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9 l l 0
! > 3 1 0 M ; 1 l I o D l l l ; 1 9 0 l n O r l O l l l ( l D 1 0 d 3 1 9 D D 1 d 3 l l 1 0 I I l l l D ! > ( I ) ) d n ) l ' ! > n o l l 9 1 ! > ( l O ) l l 1 3 d O d l o 1 Q 3 D l I o n 3 ' { ( l o Q n O l l ' ! > ; 1 1
- n 3 l l 0 d 3 9 ! > ( l O ) l l l l 1 o r l l l D ! > ( l O , ( , ( O l l 9 1 1 0 I ; > Y ' ( D o r l 0 1 l ? 0 1 l ; 1 9 l l 0 3 ) 1 U e Y M 3 A 3 Q ! > 0 ) 3 l l o d 3 9 ! > l i l . 0 ; 1 Q 1 H
U J O O ' 0 0 4 B A @ ) n O l n o d o S l n O J p U B - B : I ! B U J - 3 ' l D
- ( l o d o v . / S G ! > 1 I D 1 ) 1 I 0 ) l 1 I ( I ) 1 I 1 l l C ! l d 9 1 1 V ! > l I D l I I I ( l 3 d 3 1 ' i 7 ' n O \ ' ( l O l l O D l n o d Q I I V 1 ; > I I 1 I 9 V : U D I l n 9 ( 1 3 ' V
, f l C ; > y , o X D f l C ; > l D l d ( T ) X 3 3 L u 3 r l f l O l A 0 2 9 d m
- ) 1 3 : ' 3 ) 0 1 1 0 1 0 ' : ' ; 3 d o m 0 1 Q : ' r n O l l : ' n 0 1 ( l 3 0 1 3 r l f l O X
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- 3 A n 0 1 : ' 0 ) 1 3 0 ) l 3 Q : ' L u : ' ; 3 X d o : ' l l D 1 0 ) 1
n 0 1 : ' 0 ) 1 3 0 ) l 3 Q : ' L u U Y , ; 3 1 O l D f l C ; > l f 1 3 1 1 0 d 3 9 f l C ; > ) I
- l r l l . J . l D n D 9 1 f 1 3 A L u c ; > d l l U J 3 9 X 1 d l . J . l D 3 X J 3 D l O r l C ; > 1 3 0
0 1 9 l f 1 0 3 D ( T ) f l 9 U ' u a 6 J a 8 ' i i ' a a w B N : J W )
O l D r l C ; > 1 3 0 9 ) 1 1 l f 1 3 1 1 0 d 3 9 9 ) 1 1 D 0 8 o f l ; 3 r l m d o l J D L u
3 D 3 D 3 9 ; 3 ' 3 r l ( l O Q 0 9 : ' ( T ) 1 l 9 ' : ' C ; > 9 0 ) l ' : ' ; 3 A
- O Y , Y , D : ' ; 3 ) 1 1 l D O d Q 3 d 3 m ; 3 1 1 3 H ' ( ( l O r l D
- l d 3 1 ( T ) 3 f 1 0 1 3 r l u ) ( l o r l m f l d 3 l A o r l o 1 3 r l n 0 1 o r l
- ( l 3 d 0 1 3 r l f l C ; > l f 1 3 1 1 0 d 3 9 f l C ; > ) l l r l l . J . l D n D f I ( T ) l
f l L u 9 1 1 0 1 0 ) 1 : ' o r l : ' 3 d ; 3 r l : ' 1 1 : ' ( T ) ; 3 0 8 6
n 0 1 0 ) 1 3 0 ) l 3 Q L u 9 1 1 0 ( 0 ) f l 0 3 ) 1 U ' u l l c ; > d
- n 3 ) l J D ( l V l . J . l D f l O ) l U 9 c ; > y , u Q ) l 3 : ' ; 3 l f 1 0 : ' 1 3 3 ) Y , 3 3 3 1 0
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- O A n D 3 r l n o D 9 1 D n o d o l l 0 9 0 ) D O A d 3 f l L u : r
' n O ; 3 f 1 n 0 1 1 O ) I ( l 0 1 Y , D l l n 0 1 ( 1 3 0 1
- 3 r l f l C ; > l l l o d d o m f l C ; > ) l l 1 1 ( T ) D O d l l ' f l C ; > 1 l l 3 Y , l J D 3 d ( l 3 f 1 0
f l L u 9 ) 1 1 r l l . J . l D n D 3 9 9 ) 1 9 1 1 0 ) 3 1 1 0 1 1 0
U C ; > f l 3 ' l J D ( T ) d ; 3 r l l . J f l 3 : ' 0 9
- 9 8 3 D 1 0 ) 1 l J D 1 A A ; 3 D O d l l f l L u O 1 A l O l A
- o d ; 3 m o l Q f l 3 : ' n o D 9 9 1 1 0 f I ( l 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 : ' L u
) o r l 9 n d 1 0 ' : ' 1 3 D 9 1 : ' ; 3 ) 1 1 1 3 9 A n D 1 0 ) 1 O D 9
: ' ; 3 y , o X D O D 9 1 l O l A O D D ( l l l l O f l O 0 ) 0 1 1 0
O l D O D ; 3 r l ' O r l l . J . l D ( l D 9 i X l 0 f l O o f l ; 3 0 1 Q ) U ' 1 0 1 ; 3 ' ) 3 ' (
- 3 1 0 1 1 V 1 0 ) 1 9 r l D O X O l D O f l O 3 D
f I ( l o A u Q O f l L u n O l l : ' 1 3 D 9 1 1 0 ) 1 O l D r l ( l 3 d : ' O l A O f l C ; >
- l o r l o m o 1 0 ) 1 : ' O l A O f l C ; > l D r l ( T ) D f l 3 ' : ' ( l o r l 9 n d : ' n o ) o Q A
- o d 3 r l J 3 9 X 1 Y , 3 3 3 1 3 X 3 , ' : ' L u : ' L u 0 ) 1 3 0 ) l 3 Q
l i l l . i r l ; 3 1 1 f l L u 1 3 ( 1 f 1 0 1 Q l J D 1 A A ; 3 D O d l l H
' ! > 1 3 D 1 ; > 1 ' ! > 1 3 3 ) \ , 3 3 3 ! > ; 3 ) 1 1 d 3 1 ( 1 ) 3 1 1 0 1 3 v . / ' o ) 3 l l o d 3 8
' O l l 9 d X O l D 1 3 D C ! l 1 8 1 l l 3 I I n o X ; 3 n O l l ! > 3 1 0 M ; 1
! > ; 3 ) 1 1 r l l l l D n D . ! > ; 3 ) 1 1 d 3 1 ( 1 ) 3 1 1 ! > O d l l o r l ( l 3 d 9 ) 1 1 1 ( l ) l ' { 1 d l r l n D 9 ) 1 1 1 3 9 1 1 n D 0 1 l l ' 0 1 l 3 r l 9 l l 3 0 1 1 ; 1 3 D O l > l n J d l 9 l l 0 1 l 0 I I n O D
0 9 ( l o r l D l d 3 1 ( 1 ) 3 1 1 0 1 3 r l n 0 1 ! > 1 3 D ; 1 9 ! > 3 ) o d ) l o ! > 3 1 1 ; 1 r l D l d o ! > ( I ) l l n O Q l ; > ' I ' > I n 0 1 I I C ! l ) l l l l l d ( l ) 3 9 I I C ! l 1 3 ) 1 d o l I m O l l l ; >
1 I 1 0 1 3 1 ) d l l l D o l l n 1 1 ( 1 ) 3 3 ) \ , 3 3 3 1 1 ( 1 ) 1 1 I D 0 ) D n o d O l l l l l i l . 9 1 1 0 O D ; 1 v . / ' l I C ! l l n 3 l l 0 d 3 9 I I C ! l ) l l r l l l l D n D 1 ; > 1 1 1 3 A l i l .
- C ! l d l l 1 I ) 3 9 X 1 d l l l D 3 X ) 3 O ) O l l O O l D ( l ) l I l ; > l l " D l O r l C ! l 1 3 0 1 ; > ) l 1 l n 3 l l 0 d 3 9 l ; > ) l l D 0 8 0 1 l ; 1 r l D 1 d o 3 D 3 D 3 9 ; 1
! > C ! l ( 0 ) l ' ! > ; 1 A o Y ' ( D ! > ; 1 ) 1 1 l D O d Q 3 d 3 d l ; 1 l l 3 \ l l i l o H ' 9 r l D l 1 1 0 1 3 n o d l D I I O ) l 9 ) 1 1 1 1 ( 1 ) 1 1 1 0 ) 1 1 1 0 1 9 1 1 0 O D ; 1 r l ! > ( I ) ) d n ) l
1 0 1 3 ) l ; > d d l ) l 3 ! > ( I ) l l 9 ' ' ' ( l o r l D l d 3 1 ( 1 ) 3 I 1 D l 3 r l n 0 1 o r l ( l 3 d 0 1 3 r l I I C ! l l n 3 l l 0 d 3 9 I I C ! l ) l 0 l 3 1 1 3 A O ) l 1 0 1 0 ) 1 I I C ! l ) l l r l l l l D n D 1 1 ( 1 ) 1
l l l i l . 9 1 1 0 I I O ) l 1 l 9 Y M 3 A ! > ; 1 l n O ! > 1 3 3 ) \ ' 3 3 3 1 0 ' O ) 1 3 0 1 l l 3 l l l D O ) l 1 3 0 ) O l n 3 ' { 3 1 l l l i l .
