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Meet the author v vi Onlygot a minute? vill Onlygot five minutes? Introdudion xii 1 Is mise... My nameis ... greetings Usesome simple yourself Introduce qddress your number Give ondtelephone Bepolite Is miinteoir m6 / om a teacher 15 Stoteyournotionolity ond occupotion Check somebody notionqlity else's or occupotion Soywhereyou work An bhfuif t0 p6sto?Areyou married? 30 Tolkoboutyourfomily Askoboutsomeone else's fomily Seo... Thisis ... 4A Introduce otherpeople Offerond qccepto drink Exploin to otherswhereyou liveond work Seodo sheomrqThisisyour room 60 Welcome somebody to o house Tolkoboutthe differentrooms ond their locotion T6 s6 go bre6inniu lt is fine today 78 Tqlkqboutthe weother C6nt-om 6? What time is it? 97 Tolkoboutthe octivities whichmokeup yourdoilyroutine Stqtethe timesot whichyou do them C6 leis seo?Who doesthisbelongto? 115 possessions Tolkoboutyourpersonol (clothes, books, records, etc.) people Describe other Express likes ond dislikes

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135 C6ncqitheqmhqimsirec bhionnogot? do Youhave? What pastime octivities Tqlkqboutleisure 150 1 0 Ar mhoith leot cupdn toe? Wouldyou likea cup of tea? Offerqnd occepthospitolitY 16q 11 C6orda chosnoionns6 seo?What doesthis cost? howto including for shopping, longuoge Thebosic prices ond to mqkecomporisons express 178 WhatdidYoudo? tt? 12 C6ordo rinne Tolkobout Postevents TolkoboutyourworkexPerience 190 you for awhile 13 Ni fhocc m6 thfi le tomoll I haven'tseen furtheron Postevents Comment verbsin the posttense Formirregulor 14 T6 m6 og foghloim Goeilgele dh6 bhlioincnuos 203 I havebeenlearninglrish for the pasttwo years Irish in leorning Tolkoboutyourprogress whenyou orestuckfor o word,or whenpeople Cope tolk too quicklY 216 m6I wosbornin Cork i gCorcoigh Rugodh 15 histories people's life post including events, Describe 233 goinghalf a mile 16 Leonort leothmhileKeep qnd directions understond Ask ond distqnce IndicoteProximitY 251 qn 17 Tiro oifig thuos stoighre Hisoffice is upstairs qrrqngements trovel ond Tqlkoboutoppointments withino building oboutlocotion Enquire 256 m6lect og o hochtI'llmeetyouateight 18 Buoiffidh Tolkoboutfutureevents Mokeplonsond oPPointments intentions Express 19 Cecpoimgo bhfuil on boncd0nto I thinkthe bankis closed 286 whot Youhoveheord Report oPinions Express probobilitY Express 302 20 C6orda dhonf6?What wouldYoudo? Mokerequests OfferhosPitolitY

Persuode Giveodvice possible to thingswhichore likely, or proboble Refer 21 Bhiodhm6rdn le d6onomhogom I usedto havea lot to do regulorly Totolk oboutevents thot hoppened in the post it further Taking Keyto the exercises Appendices of gramm atical terms GIossary vocabulary I rish-English English-Irishvocabulary Grammar index


327 329 345 361

36tl 375 385

Me'et the outhor

Diormuid O 56
I am a lecturerin Irish at University College,Dublin. I haveworked as a secondary teacherand language laboratory instructor and was for many yearsa researcher at the LinguisticsInstitute of Ireland in Dublin. I havepublished on variousaspects of Irish grammarand phonetics.




sqa minute?

(ogedthreeyeorsond h1.9% of the totol populotion qs competent themselves Irishspeokers. over)regord Of these32.5% cloimto speokIrishon o doily bqsis. of Irish is now restricted to q hqndfulof Monolinguqlism qnd omongthose within moreisoloted regions elderly

you ondculture Irishhistory erstond

identityond isthe key in Irishnotionql significont hugely of chqrqcteristics distinguishing to the mostimportqnt Irishculture. Irishis the to the IrishConstitution, According of of the Republic notionolqnd first officiqllonguoge Unio of the Europeon Irelond.It is on officiqllonguoge minoritylonguoge ond olsoqn officiqllyrecognized referred is usuolly The longuoge Irelond. in Northern There in Irishond os 'Irish'in English. to qs 'Goeilge' whichroughly Irish, in modern orethreemoindiolects qnd Connqcht of Munster, with the provinces coincide Ulster. of Irish ronge of nqtivespeokers Estimqtes WhileIrishis the from 40,000to 80,000people. of only3 % of the populotion, longuoge moinspoken

of Irishunderschool oge.In Northern Irelqnd speokers 10.4%hqve'someknowledge of Irish'.Combined, this meonsthot ot leostone in threepeopleon the islqndof Irelondcon understond Irishto someextent. Currently o renoissqnce is tokingplocein the Irishlonguoge. yeorshqveseeno significont Recent increose in printedmedioin Irish- books, newspqpers, mogozines mediq.Irishis now eosily - ond in non-print occessible throughvorious rodiostotions, the television qnd on the internet. chonnelTG4 It is becoming increosingly eosyto leqrnto speokIrish! Mdire Mhic Ruoiriond


north of the Alps to have an extensive

t and medievalliterature.It is, therefore,studied throughout Europe and somein at many maior universities North America and Australia. Ireland also has the world's largest collection of folklore and proverbs' the vast malority of which is in the Irish language. The earliestidentifiedform of Irish is known as Primitive lrish. This is primarily known through fragmentsinscribedin the ogham alphabet,which have beenfound throughout Ireland and the *.rt .o"tt of Great Britain. Thesefragmentsare mainly personal on stone.PrimitiveIrish evolvedinto Old lrish inscribed names during the 5th century.This is the earliestform of Irish for which in Old Irish first appeared written sources. there are extensive and marginaliain Latin manuscripts its written form as glosses of Ireland such as Clonard, written in the great monasteries By the roth centuryOld and Glendalough. Durrow, Clonmacnoise was spokenthroughout which Irish, into Middle had evolved Irish a slight Irish displays Middle Man. Isle of the and Ireland,Scotland attacks to Viking due is undoubtedly which Norse, influencefrom From the rzth century areas. in these settlement and subsequent modern Irish in lreland, inro evolve onwards Middle Irish beganto in Manx language the into into ScottishGaelicin Scotland,and language literary the from the Isle of Man. Modern Irish emerged Gaelic known as Early Modern Irish in Irelandand as Classical lrish, Early Modern lrish, alsoknown as Classical in Scotland. a transition betweenMiddle and Modern linguisticallyrepresents Irish. in The rTth centurysawgreatpoliticaland religiousupheaval Ireland and the resultingbreakdownof the native Gaelicsystem remained the Irish language this upheaval and culture.Despite

the main spoken language of the vast majority of the population of Ireland until the rgth century. During the nineteenth century, the Great Famine (r8+S-+g) wiped out a disproportionately high number of lrish language speakers,who were the poorest and most vulnerable in society. It is estimated that one million people died during the famine and that another million emigrated as a result; the majority of these were Irish speakers,and this contributed greatly to the rapid decline of the language.The use of Irish was also prohibited in the primary education system until r87r, which further contributed to its decline. Initial efforts to preserveand protect the Irish languagewere made by Irish Protestantssuch as'lfilliam Neilson and Robert McAdam in Belfast at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The major movement, however, was initiated in 1893 with the founding of The Gaelic Leagwe (Conradh na Gaeilge)which coincided with the national cultural revival of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. This growing interest in the Irish language coincided with other landmark events in Irish cultural history such as the founding of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) in r884.

The Goeltocht
The parts of Ireland where Irish is still spoken as a native language are collectively known as 'the Gaeltacht'. It is in these areas that the Irish language continues to be the usual language of communication of the general population. The Gaeltacht regions are on the west coast of County Donegal, in County Galway, in particular Connemara, the Aran Islands, Carraroe and Spiddal, and

the Dingle Peninsula in County Kerry. There are smallg Gdracftt areas in CountyMayo, County Waterford,County"!&iathandss$F-e*-

countYcor k' ,- - ,- -areas ----L - ,.,M t Almost all of theseGaeltacht have Irish Xfffrtguage summer
colleges which are attended by thousands of le*q1ners, teenage.s irt



.J- "J

,*".-" * *.***%




. Thesestudentslive with local lrish-speaking

classes and other cultural events.One

m educqtion Irish-mediu
The growth of Irish-medium education in recent years, particularly in Northern Ireland, has made a very significant and positive impact on the number of Irish speakersand so has helped ensure the continuity of the language. This movement has led to an unprecedented growth in the Irish language in the north through a whole range of community initiatives, in primary, secondary and rcrtiary education, legislation, media and other areas.

inspiredand ish, tg

is that Irish must rt#ffitaspects of thesecourses have undoubtedly Thesesummercolleges iut&b. is many Irish people,whosefirst language
uency in Irish and to appreciate the importance the language in a predominantly English-speaking

There are three main dialects in modern Irish, which roughly coincide with the provinces of Munster, Connacht and Ulster. The Munster dialect is spoken primarily in the Gaeltacht areas of County Kerry, Ring in County'$(aterford and Muskerry and Cape Clear Island in County Cork. A strong Connacht dialect can be heard in Connemara and the Aran Islands. The dialect spoken in northern Mayo in Erris and Achill is fundamentally a Connacht dialect but has some similarities to Ulster Irish. The Connemara dialect is also spoken in the Gaeltacht area of R6th Cairn in County Meath. This is becausethe Gaeltacht here was established in the r93os by a group of mostly Connemara Irish speakerswho moved there as a result of a land reform campaign. The Ulster dialect is spoken in County Donegal, in Teelin and Glencolmcille in south Donegal, in Fintown and its surrounding area in central Donegal and in the Rosses,Gweedore, Clochaneely and Downings in northwest Donegal. Ulster Irish is also spoken by many people in Northern Ireland who have acquired Irish as a second language but who use it as their main spoken language. This is due, in the most part, to attendanceat the Irish language summer collegesin Donegal and the use of Ulster Irish in Irishmedium education in Northern Ireland.

in the medio Irishlonguoge

As in Irish-medium education there has been significant growth in the use of Irish in the media in all of its forms in recent years. This was an essential development, not only for those speakers of Irish who already exist, but for those who are learning the language. Irish language speakers now have their own television station TG4 ftSS6l which has almost Soo,ooo people tuning in each day. TG4 has a wide range of programmes which cater for all agesand tastes. BBCz Northern Ireland also produces a limited number of Irish languageprogrammes. Irish public broadcaster RTE broadcastssome Irish language and bilingual television programmes. One of the more significant is RTE Nuacht (news). RTE News Now is also particularly useful as it is a z4-hour live news service available on the RTE website which features national and international news. It usesa mix of

Irish language, Englishlanguage and Irish signlanguagg*W6 rs ' - { - ' ;,, TV newsbulletinsand politicalprogrammes. _-.$*


basic,everyday The aim of this book is to teachyou to understand Irish. It is suitableboth for the completebeginnerand for Irish peoplewho havelearnedsomeIrish at school,but who havehad it. little opportunity of speaking This is a functionalcourse,basedon the kinds of situationsin unit. which Irish is used,eachof which is dealtwith in a separate you learn somesimplegreetings, and how In Unit r, for example, personalinformation suchasname,address to give and understand number.In Unit z, you will learn to saywhat you and telephone do for a living, and, in Unit ,, to talk about your family. Until you will be on very immediateand daily reachUnit rz the emphasis Unit 6 the weather,and situations:so Unit 4 dealswith socializing, Unit ro shopping.From Unit rz on you moveto lessimmediate in more detail, things,suchastalking about past and future events and making suggestions. much of what you would expect The first half of the book includes phrasebook, Irish for you to get by in find in a and enough to put off at this stageby hearingor simplesituations.Do not be An Irish proverb which you cannotunderstand. seeing something (Euery beginningis weak). saysBionn gachtosi lag The second half of the book will prepareyou to be more you can make more useof the adventurous, and at this stage Appendices at the back of the book. of two things:words and Remember that a language consists ways of combiningwords, You cannottalk about thingsunless you know the words for them. In this book we giveyou basic you will find it vocabularyin eachunit, but from an early stage you can locatethe helpful to havea short dictionaryin which you publishers want to use.Someinternational of words which

haverecentlyproducedpocket dictionaries of Irish, dictionaries will be of greatassistance in the early stages of and any of these If you are in a position to obtain or order it, learningthe language. the bilingual An Focl6ir Scoile(ISBN t8579t-rzt-ol we suggest (which means'The schooldictionary'),or the shorterAn Focl6ir P6ca(ISBN r-8579t-o47-8) (whichmeans'Tbe pocketdictionary'), publishedby An Grim, the publicationsbranchof the Department pronunciations of Educationin Dublin. Thesegive recommended particularlyOxford and for all words. Somemajor publishers, which Collins,haverecentlyproducedbilingualpocket dictionaries lots modern very useful and contain of terminology. As for are combiningwords, we havelimited this courseto the simplestand may want to most straightforwardways of sayingthings.Learhers courses oncethey hayesatisfactorily move on to more advanced this. !7e hopeyou will find that learningIrish from this completed and rewarding experience. book js an interesting

Howto usethis book

Each unit has: one or more dialogues; a vocabulary for each dialogue; questions about the dialogues; some cultural information in the early units; usually also a section dealing with important areas of vocabulary, such as numbers, names of days and months, etc.; a grammar section; exercisesand a 'Test yourself' section, in which you should get the most before progressing to the next unit. First study the dialogues with which each unit begins. If you have the recording, which we strongly recommend, Iisten and look at the book at the same time. Remember that the context is an important guide to the meaning, and as these dialogues are meant to be as realistic as possible you will be able to guessa certain amount o{ what is going on. Phrase-by-phrasetranslations are given beneath the dialogues, but these get shorter as the course progresses.At first you will be dependent on them, but you should find that many things which you already know reappear and you will have lessneed of translation. Satisfy yourself that you know what each




sentence means, and how it meanswhat it means. The grammar sections will givethe necessary explanations. Most important of all, read eachdialogueout loud until you feel familiar with it. You may be in a position to usesomeof thesephrases beforelong, so the more naturally they fall from your lips the better.Most dialogues are followed by a coupleof simplequestions which will help to confum that you havegrasped what is going on. Resist any temptationto bypass at the end of each the practiceexercises unit. They havebeenput togethercarefullyso that you will get the maximum benefirfrom the courte.

from extinction However, the new statesetout to rescuethe language policies have maintained the Irish-speaking districts. and favourable people as daily language in these areas, jo,ooo use Irish a Up to In the rgzos Irish wasintroduced known asthe Gaeltacht. collectively and all primaryand secondary asa compulsory subject, in schools althoughnot necessarily to studythe language, pupilsare still required required to show any deepknowledgeof it. As a result a substantial number of peopleoutsidethe Gaeltacht(perhapsroo,ooo) havea good knowledgeof Irish. Thesesupport a network of Irish-mediumschools which are highly regardedand do much to sustainthe language. Irish hasan important Despitethe small number of fluent speakers, symbolicrole in the life of the nation. The Constitution, adoptedby in 1937,declares Irishto be both the nationaland the referendum institutions and officersof the State official language. Various first titles in both official and daily usage. are known by IrishJanguage The lower houseof parliament is calledDinlFiureann(lit. Assembly of lrelandl or simplythe Driil, and the upper houseis calledSeanad Ereann \Setwteof lreland), The term for a parliamentarydeputy is TeachtaDdla lDelegateof tbe Ddil), wvlly abbreviatedto TD. The prirne ministeris calledTaoiseach(an old word for chieftainor badcr) and the deputyprime minister is calledT6naiste (which originally meantszccessor). The police force is An Garda Siochina (lit. rlze guard of the peacel,commonly known asthe Gardai or the Guards. The governmentministry responsible for cultural mattershas a section concerned with promoting the languageboth in the Gaeltachtand throughout the country. There is a partly electedand partly appointed Gaeltachtauthority (Udaris na Gaeltachta),a stateagencyestablished to promote the language - Bord na GaeilgelThe Irisb Language Boardl - and. areas- Raidi6 na a radio servicefor Irish-speaking Gaeltachta - which can be picked up throughout the country. Some Irishlanguage programmes are broadcast on nationalradio and television.An lrishJanguagetelevisionservicebeganbroadcasting in 1996.After a recent it is now known asTG4. There namechange are also departments of Irish in the main universitiesand colleges of education.ln 1999, aspart of the British-lrish agreement, Forasna Gaeilgewas established with responsibilityfor the promotion of the Irish language on the island of Ireland.

History ond bockground

Irish belongs to the Celtic family of languages, which hastwo branches. The Gaelicbranchconsists of Irish, ScottishGaelicand Manx, which are rather similar to one another.Welsh,Breton and Cornishmake up the other branchof the Celtic languages, but they differ too much from the Gaelicgroup for mutual understanding. Irish is calledGaeilge(r.e.Gaelicl by its speakers, but the English word Gaelic,unqualified,normally refersonly to its sisterlanguage in Scotland. Until the twelfth centurythe socialposition of Irish was not seriously challenged, and eventhe Vikings who settledrn years Ireland about a thousand ago tendedto learnIrish. However, the arrival of the Anglo-Normansin rt69 markedthe beginning during which the country gradually o{ a period of four centuries became subjectto the Englishcrown. to giveway to English. From the late seventeenth centuryIrish began potato famineof r845-9 caused The disastrous the deaths of a million peopleand the emigration of a further million. Most of these wereIrish speakers, and a nearfatal blow was suffered by a language which was alreadyin decline. By the time an independent Irish state was established in r92z the process of anglicization wasalmost to enclaves complete, and the language wasconfined on the western and southern coasts. Irish speakers then numbered sometensof in a populationof nearlythreemillion. thousands



Irish is, however,largelyabsentfrom suchimportant domainsas It survives as the transportand popular entertainment. commerce, of the of a subcultureand asthe symboliclanguage daily language system, that state,which seeks to ensure, through the educational knowledgeof lrish. all citizenshaveat leastsomepassive

of written Irish are explainedin the Thesetwo features (seeizg). section. next

guide Pronunciotion
<t CD1,TR 1, 1:00

The kindof Irish usedin this book

was adoptedin the A new written standardform of the language directionand that is what you are late r94os under government Oifigifril lthe Official taught here.It is known asAn Caighde6n betweendialectsand is largelya compromise spoken accepted thereforenot at all archaic.Thereis no generally proposals but a set of compromise standardform of the language, issuedby the LinguisticsInstituteof Ireland in 1986 hasgained It is adoptedhere.We in dictionaries. somecurrency,especially form havethereforesoughtto teachyou the most standardized and to avoid regionalbias. of the language The pronunciation of Irish is often not immediately obvious from the Thereare two reasons for this. Irish hasmoresoundsthan spelling. the Roman alphabetcan represent,so that letters of the alphabet haveto be combinedin variouswaysto makeup the shonfall.In addition,the spellingrules,althoughreformedin the r94os,are in someways more faithful to the way Irish was pronounced several centuriesago than to the present-daysound of the language.The spelling of Irish is therefore a codewhich has to be learnedbefore you can plonouncethe examples in this book in sucha way asto be you However,once havelearned the rulesyou will find understood. that they are fairly regular. For instancethere is no equivalentof the varying sound of English'ough' in bough, thougb, through, augb, rough. -{ot are strongly recommended to acquire the recording if you do not haveaccess which accompanies this book, especially to an Irish speaker you. who will assist The relation between spellingand soundis dealtwith hereas a series of topics. (A) LONGVOWELS {, CD1,TR 1, 1:15 Theseare 'pure' vowel soundsas in Germanor Italian, and 6 and 6 do not end with y or w glidesas do the corespondingsoundsin most kinds of English. i pron. like eein meet;si lsbel soundslike EnglishsDe 6 pron. like FrenchI or Gerrnaneb rather than Englishay, e.g.m6.(1,mel
lntroductlon XVII

The olphobet
Only r8 lettersof the alphabetare normally usedin writing kish. Theseare a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, l, m, n, o' p' r' s, t, u. The letter v is usedin someloan-words(e.g.v6ta, from Englishzote),but j' q, w, r' I' terms,The consonants x and z are restricted to somescientific n are written doublein somewords; cornparefeat \man) and fearr (betterl, ge^ (bright) with geall(promise)(uerb),gan kritbout) Llorrg vowel is indicatedby a lengthmark with gann (scarce). placed over it: solasmeanslight and s6lis meansconsolation. Two features of Irish spellingwill immediatelystrike the learner. so of h after a wide rangeof consonants, One is the occurrence you will are familiar in English, ch, th and sh, which that alongside is the large number of Another such feature seebh, mh, dh, etc. as rn feorl(meat),buioch (gratefull' feiceiil vowel combinations,


5 au in AmericanEnglish,e.g.16\ddy) 6 pron. like Frenchau or Getmanob, and not like Englishob, e.g.b6 (cowl 6 pron. like oo in pool, e.g. tir (you) (B) SHORTVOWELS {, cD1, TR 1, 1:30 Irish has the following short vowels: i like Englishshort it sin (that) soundslike Englishsbiz e like English shorte in get, e.g.te lhot) a dependingon the neighbouringconsonants,either as in English tap or rnEnglish top, but with the lips unrounded,e'9. cas(tuml soundin English;to pronouncebog (sofr)try o no corresponding but with the mouth more open usingthe vowel of EnglishDooA, (grues) u like the oo in book, e.g.tugann (C) SIENDERAND BROADCONSONANIS .t CD1,TR.1, 1:42 hastwo values, traditionally called'slender' EveryIrish consonant I and a broad l), two ts and 'broad'. so thereare two ls (a slender and broad sounds (a slender t and a broad t), and so on. The slender l, and hold l. Try saying found with easily be can of the consonants put your try to it again, and possible. Now say the soundaslong as l. Now is time; this slender tonguein the position {or eeat the same l. is broad for oo; this try sayingit with your tonguein the Position kinds of I If you comefrom Englandyou shouldhaveboth these I tn leaf andthe broad I in /eel.The word little already,the slender I and endswith broad l. However,if you are with slender begins all your ls may be broad and if you are Irish Americanor Scottish 'Welshthey may all be slender, and you shouldtry experimenting or between aboveto get the right sounds'The difference as described words, Howevel, I and broad I is usedin Irish to distinguish slender

as the alphabetprovidesus with only one letter l, the practicewas adoptedof writing extra vowelsto indicatewhethera consonant or or broad. A consonantis slenderif it is preceded is slender followed by i or e (the 'slendervowels')and broad if it is preceded or followed by a, o or u (the 'broad vowels').Seebelow: i 6 6 6 6 I+ i slender 6 broadl+ lrui(lyingl,Laoi (Lee) i + broad I lae (of a day) 6 16(day) 6 l6n (lunch) 6 (r (countyl (Louth) Li (line) i + slenderI line l6ine(sbirt) 6 6 rl diol (selling) b6al (mouth) 16l(hedgel 6l (drinhing) cil lbacb) sil \think) blil (of a mouthl fiil (getting) 6il lof d.rinkingl sriil (eye)

a le6 (mebing) 6 leon (lion) 6 li6 (a sboutl

Notice that l6n \luncb) and leon \lion) arc distinguished in sound only by the kind of I they each begin with. You can now seethe significance of such vowel combinations as ii, 6i, 6i, eo and ii. \)fhen you seethe word Diil remember that it is one syllable D5il, with a very weak i'glide', and not two syllables di-il. Likewise lion (winel is fi"n and not fi-on. The aoi in Taoiseach lthe prime minister\ is an alternative to ui. but aoi sometimes occurs at the beginning of a word, e.g. the female name Aoife (pron. ife). In a few words oi stands for i after a broad consonant, e.g. croi (beart). In seo (rlls) and deoch (d.rinkJeo rs, exceptionally, short (pron. shu, dyuch). Now look at how three vowel letters are combined:

ceol Qnusicl(pron. kr6l) piosaceoil (a pieceof music) (pron. pisa kv6il) feoil (meat)(pron. ft6il) ciiin (quietl (pron. kriin) buioch (grateful)lpron. b'i'ch)




in the middle of a word must Thereis also a rule that a consonant be flankedonly by slendervowels(i' e) or by broad vowels(a, o, to u). Feic (pron. fek) meansseeand the ending6il corresponds English-izg; howeverseeizgis feice5ilbecause feiciil would break a rule known as caol le caol agusleathanleleathan(slender uith slender and broad uith broadl; contrast fagatl lleauingl. The sequences ia and ua standfor i and i respectively followed by a weak a as in about: bia (food) iad ltbem) iasc(fisbl rua lretldish,of hair mostly) fuar lcold) suas(rp) consonants: broad and slender ui = i between caid (paftl is like quid but with the lips spreadfor the 4z mrurid hre) soundshke m*id drine lpersonlhas much lessof a t ' soundafter the d e and o, e.g.scoil oi = d soundbetween e.g,mion ltinyl io = I beforebroad consonants, I?hen eo or iri occur at the beginningof a word the e and i are like 6 and ri respectively: silentand they are pronounced eolas(infonnation) (pron. 6las) Inil (July)(pron. riil) i beforea broad At the beginningof a word io represents for example, ionad (locationl (pron. inad); ionat (iz consonant, u in youl (pron. inat). However,io is alsocommonlypronounced suchwords, giving unad and unat with the vowel of Englishpat. Note that iontas (uonderl and iontach (uonderfull are exceptionally pronounced intus and intuch. i, and oi is At the beginningof a word ui is pronounced pronounced e, as in: aisceltuaterl (pron. ishke) uile (all) (pron. ile) oifrg(office)(pron. efig) (D) INDIVIDUAL CONSONANIS {t CD1,TR 1,4:14 d, t, l, n Vhen theseare broad the tip of the tongueis pressed againstthe upper teeth,e.g.t6 (isl, dinta lclosed.J; when slenderit is againstthe gum behindthe teeth. t and d soundlike Englishch In someareas, slender pron. che and deoch thus,te (y'ror) and i respectively: jnch. \drinkl pron,

When followed by a slenderconsonant thesebecome iai and uai, and they are pronounced ie and fe respectively: rrail lrulel uaitrlhour) fuair (gor) fuaim lsoundl The recommended pronunciationof the sequence ao is i: saor (free, cheap) pron. sir Beforea slender consonantan i is added: ar saorre lon uacatioz)pron. er sire Let us look now at somecombinations which represent short vowels: ei = s i11 gg1,e.g, ceist(question)(proz. kesht) ea = a in hat, e.g.beanluoman) soundsrather like Englishban ai = between a in lrat and, o in hot, e.g.baile (totun)(pron. bolle)




ph th ch

bh, mh

Slender s is like Englishsb (exceptin is (isl); Se6n(lohn) (pron. Shawn).Muiris (Maurice)soundslike mwirish. Sheilais spelledSfle. Pronounced clearlyin all positionsin the word, e.g.r6s (a race),s6rt (kind (ofl), r6idh \readyl, b6that (a road). The slender r is like a combinationof r with the sound of s in leisure,e.g.M6ire (Maryl, cuir (pat). R at the beginningof a word is alwaysbroad, irrespective of spelling, e.g.rince\dance). Pron./, ph6ca (tny pochet)is mo f6ca. Pron. h lnot as Englishrb); thug (gaue) is hoog; rnlthair (motber) sounds like mrihir. When broad, as in GermanBac} - loch 0aAe)is pronounced as in Scotland; when slender, as in German lclz,or the soundat the beginningof huge inBnglish, e.g.oiche(nightl, pron. iche. y when broad. So for instance. Pronounce at the beginning of a word mo bhus(my bus),mo mhac(my soz), are mo vus, mo vok; -amh at the end of a word is nr.,, e.g.caitheamh(spending, to spend),d6anamh ldoing, to do), seasamh \standing,to stand), talamh(land), sn6mhlsuimming, to swim),linth (hand) arekahtv. ddnuv,shasuv, taluv,sn6vand l6v.ln rhemiddleof a word broad bh,/mhare also pronounced z after a long vowel, e.g. irbharlsubject),t bhacht (importanceJ, limha (pL hands),f6mhar (autumn),ri.omhajre lcomputerl arc 6var, t6vacht,l6va, f6var, rirrvire. There is a tendency to weakenthis ? soundto a z, especially in the northern half of the country. The sequence shorr vowel + bVmh in the middle of a word givesan oru soundas it Dound. e.g.leabhar (fal),samhradh (summer) lbook), ramhar are lyowr, towr, sowra. Slender bUmh are z in all positions,so bhi (z,as)is vi. sibh{pl. yoa) is shiv,GaillimhlGalway)is galiv,cuimhin (in is cuimhin liom I remember) is k.ivin, geimhreadh (uinter) is gewe.

rather like At the beginningof a word it is pronounced ghfna sa e.g. mo the Frenchz when broad, lmy dress), (in gh in gardenl The sequence a + broad ghahdin . the the middle of a word givesan eyesound,e.g.aghaidh (face\ is rather like eye andlaghad \smallness),laghdir lreducing,to reduce)are like loy'd, loyd6; o + broad gh in the middle of a word givesan orl sound,e.g.foghlaim to llearning,to learn), rogha (choice),roghni (cboosing, chooselarelike fowluim, row, rownrl. Broad gh doesnot occur at the end of a word. y, so mo ghearsailny pullouerl gh is pronounced Slender is mo yansi,do gheata(yourgateJis do yata.In the gh combines with preceding middle of a word slender (stails)is give e.g. staighre an eyesound, short vowelsto (arrow) is like English srgbwith zd like sty-re, saighead added. the same At the beginning of a word it is pronounced asgh when broad,e.g.dhi dhoras(two d.oors) lpron. y, gh6ghoras). it is likewisepronounced When slender e.g.dodheochlyour drinkl is do yuch.All dhs in the even middle of a word are treatedasthough slender, when thereis no i beforethem, so meidbrc ch lmerry), veidhhn (uiolin) are like myrvuch,rylin; Tadhg (a man's toyg, foyb and name),fadhb lprobletnl are pronounced radhtc (sight,uicu) is d \titnberl is like eye-mud; ^dhm pronounced like Englishrye with zrA added. Pronounceda in nouns, e.g.seoladh(address),p6sadh sh6la,p6sa.However,most lmarryingl arepronounced (u)ch,e.g. instances of -adhin verbsarepronounced bhiodh (usedto bel,bheadh (would be), nchadh (u,ould go), thladh (usedn go) are pronouncedvich, vech, h6ch(all with the cDof GermanBach).The rachuch, exceptionis past passive-adh for which the pronunciation zy is recommended, e.g. p6sadh(uas maniedl, seoladh (uas read) (NUas transmittedl,;ryreadh lwas done),l6adh p6suv,sh6luv,rinyuv and l6uv.An arepronounced important regional featurewhich you will encounteris the of -adhasI in all cases. northernoronunciation
Introduction XXIII


y -igh, -idh Recallthat slendergh and dh are both pronounced at the beginningof a word. This pronunciationis also usedat the end of words of one syllable,e.g.t6igh (go) is ty, shuigh(sar)is hiy, r6idh lreadyl is r6y, beidh (uill be) is bey.Likewise,the words arnigh (outsidel and istigh (inside),which wereoriginally phrases and are stressed on the second syllable,are amwiy and ishtiy. In other words of more than one svllablethis iv becomes i, so leathanaigh (plural of leathana ch lpageil is lahanui,ceannaigh (bzy) is kyanui, cheannaigh (boughtl rs chyanti, nchaidh (u.,ill go) is rachui. Note, however, thar in verbal formsof morerhanonesvjlable (such (boughtJ\ ascheannaigh -aighbecomes simple a beforea pronoun which is the subjectof the verb, e.g. cheannaigh si (sEebought)ts chyanashi. You will comeacross the southernpronunciationof -igh. -idh as rg insteadof r. In the middle of a word gh and dh neverhavethe valueof a consonant, and this is often true of bh, mh also. Combiningshort vowels wirh a followinggh, dh, bh, rnh provides a way of i,riting the soundseye and ow inbish, (E) WORD STRESS {t CD1,TR 1, 7:(4 You are recommended to stress the first syllableof the word, e.g.leathanach lpage),mfiinteoh (teacherl, caiin (girl), nlAiste (college).A fiewborrowed nouns are exceptional,e.g. tobac Itobacco),which is stressed on the second syllable.However. adverbs of rwo or threesyllables which beginwith a {andsome with i) are stressed on the secondsyllable,e.g.amachlout(rtards)1, isteachlinftaards)J, anuas(from aboue),amirach (tomorrow\. inniu lloday)(pron.inyu).The initiala in these i, p.onoun..J l;k. the first vowel in EnslLsh another.

may fall on a syllableother than the first if In Munster the stress it: vowel in thereis a long c\ry6n(4 cuq\ ra Gardai(thePolicel mriinteoir la teacber)

who is fairly widely usedby People You will noticethat this system havelearnedthe language. LL,NN, RR,M, NG' RD G) SHORTVOWELSBEFORE IN WORDSOF ONE SYLLABLE {t CD1,TR 1, 8:00 to pronouncethesevowelsshort as written. You are recommended barr (/op)'carr ad (higb\,Garda(policeman)' include Erceprions It is also (car),bord (table),which havelong vowelseverywhere. long, as in ball to try to pronouncethe ll' nn somewhat advisable (member\,clannlchildren) (of family). However,in Munster and WestGalwayvowelswhich are written as diphthongs(sounds long or sometimes short are pronounced The listedin this section. as eye,ow) beforethe consonants sr,ch following are someindications: (pron. eem) im (butter') l) flll (return\ (pron. {eelwith slender geall(promise)(verb)(pron. gtdl or gvowl) mall (slo*) (pron. m6l or mowl) l) (pron. mwoyl or mweelwith slender motll (delay,sloumess) poll (hole)(pron. powl) l) poill (boles)(pron. poyl or pweelwith slender Howeverwhen a vowel follows the ll, nn, rr, m or ng this Iengthening doesnot occur: piosaime (a pieceof butter) (pron. pisa ime) geallliint(promising)(pron. gvahiint)


Introduction XXV

You are not recommended to attemptthis more complicated system in the early stages of learningthe language. (G) UNWRITTEN VOWELS o cDl, TR 1,8:35 Between r and m a vowel a (as in aboutl is pronounced.

a differentmutation calledeclipsis(urri in Irish), h lourl causes At gc6tailour coats)(pron. 6r g6t"i).This can so ir r c6tai becomes c beingeclipsed asthe valueof the basicconsonant be understood is which written before or overtakenby the valueof the consonant ate mutated.Here is a table of the it, i.e. g. Not all consonants occur: which changes
Basic consonant



For example gorm (bluel (pron. goram) borb (rud.e) (pron. borab) balbh (dumb) (pron. bolav) garbh(rough) (pron. gorav) bolg lstornachl(pron. bullag) Between slenderconsonants the addedvowel is i: ainrn(namel(pron. anim) angead(moneyl(pron. arigvud)

c b d f m

Lenited form ph (pron. f) th (pron. h) ch (pron. kh) bh (pron. v) dh (pron. gh) gh (pron. gh) fh silent mh (pron. v) sh (pron.h)

form Eclipsed bp (pron. b) dt (pron.d) gc (pron. g) mb (pron. m) nd (pron. n) ng (pron. ngi bh{ (pron. v)

Notice that the following soundthe samewhen lenited:t and s silent (pron. h), d and g (pron. gh), b and m (pron. v). F becomes f is written bhf, i.e. bh (but written fh). The v soundof eclipsed (=v) beforethe basicf.

Symbols ond obbreviotions A guideto the initiolmutotions

A featureof Irish and the other Celticlanguages is that words are liable to change not only rheir ending- e.g. cZtaeoat) givesc6tai (coa*) - but also at the beginning _ ch6ta (my ioatl. Such changes_ at the beginningof a word are known as initial mu:tations, or simplymutations.Mutations are usuallycaused by a preceding word. For exampl e, no (my) causes a change calledienitlon, so mo + c6ta becomes mo ch6ta (my coat).Lenition meanssoftening (in Irish s6imhiri,pron. shaveyou), referringto the replacement of hard and abrupt c by the more hissingo. corrtirruou, ch. In contrast,
m f

= = pl = = srng. = o

adj. = adjective genderof noun masculine pfon. = Pronounced femininegenderof noun plural noun singular materialincludedon the recording. This indicates



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Is mise... is ... My nome

howto In thisunityouwillleorn . lJse some simpte grcetings . lntroduce yourself . Giveyour addressand telephone number . Be polite

Diq dhuit Conqstd t0? Dio is Muiredhuit. T6 m go moith. Cqdis oinm duit? (Is) mise ... Trim6 i mo ch6noii ... le do thoil Go roibh moith ogqt. Sl6n.

Hello. Howareyou? Hello. I'm well. Whatisyour name? I am ... I livein ... please you. Thonk 6oodbye.

listedabove' watchingout for the phrases Readthe dialogue, Thereis a completelist of vocabularyafter the dialogueto help you understand it.


Unit1 Is mlse...

Like most Irish people Se6n has studied Irish at school but he wants to improve his knowledge of it. He has been in contact with a language school which teachesIrish and now turns up to apply for a place. He calls in to the secretary's (an rrinai) office and she notes som personal details for his application.

t' o (J

Sedn An r0noi Se6n An r0nqi Sedn An ronoi 5e6n An r6noi Se6n An r0noi Se6n An rrinoi 5e6n An r0noi Sedn

Diodhuit,Is miseSeOn 6 Brioin. Diois Muire Toristeoch. dhuit. Conos tOt6? ld m6go morlh. Surgh sios onsin. Go rqibh moithogot. Id sefuorinniu. T6, cinnte. Codisoinmduitoris, le do thoil? Seon 6 Bnorn. Agus do sheolodh? Tdm6 i mo I h6noi in uimhir o tri Sroid Mhor, drosdn o do. Agus d uimhir teileofoin? A nooi, n6id, o coig, o s,a, o seocht, o hoon(905671). Tdbileog onsin. Tdon t-eolos or fod onn. Goroibh moithogot.516n.

