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+=FEJ K  +E A =JE?= FK ?

JK KE =JAHE=



>EA?JK ?E A =JE?EE

@A K @A FK ?J

=JAHE=

E ?=HA= AIJA FH FHEAJ=JA E JHE IA? = =JAHEAE IA IK ? K ANEIJ =JAHEA HAF=KI =>I KJ @KF ?K K F =JA ? ?AFKJ E ?=HA B H IK F HJK =JAHE= @E ?=HA= IJ HEE @A E ?=HA = K KE IEIJA E? AIJA @A HACK IJK@E=J ?= ? IA?E = =? EK EE ? HFKHE H ? KH J =HA I=K ?= HA K J=J = E JAH=? EK E H K H F H E @E E JAHE HK IEIJA K KE @E ?=HA= IJ HEE @A E ?=HA F =JA IJK@E=J FA JHK ?AFKJ @ =H FKH @AI?HEFJEL B H = K= ? IE@AH=HA ?=K A A ?=HA @AJAH E =IJBA @A => H@=HA CA AJHE? = E ? HEE AIJA ?K I?KJ @HAFJ => H@=HA= ?E A =JE? E=H ?=FEJ K ? HAIFK J H @E A?= E? F =HJ K A A @A +E A =JE? ,A =HA?A K =IJBA @A @A AHI AIJA =E IE F K A AIJA = AI FHE E IJ= =J J FA ? IE@AHA JA @E@=?JE?A ? J E E@AA= E JH @K?AHEE K H EK E E HE E E?A IJHE?J A?A I=HA K JAHE H IJK@EK A?= E?EE +E A =JE?= FHA?A@A = =@=H ,E = E?=  F=HJA= A?= E?EE ?=HA IK J K=JA ? IE@AH=HA ABA?JA A K H B=?J HE ?=K E = K A B H A A ?K ?=HA ? HFKHE A ANJAHE =HA I=K E JAHE =HA =? E A= =IKFH= IEIJA K KE IJK@E=J ,AI?HEAHA= ? F AJ = E ? HEE K KE IEIJA E? HA= AIJA =@AIA= FH > A A FHA= ? F AN A AHA AL= J FH=?JE? JH K = K EJ ? JANJ IA F J EC H= = K EJA = K JA A AIA E= A FA JHK FH > A = IJK@E=J
? @E EE A ?=HA AIJA A?AI=H IE F K IFHA ? F AN  E ? F AJ


=> H@=HA = K AE JA A @A IJK@E=J F H E @ @A =

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HAFHA A J=HA IE F E ?=J = K KE IEIJA I=K = K KE FH ?AI E? IA K A JA @A E? @A A A E?A E @A =HA= IK J E IJHK A JA AIA E= A K K =E E? ?E JHAC FH ?AIK ?K = JAHEE K EE ? KH J =HA ,AI?HEAHA= =JA =JE? =I ?E=J K KE @A E? IE F K AIJA @A =IA A A= IE F ,E F ?=JA ?K ? J HA?KHCA = @A A J J =E IE F A ?K =J J A @AF HJ =E K J @A HA= EJ=JA +K K A= HA= AIJA J J@A=K = K J =E ? F E?=J @A? J @A A A ?K ?=HA IA FAHA= E? JHA>KEA I ? JEA E ? E HA K J=JA A > E KJA IK J JH K = K A IA I E ? F AJA 4A?KHCAHA= = @A A IE F A AIJA A?AI=H B= = E ?EFEA J = ?K = JAHEE =JKHEE E ? KIEL ? = 2A IKH= K HEE ? IE@AH=HA = =IFA?JA H ? IE@AH=JA E E E= A AIA E= A A =FH FEA =E K J @A HA= EJ=JA ?K FHA K KJE E HEE K KE E IJHK A J =JA =JE? =E I IJE?=J E =E @E ?E E? IK J ?K I?KJA K JA ANA F A @A @A A ?=HA =K AL K=J FH ?AIK ?K = JAHEE JH IK??AIEK A ?KFHE @ =E K JA AJ=FA -NA F A A ?A A =E ?K I?KJA IK J @A K =J K KE E I=K = K? AK KE @A K @A KE@ I=K ?A @A I E@ HECE@ @EBAHEJA @A A @A K @A AJ? +A =E IE F K @A @E A?= E? AIJA ?A = FK ?JK KE =JAHE= F =JA B IEJ HE @A ? JA HE IA IJK@E= E ?=HA= @A JH= I = EA = K KE >EA?J I=K IEIJA @A >EA?JA @A @E A IEK E K J =E E?E @A? J @EIJ= A A F=H?KHIA 7 ? HF AIJA =IJBA =IE E =J K KE FK ?J =JAHE= ?=HA IA ? IE@AH = ? ?A JH=J JHA=C= I= =I 5A A ACA ? K ? HF K JHA>KEA I A A=F H=J E? =??AF EK A= FH FHEA = ?KL JK KE FA JHK = JH=J=J ?= FK ?J =JAHE= IKH= ?=HA K =IJBA @A FK ?J =JAHE= AIJA E ?=HA A IA @A K A JA E >E =@E? FK ?J =JAHE= E ?=HA @A K FK ?JK KE =JAHE= IA =F E? ?K =?A = E IK??AI =J J FA JHK IJK@EA HA= E ? HEE K H ? HFKHE @A @E A IEK E E =IA CEC= JE?A ?K =H ? HFKHE A @E E JAHE HK IEIJA K KE I =H ? J E K H ? HFKHE @A @E A IEK E = I? FE?A =J E K? AA A A?JH E AJ?  )> H@=HA= ?=HA F A=? @A = @A K @A FK ?J =JAHE= AIJA KJE F= EE K JAHE HE ? @ IA JHA?A = IJK@EK A?= E?EE ? HFKHE H @A @E A IEK E ?A K =E F J HA@KIA = K FK ?J ,=? K ? HF AIJA FHA= =HA FA JHK = =E FKJA= ? IE@AH=J F=HJE?K A F =JA C @EJ ?= ? A? EA K IEIJA  @A FK ?JA =JAHE= A 4A K J=JA A C IEJA A?= E?= FK ?JK KE =JAHE= IA ANJH=F A= FA JHK IEIJA A A @A FK ?JA ?K FHA?=K EE A A?AI=HA K AE =IJBA @A FAH= EE HE E A E?A ?A A =E E F HJ= JA ?E A =JE? IK J LEJA = E =??A AH=
7 A HE K FK ?J =JAHE= IA @A K A JA E F=HJE?K