1 I D ( l ' i 7 l l l D I I O ) l 1 l 9 C ! l \ , l I Q ) l 3 n O l l O ) 3 l l 0 d 3 9 l l l D 1 I ( I ) 3 D ) M 3 D O d l l I I C ! l ) l l r l l l l D n D 1 1 ( 1 ) 1 H r f l H V l d 3 U
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514. A8T[vciAvopovraonovlov
ee; va j..l'lv KOL TOOO va eMyxouv 0
evae; TOV 6J.J..ov Kal OAOl TO
onwe; apXlKO nlO noM cpOLvoTav va ev-
va v0'lj..la one; npo-
TIe; TOUe; KOL TWV ouyyevwv TOUe;, WOTe
va j..lnopOUv va eivOL KaAO KOL XWPLQ
(Cecchin, 1992).
ITT] TOU 1980 0
(constructivism) (Maturana & Varela, 1980. von
Foerster, 1981. von Glasserfeld, 1987) TO
Kuplapxo CPLAOOOCPlKO peUj..la nou en'lpeaoe TT]v
gepaneia, j..le TT]v ej..lcpaOll nou
ve OTT]v TT]e; npayj..laTlKOTT]Tae; ana
TOV av9pwmvo vou, KOL enoj..leVWe; OTT] OIlj..laoia
TOU YVWOTIKOU KOL TT]e; vO'lj..laToMTT]OIle; TWV
ej..lnelpUllV, vO'lj..laToMTT]OIl nou npO'lyelTOL no-
VTa TT]e; OUj..lneplcpOpOe; Hoffman, 1988.
Watzlawick, 1984). H npoe; TT]
aMo Kal npoe; TOV
OJ..lO eKcppaOTte; OTa npoowna
TWV Boscolo KOL Cecchin, j..le
TT] Selvini-Pallazoli KOL TT]v Prata TT]e; TOU
MLAOVOU OTIe; apxte; TOU 1970, 'l onoia -oe aVTi-
geOll j..le TIe; 6J.J..ee; ccnaAOLee;" oxoMe;- tna4Je
va Boscolo & Bertrando,
1994, 1996. Cecchin, 1987, 1992). To
cpepov Yla TIe; KUKAlKee; aVTaVaKAaOTIKee;
(reflexive) epwTTlOele; aMo KOL Yla TT]v
TT]e; we;
(interventive interviewing) TT]v napMo-
0'1 TT]e; TOU MLAOVOU oe OA'l TT]
TOU 1980 KOL KUplWe; j..leow TT]e;
helOe; TOU Tomm (1988).
Me TOV 'l avanAOLoiwOIl,
ana Ta gepaneUTlKo epYaAeia, ant-
KTT]oe TO geWP'lTlKO nou TT]e; theme,
aMo OU)(VO ouvM9'lKe j..le TT]v TOOll TWV gepa-
neUTwv Yla aU9alpeTee; evaMaKTlKee; epj..l'lveiee;
j..le TO OKenTlKO nwe; 'l npaYj..laTlKOTT]Ta elVOL OU-
TWe; 6J.J..we; pIa VO'7T1Krj KaraoKurj. 01 epj..l'lVel-
ee; aUTee; cpalVOTav va j..l'lV npoepXOVTOL ana TT]V
ej..lnelpia TWV TWV gepaneuoj..levwv KOL aVTl-
ana aUTOUe; j..le eUAOYll
(Efran, 1994).
Ine; apxte; TT]e; TOU 1990 0 KOV-
eixe KaTT]yop'l9ei Yla "a9wa
j..le TT]v TOU OTT]v iOll
VaTOTT]Ta OAWV TWV av9pwnwv va
TT]v npaWaTlKOTT]Ta nou em9uj..louv, 90'1 TT]v
onola cpOLvoTav va Ta 9uj..laTa
TT]e; onOlae; KaKOj..leTaxelplOlle; KOL va unOOTT]pl-
Ta cpej..llvlOTIKO peuj..laTa Linares,
2001). t:..ev TOOO 'l OXeTlKoTT]Ta TT]e;
nou 0 KOL evo-
XAouoe --Q)J..wOTe 'l 9tOll ouveXloe va uno-
KOL apyoTepa- 000 0
TT]e; 9tOlle; j..le TT]v ulo9tTT]0Ile;
oUYKeKplj..ltvwv nOAlTlKWV 9toewv Karo TT]e; nepl-
9wpLOnoi'l0lle; Kal TT]e; KaTanleOlle; OAOKA'lPWV
KOlVWVlKWV 0 em-
KeVTpwvoTav OTO moj..lo KOL OTT]v gu-
9uVT] TOU aroj..lou tvaVTl TWV KaKWe; Kelj..levwv,
aVTl Yla TT] KOL eu9uVT] nou
Karomv 0 KOlVWVlKOe;
OJ..loe; KOlVWVlKOe; onwe; ei-
xe apXlKa ovoj..laoge0
o KOlVWVlKOe; (social
constructionism) Gergen, 1985, 1994) ge-
wpei nwe; 'l npaYj..laTlKOTT]Ta eival j..lla
napoywyo evoe; oUYKeKpl-
j..levou IOTOPIKOU KOL nOAlTlOj..llKOU nAOLolou KOL
0Xl napaywyo TOU VOU. nwe; Ohee; 01
aCP'lP'lj..lvee; tWOlee;,
TWV ewolwv TOU cceaUTou, TOU
TOe;, TOU ccOUj..lnTWj..laTOe;", TT]e;
paxr'le; , eivOL tWOlee; KaTaOKeUaOj..levee;, nou
xp'lOlj..leUOUV OTT] j..lae; ouveWO'lOll, aMa
Teivouv va we; ccunapKTte; OVTO-
TT]Tee; ... KAlj..laKee; j..lTP'lOlle;, cpopj..la-
Ka KOL emOTpareuoVTOL Yla va aVTl-
j..leTwnioouv .. Ta onoia unopxouv
ana TT] nou OUMOYlKO va
Ta opioouj..le we; TTola KOL 0Xl nplV. IUYKeKplj..le-
vee; KOlvwvlKee; enwcpeAouVTOL ana TT]V
aVTlj..leTWmOll TT]e; YVWOIle; we;
j..ltow TT]e; nou TOUe;
EVUfTl}llIal Kal OIKOYl:VrlUKr[ 8rpanda: /(PlnKr[ avam<onrzarz rwv j1flavrwrrpllcwv d,f.liE,rwv. 515
'l KOTOxTl TIle; yvwCTIle; 0l1TiJe;. EivQl XOPOKTfl-
PlOTlKO OTl TO epyo TOU Foucault TIle;
TOU 1960, IlE TIlv nou OOK'lOE, CA-
AWV, OTO I\IUXlOTPlKO KOTEOTflllevo, onon:AEi ana
TO mo OUXVO OVO<jlEPOIlEVO epyo 0Tfl
q>io TWV IlETOIlOVTepvwv 9EWPIlTlKWV OTO xwpo
TIle; l\IuxoAoyioe;.
H OVTLnop09ECTIl yupw ana TO
gell0 TIle; 0Xl
EivOl novoPXOlO KOl OVOKUKAOUIlEV'l.
ana Tle; opxee; TOU ElKOOTOU QlWVO Ol q>UOl-
Kte; EmcTrrlllEe; q>AtPTOpov tVTovO Il TIlv lMo
TOU ovonoq>uKTou TIle; OOOq>EIOe;, TIle;
TIlTOe; KOl TIle; OXETIKOTllTOe;, KCITl OVCAOYO IlE OU-
TO nou XPOVlO nplV E(XOV KOVEl q>LAOOO-
q>Ol onwe; 0 HpOKAlTOe; KOl 0 <lloi-
VETOl OTl 'l nopouoo KOl
oUYKupio EntTpEI\IE TIl Enovoq>opo TWV
OUYKEKplllevwv OTle; ov9pwmOTlKee; KOl
KOlVWVlKte; EmOTl'lIlEe;, npoYllO nou CTIlIlO(VEl nwe;
TO PEUIlO TOU IlETOVEWTEPlOIlOU Ill0
oUyxpOV'l OVOYKOlOTllT0
2
.