T6 se fuor inniu. T6,cinnte' oris (m)? Agusdo sheolodh q (f) tri uimhir 6ros6n(m) o d6 5r6id(f) Mh6r d'uimhirteileof6in(m) Td bileog(f) qnsin. T6 on t-eolos(m) qr fqd onn.

It is coldtoday. It certainlyis. agotn Andyour address? number tnree two flat MIin Street your telephone number There is o leafletthere. is in it. Allthe informotion

notes Longuoge
16REE N6S casuallyby askingConast6 tri? lHow are You can greetsomebody yozi), or by commentingon the weather,e.g.T6 s6go bre6 (D ls are of religiousorigin, e.g.Dia dhuit fze). More formal greetings (God be ruith yoz), repliedto with Dia is Muie dhfit (God and Mary be uith youl. 2 IRISH SURNAMES lrishsurnames rendto beginwith O or Mac {O and Disrincrively Thesewere originally names Mc/Mac in the Englishversions). but they later which identifiedyou by your father or grandfather, Don't worry for the cameto be usedas family names(surnames). after the prefix. namechanges momentabout the way the second Tomis Mac C6rthaigh(McCarthy) ht- Tornds,son of Cdrthach grandsonof Conall lit. Sedn, Sein 6 Conaill {O Connell)

Question Fill in thesedetailson Se6n's enrolmentform below: AINM:. .. SEOLADH:

fOru .: . .. . .
Tor isteqch. Suighsiosonsin. Go roibh molth qgot. Comein. Sitdownthere. Thank you.

by their original The way thesenamesare usedis still influenced femaleversions thereare separate meanings. For instance, (daughter of...),which you will look at in Unit z. The English

Unit1 Is mise-..

forms of Irish surnames derivefrom the maleversions only. Here are somecommonIrish surnames, in both languages: O 6 O 6 Mathina O Mabony Docharaigh Doherty Cinniide Kennedy Riagiin Re(a)gan Mac Mac Mrc Mac Mathrina McMahon Cfuthngh McCarthy Ctaith McGrath Gearaih FitzGerald

b when citing the number of a house, flat, etc.: O Connell nutnberseuen, uimhir a seacht, Sr6id Ui Street Chonaill dpartmentnumberfour iras6n a ceathair room number eighteen seomra a hocht d6ag when calling out a number: a seacht, ndid, a ceathair when telling the time: t6 s6 a criig a chlog anois aganaoi achl og

You will notice that Mac in lrish sometimes corresponds to Fitz- from Frenchfils (soz),in Norman names.Can you now guess the English versionof the sumamein the dialogue?SinceIreland became an independent state(r9zz) therehas beenan increasing awareness of the country's heritageof personalnames, Many fust namesfrom earlier literature havebeenrevived(especially women'snameslike Cliona, Gr6inne),and many familieshaverestoredthe O at the stan of their srmame (e.g.KennedybecomingO Kennedy,SDea becomingO Shea). 3 NA HUIMHREACHA O-20 (THE NUMBERS O-2O) o CD1,TR 2, 1:09 0 n6id '1 oon (pron.n) 2d6 3 tri 4 ceothoir(pron. kyohir) 5 criig 6 s6 (pron. sh6) 7 seocht (pron.shocht) 8 ocht 9 nooi (pron. nui) 10 deich(pron. deh) 11 12 13 14 'l 5 16 17 18 19 20 oon d6og (pron.6n d,6ug) d6 dh6a9(pron. d6 y6ug) tri d6dg eothoird6og ctig d6og s6 d6og secchtd6og ocht d6og ndoi dog fiche

seuen, zero,four

it is 5 o'clock now at 9 o'clock

AN (THE) 1 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE which are called Nouns in Irish are divided into two classes, and 'feminine'.This is a fairly random division, 'masculine' and the word for althoughthe word for man is indeedmasculine woman feminine.Thegenderof a word is shown by the way it is with a weak vowel as in treatedafter an (thel.This is pronounced English anotber. are unaffected Masculinenounswhich beginwith a consonant have a taddedto the by an; thosewhich beginwith a vowel beginningof the word: feor bord othoir eolos 6rosdn man table father information apottment on feor on Doro on t-othoir on t-eolos on t-6rosAn me man the table the infomation the opattment

It is sometimes necessary to placea beforer-ro: o When counting: a haon, a d6, a tri ... one, two, tbree...

Notice that this a puts an h beforeaon, and also beforethe other numberwhich beginswith a vowel: a hocht.
Unit 1 ls mise...

Femininenounswhich beginwith a consonantare lenited (see Pronunciation guide): beon mOthoir bileog : oifig I uimhir woman mother leaflet office number on bheon on mhAthoir on bhileog on oifig on uimhir the woman the mother the leaflet the office the numbel

Mdire is here, T6 Miire anseo. Conast6 s6amuigh? How is it (the ueather) outside? It is cold today. T6 s6fuar inniu. Iike these: thereis in sentences Ti usedon its own rneans T6 peannansin. T6 seoladhanseo. 3 IS (1T',5) to someusesof the Englishverb to be. Remember This corresponds is or uhat stateit is in. that ta is usedto sayubere something qualitiesare referredto Theseare temporaryqualities.Permanent by usingis, meaningroughly lr's (this is not quite a verb and will be calledby its traditional nameof 'copula' here). You useIs mise(lit. It's tnel to introduceyourselfby nameor occupation: C6 tusa? Is miseP6draig. Is misean rfnai. 'Who you? are I am Patrick. (lit. lt's me, Patrickl I am the secretary. llit. lt's me, the secretary\ Tbereis a Penthere. here. Tbereis an ad.d.ress

An s preceding l, n, r or a vowel at the beginningof a feminine noun becomes ts (pron. t) after an (rDe). sr6id.street
at tstrlid the street

It is usefulto learnnounswith an beforethem. There is no word corresponding to Englisha (the indefinite article): T6 cathaoiransin. T6 bileog ansin. Thereis a cbair tbere. There is a leaflet there.

2 THE VERB 'TO BE' The presenttenseform of the verb to &ein Irish consists of ti followed by a pronoun li.e. he, she,or l/) referringto a personor thing: tdm6 tA t0 td s6 td si Iam you are he/it is sheis tA muid td sibh tA siod we are you arc theyare

It is also possible to drop is: Mise Deirdre. I atn Deirdre. (lit. Me Deird.reJ

A specialform of m6 (mise)is usedfor llme here.

pronounsare placedbeforethe word they refer to: possessive The verb ti is usedto describe location or state(of a personor thing). The weatheris alwaysreferredto by Ta se ... It is ... Conast6 tri inniu? T6 m6 go maith. Hou are yott today? I am well. o a his her


Unit1 Is mlse...

If the following word beginswith a vowel mo and do become m' and d':
m'ainm d'uimhir

a sheoladhhis address a seoladhher address

(pron. a hy6la) (pron. a sh6la)

my n4me your number

If the following word beginswith a v owel a (herl puts an h in front of it:

a alnm a hainm

A following consonant is lenitedaftet mo lmyl, do (your), a (bis) (but not after a (Der)). This is shown by writing an h after the consonanti p6co mo ph6co c(lrr mo chorr m6thdir do mh6thoir seolqdh o sheolqdh But note: a methair a seoladh ber mother her add.ress pocket my pocket( f6co) car my car mother yourmother( wdhir) aooress (pron.o hy6lo) his address

his name her name

a (bls)is often lost beforea word beginningwith a vowel. In speech Thesesoundmuch the same:
T6 ainm anseo. T6 a ainm anseo.

Thereis a namebere. His natne is here.

is A very important point about thesemarkersof possession unlike Englishzy, etc. Emphasis that theyarc neuerstressed, is suppliedby addinga specialending: mo chorr mo chorrsq. m'oinm TAm'oinmseonsin, my cor MY car (andnot yours) my name MY nameis there.

Words which beginwith I, n, r, h are not affected: feabhor nuocht6n rothor hqto book newspaper bicycle hat mo fedbhor mo nuochtdn do rothor o hoto my book my newspIper your bicycle hishat word is The form -so is usedif the last vowel of the preceding o, o, or u; -seis usedif that vowel is i or e. S C6NAi (RESIDENCE) You may sayin Irish that you liue someuhereby sayingthat the prepositioni (iz) you arc in your liuing in it. This requires givenabove.Placingi (lz) beforea lhislher) and the possessives givesina. Td m6 i mo ch6naii Luimneach. I liue in Limerick. (lit. I am in my liuing in Limerickl T6 Se6n ina ch6nai i Londain. lohn liuesin London. \lit.lohn is in his liuing in Londonl
[Jnit1 Is mise.,.

The expression used, for please is le do thoil (pron. le do hul), which htelally rneanswith your will; notice that do + toil gives do thoil. His or ber are distinguished by the way in which they affect following words. A lberl doesnot lenite: a mhithair bis mother a mdthair ber mother (pron. a w6hir) (pron. a mihir)

T6 M6ire ina c6nai i Meiriced.

Mary liuesin America.(lit. Mary is in her liuing in America)

1 Make up a dialoguesimilar to the one at the beginningof Unit r usingthis information: F6r 765489 Ainm Peadar6 Nill Seoladh 9 Sr6idMh6r 2 Write about yourself: Is mise... M'uimhir teileaf6in... Mo sheoladh ... Reorderthis jumbled dialogue: . Dia is Muire dhuit. . Tri m6 go maith. - Conastd tri? - Dia dhuit. o Go raibh maith agat. - Tar isteach. Put thesewords in the right order: o Muire/ is/ dhuit/ Dia b maith/ go/ agatl raibh C is/ duit/ ainm/ cad? | is d misd Peadar/ e maithl til gol mE f m6/ i/ ch6nai/LuimneacVt6l mo/ i Add in the missing forrns of ti: o Conast6 tf? go maith. b Conast6 sibh? go maith. c Conast6 an aimsir? fuar inniu. d Conast6 do mh6thair? go maith. i mo ch6nai i Luimneach.
Unit1 Is mire... II

(HOW?) 5 CONAS? you? ri your mother? mh6thair do your father? d'athair do shlaghddn your cold? the uteather! an aimsir

Conast6 How is/are

(pron. do wihir) (pron. dahir) (pron. do hloyd6n) (pron. an amshir)

7 AGUS(AND) This has a short form is, which you haye met in the formal greeting Dia is Muire dhrit (God and.Mary to you) {or Dia agus this with the copulais which, Muire ... Be carefulnot to confuse though usually at the beginning of a sentence,sometimesisn't, for example: Cad is ainm duit? What'syour tame? (lit, Vhat is natneto you?)

8 WORD ORDER Unlike in English,the verb comesbe{oreits subjectin Irish. in theseIrish and English Comparethe order of elements snrences: Td Se6nanseo. T6 s6anseo. lohn is here. He is here.

A word qualifyinganotherword comesafter it: uimhir teileaf6in f6n p6ca Sr6id Mh6r number (lit. number of telephone) telephone (lit. pocketphone) pbone mobile (lit. Main S*eet street big)


6 Put seomo lthb is tnyl beforethe following words. Someof thesewords will needan h after their first consonant to show guideif necessary. lenition. Checkthe list in the Pronunciation mithair (mother\ carr lcar) 6ras6n(flat) Seomo (Tbis is my) seoladhladdress) rothar (bicycle\ ancail bncle\ uimhir teileaf6in(telephone number) hata (hat) If you havethe recording,listento the sentences and check your pronunciation or look at the Pronunciation guide. o CD1,TR 2, 1147 7 Practise sayingthesetelephone numbers.(You can checkthem on the recordingif you haveit.) Can you figure out the towns? (See the map opposite.) Their Englishforms are listedin the wrons order. o 02r-542.37 Corcaigh b o9r-6342t Gaillimh G osoz-69j8 BaileAtha Luain d o6a-zTr4S Luimneach e 06S-,-7645 Cill Airne f ot -76 5489 BaileAtha Cliath g o48-7u4562 Doire (Athlone, Cork, Dublin, Galuay, Derry, Killarney, Limerick) placesand telephone Listen and repeat/take down these numbersfrom the recordingif you haveit; the answers are at the back of the book.

o CD1,TR 2, 3:18 8 Listen and checkyour pronunciationof thesesurnames. (Look at the Pronunciation guideif necessary.) Mac Math(na 6 Mathrina Mac C6rthaigh O Loingsigh Mac Craith 6 Cinn6ide 6 Murchf 6 Dochartaigh

yourself: Test Comprehension

L6igh an comhri agusfreagair na ceistenna (Read the conuersdtion and ansuer the auestions\,

U n ft1 Ism l se ..,


ffi comhorso neighbour nuo new ffi &

Questions o Wheredoesthe conversation take Dlace? b What is the number of lllna'sllat?

m6 Is m0inteoir I om o teocher
howto In thisunityouwillleorn . State your nationality and occupation . Check somebody else's nationality or occupation . Say where you work Is... m6. An ... tu? Is eo. Ni heo. Cod os duit? As... I am (a) ... Areyou (d ...? Yes. No. Where areyou from? From..,

Here are two interviews with learners of lrish in a summer college.

c, F


Unit 2 Is miintoir m6


Aine Is mtinteoir m6. R[noi Tuigim. Goroibhmoithogot. Aine Tdfailteromhqt.

Codis oinm (m) duit? le do thoil Aine Ni Chonoill is oinm dom. Cod qs duit? As T16Li. Ach td m i mo ch6noi i qnois. gCorcoigh (f) gcothoir I Chorcqi?. is eo. Agusdo shli bheotho(f)? Is m0inteoirm6. Tuigim. Go roibhmoith ogot. T6 f6ilte romhot. Questions a Cad asd'Aine(= do + Aine)? b An mriinteoiri?

i ::i:Tl

ogustd no miinteoirigo deos. suimi(il, Nil.Tdno rongonno moith oqqt. 60 roibh

Whatisyourname? please My nameisAnn O'Connell. Where areyou from? FromTralee. But I livein Corknow. In Cork City? (lit.Ihat's lt) Yes (ltt.woy Andyour occupotion? of tife) I am a teacher. I understond. Thonks. Youore welcome.

Agusc6 tuso? ttl? An Meirice6ndch is eo. deqcoir? An bhfuilon Ghoeilge dor leot Nil. (m) rqngonnq suimi&il no m0inteoiri go deos Questions o Cad asdo Bob? t6 na ranganna? b Conas

And who oreyou? Areyou American? ('s thot) Yes. Is Irishdifficult? tn yout vtew It isn't. c/asses intetestin9 the teachers ntce

3 9

Longuoge notes
,I WOMEN'SSURNAMES Thesefemale Thereare distinct prefixesfor women'ssurnames. prefixesvary in form accordingto whethera woman is married or single.All cause lenition. Here are the maleforms and unmarried femaleforms of two ryoical surnames; Sedn O Conaill P6draig Mac Mathina AineNi Chonaill M6ire Nic Mhath(na

Students attending a language class in Dublin meet their new teacher. She introduces herself and asks the students who they are and where they come from.

{ o o

i i i E F i o i IJ r6

coittin soo coittin gob coitlin

Is mise Nl Cheolloigh Coitlin ... ogus... c6tuso? BobMocMothOno isoinmdom. An Meiriceanqch ti? Is eo.Is os Boston dom. An bhfuil on Ghoeilge deocoir, dor leot?

The marriedformsare based O Conaill's on the maleforms;if Sedn wife is namedM6ire shewill be known formally asMiire BeanUi Chonaill (lit. wife of O Connell),or M6ire Ui Chonaillfor short' Pddraig Mac Mathrina'swife, Sile,would be calledSileBeanMhic Mhathfna or SileMhic Mhathrina.BeanUi Chonaillon its own meansMrs O ConnellandBeanMhic Mhathrinameans
md unlt 2 Is miinteolr 17

Mrs McMahon.ln traditionalIrish-speaking society womentend to be known informally by their maiden names(due to a strong sense of family affiliation). Here are somecommonIrish surnames in their threewidely used forms:

Albain Satland Meirice6 Ameica

Llbtnach Sconish Meiriceinach American

b with the anicle (causinglenition). Theseare treated like any other femininenoun: An Fhrainc France An GhearmdinGermany An Spdinn SPaiz Anlodiil Italy An Rriis Rrrssrd FrancachFrench Gearminach German Spiinneach Spanish lodilach ltalian Rfiseach Rnssiaz

(| CD1, TR3, 1:32 Man's surname 6 Conaill(O Connell) 6 Murchri(Murphyl 6 D6nailllO Donnelll (Kelly) O Ceallaigh
Woman's surname Maiden name Married name Ni Chonaill Ui Chonaill (i chontil) Ni Mhurchri Ui Mhurchri (i uurach ) Ni Dh6naill Ui Dh6naill (i gh6nuill Ni Cheallaigh Ui Cheallaigh (i byalul

1 STAT'N6 YOURNATIONALITY AND OCCUPATION Thesedetails remain permanent for most people and therefore they must be introducedwith is. nationality occupation F,ireannach mriinteoir feirmeoir dochtriir Gardai pronorm m m6 (6) (0 (iad) name I am lrish. I am a tedcber. Sednis a farmer, Sein. Mary is a doctor. M6ire. Tom6s agusP6l. Tom and Paul are Policernefl,

6 s6lo sbeal
Mac Mathdna (McMahon)

Ni sh
Nic Mhathina

(i h6) ui shc
Mhic Mhathrina luih uahfinal

Note that exceptionally Nic and Mhic do not causelenition when the following namebeginswith C or G: Mac Cirthaigh Mac Gearailt MacCartby FiAgedd Nic Cdnhaigh Nic Gearailt Mhic C{rthaigh Mhic Gearailt


<l CD1,TR 3, 2:23 Countries fall into two groups. Nationalities always end with -ach. o without the anicle: Notice that a pronoun may be usedevenwhen a person's he is o farmer).The nameis given- Is feirmeolr6 Se6n(Sedn pronounsmeaninghe, she,they are 6, i, iod. When combined with a verb they becomes, si, slod, as you saw in Unit r - t6 s6 (he is), td si (sheis), t6 siod lthey orel.

ftire Ireland Sasana England I8

Eireannach Irish Sasanach Englishllit. Saxonl

Unlt 2 13molntrolr nG


2 ASKINGSOMEEODY'SNATIONALITY OR OCCUPATION Replace is with an to form a question.A specialpronou\ e tbatl (Is ea is pronounced il, is usedin reply to suchquestions. ish a.) An f,ireannach tri? Is ea. or Ni hea.Is Meiricednach m6. An dochniir i M6ire? Is ea. or Ni hea.Ni dochtriir i. 3 AS (FROM) The basicmeaningof this is olr o/. It is also usedto indicateone's placeof origin: Cad as duit? As Corcaigh. ot Is as Corcaigh dom. Whereare you from? From Cork. No. Sbe'snot a doctor, No. (lit. Nol tDa4 I'm an America Is Mary a doaor? Yes. Are you Irishl Yes.(lit, It's thatl

OF NOUNS 4 PLURALFORMS Thereare variousways of putting a noun in the plural, and for the most part you just haveto learnthe correctplural form when you learn the singular, Someof the rnost common are shown here. The plural of an (rle) is na, and it puts an h beforea noun which begins with a vowel: o Add -i an miirrlteoir tbe teacher na miinteoiri the teacherc

an olfrgthe office an siopathesbop

an Garda the policeman b Add -anna/-eanna an rang tbe class an iit the phce c Add -a to -6gl-eog an spin6g the spoon an bhil eogthe leaflet d Add -acha/-eacha an cineil the hind, sort of an chathaor the chait

m hoifigi the offices na siopeitbe shops

ra Gardai the policemen, the police

nt tanganna the classes na h{iteanna the ohces

na spl6rr6ga the spoots na bileoga tbe leaflets

na cineilacha,the kinds, uarieties na cathaoire cha the chairs

I am from Cork.
e Make the final consonantslender(.9.-an becomes -6in)

Other examples - with the word duine (persoz): Duine as Corcaigh. A person from Cork. Ti duine as Meirice6 i mo rang. There is a person from America bt mv class.

an t-ar^san thefldt an leabharthe book arL cl l tbeprogromme

na hiras in tbe flats na leabhafuthe boohs na cliir the progratnmes

Unh 2 15milnt olr mC


f Change-ach to -aigh fireannach an lrish person leathanachpage Eir eannaighI r ish peopIe leathanigh pages T6 m6 i mo ch6nai U livel Someof the most frequentlyusednounshaveirregularplurals. an fear the man an bhean the uoman an duine the person an teech the house na frr the men na mni the women na daoine the people na tithe tbe houses

i gCorcaigh (pron, gorhril in Cork i dTr6 Li (pron. dr6li\ in Tralee i mB6alFeirste(pron. m6l fershte)iz Belfast i nDoire (pron. n'etel in Derry i gcontae na Mi (pron. gontaena mi) iz County Meath i dteachm6r (pron. dyach)in a big bouse

Although cliir is recommendedas the plural form of clir (programmel an alternative form, cliracha, is widely used. S THE VERB 'TO BE' IN QUESilONS

in: If the following word beginswith a vowel, i becomes (He liuesl tr fuasin in a flat. Ti s6 ina ch6nai Eirinn after prepositions, e.g.: ftirieUrelandlbecomes (SDe liues\ in6irinn in lreland. T6 si ina c6nai 7 ASKINGSOMEBODY'SNAME AND GIVING YOUROWN Cad is ainm duit? What's your tame? llit. What is name to Yota?l What's your name? llit. Whdt name ts on you!) Thomas.

Replaceti with an bhfuil (pron. un wil). There are no words for yesand zo in Irish, and the reply echoes the verb instead(without its pronoun). An bhfuil s6deacair?

C6n t-ainm at6 ort? Tomis.

ls it diffrcub!
TomSs is ainm dom. Thomas is ttry name. llit. Thomas k name to mel


It is. It isn't. Is Joan in? Yes.(lit. Is) Ta. out. No, (lit. Is zor) She's Nfl. T6 si amuigh. An bhfuil t( i do ch6nai I Luimneach. Do you liue in Limerick! Yes. Ta. Nfl. T6 m i mo ch6nai I bPort L6irge. No. I liue in Waterford.

Nil. istigh? An bhfuilSiobh6n

The forrnsdom (to mel, duirt(to you\ combinepreposition(ro) and pronoun (rze)in one word. They are often lenitedafter a word which endswith a vowel, e.g.Dia dhuit DeJlo. Suchforms are cornmonin Irish and you will meetthem again. You may also ask:

I (IN) 6 THE PREPOSITION eclipsis(see This is pronounced like the a in a&oat.It causes guide) consonant: Pronunication of a following

C6 tusa? Mise Se6n. Is miseAine.

Who are you? I am Sed.n. I an Anne.

Tusa and miseare special'emphatic'forms of tri and m6.

Unlt 2 ls molntcol. m6


Mac Crirthaigh

Mhic Mhathtua 9-

Combinethe woman'snameon the left with the surnames on the right below, replacing 6 and Mac with Ni and Nic Don't forget to includelenition: respectively. 0na 6 Briain (o Brien) 6 Conchdir (O Connor) O Mtille (o Malley)

Answer thesequestionsin the affirmative, both by using the echo form of answer and with a full statement. m6. Meirice6nach tri? Is -. o An Meirice6nach t6? b An f,ireannach 6 Pierre? C An Francach i Raisa? d An Rriiseach Make up introductionslike this example: 6 Maille is ainm dom. S6amas m i mo ch6nai i dTr5 Li. Ti Is Gardam6. /si6inir. o Bob O Mara./Boston b Colette Fortin/?6ras/mf inteoir. C Jiirgen Heimffrankfurt/siopad6ir (shopkeeper). (singer). d Ian CampbelUGlaschriy'amhr6nai e Nancy Giles/I.lua Eabhrac (NY)/rrinai. of these Placenames: match the Irish and Englishversions placenamesusingthe map overleaf. i Waterford o B6alFeirste b Tri Li ii Galway c Doire iii Killamey d Pon L6irge lv Belfast Airne v Derry e Cill f Gaillimh vi Tralee (NB ag obeir u.,orhing.l The prepositioni + eclipsis. o Saythat you live in the placesa-f in Exercise7. T6 m6 i mo ch6nai i mB6alFeirste. For example: b Completethesesentences with i + place. (banc). T6 m6 ag obair i (gar6iste). (sioPa). (oifig). (Eire).

O crada(o Grady)
O Conaill (O Connell) 6 Murchri (Murphy) Mac D6naill (McDonnell) Mac M5nais (McManus) Match the people and nationalities. Then state each person's correctnationality along the linesof Is Eireannach to usethe pronouns6, i, 6 Sein (Sedn is his#), (Remember corresponding to their names): Gearminach o Se6n Sp6inneach b Ludwig Rdiseach c Maria Eireannach d Yuri Francach e M6ire f,ireannach f Michelle 4 o Completethe column on the right: Nationality Country Sasana fjre Alba Meirice6

b Complete the column on the left: Spiinneach An Sp6inn Francach Gearminach Iod6lach


Unlt 2 Ii mllntoii rn

yourself: Comprehension Test

.l CDl, TR3, 3:15 briefintroductions: Firstreadthese
Dia dhuit. Tomis O D6naill is ainm dom. Is Garda m6. T6 m6 i mo ch6nai i nGaillimh. Dia dhuit. Is miseSfleNi Chonaill. Is dochniir m6. T6 m6 i mo ch6nai i Sligeach. Dia dhuit, Liam Mac Crinhaighis ainm dom, Is feirmeoirm6. Ti m6 i mo ch6nai i gCorcaigh, Dia dhuit. Is miseM6ire Nic Gearailt.Is mfinteoir m6. T6 m6 i mo ch6nai i mBaileAtha Luain. Lion isteachna bearnai lfill in the gapsl: s An bhfuil S6amas anseo? -Tr-igCorcaigh. b An bhtuil tf i do ch6nai i _ Tri Li? Ti m6 i _ ch6nai i bPon Liirge. _ c _ tf i do ch6nai_ 6ras6n? _ Nil. Ti m6 i mo ch6nai i _ teach. d An Meiric6anach 6 Bill? Is _ Bostond6. e An l6acht6iri Miire? Now match thesefour people's names,occupations and addresses: Nanes Tomis O D6naill M6ire Nic Gearailt Sile Ni Chonaill Liam Mac C:irthaigh Occupations mfinteoir Garda feirmeoir dochtriir Places Corcaigh Sligeach Luimneach Baile Atha Luain

Is dliod6iri. 10 Complete the interview:

- Cad is ainm _ ? . Se6nO Laoire is ainm - Aguscad as duit? o Corcaigh. -

Now make up short interviews with each of them on the model of the following: An r6nai Tomis Annnnai Tomis Cad is ainm duit? Wbat is yotr name? Tomds 6 D6naill i s ainn My naml k Tom,is 6 dom. D6naill. C5 bhfuil tri i do ch6nai? Where do you liue? Td m i mo ch6nai i I liue in Galuta* nGaillimh.

- An bhfuilt( . Ti.

ch6nai i gCorcaigh?


Unlt 2 ts milntrol



An bhfuil t0 p6sto? Areyoumorried?

In thisunityouwillleorn howto . Talkabout your family . Ask about someoneelse's family An bhfuil tri p6stq? An bhfuil clonnogot? duine (1), beirt (2), tritr (3) se blionod'oois

Conost6 cirsoi? (cltsoiaffoi6, motters) Howote things? f6s still Td mo theoch (m) fin ogom. I havemy own house. p6sto morried Cod fotso? WhotaboutyouT fe c0pfo bfioin (f) onuos for o coupleof yeorspost comhghoirdeos congrotulotions T6 ... ogoinn Wehove feonbh (m) 69 a baby(tit.young chitd) Questions Answeris fior (truel or ni fior (falsel: o Td Ciarin f6s ina ch6naiin lrasdn. b Td s6p6sta.

Ateyou married? Doyou havechildren? people countin9 sixyearsof oge

Diologue 2
SdamasMac Cdrthaigh wants to rent a corrage in the Gaeltacht for a few weeks. He has been directed to Bean Ui Sh6. They chat about his family over a cup of tea.

Diologue 1
Ciarin and D6nall meetfor the first time in a few years.They talk abouttheir personal circumstances. {
4 F

Cldr6n D6noll Ciordn D6noll Ciqr6n D6noll Clcr6n

rs. gligir, gpsil:.. .Pf,:glr. ..Tg l:glP.l :.s.


Diodhuit, o Dhonoill. Conos ta corsoi? Go moith.An bhfuilt0 f6s i do ch6noiin drosdn? Nil.TO mo theochf6in ogomonois. An bhfuiltri p6stoonois? Nil.Codfritso? T6,le coplo blioin onuqs. 6, comhghoirdeos. An bhfuilclonnoqot?


An bhfuilclonnmh6rogot,o Sh6omols? TO beirt mhocogusinionogoinn. Cenqoislod? T6C6ltocht mblionod'oois.lA p6ls6 blionqd'oois ogust6 dhd bhltoin og Nuolo. BeonUi Sh6 Tdbelrtocu or scoilmor sln?

Beon Ui Sh6 S6omos Beon Ui ShE Ssmds

e o

F j


o u

Beon Ui Sh6

o largefamily two sons ond a daughter Whatage are they? eightyears

clonn(f) mh6r beirt mhoc(m) ogusinion (f) C6noois iod? ocht mbliono(f)

Unlt 3 An bhtuiltt D6sto?

s6 bliqno dh6 bhlioin Td beirt ocu or scoil (f). mor sin t6... ogoinne.

stxyears two yeors Twoof them are at school. thereforc,so Wehave

RELATIVES 2 THE FAMILYAND CLOSE (f) seanthair(m) - seanmhdhair (grandfatherl (grandmother) athair (m) - mdthair (f) (fatherl , (motherl mac (m) lsonl inion (f) (daugbterl uncail (m) (unclel
aintin (f)

Questions Alswer is fior or ni ffor to thesequestions: o Ti mac agusbeirt inion ag S6amas. b Td P6l agusCdit ar scoil. c Nil clann ag BeanUi Sh6.


col ceathar (m) (cousin)

1 FAMILY,CHILDRENAND HOUSEHOLD Traditional Irish society thought of the family as the 'extended (grandparents, parentsand children) family' of threegenerations (parents and generations rather than the conjugal family of two children).The following termswere,and still are, used: household,extmdcd fnnily teaghlach (m) hom tea& (housel;means sameas above of Dozse), lion ti (m) llit. complement muintir (f) usedh muintir an ti (the occupantsof the housel, and in mo mhuintir (my parcnts - lit. my folks) refersto a couple'schildren,so mo chlamris my clann (f) children, and doesnot correspond to my famiy There is no exact equivalentof the word clann in English,but it is the origin of the English word,clan, a tibal or kin-group claiming descen from a presumedancestor;so Clann Chfufiargh (the Maccartby ftom C6rthach (died ao ro45). The word c/az), would be descended The old word for children in generalis leanai (alsop6isti or gasriLir). tuisrritheoir (m), plwal -i (parent(s)lhas beenrevived and is used in official jargon. Likewise social changehas increasinglyled to the teaghlachbeingequatedwith the conjugalfamily.

garinion (f) garmhac(m) (grandsonl lgranddaughterl


nia (m)


neacht (f) (niece)

(the porents) Na tuismitheoiri an fear (m) the man an bhean(fl the utoman an fear c6ile the husband an bhean ch6ilethe uife An chlann(the children) an leanbh lm],the child an piiste (ml the child an buachaill lm) tbe boy an dearthiir (m) the brother 3 NUMBERS ABOVE20 {, cDl, TR 4, 1:08 Numbersin between tensfollow the oatternof the twenties. 20-100 fiche nuenty txiocha thirty daichead, forty

an carlin (ml the girl an deirfirir (fl the sisnr

caogafifty seasca slxfy seacht6seuenty

ocht6eighty n6cha ninety c6ada hundred


Unlt 3 An bhtuiltri p&td?


21-29 fichea haontwenty-one 6chea d6 twenty-wo frche a ti naenty-three fichea ceathartuenty-foar frche a ci,igtwenty-fiue 100+ dh6 chlad tpo hundred tri chlad threehundred

WITH A6 (AT) POSSESSIO'V 2 EXPRESSING fiche a,sEutenty-six fiche a seachtfiuenty-seuetz fiche a hocht tuenty-eight frchea na.oitutenbt-nine Thereis no verb to baueinllish.Instead you usea phrasewhich combinest5,(there is) with ag (ar) (pron. eg): Mary has a car. (lit. Tbereis a car at Maryl Sheilahas children. Ti clann ag Sile. i gConamara. John hasa hoasein Connemara. Ti teachag Sedn Ti carr ag M6ire. FORMS OF A6 3 THE PERSONAL Ag cannot be followed by a pronoun (m6,ni, etc.).Instead thereare special'personal'forms of ag which incorporateboth prepositionand pronoun: (I9om 09ot qige qici ogoinn ogoibh ocu at me at you at him at hel ot us at you at them

A PERSON BY NAME 1 ADDRESSING You put a, which requires lenition, before the name: lvliire P6draig Sfle Siobhin A A A A Mhdire (pron. a v6re) Ph6draig(pron. a f6drig) Shile(pron. a hfle) Shiobhin (pron. a hovin)

Not all consonantsare affected by lenition: Liam Niamh A Liam A Niamh

The ai in aige and aici is pronounced as e instead of a. Here are someexamples: T6 dearthiir agusdeirfirir agam, T6 rothar nua aige. Ti teach deasacu. An bhfuil carr aici? An bhfuil n6im6adagat? I hauea brother and sister He hasa neu bicych. Tbey have a nice bouse. Doesshehauea car? Do you hauea minute?

b Most malenamesendingwith a broad consonant(onepreceded (adding i beforeit): that to slender a, o or u) change D6nall Tomds S6amas Peadar A Dh6naill (pron. a gh6nuil) A Thom6is (pron. a hom6sh) A Sh6amais(pron. a h6muish) A Pheadair (pron. a faduir)

Most Irish prepositions havepersonalforms suchas these - you havealreadymet dom lto mel and drit lto you). They are often


Unh3 Anbhtulltt Dtu?


(by addinge after nn, sa after reinforcedfor conrast or emphasis consonants): broad consonants and seafter slender T6 Toyota ag m'athair ach ti My fatber has a Toyota but I hauea Ford. Do you hauea car? We hauea farm.

A feminine noun lenites a following adiective which beginswith a consonantother than l, n, r: clann rnh6r oifig bheag sriid lhada

Fordagamsa, An bhfuilcar agaibhse? T6 feirmagainne.

a bigfamily(i.e.children) a smalloffice d longstrcet

To knout is expressed by an idiom which literally means/o baue knoutledgel I hnou.,.lht. I baye its knowledge) Ti a fhios agarn.(pron. t6s) Nfl a fhios agam.(pron. nfleas) I don't hnout, We knou that. Ti a fhios againn sin. or Ti a fhios sin againn. However, the ordinary word, for hnouledge, infortnation is eolas(ml. 4 FEIN(SELF,OWN)

of one syllableprecede the noun. Sean(old) is an A few adjectives lenition: example,and it causes seanfhear seanbhean old man old utoman

N + d cancels out lenition: seanduine seandaoine old person(often, in fact,old manl old people(both rnenand women)

6 LE (WITH) REFERRING TO TIME When usedwith periods of time this preposition meansfor the pdst:

This meanssef when following a pronoun (it is usually pronouncedhdn): Nfl md p6sta, Nfl m6 fdrn p6sta, I am not manied, I myself am not manied.

T6 m6 anseo le seachtain. T6 muid anseo le tamall. Ti leanbhaici le m(. Td s6marbh le fada.

I hauebeen(Et. I aml herc a ueek. We hauebeenberefor sometime. Shehas had a child this past montb. He bas beendead a long time. (hda -- longl

After a noun it meansou.rni

mo theach mo theach f6

nry hoase in my oum botse

It is often reinforced with antas (lit, from aboue but meaning birberto in this context): Ti Liam p6stale bliain anuas. Liam has beenmarried, for a year. (lit. uith a year dounl

5 ORDER OF NOUNANDAD]ECTIVE normally followthenounin Irish: Adjectives

leanbh69 rothar nua teachm6r a youtg child a nerubicycle a big house 7 COUNTING YEARS

The word for year isbliain. After the number dh6 (azo), which causes lenition, it becomes bhliain (pron. vlien). A special counting form bliana is usedwith the numbersfrom 3 to ro. Following
p65tq? Unlt3 AnbhfulltO 37


mbliana (pron. nliana), 7 to ro, an m is putbefore year to gpve You add d6rg lteen)to get the numbersr r to 19, but aon (oze)is addedin r r and causes lenition: bliain a year, one ye*r dh6 bhliain tuo years tri bliana three years ceithre bliana four years criig bliana fiue years s6bliana six years years mbliana seuen seacht ocht mbliana eightyears naoi mbliana nine yearc deich mbliana ten years 8 AOI, (A6E) c6?(uhatlwbo?l You ask a person'sageas follows - c6ncombines and, an (the\': C6n aois ni? 6? 6 Se6n? i Miire? iad? What agearc yot? What age is be? Wbat ageis Jobn? What age is Mary? What ageare tbeyl aon bhliain d6ag dh6 bhliain d6ag tri bliana d6ag ceithrebliana d6ag eleum years tutelueyears thirteen ye4rs fourteefl yearc

Note that the vowel of de, like that of do (ro, /or), is dropped beforea word which beginswith a vowel. are os cionn (orer) and faoi bhun Two usefulexpressions (beloul; os cionn r8 For audiences ouezr8 (noticein Do lucht f6achana cinemas) bliain. leanaifaoi bhun deichmbliana childrenunder the ageof ten d'aois 9 COUNTINGPEOPLE Thereare specialforms of the numbersfor this purpose,mostly endingin -r. It is sufficientfor the momentto know the forms from r to ,, and to be ableto recognize the others.In countingpeoplein a group, or in counting their nameson a list, you say: duine bein tri6r ceathrar criigear (one) person tu)o people threepeople four people fiue people seisear seachtar ochtar naonfr deichnirir six people seum people eight people ni?repeople ten people

Here is how you count sonsand daughters. Notice that emhiin (oze)follows the word when it is used(it isn't alwaysnecessary): mac amhiin beirt mhac trifr mac iust one son two so?rs three sons inion amhiin bein inion tririr inion just one daughter two daughterc three dargbters

The answerin yearsis followed by d'aois lof agel- de lofl + aoislagelz

of age). T6 m6 6chebliain d'aois. I 4m twenty (years Td m'athair caogabliain d'aois. My fatber is ffty. My sister is tbirty-fue. Tri mo dheiririr triocha a ciig bliain d'aois.
or ... criig bliana is triocha d'aois,

Notice that beirt (two) causes lenition.