64)1-+6 41) ]1 -+7)_11 - +1 - )61+@ = A C IE ANFHAIEE A

E= 8 ?AFA FHE = @A E =?AIJA HE E KH H=F HJ ?K @EBAHEJA IEIJA A @A ? H@ =JA

6H=EA?J HE= E A?K= EE A ?E A =JE?A

2A JHK = IJK@E= @K ?=HA IA @E ? JE F F E E= K KE FK ?J =JAHE= H=F HJ ?K K = JK AIJA AL EA @A = @A E K IEIJA @A HABAHE @A K EJ =@AIA= E HAFAH ? IE@AH=J N ? JANJK FH > A AE @A IJK@E=J 2 E E= H=F HJ ?K HAFAHK = FK ?JK KE =JAHE= = ? HKE E ?=HA IJK@EA AIJA FHA?E =J FHE = = K EJK LA?J H @A F E EA )?AIJ= J=J ?A =E =@A IA= ?K r =HA HECE A= HECE A= HAFAHK KE E=H L HBK  FK ?JK =JAHE= IJK@E=J 2H EA? EE A KE r FA =NA A IEIJA K KE @A HABAHE KJE E =J  J=J FHAI ?KHJ=J ?K 54 @AJAH E @A =IA A A= @ K EL ? F E E= K KE FK ?J @E IF= EK JH K IF= EK JHE@E A IE = F E E= >E K KE J=J ?K P .EC   AIJA @AJAH E =J @A K JHEF AJ @A K AHA K EJA ? H@ =JA ?=HA HAFHA E J @EIJ= A E I=K K CDEKHE 7JE E =HA= HAFHA A J HEE LA?J HE= A =HA =L= J= K ? ANFHAIEE A HE E H ?E A =JE?A K @AFE @ @A JEFK @A ? H@ =JA = AI ,EIJ= = @E JHA @ K FK ?JA @E IF= EK IA K A JA AJHE? A?= E?= AMJ E= B IA JA AJHE?= AK? E@E= @A K EJ =@AIA= E AJHE?= C= E AA= ! A HE= KE /= E A /= E AE ,EIJ= = @E JHA @ K FK ?JA P1 (x1 , y1 , z1 ) E P2 (x2 , y2 , z2 ) ANFHE =J JH K IEIJA @A ? H@ =JA ?=HJA EA A" AIJA @=J @A HA = E= d = [(x2 x1 )2 + (y2 y1 )2 + (z2 z1 )2 ]1/2  

6H=EA?J HE= K KE ? HF AIJA ?KH>= @AI?HEI @A =?AIJ= @A?KHIK E ? HEE =@E? ?K CA AJHE? = F E EE H IK??AIELA ?KF=JA @A >E @A?KHIK
E A /= E AE #$" $"  E?E= EJ= E= AIJA ? IE@AH=J FHE K @A JEE = AF ?EE @AH A 2HE ?EF= A A I= A ? JHE>K EE E? IK J AC=JA @A @AI? FAHEHA= ACE H E ? HEE FA @K K KE = A ? @AHEE E>AHA = ? HFKHE H FHA?K E K A A @EIF EJELA JAD E?A  K AJ= =IJH E? K K @A @A F F= DE@H=K E? >= = = DE@H IJ=JE?  ) IKI E KJ EF JA = DA E ?A JHE? = KE + FAH E?KI +=HJA= I= ?A= =E E F HJ= J AIJA ,E= CKHE @AI FHA FHE ?EF= A A @ K IEIJA A = A K EE FK> E?=J = . HA = $! E @A@E?=J = = E AE ?HEJE?A = IEIJA K KE CA ?A JHE? = KE 2J A AK E HAIFA?JEL DA E ?A JHE? = KE + FAH E ?KI 2HE JH ? E ?E@A $" AIJA = K H EE KE /= E AE E = JAHEE KE AMJ 1 B H = EE IKF E A J=HA @AIFHA LE= = E FAH= KE /= E AE F J C IEJA E = =@HAI= @A MA> DJJF C= E A E II HA A EJ KIA > AC= E C DJ " BK ? EA @A IE AJHE= FH > A AE @A IJK@E=J F J B IEJA E HAFAHA @A JEF IBAHE? I=K ?E E @HE?
! /=

