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Evolutia atmosferei superioare in ultimele decenii

Student:Sandu Emanoil Alexe Master: Atmosfera si mediul circumterestru anul II , semestrul 1

Evolutia atmosferei superioare in ultimele decenii


Atmosfera , desemneaza invelisul de aer sau alte gaze al Pamantului sau al altui corp ceresc. Atmosfera terestra este aproximativ 100% gazoasa. Ca si continut e compusa din :
Molecule diatomice de azot (nitrogen N2)(78,2%)

Molecule diatomice de oxigen (O2)(20,5%) Argon (Ar)(0,92%) Dioxid de carbon (CO2)(0,03%) Ozon sau oxigen triatomic (O3) Alte gaze sau particule in suspensie

Atomosfera Pamantului are o masa de cca 4,9x1018 kg

Evolutia atmosferei superioare in ultimele decenii


In functie de temperatura e impartina in:
o Troposfera (atinge o altitudine medie de 14km) o Stratosfera (incepe de la 10km Polul Nord si Sud , respectiv 17km la Ecuator, si pana la 50km ; incluzand si statopauza) o Mezosfera (cuprinsa intre 50km si 80km) o Termosfera se imparte in 2 straturi:
Strat interior IONOSFERA (intre 8090km si 400-500km) Strat exterior EXOSFERA (peste 400500km)

La nivelul stratosferei mai exista un alt strat al atmosferei numit ozonosfera.

http://www.incaweb.org/publications/pdf/climate_monograph_ru.pdf

Evolutia atmosferei superioare in ultimele decenii


Incepand cu montarea primelor Radiosonde in 1958 , datele au aratat urme de incalzire in troposfera si de racire in stratosfera.
In perioada 1979-2001 marimea tropopauzei creste cu aproximativ 200 m (in medie global) odata cu incalzirea troposferei si racirea stratosferei. (ERA-40)
Fig.1.2 Observed surface and upper-air temperature anomalies (C). (A) Lower stratospheric T4, (B) Tropospheric T2, (C) Lower tropospheric T2LT , from UAH, RSS and VG2 MSU satellite analyses and UKMO HadAT2 and NOAA RATPAC radiosonde observations; and (D) Surface records from NOAA, NASA/GISS and UKMO/CRU (HadCRUT2v). All time series are monthly mean anomalies relative to the period 1979 to 1997 smoothed with a seven-month running mean filter. Major volcanic eruptions are indicated by vertical blue dashed lines. Adapted from Karl et al. (2006).

http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/figure-3-17.html

Evolutia atmosferei superioare in ultimele decenii

Fig.1.3 Linear temperature trends (C per decade) for 1979 to 2004 for the globe (top) and tropics (20N to 20S; bottom) for the MSU channels T4 (top panel) and T2 (second panel) or equivalent for radiosondes and reanalyses; for the troposphere (third panel) based on T2 with T4 used to statistically remove stratospheric influences (Fu et al., 2004a); for the lower troposphere (fourth panel) based on the UAH retrieval profile; and for the surface (bottom panel). Surface records are from NOAA/NCDC (green), NASA/GISS (blue) and HadCRUT2v (light blue). Satellite records are from UAH (orange), RSS (dark red) and VG2 (magenta); radiosonde-based records are from NOAA RATPAC (brown) and HadAT2 (light green); and atmospheric reanalyses are from NRA (red) and ERA-40 (cyan). The error bars are 5 to 95% confidence limits associated with sampling a finite record with an allowance for autocorrelation. Where the confidence limits exceed 1, the values are truncated. ERA-40 trends are only for 1979 to August 2002. Data from Karl et al. (2006; D. Seidel courtesy of J. Lanzante; and J. Christy). http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/figure-3-18.html

Evolutia atmosferei superioare in ultimele decenii


Fig.1.4. prezinta o legatura cu maximul solar . In timpul maximului solar vanturile din est , mezosferice , sunt mai puternice ceea ce duce la o corelare negativa intre fluxul solar si vanturile medii. Observarea vanturilor medii , MLT , GWs si a inaltimilor de referinta sugereaza deja ca exista o schimbare de inaltime . In timpul minimului solar care ar putea influenta cuplarea verticala intre mezosfera si termosfera inferioara. In termosfera scaderea densitatii in timpul minimului recent a fost extrema.

Termosfera sufera , de asemenea , oscilatii globale , anual si semestrial , care provin cel mai probabil din atmosfera inferioara si medie.

Evolutia atmosferei superioare in ultimele decenii


Bibliografie:
Schimbarea globala a climei , Traducerea si adaptarea: Aurelia Pascariu si Manuela Crisan , Timisoara Romnia , http://acad-icht.tm.edu.ro http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/ http://www.adv-radio-sci.net/9/343/2011/ars-9-343-2011.pdf
Limpasuvan, V., J. H. Richter, Y. J. Orsolini, F. Stordal, and O. Kvissel, 2011: The Roles of Planetary and Gravity Waves during a Major Stratospheric Sudden Warming as characterised in WACCM, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys, Special Issue on MLT, in press. http://www1.herrera.unt.edu.ar/faceyt/trends2012/abstract-list/