Unlt 3 An bhtullt! p66to?


(CHILDRENOF FAMTLY) 10 THE WORD C|.r'.NN Tri clann mh6r acu. They hauea large family.

After beirt, tririr and other numbers referring to people clann takes lenition): the form clainne(remember that beirt causes Td beirt chlainne againn. We have two children. T6 tririr clainne ag mo dheirfifr. My sisterhas thee childrm. The word clann is also usedwhen referringto sonsor daughters collectively, as follows: a mhac ahinion hk son her daugbter a chlann mac a clann inion his sons her dzughters

Mac is lenited after clann. which is a feminine noun.

1 Lion isteachna beatnai lfill in the gapslt Dia dhuit, a -! o Sean Dia is Muire dhuit, a -l Miire b Tom6s Conast6 tri, a -? Sile Go brei, conastd tri f6in, a -? Tornis Tri m6 go maith. 2 o L6igh an t6acsaguslion isteach na hainmneacha(read the text and supply the namesof i-uiii):

b Freagair na ceisteannaseo (Answer thesequestrons).Use is fror or ni fror: i Ti D6nall agusAine p6stale triocha a criig bliain. ii Ti bein chlainneacu. iii Nil Eoghanp6sta. lv Nil clann ag Muireann agusP6l. v Is seanmhithairi Aine. vi Is uncail 6 Eoghan. 3 An bhfrril tri ...? An bhfuil ... agat? What would you sayif you wantedto know if someone: c has a minute to spare? c is married? b hasa car? d hasany children? An bhfuil

t0 p6sto? corr ogot?

qgot? n6im6od clqnnogqt?


4 Lion isteach na beamai:

{ cD1,Tn 4,220
Is D6nall an t-athair, agusis i Aine an mh6thair.Td siad p6stale uiocha a criig bliain. T6 beirt mhac acu, Eoghanagus Micheril.Nil siad p6sta.T6 inion amhiin acu, Muireann.Tf si p6stale P6l. Td bein chlainneacu, Sin6ad agusBrian. 5e6mos Se6n Sedmos Serin Se6mos Conos tA t0, o _? lA m6 go moith.Agustrl fein? TAme go bre6.C6bhfuilt0 | do _ TAm imo ch6noi i_Corcoiqh. An bhfuilt0 o6sto? onois?


Unlt 3 An bhtulltu p&td?


Se6n Se6mos Se6n Se6mqs Se6n SeAmos

omhain ogoinn. Tdbeirt(moc) ogus _. TdsCsin go hiontoch(pron.hintuch). Agust0 f6in?Codf0tso? T6m f6s i mo ch6noii - PortL6irge. An bhfuiltrl p6sto? le blioin onuos.

mac deirfifr deanhiir teach clann ,.r cD1 , TR 4, 4O0


Tomis Liam Gea16id

(pron.hintuch) so hioot".h grear

Then, if you havethe recording,listento checkyour pronunciation, or if not check the Pronunciation guide. teacherl Example:mriinteoir Phddraig(Pddraig's

yourself Test
1 Supplythe missingforms of ag. o An bhfuil car ag M6ire? Td, cinnte.T6 'Mini' -. p6sta? b An bhfuil San (callin = girlfriend herel Nil, ach t6 cailin -. c An bhfuil clann ag P6l agusMdir6ad? T6. T6 beirt mhac agusinion amhiin -. d An bhfuil teachagat. Td 6ras6n Reorderthe words in theseiumbledsentences: o beirt agam Ti mhac b bhfuil An p6statf c agamclainneTi cfigear d clann An agat bhfuil e gn6thachbhfuil An tn (gn6thach= bnsy)

Counting o Aois (age) Complete the following on the panern of Ti Sein deich mblianad'aois usingthe picturabove: I T6Se6n--d'aois. | l TiNeasa--d'aois, || l T6 Barra d'aois. -lv T6Antaine--d'aois. d'aois. v T5 Miire b How many childrendo M6ire and Antaine have? mhac agusinion. T6 clainneacu:6 Link the words in the left column with thosein the right column to indicatekinship or ownershipas in the example.
mulntlr rnron

11lDnun Unlt 3 An t'hftrll t0 p66tq?



P6druig 56omos Ptidraig M6ire 560mos P6drqig M6ire 56omos M6ire Pddroig S6dmos P6drdig M6ire

Seo... This is ...

ln thisunityouwillleorn howto . lntrcduce other people . Offer and accePt a drink . Explain to others where you live and work
Aon sc6ql (m)? S e o -.. Td 6thos orm buolodh leqt. An mbeidh deoch ogot? Beidh ... ogom, 90 roibh moith ogot. Ni bheidh, 90 roibh mqith ogot. T6 m6 og oboir/og l6omh, etc.

q Sheomois. Aonsceql? Diodhuit, t6 ogot? Diobhol sc6ol. Conos dom,M6ireNi Mhuiri. 6o bre6.Seocol ceothor Eibhlin. A Mhdire, seoSComos 0 Donoill, deorthoir o Shomois? Cenchooi o bhfuilt0, leot, o Mhdire. TdAthos orm buolodh TdMdireog fonochtlinnfqoi lothoir T6mCog lorgpoist. Niloonphost ogotfooilathoir? Tdm og oboirmor flinoi pdirtoimseortho. An mbeidh deoch ogot,o Sheomois? go roibhmoithogot.TO Ni bheidh, mCog dulobhqile. Beidh me og cointlibhoris. ogot,o Mhdire? Sldn. Ceord o bheidh qgom,le do thoil. gloine Beidh beoroch

4 F

6 0

Any news? o fomiliorgreeting This is ... I 0m pleased to meetyou. Willyou hovea drink? I'll have... No thonks. I am working/reoding, etc.

Aon sc6ol(m)? Diobhql(m) sc6ol. Conost6 ogot? Seocol ceothor(m) dom ... deorthdir(m) Eibhlin C6nchooio bhfuilt0? og fonochtlinn fooi l6thoir Td dthos orm. buolqdhleot Td m6 d9 lorg poist(m). Nil qon phostogot? Td m og oboir mor ... p6irtoimseqrthd Td m6 og dul obhqile. Beidhme og coint libh oris. C6ordo bheidh ogot? Beidhgloine(f) beoroch qgom.

Diolo g u e ' l
P6draig hastakenhis cousinM6ire to the localpub (teach who t6bhairne,also teach6sta).They speakbriefly to S6amas, is on his way home.

(lil. story) Any news? nothing Thedevila thing.(meaning at all) (lit.Howdo you Howare things? have?) Thisis o cousin of mine... Eileen's brother Howdo you do?\lil. Whatst7tearc you in?) stayingwith us ot present I am pleased. to meet (with)you I om looking for ajob. You don't hoveonyjob? I am working os ... part-time I am goinghome. I'll be talking to you (both)again. What willyou have? I'll hoveo glass of beer.


Unit 4Seo. . .


Questions Answer is fior ltrue) or ni fior lfalse): o Is col ceathar i Miire do Phidraig. b Tri Mriire ag obair in oifig. c Beidhgloinebeorach ag S6amas.

Questions Answerwith is Iior \true) or ni lior (falsel: o Tl Donnchaag obair le Miire. lle = withl b Beidhdeochmheiscriil lalcoholic)ag Donncha.

notes Longuoge Diologue 2

l KINSHIP P6draigand Mdire havegot their drinks. They seesomebody approaching them. or rn i Mriire Thereis no simpleword for cousinin Irish. Insteadkinship is reckonedas follows. A first cousinis relatedto you through a parentwho is a brotheror sister of oneof your parents. That involvesfour people- you, your first cousin,and one parentfrom eachside.So usinga specialword col ldegree of kircbip) you call your first cousincol ceathar(m) (4), that is somebody relatedto you by a four-person chain of kinship.A second cousinis col seisir (m) (5), because therearesix people involved. 2 SOCIALLIFE Publichouses in Ireland.The Irish are important socialcentres word for pub is teach(m) t6bhairne\lit. tauernhouse)or teach 6sta,but the Englishword plb is often usedin Irish as well - one maysaysaphub (m) (in thepub).Thecustomof reciprocal buying of drinks, known asstandingone'sround, is well entrenched despite generations by clergymen of condemnation and health boards.The traditional drinks of the country are beerand whiskey (sospeltin English,in contrastto Scotchrzllsfty). The namesof some commondrinksare: beoir(f) beer leann(m) dubh slor.rt p6rtar (m) porter, stout (m) beatha zDisftey uisce fion (m) wine branda(m) brandy

<i o

CC ota og teqchti lelth?

de Br0nisoinmdo.lA sCog oboirliom. i eearoig Donncho ni i Donncho Conos td ogoibh? 4 q Dhonncho F i eaoroig seo Mdire, - is colceothordom i.

chooio bhfuiltri, o Mh6ire? o i Donncho CCn Mdire P6droig Donncho : P6droig

TdmA90 moith. An bhfuiloon sc6ol ogqt? go luoth. BeidhCotholog p6sodh Tdo fhiosogom.BhisCqn roidi66iti0il.Beidhdeoch ogot? gloine Donnchd Beidh oraiste ogom, sinuile. P6dmi9 Seodhuit. Donncho SlAinte.

6 9
t C'

Ce qt6 og teocht i leith? is oinm d6 og oboir liom og p6sodh go luoth T6 o fhios ogom. or on roidi6(m) diti0il (m) gloineo16iste sin uile Seodhuit. sl6inte(f)l

Whois (that) comingthiswoy? is hisnome( nameto him) working with me gettingmoniedsoon I know. on the localradio o gloss of orcnge(juice) thot'soll Hercyou are.(lil. thisto you\ (lit. Health) Cheers!


Unit4 Seo...


The dark beercalledstont was first brewedin Ireland by Arthur in the eighteenth Guinness cenrury.It hastwo Irish names, leann dabh (black beerl -leann is an old word for beer - and,lmore often) p6nar, from an older English name,porter beer.Uisee beatha meanswater of life, and is basedon Latin aqua uitae. The Englishword zbr'sk(e)ywas borrowedfrom uisce(beatha) in the fifteenthcentury,in eitherIreland or Scotland, or both, Its English form reflects the earlierpronunciationof uisceas ls&e.

Seocara dorn. Is cara dom 6. dom iad. Is col ceathracha dom i. Ni deirfiir

This is a friend of mine, He is a friend of mine, They are co*sins of mine. She isn't a sister of mine.

3 ,WILL BE': THE FUTURETENSEOF TA be beforepronouns The form is beidh. This may be pronounced and bay otherwise. Ni bheidh (pron. ve) m6 anseo. Beidh (pron. bay) Miire anseo. I won't be here. Mary uill be here.

1 USING SEO(THIS) TO INDICATEPEOPLE OR THINGS You can introducea person,or present a thing, by usingseo(rhs). Notice that no verb is used: SeoTom6s. Seomo dheirfirir. Seodo dheoch. Seopeann. This is Tonuis llit. This, Thomasl This is my sister. Here is your drink, Here is a pen.

4 'TO BE DOING, SAYING': THE PROGRESSM FORMOF THE VERB or under way are referredto by the Actionswhich are in progress progressive form of the verb, which has an exactequivalent in English. It consistsof tri (is) + doer of action + ag + the form of the verb calledthe verbalnoun: Ti - m6 - ag scriobh. T6 - Niamh - ag canadh. T6 - Maria - ag foghlaim- Gaeilge. I am uiting. Niamh is singing. Maria is leaming lrish.

In Munster and Connachta pronoun is placedbeforenamesand other definitenouns(thosemarkedby the, my, etc.l.It is not necessary for you to apply this rule. Sing. 6 Seo6 Tom6s. Seo6 do dheoch. i Seoi Aine. iad Seoiad Tomis asusLiam. This is Tomis. Here is your drink. This is Aine. This is Tomdsand Liam.

Theseare the verbal nouns of scriobhaan Qtritesl, cmrnn (sngs) and foghlaimionn (leamsl respectively.The g of ag is only pronouncedbefore a vowel in this construction, so one saysa' scriobh, a' foghlaim, with a weak a as in earlier English a-goizg, etc. Someordinary nouns (onesnot closelyrelatedto verbs)are also usedin this construction. Note especially the following: T6 m6 ag obair anseo. Ti duine 6igin ag caint. I am working here. Somebodyis speaking.


2 HOW TO SAYA FRIEND,ETC.'OF MINE' This becomes a friend to me inbish, usingdom (to rre), which you havemet earlier.


Unlt4 S.o...


a question: Replacing t6 with an bhfuil?gives Gaeilge? T6AIil. An bhfuilni agfoghlaim TilNil. An bhfuilni agobairi nDoire? pastprogressive with Herearesome moreexamples, including with beidh(rzillbe): bhi (utasl andfutureprogressive
Are you leauingl An bhfuil tri ag irneacht? We are going bome. T6 muid ag dul abhaile. An mbeidh ni ag tiom6int abhaile? Will you be diuing home? We utereeating a meal. Bhi muid ag ithe b6ile. They'll be coming tornorrou.,. Beidhsiad ag teachtamirach. One funher point to note is that sincethe verbalnoun is essentially on it (if the a noun it requiresthe genitivecaseof a noun depending noun hasone): Ti m6 ag ullmhf dinnir. Ti miseag lorg poist freisin. Bhi m6 ag ithe mo l6in. I am preparing dinner. I am seekinga job ako. I uas eating my lunch.

coith (spend) fag (leave) feic(see) foch(lookl leon(follow) fon (stay) 6ist(/isten) (begin) tosoigh boiligh(col/ect)

+ omh + riil + 6ll + int + lint + ocht + ocht +ri +0

(spending) og coitheomh (/eaving) og fr96i1 (seeing) og feicedil (/ooking) og f6ochoint og leoniint (fol/owing) og fonocht (stoytng) (listening) 09 Cisteocht og toso(beginning) og boiliri(collecting)

no endingis used: In somecases : 6l (drtnk) og 6l (drinking) og foghloim(leorning)

Someverbalnounsare inegular in form: : tigh(9o) og dul (go,ng) 09 tedcht (coming)

it is left in by an adiective, However,ifthe noun is accompanied the basicform. Ti siad ag ioc airgeadmaith. They are paying good monsy.

As mentioned, someordinary nounsserveas verbalnounswithout havingany specialendingaddedto then, e,g. obak lwork, workingl. Compare: Ti m ag obair. Ti an obair ag tos6. I am working. The uork is beginning.

OF THE VERBALNOUN 5 THE FORMATION There are various distinctive endings. Notice how e or a is insened before some of them to agreewith a precedingslender or broad consonant. +e ith (eot) tiomain(drive) + t don(do,moke) + omh 09 ithe (eating) og tiomaint(driving)

This is requiredwith cenain verbs(given in the form of the verbal noun): ag caintle ag bualadhle ag fanachtle ag 6isteacht le talking to llit. utithl meetirrg(ttith') staying u)ithlutaiting for listening to


Unlt4 S.o...


Theseare its personalforms (noticeagainhow the prepositionle combines with the personalpronoun): liom leot leis ti with me with you with him with her

'OF', E,G,A CUP 'OF' TEA 9 EXPRESSIA'G two words is conveyed in Irish by putting The o/relation between one immediatelyafter the other and, usually,changingthe shape (the grammaticalterm is 'putting it in the genitive of the second is no word corresponding to o/in Irish. Here are There case'). examples: some gloine (g/ass)+ tion Aainel m6r6n (a lot) + ltimel ^m g)oie fiorc (a glassof winel m6r6n ama (a lot of timel

llnn withus tibh withyou leo withthem

Here are someexamples: Beidhrn6 ag caint leat aris. Beidhtri ag bualadhl6i. Ti si ag fanachtleo. T6 Se6nag obair liom. I'll be nlking to you again. You'll be meetingber. Sheis staying uith them. SEanuorks utith me (or Sednis uorhirg uitb me, i.e. right noul.

Thereare variousways of forming the genitivecase,and the most If a word in the next section. important of thesewill be described doesnot havea genitivecase(e.g.nounswhich end with a vowel), to show the ofrelation: word order aloneis suff,cient c'spln (cupl + tae lteal angin tae a cup of tea

7 MAR(AS) This can be usedto refer to pan-time or temporary employment, as distinct from one'snormal profession. It causes lenition: T6 m6 ag obair mar mh(inteoir faoi l6thair. 8 MOREABOUT CE?(WHO?) You havealreadymet this in C6 tusa?lVho are you?l.It is a rule of the written language that it be separated from a following verb by an a (and t6 becomes ati), but this a is not pronounced and one saysC6 'bhi, C6 'ti: C a bhi ag caint leat?
Le a Dru leatt

by usingthis pattern (so Ownershipand kinship are expressed inlrish John'shousewill become somethinglikehorse of Johnl. Personal namesare lenitedif they beginwith a consonant: teachAine teachMh6ire teachSh6ain Anne'shouse(lit, houseof Anne, Aine unchanged) Mary's house(Mdire marked by lenition only) lenitedand in genitivecase) John's house(SEan

I am uorking as a teacher at bresent.

10 FORMINGTHE GENITIVE CASE Thereare variousways of putting a noun in the genitivecase, accordingto whetherit is masculine or feminine . o A broad consonantat the end of a masculine noun becomes slender(shownby writing an i beforeit) eolasinformation p6ttar stoat SEan John pointe eolais a point of information pionta p6rtair a pint of stotrt pdrents muintir Sheiin,/ohrr's

C6 a bheidhann? C6 ati amuigh?

Wbo uas talking to you? Wbo was utith you? Who will be therc? Who is outside?


... Unit4 So


b Add a to a noun Iion lnl wine c Add e to a femininenoun seachtainueek deireadh seachtain e ueekend (lit. end of the uteekl buidlal fiona a bottle of uine

which you met in the previous unit, but with future beidh instead of t6, Compare: Ti deoch agam cheana. An mbeidh deoch agat? Beidh. Ni bheidh. I hauea dink already. Will you hauea dinhl Yes, No.

d Replace (e)ach with (a)ighin masculine nouns leathanachpage bun an leathanaigh the bottom of tbe page

Note also, using cad?or c6atd?Qahattlt Cadlc ard a bheidh agat? Beidhpionta agam. ',,; "'' :'".'':'"'" " "'"

Whatuill you haue? I'll hauea pint.

e Replace (e)ach with (a)i in femimnenouns bdisteachrain m6ran biisti a lot of rain


Drink measures Drink is sold by the following measures: buideol(m) gloine (f) feothghfoinc (0 plontd (m) feothphionto{m) (HALF) 12 LEATHThis causeslenition and is ioined to the word it modifies: gloine a g/ass 16a day 13 AON(ANY) The numeralaon (oze)is usedin the sense of azr,: Aon sc6al? Arr bhfuil aon sc6alagat? leathghloine a half- glass leatbli a half-day a bottle o glass a hatf-gtass (= a small measureof spints) o Pint a holf-pint

f Make the 6nal consonantof a femininenoun broad and add ach an bheoir tbe beer pionta beoracha p int of beer

Most words which end in a vowel do not havea genitivcase: gloine branda glolne ursce cupin caife leathghloine uisce beatha a ghssof brandy a ghss of utater a cap of coffee a half-ghsi of whiskey


(See Unit rZ section9 for anothergenitiveformation.) 11 OFFERINo AND ACCEPTING A DRINK A common way of offering a drink is to ask the equivalent of Wil/ you hauea drinkl This involvesthe possessive phraset6 ... &dsl ^C

Atry news? Do you haueany neuts?

Unlt4 S.o...

Another way of saying any is to put ar bith (at alll after a word: An bhfuil sc6alar bith agaibh? Do you (pl.) haueany neuts? It is usualto useeither aon or ar bith when sayingthat you haven't got something. Notice that aon causes lenition: Nil aon charr agam. Nil aon phost aige. Nil post ar bith aici. I don't hauea car. llit. I hauen't got any car) He doesn'thauea iob, (Iit, He doesn'thaueany iobl Shedoesn't bauea job.

Sort out eachof the iumbledutterances to make a short dialogue: o Introduction: mo/Nuala./seo/chol ceathar/a Pheig b Greeting: tri./conas/a Nuala./ti c Response: a Pheig/orm/bualadhleat/trilithas Lion isteach na bearnai;(c) and (d) involvethe optional use of6ori. o Sein Dia dhuit, a -! M5ire Dia is dhuit, a _! b Liam -tlini,--? Sile Go bre6,conasf6in, a Liam? Lianr Ti m6 go maith. c D6nall A , seo(6) mo chol ceatharPidraig. Tom6s Td ithas orm bualadhleat,_ _, Pidraig Dia dhuit, a -. d Aine A , seo(i) mo chol ceatharSiobh6n. Siobhrin Conast6 t6, a -? Seosamh T6 6thasorm bualadhleat,_ _.

3 Sa teach tibhaime. Lion isteachna bearnai. An mbeidhdeoch-, a Pheadair? o Eoin go raibh maith agat. -, Diarmaid An mbeidhdeoch-? Beidhpionta beorach Sfle .le do thoil. gloine beorach-, Agus Sean a Dhiarmaid. An pionta agat,a Ph6draig? Ciar6n PLdraig T6 mo charr liom. Beidhbeorach agam. mbeidhdeocheile agat,a Eilis? P6l go raibh maith agat. Eilis Ni -, Eoghan An mbeidhagat,a Bhreanddin? Breandin bheidh,go raibh maith agat.Ti m6 ag imeachtanois, 4 Cri bhfuil siad?(wherearc theyll (you Checkthat you know the meaningof theseexpressions can guessmost of them and check them in the Irish-English vocabulary). Then match one of them with each sentence. sodiosc6; or sooire; soteochtdbhqirne: in Oifigon Phoist: sochorr; sobhoile: qg on oerfort

d e J g

Td siad ag caint agusag 61. Td s6ag cur lpuning, sendingllitreachsa phost. T6 s6ag scriobhcirta poist. T6 siad ag f6achaintar an teilifis. Ti si ag dul go Meirice6. Ti siad ag damhsa. 96 s6ag tiomdint.

5 Lion isteach na beamai.The missingwords are givenbelow eachtext on this pageand the following.


Unft 4 So...


Sedn is working late and sends a note to Miire, his wife:

Test Yourself
a.rhi4 A Ltfui,ire, Tdui aa an ntta seo
anocht. tz DiaruzidLur aniazh. ao p,ira's an dta t'eob

^* a4 e'U * b"ilh^i odLTi ad aa l,4At6"l.-

a'oo 1,1" *a- eaal"*^; ^aodh a tetr*t a thba


(Readtbis L6igh an comhri seoagusfreagairna ceisteanna Lnd Lnswerthe questions). conuersation A visitor to the Gaeltachthascalledat a hotel looking {or a friend. (f6ilteoir).(Some new words are by the receptionist He is addressed below.) given Diodhult. Diois Muire dhuit. is d6i9hliom.Somos TO corodom og fonochtonseo, is oinmd6. 6 Ceolloigh Nilseistigh onois. An mbeidhs6ot oistrdthn6no? Beidh seonseo og o sAo chlog. Beidh, cinnte. isoinm 0 Conqill Beidh me og qisog o s6.Michedl dom.
q ul 4 F


6 The genitivecase. Wherenecessary the word in bracketsto indicate change kinship, possession, quantity: or o bean (S6amas) e mac (Ciarin) b carr (D6nall) J gloine (uisce) (Aine) c teach (M6ire) 9 6ras6n
d cupin (tae) 7 Insert the appropriate form of le: o - Beidh Aine ag teacht am6rach. . An mbeidh tf ag bualadh _ - Beidh.

Fdilteoir Michedl F6ilteoir Miche6l

t' o

istigh dr ois ogos6ochlog


back at sixo'clock


Questions 1 o Cad is ainm do charaMhichil? b An bhfuil s6istigh?

b Ti P6l ag teachtanocht. An mbeidhs6ag fanachtBeidh.


Beidh Peadarag caint ar an raidio amdrach.

An mbeidhtf as 6isteacht Ni bheidh.Beidhm6 ag obair.


t nit 4 Seo...


Seodo sheomro Thisisyourroom

In thisunityouwillleorn howto . Welcomesomebodyto a house . Talkabout the different rcoms and theb location Tdr isteoch. ta T6 f6ilte romhot. a Go roibh moith dgdt. T6 s6 fuor/tirim. U , Td,cinnte. seo do sheomro, T6 on toe r6idh. Come in. Youore welcome. you. Thonk It is cold/dry. It is,indeed. Thisisyout rcom. Thetea is reody.

Goroibhmoithogot. 56on td tri?TAs6fuor trdthn6no. Bednon ti Conos qchtOsC tirim. cinnte, T6, 560n sheomro. Bean on ta Seodo bred6 seo. Teoch An-mhoith. 560n leopoonn.Ib ocros ort, is d6cho. Beonon ti Is eo.Tdssheomro Td,cinnte. 5an Bedn on ti TAon toe reidhsochistin. C6bhfuilon seomro Beidhme onn l6ithreoch. 56on folctho? Beonon ti Sin, og bunon hollo.

T6 s6 fuor tr6thn6no (m). ci nnte och ti ri m Seo do sheomrq (m). og bun (m) on hqllo (m) T6 ocros (m) ort, is d6cho. 16idh cistin (f) Beidh mA onn l6ithreqch.

It is cold thisevening. indeed but dry isyourrcom. This at the endof the hall probobly. Youare hungty, reody kitchen I'll be thereimmediately.

a x

t ct

Sednis going to attend a summer languagecoursein the Gaeltacht.Here he arrives at the housewhere he will be staying. The landlady (Bean an ti) comesto the door.

Questi ons Answer is fior or ni fior to the following statements: o T6sefuoromuigh. b Tdocros or She6n. c Tdseocht soteoch. seomro leqpo

|o c

Diologue 2
Miche6l calls on his aunt, Sile.It is early evening.

t' o

Son Beon on ti son Beonon ti

Diodhuit, ontuso Beon Ui Bhrioin? Is m6. Is mise S6on MocMothono. q Shedin. Toristeoch. Tdf6ilt DioisMuire dhuit, romnot,

Sile Toristeoch. Conos tA t0, o Mhichil? Michedl Conos o Shile? td t0 fCin, (Contd)
Unit 5 Seo do sheomro



I d az F


TdmEgo hon.mhoith. T66thosorm faoi sin.T6tomoll6 bhi m6 onseo. T6br6n orm. Sile An bhfuilocros ort? Mlche6l Nil.Tdmo dhinn6or iteogom. Sile Beidh cupdn toeogot morsin. Miche6l BeidhsCsingo deos. Tds6on-fhuortr6thn6no. Sile Brioscoi n6 piosociste? Miche6l Pioso ciste. Sile Miche6l

on hollo(m) on stoighre(m) on t-url6r(m) teochdhd u116r on fhuinneog(f) on doros(m) on tine (f)

the hall the stairs thefloor two-storcy house the window the door the fne

teoch (f) c6ndithe teoch l6istin teoch sooire 6st6n (m) br! (m)

o t


ti f6in T6 dthos (m) orm. fooi sin tomoll (m) 6 Td br6norm (m). ite (m) briosco(i) pioso(m) ciste

yourself I am delighted. aboutthat a while, sometime Srnce I am sony. eoten biscuit(s) a pieceof cake

dwelling house guest house holidayhome hotel hoste/

3 ct


Questions o Conos td ointinMhichil? b An mbeidh dinn60r 09 Michedl. C Cod o bhidh oige?

You saw in Unit 4 that seo is used to presentor indicate things which are nearby. Sin is used for those which are more distant: Sin Liam thall. Sco do sheomra. Sin an seomrafolctha. Seodo leabasa. Sin leaba Sh6amais. Seoan chistin. Sin an seomra suite.

Lqnguoge notes

9 I

Na seomrai(the rooms) on chistin(f) on seomro(m) suite seomroleopo(m) on seomrofolctho (m) on leithreos

the kitchen the sittingroom oeotoom the bathroom the toilet

Tbat is Liam ouer tbere. This is your room, That is the bathroom. This is yow bed Aeaba bed + sa) That is Siamas'sbed. Tbis is tbe kitchen. That is the sitting room.

Remember that in some varieties of Irish6 or i will be added after seo(rbis) and sin (tbatl, e.g.Seo6 do sheomra(seomra is masculine), Sini do leaba(leaba is feminine). It is sufficient to recognize thispractice if you comeacross it.


t nat5 Seodo sheomro


2 ANOTHER USEOF SEO AND STN The Irish equivalensof thk room, that room, etc,consistof anl na ,be + noun + seo/sin. The noun is emphasizedin such phrases, never seo/sin:
an seomra tbe foorrt an seouua seo an seolnra srn na seomrai seo na seomrai sin

barr (toPl + b6that (roadJ bun lbonoml + b6thar (roadl

barr an bh6thair (thel top of the ro4d bun an bh6thair (thel end of the fo^d

An (tre) doesnot lenitet or d; l, n, r are neverlenited: this room that room tbeserooms tbose rooms bean(uomanl + teachlhouse\ l5r (middlel + 16(dayl beanan ti the woman of the house l5r anlae the middle of the day

Seoand sin can also follow a pronoun: C6 h6 seo? C6 h6 sin? C6 hiad seo? C6 hiad sin? Who is this? Who is tbat? Vho are these? Who are those? C6ard 6 seo? C6ard6 sin? C6ardiad seo? C6ardiad sin? Wbat is this? Wbat is tbat? Wbat are tbese? What are tbose?

noun begins with s that becomes ts (pron. t) in this If a rnasculine constructionafter an: 16rlmiddle) + seomra(roozr) 16r an tseomrathe middle of the roorn

Remernberthat 6, i, iad becomes6, si, siad when following a verb as subject: Ti s6seogo deas. Bhi s6sin go maith. This is nice. good. That u.,as

although Notice that an (rbe)is only usedoncein suchphrases, both words are felt to be definite(the top, the roadl. As many words do not have a genitive casethe of the relaion can be conveyed simply by word order, plus lenition if the secondword with begins a consonant other than t, d: bun an halla barr an staighre 16ran ghairdin tbe end (lit. bonoml of the hall the top of tbe stairs the centre of tbe garden

Seoand sin are sometimsusedon their own: T6 Sthasorm faoi seo. Ti br6n orm faoi sin. I am delighted tbout this. I arn son't about that.

4 PREPOSITIONS WITH THE ARTICLE The prepositions ag latl and i (inl are very important in saying wherethingsare: ag bun an halla ag barr an staighre i do sheomra at the end of tbe hall at the top of the stairs in your room

3 HOW TO EXPRESS 'OF THE' In the previousunit you met phrases in which the second word is in the genitive case(another example is f6gra b6thair road sign(lit. signof roadll.If the secondnoun is masculine, and precededby an (rbe), a funher changeis needed:lenition is added after an:


Untt 5 seo do shom.!


The sequence preposition+ an causes mutation of a following noun, providedthat it doesnot beginwith t or d. In the Official Standard the recommendedmutation here is eclipsis: ag an bhfuinneog ag an mbanc ag an gcoliiste at the uindou at the bank at tbe college

followed by a vowel,san Before vowels and fh (whichis silent) used: is

san oifig sanoiche sanfharraige

in the office at night in thesea

However, you will encounter (and you may prefer) the Ulster practiceof usinglenition instead: ag an fhuinneog ag an bhanc ag an choldiste at the urindou) at tbe bank at the college

Contrastsa Fhrfic, in France. S LOCATION Here are two important words: thios below thuas aboue thios an staighredounstairs thuas an staighre 4pstairs

Vords beginning with t, d are not affected:

ag an teach ag an doras

at the house at the door

The phrasemeaningnext to is in aicele (lit. in proximity uithl. This combines with an (/re) to give in aiceleis an, which causes (like ag aa in the previousunit): eclipsis in aiceleis an gcistin in aiceleis an bhfuinneog in aiceleisan mbanc next to tbe kitchen next to the uindow next to tbe banh

Vhen_combined with an (thel the prepositioni (lz) takesa quite irregular shape,sa (in tbel, which causes lenition: sachistin sa phiirc sa ch6fra saghairdin in in in in the kitchet the feldlpa& the cupboard the garden

But againthereis no eclipsis of t or d:

in aice leis an teach in aice leis an doras

In addition to words beginningwith l, n, r (neverlenited)those beg.inning with t, d, s are not affectedby sa: sa leithreas sa teach sa dorchadas sa seomrafolctha in the toilet in tbe house in the dark (adi. dor&a -- darkl in the bathroom (lit. room of utashingl

next to the house next to the daor

6 THE PREPOSITION AR (ON) Most states of mind and physicalsensations must be exDressed as nounsfollowed by the prepositionar (oz) (pron. er), so that Selr r's tired must be turned around as T6 tuirse ar Shein (lit. tirednessk


Unft 5 Seodoiheomm


She6n lenition, so Sein becomes ofl Sednl.Note that ar (oz) causes (pron. hy6n).The forms of ar (oz) are: : olm : ort
: qll

7 AN. (VERY) lenition: This causes

i u i r t hl

on me on you on ntm on nel

oroinn orolbh orthu

on us onyou on them

maith good Iuar cokl

an-rtaith uerygood an-fJlluar uerl cold

The ai in air is pronounced e insteadof a. Using theseyou can saythat you feel cold, hungry,etc:

However, there is no lenition if the adiective beginswith t' d, or s: al-te uery hot an-dorchauery dark 8 ANN (THERE) This literally meansiz rl, but often correspondsto English tlere: Bhi m6 ann inn6. Ti bancagussiopaiann. I was there yesterday, Therc's a bank and sboPsthere.

uerysatisfred an-slsta

ocras tart tuirse eagla br6n 6thas



I feel cold. I am hungry. I am thirsty, I feel tired. I am afraid. I am sorry. I am happyldelighted.

T6 br6n orm lI om sorryl canbe usedto apologize or sympathizeover something. This construction is also used for physical ailments: T6 sloghd6norm. Td tlnneoscinn orm. T6 tlnneos flocdlle orm. I havea cold. I havea headoche. I have toothache.

the contntsor sizeof a It is also used(with t6) to describe property: Ti s6sheomraann. It Eassir roonrs (a house). llit. there are six rooms in itl Therc are three flats in it (a building). It is a hundred acresin size (a farm). (lit. tbereare a hundred aaes in itl

T6 tri irasin ann. Ti c6adacra ann.

However certain physical and mental statesare expressed

usingadjectives: T6 0na go moltharis. T6 s6tinn. Bhi m6 buortho. TA m6cinnte.

lna is well again. He is sick. I woswor ed. I am sure. 9 CA BHFUIL?(WHEREIS?)

CAt (wbere?l,llkethe questionmarker an?,requiresthe dependent form of t6, i.e. bhfuil. Here are someexamples:

Ci bhfuil an chistin?

'Where is the kitchen?


Unlt 5 Seodo sheomm


C6 bhfuil an leithreas? C6 bhfuil tf ag dul?

Whereis the toilet? rYhere are you going?

<oCD1,TR 6, 1:54 1 Point theseout to a visitor: b Morc distant o Nearby mo theach(m) mo charr (m) an scoil (f) an gairdin (m) mo mhithair (f) an siopa(m) 2 Seomraiagustroscin lrooms and furniturel Completethe word puzzleusingthe Irish words for the following horizontally.You will find the word for an important room in one of the verticalcolumns. f table o sining room g bed b room h hall c window i door d kitchen e chair

ci'il. Ct bhfuil is often pronounced TENSE 10 THE PERFECT to EnglishI hauedone,I haueeaten,etc.As This corresponds thereis no verb to haueinkish the phraseti ... agarnis used formed from a instead,with the verbaladjective(an adjective perfect is not always usedin Irish The verb, like eaten,closed). here somecommon required in English, but are where it would be examples: T6 an dinn6arite agam. T6 cfpla pionta 6lta agam.
Td sd d6anta aige. T6 rni caite agam anseo. Ti an f6ar bainte agam.

I baueeatendinner. I haue drunk a couple of piflts. He has done it. I haue spenta month bere. I hauemown tbe grass.

AD]ECTIVE 11 THE FORMATION OF THE VERBAL Notice how their form depends Thereare somedistinctiveendings. previous consonant is broad or slender(e,g.ta after on whetherthe broad and te after slender): d6anldo, ffiakel + t^ 6l (drinkl + ta + te bain (mow, haruest) ith (eat)+ te caith (spend)+ te f6g lleauel+ tha lig (ier)+ the tosaigh(begrz)+ the balligh (collectl + the d1anta(done, made) 6lta (drunk) baintelmoutnl ite leaten)(th + t givest) caite\spentl figtha Ueft) ligthe (/et) tosaithe (begun) bailithe lcollectedl


Unit 5 Seo do sheomd


(where is he?) 3 Ci bhtuil s6?

'Whatare they sayingor thinking?Match the picturesand expressrons:

oo o

c i an leithreas

a Td tan orm. b Td br6n orm. c Td tuirse orm.

d Td ocrasorm. e T6 fuacht orm. f T6 slaghd5n orm.

