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Training and Development Methods: -

Employee Training Methods: - The most popular training methods used by organization
can be classified as either on the job or off the job training few better technique from
each category are briefly explained
 On the job training: The most widely used method of training take place on the job. On
the job training places the employee in an actual work situation and makes them appear
to be employee is an actual work situation and make them appear to be immediately
Apprenticeship programs: - people seeking to enter skilled trades are often required to
undergo apprenticeship training
 Off the job training: - off the job training covers a number of technique classroom
lectures films demonstrations cause studies and others relations exercise and programmed
Different types of off the job training are as follows: -
 Films
 Simulation exercise
 Cases
 Experimental exercise
 Computer modeling
 Vestibule training
 Programmed instructions
(2) Management development method: - Management development is
more future oriented and more concerned with education than is
employee training or assisting a person to become a better performer
by education we mean that management development activities attempt
to instill sound reasoning processes – To enhance one’s ability to
understand and interpret knowledge rather than imparting a body of
serial facts.
Successful managers have analytical human conceptual and specialized skills. They are able to
think and understand management development method is further divided into two parts
 On the job development :-
The development of a manager’s abilities can take place on the job. we will review four popular
on the job techniques
(i) Coaching
(ii) Understudy assignments
(iii) Job rotation
(iv) Committee assignments
Coaching: - When a manager takes an active role in guiding another manager we refer to this
activity as coaching. The effective gives guidance through direction, advice, criticism and
suggestions in an attempt to aid the growth of the employee.
Job rotation: - Job rotation represents an excellent method for broadening the manager or
potential manager and for turning specialist into generalists. In addition to increasing the
manager’s experience and allowing the manager to absorb new information, it can reduce
boredom and stimulate the development of new ideas. It can also provide opportunities for a more
comprehensive and reliable evaluation of the manager by his or her supervisors.
Committee assignments: -Assignment to a committee can provide an opportunity for the
employee to share in manager decision making to learn by watching others and to investigate
specific organisational problems. When committees are of “Adhoc” or temporary nature they
often take on task force activities designed to delve into a particular problem, ascertain alternative
solutions and make recommendations for implementing solutions.
Appointment to permanent committee: - Appointment to permanent committee increases the
employee’s exposure to other member of the organization, broadens his/her
understanding and provides an opportunity to grow and make recommendations under the
scrutiny of other committee members.
(3) Off the job development: -there are many management development technique that personal
can partake in off the job. Few popular ones: -
 Sensitivity training: Sensitivity training in encounter groups is a method of changing
behaviour through group processes.
 Transactional analysis: This may help managers understand others better and assist them in
altering their responses so as to produce effective results.
 Lecture courses: Formal lectures offer an opportunity for managers or potential managers to
acquire knowledge and develop conceptual and analytical abilities. In large organisations,
these lecture courses may be offered “In-The-House” by the organisation itself.
 Simulation exercises: These were introduced as a training technique, they were meant
probably for management development. Most widely used simulation exercises are:
a. Case studies
b. Simulated decision game
c. Role playing
Responsibility for training and development: - Training is the responsibility of four major
o The top management, which frames the training policy.
o The HRD department which plans establishes and evaluates instructional
o Super ions who facilitate training and development activities
o Employee’s who provide feedback revisions and suggestions for corporate
educational endeavors.