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UNESCO-NIGERIA TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION REVITALISATION PROJECT-PHASE II NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

UNESCO-NIGERIA TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION REVITALISATION PROJECT-PHASE II

& VOCATIONAL EDUCATION REVITALISATION PROJECT-PHASE II NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY CIVIL

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

II NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING II CEC 210 YEAR 2- SE

CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING II CEC 210

YEAR 2- SE MESTER 4

THEORY/PRACTICAL

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CEC 210

Week 1:

1.1

CONTENT INDEX Stair detail.

1

Week 2:

2.1

Special stairs.

2

2.2

Pile foundation

4

Week 3:

3.1

Steel structural drawings.

6

Week 4:

4.1

Connection between steel members.

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4.2

Connections

10

Week 5:

5.1

Building services drawings.

12

Week 6:

6.1

Water tank installation details.

16

Week 7:

7.1

Manhole details.

17

Week 8:

8.1

Septic tank details.

18

Week 9:

9.1

Installation of Air conditioning system.

19

Week 10:

10.1

Road design presentation.

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10.2

Longitudinal section

20

10.3

Cross section

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Week 11:

11.1

Canal and irrigation engineering.

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11.2

Earth dam

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2

Week 12:

12.1

Site visit.

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Week 13:

13.1

Computer Aided drawing (CAD).

27

Week 14:

14.1

Computer Aided drawing (CAD).

28

Week 15:

15.1

Computer Aided drawing (CAD).

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3

WEEK ONE

1.1 STAIR DETAILS

Detailing of stairs and preparing their bar bending schedules

of stairs and preparing their bar bending schedules Fig. 1.1 stairs Coursework / Practical Students are

Fig. 1.1 stairs

Coursework / Practical

Students are to draw reinforcement details for special stairs and attempt to its bar bending schedule sheets

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WEEK TWO

2.1 SPECIAL STAIRS AND PILE FOUNDATION

DETAILS Detailing of stairs and pile foundation and preparing their bar bending schedule sheet

AND PILE FOUNDATION DETAILS Detailing of stairs and pile foundation and preparing their bar bending schedule

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Fig. 2.1 Special stairs 6

Fig. 2.1 Special stairs

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2.2

Pile foundation

2.2 Pile foundation Fig. 2.2. Piles 7
2.2 Pile foundation Fig. 2.2. Piles 7

Fig. 2.2. Piles

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COURSEWORK / PRACTICAL

Students are to draw special stairs and pile foundation and attempt to prepare their bar bending schedule sheet.

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WEEK THREE

3.1 STEEL STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS

The training of the structural steel drafter is of vital importance to the engineering profession, the construction industry and every structural steel fabricator. Steel produced at the rolling mills and shipped to the fabricating shop comes in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. e.g Universal beam, column, channel, angle; structural tees, Hollow structural section – consisting of round, square and rectangular section, plates, round and rectangular bars. Standard hot rolled section are produced in three grades of steel 43, 50 and 55. These numbers when multiplied by 10 give the maximum tensile strength of the steel in N/mm 2 . By adding chromium and copper to grade 50 steel during manufacture, a weather resistant steel is produced which does not require a protective coating. Universal beam, column, joists and channels are described by their depth, breadth, mass per metre and length required in that order. The standard abbreviations used are as follows:

Universal beam -

IUB

Universal column -

IUC

Rolled steel joist -

RSJ

Rolled steel channel - RSC The expression 457x 152 x 60 UB x 7440

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Fig. 3.1 Universal sections Means a universal beam with a depth of 457mm, width of

Fig. 3.1 Universal sections

Means a universal beam with a depth of 457mm, width of 152mm, weighing 60kg/metre and 7440mm long. Cold rolled section are formed by folding flat sheet steel into a variety of shapes like toughing, decking, cladding, zed and channel sections. steel section may be shown in true shape on large –scale drawings but on small –scale drawing they are shown symbolically as thick lines together with important section properties

COURSEWORK

Students are to draw at least twelve structural steelwork shapes available in the Nigerian market

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WEEK FOUR

4.1 CONNECTION BETWEEN STEEL MEMBERS

There are many ways of connecting the various elements of steel structure. The decision as to which will be used will have to be taken by the designer from his knowledge of the forces they will have to transmit. Bolts, Rivets, or welds are usually used for connecting two steel members,. Three qualities of bolts are available

a. Black bolts - common bolts, with un-machined shanks.

b. Close – tolerance turned bolts: accurately turned or machine bolts used where ship and vibration are undesirable.

c. High-strength friction grip bolts. Grade yield or 0.2% proof stress

4.6

8.8

240N/mm

640N/mm

2

2

-

- The nominal diameter of the bolt is the diameter of its shank and is given in mm. e.g M16, M20, M22. - BS4190. The process of riveting involves heating the rivet until it is red hot, inserting it in the matched holes in the members to be connected and then forming a cup- shaped head on the other end of the rivet by means of suitable dies and a

hammer.