What would you sayin thesesituations? if he or sheis tired. o You ask somebody b You ask somebody if he or sheis hungry. (a third party) is afraid. c You enquireif somebody peopleif they are hungry. d You ask several


Unit 5 Seodo sheomo



yourself: 1 Test Comprehension

<r, TR 5, 2:25 n6l6igh iad. Listen Eist leis na fograi seo6 Raidi6 na Gaeltachta to, or read, theseannouncementsfrom the Irish-languageradio station, in which holiday homesare offered for rent. Seehow much you can understand beforelooking at the vocabulary. ANNOUNCEMENT1 'Ti teachdeasi ligeanar cios don samhradhi gCarna.Tri sheomraleapaati ann, cistin mh6r, seomrasuitedeas.Td s6mile O N6ill ag (o9rl 765489; 6n bhfarraige.Glaoighar Sh6amas teoch 6 ligeon ot cios deos mmhmdh m6r mile 6n bhforrcige glooigh or 2 ANNOUNCEMENT agam.Teachm6r 6 ligeanar cios ag Brid Bean 'T6 f6gra eile anseo leapaati sateachseo. Ceithresheomra Ui Dh6naill sa Spid6al. Cistin mh6r, seomrasuite,seomrafolctha thuas an staighreagus leithreas thios an staighre. Nfl s6 ach leathmhile 6n tri. Gach eolas 6 BheanUi Dh6naill agogt-83r42.' T6 ... ogom f6grd eile nil s6 och ledthmhile t16 gocheolos6 ... I have anothetonnouncement it is only half a mile beach all information from .. . a housebeing let (for rent) nice summel bi9 o mile ftom the sea phone

.Anois,teachbeagi dTir Chonaill, in aicele Min an Chladaigh. Dh6 sheomraleap^ ata ann. Cistin bheagagusseomrasuite. Nfl s6 ach caogaslat 6n u6. Gacheolas6 Hifdai Ph6draig6 Baoill ag o7r-z9t6o.' beog in oice le slot smoll beside yard (measurement)

How many bedroomsare therein the houseeachperson below is advenising? i S6amas O N6ill ii Brid BeanUi Dh6naill iii Hiidai Phridraig6 Baoill Which houseis nearest to the beach?

Comprehension 2
Here is an extract from a brochure outlining the possibilities for accommodation in An Spid6al, Conamara,which is a Gaeltacht areaon the west coast(County Galway): Comp6ilogusCorobhdln Pdirc Sooire on SpidCil, B6thor no hAbhonn, An Spid6ol Goillimhe.091-83372. T69compon6 corobhAn leotl Br0nno Br0on Spideil. An Spld6ol. 091-83555 6stdin 6st6nno Pdirce, An Spideol. Goillimhe.09l -83159 Tithe Sooire(Seqlloithe& rl) Coitlin UiChonghoile, DotreonFhioidh, Coslo. 091-72437,091-74100. 2 theochor cios rcond)


Unlt5 Sodolhcomm


M6irin Ui Thuoirisg. Loch6n Beog, Indreobhdn. 091-93218. Seolloi or cios. Tithe Sooire on Spidil, An Cnoc ogus An Spid6ol. 01-593138 TitheSooire no Pdirce. 6stdnno Pdirce. An Soideol 091-831 59 Tithe L6istin (Leobo ogus Bricfeostq 6 20 - leothphmghos do ph6ist0 'Ard-Aoibhinn", Boirbre Ui Churroidhin, Cnocdn 6los,An Spid6ol. (le hdiseonno priobhdideqchq) 091-831 79.5 sheomro 'Teormonn", M6irod Ui Neochtoin, Boile on tsogoirt. An 5pid6ol. 091-83214. 4 sheomro "Breifne", AineUi Mhdirtin, SidheAn, An SDidCol. 091-83143. 6 sheomrq "Cois-Mqro". MOirin Ui ChCldigh, Soile Ch0no. An Spid6ol. 091-83247 . 5 sheomro "Cois MdireUi Nochtoin. no Coille", Seqnobh6lnin. An 5Did6ol. 091-83352. 4 sheomro "Rodhorc Peig Ui Chonchubhoir. on Ch16ll', Coilleoch. An SpidCol. 091-83257.4 sheomro MaireNi Chonghoile.'An Colodh Georr", An Cnoc. Indreobhdn. 091-93124. Teoch cmnn tui, 3 sheomro le hdiseonno. "Doirekyle Sile Ui Mhooldin, House", Doire Choill. Coslo. 091-72412. (1 le hdiseonno) 4 sheomro "Cloch Noncy no Scith", Ui Neochtdin, Coilleoch. An SpidCol Teoch 091-83364. ceonn tui. "Cois SollyUi Fhlothorto, Cool6ire", Boile on tsl'aibhe. An spid6ol. 091-831 76.6 sheomro MOire Ui Iomain. Ros o'Mhil. Boile no hAbhonn. 9l-72158. go 4 sheomro.60r do no boid hAroinn R6toi speisioltotoistil ogusbio do Ghrtpai/ Eogroiochtci Gacheolos: Forusno Goeilge01-6398400 n6 6 do GhrtpoAiti0il (From: C6sta Chonomara Teo/Foras na Gaeilge)

tithe sooire tithe f6istin brrl(nnq) seoffoi gor do tui teoch Geonn

holidaY homes houses offeringbed and breakfast hostel(s) cholet to close thatchedcottage

Answer is ffor or ni ffor: o Thereis no campsite. b Thereis a hotel. C Thereis a reductionfor childrenin B&85.


Unlt 5 Sco do th.omm


(f) Ni roibh bdisteoch ogoinn' le tomoll dochor(m)

Wehoven'thod rain.(lit. we didn't haverain) for sometime horm

T6 s6go bredinniu It isfinetodoy

howto In thisunityouwillleorn . Talkabout the weatheL a frequent topic of conversation in lrcland given the variable nature of the climate

2 Diologue
. .

i. Is olcon oimsir ls olc.Tds mor seole seochtqin. Bhion-9h6lo onnorir. Beidh feobhos oir ! Beidh feobhos oiron on tseochtoin tseochtoin seochugoinn, cloisim.

o .} o o ri 4 F

o TJ

Td s6 go bre6/9odono inniu. Is bred/olcon qimsir i. T6 s6 fe bheith fuot.

today. It's fine/terrible weather. It's fine/terrible It is expected to be cold.

Here are some Ag caint faoin ai\$i (talking about the weather). brief exchanges about the weather.Note what the weatheris Iike in eachconversation.

otc oimsir (f) mqr seo le seochtoin (f) bhi on-ghdlo (m) onn. Beidh feobhos (m) oir .-. on tseochtoin (f) seo chugoinn cloisim


weathel Iikethis for the post week

Thab nh< nttiro d ^nla

9 !a

It willbe better... next week(lit. thisweektowardsus) I heol

Diologue 3 1 Diologue
4 ii

. -

. .

Tas690 bre6inniu. leis. le Dio.TdgAogoinn T6,buiochos ogoinn letomoll. Ni roibh bdisteoch Ni hoondochor sin.

Tdsego donotrdthn6no. lb, och ni roibhse90 holcor moidin. Tdsie bheithfliuchorison tseqchtoin seochugoinn.

o trl o o ri c,

(m) le Dio. Buiochos (m) t6 96 ogoinnle

Thanks be to God. (lit. we haveneedofl need we

go dono/9oholc T6 s6 le bheithfliuch.(f) qn tseochtoin seochugoinn


it is (.prcdicted) to be wet. nextweek(|ft.thisweektowordsusl


Unlt 6 T6s6go bredinnlu



o o c
F j

Diologue 4
r Nochbre6on ld 6. Is bred. Is fodo6 bhis6chomh te oquschomh tirim. Ni roibhbAisteoch onn le coicis. beoonoch.

12 EANAIR at CD'I,TR 7,2:20 na hAimsire6 Raidi6na Gaeltachta. 'SeoR6amhfhaisn6is T6 ar fud na tire faoi ldthairachbeidhs6ag glanadhsan biiisteach iarn6in.T6 an teochtfaoi l6thairthan ar chiig ch6imCelsius. Beidh corrchithsaniartharanocht,agusbeidhan teochtthart ar thri ch6im Beidhs6ag 6iri fuar sanoinhear,agusbeidhsiocin iiteanna.' Cclsius. 6 or fud no tire (f) fooi ldthoir thort or c6im(f) og glonodh corrchith(m) iorn6in(f) og 6iri 6it (f) from throughout the country ot present obout degree clearing (lit.cleoni ng\ occosionol shower afternoon becoming place


Noch bre6 on 166? is fodo 6... chomhte chomhtirim le coicis(f) beognoch

isn't it a fine day? It's a longtime since ,.. ('slongsince\ so not so dry for a foftnight almost

f g

c Diologue 5

. -

TdsCfuorqmuigh inniu. T6,90deimhln, ochtA sCbre6te istighonseo. TdsCmeirbhonseo. ceortoo leor. ..........i....-.

Trueor folse? q Beidh bdisteach ar fud na tire san iarn6in. b Beidhs6tirim san iarthar anocht. 12 LOIL

J omuigh/istigh

tA s6 bre6 te meirbh ceort go leor

outside/inside it is niceond warm(lit. it is fine wam) warm,close, humid o tight (lit. right enough)

.t CD1,TR 7, 2:S8 'BeidhR6amhfhaisn6is na hAimsireagainnar dtris.T6 ceo in diteanna ar fud na tire ar maidinach beidhan ghrianag teacht amach ar ball.Beidhan teocht timpeall6chec6imCelsius. Beidh sscamallach satuaisceart niosd6anai, agusbeidhceathanna in or dtos timpeoll qr boll teocht (f)

REAMHFHAISNEIS NA HAIMSIRE (THE WEATHER FORECAST) Hereare two weatherforecasts from Raidi6 na Gaeltachta (the radio service for Irish-speaking areas). Studythe Language notesbefore readingthem, and then try to figureout as much as you can.

first around later rcmperature

Unit 5 Td sgo bredInnlu




nios d6onoi tr6imhse (f)

later spellof time,pe od

Notice that words ending with a vowel typically do not change: ld sneachta

a snouy day (ht. a day of snowl

True or folse? o Td ceo ann ar maidin. b Beidhan aimsir go brei satuaisceannios d6anai.

T6 s6 te. T6 s6 fuor. It is hot. It is cold.

Longuoge notes
1 CINEALACHA AIMSIRE(TYPESOF WEATHER) Pluml bdisteoch(f) rain cith (m) shower ceo (m) fog ceobhr6n(m) drizzle bfidfln (m) drizzle gooth (f) wind 96lo (m) gale stoirm (f) storm grion (f) sun scomoll(m) c/oud sioc(m) frost snedchto(m) snolv ceqthonno Adjective ceqthochshowery ceochfoggy ceobhrAnochdrizzly ggLofgl windy g6lci stoirmeccho scomoill stoirmiiil stormy grianmhorsunny c/oudy scomollach

or T6 teos qnn, TAfuocht onn. Thercis heat. Thereis cold.

Celsius, T6 s6timpeall s6ch6im Celsius. lt is six degrees deichgc6im It is alnost ten degrees Celsius. Td s6beagnach Celsius. (THE POINTSOF THE COMPASS) 3 POINT| AN CHOMPAIS Look at the compasst to sayin the norlr, etc. usesa before consonants and san beforevowels, satuaisean(m) in the north sa deisceart lml in the south sanoirthear (ml in the east saniarthar lml in tbe west

an tualsceart

Someof thesewords eitherlack an adiective or their corresponding adjective is rarely used.Insteadthe genitivecasemay be used(the variousways in which it is formed hereare reviewedat the end of the grammarsection): 16(m) gr6ine tr6imhsi gr6ine 16b6isti li seaca oiche (f) stoirme ld gaoithe a sunny day \lit, a day of sun; an ghian the sunl sunny spells a rainy day (lit, a day of rain) a frosty day (lit. a day of frostl d storrnynight (lit. a night of storm) a uindy day (lit. a day of utindl an t-iarthar

an deisceart
UnltS Tds6go bredinniu



(THE DAYSOF THE WEEK) 4 LAETHANTA NA SEACHTAINE <l CD1,TR 7, 3:34 The basicnamesare givenon the left here.When referringto a particular one you must useD6 beforeit (notice,however,that Dd is alreadyincorporatedin the word D6ardaoin): Luan Mdirt C6adaoin D6ardaoin Aoine Satharn Domhnach a Monday a Tuesday a Wednesday aTbursday a Friday a Saturday a Sunday D6 Luain D6 Mrin D6 C6adaoin D6ardaoin D6 hAoine D6 Sathairn D6 Domhnaigh on Monday on Tuesdty on Wed.nesday on Thursday on Friday on Saturday on Sunday

6 NA MiONNA (THE MONTHSOF THE YEAR) Ean6r Feabhra M6rta Aibre6n Bealtaine Meitheamh

January February March April May lune

Idil Lrinasa Man F6mhair DeireadhF6mhair Samhain Nollaig

l"ly August September October Nouember December

and Octobermeanzrid-autumn andend The words for September respectively. The word for December is the sameas that autunn of preceded These names are usually by mi (monthl, for Christmas. MiEanLi tbe month of one speaks of so that lanudry, etc.Mi genitive the following case,so changes are required. requiresthe '(| CD1,TR 7, 4:06 Mi an Mhdna Mi Aibre6in Mi na Bealtaine Mi an Mheithimh MiI'iil Mi Mhdan F6mhair Mi DheireadhF6mhair Mi na Samhna Mi na Nollag the month of March the month of Aptil the morth of May the month of lune the montb of luly the montb of September the montb of October the month of Nouember the month of December

The distinctioninvolving D6 can be seenhere: Beidhl6n againnLuan 6igin. Beidhl6n againnD6 Luain. We'll baueluncb someMonday. We'll bauelunch on Mond.ay.

(THE sEAsO'VS) S NA SEASOIR The namesof the seasons are givenhere,along with their genitive forms (all are masculine, so f6mhar lautumnl and geinhreadh (tinterl arelenitedafter an lof thel, and samhradhhas a t prefixedto it): an t-earrach the beginningof sPrtnS an samhradh the summer 16ran tsamhraidh the middle of summer an f6mhar the autumn tris an fh6mhair the beginning of autamn an geimhreadh the winter lir an gheimhridh tbe middle of u.rtntef the spring tis an earraigh

1 THEPRESENT, AND FUTURE PAST OFTA$S) Hereis a tableshowing thevarious formsof ti. You have already metmostof them, for pasttense raibh(pron.rev): except
Negotivestotement Question nil mCI om not on bhfuilm? am /? ni roibhme I woJnot on roibhm6?wasI/ m6I won'tbe on mbeidhm?wil/I be? ; beidhme/ wil/ be ni bheidh


Unlt 5 Td ia 9o brcd Inniu


The forms bhfuil and mibh are called'dependent' forms of td, as their usedepends on the presence of ni or on. 2 AD'ECTIVES REFERRING TO THE WEATHER The following adlectivesare usedwith ti (rt) to comment on the weather: go maith good go bre6 fin" go h6lainn beautiful mild bog Ti sElt is fuar cold ar maidin this moming fliuch u)et inniu nday trlthn6na this euening ceathach shouery anocht tonight tirim dry gaofar windy scamallach cloudy Bhi sElit uas) is usedfor past time and beidh s6 lit utill bel for future time: Bhi s6fliuch inn6. Beidh s6fuar anocht. It was uet yesterday. It uill be cold tonight.

deos 6ldinn oinnis T6 an aimsir go maith. go holc. go dona. go deas go hilainn. go hainnis.

nice beautiful awful The weatheris good. bad. bad. nice. beautiful. awful.

TA at 16

The day is

standon their own without go, The greatmajority of adjectives for example: T6 an trithn6na fuar. T6 an oichedorcha. 4 EXPRESSIONS OF TIME
Some nouns referring to periods of time are given on the left and the corresponding adverbs on the right.

Tbe eueningis cold. The nisht is dark,

mqidin tr6thn6nd oiche morning evening night or moidin thismorning tr6thn6no thisevening onocht tonight o16ir lastnight oicheomdroch tomorrow night inniu toooy yesterday inn omdroch tomorrow

3 U5IN6 60 WITH AD]ECTIVES requirego, y/hich is You will havenoticedthat someadjectives untranslatable, beforethem. Thereare only a few of these,but they are quite frequent, and they tend to expressapproval or rather than just describing actual conditions.Go disapproval prefixesh to adjectives which beginwith a vowel:




9ood bod bad

Tr6thn6nois usedfor any time after 4 pm or so, anJ its meaningoverlaps with that of Englishofternoon(it originally meantnoontide,as shown by the n6na part).

Unlt 6 Tds6go bre6Innlu


5 AD]ECTIVES NORMALLY FOLLOWTHE NOUN You saw in Unit 3 that adjectives are lenitedafter femininenouns (unless of coursethey beginwith a vowel, or l, n, r). Here are some further exarnples, describing weatherconditions: Masculine Feminine 16brei a fine day oiche bhrei a fine night tr5thn6nafuar a cold euening maidin Ihuar a cold moming sioctrom heauyfrost b6isteach throm heauyrain The word aimsir kaeatherlis feminine,so the variouskinds of weatherinclude: aimsir bhreS bhog fhuar ghr6nna fine ueather mild uteatber cold weather bonible ueather

Na prefixesan h to vowels:
aimslr oiche

ueather night

R6amhfhaisn6is tbe *eather na hAimsire forecast the middle of lir na hoiche the night

7 TA WITH ANN (THERE) by nouns,To say: Someweatherstatesare more usuallydescribed (or you must use ti future is/will be raiz, etc. beidh)with there rhe adverbof place annthere,You say (lit. ) is rain there for it is raining. You will hearthe following on the weatherforecast: b6isteach throm ceo tr6imhsigrine gaoth liidir sioc heauy rain mtst sunnyspells strong u.tind frost


ann there

The expression Oiche mhaith \good night) is usedfor saying farewellat night. 6 MOREWAYSOF EXPRESSING 'OF THE' In the previousunit you met phrases suchasbarr an bh6th^lr lthe top of the roadl,If the secondnoun is femininean (tDe)becomes na. which doesnot cause lenition: an chistin tbe door of the kitchefl an mhaidin the morning nuachtna maidine the morning news an tsraid the street barr na sr6ide the top of tbe sfteet an tseachtain the ueek tis na seachtaine the beginningof the uteek the hitchen dorasna cistine

(IMPROVEMENT,EXCELLENCE, A FEABHAS ETC.) = improuemeflt o Feabhas The noun feabhas is normally used,in combinationwith prepositions, insteadof the corresponding verb (feabhsaionn tmprouesl. T6 feabhas The weatherhas improued. ar an aimsir. llit. Thereis an improuernent on the weather) Td feabhasort. You are better le.g,as regards health). Ti s6ag dul i bhfeabhas. It is improuing. \lit. It is going into irnprouementl or T6 feabhas ag teachtair. It is improuing.(lit. An i?nprouerflent is comingupon it)


Unit 5 T6 169o bie6 innlu


b Ar fheabhas= excellent This book is excellent. Ti an leabharseoar fheabhas. 9 EMPHASIZIN6 AN ADJECTIVE Commentssuchas it's a fine day, it's bad u,eather are concerned mainly with the quality expressed by the adjective. It would be possible to translatethem into Irish as is 16brei 6, is aimsir olc i, (in but the adjective is usuallybrought forward for extra emphasis addition an is insertedbeforethe noun); this requiresthe adjective to be preceded by the copula is: Is bre6 an 166. Is bre6 an oichei. Is dona an 166. Is maith an aimsir i. Is olc an aimsir i. lt's a fine day. lt's a fine nigbt. It's a bad day. It's good u.,eather. It's terribleueather.

questionis formed with nach: I negative Nach bre6an aimsir i? Nach ait an rud 6? Nach maith an rud ? Isn't it great tueather? Isn't it a strange thing? Isn't it iust as utell?

10 FORMINo AD]ECTIVESFROM NOUNS Thereare numberof endingsfor this purpose: a -mhar grianmhar sunny grian (sun) + nhar gaorh (windl + mhar gaofar arizdy (notethe spelling change) r mhar ciallmhar sensible ciall (sease)
b -ach scamall (cloudl + ach

Notice how 6 or i is usedaccordingto the genderof the noun ( for masculine. i for feminine ). This word order is also usedfor more generalcomments: Is m6r an trua 6. Is ait an rud . Is bocht an sc6al6. It's a geat Pity. It's a straflgething. It's bad news.(lit. It's a poor story)

ceobhr6n(drizzle)+ ach cith (sbower)+ ach compord (comfort) + ach tibhacht (irftportancel + ach

scamallach ceobhrdnach ceathach compordach t6bhachtach

cloudy drizzly showery comfortable trnportant

c -fil (-iriil after a slender consonant) stoirm (storz) + iriil 16(day)+ {il c6rl(fame)+ iiil stoirmirlil laethriil c6iliiil storrny daily famous

The last of these may be used to sympathize on a bereavement. Adiectives are repeated in answers and in agreements:

11 MORE ON THE USEOF THE GENITIVE Is m6r. Is ait. Is bocht. It is, It is. It is. The genitivecaseis requiredafter ar fud (throughoutl,tinpeall (around,about\ and i rith (during): an 6r lthe countryl an sp6ir(rDesAy) an ph6irc lthe field) an tseachtain ltbe weekl ar fud na tire thloughout the country ar fud na sp6irea// ouerthe sky timpealf na piirce arcund the feld i rith na seachtaine during the week
Unit6 T6sego bredinniu 9I

The negative ni is sometimes usedin this way: Ni maith an rud 6. Ni maith. It isn't desirablelideal. llit. a good thing\ It isn't.


(BAD) 12 DROCHThisis orefixed to nouns andcauses lenition:

dr ochaimsir bad uteatber drochshamhradh a bad summer 135rO15 Femininenounsbeginningwith s prefix a t after an (t e) (including Cn?uhat? = c(. + an). seachtatn(uteek) an tseachtain seo an tseachtain seocaite an tseachtain seochugainn (c6ntseachtain?) an tseanbhean seanbhean lold uomanl seibhis (seraicel an tSeirbhisPhoibl( sti'il (eyel an tsfil dheas an tsfiil chl6 this uteek last u.,eek next uteek uthatlwhich uteek? the old uoman tbe Public Seruice the right eye the left eye BeidhBeidhBeidhBeidhsa tuaiscean. san iarthar. san oirthear. sa deisceart. drochthalamh bad hnd dtochbhia bad food

Note I an tuaisceart- sa gsarsceart ltbe nortb - in tbe northl if Use Beidh s6 lit uill bel with adiectives:beidh s6{liuch. UseBeidh lthere utill be\ with nouns: beidh b6isteachsa ... 3 Ldigh arr t6acsseo (read this textl <t CDl, TR 7, 4:44

A IAin. Dta,&oh

1 Match thesepairs of opposites: o maidin I inn6 b am6rach ll oiche iii n6thn6na cl5 What can you sayabout the weather? Here is the weathermap for tomorrow.

Ta nuil a@ L .rpb U e'ue rA aadt rytie Lt M fuwrt. lM i|sir r.t b*t stto d.s Dt MAft ryB D, Cre&di thlst tinid g6 bht aas M thl nqi/ g inbt'rilfryB ry tuh de'l tu air Da seahtnr.

qr cios rented 'Vhat was the weatherlike in Killarnev on eachof the davs mentionedin the Dostcard?
Unlt 6 Td !6 go brd Innlu



with what the weatherwas like: 4 Match up theseexpressions i Bhi s6gaofar. o Bhi sioc ann ardir. ii Bhi an aimsir go deas. b Bhi gaoth l6idir ann inn6. iii Bhi an aimsir fuar. G Bhi biisteachann inn6. iv Bhi s6fliuch. d Bhi tr6imhsigr6ineann ar maidin. her Deirdre is just back from a holiday in the sun. Cornplete with Niamh: conversation : Niomh An _ on oimsirgo deosso PhortoingAil? 30o. cinnte. Bhis6_, onn, is d6cho? Ni bdisteoch or bith onn c0plooicheoch bhi s Bhuel, bhi ceothqnno
aar|-r lA

c Bealtaine d Samhain e l6il and agreement with noun Positionof adjective with eachof the nounsbelow and make Put theseadjectives changes to the adjectives: any necessary brei, fuar adjectives: nouns:li (m); oiche(f); trithn6na (m); maidin (f) an adjective. Emphasizing as in the example: Make statements mar shanpla: 16bre6- Is bre6 an 156 d tr6thn6nabre6 o ld bog b oichebhre6 e aimsir mhaith c maidin fhuar from thesenouns: 10 Make adiectives o Regular forms b Irregularforms grlan gaoth- _ scamallcith - sto[m -

i Deirdre : Niomh I Deirdre


qr bith bhuel goch

any well every

6 Postcards can be very brief, like the one below.Try to write it out in full to includethe verbst6 and bhi.
Dia dhaoibh Ai'isirgo hdlaihh. Bia go naith. Oshingo hiohtach 'lbsci "'aith. Ag lanhsa ariir Ag dul sios ag sndmh azois. Sld"

yourself Test : Comprehension

<, CDl, TR 7, 5:53 R6arnhfhaisn6is na haimshe (the ueather forecast) Here are someweatherforecasts which you might hear on the radio. Match eachwith the appropriateweathermap overleaf.

NL mionna ltnonthsl Put Mi beforeeachof theseas in the examples. mar shampla: Aibredn - Mi Aibre6in Meitheamh- Mi an Mheithimh o Nollaig b Medn F6mhair

o 'SeoR6amhfhaisn6is na hAimsire.Ti s6fuar tr6thn6nasa tuaisceart ach t6 s6tirim. Beidhsiocann anocht.Beidhs6fuar f6s maidin amirach ach beidhtrEimhsigr6ineann. B6isteach nios d6anaisa 16.'


Unlt 6 T6s69o bredinniu


och nios donol


b 'SeoR6amhfhaisn6is na hAimsiredo ch6statheasna hEireann. Ti ceo ann ar maidin. Beidhs6gaofarnios deanaiagusbeidh tr6mhsigr6ineann. Beidhs6go bre6trdthn6naagusbeidh s6 te. Ceo aris anocht.'


southern again

C6nt-om 6? Whottimeisit?
howto In thisunityouwillleqrn . Tolkabout the adivities whtchmakeup your dally routlne . Stof.e the time at whichyou do them
Cn post (m)/tsli (0 bheotho ot6 ogot? Cnt-om o 6idonn t6? o thosoionn? o chriochnoionn? Cod/C6ord o dh6ononnt0?

Whotisyout occupation? Whottimedoyou getup? ... begin? ... ftnish? you Whotdo do?

Diologue 1
Peopleof different occupations are asked by flna, a researcher, about their dai.lyroutine.

o c



Unh 7 CCi t{rn 6?


Cenpost otd ogot?

) g

feqr poist T6s6 sin ... luoth go leor Criochnoim og o d6 o chlog.

Whotdo you workot? (lit. whotjob do you have?) postmon Thotis ... fairlyearly(lil. earlyenough) I finish ot twoo'clock.

Cent-om o th6onnt0 obhoile? Ono o chlog sotrdthn6no Siobhdn T6im obhoile og o hocht de ghndth ... ochuolreonto criochnoim oq o ceotholr o chloq so trothn6no.

C6ntsli bheothoot6 ogot? bonoltro (fl An dtosoionn ti og oboir go luoth? Donoim Tosoim og o hocht o chlog. Ag o hocht o chlogso tr6thn6no. de ghndth och udireonto Questions

Diologue 2

(lit. What'syour occupotion? What woyof life do you hove?) nurse Doyou beginwork(ing) early? Ido I beginot eighto'clock. At eighto'clockin theevening. usualry but sometimes


n o
o qt c F

o u

Unq D6noll ono D6noll onq D6nall Uno D6noll

postotd ogot? CCn ls feirmeoir m6Cn t-omo 6irionn t0 or moidin? Eirim og leothi ndioidh o sCn6 tomoillin roimhe. CCord o dheononn t0 onsin? TCim omoch oguscr0imno bo. Cnt-om o chriochnoionn t0? go dti thortor o nooio chlog 6, bhuel, ni chriochnoim so trdthn6no.

o C6n t-am a thosaionn siad agus c6n t-am a chriochnaionn siad.? lwhat time do they start and what time do they fnish?):

Tosaionn Eirimog leoth i ndiqidho s6. n6 tomoillin (m) roimhe C6ord o dh6onqnn t0 onsin? t6im qmoch qguscr0im no bo (f) 0, bhuel ni chriochnoim 90 dti ... thort or d nqoiochlog
I geL uP uL ttu' l pu>L tt^.


0 t o

or a littlewhilebeforc Whotdoyou do then? I go out ond I milk the cows Oh,well I don't finish until . . arcundnine o'clock

fear poist feirmeoir banaltra b Who worksthe longest hours? c !trhose hoursare sometimes irregular?

An t-am (the time) Diologue 3

ao 4 F


<,)CD1, TR 8, 2:00 Cdn t-am 6? T6 s a tri a chlog.


I oR

Centsli bheothootAogot? Siobhdn Is bonoltrom6. 0no An dtosoionn t0 og oboirgo luqth? 5iobhdn DConoim. Tosoim og o hocht o chlog or moidin.

What time (is) it? It is threeo'cloch.

Unlt 7 6?


In telling the time the numbers from r to ro are precededby a (see Unii r). This prefxes an h to the two mrmberswhich begin with a vowel: T6 s6a haon a chlog. Nil s6a hocht a chlog f6s. a naoi. T6 s6beagnach It is one o'clock (aon = r). It isn't eight o'clock yet (ocht = 8) It is almost nine.

2 STATINGTHE TIME AT WHICH YOU DO SOMETHING <f CD1,TR 8, 2:29 Put ag (ar) before the expressionof time: T6im abhaile ag a tri a chlog. Eirim ag a seachta chlog. 3 UNITS OF TIME uair (f) an clrloig n6im6ad(m) soicind(m) an bour (ht- an bour of the clock\ a miffi4te second I go home at three o'clock' I get up at seueflo'clock'

leath i ndiaidh a tri {| CD1,TR 8, 2:40

ceathni chun a ceathair

a deich chun a ceithair

T6 s6 a cfig i ndiaidh a tri. Td s6ceathrri chun a deich. Td s6leathi ndiaidh a s6.

It is fnte past three. It is quarter b ten. It is balf past six.

The following expressionsare important: Beidhm6 ann roimh a s6, T6 s6i ndioidh a s6. Beidhm6 ann idir a s6is a seachta chlog. Bhi m6 ann 6no s6go dti a seacht a chlog. I'll be thercbeforesix. It's aftet six. I'll be therebetween sixand seven. I wos thereftom sixto seven o'clock.

An clog(theclock)
The expressionsused to state the time precisely are shown here:

ln the last example6no = 6 + o.

Diologue 4
'What time is it now?
N arl

a ri a chlog

ceathni i ndiaidh a tri

6che i ndiaidh a r(

o c


Unk 7 Centdn6?


beognoch d6onoch Dan deiflrl (f) T69 bog 6.

almost late Hurry uP! (lit. Makehaste!) Tokeit easy.(bog = soft)

Beidhm6 anseogo dti leathtar 6isa ceathair.

I uill be here until half past four.

Thesecompoundprepositions are usedin other contextsalso. The elements diaidh and 6isare originally nounsand therefore a following noun is put in the genitivecaseif it hasone. i ndiaidh an l6in tar 6isan dinn6ir tar is na bdisti after luneb (l6n (ml luncb\ after dinner ldinnar (m) dinnerl after the rain (biisteach lfl rainl

Diologue 5
ln arl

IThat time are they meetingCathal? C6nt-om o bheidhmuidog buolodhle Cothol? Ag ceothri I ndioidho hochL T6s6singo bre6.lA go bor omo ogolnn.

o c

You will meetother compoundprepositions suchas i rith during, at feadh d.uring, and ar fud throughout in other units. They have the sameeffect on following nouns as the two dealt with here. To sayfue to, ten to, quarter to, etc. you use the preposition chun:

og buolodhle go leorcmo (m)

meeting with plenty of time

Ti s6 a criig chun a tri. Beidhm6 anseo go dti ceathrf chun a crlig.

It is fue to three. I'll be herc until qaarter to fiue.

1 HOW TO SAY'PAST' AND 'TO' WITH TO TIME REFERENCE To s y frue past,ten past, quarterpast,etc. you useone or other i ndiaidh (you can of the so-called 'compoundprepositions' pronouncethis i nia) and tar 6is,which rneanafter. Both are widely usedand it is as well to learn and practiseeachof them. T6 s6a ciig i ndiaidh/taris a ceathair. Bhi m6 ann ag ceathrf i ndiaidh/ tar 6is d6. Beidhm ar ais ag leath i ndiaidh a tri. lt is fiue pastfour. I was thereat quarterpast two. I'll be back at half past three,

2 VERBS IN THE PRESENT TENSE The endingsof the verb in the present tensecan be seencleadyin the forms ofthe verb t6ann (goas), givenbelow. Apan from the 1 (first personsing:ulatland. we (first personplural) forms the endingis -ann, to which a pronoun (see Unit r) is added.

tim t6ann tr.i tdanns6 t6annsi tannmuid

= = = = =

t6+im t + ann tf t6 + ann s6 t + ann si t6 + ann muid

Igo you go be goes shegoes ue go


Unft 7 C6nt-om C?

f Ot

t6imid t6annsibh t6ann siad

= t6 + imid ue go = t6 + ann sibh yoz go = tC + allrasiad, they go

as may be seenby comparingthe forms after a broad consonant, (bnys),givenbelow. Notice of imionn lgoesawayl and ceannaionn also: i+im i + imid i+onn becomes im imid ionn

You now meetan ending-imid, rneaning ze, which is the traditional literary form and is still usedin speech in Munster.

Type r
When theseendingsare addedto a verb which endswith a consonant somespelling adjustments are required. If the consonant is precededby a/o/u, an a is placed before irn and itnid. If, however,the consonantis preceded by i, an e is placedin front of ann. This follows from the spellingrule of'slender uith slender and broad with broad' (see lntoduction), and can be seenin the presenttenseforms of figann (leaues) and caireann(puts,sendsl. The vowelsaddedhavebeencaoitalized here: figAim figann tri f6ganns6 figann si f6gAimid f6gannsibh f6gannsiad I leaue you leaue he leaues sbe leaues ute leaue you leaue they leaue

I you he sbe we you they

fanann (stdls) fanAim fananntf fananns6 fanannsi fanAimid fanannsibh fanannsiad

Type z (i verbs) rmionn (goesaway) ceannaionn (6nys) imim ceannAim imionn td ceannAionn nl imionn s6 ceannAionn s6 imionn si ceannAionn si imimid ceannAimid imionn sibh ceanAionnsibh imionn siad ceannAionn siad

I put
yolt put

All verbsfollow eitherthe Type r or Type z panern: Type 1 d6ononn mokesl does puts cuireonn tugonngives ligeonn /ets foigheonn gets fononnstoys itheqnn eots

cuirEannni cuirEanns6 cuirEannsi cuirimid cuirEannsibh cuirEannsiad

he puts sbeputs put u.)e you put tbey put

fdgonn/eaves l6qnnreods togonncomes creideonn be/ieves t6onngoes tulgeonn understands

The contrastfound in Englishbetween I urite (novels) and I azz uriting lthis very minute)also occursin Irish. You havemet the secondtype already,in Unit 4. scriobhaim I urite t6im I go f6gaim I leaue td m6 ag scriobh I am writing t6 m6 ag dul I am going t6 mE ag figiil I am leauing


getsup Cirionn oibr'tonn work imionn goesawoy bqilionncollects criochnoionn finishes tosoionn starts

3 THETWOYERE CI.AssES Irishverbs fall into two different classes according to whether they have an i before theending in thepresent tense. Thisi becomes ai to4

Unlt7 C6n t om 6?


4 THE NEGATIVEMARKER Ni AND THE QUESTION MARKER AN A negative statement is madeby putting ni, which causes lenition, beforethe verb, and a questionby putting an, which causes eclipsis, beforeit. (See Unit r3 for the past tenseforms of these.) Negative Ni th6im. I don't go. Ni th6anntri. You don't go. Ni thdann sE. He doesn'tgo. Ni th6annsi. Shedoesn'tgo. Ni th6ann muid. We don't go. Ni thimid. We don't go. Ni th6annsibh. You don't go. Ni th6annsiad. Tbey don't go. Question Ar dt6im? Do I goi An dt6annni? Doyou go! An dt6anns6? Does he go? An dt6ann sil Doesshego? An dt6ann mujd? Do ue go? An dt6imid? Do we go! An dt6annsibh? Doyou go! An dt6annsiad? Do they go?

I tCim I go : teimid we90 (pl.)lthey you/he/she/you lsiod goes : t6onnt0/s6/silsibh special This distinctionof one-wordand two-word forms acquires questions; the pronoun of the two-word importancein answering form is normally dropped; An dt6annti abhailego luath? Tdim. An dtdannt( a chodladhgo luath? T6im. An dt6annsibh ag obair go luath? Timid. An dt6anns6ag obair go luath? T6ann. An dt6annSe6nagusSilelibh? Tann. Do you go home early? I goll do. Do you go to bed early? I goll do. Do you go to work early? \k go/We do. Does he go to utorh early? GoeslDoes, Do Sedn and Silego with you! CoeslDoes.

Someexamples of quesdons and answers are givenhere.There are no equivalents of yesand zo in Irish; one echoes the verb instead. Alrnostany verb can be repliedto by usingthe appropriateform of d6.rnarnldoesl (just as in Englishone saysI do or I don'tl. An itheannt( c6is? Ithim. D6anaim. An bhfananntri in 6stdnI gc6nai? Ni fhanaim. Ni dh6anaim. An gceannaionn tri p5ipar
nuachta ? Ni cheannaim. Ni dh6anaim.

However, the pronoun can be repeated in an emphatic answer, and it is then given equal stresswith the verb:

Do you eat cheese? Yes.(lit. I eatl I do. Do you alwaysstay in a hotel? I don't lstay). I don't. Do you buy a neutspaper? I don't (buyl. I don't,

An dt6ann si ann? T6ann si. An dt6annS6an agusSilelibh? T6annsiad. 6 CEN...? (WHAT ...?)

Doesshego tbere? Shedoes(indeed). Do S6an and Silego uith you! Tbey do (indeed).

This is a combinationof c6 (normally= utho?)andan lthe). The following word showsth normal effects of an, accordingto (a) its gender,and (b) the kind of soundit beginswith:
No effect:

5 FORMSWITH PRONOUNS AND FORMS WITHOUT PRONOUNS You haveseenthat one-wordverbalforms are usedwhen the subjectis l, rze,and two-word forms when other persons are involved:

T beforea vowel:

C6n post at6 agat? What is your job? Post(post, iobl is masculine and beginswith a consonant. C6n t-am 6? What tirne is it? An ltimel is masculine and begins with a vowel.
Unft 7 C6nt{m 6? lO7



T befores:

C6n fhuinneog? What uindou? Fuinneog is feminine and beginswith a lenitableconsonant, C6n tsli bheathaata agat? What is your occupation? Sli (raay) is feminine and beginswith s.

