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Rolling imparts anisotropy in sheet metal due to elongated grain structure. R-values are often measured in the a) longitudinal, b) diagonal, and c) transverse directions to determine the extent of the sheets anisotropy.


Results from deep drawing 228.6 mm (9) blanks at room temperature. Wrinkles occurred below 4.4 kN BHF (a) and fracture at the punch radius occurred above 4.4 kN BHF (b).


Results from deep drawing 228.6 mm (9) blanks at 200C. a) Excessive sidewall wrinkling was observed at 8.9 kN (2000 lb) BHF; however, the cup was still drawn completely. b) and c) show completely drawn cups at 11.1 kN (2500 lb) BHF and 20.0 kN (4500 lb) BHF respectively. d) All blanks failed at the die entry radius with 22.2 kN (5000 lb) BHF and above.

Tested specimen with an etched gridfor analyzing its surface strains

The effect of decreasing the blank holder force (from left to right) on occurrence of wrinkling at the edges of composite blanks with 8.5 cm diameter.

The drawn bimetal component sectioned diametrically using a wire-cut machine for evaluation of thickness strain.