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.ECKH=   4AFHA A J=HA= JH=EA?J HEAE K KE FK ?J =JAHE=


JK >E IA =

= A JK t FK ? 2 @AI?HEI @A LA?J HK @A F E EA r

E ? HEE A?= E?= ? =IE? IA ? IE@AH ? JH=EA?J HE= ? HFK KE AIJA >E A @AJAH E =J # E=H K E A= F E EE H IK??AIELA ?KF=JA @A =?AIJ= @A?KHIK E ? HEE AIJA ? JE K 5 @AI?HEA = =@=H F E E= K KE FK ?J =JAHE= ?=HA IA @AF =IA= FA ?KH> =HA?=HA ?K = KJ HK K KE LA?J H @A F E EA J=J r .EC   ACA= @A E ?=HA = >E K KE AIJA ANFHE =J CA AHE? FHE A?K= E= LA?J HE=

r = r(t),

 

?=HA AIJA A?DEL= A J ?K JHAE A?K= EE I?= =HA ?A @AI?HEK L=HE= EE A JE F = A ? H@ =JA H >E K KE ,A ANA F K ?= K K KE IEIJA @A ? H@ =JA ?=HJA E= JHE@E A IE =

x = x(t), y = y (t), z = z (t).


#

 !  "  #

A?= E?= ?K= JE? IFA?E ? IEIJA A H E?H I? FE?A IA ? IE@AH ? F E E= K AE E?H F=HJE?K A  E @A?E E JH=EA?J HE= =?AIJAE= K F J @AJAH E =JA ?K HE?A FHA?E EA @A =?AA= IA L H>A JA @ =H @A = K EJ FH >=>E EJ=JA ?= F=HJE?K = I IA C IA=I? = K A J @=J JH = K EJ @E IF= EK 2=HJE?K = I E AIJA @A ?= E =J  E=H JH=EA?J HE= AE H @A FH >=>E EJ=JA ?=HA IA IFA?E ? FHE J K = K EJA ?= KHE IA K A JA E H>EJ=

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.ECKH= 

8A?J HK @AF =I=HA E JAHL= K t2 t1 J=J ?K r HAFHA E J @EBAHA = LA?J HE H @A F E EA =E FK ?JA H P1 E P2 r = r2 r1

-?K= EE A  !  "  # IA K AI? A?K= EE F=H= AJHE?A = A E ? HEE F=H= AJHK AIJA JE FK t 2HE A E E =HA= JE FK KE @E A?K= EE A F=H= AJHE?A IKI A E =JA IA > E A A?K= E= JH=EA?J HEAE

!

8A?J HK @AF =I=HA LEJA = E =??A AH= E=

5 ? IE@AH ? @A?KHIK E ? HEE I= A K >E IA = = A JK t1 JH K FK ?J 21 @AI?HEI @A LA?J HK @A F E EA r1 E ? = A JK t2 A = = K I FK ?JK 22 @AI?HEI @A LA?J HK @A F E EA r2 IEJK= EA HAFHA A J=J .EC  ,EIJ= = @E JHA FK ?JA A P1 E P2 JHA ?=HA I = @AF =I=J >E K F =JA E JAHFHAJ=J ?= E @ @K K K KE LA?J H r @A K EJ LA?J H @AF =I=HA r = r2 r1 .  $

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.ECKH=  ! 2A
?A =E

IKH ?A I?=@A E JAHL= K t FK ?JK 22 IA =FH FEA @E ?A K J @A P1 E=H LA?J HK @AF =I=HA JE @A I = K C FA @EHA? E= J= CA JAE = JH=EA?J HEA

!

8EJA =

A@EA E LEJA = E IJ= J= AA


A@EA FA F H EK A s @A JH=EA?J HEA ?= E @ H=F HJK

5A @A

A JA LEJA =

s ,  % t K @A s AIJA ? H@ =J= ?KH>E E EA IKH=J @A = K CK JH=EA?J HEAE JHK? J IKH=HA= @EIJ= A H @A = K CK JH=EA?J HEAE AIJA =E FK E ? LA =>E IA FHABAH ANFHE =HA= LEJA AE >E K KE BK ? EA @A ? H@ =JA I=K @A LA?J HEE @A F E EA = A =?AIJKE= ,KF ?K HA K J @E .EC  ! K CE A= JH=EA?J HEAE s F=H?KHI @A >E JH K E JAHL= @A JE F EJ t @EBAH IA E ?=JEL @A HE A= LA?J HK KE @AF =I=HA r ) = ?K L LA@A= E A @E=J r =H HE A K J =E ? LA =>E @A B IEJ FA JHK ?= ?K =HA= LEJA AE FK ?JK KE =JAHE= ,=? ? IE@AH t1 = t E t2 = t + t =JK ?E ? @E EE A ?=HA t 0 LA?J HK @AF =I=HA r @ALE A = E EJ AC= ?K @EIJ= = ?KH>E E EA s F KI r @ALE A J= CA J = ?KH>= JH=EA?J HEA .EC  ! =?AIJA ?EH?K IJ= A IA F =JA @A E LEJA = E IJ= J= AA = >E K KE vm = v = lim
t0

r(t + t) r(t) r = lim . t 0 t t

 &

!