Eirim luoth go leor. T6im o chodlodhdonochgo leor. T6 m tuirseochgo leor. OF TIME 9 EXPRESSIONS

I get up fairlyearly. I go to sleep fairly lote. I am foirlytircd.

7 PUTTINGA BEFORE VERB9 which beginwith expressions suchas Cad?/C6ard? Questions (Wloi) (What and C6n t-am? time?l requirethe verb lVhat?1,C6? to be preceded by a, which causes lenition; Tosaionnni ... C6n t-am a thosaionntfl Criochnaionntf ... C6n t-am a chriochnaionn ni? D6anann ni ... C6ard a dh6anannnl? C6 a bhi leat? You begin .., What time (uhich) you begin? You finkh ... What time (uthich) you fnish? Yot do ... Wbat (do) you do? Who uas uith you?

T6 is not lenited. and a + t6 are written at6: T6 post agat,an bhfuil? C6n post at6 agat? Yoa hauea job, do you? What iob (is it uhich) yot haue?

o Theseindicate frequency: uaileanta sometimes corrvair sofietimes anois is aris nou and again 6 am go han from time to time go minic often de gjnith usually in which things are done; b Theseindicatethe sequence ar dws at frst ansin then nios dlanai later c Theserefer to periods of the day: ar maidin in the morning sa trethn6na ifl the dfterrtoo?tleuenbrg istoiche at nigbt san oicheat nigbt 10 NOUNS ENDING I'V -iN The ending -in meats smltll, /ittle. It makesthe final consonant of a noun slender. tamall a uthile capall horse fear man bean uoman tamaillin linle while capaillin pony fuin small man beainin small uoman

(ENOUGH, A GO LEOR PLENTY) This gives the English word galore. It is usedin two ways in lrish: Before a noun to mean enough, sufficr'ezt.Nouns that have a distinct genitive casetake that form after go leor: bio ofrgeod go leor bfd go leor oirgid food money enoughfood enoughmoney

It is is often addedto namesto give familiar forms: S6an Tomds 56ainin Tom6isin

After an adiective to nean fairly:

ro 8

7 C6ntom6? IO9 Untt

Other words end in -in but are not derivedfrom any more basic smallersize: word, and do not suggest cailin aintin girl at4nt

signPost 2 Programme 4 CD1,TR 8,4:14 is looking aheadto the main The continuity announcer It is not necessary of the afternoonand evening. programmes everything - just mark the missingprogramme to understand below: timeson the screen o Na cl6ir lthe Programmes\:

Somefemalenamesend with -in: M6irin Caitlin Maureen Catbleen

Nuair at5 s6a criig a chlog i mBaileAtha 1 C6n t-am 6 i bP6ras? Cliath, cnt-am 6:

S6imlagus Pdidt Nuachl An Aimsir Ci.sai Dr6mana Seachtaine

tr6thn6na.Seo 'Dia dhaoibh.F6ilteromhaibh isteach priomhchldracha an lae. Beidhcl6r againndo ph6ist(ag ceathrf tar 6isa tri - S6imiagusP6idi.BeidhNuacht againndaoibh ina dhiaidh sin, agusan Aimsir ag ceathrdtar 6isa s6.Beidhan cl6r Craolfar polaitiochta'Crirsai" ag siril ag a criig tar 6isa seacht. tar 6is a hocht.' Dr6ma na Seachtaine ag fiche Fdilte romhoibh tr6thn6nd. priomhchkirocho on loe Beidhcl6r ogoinn p6iste Beidhnuochtogoinndooibh. or sitl croolfor (+ r) i bP5ras? i Mosc6?(+ j) (Youare) welcomethis afternoon of the day the mainproEommes We'llhovea programme child We' ll havethe newsfor you. on will be broadcast

Can you work out which programmets: i for children? ii about current affairs?

lii a play?


t-om6? UnltT C6n


3 Match the lettersand numbersto makemeaninefulsentences

o b c d

Fdgaim Tin Lrrrm Oibrim

Tosaim Ni oibrim

i ii iii iv v vi

ag leathuair tar 6is a seacht ag a naoi a chlog an teach ag a hocht a chlog ag an deireadh seachtaine chuig an siopa roimh dhinn6ar 6na naoi go dti a cfig a chlog

(deireadh = weehend\ seachtair.e Gnithl6 Aine (Aine'susualdayl Describe Aine's day in her own words, e.g.Erflm

ag a


in the negative. Some Ni + lenition. Completethe answers requirethe plural form of the verb. Example:An dtosaionntri ag obair go luath ar maidin? Ni thosaim.Do you start work early in the morning?No. (lit. I don't start\ o An dt6anntri chuig an siopagachld? Ni -. T6im ann ag an deireadhseachtaine. m6r gachmaidin? b An itheanntri bricfeasta Ni_. c An bhfanannsibh istigh san oiche? Ni -. T6imid amachminic go leor. d An dtosaionn sibhag a naoigachmaidin? Ni -. Tosaimid ag a hocht de ghnj,th. e An gceannaionn tf p6ipearnuachtagach16? An mbailionn trl stampai? Ni_. tri 6 sin? I An gcreideann Ni_. h An dtuigeanntd an focal sin? Ni r6-mhaith . 6 Obair anlae lthe day's workJ <t CD1,TR 8, 5:00 L6igh 6 seoar dnis lread this frstl: Peadar is ainmdom.Td m6 i mo ch6naiin drasdn i mBaile Atha Cliath. T6 m6 ag obair in oifig. f,irim ag leath i ndiaidh a seacht ar maidin. Oibrim 6na naoi go dti a cfig a chlog gach16.Ni th6im amachag am l6in - ithim ceapaire sanoifig ag ceathnichun a haon agusl6im an piip6ar. Ni oibrim ag an deireadhseachtaine. T6im a chodladhde ghn6th timpeall mdanoiche. Try to complete thesefrom memory: o EirionnPeadar ag _
b Tosaionn s6 ag obair ag _

c Oibrionn s66na II2

go dti
Unit 7 C6nt-om 6? f f j

d ltheann s6 ceapaire san oifig ag _ e T6ann s6 a chodladh de ghn6th timpeall

Questions o When doesthe next boat leave? b Doesthe visitorhavetime for lunch?

ceoPorre de gn6th

sondwich usuolly

7 An ...? Lion isteach na bearnaithios \fll in tbe gapsbelow). Ar dtus f6achar ais ar 5 (frst look back at Exercise 5). Remember the rulesof eclipsis: An dt- gc- nd- mb- bhfoA n bA n cAn dA n eA n tf tae? tri p6ip6ar nuachta gach li? tri do dhinn6ar sa tr6thn6na? ti chuig an siopa gach 16? Olaim, cinnte. Ceannaim. D6anaim.

2 Comprehension
This is a notice promoting an IrishJanguage radio station. Vhat were the dates and times of transmission when the advert appeared? F-rrrrr--l

fAn _ gAn _

tri ag obair go luath ar maidin? Tos6im ag a naoi a chlog. tri ag an deireadh seachtaine? Ni oibrim. tri danach san oifig? Fanaim,6 am go ham.

I Raldl6 na
ls. "r


yourself: Test Comprehension 1

* rn od : B6d6ir
4 F

I ag craoladh6 stiriideo 6 6.30 I Bhord na Gaeilge I Codti 10.30gachoiche6n 1

t' o

Diodhuit. Diois Muire dhult. on badog f69dil? :CuolrteoirC6nt-omo bheidh Agod6ochlog. : B6d6rl : Cuolrteolr An bhfuilbiqlonnonseo? i aaaoir Td,goiriddon s6ipol. Beidh mor oisor boll. ; Cucirteolr Moithgo leor.

go F5mhair | 19.u.?eir:ad.h I ' dti 1 Samhain.


Comharchumann Raidi6 AthaCliath

- I- II-





cuoirteoir b6d biolonn goiriddo on s6ip6ol or boll

visitor boot restauront close to the chapel, church latel


(From: Saol, DeireadhF6mhair, r99r) og croofodh comhorchumqnn broodcasting co-operotive

Unit 7 C6nt-om 6? I I 5

D6noll Aolfe D6noll

C6leis6 seo? to? thisbelong Whodoes

howto In thisunityouwillleorn (clothes, books' . Tcilk about your personal possessions records, etc.) . Describe other peoPle . Express likesand dislikes C6leis...? Is liomso 6 seo. An leatsd 6 seo? Is liom. Ni liom. Is moith liom ... Ni moith liom .....? Whoowns is mine. This Is thisyours? Yes. No. ... I like I don't like...

Aoife D6noll Aoife D6noll

mort6 solos bredonn. Is bredliomso freisin, (D6nall putson somemusic) go lCir? ogusno teipeonno C6leisno dioscoi on chuidis m6 diobh. Is Liomso ogusle mo dheirfirir le m'othoir cuiddiobh lCise no i seomro freisin T6tuilleodh eile. - no cinnjozz. ceoil, morsin. Eisteonn sibhle m6rdn ceoil i mo dheirfiir. Eistimid. Is mocl6inn 0, on eo?Ni roibh o fhiosogomCsin.Cnuirlis o sheinneonn si? go moith, Seinneonn si on veidhlin ogus on pion6, or nd6igh.

boin diot mqr le dioscq (m) t6ip (f) le mo dheirfirlr (f) on chuid (f) is m6 diobh cuid diobh tuilleodh uirlis (f) (ceoil) go moith or nd6igh

takeoff because with' disc tope (lit. with my sistet) my sister's part of them the greater someof them more (musical) instrument well of course


' heremeoning possession section - seeGrqmmor

1 Diologue
AoifevisitsD6nall at his house. or c

True or folse? c Is maithle deirfirir Dh6naillan ceolclasaiceach. b Seinneann si an pian6.

D6noll Aoife


Boindiot do ch6to' Diodhuit.o Aoife.Toristeoch. seo'TAsC Go roibhmoith ogot.Is moith liom on seomro qo hAloinn.


Unit8 CE leis6 seo? I17

og lorg (m) bronntonos (m) dom do choro qr oigne (f) or og smaoineomh uoine o cuid (f) gruoige(f) Gruoig(f) fhionn qt6 uirthi. gorm do oireonn.,. de sileonn... Trueor folse?

looking for present for o friendof mine in mind thinking of 9reen herhoir 5hehasfair/blondhair.


o ) g

suits thinksof

o Caitheanncara Eibhlin uimhir a hocht. b T6 gruaig liath ar a cara.

Diologue 3 2 Diologue
a presentfor a friend' Eibhlin is in a clothesshop, Iooking for o o
ql F 6 IJ

Eibhlin Freostoloi Eibhlin Freostolqi Eibhlin

Freqstdloi Eibhlin Freostoldi Eibhlin Freqstoloi
' El u l rrtrl

dom do choro ii tnl og rorgbronnlonois otd or oigneogot? C6ord or bhl0s' Bhime og smooineomh doth? cCn ogus uimhir Cen morni ogusrudor bithochuoine' o hocht, Uimhir
moith lCiCodoiuoine C6n doth otd or o cuid gruoigel Gluoigfhionn otd uirthi' Ceonngotm mor sin no lioth' Oireonnrudoi gormo di' is d6igh liom t0 de seo? Cordo shileonn

Coitriono M6ir6qd Cqitriond Mdi16od Cqitriond M6ir6od Coitriono M'iirCod Coitriono

Tdbuochoill nuoog Aine. An bhfuil? Cncine6l duine ? Feor bre6ord.TAgruoig dhubh oir,ogus f6os69. An bhfuils6 go deos? Tas6ci0in, ogus on-chriirteiseoch, ocht6 s6 toitneomhoch. Cen t-oinmotd oir? Nioll0 Ceolloigh isoinmd6. Cntsli bheothootd oige? Is stdtsheirbhiseoch . T6sCog oboirso Roinn Oideochois.

* oi c F

t' o


ls moithliom6 sin.

(m) buochqill f6os69 (f) ci0in c0irt6iseoch toitneomhoch

boy (here, boyfriend) beard polite,courteous pleosant

Unit8 C6leis 6 seo? ff9


(m) st6tsheirbhiseoch (f) roinn (m) oideochos Question Cn cine6lduine 6 Niall?

civilseryont department education

Longuoge notes
1 BAILL EADAI1H(ITEM' OF CLOTHING) leine (f) bl0s(m) c6to (m)/cqs69(f) culoith (f) (odolgh) seoicod(m) geonsqi (m) tredbhsdr/briste(f) sciorto (m) gtno (m) stoco(i) (m) shirt blouse coaujacket (including spotts jacket) suit(of clothes) jacket pullover trousers skirt otess stocking(s)

4 Diologue


Is moith liom do chuidctiostoll. : BeonUi Chonoill gloinego ; BeonUi Mhothino Go rqibhmoith ogot.Toitnionn or_

Beon Ui Chonolll Beqn Ui Mhothrino

piosoonoisls otis, m6r liom ogusceonnolm och is le m'inion cuiddiobh. sin? Conos go hdirltheleod6g. Imr-ronn si m6r6nspoirt, leod6gogusbuonns[ duoiseonno Is bre616l 6 om qo hom. criostoil

(COLOURS) 2 DATHANNA deorg bui uoine/9los 9orm corcro dubh bAn lioth donn fionn red yellow/oronge 9teen blue purple black white 9rey brown foir (of hair)

criostdl (m) do chuid crlostoil gloine(f) ceonnoim onols is oris Conossin? imrionn go h6iritheleod6g buonn duais(f) 6 om (m) go hom

crystal , glassware your glasswore glass I buy now ond again Howis that? plays especiollytennis wins prize from time to time

Glas refersto grassand plants,uaineto manufactured things. Dorcha (dark) or 6adrom(light) may be placedbeforecolours: dorcha donn 6adromgorm dark broun ligbt blue

Question C6n sD6rta imrionn inion BheanUi Mhathrina?


Unft8 CEl.ts 6 so?

I 2I


Appeoronce ad tall iseol short romho. fot tonoi thin l6idt strong log wea* Personolity toitneomhoch p/easant grinno unpleasant , rude croitil cheerful(ctoi = heort) clnedltd kind moc6nto honest,rnild-mannered c0irt6iseoch polite (ctlftais = coutesy) foighneochpatient (folghne = patience) (meobholr = mind) meobhmchinte//igent lrimltil intelligent srnart cliste dexterous, d6irire sincere considercte tuisceonochunderstanding, diogmiseochdiligent dllls loyal stuomo levelheoded

'When the persona I formsof le (utith) are usedyou have: Is liom an leabharsin. Is leat 6 seo,is d6cha. Is leis an rothar. Is l6i na leabhair. Is linn an ph6irc seo. Is libh iad seo,nachea? Is leo an fheirm sin. That book is mine. This is youts, presumably. Tbe bike is his. The books arc hers. This feld is ours. Theseare yours, dren't they? That fantr belongsto them.

Thesepersonalforms are reinforcedto liomsa,linne, Ieis_sean, I6ise,linne, libhse,leosanwhen they ar. U"lng-..plrrrir.J, o;' contrasted with one another.This is very oftel the case.Is'ii optional beforethesereinforcedforms. (Is) liomsaan leabharseo, Ni liomsa6. (Is) Iiomsa6 seoagusis leatsa6 sin. (ls) leis-sean 6. Ni l6iseiad. (Is) linne an talamh seo. This book is mine. It isn't ,nine. This is mirc and tbat is yours. It b his. They aren't hers. Tbis land k ours.

personalityhaveopposites describing Several of the adjectives indicated by mi- or neamh-r mi-mhaclnta dishonest mi-chfirt6iseach discourteous neanhthuisceanachin considerate mi-fhoiglneach impatient

Here is how you ask if somebody owns something. An leatsaan c6ta seo? Is liom. Go raibh maith agat. Ni liom. Is le Mdire 6. An leatsana br6gadubha? Ni liom, Is liomsana cinn bhui. Is this coat yours? Yes.Thanhs. No. It's Mary's, Are the black shoesyours? No, Tbe tan onesare mine.

1 IS LIOM (I OWNIIT'S MINE) The phraseis le (lit, is u/ithl is usedto indicateownership: Is le S6anan carr sin. That czr belongsto Sedn.

2 CE (wHosE LErS ...? rs ...?)

You ca.nask.whosomethingbelongs to by putting this phrase. wnrch hteraf fy meansutho with?,before it C6 leis an mila seo? Is liomsa6. Ni liomsa6. Who doesthis bag belong to? It's mine. It isn't mine.

Le puts an h before a word beginning with a vowel: Is le hAine an c6ta seo. tL2 This coat belongs to Aine.

UnltS C6lets6so? I27

Notice that c6lis is alsousedfor ra}o l''it} in the literal sense: C6 leis a raibh ti ag caint? Le cara dom' Leis an sagart. 3 HOW TO SAY 'LIKES' maith (good)and the preposition An idiom basedon the adjective to like'To say for instance' sense in the i. (-irlr) it .o--only used ' literally meanszzsic phrase which you usea ih'rito lik", ^uri" or questrons statements is good with Sheila.To form negative ni, an or nachfor is: substitute Is maith le Sileceol' Ni maith le Sileceol. An maith le Sileceol? Nach maith le S e ceol? Sheilalikes music. Sheilatloesn'tlike music. DoesSheilalike music? Doesn'tSheilalihe music! Wbo utereyou talking to? To a friend. of mine. To the Priest.

A more enthusiastic form of reply substitutes is brei le (ioyes)for is (/iAes). maith le Sucha reply takesa longerform: An maith leat sp6rt? Is brei liom 6.

I loue it.

This phraseis brei le (lozes)can also be usedas a statement in its own right but neverin a questionor negative sentence, Is bre{ liom siril. Is bredliom peil. Is brei liom ceol. I loue utalking, I loue football. I louemusic.

S TAITNIONNLE (PLEASES) This verb is often usedto mean/iAes.(See also GrammarsectionI above.) Taimionn ceol le Mdire. Is maith li ceol. Taimionn sp6n go m6r liom. Is maith liom sp6n. Ni thaitnionn sp6rt liom. An dtaitnionn peil leat? Mdire like music(or music Mdirel. Pleases Shelikes music. I like sport a lot (go m6r greatlyl. I like sport. I don't like sport. Do you like footballl


are formed by substitutingother so-me relatedexpressions words for moith: Is bre6 liom 6. Is fuoth liom 6. I /oveit. (bre6= fine) I hate it' (fuoth = hatred)

TOAN MAITHLE .''? 4 REPLYING the that asthereis no yesor zo in lrish' a reply echoes Remember person: to the question,However' it drops the reference An maith le Sileceol? Is maith. Ni maith. An maith leat sP6rt? Is maith, cinnte. Ni maith ar chor ar bith. Yes, llit, does like\ No. llit. doesr't likel Yes,indeed. No, (not) at all.

5 THE PLURALFORMS OF ADIECTIVES Thereare several ways of putting adjectives in the plural form. o The most commonis to add -a after a broad consonantor -e after a slender consonant b6n dubh 9Orm door deos white black blue expenstve nice 6qdoi b6no ... dubho ...gormo ,.. doolo ... deoso whiteclothes black... blue... expensive ... nice... (Contd)
UnltE C6lels 6 so? I2S


compordoch comfoftable smooth,fine min dry tirim poor bocht sensible ciollmhor quiet ci0in

... ... compordochd comfoftable smooth,fine... ... mine dry . ... tirime doolne bochto poorpeople ... sensible mhoro ... ciolf quiet... ... cioine

8 LENITION AFTERMASCULINENOUNSIN THE PLURAL You havealreadylearnt that femininenounslenitea followins adlective, exceptin the plural. Comparethese: an oifig mh6r na hoifigi m6ra

the lossof the previousvowel causes However,a or e sometimes ( changes to re and ar to ra): : soibhir rich dooine soibhre ... ldidre ... bodhro ... romhrd tithe folmho

the big office the big offices

The oppositeis true of somemasculine nouns,namelythosewhich end in a slenderconsonant in the plural. Theseplurai nounslenite adjectives, as shown on the right. No lenition of adiective an teach rn6r the big house na tithe m6ra the big houses Here are somemore examples: Lenition of adiective an bid m6r the big boat na bdid mh6ra tbe big boats

i i i :

taidir strcng bodhor deaf rcmhor fat folomh ernpfy

b -rila -6il becomes

feiscloil lozy floithi0il generous fiisiriil useful,handy

dooine feisci0lo lazypeople people dooine floithiilo genercus usefulthings rudoi6fsi0fo

an ceann gorm the blue one an fear m6r the big man an carr beagthe small car

which end with a vowel do c The greatmajority of adjectives not change uoine stocda stocoi fodo stocoi bui green socks longsocks yellow socks

na cinn ghorma tle blue ones na fr mh6ra the big men na cairr bheagatDesmall cars

9 FORMING ADVERBS OF MANNER FROMAD]ECTIVES You saw in Unit 6 that some adjectivesrequire go before them when they are usedwith ti (is): Ti s6seogo maith. T5 an dinn6arseogo dona. Tbis is good. This dinner is bad,

OF AD]ECTIVES PLURALFORMS 7 IRREGULAR in the plural: show additionalchanges Someadiectives

: aloinn beautful
: uosol i iseol noble low

i te


i.9::3.... .r:::
rz 6

picti0ir6llle ddoine uoisle folloi isle clsti teo lqethonto bre6tho

beoutifulpictures aristoqats low walls hot cakes fine days

'tWhen referringto verbsgo forms an adverbof manner,describing how an action is done.It puts h beforea vowel: Seinneann si go maith. Canann... Labhrann,,. 6lann s6go trom. Ni chodlaimgo maith. Sheplays uell. ,.. stngs ... ... speaks ... He drinks heauily, I don't sleeputell.
Unit 8 CG li.6 s.o? I27

Codlaionnni go han-mhaith. T6 s6ag obair go dian. 10 DE (OF) lenition: This prepositioncauses

You sleepuery utell. He is uorking hard.

Notice that oae of is ceannde with referenceto things and duine de with reference to people.De sometimes corresponds to o/for torrl: Bain diot do ch6ta. Bain de 6 sin. 11 CUID (PART,PORTION) Take off your coat. Tahe that (auay) from him.

an dan 16de Bhealtaine piosade dhrdma iasachtde charr l6n de dhaoine

tbe second(day)of May a Portion of a Play a loan of a car fuIl of PeoPle

This is a femininenoun which is followed either by the genitive case: cuid mhaith airgid a good amount of money

two nounsmust though that the ofrelation between Remember genitive in the case: putting the second often be shown by leabhar filiochta m6rdn airgid Here are the oersonal forms: a book of poetry (filiocht = poetryl a lot of money (airge d = tnoneyJ

or by de (of), when the noun is precededby an/nalthel. cuid den airgead cuid de na daoine some of the money (den=de+an) some of the people

i diom of me i di* ol you

i de of himlit

dinn of us illbh of you

dlobh of them

Note also cuid diobh (someof tbeml, which can alternatively be anid aanlsome of them); anid again meanssome of us. The expressionfor rzost o/is an chuid is m6 de (lit. the Oart tthich is greatest ol)l T6 an chuid is m6 de na daoine Most of tbe people are here. anseo. Ti an chuid is m6 den obair Most of the work k done. d6anta. Mo chuid (my portioz of) is usedinstea d of mo (myl before nouns which refer to an indefinite massor quantity of something: ag cur mo chuid ama amf mo chuid airgid a chuid leabhar a cuid gruaige wasting my time (cuireann amri = pqts astrdyl my mofley his boohs het hair

Here are some further examples: ceannde na tithe duine de mo chairde cuid den obair Cad a cheapann tri de? diobh. T6 m6 tuirseach An bhfuil ni cinnte de sin! one of the houses one of my friends lcara = friendl someof the u.,ork(den= de + the, ^n do you tbinh of it What lor himl? I am tired of them. Are you sure of tbat?

otherthan d t and s: consonants den (ofrle) lenites The combination cuid den cheol some of the music


UnltE Cal.|3..o?


The plural forms consistof 6r (ozr), bhw (yourl, a (tbeir) (all three eclipsis), combinedwith cuid: causing ir gcuid ama bhur gcuid airgid a gcuid leabhar
otar time yo4r money their books

Recallthat this is the usualposition for adiectives, and it is not confinedto the above: na leabhairseo na leabhairsin na leabhaireile na leabhairmh6ra thesebooks tboseboohs the other books the big books

12 EXPRESSING QUANTITY Words for quantitiesput singularnounsin the genitivecase; T6 go leor ama againn. Nil a l6n ama againn. Ti beagin airgid aige. Nil m6r6n airgid agam. We haueplenty of time. 'We don't hauea lot of time. He has a small bit of money. I don't hauemuch money. Comparear fad, etc. (a//)with gach(each,euery)which is put beforea singularnoun: Ti gachdioscaanseo. Euerydisc is bere. Td gachceannde na leabhairann, Eueryone of the books is there.

slender If a noun forms its plural by making the final consonant (e.g.leabhar(m) book,leabhur books)or by adding-a (6ll (m) apple, ill^, aryles) the basic form is usedwith plural meaning after quantities: T6 roirurt leabharagam. T6 a l6n leabharagam. Ti m6r6n leabharagam. Ti tuilleadhleabharagam. I I I I havesomebooks' hauea lot of books. hauemany books, hauemore boohs.

1 Find the word that doesn't6t in eachof theselists: a dubh, gorm, daor, glas,dearg b l6ine,geansaf, c6ta, rud, sciona 2 Possession Lion isteachna bearnai. o A. C6 leisna dioscaigo l6ir? Is _ Tom6s iad. b A. An leatsaan chas6gseo? Go raibh maith agat. c A. An leatsaan mdla b6n? Ceanngorm ati agamsa. 3 Likes and dislikes Usethe information in the grid to make conversations as in the examples below. (.z = like; r = dislike)

This useof the apparentsingularform with plural meaningis calledthe genitiveplural. It is dealt with funher in Unit r7' Otherwisethe regularplural form is used: T6 m6rdn miinteoiri ann. Td a lin rangannaagam. There 4/e ntany teacbersthere. I hauea lot of classes,

Thereare threeways of sayingall, and they follow the noun. T6 na dioscaiar fad anseo. I Ti na dioscaigo l6ir anseo. I Td na dioscaiuile anseo. t r40

All the discsare here.

U n l t8 C 6 l cF!5 .o ?

I? I

Proinnsiqs Orlo

Sp6rt z (peil)

Ceol r' (closoiceqch)


c an leabharfada d an bheanleisciiil 7 Using de Reordertheseiumbled sentences: o ch6ta diot bain do b m6 de td tuirseach c ni a shfleann de cad d anseo cuid t6 de daoinena 8 Usingcuid Join up the left- and right-handcolumnsto makesentences: o Beidhcuid i a chuid airgid sa bhanc. b T6 cuid il ag cailleadha chuid gruaige. c Td P6l lli mo chuid dioscai. d CuireannSeoirse ! iv de na daoineddanach don ch6isir. e Seo v diobh anseocheana. og coilleodh donoch cheqno c6isir (f) Iosing Iate akeady party

Daithi cdit


(bococh) - An maith leat sPort? Is maith' cinnte. - C6n s6rt sP6irt? Proinnsias Is bre6 liom Peil' b - An maith leat si6l? Ni maith. CAit - C6n fith? T6 m6 bacachfaoi l6thair. Ciit Proinnsias

Now imaginethe interviewswith Orla and D6ithi. 4 Completethis text about what the peopleabovelike or don't like: Is bre6le Proinnsias. Peil' o Taitnionn ceol Orla. Is bre6b Taimionn ceolclasaiceach. sp6rt le D6ithi mar t6 s6leisciriil. C Ni siril le C6it mar ti si bacachfaoi l6thair' d of nounsand adjectives: Make likely combinations gorm duine ard bhis bocht c6ta gruaig folamh fionn fear tada teach Put thesein the plural form: q an fear m6r b an stocagorm

yourself: Test Comprehension

Theseare noticesabout activitiesin a Gaeltachtoarish.When and whereare the activitieson? o Keepfit classes b Annual dinner dance c Cards d Bingo

rt z

Unft8C6lels s.o? f13


SanIonad PobailoicheD Luain an rTri Feabhraagus gachoicheLuain ina dhiaidh sin ag 7.oo p'm. Beidhan Dinn6ar agusDamhsabliantriil in 6stfu Highlands OicheD6 hAoine,ag tosri ag 9.oo p.m. (3+zr6r) Tic6idle f6il 6 Shadhbh (32548) 6 Gallch6ir n6 6n Athair f6il. Beidhbus ar


San Ionad Pobail gach Satharnag a 8.3o p.m. chlrtai'z5' Oiche D6 Domhnaigh san Ionad Pobail ag 8.oo p.m. Fiilte romhaibh uile.

C6ncoitheomh oimsireo bhionnogot? Whotpostime doyouhove?

In thisunityouwillleorn howto . Talk about leisurc actiyities Bim og imirt leod6ige. Imrim cluicheleod6ige uqireqnto. An f,6idirleot ... ? Is f6idir. Ni fidir. C6ncinedl ceoil? C6ncineAlsp6irt? Is feorr liom ... n6... I (often)ploy tennis. play a game I sometimes of tennis. you ableto ... ? Are Yes. No. Whotkind of music? Whatkind of sport? I prefer... to ...

The secretary of a residential language courseasksa numberof panicipantsabout their pastimes.

r1 4

Unit 9 C6n<oitheomh oimslrcobhionnogdt?


o 4 F

o IJ

Rondi Pddroig Rf noi P6droig Rinqi Padrqig Rlnoi Pddroig Rinoi P6droig Rinoi P6droig

An bhfuil n6imeod ogot? Gobh mo leithscCol. Td. Tdm6 og lorgeolois fooichoitheomh oimsire. Mqithgo leor. CCn coitheomh oimsire o bhionn ogqtso? Bimog imirtgoilfogusimrimcluiche leod6ige uoireonto. An fidirleotsndmh? Is fCidir. T6linnsndmho onseo, td o fhiosoqot. An-mhoith. Agus codisoinmduit? Pddrqig 6 D6noill is oinmdom.

Deirdre Rrinoi Deirdre Rindi Deirdre Rrlnai Deirdre

Ceol closoiceoch ogusceoltroidisi0nto. An bhfuiltriin onnconodh? To,r6os0nto moith. Beidh seons ogotconodh og on Oiche Cheoil morsin. Moithgo leor. Cothoin o th6onn t0 og si0l? Ag on deireodh seochtoine, nuoiro bhionn on t-om ogom. R0nai Agus d'oinm? Deirdre Deirdre Ni l\4haille.

(m). Gobh mo leithscol Td m6 og lorg eolois(m). (m) fooi choitheomh oimsire(f) oimsireo bhionnogot? C6ncoitheqmh goilf. 9 Bim og imirt Agusimrim cluicheleod6ige uoireonto. o sndmh(m) linn sndmho t6 o fhios ogot on-mhoith

Excuse me.(lit.Toke my excuse) information. I om seeking (lit. obout aboutpostimes spending of time) Whatpostimedo you have? play golf. I (regulorly) play And I a gameof tennis sometimes. swtmmtn9 pool a swimming you know vetygood

Agust0 f6in qimsireo Cencoitheomh bhionnogotso? teim og siol90 minic closoiceoch, troidisi0ntd in qnn conodh Beidhseons(m) ogqt. Cothdino theonnt0 09 siril? nuoirq bhionnon t-om (m) ogom Agusd'oinm(m),m6s6 do thoil 6?

Andyourself Whotpostime doyou hove? I go walking often classical, traditional ableto sing (or Youll hovea chonce opportunity). Whendo you go wolking? whenI hovetime please? Andyournome,

, q

Rondi Cencoitheomh oimsire isfeon leotf6in? Mdir6od Bhuel, bim og fGochoint or on teilifis ogus t6imchuig no picti0ir is onois oris. Ronci Feicim. Agus c6ns6rtcl6ir o thoitnionn leot? Mdir6od Is feonliomcl6ir ghrinn n6 oons6rtejlecldir. R0noi AguscCnt-oinmotd ortT Mdir6od M6ir6od NicGeoroilt.

d c F

.:I o o oe,
F j (J

Rfnoi Agust0 fin?Cencoitheomh oimsireo bhionnogotso? Deirdre Bimog 6isteocht le ceol, ogus timog si6lgo minic. Rlnoi CCn cinedl ceoil?

r3 6

q bhionnogot? Unit 9 C6ncoitheomh olmsire


Cen cditheomh oimsire is feorr What pastimedo you prefer? leot f6in? Well,I watch television Bhuel,bim og fdocholnt or on teilifis (O now ... and I go to the pictures ... ogus teim chulg no plctilll (m) onois is oris ond again I see Feicim And what'syour nomeT Agus cn t-oinm ot6 ort? Questions Deirdre and Mdir6ad: of PSdraig, Tick the pastimes

Bim sa bhaile de gbnith ar an Luan. Bim sa bhailei gc6naiar an Luan.

I am usuallyat homeon Mondays. I am aluays at home on Mondays.

As you can see,any degree of recurrence over a considerable period of time, be it frequentor infrequent,requiresthe habitualform. The full setof presenthabitualforms of ti, translated herefor convenience as /ezds to be, is as follows: bim bionn t0 bionn s6 bionn si I tend to be you tend to be he tendsto be shetendsto be bimld bionn sfbh bionn siod we tendto be you tendto be they tend to be

CEOL P6dmig Deirdre M6i|od


Typical usesof theseare: Bim anseogach16. Bim ar saoirei Mi Lrinasa. I am here eueryday. I dm on uacation in Aagust (annually). It tends to be f?te here. The ueather tend.s to be good in Spain. The food is (inuariably) nice bere. I don't feel hungry in the morning. He is often sick, They are always hte. A c6ili is held herc on Fridays. Masstakesplacebereat ten.

HABITUALOF TA 1 THE PRESENT The English verb ro be can reler either to something that is that or to something happening at the momentof speaking is in I am regularly.Thereforethe sameform I arz used, happens (usuallylnormally) at home on Mondays' at home nou andI am requiretwo differentforms of thesesentences The Irish equivalents tL m6 (I amJand a special of t6 (rs),namelythe ordinary present bim lI reguhrly am). You also meeta one-word 'habitual' present alternativeto tA m6: Tiim sa bhaileanois. Bim sa bhailear an Luan. Bim sa bhaileuaireantaar an Luan. I am at home nout. I am at home or Motdays. I am sometimesat home on Mondays. Bionn s6go bredanseo. Bionn an aimsir go brei sa Spiinn. Bionn an bia go deasanseo. Ni bhionn ocrasorm ar maidin. Bionn s6tirp go minic. Bionn siad d6anach i gc6nai. Bionn c6ili anseoar an Aoine. Bionn Aifreann anseoar a deich.

The distinction betweenti and bionn is very imponant in Irish and needsto be mastered.However, the basisfor it is not difficult to understand and with practice it sinks in,


Unft 9 Cancqlthomh olm3lieo bhlonnqgot?


2 USING BIONN WITH THE VER,BAL NOUN: THE HABITUAL PROGRESSIVE Corresponding to tiirnlt6 m ag obair (I am workingl one may saybim ag obair (l tend to be utorking, I regularly workl. Further examples are: Bim ag obair sanoiche. Binr ag f6achaint ar an teilifis sa tr6thn6na. Bim ag imirt lead6igear an Satharn. I uork nights, I uatch teleuision in the euening. I play tennis on Saturdays (for much of the day).

Is fearr liom sifl n6 sn5mh. I prefer ualking to suimmfug. Is fearr liom dr6mai ni scann6in. I preferplays to films. 4 FAOI(UNDER, ABOUT) The basicmeaningof this prepositionis azder, but it also means is followedby lenition: eolasfaoi cheol information about musrc eolasfaoi sp6n informatio?t about sport 5 NOUNS FOLLOWINGTHE VERBALNOUN A noun which immediatelyfollows the verbal noun appears in the genitivecase(if it hasone); gall (m) golf pell lfl football lead6g (fl ternis ioninaiocht (I) hurling eolas(m) information airgead(ml money obair lfl utork l6istin(m) accommodation ag imin gailf phying golf agimirt peile football ag imirt lead6ige pw?tg te?rnis ag irnin iominaiochta hurling ag lorg eolais seeking infoftnation ag lorg airgid seekingmonq ag lorg oibre seeking work aglorgl6istin seeking accommodation

as I tend to be uorking Thesecan be more literally translated, at nightlutatching teleuision in the eueninglplayingtennis on Saturdays. The activitiesinvolvedlast a good while. Recurrent events of brieferduration, includingsinglegames, are referred to usingthe simplepresentform of the verb, which hashabitual meaning(asin English): Fdachaimar an nuacht gach tr6thn6na. Imrim cluiche lead6igegach

I uatch tbe news eueryeuening. I play a game of tennis euery


lmrim cluichelead6ige uaireanta. I play a gameof tennis somettmes. p6iparnuachtagach I buy d neuspdpereuery Ceannaim moming. maidin. piip6ar gach L6im an trithn6na. I read tbe paper eueryeuening. 3 HOW TO SAY 'I PREFER' You substitute fearr lbetterl for naith (good)in the phrasefor liking (see Unit 8) above(givingthe equivalent of is betteruith ffiel. In expressing a preference for one thing over anothruseni (tban)t Is fearr liom tae ni caife. Is fearr liom iomdnaiochtn6 peil. I prefer tea to coffee. I prefer hu ing to football.

(See Unit +.+.) 6 HOW TO SAY'CAN YOU ,..?' AND 'I CAN' The phraseis f6idir le (lit. is possible uitb) expresses ability: Is f6idir liom tiom6int. I can driue. (lit. Driuinglto fuiue is possible uith mel Ni f6idir liom canadh. I can't sing. An f6idir leat snimh? Can.vouswim? Is f6idir. Yes. llit. is possibleJ Ni f6idir. No. llit. isn't possible)


Unlt 9 Cencoithcomh olmCleo bhionnogqt?