o KOlVWVIKOe; KOl'l tllq>O-
CTIl 0Tfl yAwooo we; TO Iltoo KOTO-
TIle; npoYIlOTlKOTflTOe; ouvM9'lKov IlE TIl
AEYOIlEV'l npooeYYlCTll
KOl 2002), 'l onolo ElXE npo'l-
Y'l9El OTflv l\IuXOAOY(O IlE XOPOKTflPlOTlKO tpyo
EKElvo TWV Bruner (1990) KOl Sarbin (1986). H
npooeYYlCTll tWOlEe; KOl
IlEToq>opee; ana TIl EmOTl'lIl'l, TIl
YAWOOOAOYlO KOl TIl
9tCTll TIle; npootYYICTlle; ElvOl nwe;
Ol ov9pwnol oPyovwvouv TIlv EllnElpio TOUe; Ilt-
00 ana TIlv H
onol\l'l EivQl OTl 0 TponOe; OVTOVOKAO
TIlv npOYllOTIKOTllTO, EVW 'l KOV-
onol\l'l ivol OTl 'l
IllouPYEI TIlv npOVIlOTlKOTllTO. 'lowe; 0IlWe; vo
lOXUOUV KOl TO OTO nou KOl 'l EOWTE-
npoYIlOTlKOTflTO (0 EOlJTOe;,,) tXEl
Y'l9El ana Tle; OMwv, ivQl
evo nOAuMOKO npolov TIle; llu90-
AOYlOe; nou EllnEpltXEl pOAOUe; KOl OEVO-
plO Byng-Hall, 1998). 'lllu-
90AOyio 0lJTi] ovamuOOETOl KOl
ana YEVlO OE YEVlO OVCAOYO IlE TO KOlVWVlKo-no-
MtlOlllKO M010l0 OTO ono(o EVTOOOETOl Ill0 ou-
YKEKPl!1EV'l olKoyevElo.
TtAoe;, 'l OTpOq>1'J npoe; TIl
K09we; KOl 'l TOU KOlVWVlKOU KOV-
KQl TIle; npooty-
YlCTlle; yeVV'loov veee;" oxoAte; KOl 1l0VTEAO 9E-
ponEioe; Goldenberg & Goldenberg,
2000. Nichols & Schwartz, 2001), apKETO ana TO
onolo txouv E"'lPEOOTEI ono TOUe; oUyxpovoue;
OUVExlOTte; TIle; TOU MLAovou, aMo KOl
ana 6AAe; nopoOOOloKte; oxoAte; l\Iux09EponEl-
oe;, on we; TIl 'ETOl, OTO M010l0 TOU
IlETOVEWTEPlOIlOU ovOmux9'lKOV npo-
oeyyloEle; IlE OIlOlOTflTEe; KOl K09EIlI0
ana TIe; onolEe; TIl TIle;
Iltoo ana KOl
nopoKCrrw 90 Illo no-
POUOlOCTll 0PlO!1EVWV CTIlIlOVTlKwv, KOTO TIl yvw-
Il'l Iloe;, IlETOVEWTEPlKWV yupw ana
2. EKTO<; ana TO epyo TOU Foucault nou npoavoq>PQIJ, TO epyo TOU Derrida aMo KOl TWV TT)<; LXO-
Ar\<; TT)<; 4>paVKq>QUPTT1<; 0O'K'10' eniO'l'J<; npoe; TT)v KOTeu8uvO'I'J TT)<; enovoq>Qpcl<; OUTWV TWV l&WV
Hoffman, 1992).
3. EV&lKTlKOIJOVO ovoq>epoulJE TI<; mo YVWO'Te<;: '1 geponeio. (uNarrative Therapy,,) TOU AuO'Tpa-
AOU Michael White KOl TOU Neo?;l'JAovoou David Epston White & Epston, 1990), '1 npocryylO'l'J TWV
n..wO'O'lKWV LuCmll.lOTwv- (uColiaborative Language Systems Approach.) TWV AlJEPLKOVWV Harry Goolishian Kat
Hariene Anderson Anderson. 1997), KOl '1 01.10&1. (uThe Reflecting Team) TOU
Tom Andersen (1991). EnlO'l'J<;. YVWO'TO elvat cruyyevrll.lOVTEAo. '1 uBpaxelo gepaneio EmKEVTPWI.IEVIJ 0'TTl AuO'I'J"
("Solution-Focused Brief Therapy-) TOU AlJEPLKOVOU Steve de Shazer (1994). KOl'1 uOlKoyevelOKTl gepaneio npooOVO-
TOAlcrl.lEVIJ 0'Tll AUO'I'J (<<Solution-Oriented Family Therapy-) TWV eniO'l'J<; AlJEplKovwv Bill O' Hanlon Kat Michelle
Weiner-Davis (1989).
516. ABrzvci Avopouraorrotilov
nou TTl ge-

An6 TI'I 9&wpia O1'I'Iv
01'1'1
H opoAoyia
ana TTlv enoxfl TOU Freud 01 ljJux0gepa-
neUTte; va nepIYP0tpouv Tle; ov9pw-
mvee; AeLTOuPy(ee; 0POAOY(O ana
TIe; geTlKte; Kal KUp(We; TTl
aTO KUpOe; TWV gew-
PlWV TOUe;. AvOAOYO KOL Ol olKoyevelo-
KO( gepaneUTte; TTle; npWTTle; yevloe;, nou
OTT)KOV TTl E>ewp(o TWV TOU
von Bertalanffy, TTl
TTl gewpT]0T] TTle; -OXl
nOVTOTe o<pou KOl 0 0
Bertalanffy TTl (Nichols &
Schwartz, 2001)- Ylo va eKtppoooUv TIe; nopOTTl-
TOUe; yupw ana TTl AelTOUpy(O TWV olKoye-
velWv. H KPlTlKrl nou OOKe(TOL ana TO
elVOL OTI Ol olKoyevelOKO( geponeUTte;
XOOOV nwe; aUTO nou
q>opo TOU Myou (T] OIKoytvelo we; KOl
0Xl (T] OIKO-
ytvela IvaI tva 'EToI, ul09tTTloov
opoue; Yla va TTlv 01-
Koytvelo KOI va aTle;
TOUe; ana TOUe; opoue; aUToue; OVT(
va ana TIe; TOUe; KOl KO-
Tomv va emMyouv TOUe; TponOUe; va Tle; eKtppo-
aouv.
E(vOl yeyovoe; OTI OPOI onwe;
.. KOl 0001, ana Tle; ge-
TlKte; KOl KUp(We; ana TTlv
q>o(veTOl va eYKOTaAe(noVTOl. E(vOl m90vo T]
eYKOTOAelljJT] oUTfl va elVOl onoppOlO
TWV gewpT]TlKWV 000 KOl TTle;
Alae; TWV 8epaneUTwv va KOTOVOrlaOuv ae
KOl va nou
TOUe; ol090vOVTOV TTl TWV onol-
wv we;
VOl. OPOl, XOpT]
eKeivOI nou npotpxoVTal ana TTl
KOL ouyyeveuouv two lee; ana TTl TTle;
onwe; POAOl, lepapXla, opla, TPlYWVO-
nOIT]OT] KOL OOOl, q>alveTOl va
TO KOl TTl 9EOT] TOUe; aTO
TWV neplOOOTepwv gepo-
neUTWv Linares, 2001).
/\6yw TTle; OTT)
YAWOOO we; TO KOTOOKeurle; TTle; npOWOTl-
KOTTlTOe;, noMoI geponeUTte; va XPT]-
KUpIWe; ana TTl AoyoTe-
XVlo KOl TO 9EOTPO, on we; acpr)Y170l'/, Ke{/1evo,
rrpwraYWVlaTte;, auv-errt/1eA17rte; KOl 000. Av KOl
KOl TO KOTO
noaa T] oUaTI'//1a va
aTO Hoffman, 1992,2002),
T] (Stierlin, 2003) YlO
Tle; OKpOlee; Tooele; opwv onOTe}..e1 KOTO TTl
"AUOT]. TtrOLOe; elvOl, YlO
0 opoe; "YAWOatKO
(linguistic systems) (Anderson, 1997. Anderson
& Goolishian, 1988), nou ovotpEpeTOl oe OAO TO
ov9pwmvo OlKOYEvelO, ge-
poneUTIKO K.An.) nou npoan090uv va
aTle; TOUe;
ana TTl KOl TO
H 9&pan&ia we; Kal we;
Tp6noe; OKtljll'le;
Ol geponeUTEe; Ovoyvwplaov
nwe; 0 opoe; gepone(0
elvOl TOV opo
KOl nwe; T] aKEljJT] onoTe}..e(
tva epyaAelO KOTOVOT]OT]e; KOl TWV ov-
9pwmvwv xwp(e; va elvOl OVOYKO(O
T] nopoualo TOUe; ae EVa xwpo
(Anderson, 1997. Parry & Doan, 1994). 'ETat, Ol
gepaneUTte; aTO Ola90voVTOl nM-
ov oveTo va Mo ne-
plaaoTepo olKoytveLOe;, XWple; aUTO va
OVOlpel TO KOl olKoyeveloKO npoaovo-
TOUe; Boscolo & Bertrando, 1996.