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%  AIJA

+ IJ=J FA @A = J F=HJA ? LEJA = E IJ= J= AA I=K ?DE=H @AHEL=J= LA?J HK KE @A F E EA H=F HJ ?K JE FK

v=

dr = r. dt

 '

+= KH =HA LEJA = E IJ= J= AA  A J=  =@E? LEJA = >E K KE JH K FK ?J AIJA K LA?J H J= CA J = JH=EA?J HEA HE A= I= AIJA @=J @A @AHEL=J= H=F HJ ?K JE FK = LA?J HK KE I K @A F E EA 8A?J HK LEJA E IJ= J= AA AIJA J= CA J = JH=EA?J HEA JE F ?A LA?J HK LEJA A@EA =HA @EHA? E= IA?= JAE 2A @A = J F=HJA FA JHK = ?= ?K = LEJA = A@EA = >E K KE JH K E JAHL= @A JE F t =?AIJ= IA F=HJA n IK>E JAHL= A t1 t2 tn =J J @A E?E ? J FA @KH=J= A? HKE IK>E JAHL= LEJA = E IJ= J= AA I H FH=?JE? ? IJ= J $ 8EJA = A@EA IA @A A JA ?=

vm =

n v1 t1 + v2 t2 + ... + vn tn 1 : = vi ti . t1 + t2 + ... + tn t i=1

 

,=? =?AIJA E JAHL= A @A JE F @ALE @E ?A ?A =E E?E LEJA A A A@EE FA A?=HA E JAHL= @A JE F ti IA =FH FEA @A L= HE A E IJ= J= AA E ?= KH =HA IK = @E HA = E= = JAHE =H @ALE A E JACH=
n 2

vm = lim

ti 0

i=1 n 2

vi ti ti

1 = t

t+t

vdt.
t

 

i=1

)L @ LA@AHA ?A A @ K @A   HA K J

E EE = A LEJA AE

A@EE @=JA @A   E

t+t

s = vm t =
t

v dt = aria(ABCD).

  

+= KH =HA IF= EK F=H?KHI @A >E JH K E JAHL= =HA?=HA @A JE F HAFHA E J @E FK ?J @A LA@AHA CA AJHE? =HE= @A IK> ?KH>= LEJA AE @A E E J=J @A @HAFJA A t = const. E t + t = const.
KH =HA LEJA = E IJ= J= AA F =JA I L=HEA A FHE I= J @ =H = JHA?AHA= L= A A ti E ti+1 i = 1...n
$ 2HE

JHA E JAH

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B D C

.ECKH=  " 2A @KH=J= A? HKE IK>E JAHL= ti LEJA = H


vi ,EIJ= = F=H?KHI

A FH=?JE? ? IK>E JAHL= K i AIJA s vi ti

IJ= J

IE@AH

A JK E E E= t = 0 IF= EK F=H?KHI @ALE A


t

s(t) = s0 +
0

v (t)dt,

 !

K @A s0 AIJA ? H@ =J= ?KH>E E EA E E E= = ? HFK KE JAH A E LA?J HE= E IA F =JA I?HEA FA JHK LA?J HK @A F E EA = t
t

A JK  "

r(t) = r0 +
0

v (t)dt,

K @A r0 HAFHA E J LA?J HK @A F E EA = A JK E E E= ,E A IEK A= E K EJ=JA= @A IKH = LEJA AE IK J HAIFA?JEL

[v ] = v

[s] = LT 1 ; [t] = 1m s1 .

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SI

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'

A (ABCD) B D C

.ECKH=  # 5F= EK J J= F=H?KHI @A

>E E JAHL= K @A JE F IFA?E ?=J HAFHA E J IK = =HEE H @HAFJK CDEKHE H A A A J=HA

!

)??A AH= E=

A@EA E =??A AH= E= E IJ= J= AA

2A JHK = ?=H=?JAHE = L=HE= E= JE F = LA?J HK KE LEJA IA @A A JA K HE A E? @A K EJ =??A AH= EA += E ?= K LEJA AE IA F =JA @A E =??A AH= EA A@EA E =??A AH= EA E IJ= J= AA )??A AH= E= A@EA AIJA @A EJ FHE HA = E= v am = .  % t HE A= =??A AH= EAE A@EE = K KE >E ?=HA IA @AF =IA= JHA @ K FK ?JA @A ANA F K 21 E 22 .EC  $ @AFE @A @A L=HE= E= AJ = LEJA AE E JAHL= K ? IE@AH=J 2A JHK FHA?E =HA= H=JAE @A L=HE= EA JE F = LEJA AE E IJ= J= AA IA E JH @K?A EK A= @A =??A AH= E= E IJ= J= AA @A EJ FHE HA = E=

a =

v dv = t0 t dt R d dr d2 r = = 2. dt dt dt lim

 &  '

)??A AH= E= AIJA K LA?J H ?=HA =HA HEA J=HA= KE v -= HAFHA E J @AHEL=J= @A H@E K J E = LEJA AE H=F HJ ?K JE FK FHE KH =HA @AHEL=J= @A H@E K @ E = LA?J HK KE @A F E EA r(t) H=F HJ ?K =?A = E F=H= AJHK



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.ECKH=  $ ,AJAH E =HA= L=HE= EAE LEJA AE v = v (t + dt) v (t)