Notice that le is droppedin replies. A more idiomatic way of askingCan you sutim?isl. An bhfuil sn6mhagat? This constructionis also usedin: An bhfuil ceol agat? Can you play music? (lit.J Do you baueswimming!

A STATINGAND ASKING 'WHEN' Yoru ask whm? differently according to whether the clock or the calendaris meant: C6n t-am a bheidhtd saor? Whenuill you be free? Agahaonachlog. At one o'cloch. Ag am l6in. At lunchtime. Cathain a bheidhtri ar saoire? Whm u,,illvou be on bolidax? I Mi [iil. ln July. I gceannseachtaine. In a uteek's time. 'When a statement rather than a questionis involvedone uses nuair a: Bhi m6 ann nuair a bhi m66g. Beidh m6 leat nuair a bheidh m6 saor. T6im ag siril nuair a bhionn an t-am agam. I uas tbere wben I uas young. I'll be with you utbm I'm free, I go out ualking uthn I haue tbe time.

Two simplerexpressions meaningable to are ibalta and in ann: An bhfuil ni in ann tiomiinr? Nil m6 in ann tiom6int. Ni raibh m6 in ann sifl. An bhfuil tri ibalta sn6mh? Nil m6 ibalta dul ann. Can you driue? I can't driue. I udsn't able to taalk. Can you sttim? I can't go there.

7 CENCINEAL ,., (WHAT KIND (OF) ...) This phraseis followed by the genitivecase:

9 PUTTINGA BEFORE THE VERB(CONTINUED) ceol cl6r What hind of music? What kind oifprogranme! eolas information CEncineil eolais? What kind of information? post a iob Cn cine6lpoist? What kind of iob? aimsir ueather C6n cinedl aimsire? What kind of uteather? Alternative forms of this question are C6n s6rt? and Cen saghas? The three forms belongto different dialectsbut are usedinterchangeably by many peoplewho havelearntIrish asa second (givinga language choicelike that in EnglishbetweenWhat kindlsortlpe?|, music C6n cine6lceoil? programme C6n cine6lcldir? You saw in Unit 7 that questionwords suchas cad?or card? (uthat?lrequftethe verb to be preceded by a (+ lenition).You can seeabovethat other words, suchas cathain?(when?|, teir (uthen) also rcquie a. This a also coresponds to uthich and.who in Englishrelativeclauses, as in theseexamples: an obair a dh6anaim an ceol a thaimionn liom an duine a bhi ann A + ti givesat6: an cluicheati ar siril. the game which is in progress the uo& which I do the music which I like the person who uas there

r 42

Unft 9 Cancqltheomh olm3lid thionn ogqt?


The copulais doesnot changeshapein relativeclauses: Is fearr liom an dath sin. Sin an dath is fearr liom. I prefer that colour. That is tbe colour uhich I Drefer.

b Feminine nouns ending in -69 have -6ige in the genitive lead6g terrnis fuinneog windout cluiche lead6ige a game of tennis ag oscailt na opening the windotu fuinneoige

Clauses introducedby a in Irish are more frequentthan English relativeclauses, for two reasons. One is that questionwords requirethem, as you haveseen. The other is that when a word or phraseis brought to the beginningof the sentence for emphasis (asis very often done)the verb must be preceded by a. Compare these: C6n sort cairr ati agat? Carr deargat6 agam. C6n cine6ltinnis at6 ort? Tinneascinn at6 orm. Cn dath at6 ar a cas6g? Cas6gbh6n at6 uirthi. C6 at6 amuigh? Tom6sat6 amuigh. What hind of car do you baue? The car I haueis a red one. What kind of ailment do you haue! A headache is tuhat'sbotheringme. What colour is ber coat? lt's a white coat sheis utearing. Who is outskle? lt's Tom uho is outside.

c The word obair (arorA)drops its secondvowel, e.g.16oibre a day's utork 11 YERESWITH PREPOSITIONS Many Irish verbsare accompanied by prepositions, in exactly the sameway as Etglish listen to, looh at. However, the use of prepositions often doesnot correspond in the wo languages. Comoarethese: Is maith liom 6isteacht le ceol. bualadhle daoine. cabhrrile daoine. Beidh m6 ag f6achaint ar an teilifis. Beidh m6 ag freastal ar l6acht. Beidh m ag iarraidh ar Shein cabhrdliom. I lihe to listen to music. meetpeople. help people. I'll be uatching teleuision. I'll be anending a lecture. I'll be asking Sednto belo me.

10 MOREON THE GENITIVE CASE Somemasculine nounswhich forrn the genitivecaseby making the last consonantslenderalsochange ea to i. fear grann ceann ?nan bumour head adachfir men's clothing llit. clotbes of a manl cl6r grinn a humorous programme scannin grinn a comedy flm tinneascinn a headache

your name?': Another way of sayrng'What's AlongsideCod is oinm do ...? thereis also Cnt ainm otd ar...? (lit. whatnameison ...?) Cent oinm otd qr do chom? Whatisyourfriend'snome? C6nt-ainm otd ort f6in? Whotis vou own name?

Mac (soz) becomes mic: seoladha mhic his son'saddress


Unh9 Cn<olth.omhohnslre o bhionnqgot?


1 Cuir na ceisteannaagus na freagrai le ch1ile(match the questionsand answers\ : o An maith leat ceol? i Bionn. b An maith leat sp6rt? ii Ni th6im. c An mbionn tuirse ort go minic? iii Uair sa seachtain. d An dt6annti amachsa lv Thart ar a s6a chlos. tr6thn6nade ghndth? e An imrionn sibh galf go minic? Y Ni bhim. f An mbionn tri anseogachl5? vi Is bre6liom ceol traidisirinta. g C6n t-am a th6anntri abhaile? vii Ni maith. Cuir na habairti seole chiile (match eachsentenceon the left uith one on the rigbt to makea meaningfulcombination): o Bionn ocrasm6r orm ar maidin. I T6im a chodladh. b Bionn tart orm uaireanta. ii T6im chuig an dochtdir. c Bionn tuirse orm sar6thn6na. iii Ithim bricfeasta m6r. d Bim tinn 6 am go ham. |v 6laim gloine uisce. Lion na bearnai (fll the gaps uith the correct form ofbionn): o Nuair a _ tan orm, 6laim cup6ntae. b Nuair a _ ar saoire,t6gaim bog 6. c Nuair a 6irim go luath, _ tuirse orm. d Nuair a saor,t6imid chuig na pictifiir. e Nuair a thagaimabhaile,_ an teachfuar.

Describe the events illustratedor indicatedin the Dictures. as in the exarnples: Examples

tr{thn6na Bim ag f6achaint ar an teilifis sa trithn6na.

6 am go ham T6im ag siril 6 am go ham.

Gach Aoine dul isteach
, 5 o ar an Satharn

EAGLAIS NAOMHP6L Aifreann 11.30

nuoir(o) ... chuig t69oimbog6

when... to I takeit easy d gachtrdthn6na

e gach 16


oimsire o bhionnogot? Unft 9 Cncoltheqmh


5 Make interviewswith Brid and Proinsias using the information in the chart. The interviewwith D6nall provides a model: Peil Golf D6noll Brid Proinsios X C6ncoitheomh oimsire o bhionn ogot? D6noll Bimog imirtpeile. Is moithliomceolfreisin. C6ns6rtceoil? D6nall Is feorrliom ceolclosoiceoch.
Lion isteach na bearnai. (teacht = to comel o - An fidir sndmh? \can). bC-

Testyourself: Comprehension
Brian phonesMdir6ad to invite her to go to seea film with him. Conqs Hol6, o Mh6ir6od. SeoBrion. tA tri? Hol6, o Bhrioln.lAim 90 moith. Cogor. Ar mhoithleot dul chuigno pictiiir oiche omAroch? MAlr6od Bo mhoith.cinnte. 0. tA br6norm.Ni bheidhmCsoor. C6ord fooi D Ceodooin? Briqn Trdthn6no D6Cdodooln? Is eo.TdsOsingo bred. q q chlog, hocht Feicfidh me thi og toobhomuigh. go M6lr6qd Moith leor.Beidhm6 onn. Brion Sldngo f6ill.6o n-6irileot. M6ir6qd Sldn. Question Cathaina bheidhBrian agusM6ir6ad ag dul chuig na pictiriir? { o

Ceol Ceol Sconn6in closoicedch troidisi0nto ghrinn X X X


An bhfuil t6 tiom6int? \can l. f6idir leat canadh? \cannot),

An _ tf in ann teacht? \cannot).


Relative clause Reorder these jumbled sentences: o an ceann/thaitnionn/liom,/a/set.r b an t-am-/deghn6th./thagannsi/a/sin < fhionn/uirthi/atdlgruaig d ghorm/at6lcas6g/uirthi e carrlaganlbinlatS,

r 48

Unit 9 Cncoitheomh oimrireo bhionnogot?


Ar mhoith leot cup6ntae? youlike Would o cupof teo?

In thisunityouwillleorn howto . Offer and accepthospitality

Se6n Beon on ti 5e6n Beon on ti Sedn Beon on ti Se6n Beon on ti 5e6n

Go rqibhmoith ogot.TAsCseoon-bhlosto. ogot? An bhfuildo dh6thoin TAbreis is mo dh6thoin ogqm. Tdcisteonseo. Ar mhoithleot piosor Bo mhoith,go roibhmoithogot. C6ocuob fheorrleot,toe n6 coife? B'fheqrr liomtoe,mds6 do thoil6. An moith leot ldidir6? qo leor. Laidir

Ar mhoith leot ... ? Bo mhoith/Niormhoith. C6ocu ob fheorr leot? T6 s6 seogo bred/on-bhldsto.

you like...? Would I would/l wouldn't Which(of them)wouldyou prefer? Thisis fine/verytosty

Ar mhdith leot ...? Nior mhoith,9o roibhmoith ogot. Bo mhoith, go roibh moith qgot. onroith (m) T6 breqc(m) 0r onseo ogom duit. Le h6l? T6 s6 seo on-bhlosto. do dh6thoin breisis mo dh6thoin C6ocu ob fheorr ledt, toe n6 coife? B'fheorrliom toe. ldidir

you like. ..7 Would I wouldn't, thonks. I would,thonks. soup I havea freshtrout here for you. Todrink? Thisis verytasty . enough(foryou) morethan enough(for me) Which(of them)wouldyou I'd prefertea. strong
^rc f tpa r^ffpe2



Diolo g u e ' l
Sednis called to his eveningmeal by the landlady. r) o o 4 F


Beonon ti 5e6n Beon on ti Se6n Beondn ti Se6n Beoncn ti 5e6n Beon on ti

A ShedinlTo on dinn6or ridh. Beidh me onnl6ithreoch. Ar mhoithleotonroith? Niormhoith, go roibh moithogot. T6breqc !r onseo ogomduit. Tds6singo bred. Codo bheidh ogot le h6l? gloine Beidh uisce ogom, le do thoil. Seodhuit.

Trueor folse? gloinebeorach. u OlannSe5n b Olann s6cup6ntae tar 6is an bhile. c Taitnionnan b6ileIe S6an.

Diologue 2
Gear6id and Eibhlin are looking at the menu in a coffee shop. The waitress aniyes,

r 50

Unit 10 A. mhoithleot (up6ntoe?

I 5I



on l6n (O on dlnnor(m) on toe (m) (m) on sulpor Some other usefulwords: pllito (m) scton(O forc (m) sp0n69(f)

lunch dinner tea(asan evening neol) (a ltght snack supper latein theevenhg)

date knfe fork spoon

D6loon sc6ll. Nil oon phl6g 0ll fdgtho. cBte(m|rmdlde(fl uochUrd,. C6 ndaoatatt0 b6clis(m) in qlcellnn Trueor folse?

By the way. Thereis no apple pie left. chocolotecake qeom Whereis it mdde?

1AR MHAITHLEAT ...? WOULD Y&I LIKE.,.? Herearethe formswith the copulawhich areusedfor offtrirg thingsand replyingto offers: Ar mhaidrlcat cup{n ae? N6r rnhaithleatcupin tae?
g6 rnhaith.

bokery near us

o Itheann Gear6id agus Eibhlin piog ri[. b Olann Eibh.lin agus Gear6id cuprin caife,

Nior nhaith. (See alsoUnit 8.)

Wo d yor Ekea atp of t"a? Wo dn't yot hked crrpof tza? Yes.(Et.wot ld likel No. lht. woddn't lihel .

Longuoge notes
BEIU (MEALS) The main meals of the day are: b6lle (m) on brlcfeasto (m)

A ftrller form of answer is possible, similar tsEnglish I uould Iikethat: Ba nheith liom 6 sin. Ba bhrei liom 6 sin. meol breokfost I wodd like tha. I would bue that.

All four formswith tfrecopulagivenhcrccause lenition.

r5 2

Unn10 A.mhdlh hd(l|pdnb?


2 WILL YOU ...? WON'T YOU ...? An alternativeway of offeringthings has beendealtwith in Unit 4. It is repeated here,with the addition of the negativequestion form nach: An mbeidh deochagat? Nach mbeidh deochagat? Beidh. Ni bheidh. An mbeidhcupin tae agat? Beidh,le do thoil. Vill you hauea drinkl Won't you hauea drink? Yes,I tt,ill. No, I won't. Will you hauea cup of tea? please. Yes,

Ar mhaith leat cfipla prdta?

r ni nnt nr 6ta i)

tuilleadhpr6tai? greim bia? sliosariin? sliosbagfin? braon uisceagat? braon tae agat? gloine uisceagat? gloine fiona agat? tuilleadhfiona agat? piosaciste? piosafeola?

An mbeidh

3 ANOTHERUSEOF LE (WITH) N6r mhaith Notice the correspondence herebetween Irish le and Englishro: leat Cad a bheidhagat le h6l? C6arda bheidhagat le hithe? Vhat will you haueto drink! Vhat uill you haueto eat?

Would you like a couple of potatoes? sornepotatoes? fiore potatoes? a bite to eat! (Iit. of foodl a sliceof bread? a sliceof bacon? Will you hauea drop of uater? a drop of tea? a glass of uater? a glass of utine? mote wine! Wouldn't you like a piece of cake? a bit of ffieat!

5 D6THAIN(SUFFICIENCY) This noun can be usedin a similar way to go leor lenough\': T6 d6thain bia againn. T6 d6thain ama againn. We haueenoughfood. We haueenoughtime.

This le is usedmore widely to refer to things which are to be done: Cad at6 le d6anamh agat? C6ardatd le ceannach agat? What do you haueto do? Wbat do you haueto buy?

4 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY The grammaticalrelation betweenmeasure and measured is mainly shown by word order, so gloine is glass,bainne is zil& and gloine bainneis (a) glass of milh. The secondword must be in the genitive caseif it has one.Thereis no word corresponding to Englisho/. This is the constructionyou havealreadymet in m6thair Aine (Anne'smother,Unit 4). You can seeherehow to offer various measures of food and drink, usingthe questionforms in Grammar r and z above:

However,it is more often preceded by mo (fly), etc.You first met pronounsin Unit r, Grammar4 and the the singularpossessive olural onesin Unit 8. Grammar rr, Here is the full set: Td mo dh6thainagam. Td do dh6thain agat. T6 a dh6thainaige. T6 a d6thain aici. T6 6r nd6thain againn. Ti bhur nd6thainagaibh. T6 a nd6thain acu. I haueenough. You haueenougb. He has enough. Sbehasenough. We haue enough. You haueenough, Tbey haue enough.

r5 4

Unlt 10 Ar mholthleot cupdntqe?


6 THE GENITIVE CASE OF NOUNSIN -/N, .IJN Thesefollow the commonpattern of making the final consonantof a masculine noun slender: arin bread brad6n salmon bagin bacon (See also Unit 4.) 7 AN. (VERY) This is prefixedto adjectives, causinglenition: blasta usty milis suteet fuar cold becomes an-bhlastauery tasty an-mhilis uery sueet an-fhtar uery cold boll6g ard'ina loaf of bread piosa brad.6ina piece of salmon slios bagiin a slice of bacon

Corresponding to ba are threeforms which end in r; nior (negative), ar (question) and nir (negative question)(seer, earlier in this unit). Thesethreeforms add bh beforea vowel or fh: Arbh fhearr leat cupin tae? Nirbh fhearrleat...? B'fhearr. Niorbh fhearr. Would you prder a cup of tea!

Wouldn't youprefer...? Yes,llit, uould preferl No. (Iit. wouldn'tpreferl

UsenA lthanl to separate the things you are choosingbetween: B'fhearrliom (I would prefer) tae nd caife ar6n n6 ciste beoir n6 fion iascni feoil sicin n6 bag(n tea to coffee bread to cake beer to wine fsh to meat chickento bacon

9 CEACU (WHICH (OF TWO)) You can invite a choice betweentwo things offered by using c6 (uthich/uho\ and aan(of theml (third personplural of ag (ar),see Unit 3, Grammar1): C6 acu ab fhearr leat, tae n6 caife? C6 acu ab fhearr leat, pionta n6 leathghloine? Which utould you prefer, tea or coffee? Which utould you prefer, a pint or a half-glassof spirits?

However an- doesnot causelenition if the adiectivebeginswith t, d, s: te hot gives deasnice searbhbitter Examples: T6 an cisteseoan-mhilis. T6 s6an-fhuarinniu. T6 an pl6ta an-te. This cake is uery suteet. It is uery cold today. Tbe plan is ury hot. ueryhot ^n-te an-deasuery nice an-searbhuery bitter

10 THE PASSIVEFORMOF THE VERB Thereis a specialform of the verb for sayingthat something is donewithout specifying who doesit. It endsin -tar in the present tense(or -tear if the preceding vowel is i or e): D6antar an ch6is seo ar fheirm. Ni dh6antar6 nios m6. Mfintear teangachasa scoil seo. Oltar m6r6n tae in f,irinn. Ceannaiteargo leor diobh. This cbeese is made on a farm. It isn't ,nadeany more. Languages are uught in this school. A lot of tea is d.runhin lreland. Plenty of them are bought.
Unh l0 Ar mhdth l.ot olp6n toc? f57

8 TALKINGABOUT PREFERENCES The idiom for prefets is is fearr le (seealso Unit 9); rzoukl prefer is expressedby replacing is with ba, which causeslenition. Remember that lenition makesf silent,so b'ftearr is pronounced be6r: B'fhearr liom tae. B'ftearr liom ar6n. I would prefer tea (to coffee,for instance). I would prefer bread (to cakeor biscuits).

r 56

If the verb endswith th, e.g,ith (eaisl, cuth lspend,con*me), that disappears beforethe t(e)ar: Itear m6rdn pastasanIod6il. A lot of pastak eatenin luly.

Seodhuit. Go raibh maith agat. Ar mhaith leat anraith? Nior mhaith, go raibh maith agat. Maith go leor. An mbeidh piosa ariin agat? Beidh, go raibh maith agat. Ar mhaith leat tuilleadh sicin? Ba mhaith, cinnte. T6 s6go deas. Accepttheseoffersof hospitalityby echoingthe verb in the answer: o Ar mhaith leat deoch? b An mbeidhcupin tae agat? Politely decline theseoffers: c Ar mhaith leat ordiste? d Ar mhaith leat tuilleadh pritai? e An mbeidh gloine fiona agat? How would you offer a visitor: o a cup of coffee? b a drink? c more cake? Make comments on the food or drink: (te) Ti an t-anraith an(milis) Ti an tae an(tuar) Ti an caife an(blasta) Tri an b6ile an(deas) Ti an fion anHow would you ask somebody to statetheir prefernce betweenthe choicesbelow? Answer as you wish. Example C6 acu ab fhearr leat, bainne n6 uisce? B'fhear liom bainne, le do thoil.
Unlt 10 Ar mholthh of6n toc? 159

The passive form of the verb is often usedin notices: N6 caitear tobac. No smokbtg. llit. Let tobacco not be used.l

If you want to say who doesany of the things above you must use an ordinary (active)form of the verb. It is not usualin Irish to say a thing is done Dy someone, as in the Englishpassive: Beanfeirmeoraa dh6anann an chiis seo. Mriineann an scoil seoteangacha. Itheannmuintir na hlodiile m6r6n pasta. A farmer's uife makes this cbeese. This school teacheslanguages. The people of ltaly eat a lot of pasta.

1 Cuir an comhr6 seo san ord cean (put this iumbled dialogue in tbe right orderlz o Ba mhaith, go raibh maith agat. b Ar mhaith leat si6cra? c Nior mhaith, go raibh maith agat. d Ar rnhaith leat cupin caife? { cD2, TR 1,230 2 Listento, if you havethe recording,or read these conversationstwice. The first time note whether the offer of food or drink is acceptedor refused,the secondtime note what is offered: o Ar mhaith leat gloine fiona? Ba mhaith, le do thoil.


'6 @' Ea

Anraith muisiri0in Anraith pratai Anraith oinnifin Bradan 6r le hAnlann Peirsil 56l geal friochta le hAnlann Tartair Leathdhosaen oisri Ira ar leaba oighir Bagfn agus cabaiste Sicin r6sta agus bagrin Pratai beirithe Sceall6ga pretai Glasrai fra Uachtar reoite Pi69 0ll le huachtar n6 uachtar reoite Ciste seacleide Sail6ad de thorthai fra Rogha de cheiseannafeirme na hEireann Tae n6 caife

o CD2, TR1,3:10 7
First study the menu (biachl6r) opposite and seehow much you can understand or guess.Then check your understanding in the English version in the answer key. Next listen to and/or read the dialogue between the waiter and customer and tick the dishes ordered. Finally, make up a conversation in which you order from the menu.

Sabhialann Un tbe restaurant\ Freostoloi Diodhuit. Custoim6ir Diois Muire dhuit. Freostqloi An bhfuilti r6idh? Custoim6ir Td.Beidh onroith muisiritin ogomor dt6sogus onsin bo mhoithliomsicin ogusbog0n, le do thoil. Freostqlqi Ceortgo leor.C6ocuob fheon leot,prdtoibeirithen6 sceoll6go? Custqimir B fieorr liomsceoll690, le do thoil. Freostoldi Ar mhoithleotmilseog? Custdim6ir Bomhoith. ogom,le do thoil. Beidh ciste seocloide Freostoloi Go bre6. Toen6 coife? Custoimeir Beidh cup6n coife dubhogom.

yourself: 1 Test Comprehension

on junk Below is an extractfrom an article in a scientificmagazine food at school. o l(hy is the food in sectionr the best? b Why are the itemsin secdon3 harmful? c What is the ideal lunch for a young personat school? roinn (f) dochor(m) cl6r (m)
sectton harm

programme chart(herc),
Unit lO Ar mholthleot cup6ntoe? t6t

r6 0

is feorr fuinneomh(m) chomhmoith le fiorth6bhochtqch og f6s go dono oireod6igin Bo ch6irgo mbeodh... cosllilleis

(which)is best ener9y os wellas very(lit. truly)impoftont growing bad a ceftoinamount(of) There should be ... like it

na mbiannasachlir is 6 an bia i I measc Roinn 1 an bia is fearr, de bhri go bhfuil pr6it6ini, mianrai (cailciam,mar shampla)agusvitimini ann chomh maith leis an bhfuinneamh. Ti na do substaintiseofionh6bhachtach dhaoine6ga ata ag f s, Mar sin ti an bia i Roinn3 go donamar nachbhfuil (de ghn6th) ann ach siricra.Ti an bia i Roinn z nios fearr mar t6 oiread6igin pr6it6ini, mianrai agusvitimini ann, biodh is nach bhfuil na pr6it6ini chomh maith leis an bpr6it6in sabhia i Roinn r. Ba ch6ir go mbeadhb6ileioml6n ag gas(ir, cosriilleis an mb6ilesa bhoscathios, tri huaire sa16.

Roinn r

Fuinneamh (Calrai)



Cadbury Wholenut (to gl Kit Kat (5og) Barra Mars 16zg) Cn6nnaTahin KP (25g)
Roinn z

28o 250

48 5r 69

38 z6 r7 5o

An l6n is fearr ar scoil: glasrai Ceapaire: ar6n donn, c6islfeoiUubh, Deoch:bainne,sri oriiste Tonhai: rill, oriiste (From:An tEolailThe Scientisl), F6mhar,r99r.)

r 50


2 Comprehension
r 50 140

King Crisp \27 g) Pop Corn llo sl

Roinn j Lucozade (3 0 0 gl Polo mint \2 7 g l Diet Coke

5o 59

4o zz

CiarSn callsby Miche5l's house at midday. Miche6l Cior6n Miche6l Cior6n Miche6l An bhfuilocros ort?T6on l6n r6idh. Nil ocros m6r orm.Codot6 oqoibh? T6broddn 0r ogoinn. An-deos. Bqbhre6liom piosobroddin. An-mhoith. Toristeoch oous suioh chunboird.

4 F

ro o


(r lo g)

o DoesCiarin stay for lunch? b Vhat is Michedl havingfor lunch? Bo bhredfiom ... chun boird. I would love at the table a

Unit 10 Ar mhoithleot cuD6n toe?


C6ord o chosnoionn s6seo? Whotdoes thiscost?
ln thisunityorrwillleorn . The bosic languagefor shopping,including how to express pricesand to makecomparisons C6ord o chosnoionn s6? C6mh6od? C6mh6odot6 qr ...? Tobhoir dom ... An dtqbhorfddom ...? T6./teostoionn ... uoim. An ngloconn sibh le seiceonno? Whatdoesit cost? Howmuch? Howmuchis ...? 6iveme ... Would you giveme ...? I wont... Doyou acceptcheques?

Tom6s C6ord o chosnoionn on chdisseo? phunt Liom Dh6 coogo on punt. Tom6s Tobhoir dom leothphunt, morsin ... ogust6 piontobqinne uqimfreisin. Llom Sinuile? Tom6s Is eo.C6mh6od6 sin?

T6 feobhos (m) or on oimsir (f).


There is an improvement in (lit. on) the weother. Nil s6 r6-fhuor. It's not too cold. leothphunt(m) bog0in(m) a half-pound of bocon(or hom) (ubh (fl egg) a dozen dosoen(m) uibheccho eggs please(lit. if it isyour will\ m6s 6 do thoil 6 (m) go T6 on bogOn seo deos. This bocon is nice. An bhfuiloon rud (m) eile uoit? Doyou wont anythingelse? on ch6is(f) seo? thischeese? Dh6 phunt (m) coogqdn punt. Twopoundsfifty o pound. mdr sin so,therefore T6 pionto (m) boinne(m) uoim. I want o pint of milk. Sin uile? Thot's oll? Trueor folse? o Td s6fuar amuigh. b Ni theastaionn c6is6 Thom6s. c Ceannaionn s6litear bainne.

e !

Diologue 1
(in tbe grocer'ssbop).The grocer,Liam, I siopaan ghr6saera knowsthecustomer well.

Diologue 2
In the post of6ce
Or q! ct c, rf 4 F


o (J

Liom Tomds Llom Tom6s Liom

Conos td t0 inniu, o ThomAis? Gobred. Tdfeobhos or on oimsir. Nils6r6-fhuor inniu. An dtobhorfd dom leothphunt bog0inogusdosoen uibheocho, mds6 do thoil6? T6on bogtnseogo deos. An bhfuil oonrudeileuoit?

Tom6s CC mh6odo chosnoionn s6cdrtopoisto churgo MeiriceA? i pingin. Sile Doicheod : pingin TomAs Tobhoir dom dh6stompo doicheod morsin,m6s6 i pingin. do thoile,ogusceonn triocho : rf ct


Unit 11 chognoionn s6teo?


c6rtd (m) poist (m) o chur go Meirice6 pingin (f) doicheod Dhd stompo doicheodpingin. ... oguscednntriochapingin.

to sendo postcard to America fofty pence Twoforty pence stomps. ... and onefor thitty pence.

Trueor folse? o Ci bhfuil na daoine seo? b C6arda theastaionn 6n gcustaimEir?

Diologue 3
Buying a cap.'What sizeand colour does the custometwant?

C6ndoth ot6 uoit? Lioth,le do thoil. An bhf6odfoinn 6 o thrioil orm? Cuirort 6. T6 scdth6ntholl onsin. T6 s6 seo r6-bheog. An bhfuilceonnnios m6 ogot? Seoceonnseochtgo leith. Bointrioil ss. Tti on ceonn seo i gceort, An dteostoionn don rud eile uoit? ni theostoionn Glocoimid, ogusfdilte.

Whatcolourdo you want? 6rey,please. Could I try it on (me)? Putit on. There's a mirroroverthere. Thisis too smoll. Doyou hoveo bigger one? Thisis o seven and o half one. Tryit on (you). Thisoneis right.(lit. In right) Doyou wont onythingelse? I don't (want) Wedo (occept), glodly.(lit. with wetcome)

4 F

Aodh Siopod6lr Aodh Slopoddr Aodh Slopad6ir Aodh Siopod6lr Aodh 5iopdd6ir Aodh

C6mh6odot6 or no coipinislnsonfhuinneog? 56 phuntdeog.C6nuimhiro choitheann t0? is d6ighllom. Uimhiro seocht, Cendoth ot6 uoit? Lloth.le do thoil.An bhf6odfoinn 6 o thrioilorm? Cuirort C.TAscdthan tholl onsin. th sseor6-bheog. An bhfuilceonnniosm6 ogot? go leith.Bointrioil os. Seoceonnseocht TAon ceonnseoi gceort. An dteqstoionn oon rud eileuoit? Ni theostoionn, sibh 90 roibhmoith ogot.An ngloconn le seiceonno? Siopod6ir Glocoimid, ogus fdilte.

Questions o An gcaitheann Aodh uimhira naoi? b An bhfuilan caipinr6-bheag? C An nglacann an siopale seiceanna?

Longuoge notes
boscq (m) bui d6ql (m) cqnna (m) dosoen (m) poic6od (m)

box bottle
con dozen packet

m6lo (m) pr6co (m) sfios (m) punt (m)

bag jor slice pound

, o



no coipinisin coipin(m) s phunt d6og C6nuimhir (f) o choitheonn t0? Uimhird seocht is d6igh liom

tnosecops cop pounds sixteen Whotsize(lit. numbet)do you weor? size(number) seven I think(lit. it's likelywith me)

<t CD2, TR 2, 2:30 Some of these come in halves also. Leath lhalf) causeslenition, so leathdhosaen (balf-dozenl, leathphunt \half-pound).


Unit 11 choinoionn s6seo?


Theserequirethe genitivecase(if the following noun hasone): im (ml buner c6is (fl cheese tachtar (m) cream arin (ml bread bagin lml bacon pulltt kne a pound of butter leathphunt c6isea half-pound of cheese pota uachtair a tub of cream boll6g ar6in a loaf of bread shos ar6in a slice of bread slios bagfrin a slice of bacon

dom duit d6 di

to me to you to him to ner

d0inn to us doofbh toyou d6ibh to them

Someexamples: An dtabharfi an litir seo di? An dtabharf6pionta bainne dom? Would you giue her this letter? Would you giue me d pint of milk?

Note, however, the plural after dosaenin dosaenuibheacha,a aozefl.e88s. Remember that nounsendingin e or a tend not to havea genitive case: banne lm) milk tae lml tet siricra(m) szgar pionta bairne a pint of milk litear banne a litre of milk paic6ad, tae a packet of tea punt sificra a pound of sugar

2 TABHAIR DOM ... GIVE ME ... This is a lessformal alternative to an dtabharf6. It is not by any meansimpolite, however, particularly if one addsle do thoil (p/ease): Tabhair an litir seo do Mh{ire. Tabhair pionta bainne dom, le do thoil. Giue this letter to Mary. Giue me a pint of milh, please.

1 AN DTABHARFA .,.? (WOULDYOU GIVE..,?) This is a polite form of request.The verb tugann (grues)is quite irregular, and this particular form is pronounced un drirf6 (in the south west),un d6rhi (in the nonh), insteadofthe un dowrfri which one would expect from the spelling. The recipient is always indicatedby the prepositiondo (to): An dtabharfri an litir seo do Mh6ire? Wo d you giue this lewr to Mary?

The personal forms of do (don, driLinn, etc.) often come immediately after tabhair, especiallyif whatever is being sought takesseveral words to express: Tabhair dom pionta bainne, le do thoil. Tabhair donr pionta bainne agusm6la siricra, le do thoil. Tabhair di an litir seo. 3 HOW TO SAY'I WANT ...' There are two expressions,both of which involve the personal forms of 6 (froml. I utant a cup of tea can be translated in either of the following ways: Ti cup6n tae uaim. Teastaionn cupin tae uaim. lit. A cup of tea is frotn me. lit. A cup of tea is neededfrom me. Giue me a pint of milk, please. Giue me a pint of milh and a bag of sugar, please. Giue her this lener.

If the recipient is a pronoun (me, you, etc.) the appropriate personal form of do must be used.You have met some of these already.The full setis:


Unft 11 C6qrdq chormionn 16seo?


the secondof thesecan also mean As a literal uanslation suggests I needa cup of tea. Here are the personal forms of 6: i uqim iuoit : ualdh from me ftomyou from him uolnn from us ualbh fromyou uqthu from them

(OTHER,, 4 EILE ELSE), UILE(ALL) These mustbe distinguished carefully.Eile is usedasfollows:

Tabhair dom ceann eile. Beidh cupin eile agam. C6ard eile? rud eile Aon rud eile? Giue me anotber one. I'll haueanother cup. What else? another thing, something else Anything else?

Here are some further examples,using both teastaionn ... 6 and t6 .., 6| Teastaionn milseiin 6 na leanai. An dteastaionn aon rud eile uait? An dteastaionn cabhair uaibh? Teastaionn. Ni theastaionn. Teastaionn mila siricra uaim. Cad ati uait? C6ard eile ar6 uait? An bhfuil aon rud eile uait? T6 paic6adtae uaim. Tbe ehildren uant speets. Do you uantlneed lnythiflg else? Do you utantlneedhelp? I do (utant). I don't haant). I uant a bag of sugar. Vhat do you utant? What elsedo yor utant? Do you uant atything else? I u.,anta packet of tea.

Uile hasfewer uses.V7hen olacedbeforea noun it causes lenition: Sin uile. gach uile cheann gach uile dhuine That's all. euerysingle one euerysingle person

S CEANN(HEAD)IN THE SENSE OF 'ONE' This is usedas follows: Ti ceann eile uaim. B'fhearr liom ceann nua. I uant aflother one. (not another headll I would prefet a neut one.

The preposition 6 (/rorz) causes lenition: Teastaionn cupin tae 6 Shedn. Se,inutants a cup of tea,

Ceannis usedto count obiectsor animals(not people):

Clauses containingthe verbal noun comeafter uaim, etc.: Teastaionn uaim labhairt leat. I uant to speak to llir. withl "oot.

two i dhd cheonn i tri clnnthree

: celthre cinn four : cUigclnn fiye ;. ;;;; lenition: ;";.;;;. ;;.;

seocht gclnn seyen ocht gclnn eight nqol gclnn nine delch gcinn ten ;,;;;;" ;;, ;;'.; ;.;;;

Teastaiom uaim c6ta a cheannach. Ifl.,l)t to bun o This verb can also be usedin the progressiveform:

tri cinn de bha Ti cupin tae ag teastiil uaim. T6 cabhairag teast6iluaim.

I uraflt 4 cup of tea, I uantlrced (some) help.

three cows (Et. three head of ctnlel


Untt11 Caqdo dro$otonn*s?


Note the following: : on ceonn seo this one : on Ceonnsin thot one no cinn seo theseones no clnn sin ttroseones

(HOW MUCH?) 6 CEMHEAD? This involves a specialform of the word n6id (m) drnou?rtand can be usedin a numberof ways: C6 mh6ad6 seo? Hou much is this? or C6 mh6ad a chosnaionn s6 seo? Hou much does this cost? It is alsopossible (lalaf) with cosnaionn to usecad?/c6ard? (cosrs): Cad a chosnaionn s6seo? What does this cost?

punL o pound dh6 phunttwopounds pounds tri phuntthree ceithrephuntfourpounds coigphuntfivepounds s6phuntsixpounds seochtbpuntseven pounds pounds ochtbpunteight nooibpuntnine pounds deichbpunttenpounds oonphuntdoge/even pounds

plngln a penny dh6 phingin two pence tri pingine threepence ceithrc pinginefourpence c0lg pinginefiyepence se pinginesixpence seochtbphglne sevenpence ocht bpinglneeightpence nool bpinglneninepence deichbpingineten pence oon phingin d6og elevenpence

Higher numbers do not present any additional difficu.lties:

: c0igpingine d6ogfifteenpence flchepinglntwentypence : cooga : cdooa punt ount /?fiy fiftv pounds Dounds or .tr leothchod l..|th.h&r .l pufiltL llt h^tf a hundred h' 6AE holfa ''nftlf 1 pounds

There is another idiomatic construction along the lines of Horz much (uha is on it?: C6 mhadaci air? Cad ati onhu seo? 7 COUNTING MONEY The euro (with its smaller denornination the cent) becamethe official currencyof the Republicof Irelandin Januaryzooz. Unlike plInt pound and pngin pmny, its fiorrnsdo not undergo mutation or inflection: deich euro ten erros caoga centfifty cents Hou mucb is it? How much are these!

I R0-(rOO)
This lenitesconsonants (exceptl, n, r): daor dear trorn heaty m6r big beagsmall tirim dry iadrom light T6 s6 seor6dhaor. This is too d,ear. r6throm. too heatty. r6mh6r. too big. 16bheag. too snall. r6thirim. too dry. r6-6adrom, no light.

9 COMPARISON OF AD'ECTTVES You put nios (rzore)beforea special form of the adfective:
m6r big beagsnall naith good olc bad Ti s6 seo nios m6. T6 sseo nios fti. Td s seonios fearr. Td s6seo nios measa. Thk is bigget This is smallet This is bener, This k utorse.

The unit of currency in Northem Ireland is the pound sterling. Punt is also a unit of weight, of course.pounds and penceare counted as follows:


Unh 11 Caod o dGnobon * 4o?


deasnice saor cheap daor dear

Td sdsin niosdeise. T6 s6sin niossaoire. Td s6sin nios daoire.

That is nicer. That is cbeaper. That is dearer.