EuarrUJ.!Iai IW! O!1wytvrUZKr/ 8rparrda: KpmKr/ ava(J/(orrrzmz rwv JlITavrWrrpZKWV 517
---------------
McGoldrick & Carter. 2001). OUTWe; ciAAwe;, 01
ov8pwnol nOVToTe TOUe; TO OU-
onwa TTle; OIKoytvelOe; TOUe; 0TTl 8epane(a. 6nwe;
OOwOTe KOl 0 0 8epanwn'le;, 0 onoloe;
emnp608eTo KOl TO TTle; enay-
TOU KOlV6TTlTOe; (Efran & Clarfield.
1992). No nwe; TO
01 8eponeUTte; OTTlV ono
TTl TOU 1960, Yl' aUTO. KOl aVTI8eTa
TTlv emKpOTouoa TOOTl OTTlV un6AOtn'1 f1uOTl,
va TOV 6po OUOTTl-
8eponeUTte; ana TOV opo oIKoyeveloKol",
H empp0rl TOU
K080PlOTlKrl Yl' oUTrl TTl ouvell)'lTOnOI'lOTl OTTlV
un6AOtn'1 MOll. 'Onwe; avaq>tpel 0 Tomm
(1998). 01 OOayte; OTOV Tpono TOV onolo TO
OIKoytvelOe; (rl yevlKoTepa 01 ov8pw-
nOll erroVTOl TWV OOoywv nou txouv
OTOV Tp6no TOV onOlo
TOUV TTlV TOUe;, KOl OXI TO OVO-
onwe; YlO 0
Minuchin (1998). npwTonopOe; TTl<; axo-
Me;. 0 onoloe; 8ewpel OVOYKOIO TTlV no-
pouola OAWV TWV OlKoytvelOe; 0TTl
To OTI 01 OOoyte; tnoVTOl TTle;
ToMTTlOTle; KOl TO YlOTI '1 avanAOlolWOTl
TOU Tponou TOV onolo tva TOV
eaUTO TOU KOl TOUe; ciAAoue; va emq>tpel
OOayte; 0TTl TWV TTle; OIKO-
ytvelOe; TOU xWple; aUTOI va e(VOl napoVTee;: H
KOlVOUPlO Ka8we; npOKa-
Ael" TIe; naAlte; omlKte;, apXlKO TOU (l)IOU TOU
KOl KOTomv TWV OOwv, oe l)IOAOYO, l)'1-
OOoyte; OTOV Tpono TOV ono(o
TO ouVOOOOOOVTOl. 000 KOl OTTlV (l)10 TTl
YAWOOO TOUe; (Penn & Frankfurt. 1994).
H 6UlCJTaOll Tile; 8tpantiae;
Tooo TO TOU KOlVWVlKOU
600 KOl '1 KPlTlKrl TO
POAO TWV 8eponeUTWV TTle; npWTTle;
yevloe; 0TTl l)IOTt']P'1OTl rl KOl 0TTl KOlVW-
VlKWV OTepeOTunwv nou oq>opouoav TO q>LlAO.
TIe; l)IOq>Opte;. TIe; npo-
TIe; 8P'10KeUTlKte; 'Exo-
VTae; KOTO YOU tva TTle; 01-
Koytvelae;. KOl TTle; OIKO-
ytvelae;. 01 8epaneUTte; TTle; npWTTle; yevloe; ano-
80ppuvov noptKKAlOTl. 01
oele; nou OTO YlO TTlv
TOU nOALl ouxvo
KOl TO OTepeoTuna aUTO. H OVlOOppO-
n(a TTle; ele; TWV yuvalKWV. tl aKO-
KOl '1 OTTlV olKoytvela. Ka8we; KOl 01
KOlVWvlKte; nou OIKO-
ytvelee; AOYW q>Twxe1ae; tl KOlVWVlKOU
l)ev onoTeAouoov KOTO KOVOVO ou-
KOl OTIe; 8eponeUTl-
Kte; (Goldner, 1985. McGoldrick,
Anderson, & Walsh. 1989).
Oe; TTle; KOl KOV-
KplTlKtle;, 01 veoTepol
KOI 8epaneUTte; q>a(VeTOl va neplo-
OOTep'1 nOAlTlKtl KOl KOlVWVlKrl eUOl08'10(0. To
elvQl vo TOV TTle; 01-
Koytvelo<; on we; TO 1l)10 TO TOV l)(VOUV, KOl
va Kp(VOUV TOV Tpono TOV onolo
TO emAtyouv va TTl TOUe;, napa
va npoana80uv vo TO OTIe; em-
Aoyte; TOUe; aUTte;. 'Onwe; etnw8'1Ke
vwe;, 01 q>tpvouv OTO KtVTPO
TTle; 8epaneUTlKrle; TO eupUTepo KOl-
nAalmo OTO onolo avo-
muoooVTOl 01 onOlee; npoowmKte; KOl olKoyevel-
OKte; l)uoKoA(ee;. Ano TTlv 00'1, '1
KPlTlKtl nwe; 01 8epaneUTte;
oUTe vo oyvoouv TTlv OVlOOTTlTO KOl TTlv
ToxelplOTl oUTe vo TTlv eu8uV'l
oe OAO TO TTle; OIKoytvelOe;, 000 OUTe KOl
VO npoanepvouv TTlV npOowmKrl eu8uV'l
vwv tIm
Yytia Kal tIIuxona8oAoyia
Evw OTO napeA80v TO TWV OU-
8epaneUTWV emKeVTpWVOTOV 0TTl l)le-
peuV'lOTl KOl ,0000V TWV l)UOM:l-
TOUpYlWV oe OIKoytvelO (<<Tll)ev noel KaAO") ,
OldI,u.oO)lIQ" 30 ::)3], !:>a
10)1 1311cr>,(UQOlJn ud
-3lD3Q U C!lfl3 'wwoD nOlo !:11;>dodl1d3llrlno
!:>1.Jl. !:>130cr>l.lJllJ3 !:>1l. olA !:>OlAOIII!l'(OA311 9l.)10lJO
noullol..l9D1Dlln0 Lu. 10)1 11(1)1
-oflnQ lu 9dodm l.Jl.C!ldlJ 113r1 H '(awelq) "!:>01Or1)3
-101m n01 10)1 OlOM3 III.Jl. OUO
, "
0)dlodAolY919 l,I)lll.nQ I.Jl.o 01f19llD
(Al!l!q!suodsaJ) !:>luI09n3 !:>1.Jl. H '(666
awweNoW 3lJ?'(g) IIC!l)lld3l.(I)3110l.
-311 II(1)l. 1X9 10)1 fI(I)30)AA300dlJ III!l)l1l.n3lJOd39 "C!l)l
-ld3l.(I)311 II(1)l. 9)111Oldl.Jl.)lodoX '011019
010 fll.Jl.
1l.9 !:>OlAl!ld(l)39 'UN)an3
01W9ln01 !:>(I)lJ9 311 1In003'(noQ Oil 1In0A
-03dlOlJO )0)1111(1)1110)1 10
093U,U3 I}Yuoyyou 3D

'MOiSe)! 3lJ?,(S) o1OrlA?'(lJ 30
nOll Oll3r1911lOdl !:>(I)
!:>1l. 13ll?,(S OS O)OlJO Ol. '!:>lJo(l)M91Q !:>01Orll,u.o
-no 00)llrlluono !:>9113 l,iXOQOlJO fll.Jl. 10)1 lJoU)OlJ
-Oljo III.Jl. 'lJooQ91Q I.Jl. olA 01399lJOodlJ U )390lA3
Oil !:>lJo)lJ3 1311)3l.0dll saJeu!l 0 '!:>nol. !:>3)dI3llrl3
!:>11O orlu911 1In0Q)QOllO Oil 10)1 1In0"C!l"oA
-do Oil !:>0)3An !:>311Orty3AAolJ3 !>n01 IIQ09
-UOS nOlJ 0)3'(OAd3 !:>(I)
-0)1 !>(I) 9'('(0 '!>noll3rl9n3lJod39 !>no1O !>0)Onoj3
!:>lJou)l09 !:>(I) 1X9 '!:>31.1.Jl.9lAO !:>;mtdOlln !:>(I)
lX9 Oil !>3)doAluD)I
-01Q 10 1011)3 !>OX9l.I !>l,I)llrlluono
!:>lu lJo91O l,I)lll.liXor1IO)I I,IAd3113 01lJ 01r113f1)3l.0dlJ
SSJeu!l 0 0101J 'I.Jl.)In3dl9lJOIIO )3d(T)3e I.Jl.