Welded connections is an alternation to shop bolting. Welded connection have the advantage, of saving in weight of the cleats and splice plates, avoidance of loss of strength of sections by drilling holes in them and a smoother and more easily maintained profile. The two basic welds are:

Fillet welds and built welds. Fillet welds are he commonest and designers will sometimes prefer to extend on 2 plate so as to get a fillet weld instead of a butt weld. But welds are formed in a variety of shapes often requiring the butting edges to be specially prepared. Symbols are used to denote the various types of weld and these are extracted

from BS499 part 2: symbols for welding. The symbols are used in association

with a sloping arrow line pointing to the location of the weld. Attached to the

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arrow line is a reference line drawn horizontally. There must be a change of

direction between arrow line and reference line.

drawn horizontally. There must be a change of direction between arrow line and reference line. Fig.

Fig. 4.1 Welding symbols

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4.2

Connections

4.2 Connections Fig. 4.2 Connections 1. Column bases to foundation, usually concrete 2. Beams to columns

Fig. 4.2 Connections

1. Column bases to foundation, usually concrete

2. Beams to columns

3. Beams to beams

4. Splicing beams and column splices

2. Beams to columns 3. Beams to beams 4. Splicing beams and column splices Fig. 4.3

Fig. 4.3 Connections column to column

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Fig. 4.4 Connection column to foundation COURSEWORK / PRACTICAL Students are to prepare working drawings

Fig. 4.4 Connection column to foundation

COURSEWORK / PRACTICAL

Students are to prepare working drawings for connections in structural steelwork:

Beam to beam Beam to column Column to column Column to foundation

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WEEK FIVE

5.1 BUILDING SERVICES DRAWINGS

WEEK FIVE 5.1 BUILDING SERVICES DRAWINGS Fig. 5.1 Plumbing drawings Plumbing work drawings - water supply

Fig. 5.1 Plumbing drawings

Plumbing work drawings

- water supply to the building

- Sanitary pipe work

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Fig. 5.2 Plumbing-work drawing 16

Fig. 5.2 Plumbing-work drawing

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Fig 5.3 Wash-hand basin The building regulation require that every soil and waste appliance be

Fig 5.3 Wash-hand basin

The building regulation require that every soil and waste appliance be adequately trapped with a satisfactory water seal and have means of access for internal cleansing. The entry of foul air from the drainage system into the building is prevented by the installation of suitable traps which should be self cleansing. Drainage systems must be designed to provide efficient and economical method of carrying water borne waste in such a way as to avoid the risk of pipe blockage and the escape of effluent into the ground. Sewer arrangements

- Combined systems

- Separate system

- Partially separate system

Access to drains: This is required for inspection and rodding to clear blockage. The means of access is the inspection chambers. Inspection chambers becomes a manhole when the depth exceeds 900mm . Inspection chambers or manholes are mainly provided at:

- Changes of direction and gradient

- Junction of two or more sewers

- Wherever the pipe diameter changes in size

- The head of the sewer

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INTERCEPTORS An interceptor or intercepting trap is used to intercept by means of a water seal at least 62mm deep the foul air from a sewer or cesspool from entering a house drainage inspection chamber or manhole and is provided with a rodding arm to give access to the section of drain between the trap and the sewer or cesspool.

A

cesspool is an underground chamber constructed for the reception and storage

of

foul water.

Cesspool are different to septic tanks in that they only contain the sewage for a

period of time and have to be pumped out at frequent interval according to their capacity and usage

COURSEWORK

Students to draw line diagram of plumbing work for water supply and drainage system

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WEEK SIX
WEEK SIX

6.1 WATER TANK INSTALLATION DETAILS

WEEK SIX 6.1 WATER TANK INSTALLATION DETAILS Fig. 6.1 water tank installation Coursework Students to prepare

Fig. 6.1 water tank installation

Coursework

Students to prepare working drawing for plumbing work

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WEEK SEVEN

7.1 MANHOLE DETAILS

Manhole and inspection chamber details

7.1 MANHOLE DETAILS Manhole and inspection chamber details Fig 7.1 Manhole Coursework Student to prepare working

Fig 7.1 Manhole

Coursework

Student to prepare working drawing of manhole and inspection chamber

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WEEK EIGHT

8.1 SEPTIC TANK DETAIL

Septic tank and soak away pit details

8.1 SEPTIC TANK DETAIL Septic tank and soak away pit details Fig. 8.1 Septic tank In

Fig. 8.1 Septic tank In areas where there are no public sewers to direct household drains septic tanks are used. In the septic tank, heavier solids settle at the bottom as sludge and lighter solids rise and form a scum which acts as a surface seal and permits decomposition by bacteria. SOAKAWAY PIT Where there is no possibility of recycling the waste water or being used for farmland, the pit is constructed beside the septic tank to dispose the treated waste into the surrounding ground.