JE F dt

E JAHL= K @A

)L @ LA@AHA @A E EE A =??A AH= EAE A@EE E = A =??A AH= EAE E IJ= J= AA  % E   IA F =JA ANFHE = =??A AH= E= A@EA E IK> B H =

ai ti v 1 i=1 am = = lim 2 = n t ti 0 t t
i=1 i

n 2

t+t

adt.
t

 

5A F =JA E JH @K?A ?= E ?= K LEJA AE E JAHFHAJ=HA CH= ? 2A JHK = @AJAH E = L=HE= E= @A LEJA = >E K KE ? @E EE A ?=HA =??A AH= E= K AIJA ? IJ= J F H E E JAHL= K @A JE F IK>E JAHL= A FA ?=HA =??A AH= E= E F IJHA= L= =HA= ? IJ= J )HE= A? HKE @HAFJK CDE ?K E A= a E E A= ti HAFHA E J ?DE=H L=HE= E= @A LEJA >E K KE =?AIJ E JAHL= @A JE F 5K @ =?K =HEE A JKJKH H @HAFJK CDEKHE H A A A J=HA IA > E A =HE= @A IK> ?KH>= LEJA AE = = C ?K IEJK= E= FHA A J=J .EC  #
t+t

v =
t

adt = aria(ABCD).
=HA IA

 

+= KH =HA L=HE= E= @A LEJA

E ?= E= =HEAE @A IK> ?KH>= a = a(t)

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B D C

.ECKH=  % 2A JHK = @AJAH E = L=HE= E= LEJA AE

E JAHL= K @A JE F t @ELE IK>E JAHL= A ti FA ?=HA =??A AH= E= AIJA FH=?JE? ? IJ= J ai 8=HE= E= LEJA AE IK>E JAHL= K i AIJA vi = ai ti =@E? =HE= K KE @HAFJK CDE

v
B D C

(ABCD)

.ECKH=  & 5K =HA= @KF J =JA @HAFJK CDEKHE A A A A J=HA @AJAH E


IK> ?KH>= =??A AH= EAE

=HE= @A

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E JAHL= K @A JE F EJ ? IE@AH=J + IE@AH @ A JK E E E= t = 0 = K A J = =HA?=HA HA = E= @A =E IKI IA F =JA I?HEA ?= K CA AH=


t

v (t) = v0 +
0

a(t)dt,



K @A v0 HAFHA E J LEJA = E E E= = ? HFK KE ?= K F=HJE?K =H ?A AH= E= AIJA ? IJ= J E=H E ?=HA= K E@E A IE = HA = E= 

?=HA =?  @ALE A  !  "

v (t) = v0 + at,
E=H  "

s(t) = s0 + v0 t + 1 at2 . 2

,E A IEK A= E K EJ=JA= @A

IKH FA JHK =??A AH= EA IK J HAIFA?JEL

[a] = a

[v ] = LT 2 ; [t] = 1m s2 .

 #  $

SI

"

H@

=JA ?=HJA EA A

IEIJA K @A ? H@ =JA ?=HJA EA A LA?J HK @A F E EA = K KE P AIJA @AI?HEI FHE ? H@ =JA A I= A x, y, z > E KJA FHE FH EA? E= KE P FA ?A A JHAE F = A HA?EFH ? FAHFA @E?K =HA

r = r(x, y, z ).
,A K EHA= @A ?
% 4A

 % ,AI?=HJAI%

H@

=JA ?=HJA EA A LE A @A = K A A KE 4A

,AI?=HJAI #'# $# =JA =JE?E= E?E= E I B BH= ?A ?K I?KJ E IK> K A A I K =JE E =J  +=HJAIEKI ,E JHA ? JE>K EE A I= A ?A =E E F HJ= JA @ A EK ?K = JAHEE F J = E JEJA E JH @K?AHA= IEIJA K KE @A ? H@ =JA ?=HJA EA A E = CA AJHEAE = = EJE?A += I B = =H?=J HKFAHA= @A I? =IJE?E E JH @K? @ FHE ?EFEE A ?K = JAHEE H= E = A @ K @E ?A A =E E F HJ= JA ? H E = A I= A ,EI?KHI =IKFH= AJ @AE $!% E A@EJ= EE $" = ?AH?=J I ANJE @ AJ @A A ?K = JAHEE =JA =JE?A J =JA @ A EE A ?K = JAHEE -IJA =KJ HK ?A A>HAE =IAH EK E + CEJ AHC IK +KCAJ @A?E ANEIJ I?KHJ >E CH= A = KE 4 ,AI?=HJAI F =JA C IEJ = =@HAI= @A MA> DJJF MMM C=F @?I IJ = @ =? K DEIJ HO =JDA =JE?E= I ,AI?=HJAI DJ

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.ECKH=  ' 5EIJA K @A ? H@ =JA ?=HJA E= (Oxyz ) E LAHI HEE ( x, y , z )


.EC  ' FK ?JK P IA C IA JA = E JAHIA? E= = JHAE F = A E =CE =HA HA?EFH ? FAHFA @E?K =HA x = x1 , y = y1 , z = z1 .EA?=HA @E JHA =?AIJA= IK J F=H= A A ?K F = A A JHEA@HK KE @HAFJ Oxyz 8 =JHE>KE =F E A? HAE= @E =NA A JHEA@HK KE Oxyz ? JA K LA?J H K EJ=JA HEA J=J IA IK ?HA JAHEE KE x y E HAIFA?JEL z )?A JE LA?J HE K EJ=JA FA ?=HA E E L J= ?K ( x, y , z )& IA K AI? LAHI HE .EC  ' ,A =HA?A HE?A LA?J H F =JA ANFHE =J ?= ? >E = EA E E=H @A =?A JE JHAE LAHI HE AE B H A= >= = IEIJA K KE *= = IEIJA K KE HAIFA?J HACK = >KHCDEK KE @HAFJ =@E? x y =z .  & ,A ANA F K LA?J HK @A F E EA IA F =JA ANFHE = FHE HA = E=

r = xx + yy + zz .
8
&7

 '

C IE ANFHAIEE A LEJA AE E =??A AH= EAE F H E @ @A = ANFHAIE= K AE


A HE AE IA JA=

I=K e ?K i, j Ek x , e y E e z

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.ECKH=   ,AI?