Ofl U'('{1;> fllu 9110 10)1 !:>Uo(l)M9IQ !:>lu OjOorlUo lu
O1rl I.Jl. 9lJO 13l.lJ)ddOlJO Oil ujOQ9dOlJ llluo
101.3)10)dg flC!ll.nO flC!ll.n3lJod3S II(1)l. 0l.1.Jl.9f10I3ylJ
U S9Jeu!l 0 13f1)OrlUolll3 !:>(I)ll9 'u3r;>dll
IIWD Lu. 3n 013119 1I0)f
-USfl9S01O fl3Q nOll flC!ll.n3ll0d3S flC!l)l0l3f13A
-0)110 10)1 "cr>)llrlluono OQ)d3r1 30 lJold)l
-9lJOlAO Uyr;>A3rl 913)1do 13dS H
'O1l.)O !>3)OlJO !>1l. O1A 10)1 !>311.Jl.9)111Orl
-Aodll !:>(I) Oil 3r1nOfl)3l. nOll '!:>3f1
9)1111(1)1110)1 10lA00d(l)39
flC!lXodOl.01Q flC!l)llXnrj! fI(I)l. !:>3)doAlilD)I 10 ',)or101f1
-OljnodlOllo)l 00)1111(1)1110)1 n01 III.Jl. 9lJ\f
'Zl!MOI)!!W
3ll?,(S) !:>3f13r19A3'( !:>1l. 3rl 003r1
-9 -(33 - UO!lOW3 passaJdx3) on
-USOjOflnJ: I,IQoyuQ
Ol. - !:>01rl IIC!l,(3rl II(1)l. lJo91O 1,I)l1d9X3
U 10)1 1,I)l1l.1d)l U 'l,I)lo'(llrl3d3lJn l,I)lllOrlu90lOIIno
U 1l.9 !:>l!ldlOO IInOfIX)3Q 10 )3)13
'II(1)19rl(l)l.lJrl no IIC!l)lll.(I)Xnrj! lJol119dlrl3110lJ3 llluo
IInO'('{1;>sr1no nOlJ fI(I)lA9AodOlJ II(1)l. lJou9"01O)I
llluo )39(1)dlA3)11lJ3 91f10 'IIcr>llif1n3d3
II(1)II0dXAQo 11(1)1 01 9dodlO 11000,

30 10)1 009 30 009l. )31Ol110dlrl3 Oil
)3dOlJrl U !>(I)lJ )3d(l)39 10)1 !>l.Jl.lJo9S
l,I)llAo'(OlS I.Jl. nOlJ
'UOSJSpU\f 3lJ?,(S)
'(9)11A(I)AoQlOlJoXnrj! Ol. 1011)3 \fUH !>11O
!:>1.Jl. lJollJl!ll.3rlllAO III.Jl. O1A !:>0)3lJ
-Od39 !:>1,I)l013113AO)l10 !:>)l'(1dlorluQ 01lJ
Ol. !:>0r1 !:>11O 1l.9 9)111OldLWlOdoX IOfI)3
IIC!l)llAo,(OlS 11(1)1 !:>l,IoddllJ3 !>1.Jl. lJouj
-QO U 10)1 !>1!l90)l 'suuhM) !>nol. 0)Ao'(OQ09
-3rl I.Jl.o 3)1USI,I)l00 nOlJ l,I)lll.ld)l U '9)1lfll'()1
!:>(I) 1X9 10)1 9)1111(1)1110)1 !:>(I) nolo o)onOlJo
III.Jl. 10)1 !>1.Jl. III.Jl. "X'lJ)
0"3r19"lOdl IInoQ Oil !>nol. o)rlollnQo
U Oil
-lulno nOll fI(I)l. 0l.lu9)10YllnYOll lllu
IInOS9,(,(nO Oil IIcr>)lDl3113AO)l10 II(T)l Odl!lX
010 IIC!ll.lifIn3d3 II(1)lC!ldlJ II(T)l 0)Xn10lJO U :!>l,Ij3
10 1011)3 Oil 1Ol.311)O<l> loA9'( )O)lllAOr1lJo
'!>3)130)l3Q !>3)01f13'(31 !>1l. 9)111OodQ
!:>OjAOYOSOlloXnrj! !:>lu O1l]O Ol. OlA flC!ll.n3ll0d3S
"1!l)llrlluono II(1)l. 01 'o'(u'('(9doU
'OJ)lOQOOdll 39r;>)1
9110 r;>)lu39 )39XIY333 Ofl 10)1 "!:>QOrlDlflOXUrl
Oil J3doun
1,1 "1,I)lIAdnol.I3'(OnQ Olll U 10)1
orl9)1o !>(T)lJ !>OlAl!ld(T)39 '4sIeMl (SOUS!IIS
-SJ) cc011.Jl.9)11l.)139110 llluo ("9'(0)1 139lJ 11)
0)3An llluo 1In0ll)Q !>13091 !>3110dXAQo 10
nOYj1011oo1l1odgil.V pil.uev .8I9
EVarTIJWcr[ ICOI OIKoyevnalCr[ Bfpanfia: /(PlnlCr[ avaolConrzorz fWV j1CTaVfWffPIKWV fE,cliE;:wv. 519
Katakis, 1989).
M'1v Kovovrae; auVl'J9we; aUTOV TO
allo, 01 KOIVWVIKO( cpalVeTal
va npoanepvouv TOV KaSOplaTlKO po).o KQl TTlV
eu8uVll OTT] KOI 010
CPLATpaPlOlla KOlVWVlKWV KOl nOAtTlOlllKWV
KOI va Kupiwe; oe KOlVWVlKrle;
eu9uVlle;. l:TOXoe; TOUe; e(vQl va ).elTouPYTlaouv
anevOxOnolITT1KO ym TTlV olKoyevem, ecpooov,
KOla TTl YVWIl'1 TOUe;, TO euplrrepO auO'Ti)IlOlO d-
VOl aUTO nou anOTeAOUV TOUe; cpopeie;
npoTunwv KOI 61allopcpWaT]e;

KovoVTae; 11m ava6pOllrl OTTlV laTopia TTle; 01-
KoyevelaKrle; gepane(ae;, 0 Schwartz (1999) em-
aT]1l01Vel nwe; 01 aUOTTllliKol gepaneUTee; TTle;
npwTTle; yevloe; e(xav avrlOTOlXo npoanepoael TO
610110 KQl TTlV eWOla TTle; npOaWmKrle; euSUVlle;
va TO aneVOXOnOlrlaOUV, emKe-
vrpwvovrae; TO TOUe; anOKAeIOTIKO
aTO pO)'o KQl OTTlv eu9uVll TTle; oIKoyevelae;. Kerrl
TeTOlO 6e Sa eixe av eixav
unoljJ'1 TOUe; TOV oplallO TOU aUaTrlIlOTOe; ono
TOV Bertalanffy, 0 ono(oe; nwe; Koge aU-
OTTllla exel TO unoauOTTllla KQl TO eupUTepo au-
OTTllla TOU (Nichols & Schwartz, 2001). Na G'1IlE:I-
wgel nwe; TOV OPlollO aUTO TOV e(xav nopel nOAll
01 npwTonopOl TTle; aUOTTlIlIKrle; KQl OIKO-
yevelOKrle; gepane(ae; OTTlV EMMa, Toao 0TTl
6Iallopq>wG'1 gewplwv oao KQl 0TTl gepaneUTIKrl
Kal epeUVT)TIKrl TOUe; npaKTIKrl BacnAlou,
1990. KOTOK'1,
rp'1yoponou).ou, J\6KKa, 1999. l:aKKoe;, 1994.
Vassiliou & Vassiliou, 1980).
'Onwe; avaq>epel 0 Schwartz, 0 aMo KQl
cilJ,.OI aUOTTllllKo( SepaneUTee; TTle; enome; eKe(-
Vlle; "KpUq>O" crxeMv evSoppuvov TOUe; Sepaneu-
0llevouc; TOUe; va KOVOUV 61peUVT)TlKO
OTO "eawleplKO aUGTT)1l0,. lOU OUTOU lOUe:. To
eowTeplKo oUOTTlIlO ovoq>epeTOi oe 0).0 eKelVO
TO
KQl aUYKpouaele; nou KaSevae; ano
Ilae; uno TTl 1l0PCPrl "eowTeplKeUllevwv q>WVWVn
(Penn & Frankfurt, 1994. KQl
nou).ou, 2003) rl 1l1ae; eowTeplKrle;
(Stierlin, 2003). HTOV, 1l001aTa, KQl aTO
xpovo (nape)'90v, napov, lleMov), ae ilia enom
nou '1 gepaneUTIKrl YlvoTav Kuplwe; aTO
Kat rwpa Boscolo & Bertrando,
1994), No on lO eawreplKo m;-
plypacpeTOl ane TTlV KaTC1K'l we; ma-
TTle; llaKpOxpOVlle; OUOTTllllKrle; 6epane(ae;
(Katakis, 1989. KOTaK'1. 1995).