Further examples: An bhfuil ceann nios 6adroimeagat? T6 ceann nios fearr ag teast6iluaim. Teastaionn carr nios hi uaim. Do you haue a lighter one? I want a better one. I uant a small car.

Cad a cheannaionn s6? o oaic6ad dosaen buidal bloc m6la

Bi c6ramach!(Becareful!) The following change the noun. bol169


Someusefulverbs o Diolonn(se//s) An ndiolonnsibh stompoi? Doyou sellstomps? p6ip6ir An ndiolonn sibh Doyou sellnewspopers? nuochto? Doyou selltobocco? An ndiolonn sibhtoboc? Wedo (sell). Dioloimid/Diolonn. Wedon't (sell). Ni dhioloimid/Ni dhiolunn. b Gloconnle (occepts) An ngloconnsibh le seiceonno? Doyou takecheques? An ngloconnsibh le cdrtoi Doyou takecreditcards? creidmheoso? li/6 d^ /^..a^t) Glocoimid/Gloconn. ghloconn. Wedon't (occept). Ni ghlccoimid/Ni

Ti Liarn ag caint leis an ngr6saeir. \Liam is talhing to the grocer.) dom,le do thoi.. Tobhoir m6lqsi0cro Liom eile? Gr6soeir seo duit.C6ord Llom An dtobhorfrbuidqlboinnedom freisln. Gr6soelr Sinuile? Liom Is eo,go roibhmoith ogot. + i cannapiseanna this dialoguewith these: o Practise ii boll6g ar6in + pr6ca suibhe. dosaen uibheacha; b Try it again,this time usingTi ... uaim insteadof Tabhair ... dom and An dtabharf5,,. dom. - in the clothesshop C6 mh6ad?Sasiopadadaigh

Custolmeir C6mheqdotd or on hqto seo? pingin. coogo Siopdd6ir Ochtbpuntdog, ceonnocuo thrioil? Custdimeir An bhfodfoinn Siopqd6ir Cinnte.
Make up similar conyersations using the items below.

1 T6 Piid ag dul ag siopad6ireacht.

siicra piseanna 12 uibheacha

bainne im subh

tde udchtarreoite


s6seo? Unft 11 C6q.dd chosnoionn | 75


o c6ta

& v

yourself Test
I Match the quantity and the food/drink How many cornbinations can you make?Watch out for changesin the form of some of the nouns: braon geim gloine uisce a6n ciste slios piosa cfpla prite bia tae cup6tr buid6al boll6g bagriLn ffon bainne

b seaic6ad c geansai d carbhat

Nios ... Lion isteachna bearnai. Examples: T6 an hata seor6mh6r. An bhfuil ceannnios (beag) agat?nios hi o Td an seaic6ad seo r6dhaor. An bhfuil ceannnios b c d ^gat? T6 an hata seor6bheag? T6 an c6ta sto r6throm ? Is fearr liom an ceann seo.T6 s6nios (deas).

Tdan-agus---r6dhaor Quantities There are sevenexpressionsof quantity concealedhorizontally and five vertically: sorpaic6.e d paboscarb o s mo t P u n t u s m6l a r e n p i I noliotard I adosaen66 o suSarseca s tarupotal s

2 Ti # r6dhaor.T6 Aoife bheag sasiopabr6ag5n agusri dhi (Little Aoife is in tbe toysbopand hasez.l Cd tit Ewo aiciL agteasttil 6 Aoife?(Vhat does sheuant?l

Cadtri r6dhaor? Nil ache aici lshehasonly zl. 176

Unft11 Caodo do||ldoo.r *e, T77

q rinnetri? C6ord Whotdidyoudo?
In thisunityouwillleorn howto . Talk about past events . Talk about your work experience

C6ordo rinne trl? Chuomor siosgo ... i nD0loinn C6r fhdn sibh? fuoireqmor or cios (m) thugdmol chun no tr6 (f) Chuomdrog tiom6int timpeoll no hdite. tdr is dn Aifrinn (m) d'itheamar biolonn 6isc d'fhon mise Th6inig ord0 (m) t'6bhochtoch isteoch. roimhesin

Whatdid you do? Wewentdownto ... in Doolin Wheredid you stoy? we got fot rent we took to the beach Wewentdrivingoroundtheploce. after Mass we ate fishrestauront I stoyed An impoftantordercamein. beforethat

Liam asks a colleague, Cathal, how he spent the weekend.
4 F

Trueor folse? o D'fhan Cathali dteach6sta. b Bhi an aimsir go dona. c D'ith s6b6iledeasar an Satharn. o cD2, TR 3, 1:17 his training and career. Miirtin, a companyexecutiye, describes Studythe grammarsectionin this unit beforeattemptingthis(Secondary sa bhliain naoi educatioz)D'fhdg m6 an mhe6nscoil d6agocht6 a d6. Fuair m torthai maithesanArdteist lExam resuhs,uniuersiry) agusd6 bhri sin chuaighm6 ar an ollscoil. (St4dies) Rinnem staid6arar chrirsaign6 ansin. (Firsrlob) Thosaighm6 ag obair do chomhlachti gContaeLrl i bhf6mharna bliana naoi d6agocht6 a c(ig, direachtar is na cime. D'fhan m6 ansinar feadhbliana agusansin and emigrales) lLeaues chuaighm6 go Meirice6.Chaith m6 tri bliana ansin.

o rinnet! og on deireodh i Liom CCord seochtoine? siosgo D0loinn, i gcontoeon Chl6ir. : cothol Chuomor i Llom Chqithm seochtoin onn coloblioin6 shin.Cdrfhon sibh? : Cothol Fuoireomor teochqr ciosin oiceno trd. Conos o bhi qn oimsir? i Ltom Cothol Bhisdgo bre6.Thugomor no leonoichunno trA D qg tiom6inttimpeqllno h6ite Sqthoirn oguschuomor moidininn6,tor 6ison Aifrinn. Liam 16c0plo biolonn on-mhoith onn. Cothol T6.D'itheomor dinn6or on-bhre6 oiche D6Sothoirn. i mbiolqnn 6isc. Cdroibht6 fCin? Liom D'fhon miseqnseo. Bhim6 og oboirDASothoirn. Th6inig ord0tdbhochtoch isteoch roimhesin. on 16


unit 12 Ccrd o rinne tn?


lAdditio al diplom4) Fad a bhi m6 ag obair sna Stiit bhain rn6 teastas sa riomhaireacht. (Qui* and comeshomel D'6irig! md as an bposrsin agusthdinig m6 ar ais go hEirinn. lJob applications\ Chuir m6 isteachar chripla post anseoagust fuair m6 tairiscint poist i nGaillimh, Ghlac m6 leis sin agust6 m6 ag obair ann 6 shin. (Maniage, buys housel Ph6sm6 cripla bliain 6 shin agus cheannaiomar teachsachathairanuraidh. d'fh69 m6 mednscoil(f) ollscoil (f) fuoir me torodh (m) d6 bhri sin Rinnem stold6o. (m) gn6 (m) thosolgh m comhlocht (m) tor 6is nd cime (0 d'fhon m6 chuoigh m6 choith m Bhoin m6 teostqs (f). d'irlgh me qs chuir m isteochor toiriscint (f) polst ghlacm6 lelssln ... Ph6sm6. i nGollllmh Cheonnoiomorteoch (m). onuroidh I left secondary school university I got rcsult therefore I studied (lit.I did study) business I began company (i.e.whenI Eaduated\ aftet the degree I stayed I went I spent I obtained a diploma. I quit, rcsigned frcm I applied for (lit.I put in forl a job offel
I n..a^te.l thnr

1 THE PASTPROGRESSIVE You have already met this way of referring to past events(Unit 4). The past progressiveof a verb consistsof bhi + ag + verbal noun: Bhi m6 ag obair go dian inn6. I was wothing hard yesterday.

Ag + verbalnoun can also be usedafter other verbs. Chuaigh m6 ag tiomiint. Chaith m6 an 16ag sifl. I uent driuing. I spent the day utalking.

2 THE SIMPLE PASTTENSEOF TYPE1 VERBS To find the simple past tenseof a Type r verb remove -(e)ann from the presenttenseform, add lenition if the verb beginswith a consonant or prefix d' if it beginswith a vowel. Here are some examples: p6sam manies puts, setds cruireann caitheannsplends buatleann le meets ceapanntbinhs tugann giaes itheanneats 6lann d,rinks Ph6sm6 anuraidh. I got tfl4ffied hst yedr. Chuir m6 litir abhalle, I sent a lener home. Chaith m6 seachtain ann, Ispe a ueek there. Bhuail m6 le hEibhlin. I met Eileen, Sin 6 a cheap m6. That's uhat I thought. Thug siad cabhair dom. They gaueme help. D'ith siad dinnar.Theyate dinner. D'61muid deoch.We had a drink.

I got ma ed. in Galway (cheonnoiomor. Weboughta house. cheqnnolghmuld) lastyeal

One verb makesits final consonant slender: siilenn walhs Shiri'il m6 abhaile. I utalhed home,

True or folse? o ChuaighMiinin ar an ollscoil. b Chaith s6dhd bhliain i Meiricei. C Th6inig s6ar ais go hf,irinn agusfuair s6post i nGaillirnh.

r 80

untt 12 Caordo dnn.tu?


Sincelenition makesf silent (written fh) verbs beginning with f are ueated as if they beganwith a vowel: D'fhan s6istigh.He stayedin- (pron. dan) fanannst4ys f gannleaues D'fir6g s6n6ta. He left a note. (pron. dig) f6achannlooAs D'ft6ach siad orm . They lookeil at me. (pron. d6ach) Lenition cannotalwaysapply, of course: scriobhannrtrius letnann follows Scriobh m6 litir, I unote 4 letteL Lean m6 iad. I folloued them.

the presenttensethere is also an ending meaningwe, e.g. tEimid (ute gol. 5 USING THE PASTPROGRESSIVE AND SIMPLE PAST The past progressive form of the verb presents an action as beingunderway(in progress) over a period of time. (See Unit 4 progressive.) for present TheseIrish sentences and their English translations correspond both in form and meaning: Bhi m6 ag ithe mo dhinn6ir. Bhi m6 ag scriobh cfpla litir. I taaseatingmy dinner. I uas uriting a couple of letters.

3 THE SIMPLE PASTOF TYPE2 VERBS tenseand replaceit with Remove-(a)ionnfrom the present beforea vowel. This -(a)ighis or d' -(a)ighand then add lenition, pronoun when it is pronounced pronouncedi exceptbeforea -a or -e: Cheannaighm6 cat nua.I bought a neut car' ceannaionnbuys Thosaigh rn6 in am. I beganon time. tosaionn starts . an r ang.The class finished criochnaionn finisbes Chriochnaigh D'imigh m6 go luath. I left early. imionn depa* D'6irigh m6 ag a hocht- I got up at eight. lirionn getsup D'athraigh an aimsir.The ueathet changed. athraionn changes Comparethe pronunciationof -igh in these: D'imigh Sileabhaile. Sheilaleft for home.(pron. dimi sMe) D'imigh si ag a naoi. Shele{t at nine. (pron' dine shi) A THE ENDING |E)AMAR (WE) In the lrish of Connachtand Ulsterrrreis indicatedby muid, e.g. ph6s muid (ue maniedl, chuir muid Qtteputl, d''rmlghnutd lue leftl. However, in Munster' and in the standard written endingis used,so ph6sanar lue maniedl, a special language, chsireamar (uteputl, d'imiomar (ute lefi). You will recall that in

The simplepastjust states that something happened: D'ith m6 mo dhinn6ar. Sgiobh m6 criolalitir. I ate my dinner. I wrote a couple of letters.

6 THE PASTTENSEOF IRREGULAR VERBS Someverbshavepast tenseforms which differ greatlyfrom the tnse: Present danann does taganncomes teanngoes faigheanngets feiceann seas deireann says cloiseann hears See alsoUnit r3. Rinne m6 deagnad.l madea mistahe. Thiinig s6abhaile.He camehome. Chuaighsi ar ais.Sle went back. Fuaft mE post. I got a job. Chonaicm6 sin. I sau that. Diirt m6 leo 6. I rold. it to them. Chualasiad r6fla. They hearda rumour.

Munster Irish has simplifiedthe verb 'to do'; the present is deineonn(does) and the past is dheln. You may decidethat theseforms are easier.


Untt 12 Coido dnn.t6?


7 SOMEEXPRESSIONS OF TIME These referto specific periodsof pasttime:

inn moldin inn6 tr6thn6no tnn6 or6ir oru inn6 or0 or6il on tsecchtqln seo coite on mhi so colte onurqidh an bhlloln seo cqlte yesterday yesterdaymoning yesterday evening Iastnight the doy beforcyesterday the night before last lastweek Iastmonth lastyeor lastyear

It is also usedwith the verbal noun to refer to something which has Comparethese: iust happened. Bhuail mEleo. T6im tar 6s bualadh leo. D'6irigh s6. Tri s6tar 6is iri. D'imigh si. Ti si tar 6s imeacht. I met thern. I haueiust met them. He has got taq. He has iust got up. Sheleft. Shehasjust left.

9 AR (ON) WITHOUT LENITION In somesetphrases ar is usedwithout lenition: or muir is or tit or duolgos or cios or diol or ftiil or buile or meisce or sltl

Theseadverbs are also useful: 6 shin le dqnoi fod6 f6s cheqno oris Srnce lately long ago yet aheady (pron. hono) again case;

on sea andon land on duty fot rent for mle available anEy drunk underyay tokingplace,

Ar feadh (/or) (a period of time) takes the genitive seachtainueek mi month Dnatnyeu ar feadh seachtain e for a week ' ar feadh miosa /or o at feadh bliana for a ^onoiyear

1 SeachtainPhridraigin - l6igh ao t6acsthios aguscuir na pictiriir san ord ceart (read the text behu, and put the picttaresin the conect orderl , D6 Luain D'6irigh me go luath aguschuaigh m6 go Londain ag a s6a chlog, Bhi cruinniri agam ag a naoi a chlog. D6 M6in D'fhill m6 abhailed6anach sa tr6thn6na.Bhi m6 an-tuirseach.

ATAR EISAFTER) This is followed by the genitive case: dtnnlar dinner t?| tno"u -Mo: 11o."ln cetm degree(l) ar tar tar tar Eis an dirutik aftel diflrrer 6isan l6n after lunch 6isan Nfrinn after Mass 6isna c1ine after (gettirrg) the degree


untt 12 Caodq dnnG16? I85

C6 a: o fuair rud 6igin sa phost? rud 6igin? b cheannaigh c scriobhrud 6igin? d d'6irigh go d6anach? e d'fhreastailar rud 6igin? f thiinig abhailed6anach? I bhi ag obair sa ghairdin?
l*4ant;J - r6-aha6&arh rdm 12

Pddmig's diary
bdthnnhe b"tech sa bhailcae a 3,OO t ln A


D'Brau at s laAa




Itq rdl

Ottdb didry
adhdn 13

Dt:n rta blda dd d.a.

Cdfta ooitt 6" bhFrait c - bcidh Nathali.aa

aolr. *

Iiar 6 Chrain tc aa tzacht Dladaoin

.tqif','t,l 14

b aaahztsaha;dto

s'd-m 30


aa ccolchoim




D6 CeadaoinScr(obhm6 cuntasar an gcruinnif i Londain. D'oibrigh m6 go dti a hocht a chlog sa tr6thn6na. D6ardaoinTh6g m6 16saor agusd'fhan m6 sa bhaile.Ghlan m6 an teachagusrinne m6 roinnt oibre sa ghairdin. D6 Moine Bhi m6 ar ais sanoifig agusthdinig cuaineoir 6n bhFrainc.Bhi cruinniri fada againn. D6 SathairnBhi m6 tuirseachaguschaith m an mhaidin sa leaba. D6 DomhnaighBhuail m6 le cara dom agusd'itheamarl6n an-deas i mbialann. Find who did what L6igh na dialannaseoaguspioc amachc6 a rinne na rudai seo aleanas (study tbe diaries and find uho did the follou)ing\l

Lion isteachna bearnai o Choosethe appropriateverb from thosesuppliedbelow and put it in the past tense. | .........- m6 sa bb\ain r97o. il m6 tamall i Sasana. iii m6 le Peadarinn6. iv m6 b6ilean-deas ar6ir. v m6 litir do Shein. vi m6 an cirta sa phost. vll _ m6 n6ta, /f 6gannlcuireann/ caitheann/itheann/p6sann/scriobhann buaileann


q dnnett? Unft 12 Cqrd


| ll lll lv aiffiionn I il ilt lv

an choim cheoilag a hochta chlog m6go luath maidininn6. m6ag a seacht a chlogtr{thn6na inn6. an aimsirinn6.

a|| *



o C'

_ Y vl -

# abhaileag an deireadh seachaine. s6postnua si dearmad. sliom 6. m66 sinsiadar aisgo Sasana,




yourself Test
Use the following grid about weekend actiyities to make up two more conversationscirnihr 1s th btwnEibhlis and Triona: o Triona agusDara; b Triona agus Orla.

2 Put the itemsin these rwo lists in orderfrom mostrecentto mostdistant: o I an tseachtain seocaite ll ani inn6 lll anuraidh lv inn v an mhi seocaite b I arri ar6ir ll '"aidin inn6 lll ar6ir lv trfthn6na inn6

Elbttll3 Dar! Odo

oldre D hAolne dlosc6 (Bhi Colm onn) noplctlolr (leNoel) sobholle

DlSo$olm sobhqlle (tulrseoch) rothornuq (o1fl9) oboir

D6 Donhnolgh BJion (bl6thonno) sobhoile (ciste deos)


thlt 12 caordolil|ttt


Ni fhoco m6 th0 le tqmoll youforo while I hoven't seen
ln thisunityouwillleorn howto . Comment futther on past events . Form irregular verbs in the past tense

Ni fhoco m6 th0.

BhuoighTreosoduois (f) mh6r. (m) N6isi0nto so Chronnchur Nior chuolom6. o diirt liom oguscednn(m) d6 muintir (f) An ndeorno? Nior cheonnoigh misetlc6od(m) riomh. C6ordf0tso? Whatoboutyou? Ceonnoimceonn goch seqchtoin(f). I buy oneeveryweek. dodo anything Trueor folse? o Bhuaigh Treasa an Lotto. b Cheannaighsi teach nua di muintrr. c CeannaionnDeirdre ticdad anois is aris.

I haven't seen you. (lit.I didn't see you\ (has)wona big prize. Thercsa in the Notional Lottery I didn't heaL who told me ond onefor her porents Did (she)? I (have) neverboughta ticket.

Diologue 1
Deirdre and Sdamas meer and talk about a friend's recent lone ry win.

Diologue 2
A journalist interviewsa young Irishman working in New York.


o v

Delrdre S6omos Deirdre S6cmos

Conos td tri, o ShComois? Ni fhocq m th6 le tomoll. TAAthos orm t0 o fheicedil. Aonsc6ol? Bhuoigh Treoso duoismh6rso Chronnchur Ndisilnto. Ar bhuqigh? Niorchuolo m6 fooisinin oonchor. An roibh t( og cointli? Deirdre Ni roibh.A deorth6ir o doirt liom 6. S6omos Cord o rinnesi leison oirgeod? Deirdre Cheonnoigh si corrdi f6inogusceqnn dd muintir. S6omos An ndeorno? An-smqoineomh. Niorcheonnoigh mise ticeodriomh.Ceord f0tso? Deirdre Ceonnoim ceonngochseochtoin, och nior bhuoighm6 dodof6s.

ilrlseoir Cothoino thdinigti 90 Nuo-Eobhroc?

Miche6l Iriseoir Miche6l Irlsoir Michetil Irlseoh : Mtche6l ni bliono 6 shin. Lenlotn or tnootu trrel Nioririghllom-post o fhdil nuoiro d'fhdg m6 on scoil. An eo?An ndeorno t0 on Ardteist? Rinne, och ni dheorno mCr6mhoithonn. Tuigim. Ar chuirt6 isteoch or mh6r6npostonno? Chuirme isteoch or roinnl Ach bhi fonn orm teocht onseo. Irlseoir An bhfuoirt0 postldtthreoch? Miche6l Ni bhfuoir. Th6gsetomolluoim. Irlseolr C6ncine6loibreo fuoirt0? (Contd)


o o .f


o IJ


Unlt 'l 3 Ni fhocom6 th! le tomoll

I 9|

or dt0s.Niorfhon m6 onn Miche6l Bhi m6 og oboiri mbiolonn qchsmhi. onsin? Irlseolt Agus och niorthoitin seliom. Mlche6l Fuoirm posti ngoraiste Iriseoir N6rthoitin?C6nf6th? Miche6l Ni roibhon p6 16-mhoith. 6 shin? An ndeochoigh t0 obhoile isd6cho. Iriseolt Ni roibh, me onn or feodhmiosoonuroidh. Miche6l Chuoigh Iriseoir Ar mhoithleot fonochtonseo? B'fheonliomdulobhoile. Mlche6l Niormhoith.

Niomh 6. on eo.Cadteonnt0? qchchuoigh chunno Spainne de ghndth, Eibhlis T6im mCgo PAros i mbllono. Niomh An ndeochoigh? Ni misteothr0onoisis oris.Cdrfhon t0? Eibhlis In 6stdnbeogin oicele ldr no cothrqch.

C6nfdth? Nior 6irighliom post o fh6il An ndeornot0 on Ardteist(f)? Rinne. .. Ni dheornom6 r6-mhoithonn. 6 o Ar chuirt0 isteoch or ...? Bhi fonn (m) orm ... ct Th69 s6 tomoll (m) uoim. ach s6 mhi Nior thoitin s6 liom. Ndr thoitin? An ndeochoigh tt obhoile? or feodh mioso (f)

I didn't succeed to get a job Ceftificate? Didyou do the Leoving I did. I didn't do too wellin it. Didyou applyfor ...? ... I wasinclined It tookme a while. onlysixmontns it. I didn't like you)? Didn'tit (pleose Didyou go home? for a month

loethonto(m) sooire(f) i mbliono C6 dt6onn t0? Ni misteothro (m). Cdr fhon t0? in oice le 16r(m) no cothroch(f) Question Cdr fhan Eibhlisi bPriras?

holidays thisyear Wheredo you go? A changeis no harm. Wheredid you stay? neot, next to the city centre


3 g

1 THE PASTTENSE FORMSOF AN, Ni AND NACH There are distinct past tense forms of ni (negative), an (question) and nach (negative question); these end in -r and cause lenition (seealso Unit 7):

Questions o C6nf6th ar th6inigMicheil go Nua-Eabhrac? a bhi aigeann? b C6ncine6lpostanna s6ar aisgo hEirinn? c Cathaina chuaigh
ro .f F

Negotive Present Post


Question on or

Negotive question nocn nor



Their useis shown in theseexamples:

Diologue 3
sqoire? Niomh Cenmhi o theonnt0 or do loethonto qhndth. Eibhlis I Mi llil de Present Buailim leisgo minic. An mbuaileann tri li? Ni bhuailim leo in aon chor. Nach mbuaileann tri leis? I meethim fairly often. Do you meether? I don't meetthem at all. Don't you meetbim?


r 9z

Unit 13 Ni fhocdm6 thir l.tomoll


Bhuailm leischeana. Ar bhuail ni l6i? Nior bhuail m6 leo. Nir bhuail tri leis?

I (haue)met him alreddY. Did you meether? I didn't met them. Didn't you meethim?

3 THE PASTTENSEFORMOF CA (WHERE?) Ci becomes cir beforeregularverbsin the pasttense.(Comparean in Unit z and sectionr of this unit.) Ci bhfananntri? Crir fhan ti? Ci n-imionn an t-airgead? Cdr imigh an t-airgead? Where do you stay? Where did you stay? Whne doesthe money go? Where did the money go?

Comparethe copula forms in -r in Unit ro, and seefurther in Unit 15' IN THE PASTTENSE OF IRRE6UIAR VERBS 2 SPECIALFORMS Verbswhich are irregularin the pasttense'e.g.d6anann(does)and by an, ni, etc' rinne (did), are evenmore irregularwhen preceded They usethe ordinary an, ni, nachinsteadof the pasttenseforms form. You ar, nior, nir, and the verb takesa special'dependent' havealreadymet this Pafternwith the Pasttenseof ti ('s)' These asunits: shouldbe learned combinations Bhi me I wos Ni mlbh m6 I wasn't An mibh m6? WasIZ Noch mlbh m6? Wasn'tI2 Rinnem6 I did Ni dheorndm6 I didn't An ndeornom?Did I7 Noch ndeornom6?Didn't I?

Here againirregularverbsdo not usethe form vr'ith-r: Ci ndeachaigh ni? Ci bhfuair ni 6 sin? Where did you go? Vhere did you get tbat?

h IYPE 1 VERBS IN FINAL VOWEL Type r verbswhich end in a consonant take no endingin the past tense,for instance p6stnn (maniesl, ph6s lmarriedl , However thosewhich end in a vowel add -igh, like Type z. suionnsits btann wins l6ann reads Shuighm6 sios.I sat douln. (pron. h() Bhuaighs6duais.He uon a pize. (pron. vua) Nior l6ighm6 6. I d/r:'t readit. (pron.IEJ

Chuolghm I went Ni dheochoighm6 I didn't 90 An ndeochoighm6?Did I go? m6?Didn't Noch ndeochoigh I go?

Chonoicm6 I sow Ni fhoco m I didn't see An bhfoco m6? Did I see? Noch bhfocom6?Didn't I see?

S TAITNiONN(PLEASES) IN THE PASTTENSE 'lrhen -ionn is removedto form the past tenseof this verb, an i is insenedbetween the consonants. Compare: I enjoy it. (lit. It pleasesutith mel I enjoyed it.

: D0irt m6I said

Fuoirm I got Taitnionn s6liom. Thaitin s6liom

Ni bhfuoir me I didn't get Ni d&irtm6I dtdn'tsoy bhfuoir m6?Did I 9et2 An DidI say? An ndoirtm6? bhfuoir m6?Didn't I get? Noch Didn'tI saY? Nochnd0irtm?

Munster Irish hasa simplifiedpafternfor two of theseverbs,which you may find convenient: dhein did chuaigh went 194 nioriarlnir dhein didn't do, etc, nior/arlnir chuaighdidn't go, etc.

Two other verbs which follow this pattern are imrionn lplaysl and cosnaionn(costs): D'imir m6 cluichegailf inn6. An m6id a chosains6orm. I playeda gameof golf yeste ay. Tbe a?nouflt it costtne.

Unh 13 Nl ftccq m6 tho lc totnoll

f 95

5 USIN6 THOFOR TO 'YOU' Tri usually becomes thrri whenit is theobject of a verb:

Ti ithas orm

T6 fonn orm Ni fhacam6 th6. Ni chloisimth6. Feicimanoisthri. I didn't seeyou, I can't hearyou. I seeyou nou,

bheith anseo. bualadh leat. cabhni leat. dul abhaile. imeacht. 6iri as.

I am pleased to be here. to meetyou. to help you. I am inclined to go bome. to leate. to giue up.

7 THE PASTTENSEUSED INSTEADOF THE PERFECT The past tenseis often usedin Irish where the perfect would be required in English, especiallywhen referring to individual experiences in the past: Chonaicm6 an scann6n sin. Chualam6 6 sin. I baueseen(lit. I saul that flm. I baueheard lit.l heardl that.

When thereis a direct oblectthe order is quite different:I am pleased to seeyou becomes lit. I am pleased. you to see.Notice the lenition after a, Ti dthas orm tf a fheiceiil. I am pleasedto seeyou. Ti fonn orm post a flriil. I am anxious to get a job. Ba mhaith liom post a fhiil. I would like to get d iob. teacha cheannach. to buy a house. 6 a thriail. to tryt. greim a ithe. to eat a bite. braon tae a 61. to dri k d dtop of tea. 9 Ni ... ACH(ONLY) There is no singleword for ozly in Irish and the sentenc must be madenegative. Comparethe following. Chaith m6 seachtain ann. Nior chaith m6 ann ach seachtain. Cheannaigh m ceannamhdin. Nior cheannaigh m6 ach ceann amh6in. 10 DA (TO HIS, TO HER) You will recallthat Disis a + lenition and Daris a without lenition. A prepositionendingwith a vowel is separated from thesewith an n. Comparethese: ag + a le + a Ti carr ag a bhean. Bhi m6 ag caint lena mac. His uife hasa car, I was talking to her son.
Unlt 13 Nl ftoco ma th6 le td'noll f97

Vhen the Irish past tensecor.espondsto the English perfect it is often accompaniedby adverbs such as cheana(alreadyl, iamh lneuerli Ni fhacam6 thri le tamall. Nior ligh m6 riamh . Bhuail m6 leo cheana. Nior bhuail m riamh l6i. Nior chaith md tobac riamh. A VER,BAL NOUN CLAUSES Thesecorrespond to the Englishinfinitive (the form of the verb preceded by to, &ay).I(hen thereis no direct objectthe word order is the sameas in English: fu mhaith leat fanacht anseo? like to suy hete? bualadhle Sedn? to meetSedn? teachtlinn? to comewitb us? bheith p6sta? to be married? I I I I I bauen'tseenyou for sometime. haueneuer read it. bauealready met them, haueneuer met her. haueneuersmoked.

I spent a ueeP there, I only spenta ueek there.(lit. I didn't spend there but a ueek) I bought one. I only bought one.


di: However do (to, /orl + a lhislherl becomes Thug s6di bhean. Cheannaigh si di mac . He gaue it to his utife. Shebought it for ber son.

It is often followed by a verbalnoun clause: Nimiste6adh6anamh, Nimiste6ari. It is as utell to do it. It is no harm to say it.

(fO) WITH PLACE NAMES 11 GOANDCHUN place names withoutan (the)t before Go is used
P6rasParis England Sasana Londain London Nerz York Nua-Eabhrac Chuaighm6 go Piras. I uent to Park. Chuaighm6 go Sasana. I uent to England. Chuaighm6 go Londain. I went to London. Chuaighm6 go Nua-Eabhrac. I utent to New Yorh.

Other forms of the cooula are also usedwith niste: Ar mhistelabhain leo? Nior mhiste smaoineamhair. Would it be as well to speahto them? It uould be no harm to thiflk of it.

Lion isteachna bearnai. Complete the question with the correct form of the verb and echo the verb in the answer: Example: Ar tri an litir sa phost?Freagra: Chuir. d (caitheann) Ar tri tobac riamh? (fanann) b Ar tri sa leabamaidin D6 Sathairn? c (tugaDlrcuakt ar) Ar ni cuairt ar Mhriireddle danai? /aimionn) d (f6achann Ar nl ar an gcoirm cheoilar an teiliffs ar6ir? Ar s6leat?

If the destinationbeginswith an (tle) you must usechun, which requiresthe genitivecase. AnFhtainc France Chuamarchun na Fraince. We uent to France. Chuamarchun na Sp6inne. We went to Spain. An Sp6innSpaiz An R6imh Roze Chuamarchun na R6imhe. We went to Rome.

Chunis usedin variousother expressions: sui chun boird duf chun no tr6 to sitdownot toble to qo to the beoch

THAT'' NO HARM 12 Ni MISTE This is usedto conveythe ideaof it ,aould be as utell to, it would be no harm: Ni mistesin. That's no harmlnot a bad idea.

tugonncuolrtot ceolchoirm olrmcheoll

visits concett


Unlt 13 Nl ftocd n6thi lGtomoll


ArlAn? Put ar or an in the questionand write out the with the correctform of the verb: appropriateresponse o (itheann) maith ar maidin? ith tri bricfeasta (f6gann) b fhig sibh an teachgo luath ar maidin? c (d6anann) ndearnati dearma d lforgetting)ar do hata? (faigheann) bhfuair tri na tic6id? (tann)
ndeachaigh t( ann?

(itheann) Nuala bricfeasta maith ach - Eoghan aon bhricfeasta. (figann) - Nuala an teachag a hocht a chlog ach go dti a naoi a chlog. Eoghan _ _ (tosaionn) Nuala ag obair ag ceathr( chun a naoi - go ach Eoghan dti a deich a chlog. (t6ann) d Nuala abhaileag a s6a chlog ach - Eoghanabhailego dti a seacht a chlog. e (d6anann) - Nuala dinn6ardeassa trdthnonaach Eoghandinn6arar bith. f (faigheann)- Nuala glaoch teileaf6in sa tr6thona glaochar bith. ach Eoghan Completethe conversations as in the modI. Example lbtann = uinsl Statement Bhi m6 ag imin peileinn6. Question: Ar bhuaigh sibh? Response Bhuaigh. o (tagann)Td Siobh6nanseoanois. si le Diarmaid? (imionn)Nior fhan muid r6dh6anach ar6ir. sibh roimh mhe6noiche? (faigheann) Beidh 16breitheShe6in ann amdrach. An tri bronntanas do? d (d6anann)Ni fheicim mo scdth fearthainne in 6it ar bith. tri dearmadair aris? is d6cha. _,

Answer in the negative. Example: Ar chuir ni an lifi sa phost? Nior chuir. f6s? o Ar bhuail tri le Peadar go luath ar maidin? b Ar 6irigh tf c Ar 6l ti uiscebeathariamh? f6s? d Ar thiinig Sdamas e An bhfuair tri an seicf6s? f An ndearnatri dearmadar an leabhar? ti go Luimneachinn6? I An ndeachaigh Insertthe appropriateforms of feiceann: o An tti Pidraig Ie danai? Bhi sanseoinn6. b An bhfacatri Miire agusSiobh5n? m6 duine ar bith. Ni Cuir Nuala i gcompar,iid le hEoghan (cotnpareNuala's and Eoghan'sday\. Changethe verbsto the past tense. a chlog ach Nuala ag a seacht Example (6irionn)(Nzala go leath i ndiaidh a seacht. Eoghan dti get up until (getsup) dt seuen o'cloch but Eoghan (doesn't) This becomes: D'irigh Nuala ag a seachta half past seuen.) chlog ach nior 6irigh Eoghango dti leath i ndiaidh a seacht.


Untt 13 Nl fhocomGtholetomoll


yourself Test
1 Make short conversations like the following:

innC? t0 chuigon toispedntos An ndeochoigh Chuoigh. Ar thoitin sCleot? Thoitin.

Td m6 og foghloim Goeilgele dh6 bhliqinonuos leorning I hove been Irishfor the posttwo yeors
In thisunityouwillleorn howto . Talkabout yout ptogress in learning Irish . Copewhen you are stuck for a word, or when people talk too quickly (Gaeilgeoiri) Here are someconyersations between Irish speakers (foghlaimeoiri). and peoplewho are learningthe language

e tqispedntos
Now use these: q diosc6


b ag si6l lwalking)

c an llacht (lecture) d an cluiche peile \football match)

2 Join up these to make complete utterances and then match each with one of the functions listed A r m hait h leat T6 6thas orm Td fonn orm Ba mhaith liom dul abhailc. post a fhdil. bualadh leat' teacht linn?

c expressing inclination b responsewhen introduced to someone Say where you (pl.) went. Chuamar o Pdras b An Fhrainc c Sasana d An Sp6inn e Gaillimh

lnvltrng d expressing desire

Diologue 1
F N. (J

Goeilgeoir Conos tOog iri leotso Ghoeilge? Foghloimeoir Reosfnto moith,ocht6 s6moll go leor. Goeilgeoir C6nfhod otd t0 d foghloim? Foghloimeoir Ledhdbhiioin onuos. Goeilgeoir CodCon rud is deocro so Ghoeilge? go leorogus Foghloimeoir Tdon litri! deocoir t6 on seimhio oguson t-ur! meosortho deocoir freisin. (Contd)

Unit 14 T6 m6 og foghlolmGdellge le dh6 bhllolnonuos

20 l

Goeilgeoir Agus codCon rudisfusq? Foghloimeoir Niloonrudon-fhurosto, i nd6irire. Bionn ort oibri! go dionchunteongo o fhoghloim.

Trueor folse? (dissatkfed)leis an gcrirsa. o Td an foghlaimeoirmi-shdsta b Bionnan mfinteoir c6anna ag an bhfoghlaimeoir lsame) an t-am ar fad bll tbe time\.

ros0nto,meosortho Cenfhod otd t! d foghloim? le dh6 bhlioin(f) onuos 6 Cod 6 on rud is deqcro/fuso? 9 litri0 (m) 90 dion f o furosto Bionnort... chunteongo(f) o fhoghloim Trueor folse?

fairly Howlongorcyou leorning it? for thepost twoyeors Whotis the mostdifficult/eosy thing? spelling noto eosy hove You to ... in orderto leorna Ionguage

Diologue 3
Foghloimeoir T6s6go bre6or moidin. Goeilgeoir Ta,och ni fCidirbheithog brothoir.Tdceobhr6n f6groithe i gcomhoir on trathnono. Foghlaimeoir Tdbrdnorm.Niorthuig m6 Csin.Cqdt6 f6groithe? Goeilgeoir Ceobh16n. Foghloimeoir Cenrud6 sinT Goeilgeoir Ni bhionnschomhtrom le bdisteqch. Mist on focolB6orlo oir.

o Tii an drrineseo ag foghlaim Gaeilgele bliain anuas. b Tri ag 6iri go maith leis sa Ghaeilge.

Diologue 2
ci o
tti E F

Ni f6idir bheithog broth oir. f6groithe nior thuig me chomhtrom le

Youcan't depend on it. onnounced, predicted I didn't understond heavyas

o ^t u

Goeilgeoir Conos td on c0rso og teocht or oghoidh? leis. Foghloimeoir Gohon-mhoith. Tdm6 on-sasto Goeilgeoir CCn m[inteoirotdogot? Foghloimeoir Bionn beirtmh0rnteoiri ogornn. ls 6 Sedn 0 N6rll o bhionn ogusisi Coitlin Ni Bhrioin ogoinn or moidin o bhionn ogoinn tor 6is16in. go 6oeilgeoir T6neortGoeilge ogot.Tdt0 og deonomh hon'mholth.

ion Qust C6n rud nir thuig an foghlairneoir?