FK AHA= LA?J HK KE @AF =I=HA r = r2 r1 @KF ?A A JHAE @EHA? EE E @AFA @A JA

@AF =I HE A A A J=HA r

r = r2 r1 = (x2 x1 ) x + ( y2 y1 ) y + (z2 z1 ) z = x x + y y + z z .  ! )?A=IJ ANFHAIEA IA F =JA C IE FA ?= A CA AJHE? ? IE@AH @ ? HE?A @AF =I=HA HA= HAFHA E J IK = = JHAE @AF =I HE IK??AIELA E @AFA @A JA @A?KHIK ? H H= IA @E ? @ =H K = @E ? H@ =JA + B H .EC   IA >IAHL ? r = rx + ry + rz ,  !
K @A rx , ry , rz HAFHA E J @AF =I HE LEHJK= A ABA?JK=JA FA @EHA? EE A x, y, E z 6HA? @ = E EJ= JE FE H @A >IAHL= EA B =HJA E?E t 0, ANFHAIE= @ALE A dr = dx x + dy y + dz z .  !  . ? @ H=F HJK @E JHA A A A JK @A @AF =I=HA E EJA E = JE F ? HAIFK J H =?AIJAE= IA > E A ANFHAIE= LEJA AE E E JAHL= K @A  !!

v=

dx dy dz dr = x + y + z =x x +y y +z z = vx x + vy y + vz z . dt dt dt dt

#

4,

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#

HE A= LA?J HK KE LEJA

v=
@ IE E =H IA F ?A@A=

2 + v2 + v2. vx y z

 !"

FA JHK =??A AH= EA  !#  !$

a =

dv dvx dvy dvz = x + y + z =v xx +v yy +v zz dt dt dt dt = x x +y y +z z = ax x + ay y + az z .


G

HE A= LA?J HK KE =??A AH= EA AIJA

a=

2 2 a2 x + ay + az .

 !%

7 L K A A A J=H dV ? H@ =JA ?=HJA EA A F =JA I?HEI ?= K FH @KI @A JHAE @AF =I HE E EJA E = A HA?EFH ? FAHFA @E?K =HA .EC  

V = dx dy dz,
E=H K A A A J @A IKFH=B= ? H@ =JA ?=HJA EA A L= =LA= ANFHAIE=

 !&

dAz = dx dy ; dAx = dy dz ; dAy = dz dx.

 !'

. IEHA= ? H@ =JA H ?=HJA EA A AIJA FHABAH=J @E JELA @A IE F EJ=JA =JA =JE? )?A=IJ= IA @=J HA= E B=FJK KE ? E @ AHAK HEA J= E @A = K CK =NA H JHEA@HK KE @HAFJ LAHI HEE x , y Ez H ? IJ= E HEA J=HA E ?= KH =HA @AHEL=JA A H H=F HJ ?K JE FK IK J K A BK ? EA @A IE AJHE= E ? HEE E @A @=JA A ? ?HAJA = A FH > A AE @A IJK@E=J FKJA HA?KHCA E = = JA JEFKHE @A IEIJA A @A ? H@ =JA ,E JHA =?AIJA= ?A A ?A KH A= A L HABAHE = ? H@ =JA A AC=JA @A >E K E ?=HA

#

H@

=JA F =HA F = A

8=HE=>E A A ?=HA @AI?HEK F E E= >E K KE IEIJA K @A ? H@ =JA F =HA F = A IK J @EIJ= = F = HECE A J=J E K CDEK IKH=J H=F HJ ?K =N @A HABAHE =H>EJH=H = A=I  ?= K IJHK Ox .EC   AC JKH= @E JHA ? H@ =JA A F =HA F = A E ?A A ?=HJA EA A IA ANFHE IK> B H =

x = cos ; y = sin .

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.ECKH=   5EIJA K @A ? H@ =JA F =HA F = A


8AHI HEE IEIJA K KE @A ? H@ =JA F =HA F = A IK J e E e 5 ? IE@AH ?A A ?A KH A= @AF =I=HA E EJA E = = >E K KE @E FK ?JK P1 E FK ?JK P2 .EC    8A?J HK @AF =I=HA ? HAIFK J H E JAHL= K KE @A JE F dt AIJA J=J ?K dr = OP2 OP1 . )?A=IJ @AF =I=HA E EJA E = HA= dr F =JA ? IE@AH=J ?= HA K J= J= K AE IK??AIEK E @A @AF =I HE LEHJK= A @KF @ K @EHA? EE FAHFA @E?K =HA dr E dr @A?KHIK ? H H= L=HE= FA H @ @ =H K = @E JHA ? H@ =JA += KH =HA LA?J HK @AF =I=HA E EJA E = F =JA I?HEI IK> B H =

dr = dr + dr ,
?=HA

 " @AF =I=HA E EJA E = EJA E = @A @A =

dr  ? IJ= J L=HE=>E  HAFHA E J K CDE d FA K =H? @A ?AH? @A H=

dr  ? IJ= J L=HE=>E  HAFHA E J @AF =I=HA E K CK KE (t + t) JH= I = EA @A K CE A d


+= KH =HA 2HE E @?