Kerrl OVTlaTOlXO Ta "KPUCPO aTO
eawleplKO aUGTT)1l0 lOU eoUTOU KO-
vele; nwe; Ile TOUe; gepaneUTee; TTle; Ile-
TavewTeplKrle; yevlae; KOl Ta TWV 6epa-
neUOllevwv aTO eawTepIKO TTle; olKoyeveloe;
TOUe;. 'A).)..W(JTe '1 emKeVTpwaT] 1l0VO aTO KOIVWVl-
KO aTepe( TO SepaneUTIKO aUOTTlllo ana
TTl va UIOSeTel noManM nplallOTa
KQl OnTlKee; 01 onoiee; elvQl aM'1).oaUllnA'1POUlle-
vee; KOI 6ev anOKAe(el I'] ilia TTlv ciIJ,.'1. rm TOV
Schwartz 0 SepaneUTr']e; KOI 0 gepaneuOllevOe;
npenel va Qla8ovovral TTl v eAeugepia va
ouv ae 0).0 TO --<ITOIlIKO, olKoyevelaKO,
ana TO eva aTO cilJ,.o ava-
).oya Ile TO TOUe; Kal TTl POrl TTle; au-

o pOAoc; lOU 9&pon&lI111
H mo yvwaTrl lleTallOVTepvo geaT] Yla TO pO-
M TOU gepaneUTr'] elVQl '1 geG'1 nou exouv eK-
q>poael 01 Anderson Kal Goolishian (1992). 0 ee-
paneUTr']e; neplypoq>eTQl we; (not-
knowing), evw 0 gepaneuollevOe; we; 0 eI6LKOe;
YIO TTl TOU, oVOTpenoVTae; TTl aUVl'J9T] lepap-
Xia. 0 SepaneUTr']e; avanocpeuKTa TIe;
61Kee; TOU Seoele; KOI anOljJele; KOI 6ev Ilnope( no-
Te va e(vQl npaYIlOTIKo ou6tTepoe;, npoanaSel
OIlWC; va Ill']v eml36..el Tle; anoljJele; TOU OUTee;.
lOU e(vOl va an6 lO
nwe; 0 i610e; TTlV aArlSela TOU. l:Jv npo-
TO Sepaneuollevo Ile tTolllee; un0ge-
aele;, TIe; ono(ee; va noG'1
6uoia, Kal 6ewpe( nwe; Ilnopei va npol3AtljJel
TO anOTeAeolla TWV TOU.
npoanoSe( va evSappuvel TO 61QAOYO, YIO TOV
520. ABrzva Avopouraonovlov
ono(o KQl cpepeTQl we;
Av KQl '1 Anderson exel ae noMa ap9pa TTle;
OTl 0 opoe; SepaneUTf)e;
acpopa TTl OTaOT) TOU SepaneUTf) npoe;
TOV KOl TTlv evSappuvOT) TOU i5la-
Myou, KOl OXl Tle; yvwaele; TOU
SepaneUTf), SepaneUTee; nou e(Te uno-
e(Te TTlV npOTaOT) aUTf)
auyxeouv TTlV eWOLa TTle; OTaOT)e; TTlV eWOLa
TTle; yvwOT)e;. ITTl auyxuOT) aUTf) mSavov va
0 li5la(Tepa TOVOe; TOV ono(o Se-
paneUTee; onwe; '1 '1 Harlene Anderson aMa
KQl 0 Tom Andersen aneuSuvoVTOl OTOUe; Sepa-
TOUe;, KOl '1 avacpopa OTO OTIA aUTO
we; TO mo KQl TO peu-
TOU ana KOlaypacpele;
TWV on we; '1 Hoffman (2002).
TTlv anoL/J'l TWV Efran KQl
Clarfield (1992), Ol ono(OL, av KQl
OTee;, OTeKoVTal KplTlKa anevaVTl ae aKpa(ee; Se-
aele; KOl npaKTlKee;, 0 i5ev elvQl eva eu-
SpauOTo nou CPPoVT1-
i5ae; KOl npoao)(l']e;. Mnopel va
KOl TTlv eVTOVTJ aVTmapaSeOT), evw,
VOL, avacpepouv OTl OTT] evoe; i5lcAOYOU
va neaouv KQl KOl
nwe; em-
va TO KQl
neploplOTlKOUe; opoue;, we;
OT) KOl we; npoe; evaMaKTl-
Kee; omlKee;, KOl TlnoTa neplaaoTepo (a. 203-
204). AVT(8eTa, Ol Efran KQl Clarfield,
Ol va npoKcAouV
KQl va va KaSoi5'lYouv KOl va en'lpe-
l::i.ev anayopeueTQl va eXouv KOl va eK-
KQl anOL/Jele;,
aMo va OTl aUTee;
ae KonOLOUe; <lAAOUe; OTl
KonOLa npaWOllKOTTlTa.
Mla <lAA'l SeOT) ana TOV
Gibney (1996), 0 onoloe; Sew pel nwe; '1 OTOOT) ae-
npoe; TOV unoi5'lAW-
vel T(noTa neplaaOTepo ana TTl WP1-
nou emTuyxovel evae; SepaneUTf)e;
ana nelpa, KQl '1 onola TOV oi5'lyel
ana TO TOU veocpWTlOTOU
OTT]v TanelvocppoauVTJ TOU mo
KQl Cecchin, 1987). E(vQl noM mSavo, KOla TTl
TOU Gibney, '1 npoaeYYlOT),
aa ana TTl OTOOT) nou
aKel", va emi5elKvuel TTlv KOl TTl auaaw-
nelpa TTle;.
H OXtofl Kal TO auvaio9flIJa
ITTlv nAelOVOTTlTO TOUe; Ol Sepa-
neUTee; TTle; npwTTle; yevloe; va cA-
Ta TTle; KOl
Tle; nou Ta aUVTTJpouaav.
TOUe; Schwartz KOl Johnson (2000), Ol auOTT]-
SepaneUTee; eKelVTJe; TTle; yevloe; QlaSo-
VOVTav KaSoAou aveTa Ta evw
KQl cplAoaoqll-
Kee; yLQ va i5lKOloAoyiJaouv TTl OTaOT)
TOUe; aUTf). AVTJauxwVTae; Yla TO nOLOe; Sa
TOV EAeYXO TTle; auvei5plae;, eKelvOL '1 Se-
i5ev TO xpOVO va TOUe;
anOTeAouae '1 npoaey-
YlOT) TTle; Satir, '1 onola
KQl i5loSeOT), KUpIWe; ana TOUe; eK-
npoawnoue; TTle; KOl TTle;

TWV '1
mOT) TOU i5lacpepel. KonOLee; axo-
Me; npoe; TO
UlOSeTWVTae; OTOOT) nou eVTova eKel-
VTJ TOU Carl Rogers (n,x., Anderson, Andersen,
Tomm). $alvoVTOl va aKouaouv
npOaeKTlKO Tle; aCP'lyiJaele; TWV
yupw ana Ta TOUe; KQl va TOUe;
'AMOl, onwe; 0 de
Shazer, nalpvouv KOla TTl SeOT) TOU KOl-
VWVlKOU OTl Ta
Ta elVOl KOlvwvlKee; KOlaaKeuee;. Toue; i5IVOUV,
Aomov, eAOXlOTT] we; eawTeplKo CPQlVO-
KOl i5ev evSappuvouv TOUe;
voue; va apVTJTlKO
nat wOTe va aUVTTJpelTQl '1 npo-
.
EVar'lJi1Kr/ Kal OIKOYE:VC1aKr/ fjcpancia: KpITlKr/ aVGOKOn'lO'l rwv JlEaVCWrCpIKC:JV cE,diE,cwv. 521
LTle; Ilepee; Iloe; 1110 oelpo ellnelplKwv epeu-
vwv (n.x., Atkinson, 1999. Pennebaker, 1995)
eXel TTl OT)lloaio TTle; eKCPPOOT)e; TWV OUVOl-
o6T1Il6.Twv YlO TTl 61<ITTlP1'10T) TTle; KOI ow-
uydoe;. H eKcpPOOT) TWV oUVOlo61'11l6.Twv
6ev Ile TTlV K060pOT)/onocpopTlOT) rllle
TTl ellllovr'j, aMo Ile TTl 61061KO-
ala OVOYVWplOT)e; OpVJ'lTlKWV KOl 6eTlKWV OUVOl-
o61'11l6.Twv, nou ouV06eUeTOl ana TIe; KOTOM1'1Aee;
YVWOTIKee; ouvMoete; YlO TTlV onolSoOT)
(Schwartz & Johnson, 2000). Meoo ana oun't TTlv
OVOYVWPlOT) KOl TTl ouvlSeOT) TO 6.10110 KaAAlepye(
TTlv lKOVOTTlTO TTle; oUTonoP<ITTlP1'1OT)e; KOl TOU
oVOOTOXOOIlOU. H oelpo ellnelplKwv epeuvwv
TOU Gottman Gottman, 1994) exel
on 1'1 lKOVOTTlTO oun't exel eniOT)e; 6WKO OVTiKTu-
no OTTlv emKolvwvio KOl 0TTl oxeOT) TOU
plOU. T1'1 OT)llooiO TTle; OXeOT)e; KOl
TTle; OVOYK1'1e; va npoocpepel 0 6eponeun'te; 1110
OTOUe; 6eponeuollevoue; YlO TTl
61epeuVTlOT) TOU KOl TOU eowTeplKou
TOUe; 16loiTepo 01 6epo-
neUTee; nou ouv6eTouv TTl OUOTTllllKrlll ljJuxolSu-
vOlllKee; (n.x., 8yng-Hall, 1995. Nichols, 1987.