COURSEWORK / PRACTICAL

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Students to prepare working drawings for septic tank and soak away pit

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WEEK NINE

9.1 INSTALLATION OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

Air conditioning provides a comfortable climate within the structure. A good air conditioning system controls all the principal factors that affect human comfort. That is the right temperature the right amount of moisture and a controlled supply of fresh, clean, odourless air. Table 9.1 Air conditioning unit

Air conditioning system

Mechanical unit

Energy sources

Temperature control

Heating

Gas,

coal,

electricity,

Refrigeration

wood,

Gas, electricity

 

Humidity control

Humidifier de humidifier

Electricity

 

Ventilation

Fan, intake and Exhaust filter

Electricity

 

Line diagram is used to represent the units on drawings

COURSEWORK

Students to draw the installation layout plan for air-conditioning system

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WEEK TEN
WEEK TEN

10.1 ROAD DESIGN PRESENTATION

Road design drawings should include the following

1. A layout plan

2. A longitudinal section

3. A cross section

LAYOUT PLAN This is normally presented to a scale of 1:500. The layout plan should show the

existing details (as broken lines) and the proposed work (as continuous lines). The layout plan normally includes the following details

- The horizontal alignment

- The existing drains, manholes culverts

- Location of bridges, and railway level crossings

- Existing footpath and proposed paths

- The direction of the North Normally drawn to the following scales Horizontal 1:500 Vertical 1:100

10.2 Longitudinal section

Details on the longitudinal section

- The datum from which all levels are measured

- The existing ground levels

- The chainage along the centre line of the road.

- The proposed longitudinal profile of the road

- The existing /proposed invert level of drains and culverts

- The gradient of the proposed road

- The vertical curves of the proposed road.

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Fig.10.1 Longitudinal section 25

Fig.10.1 Longitudinal section

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10.3

CROSS – SECTIONS

Normally drawn the following scales:

Horizontal 1:100 Vertical 1:50 or 1:100

CROSS – SECTIONS Normally drawn the following scales: Horizontal 1:100 Vertical 1:50 or 1:100 Fig. 10.2

Fig. 10.2 Cross section

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DETAILS TO BE SHOWN

- The extent of the road reserve

- The datum from which all levels are taken

- The existing ground level

- The chainage from the centre line of the road to edge of the road reserve.

- The proposed road levels at the edges and along the centre line.

- The proposed and existing invert levels of drains and culverts

- The cross- slope of the road

- The thickness of the layers.

COURSEWORK / PRACTICAL

Students to draw the proposed road profile: the longitudinal and cross sections .

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WEEK ELEVEN

11.1 CANAL AND IRRIGATION ENGINEERING

The most commonly used systems embrace porous or perforated pipes or gravel –filled trenches laid to one of the following arrangement.

- Natural:- the drains follow natural depression or valleys on the site with branches discharging into the main pipe

- Herringbone:- A number of main drains into which smaller subsidiary

- Grid:- main drain are laid near the boundaries of a site into which branches discharge from one side only.

Fan:- The drains converge to a single outlet at one point on the boundary of the site without the sue of the site without the use of a main drain.

- Circular section

- Triangular section CANAL SECTION

- Natural, irregular channels section

- Trapezoidal sections

- Rectangular section

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11.2 EARTH DAM

11.2 EARTH DAM Fig. 11.1 Earth dam Earth dams consisting entirely of impervious material at the

Fig. 11.1 Earth dam

Earth dams consisting entirely of impervious material at the centre made of clay

puddles and graded aggregate the finest to boulder stones, from the clay

puddles outwards, provides the most economical dam for irrigation purposes

COURSEWORK / PRACTICAL

Students to draw and detail canal sections in relation to their engineering economy.

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WEEK TWELVE

12.1 SITE VISIT

Students to be taken on excursion to dam site, irrigation project site and road project site

30

WEEK THIRTEEN

13.1 COMPUTER AIDED DRAWING

The use of CAD to produce working drawings

31

WEEK FOURTEEN

14.1 COMPUTER AIDED DRAWING

The use of CAD to produce working drawings

WEEK FOURTEEN 14.1 COMPUTER AIDED DRAWING The use of CAD to produce working drawings 32

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WEEK FIFTEEN

15.1 SITE VISIT

Students to write technical report on project sites visited

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