J @A LAHI HEE @EHA? EE H @A @AF =I=HA IA > E A

dr = de + de .
F H EHA= = E JAHL= K @A JE F E EJA E = dt IA > E A

 " 

d d dr = e + e = e + e = v e + v e . dt dt dt 5 =K > E KJ @ K ? F A JA = A LEJA AE v=

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#

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%

.ECKH=  

JHEK CDEK KE ?=

8A?J HK KE @AF =I=HA E EJA E = dr IA > E A =F E? @ HACK = IK @A @AF =I HE E EJA E = A ?=HA L=HE= =E J E =F E .

? F A J = E KJ= E EA @ =H ?= HEA J=HA ? F A J H=@E= @ =H ?= HE A

v @AJAH E =J @A L=HE= E= LA?J HK KE @A F v @AJAH E =J @A L=HE= E= LA?J HK KE @A F E EA

v = , v = .
7 A A A J @A IKFH=B=  IKFH=B= F =HA F = A .EC  ! ANFHAIE= E EJA E =  =HA ?

 ""  "# H@ =JA

dA = d d.

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#

8EJA = K CDEK =H

8=HE= E= K EJ=JA= @A JE F = K CDEK KE @AI?HEI @A LA?J HK @A F E EA HAFHA E J K HE A E? K EJ LEJA K CDEK =H 8EJA = K CDEK =H E IJ= J= AA AIJA E EJ= =?AIJKE H=F HJ =JK ?E ? @ E JAHL= K @A JE F JE @A ? JHA AH d =  "% = lim t0 t dt

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.ECKH=  ! 7 A A A J @A IKFH=B=

H@

=JA F =HA F = A

5A F =JA @A E LEJA = K CDEK =H ?= IF= EK K CDEK =H FHAI?KHJ=J  K CDEK  F=H?KHI @A >E E K EJ=JA= @A JE F 8EJA = K CDEK =H AIJA =I ?E=J J J@A=K = E ? HEE @A H J= EA ,EHA? E= LA?J HK KE LEJA K CDEK =H AIJA FAHFA @E?K =H FA F = K @A H J= EA = >E K KE E=H IA IK AIJA @=J @A HACK = >KHCDEK KE @HAFJ I=K = E EE @HAFJA .EC  " ,=? = A @ACAJA A FHAK =JA IA IK @A H J= EA =JK ?E @ACAJK =HA HEA J=J @A = K CK =NAE @A H J= EA E @E? IA IK LEJA AE K CDEK =HA 8EJA = J= CA E= JH E ?=HA= ?EH?K =H AIJA AC=J @A LEJA = K CDEK =H FHE HA = E=

v = r.
,=? FH EA?J =JK ?E LA?J HK FA =NA A K KE IEIJA @A HABAHE

 "& ?=HJA E=  "'

= x x + y y + z z ,

K @A x , y , z IK J ? F A JA A ? HAIFK J =HA FA =NA A Ox, Oy E Oz . IE @ ANFHE =HA= IK> B H = K KE @AJAH E = J = FH @KIK KE LA?J HE= A?K= E=  "& IA F =JA I?HEA IK> B H =

v =

x y z x y z x y z = (y z z y ) x + (z x x z ) y + ( x y y x) z .

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.ECKH=  " 4AFHA A J=HA= LA?J HK KE LEJA


,A =HA?A LA?J HK @A F E EA F =JA I?HEI ?=

K CDEK =H

=JHE?A ?K

IE CKH

E EA  # 

r=

x y z

,
LA?J HK v F =JA
U

? B H HACK E H @A K EHA =JHE?A= HA K J=JK K EHEE = @ K =JHE?A


U

ANFHE =J ?=

v=

0 z y z 0 x y x 0

x y z

= r.

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+= KH =HA LEJA = K CDEK =H ? IJEJKEA K JA I H E A= FHE JH =JHE?A ?K JHAE E EE E JHAE ? = A


U

)?AIJ= IA ?=H=?JAH

0 z y z 0 x y x 0

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5FHA @A IA>EHA @A LEJA E =??A AH= EA ?=HA IK J LA?J HE F =HE =K FK ?JK @A =F E?= EA FK ?JK =JAHE=  LEJA = K CDEK =H AIJA K LA?J H =NE= 7 LA?J H =NE= K =HA FK ?JK @A =F E?= EA N=J JH K FK ?J ?E F =JA = K A?= E>AH @A = K CK K AE =NA FAHFA @E?K =H= FA JH=EA?J HEA 8A?J HEE =NE= E IFHA @A IA>EHA @A ?AE F =HE K E I?DE > IA IK = FAH= E= @A C E @EHA =JK ?E ? @ x x y y z z  ?= K H HACK = >KHCDEK KE @HAFJ y @ALE A HACK = >KHCDEK KE IJ C =@E? x = z LA E .EC  #

