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FOREWORD Practitioners and scholars in public administration are well aware of the critical dilemma created by the combination of the rapid increase in the volume of crime, the increasing demand for public services, and the limitation of the tax dollar. The tension generated by these two forces is only exaggerated by the nation’s current general economic conditions. In such a context, discus- sion of productivity improvement is not simply appropriate, it is imperative. Maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency with which public services are delivered must be one of the most important responses of public administrators to the urban crisis. In no area of government service is productivity improvement more important than in policing. Nor are there any areas of public service in which the improvement of productivity is more difficult. The diversity of the functions which make up policing, the service nature of most of these functions, and the difficulty in isolating the police responsibility from that of the criminal justice system as a whole make the measurement of improvement in police efficiency and effectiveness difficult at best. In the past, police departments have periodically attempted to increase arrest rates, improve the enforcement of certain laws, and shorten the time spent on paperwork in the belief that such efforts were signs of increased effectiveness. These efforts, although worthwhile, almost invariably focused on immediate and obvious problems whose elimination was sought by means that were limited in scope and duration. What was missing from these past attempts to improve police productivity was the understanding that better policing cannot be achieved until productivity concepts are applied continuously and regularly to every aspect of a police department’s work. If at one time productivity measurement and productivity improve- ment were terms confined to private industry, that is simply no longer the case. Explorations have already begun into the accuracy and usefulness of traditional measurements of police i productivity, into the development of new measurements for police activities not previously considered measurable, and into the customary ways of providing police service. This book of readings is provided by the Police Foundation for the purpose of facilitating discussion on the many important issues which surround the problem of improving police produc- tivity. It is intended to encourage a more focused dialogue among both practitioners and scholars in public administration. The Police Foundation gratefully acknowledges the fine contributions of each of the authors and hopes that readers will find their efforts both interesting and useful. Tvan Allen, Jr. Chairman Board of Directors Police Foundation