Scharff, 1989) aMo KOl
(n.x., Greenberg & Mateus Marques, 1998). Au-
TOI TTlv eu6uVTl va cpPoVTi-
oOUV YlO eva 6100TTl1l0 TOUe; 6eponeuollevoue;
TOUe;, 6ewpWVTOe; nwe; 1'11epOPXlo nou aUTo ou-
venoyeTOl 6ev KOTopyei TTlv IOOTIIl1'1 6eOT) KOl TO
npoe; TO 6eponeuollevo.
elvOl KOl n6.AL 1'1 onOljJ1'1 TWV
Efran KOI Clarfield (1992), 01 ono(ol unoOTTlpi-
on Ol 6eponeUTee; nou evoVTlwvOVTOl oe KO-
6e ewOlo lepopxioe; (6LOXwplOIlOue; KOlOpLO) 6ev
eXouv nOTe pWTrlOel TOUe; 1610Ue; TOUe; 6eponeuo-
Ilevoue; ov OUIlCPwvouv. <l>oiveTOl nwe; opKeTee;
nOloTlKee; epeuvee; OTO xwpo TTle; OUOTTllllKrle; KOl
6eponeloe; KOTOYPOcpouv TTlv ovo-
yK1'1 TWV 6eponeuollevwv ana TTl 1110 yLO
Y1'1OT), OOCPQAIO KOl 610KPITO OPlO, KOl ana TTlv
6.M1'1 -KOl TOUTOXPOVO- yLO oUIllleToXTl (6eAouv
va TO nwe; KOl TO Yl0T4 KOl onOAUTO
npoe; TO npoowno TOUe; (n.x., Helmeke
& Sprenkle, 2000. Sanders, 1996).
naAlte; Kal vue; TtXVIKte; - H
01'000
01 neploooTepee; ana Tle; vue; oxoMe; nou
eYlvov eupUTepo yvwOTee;
yupw OTle; 0PxEe; TOU 1990 ne; lSlKEe;
TOUe; TeXVlKee;, OpKeTEe; ana Tle; ono(ee; npooo-
oe EVa KOlVWVlKO nAoimo. MeplKEe;
ana TIe; mo YVWOTEe; TeXVlKEe; Ovr'jKOUV OTTlv
geponeio
n
TWV White KOl Epston,
onwe; 1'1 npooKA1'1OT) (npoWOTlKWV rl CPOVTOOTI-
KWV) OKPOCITllPiWV (recruiting audiences) OTIe;
6eponeUTlKte; ouve6piee; KOl 1'1 lS1'11l10Upyio OUA-
Mywv (leagues, clubs, associations) Ile IlEA1'1 6e-
poneuollevoue; nou EXOUV TTlv i610 6u-
OKOAio KOl AelTOUPYouv we; UnOOTTlplKTEe; KOl
6.Mwv Freedman & Combs,
1996. Zimmerman & Dickerson. 1996). AM1'1 TE-
TOIO eivOl 1'1 OVOOTOXOOTIKrl 011060
(reflecting team) TOU Tom Andersen TTle; 0llwvu-
1l1'1e; npooEYYlOT)e;, 1'1 onoio Kovel XPrlOT) OIlCPi-
6pOllOU K06pECPTTl To IlEA1'1 TTle; OIlMoe; (auvr'j-
ewe; enoyyeAIlOTlee; rl ellSlKeuollvol 6eponeUTEe;
euOlo61'1TonOI1'1IlEVO 6.10110), ocpou nopoKoAOU-
niow ana TOV K06pECPTTl 1110 OlKoyevelo-
ouvelSpio, TOUe; npoocptpo-
VTOe; OTTlv OIKoYEvelo -nou eKeiVTl Exelllnel TWPO
OTO POAO TOU nOPOTllP1'1Trl- noMonAte; omlKte;,
KonOlee; ana TIe; onoiee; Ilnopei va OTO
IltA1'1 TTle; OlKoytvelOe; VEOUe; 6pOIlOUe; 0TTl v01'1-
IlOTOOOTTlOT) TWV ellnelplwv TOUe;. KOTomv 1'1 0110-
60 emOTpEcpel OTO POAO TOU nOPOTllP1'1Trl KOl 1'1
olKoytvelo TO OXOAlO nou EXe1
OKOUO1.
01 Efran KOl Clarfield (1992) ecplOTouv TTlv
npoooXTlIlOe; OTO on TO peUIlO TOU
VlOIlOU 6ev npenel va Ile OUYKeKpllle-
vee; TexvlKEe;, 0 ev60umOOlloe; YlO ne; onoiee; OU-
XVel cp6ivellle TOV KOlpO. aMo va
Kupiwe; we; EVOe; KplTlKOe; TponOe; OKEljJ1'1e; nou
Ilnopei va ellnAOUTioel K06e 6epOneUTlKrl npOKTl-
ElvOlOMwOTe onOAee; Ol veee;n TeXVl-
Kee; exouv TIe; TOUe; oe npounopxouoee;. M-
AO KOl naALee; TeXVlKee;, eiTe ana TTlV nopd.600T)
TTle; OUOTTllllKrle; 6eponeioe; eiTe ono 0Mee; ljJuxo-
522. A8'lVcl Avopouraonovlov
gepaneUTIKee; axoMe;, elvCI va lleTQTpa-
nouv oe "lleTavewTepIKee; e<pooov XP11011l0nOII1-
90uv Ile OlOXO TTl TWV gepaneuolle-
vwv va a<PI1YT190uv TTlv IOlopla TOUe;
Androutsopoulou, 2001a, 2001b). 'AAJ...ee; KOV-
oxoMe;, onwe; 11
TTle; H. Anderson, Ka90Aou ell<paOll oe
Te)(VlKee;, aMo gewpouv nwe; 11 TOU
Ileoa ana TTl TOU gepaneun'j
va llogel Yla TOV gepaneuollevo elVCI apKeTIl
nwe; 11 OIlllaola nou M911Ke OT11v ev-
VOla TTle; TTle; npaYIlQTI-
KOTTlTae; oe KOIVWVlKO TOUe; ou-
OT11lllKOUe; KCI olKoyevelaKOUe; gepaneUTee; 0T11
MOIl OlOV nelpallQTIOIlO Ile gepaneUTIKo nAal-
OIa (IMee; Kal nou
OlO KOIVWVlKO nAalOlo. KQTO Tpono,
OT11V TWV ou-
Ile mOlla, onwe; 0
OT11V TWV QTOlllKWV ouve-
Boscolo & Bertrando, 1996). 01
Ile mOlla eYKQTQAe(cp9I1Kav
ana TTlv npwTTl yevlo olKoyevelaKwv
gepaneUTwv 0T11 MOIl, onwe; TOUAOXIOTOV cpa(-
veTCI ana Tle; aVCAoyee; H npwTTl
aun'j yevlo TallTlOe, onwe; e(nalle, TTlV olKoyevel-
Ile TTl ge-
pane(a. 0plollevee; npoonogelee; Ka9lepwOlle;
Illae; OUOT11ll lKlle; gepane(ae; Ile mOlla
0T11 MOIl lleYCAI1 aVTanoKplOll
ne Durkin, 1981). Ol Ile mo-
Ila noM TponOe;
gepane[ae;, KCI e(vCI xapaKT11plOllKO OTl IlOVO
OUOT11lllKO[ gepaneUTee; nou
vee; TIe; TOUe; emppoee;, on we; 11
Agazarian (1997) 0 Robin Skynner
Behr, 2001), TTlv gepa-
ne[a Ile mOlla, 0 Skynner KUp[We; we; Tpono
gepane(ae; TWV gepaneUTwv.
'Evae; QAAOe; Myoe; TWV
0T11 MOIl 11 npoonogela va Ile-
Ta<pep90uv aUTouola OT11V ouve-
evvOlee; ana TTl TWV IllKPWV 01l6-
H npoon6gela aun'j QToVT]oe, KCI
aUTO YlQT[ 11 olKoyevela we; exel npaYIlQTl
nOAU xapaKT11PIOlIKO, nou exel ilIa
Ile 0yvwOla TOUe; mOlla. 'ETOI, TO
IlOVO gepanelae; nou elxe
011 01 Ile olKoyevelee;
(family group therapy multiple family therapy).
KUp[We; OlO nAa[OIO
KWV
OT11v TWV
Ile oTolla anOTeAeOe ilIa lleYCAI1 IJE-
OUOT11IlIKWV gepaneUTwv OT11v H
npoTllll101l TWV npwTonopwv Yla TOV eMl1vlKo
xwpo BaOlAe(ou (Vassiliou & Vassiliou, 1981.