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O x

y
z

r ww

.ECKH=  # 1 KIJH=HA= FAH= EAE @A C E @EHA

$

)F E?= EE
=JAHE= AIJA @=J @A ACA= @A E ?=HA

 8A?J HK @A F E EA = K KE FK ?J

r = 5(cos 3t) x + 4(sin 3t) y


K @A r AIJA IKH=J AJHE E=H JE FK t IA?K @A ,AJAH E = E ?AFAHA=

= LEJA = E =??A AH= E= F=HJE?K AE = E ? HEE > JH=EA?J HE= FA ?=HA IA E ? FK ?JK

A JK t = 10s @A = =JAHE=

4A
=

L=HA
ACA= LEJA AE FK ?JK KE =JAHE= IA @AJAH E @E HA = E= @A @A E EA

v =

dr d = (5 cos 3tx + 4 sin 3ty ) dt dt = 15 (sin 3t) x + 12(cos 3t) y


AIJA

HE A= LA?J HK KE LEJA

|v | =

(15 sin 3t)2 + (12 cos 3t)2

= 3 (9 cos2 3t + 25)
= A JK t = 10s LEJA = AIJA:

v (1) = 3 (9 cos2 30 + 25) = 14. 936m/s

r w

$

)2 1+)_11 2A JHK =??A AH= EA IA FH ?A@A= @ IE E =H

a =

dv d = (15 sin 3tx + 12 cos 3ty ) dt dt = 45 (cos 3t) x 36 (sin 3t) y

HE A= LA?J HK KE =??A AH= EA AIJA

|a| =

(45 cos 3t)2 + (36 sin 3t)2

= 9 (9 cos2 3t + 16)
= A JK t = 10s =??A AH= E= AIJA:

a(1) = 9 (9 cos2 30 + 25) = 45. 192m/s


> -?K= E= JH=EA?J HEAE @A C IA JA FHE A E E =HA= JE FK KE @E A?K= EE A ?E A =JE?A = A E ? HEE

x = 5 cos 3t y = 4 sin 3t
. IE @ HA = E= BK @= A J= @E JHEC AJHEA

sin2 3t + cos2 3t = 1
IA > E A

y 2 x2 + =1 4 25

)?A=IJ= HAFHA E J A?K= E= K AE A EFIA ?K IA E=NA A @A 4 E HAIFA?JEL 5m. 7 FK ?J =JAHE= IA @AF =IA= @A A?K= EE A F=H= AJHE?A ?K LEJA = ? IJ= J v FA A E?A @A EJ

x = 5 cos 2t y = 5 sin 2t z = vt

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K @A @EIJ= A A x, y, z  IK J IKH=JA AJHE E=H JE FK t ,AJAH E = E =??A AH= E= F=HJE?K AE BK ? EA @A JE F

4A
+

L=HA
B H @A E EAEA =??A AH= E= AIJA

a=x x +y y +z z
K @A

x =

dx d = (10 sin 2t) = 20 cos 2t dt dt dy d y = = (10 cos 2t) = 20 sin 2t dt dt dz d z = = (v ) = 0 dt dt

8A?J HK =??A AH= EA AIJA

a = 20 cos 2tx 20 sin 2ty


E=H HE A= =??A AH= EAE @AFE @A @A JE F @KF ACA=

|a| =

(20 cos 2t)2 + (20 sin 2t)2 = 20m/s2


=JAHE= L=HE= JE F @KF ACA=

! 5A JEA ? LEJA = K KE FK ?J

v (t) = 1.5t2 x + 1.8ty + t3 z (m/s)


K @A t AIJA IKH=J IA?K @A ,AJAH E = E =JAHE= JHA A JA A @A JE F t1 = 1s E

= @AF =I=HA= FK ?JK KE t2 = 3s;

> HE A= E HEA J=HA= =??A AH= EAE ? IE K EE @EHA?J HE =E K CDEKHE H , , @E JHA LA?J HK =??A AH= EA E =NA A @A ? H@ =JA = A JK @A JE F t2 = 3s.

4A

L=HA
E JAHL= K @A JE F ? IE@AH=J

= 8=HE= E= LA?J HK KE @A F E EA

t = t2 t1

$

)2 1+)_11 AIJA

r = r(t2 ) r(t1 ) = r2 r1
,E @A E E= LEJA AE IA >IAHL ?

dr = vdt
r1 t1

dr =
r2 t2 3

vdt (1.5t2 x + 1.8ty + t3 z )dt


1

r2 r1 =

= 13.0 x + 7. 2 y + 20.0 z
HE A= =?AIJAE @AF =I HE AIJA |r| = 13.02 + 7. 22 + 20.02 = 24. 917m > 8A?J HK =??A AH= EA AIJA

a =

d dv = (1.5t2 x + 1.8ty + t3 z = dt dt = 3.0tx + 1. 8 y + 3t2 z


G

E=H

HE A=

a(t = 2) = (3.0 2)2 + (1. 8)2 + (3.0 4)2 = 13. 537m/s2 cos = ax 3.0 2 = = 0. 4432 a 13. 537 ay 1.8 cos = = = 0. 1329 a 13. 537 az 3.0 4 cos = = = 0. 8864 a 13. 537

-LE@A J ? JHA>KEA I IA LAHE ?A HA = E=

cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1 0. 44322 + 0. 13292 + 0. 88642 = 0. 9998