementary to <pperB*ntermediate , 7%&ord PniversitD Press, 8ondon, +??? 2tep!ens, .arD, :ractice Ad-anced 0riting, 8ongman Press, 8ondon and BeA Jor0, +??: -urcu, Fulvia, Bstsescu, 5ioleta, Engle/a de afaceri Tn economia de piaNE , Cditura Pranus, Fucureti, +??: 4al0er, Claine, ClsAort!, 2teve, .rammar :ractice. Elementary L <pper *ntermediate , 8ongman Press, 8ondon and BeA Jor0, +??? 4atcDn-;ones, Peter, #est our Cocabulary, 8ongman Press, 8ondon and BeA Jor0, +??? ddd ,imba engle/E. ExerciNii pentru admiterea Tn Tn-ENEmMntul superior , Cditura idactic i Pedagogic, Fucureti, +?<=

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Focus on Communication 2. 2ommunication and :ublic Relations (dler, Ronald F', 2ommunicating at 0ork, Random House, BeA Jor0, +??= (s!leD, (', A 6andbook of 2ommercial 2orrespondence, 7%&ord PniversitD Press, 8ondon, +??9 FrodD, C'4', 2ommunication #omorrow' %ew Audiences' %ew #echnologies' %ew )edia, Praeger Publis!ers, BeA Jor0, +??@ C!iriacescu, (', .urean, 8', Farg!iel, 5', Hollinger, (', 2orespondenNE de afaceri Tn limbile romMnE =i engle/E, Cditura -eora, Fucureti, +??9 a&t, R'8', >rgani/ation #heory and Design, 4est Publis!ing CompanD, .inneapolis, +?=< eFleur, .elvin 8', Fall-Ro0eac!, 2andra, #eorii ale comunicErii de masE, Cditura Polirom, #ai, +??? ominic0, ;osep! R', #he Dynamics of )ass 2ommunication, .c>raA-Hill Publis!ing CompanD, BeA Jor0, +??@ ule0, R', Fielden, ;'2', :rinciples of 3usiness 2ommunication, .ac.illan Publis!ing Co', BeA Jor0, +??@ Cpstein, CdAard, 3etween ;act and ;iction$ #he :roblem of Aournalism, Random House, BeA Jor0, +?=9 >raber, oris, )ass )edia and American :olitics , Congressional ]uarterlD Press, 4as!ington 'C', +??6 Haberman, avid, olp!in, HarrD, :ublic Relations$ #he %ecessary Art, #oAa 2tate PniversitD Press, +?=6 HennsseD, ;ane, .lobal )arketing +trategies, Houg!ton .u&&lin CompanD, BeA Jor0, +??9 ;oAett, >art!, oE onnell, 5ictoria, :ropaganda and :ersuasion, 2(>C Publications, BeA Jor0, +??/ Tuiper, 2', 4ol&, .'P', Effecti-e 2ommunication in 3usiness, 2out!-4estern Publis!ing Co', Cincinnati, +??6 8ins0i, .artin, *mpact$ 6ow the :ress Affects ;ederal :olicymaking , Borton Press, BeA Jor0, +??: .c]uail, enis, )ass 2ommunication #heory. An *ntroduction , 2(>C Publications, BeA Jor0, +??@ Bager, Borman R', (llen, Harrell -', :ublic Relations. )anagement by >b!ecti-es, 8ongman Press, BeA Jor0 and 8ondon, +?=6 2c!ramm, 4illem, 6ow 2ommunication 0orks, PniversitD o& #llinois Press, +?<+ 2c!ultz, on, +trategic Ad-ertising 2ampaigns, B-C Fusiness Foo0s, #llinois, +??9 2!aA, avid, :ress 0atch, .ac .illan Publis!ing Co', BeA Jor0, +?=6 -oma, >!eorg!e "coord'$, #ehnici de comunicare, Cditura (rtprint, Fucureti, +??? 4ilco%, ennis, (ult, P!illip, (gee, 4arren, :ublic Relations, Harper-Collins College Publis!ers, BeA Jor0, +??6 4ood, Robert ;', >unt!er, .a%, 2onfessions of a :R )an, BeA (merican 8ibrarD, BeA Jor0, +?==

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Focus on Communication ddd *nternational )edia .uides$ %ewspapers 0orldwide' 2onsumer )aga/ines 0orldwide' 3usiness :ublications AsiaI:acific' Europe' the Americas' )iddle EastIAfrica , #nternational .edia Cnterprises, // Clizabet! 2treet, 2out! BorAal0, C- @:=9:'

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