Vassiliou & Vassiliou, 1974) 0T11
Ile 0T11 au-
TIle; TTle; gepanelae; Kal yeVVT]oe
AIYllevee; Ilop<pee; (Katakis, 1989, 2002a. KQTOKI1,
1995) TWV ono[wv 11 exel mov mo Ile-
YCAI1 ouvo<pela Ile ouyxpovee; Ka9lepwllevee;
npaKTlKee; (n.x., Yalom, 1995).
nOVTWe;, 0plollevol gepaneUTee; 0T11 6uOll
Kal Ile mOlla oe ollMee;, KU-
p(we; 0IlWe; IJE Kal Ile tJEAI1
nou exouv napollola C1TIlIlQTa (Laube & Trefz,
1994). nlOleuoulle nwe; 11
ana noMoue; gepaneUTee; TTle;
(owe; va TTlv avoYKI1 Yla Illa
eK veou TTle; Ile ollMee;
(Katakis, 2002b. KmOKI1 &
2003). "AMwOle 11 Ile mOlla
anoTeAel OUYKPlTIKO ilIa mo aMo Kal mo
lOOTlll11 Illa Ta
tJAI1 anoTeAouv TaUToxpova OUlllJeTeXOVTee; KCI
avaOloxaOlee;, KCI lOl OAOI OT11v
Ilo(pa. Ta lleAI1 TTle; ollMae; anOTe-
AOUV TO aKpocrn']plO Yla Koge IltAoe;,
aKpocrn']plO nou 0llwe; emTpenel TTlv "eKgeOll"
TOU lleAOUe; aUTou oe ao<pCAelae;. En(-
OIle;, 11 Ile mOlla Kovel
TTlv TaUTOxpOVT] oe Tp(a
mOlllKO, olKoyevelaKO (11 ollMa we;
olKoyevela) Kal KOlVwvlKO-nOAITl-
OlllKO (11 we; KCI enolle-
vwe; npoo<pepel TTl TOOO Yla vOl1lla-
000 KCI Yla TeAoe;, 11
anClTe( TTlv napouo(a evoe; oM-
EuarTlJllKr/ Kal OIKOYCVrIaKr/ f3rpanria: KpmKr/ avamc6nrzarz TWV j.lCTaVrWTrpIKWV d,diE.rwv. 523
KA'lPOU enm:Alou euOla9'lTO-
onwe; crTIlv OVO-

AVTi To p&Ulla
TOU
'O,TllOXUel YlO K08e OVOlXTO loxuel
KOl YlO TIe; npocreYYlcrele;: 0 TpOnOe;
TIle; TOUe; va
KonOlO OlYOUplOe;, aAAo
un08tcrele; va YlO
TOcrIe;. On we; tnW8'lK crTIlV 1-
croywvil, ana TIe; Tocrele; elvol
0UTT'} TIle; cruv8eO'le; TOU TO
TIlv onolo
ono TOV Tpono TOV onolo va
TIlv nopoucro ovocrKOn'lO'l.
Ol cruV8eTlKte; Tocrele; elvOl npwToyvwpO
OTO xwpo TIle; olKoyevel-
8pon(0e;. H npwTIl yevlo OIKOYVlOKWV
8ponUTwv npocrn08'lcr va
ono TO 8ponUTlKO m-
crTle;
KOl npocrtYYl-
O'le;, OVTl YlO Tle; noWe; TOUe; Ol
q>opee; oxoAte; 8eponeioe;
vov enlO'le; va Tle; TOUe;
pte; cre tWOlee; KOl te:XVlKte;, KOl TOUe;
vtoue; 8poneUTte; OnOKAelOTlKO KOl cre tva
crTIl TOU 1980
OpKeTte; ononelpee; OlJv80'le;
wv. 01 Nichols & Schwartz (2001), KOVOVTOe;
ovocrKOn'lO'l TWV crUV8eTlKWV Tocrewv nou KU-
PlOp)(Tlcrov OTO xwpo TIle; KOl olKoye-
8eponeioe;, 8ewpouv nwe; 0 opoe; cruv-
8eO'l" (integration) Tpele;
tWOlee;: TOV (eAu8e-
poe; KOl TXVlKWV), TOV em-
AKTlKO KOI TeXVlKwv
nou TO ep-
yocrioe; evoe; 8eponeUTT'}) KOI TO
crUV8eTlKO AUTO eiTe
Mo npocreyyicrele; ono TO Xwpo TIle;
8eponeloe; elTe cruvt-
8eTOV TIl 8ewp'l0'l 0AA'l npo-
crtYYlO'l, YlO TIlV el-
Te, TtAoe;, npocrtcpepov tva eupUTepo 8eWP'lTlKO
n}..oicrlo (metaframework) aTO onolo xw-
poucrov noWe; KOl KOl T-
xvlKte; ana TO Xwpo TIle; KOl OIKOY-
8eponeloe;. No nwe; tva
TTOlO eupUTepo 8eWP'lTlKO nAolOlo txel npoTo-
81 ono Tle; pyocrlee; TIle;
KOTOK'l KOI txel aTOV eAA'lvlKO
xwpo Katakis, 1986, 1989, 2002a, 2002b.
KOTOK'l, 1991).
ITIl TOU 1990 '1 TOO'l YlO cruv8O'l
TOUe; mo lOXUpOUe; TIle; aAAo
KOl TOUe; loxupoTepOUe; TIle;. Ano TIl
TO TIlV nMV'l
TIle; onOAUTT)e; YVWO'le;, TIle; ..
KOl TOU ovol-
YOVTOe; TO TIle; noAAonAwv oml-
KWV KOl noMon}..wv aA'l8elwv. Me 0UTT'} TIlv twOlo
TIl Olwocrio TIle; cruv80'le; we;
npoe; (Lebow, 1997).
Ano TIlv 0AA'l, TO TOU KOlVWVlKOU
KOTtKplve TIl cruv8o'l, TIlV
twOlo TIle; crUV8eTlKWV, evOnOl'lTl-
KWV nwe; oUTte; Al-
TOUPYouv KOT' OVOYK'lV we; KAelaTO KOI neplopl-
aTlKO KOTO TIl TOUe;, OAe; Ol
8ewpiee; (KOl ccKAeivouv TIl
O'l KOl TIlv oVTaAAavfl oVTl va TIe; "ovoi-
youv KOl va Tle; cruVT'lpouv. 'H, aMtwe;,
vouv TIe; OVTI8tcrle; oVTl va TIe; 8-
KOI TO TO
Kl OV KonOTe emAtyouv opOue; onwe; CPLAo-
crOCPlKTl 8ewp'l0'l" oVTI "8ewplo,, yLO va neplYpo-
4JOUVTO txouv opyo
aAAo aT08epo cre oxoAte;,
nou 8tAouv va TIl
TO TOUe;. Iuxvo TOUe; TelVOuv va
nwe; Ol TOUe;
cr oxoAte; 6Mee;)
KOl OTI KOI Ol npOKTlKte; TOUe; txouv
T'lTee; oxoAte; 4Juxo8epondoe;
(I3Atne Anderson, 2001. Hart, 1995).
524. ABrzva Avopouwonotilou
To TIle; ouvSeOTle; one; Ilepee; Ilae;
e(vOl, AOLnOV, 0 ouv5uaollOe; ewOlwv ana TIl "110-
VTepva.. nap050011 KOI TIl lleTallo-
VTepva KUp(We;- SewP11OTl.
o Linares (2001) npoowplVO ovollaoe TIl vea au-
51acpOlvolleVTl TOOTl ouv8eOTle; TOU 1l0VTep-
YOU Ile TO lleTallOVTepvo uneplloVTepvo
(ultramodern) peulla. fta va TIlv avo-
YK11 ouvSeOTle; OPOTle; TWV cpOlvollevlKwv
npaYllOTIKWV aVTlSeoewv, 0 repllavOe; Stierlin
(2003) XP11mllonOle( TOV opo aufhebung, nou
aTa eM11vlKo lleTaCPPoOTTlKe we; ouIlCPtAiwOTl
aKpaiwv Seoewv. 'Eva TeTolo eyxeip11lla OUIlCPl-
AiWOTle; oe enine50 Kupiwe; npaKTl-
exouv napoumooel 01 Dallos KOI Urry (1999),
01 onoiol lMee; ana TIlv npwTIl KOI
TIl 5emep11 KaSWe; KOI ana TOV KOl-
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528. AB'lva Avopouraonotilov
Systemic and family therapy:
Critical review of postmodern developments
ATHENA ANDROUTSOPOULOU
In this article we present a number of developments in the theory and practice of
ABSTRACT systemic approaches to therapy, which have taken place in the western world
since the early 1980s. These developments were born out of the contact of
systemic and family therapists with postmodernism, and particularly with the movement of social
constructionism. This contact brought about some drastic changes; it put into question some basic
therapeutic axioms- adopted by the first generation of family therapists. By critically presenting these
developments, we argue in favor of the stance that a number of theoreticians have taken; that some
extreme positions of postmodernism will unavoidably lead to a synthesis or reconciliation with surviving
modern systemic concepts.
Key words: Systemic therapy, Post modern developments, Synthetic trends.
Address: Athena Androutsopoulou, Laboratory for the Study of Human Relations, 33 Konitsis st., 151 25
Maroussi, Attica, Greece. Tel.: 0030-210-8829100, E-mail: a_androutsopoulou@yahoo.com