Conos o deireonn t0 ... os Goeilge? Howdo you soy... in lrish? Conos o litrionntti ...? Howdoyou spell ...? qr ...? Cod6 on Ghoeilge Whatis the lrishfor ...? Cqd6 qn focolGoeilge or ...? Whotis the lrishwordfor ...? An bhf6odf6lobhoirtniosmoille? Could you speok moreslowly?


og teocht or oghoidh neort og donomhgo hon-mhoith

progrcssing coming olong, plenty(lit. strength) doing verywell

t al


Unit14 T6m6 og foghloim Goeilge l dh6bhlioin dnuos


An bhf6odf6 6 sin o 16oris? An bhf6odf6 6 d 1690 mqll? ogot? An bhfuil Goeilge ogom. Tri beog6nGoeilge Nil och beog6n6oeilgeogom. siod r6thopo. Lobhronn Tuigimrudoi6irithe. Ni thuigim thi/6 sin. Tuigimonois.

you soythat og1in? Could you sayit slowly? Could Itish? Doyou know(lit. hove) I knowsomeIrish. I onlyknowsomeIrish. Theyspeoktoo fast. I unde$tandcertointhings. you/that. I don't understand now. I understond

How I leorntIrish
., CD2, TR 5, 1:08 Tri m6 ag foghlaim GaeilgeIe beagnachtri bliana anuas.Rinne rne cdrsa de chuid Ghael Linn ar dtLisi mBaile Atha Cliath. agus d'irigh go maith liom ansin.'Tris maith leath na hoibre', mar a Ina theanntasin chaith m coicis ar chfrsa sa deir an seanfhocal. (ihaeltacht anuraidh. Is iad na rudai is m6 a thaitnionn liom n6 l6itheoireacht, bheith ag fEachaint ar fhist6ipeanna agus pdirt a ehlacadhi ndrimai.

o dh6onomh or Cod6 on tsli is feorrchunstoideor theongo? nd rudoieile.Td L6ocht6ir Tdrudoi6iritheniostdbhochtoi cruinneos tdbhochtoch och is i on liofochton rud is or fod,b'fheidir, Is 6 on rud is tdbhochtoi tdbhochtoi. n6 on storfocol.Murobhfuilfocoilqr eolosoqot ni feidirleot m6rano rd. Moc l6inn

a course organized by 'A goodbeginning (is)halfthe work.' alongwiththot (i dteonntd= accompanying) is iod no rudoi (m) ... nd. Thethings... namely. p6irt (f) o ghlocodh tokingpott, to tokepaft og fochointar fhist6ipeonno wotching videos Questions

de chuid crirso 'T0s(m) moith leoth (m) no hoibre(f).' ino theonntosin

9 U

sli (f) or stqid6or(m) o dh6onomh tdbhochtoch o (m) cruinneos (m) focol(m) st6r C' t6 or eolos(m) og muro

woy,method to study importont rate) accu rocy(ctuinn accu (lit.storeof wods\ vocobulory knows if not

o C6 mh6ad ama a chaith an foghlaimeoir seo sa Ghaeltacht? b C6ard iad na rudai is m6 a thaitnionn leis?

1 HOW TO SAY'THE EASIEST THING" 'THEMOST DIFFICULT THING', ETC. Thesebecome tbe thing wbich is most easyldifficulr in Irish:
furasta easy deacair difficub

Qu es t ions o An aontaionn tusa leis an gcomhairleseo?(aontaionnle = agreeswith) b Cad 6 an tsli is fearr chun teangaa fhoghlaim, dar leatsa?

an rud is fusa tbe easiest thing an rud is deacra tbe mostdifficub thtng


Unit 14 T6 m6 og foghlolmGdellge le dhd bhlioinonuos


The copula form is can meanettheris or which rs accordingto context.Comparethese: Isdeacair6adh6anamh. Sin an rud is deacraa dh6anamh.

It is difficuh to do it. (6 = it) Thatis tbemostdifficuhthing to do,

What I lihe bestis to lie under Is 6 an rud is fear liom ni lui the sun. faoin ngrian. Is 6 an tsli is fearr liom teangaa My fauouriteuay of learninga languageis listening to. CDs {hoghlaim ni bheith ag le t6ipeanna. 6isteacht llit. to be listeningl 3 TA ORM/BrONNORM(I MUST,I HAVE TO)

hererecallthat the most For the specialadjectivalforms needed (which makesa broad consonant is to add e commonprocedure Adjectives endingin a vowel are not usuallyaffected. slender).

-lA ar (has tol refersto the momentof speaking alone: Ti orm dul abhaile. Ti orthu imeacht.
I haue to go home (notu). They haue to leaue (now),

The most common adjectives tend to be irregular:

Bionn ar refersto recurrentsituations, scor cheop sin on ceqnn is ddot dear deosnire moith good dono bad m6r big beog smal/ fodo long georr short 215 E ... NA ish Is is pronounced Note the constructionof thesesentences. before6, i, iad, ea: What I saw was a borse, Is 6 an rud a chonaicm n6 capall. Is 6 an duine a bhi ag caint liom The personwho uas talhing to me was Liam. n6 Liam. preferences: This construction can also be usedto express Is 6 an sp6rt is fear liom n6 peil. The sport I like bestis football. Is 6 an ceol is fear liom n6 jazz. The musicI like bestis iazz. one. sooire. Ihat is the cheopest deorest. dooire. nicest. deise. best. feqrr. worst. meoso. m6. biggest. 10. smallest. longest. foide. giorro. shortest. Bionn orm 6iri go luath. Bionn orm m6r6n staid6ira dh6anamh. Bionn orthu fanacht istigh san oiche. The past tenseis bhi r lhad to): Bhi orm bheith istigh go luath. Bhi orainn dul abhaile. 4 ANOTHER USEOF IS You learnt in Unit 2 that is can be usedto classifya personby occupationor nationality,e.g.Is mriinteoiri M6ire (Mary is a teacber) . lt can alsobe usedto identify who fulfills a particular rcle, e.g.Mary is thelmy teacher. The order of words will then be: Is + pronoun referringto person+ person'sname+ role: Is i Miire an mriinteoirceoil. Is i Niamh an mriinteoir Fraincise. Mary is tbe musicteacher Niamh is the Frencbteacber. I had to be in early, We had to so bome. I haue to get up ea y (always). I haveto do a lot of study. They baue to suy in at night.


lGdh6 bhliolnonuo. Unlt 14 T6 m qg foghlolmGoeilg


Ni hi M6ire an mriinteoir Fraincise. Is 6 Brian an mriinteoirstaire. Is 6 Se6nan miinteoir a bh(onn againnar maidin. Ba 6 Liam an mriinteoir sp6irt.

Mant is not the French teacber. Brian is tbe history teacber. Sednis our teacher in the morning. Liam was the sports teacher.

The vowelsof mo and do are droppedbeforea vowel, as usual: Nil siaddo m'ioc. An bbfuil siad do d'ioc?
They dren't pdying me. Are they paying you?

Notice that i is followed by whatevermutation is requiredby the genderof the noun. Compare: Masculine noun (i + lenition) Feminine noun (no lenition) Plural noun (6 + eclipsis) T6 m6 ag danarnh ciste. I am making a cake.

A5 OB]ECTOF THE VERBALNOUN 5 PRONOU'Vs The oblect of the verbalnoun comesimmediatelyafter it, and is put in the genitivecaseif it has one: T6 siad ag ceannach ti. They are buying a house. (teach(m) Dozse)

I am making it. T5 m6 d dhanamh. Td m6 ag foghlaim Gaeilge. I am leaming lrish. T6 m 6 foghlaim. T6 m6 ag ceannach 6ll. T6 m6 5 gceannach. I am learning it. I am buying apples. I am buying them,

However,if you want to say they are buying it it is not possible simply to put the pronoun 6 it after the verbal noun. Instead pronoul is put beforethe verbal noun (and the do + possessive construdion meanstbe! are to its buyingl T6 siad d6 cheannach. They are buying it. ldf = do + e his, itsl

In this last example,6ll (applelis the basicform with plural meaningin this particularconstruction(andtraditionally called genitiveplural in this context).The sentence literally means'l am at the buying of apples'.You will meetthis againin Unit r7. 6 HOW TO SAY 'I KNOW' r, CD2,TR 5, 1:52 A numberof differentexpressions are used,one for knowing a personand othersfor knowing a language or a point of information. T6 aithneagamar She6n. Td eolasagamar chrirsaidli. I knoralohn. (lit. I haue acquaintance on lohn) I knou.t something aboat legal matters. (lit. I baue information on legal mattersl I hnou.'(lit. hauellrish. I hnoutabout that.

The fused form di from do + a is commonly reducedto 6 in speech and this shortenedform is now given preferencein the Official We useit here. Standard. The full set of pronoun objectsmay conveniently be shownwith the verbal noun cri annoying. T6 siad do mo chri. T{ siad do do chr6. T6 siad 6 chr6. Ti siad 6 cr6. T6 siad d6r gcr6. Ti siad do bhur gcr6. Ti siad 5 gcr6. Theyare annoyingme, They are annoyingyou. They are annoyingbim. lit = do + al They are annoyingher. (6 = do + al They are annoying rs. (d6r = do + ir) They are annoying you, Theyare annoyingtbem. lit = do + al

T6 Gaeilge agam. Td a fhios agamfaoi sin.


Unit14 Td m6 og foghlolmGoeilge le dh6 bhllolnonuos


Td a fhiossin agam. T6 ssin ar eolas agam,

I knou that. I am auare of that. llit. I haue that on knowledge)

C6 acu an ceann is saoire/is daoire? Is d rothar _ an ceann is _ ls e rothar an ceann is -.

1 o C6 acu an line is faide/isgiorra?

Transformthe sentences as in this example: T6 s6eo deas Sin an ceannis deise. It is nice --+ That is the nicestone, o T6 s6 go maith. b T6 s6 go dona.

c T6 s6furasta. d T6 s6deacair.

Llsingn6. Cuir iad seo san ord ceart. o an rud / a cheannaighm6 / nd / Is 6 / gfna dearg b Tomi s/Is6l n5, l achonaic m 6/ an duine c is fearr liom / an teanga/ nd / Is i / an Ghaeilge

Is fiorlni fior? is faide.Is i line B an ceann is giorra. Is i lineA an ceann b C6 acu an ceannis m6/is hi? Goeilgeoir An bhfuilm6rdn 6oeilge ogot? Foghloimeoir (islearningIrish\ Goeilgeoir C6nfhodot6 t0 d foghloim? Foghloimeoir (six monthsl a^^d< tA 6ni l o^t1 Goeilgeoir ^^ Foghloimeoir (verywell) b (askshow learneris getting on) Goeilgeoir Foghloimeoir (fairlywell- hasa little lrish) (askswhat learnetfinds most difficult) Goeilgeoir Foghloimeoir (spelling olso\ fai y difficult; vocabulary (askswho the teacheris) Goeilgeoir Foghloimeoir (NualaNi Bhrioinin the mornings;Seamas O Cathailin the aftemoonsl
Complete the dialogues:

s q! ut c
F .f

o (J

Is i cearn6g_ Is i cearn6g_

an ceann ls an ceann is



5 Criochnaigh na habairti seo lcomplcte these sentences)i Is 6 an tsli is fearr chun: o focail a {hoghlaim nd ... b liofacht a fhSil nd ...


Unit14 T6m6og foghlaim Goeilge le dh6bhlidin onuos 2I3

Gaeilge a fhoghlaimn6 ... d Gaeilge a chloisintnd ...


8 Self-assessment: Conas ti ag 6iri leat? Go hon-mhoith Lobhoirt Tuiscint L6omh Scriobh Gromodoch St6rfocol Fuoimni0 lobhoirt st6r focdl fuoimni0 16os0nto speaking vocabulary pronunciation reasonably R6osinto moith Go dono

dul chuig an nGaeltacht i bheith ag caint i bheith ag 6isteachtle t6ipeanna bheith ag l6arnh 6 Bionn orm U haue tol Criochnaighna habairti seo: c Nuair a bhionn tuirse orm sa trithn6na, bionn orm ... b Nuair a bhionn tinneasfiacaileorm, bionn orm ... c Nuair a bhionn a l6n oibre le ddanamhagam,bionn orm .., d Nuair nachmbionn pingin agam,bionn orm ... e Nuair a bhionn deacrachtai agamleis an riomhaire,bionn orm,.. dul chuig on bhfidcl6ir dul c chodlodhgo luoth cobhqir q fh6il iosochtairgid o fhdil fonocht son oifig donoch

yourself Test
deocrdcht (f) riomhoire(m) cobhoir (f) o l6n difficulty computel help a lot (of) This is an extract from a brochure on Irish courses.To whom are thesecourses of interest? Crirsa Coicise do Mhriinteoiri Bunscoile/Meinscoile l(il zo-3t 1993 Crirsa d'Fhoghlaimeoiri Gaeilge6 Thiortha Eile l.6'ilt7 - Ltnasa 14 1993 Br6isiriir agusEolasle f6il 6: fuas Mh6irtin Ui Chadhain, An Cheathrd Rua, Co. na Gaillimhe o9t-9 5tor.l95o38Facs:o9r-95o4r

Transformthe sentences below, following this example: T6 m6 ag d6anaurhciste (m) -.' T6 m6 i dhanamh. o T5 m6 ag ceannach an nuachtiin (m) -- T6 m6 -. b T6 m6 ag dEanamh suibhe(f) -- T6 m6 -. c Td m6 ag cur bronntanais(m) sa phost T6 mE sa Pnost. d T6 m6 ag cur litreach(f) saphost -- Ti m6 saphost. e T6 m6 ag foghlaim focal nua -- Tri m6 -. f Tri m6 ag diol Ieabhar'- T6 m -. subh (f) og diol leobhor bronntqnos og foghloim focol jom selling books ptesent learningwotds

(Frorz: Saol, Aibre6n,ry9zl


unit 14 T6 m og foghlolmGoeilge lc dhd bhliolnonuo!

2I 5

i gcorcoighm6 Rugodh I wosbornin Cork
howto In thisunityouwillleorn . Describepast events,includingpeople's life histories m6. Rugodh , T69odhm6. s D'fhreostoil m6 or .-. ceimorm. Bronnodh I I I I wosborn. wIs broughtup. ottended ... wasawarded a degree

I wosbroughtup. t69odh ... m6. It's there. Is onn' (f) you attendeduniversity t! or on ollscoil d'fhreostoil did you obtain? C6nch6im(f) o bhoint! omoch? Whotdegree I wasaworded o BA. BA orm. Bronnodh Questions o C6 rugadhEibhlinaguscdr t6gadhi? a bronnadh a BA uirthi? b Cathain

o o

2 Diologue
A ga:.da\policemaz) questions a woman whose garden shed has beenbroken into.

Gordo Beon Gordo Beon Gordo Beon Gordo Beon Gordo Beon Gordo Beon

Diologue 1
This is part of an interviewfor a job in Raidi6 na Gaeltachta. The applicant,Eibhlin, is beingaskedabout her childhoodand education.
ro c F r{ o rJ

Ceist Codos duit? m. i gcorcoighm6 ocht6godhi Luimneoch Eibhlin Rugodh Is onn o chuqighme or scoll. i Luimneoch, noch Agusd'fhreostoil t0 or qn ollscoil Ceist ndeornq? Eibhlin D'fhreostoil. CCn cheimo bhoint0 omoch? Ceist 6 shln. BAormtri bliqno Eibhlin Bronnodh

CCn t-om o thit sCseoomoch? Timpeollo hoono chlog or moidin. Conos o thug t0 fooi deoro6? m6 916r oguschuoigh m6 sios Chuolo omuigh soghoirdin on stoighre. C6mheodocuo bhi onn? Chonoic mCbeirt,och ni fhocom i gceortiod.Bhis6dubh corcno. Ar lost0 on solos? Lqs. D imighsiodleoonsin. Ar goideodh m6rdn? Niorgoideodh fuinneog. oonrud,ochbriseodh or bith eile? An ndeornodh domAiste Ni dheornodh. oo bhflosdom.


Y o o d

4 F a\i

o tJ

C6nt-dm (m) q thit s seo omoch? Conoso thug t0 fooi deoro 6? (m) 916r sioson stoighre(m)

Whot time did thishappen? Howdid you noticeit? a sound downstoirs


z r5

t nit 15 Rugodh i gcorcoigh me


C6 mh6od ocu? i gceort Bhi s6 dubh dorcho. Ar las t0 on solos? D'imlgh slod leo onsin. Ar goideodh m6nin? briseodhfulnneog dom6lste go bhfios dom

Howmany of them? properly It wasreally dork.(lit. black dark) Didyou put on the light? Theyclearedoff then. Wasmuchstolen? o window wasbroken oamage (lit. osfar os to my knowledge knowledge to mel

ioml6n do Chaitlicighsa bhliain sa bhliain r 828. Tugadhsaoirse r829. Cailleadhan Conallachin 1847.Bhi ciil air ar fud na hEorpafaoin am sin. Daniel O Connelluas from Kerry. He utasborn in the year r775. Tbe O Connells uere ueabhy people. Daniel uent to u?tiuersity and took a degreein laut. He uas called to tbe bar (lit. made an aduocate),He becameinuolued in politics later. He utasagainst the hard to achieue CatbolicEmancipation. Act of Union, and u.'orked to Westminster in the year 1828.Complete He was elected fteedom wasgiuento Catholicsin t829. O Connelldied,in t847. He was famousthroughoutEurope by that time. EAMONNDE yALERA 'o CDz,TR 5, 2:38 (Born in New York of lrkh-.Spanish parentage,matbematician (PrimeMinister)for twenty-twoyears, and politician, Taoiseach President t959 to r97j.) from Saolaiodh i Nua-Eabhrac 6 sa bhliain 1882. Ba Sodinneach 6a athair.B'Eireannach i a mhiLthair. Tugadhgo hEirinn6 nuaira bhi s6an-6g,agust6gadh 6 i dteacha sheanmh6thar i gContae Luimnigh. Bhain samachcim sa mhatamaitic,agusceapadh ina ollamhi. Chlacs6p6in th5bhachtach in Ehi Amachna bliana r9r6. BunaiodhSaorstit Eireanni rgzz agusas sin amachbhi de Valerachun tosaighi bpolaitiochtna tire. Bhi s6ina Thaoiseach ar feadhbreisis fiche bliain, idir r93z agus1959.Toghadhina Uachtardn ansin6. Fuairs6b6si 1975. He was born in Neu York in the year 1882. His fatber uas Spanish. His mother uas lrish. He was brought to beland u.,hen lery young and brougbt up in bis grandmother's housein Co, Limerick, He obtaineda degree in mathematics and,wasappointed a professor. He tooh an importaflt part in the r9r6 Rising. The lrisb FreeStatewasfoundedin rgzz and from tben on d.e Valerautasto tbe forefront in tbe politics of tbe country.He was

Questions o C6arda rinne an bheannuair a chualasi na gadaithe? (gadai= a thieq b C6arda ghoid siad? c An ndearnasiad aon dam6iste?

Twoitemsof history
Theseare brief accounts of the livesof two famousIrishmen.Try readingthesein conjunctionwith the grammarsectionbefore looking at the translations that follow them. DoNALL 6 OoNAILL o CD2,TR 5, 1:35 (Daniel O Connell, the Liberator, whose campaign for Catholic Emancipationled to legklation at Westninsterin 1829.) B'asCiarrai 6 D6nalt O Conaill. Rugadh6 sa bhliain seacht d6ag seacht6 a cdig (1775).Ba dhaoinesaibhreiad muintir Ui Chonaill. ChuaighD6nall ar an ollscoil,agusbhain s6amachc6im dli. Rinneadhabhc6ide de. Chuaighs6le polaitiocht nios d6anai. Bhi s6i gcoinneAcht an Aontais,agusd'oibrigh s6go dian chun saoirse na gCaitliceach a bhaint amach.Toghadh6 go Westminster


Unlt 15 Rugodh | gco.colghne


Taoiseach(Prime Minktel fol more than lenty years, between 19jz and ry59. He was tben elected He died in t975. President.

herecould also be: The last sentence Fuair s6b6sanuraidh (Iit. He got deatbl

Grommqr 1 THEPAST PASSIVE FORM OFTHEVERB (i.e.that formwhichdoes Thepassive not specify thedoerof the action) ends in -adhin thepasttense (or -eadh if thepreceding vowelis i or e).You arerecommended to pronounce this-adhas There -uv,with a weakvowel. is no lenitionfor regular verbs. Herearesome examoles:
rt CD2,TR 6, 3:37 bronnann t6gann ceapann d6anann goideann briseann casann ar awards raises,builds appoints does steals breaks meets Bronnadh duais orm. I utasautardeda pize. T6gadh i rgoo . It uas built in r9oo. Ceapadh stiirth6ir nua. A new director uas appointed. Rinneadh go maith 6. It uas done well. Goideadhmo rothar. My bicycle u.,as stolen. Briseadhan fhuinneog. The window uas brokea. Casadhorm 6 uair amhiin. I met him once.

that they also Type z verbshave-iodh insteadof -adh (remember tense): have-onn for -ann in the present bunaionn founds Bunaiodhin r r 5o , It uas foundedin r r 5o. Saolaiodhin Albain 6. He utas bom in Scotland.

to tugodh. Sooloiodhis a commonalternative IN IRISH AND ENGLTSH 2 THE PASSIVE in Irish An important differencebetweenthe useof the passive and in Englishis that it is not usualto indicatean agentwith passive verbal forms in Irish. If you want to sayby whom instead. somethingwas done you must usean activesentence Comoarethese: Dioladh an teachsin inn. Cheannaigh cara dom 6. Cara dom a cheannaigh 6. Thdt house u.,as sold yesterday, A friend of mine bougbt it. It's a friend of mine uho bought it,

The more commonmeaningof ceapann is tEizAs.Threeverbshave special meanings in the past passive; theseare beireann(bearsl(with irregular past rug (bore)1,t6gann lrakes, ffis, builds) and cailleann (loses): Rugadhin f,irinn m6. Togadh i Sasana m6. Cailleadhanuraidh6. I uas bom in Ireland. I was brought up in England. He died last year. (lit. uas lostl

who did the buying it isn't As the second sentence specifies possible of the two to useceanniodh luas boughtl.The second Irish versions will normally be preferred,as the identity of the buyer is significant. is conveyed by bringingthe That significance the rest of buyer to the beginningof the sentence, and appending the sentence Unit 9 and to it in the form of a relativeclause(see section4 of this Unit).


Unlt 15 Rugodh I gcorEolgh m6


3 AN?,Ni, AR?,NrORWTTHTHE PASTPASSIVE The pastpassive of regularverbsis not subjectto lenition after verbalprefixes(see Unit r3). Compare: Ar ghoid siadrud ar bith? Nior ghoid. with Ar goideadhrud ar bith? Nior goideadh. Vas anythingstolen? No. llit. wasn't stolenl Did they stealanything? No. llit. Didn't steall

I spent a year in Aftrerica. Chaith m6 bliain i Meirice6. lit. lt's in America that I spent a chaith m6 bliain' a Is i Meiriced year (i.e. and ll.otin Britain, for rnstance). Iit. It's a yeat I sqentin America Bliain a chaith m6 i Meirice6. (andnot six months). Mise a chaith bliain i Meiriced. It's ?neubo spenta year in America land not my brother, for instance). Here are someother examples: Is i Luimneach a t6gadh m6. Is ann a chuaighm ar scoil. lit. It's in Limerick I utas reared, lit.It's thereI uent to school.

Irregularverbsstandapart. To make up for their irregularityof form, as it were,they usethe samepreverbs in all tenses. Compare these: An nd6antargo minic 6? Ni dh6antar. An ndearnadhaon rud faoi? Ni dhearnadh. Is it done often? No. (lit. isn't done) Wasanythingdone about it? No. (bt, wasn't done)

This kind of fronting, with or without is, is very comrnonin Irish in latr units. and you will meetfurther examples AROUND 5 MOVINGPRONOUNS for that Whenthe object of a verb is a pronoun thereis a tendency (providedthe sentence pronoun to comat the end of the sentence is fairly short).This freedomof position doesnot extendto nouns (exceptby meansof the fronting just described in section4): RugadhSe6ni Meiriced. Rugadh6 i Meiricei. or Sednuas born in America. He uas born in America.

Thesesimplifiedforms are usedin Munster:

Ar deineadh aon damdiste? Nior deineadh. Was any damage done? No. lIit. utasn't done)

4 USIN6 THE FRONTOF THE SENTENCE FOREMPHASIS The normal word order of Irish is verb-subject--object-adverbs, e.g.: Chaith m bliain i Meirice6\air I sDent a year in Americaonce. amh6in. Greateremphasis may be placedon somepart of the sentence by bringing it up to the front, in which caseit is often preceded by is. The remainderof the sentence is then turned into a relativeclause, and a lcausinglenition) is placedbeforethe verb. Comparethese: Rugadhi Meirice6. T6gadhm i gCorcaigh.

I uas brought up in Cork.

T6gadhi gCorcaighm6.

lgcorcolghrn6 Unlt 15 Rugddh


5 THE PA,ST TENSEOF THE COPULA Ba is usedin the pasttenseinsteadof is. It causes lenition: Present Past Present Past Is mriinteoir6. Ba mhriinteoir6. Is Meiricednach 6 a hathair. Ba Mheiricednach 6 a hathair. He k a teacher, He uas a teacher. Her father is American. Her fatber uas American.

A USING ACU TO MEAN 'OF THEM' possession in This is a form of the prepositionag (al). It indicates (see like Unit ): sentences 3 T6 teachm6r acu. They hauea big bouse.

However acu, along with the other plural forms againn and agaibh, is also usedin countingpeople,as follows: duineogoinn duineogoibh duineocu beirt ogdinn beirt qgoibh beirt ocu

Ba becomes b' beforea vowel. Remember that f is madesilent lenition. pronounced by As the fh is not the word is treatedas beginningwith the following vowel: B'Eireannach 6. B'fheirmeoirm6r . He was lrish. He uas a big (i.e.prosperousl farmer.

oneof us oneofyou oneof them twoof us twoof you two of them

When placedbeforean adjective ba is more likely to meanuould. Compare: Is maith liom cup6ntae ar maidin. I /ike a cup of tea in tbe morning. Ba mhaith liom cupin tae anois. I uould like a cup of tea nou. Ba bhre6liom bualadhleo. I'd loue to meet them. Ba mhaith and ba bhrei are dealtwith in Unit g. 7 TRANSLATING'ANY'

The other personalnumberscan also be usedhere,i.e. ti6r lthree people),ceathrar(foat peoplel,etc.(see Unit 4): You can enquireabout numbersof peopleor things asfollows: How many of them werethere? C6 mh6adacu a bhi ann? C6 mh6ad acu at6 uait? How matry of tbem do you uant? C6 mh6ad agaibh a chuaigh ann? Hout matry of you uleflt tbere? 9 VERBSWITH PREPOSITIONS OR ADVERBS

There are two ways of sayingany, One is to put aon, literally one, beforethe word, The other is to put ar bith after it:
Ni fhaca m6 aon duine. or

As you saw in Unit 9 the meaningof certainverbscan be altered, eithergreatlyor slightly, by addinganotherword: boineonn titednn imigh tugonn t6dnn bqineonnqmoch titeqnn omqch extracts falls 90 away gives 9Oes ochieves hoppens

I didn't seeanybody,

Ni fhacam6 duine ar bith. Nior cheannaigh m6 aon rud. or Nior cheannaigh m6 rud ar bith.

I didn't buy anything.


Unlt 15 Rugqdh lgcor.qlghtI,,C ZZs

Imfgh feotl tugonn fool deoro t6onn fe

Clearoff! notices devotes oneself to

Bhi an Conallachanseo. an Brianach an Gearaltach For examPle: ina Toghadhan Gearaltach i 1982. Thaoiseach

O'Connell uas here, O'Brien Fitzgerald

10 AR SIUL(UNDERWAY,ON) This is usedin variousways: Cuir an solasar siril. T{ an teilifis ar siril. T6 an nuachtar siril. Cardat6 ar siril? C6ardat6 ar sidl agat? Clard at6 ar siril thall ansin? Nil aon rud ar si6l anseo. Put tbe light on. The teleuision is (suitched) on. The neus is on (being broadcast), Whaf s up? Wbat are you doing? Wbat'sgoing on ouer tbere? Tbere is nothing happening here.

Fitzgeruld was electedTaoiseach in 1982.

Cuir isteach an briathar ceart (choosethe correct uerb from tbe list beloul (diolann = sel/s;cuireann sc6alachuig = sezds word tol. o an fhuinneog. b an teach. in Eirinn ach i Sasana m6. C d mo rothar inn6. e sc6ala chuige. f anuraidh6. g stifrth6ir nua. h c6imorm sa bhliain1998. i an t-ospid6alsa bhliain r9o8. coilleodh goideddh briseodh rugodh ceopodh bundiodh t6godh ronnodh diolodh cuireodh

11 THEVARIOUS USES OFLE(WITH) You have metsome of these already:

C6 a bhi leat? Bh( Miire liom. Bhuail m6 le Sedn. Beidhm ag caint leat aris. Is maith liom caife. Is cuma liom faoi. Who was uitb you? Mdire u.tas utith me. I met Sedn. I'll be talking to you again. I like coffee. I don't care about it.

Here are someadditionaluses which you havemet in this unit: Imigh leat! D'imigh s6leis. Chuaighsi le polaitiocht. Chuaighsle dli. Ollamh le dli. Go away! He cleared off. Shegot inuolued in politics. He beganstudying laut. A professor of law.

12 ADDING .ACH TO SURNAMES The usualway of referringto somebody by surnameis to make an ordinary noun of the nameby addingach. z26

2 Answer the following questionsin the negative(chucu to theml: c Ar goideadhrud ar bith? Nior b fu briseadhrud ar bith? c Ar ceapadh aon duine sa phost? d Ar dioladh an teachsin f6s? e Ar cuireadhscEala chucu? f An ndearnadh aon rud faoi?
Unh 15 RugqdhI gco|tolgh n# 227

3 Cuir iad seosan ord ceart: o Meirice6/is / m6 /bliain /a /i /chaith/ b t6gadh la lgCorcaigh lml I is lil C mt la lchuaigh li lar /nGaillimh /scoil /is d in /m6 /a /rugadh /is /Eirinn G is /a /inn6 /chucu/sc6ala /cuireadh Replace the emboldened words with a pronoun: Example:RugadhPeadari Sasana. or - Rugadh6 i Sasana Rugadhi Sasana 6. o T6gadhSin6adi nGaillimh. b CailleadhSeananuraidh. c Ceapadh Diarmaid ina stirirth6ir cfpla mi 6 shin. d Dioladh an teachle ddanai. e Briseadh an fhuinneogar maidin. Here is an extrad from a newspaper showingevents that occurredon ceftain datesin the past (24125 October):
24 r945 Cuireadhna N6isi6in Aontaithe ar bun. r957 Fuair an deanh6ir Christian Dior b6s. ry67 Bhan Zambia neamhspledchas amachagustoghadhKenneth Kaunda mar Uachtardnna tire. z5 r4oo Fuair Geoftey Chaucerbds. r8z5 Rugadhan cumad6irJohann Strauss i Vin. r88r Rugadh Pablo Picasso i Malaga. r95r Cuireadhan iris PriuateLiues r gcl6 den ch6aduair riamh.

Cathaina rugadh Picasso? b Cathaina cuireadhna N6isiriin Aontaithear bun? bis? C Cathaina fuair Chaucer united founds dies designer composel independence prcsident

oontoithe cuireqnnor bun fdigheonn bds deorth6lr cumod6ir neomhsPle6chos uochtor6n

theseto the past tense) 5 Cuir iad seosan aimsir chaite (change = lar fad indeed herel; o Is garda6. i. b Is Eireannach c Isdochtdir6aathair, d Is feirmeoirm6r a uncail. ar fad i. e Is beanan-deas 7a Cuir ceisteannaleis na freagrai seo (/tnd questionsfot theseansuersl; Example:T6 trifr againnag dul go Corcaigh.- C6 mh6ad agaibhat, ag dul go Corcaigh? i T6 beirt againnag dul ann. ll Ti duine acu ag teachtinniu. ill Ti criigearacu ann. Freagair na ceisteannaseo.The mrmber of people is indicated in brackets. i C mhdadacu a thiinig? (2. ) li C6 mh6adagaibhati ag imeachtanois?(4) ill C6 mh6adacu atd anseoanois?(5) with the correct words from the box 8 Complete thesesentences that follows: q Bhain m6 c6im . . b Imigh I gco.qlghme Unft t5 Rugodh 229

lFrom: Anois, r9-zo DeireadhF6mhair, r99rl


c d e f g

T6anns6 Ar thit aon rud _ Thug m6 6 sin Cadt6-? Is cuma

yourself: Comprehension Test

. ro CD2,TR 6, 4:25 RugadhJames Joycear an dara 16de Mhi Feabhra,r882. D'fhdg Atha Cliath sa bhliain r9oz. Chaith san chuid is m6 di s6Baile lear agus nior th6inig s6ar ais ach cfpla uair' Bhi breis shaolthar aige i rith a shaoil,ach chaith s6tr6imhsifada i is zoo seoladh (r9o4-r9r5), Ziirich (r9r5-r9zo) agus dtri 6it. Siniad Trieste P6ras(r9zo-r919). Fuair s6bis i Ziirich i r94r aguscuireadh leabhargearrscalta ann . Scr(obhs6m6rin leabhar,ina measc lDublinersl, tri lrsc'al (A Portrait of the Artist ds d Young Man, Finnegan's Wakel, drdma agusroinnt filiochta. Th6g ulyssesagns Wakea sciobh. Td an t-drsc6al mblianadtag Finnegan's s6seacht Ni bhfuair s6m6r6n airgid asna leabhair.Dd bhri sin an-chasta. sin bhi fadhbannaairgid aigei gc6nai.Foilsiodhan leabharc6ili6il ar a16breithesa bhliain r9zz. Cuireadhcoscat i Meirice6 Ulysses go dti ryy agussa Bhreataingo dti ry74. Nior cuireadhcosc riamh air in f,irinn, ach ni raibh s6ar f6il i m6r6n siopai.T6 s6ar fdil ar fud an domhainanois. lfrom MahoganyGaspipe(abidgedl, Bord na Gaeilge) thor leor breisis i rith t16imhse cuireodh georrsceql Th6g s6 rirsc6ol costo fqdhb foilsionn Cuireodhcoscoir. or foil domhon overseos morcthan during period wasbu ed shottstory It took novel complicated problen, difficulty publishes It wasbanned. available wono

liom omoch li fooi deoro or siul leot omoch

S6amas O Sriilleabh6in b. r968 Ennls r97o-r99o Limeick father Irish; mother English Qualifications:BSc(Chemistry) Universityof Limerick r99o Work experienceindustrial chemistNew York r99o-92 Is tusa S6amas. Carda deireann ni? m6 sa bhliain 1968 in Inis achm i Luimneach. Ba _ 6 m'athair agus_ Shasanach i mo _. Bhain m6 c6im sa cheimicin Ollscoil Luimnigh sa r99o. Chuaighm6 go Nua Eabhracagus_ m6 dh6 bhliain ag obair cheimiceoir. Nior thaitin s
_ agus _ me ar ars anseo. la conal orm I

anoisagustaitnionn s6go m6r liom. If you needhelp hereare the missingwords but in jumbledorder: bo omoch rugodh mqr Corcoigh t6godh Eireonnoch blioin thdinig mothoir liom


i gcorcolEh m6 Unlt 15 Rugodh


c Lion isteachan achoimre(summary\seoar shaolJames Joyce: Rugadh 6i sa_ 1882. Foilsiodh Ulsses sa bhliain . Cuireadhcoscair i _ agussa_ -Joyce-iZiirich. Nl"r ---..* * Ubr.rr i" fi.ioo. Can you guesswhat irsc6al li'reans? JamesJoyce ag cainu Tar 6is an t6acsthuas a l6amh aris, lion isteachna bearnai sa chultas gairid seoina bhfuil James Joyce ag caint faoina shaol (after reading tbe text aboueagain, conplete the follou.'ing shon text uthereJamesJoyce talks about his lifelt m6 sa bhliain r88z i mBaileAtha Cliath. m6 an tir i r9oz, agus_ m tr6imhse in Trieste, i bPiras agusin Ziirich. m filiocht, dr6ma aguscfpla leabhar. m6 17 mbliana ag scriobh Finnegan's Wake. U/ysses sa bhliain r9zz. Cuireadhcoscair i Meirice6agussa Bhreatain ar dtft ach in Eirinn air. Ba liom leagan Gaeilgea fheiceriil ld 6igin.

Leonort leothmhile going holfo mile Keep
to how In thisunityouwillleorn . Askand understanddirections . Indicate proximityand distance bhfull...? CA Leqnort/orogholdh. Teigh sioson b6thorsin. or deis/ar cl6 Cos fool chl/fooi dheis. N6 cos.
Wherc is ...? going. Keep Go down this road. on the righ on the left Tumlefu ght. Don't turn.

leogon nersion

Diologue 1

oit lcothmhl|F. 2t3 Unh 16 f-Gon

5 I 6

(m) 6obh mo leithsc6ol C6bhfuilc6noidr...? Ledn ort. cosfooi chl6 pioso(m) roinnt c6n ceonn on doro ceonn cuir ceist(f) or 6igin Question

Excuse me. Where does... live? going.(lit.followon you) Keep tun left a bit some whichone the second one enquire of (lit.put a questionon) some

sin 6 ot6 uoim. Tdtri imithe thoiris. T6ighor ois. N6 cos. (m) on ch6odchrosoire uoit i bhfod Question

That's whoI want. You hovegonepastit. Gobock. Don'tturn. the fist crossroods far from you

.. o o
U f

Looking at the map below, which direction would you take to Tomds 6 Ceallaigh'shouse?

Looking at the map below, which direction would you take to M6irtin O Gallch6ir's house?

Diologue 3
P6droig Gobhmo leithscol. Ui Bhooill? An tusoBeon Beon Ni mC. T6si ino c6noi trosno on bhothoir. An bhfeiceonn buiosdo chomhoir omoch? 5inCon teoch. t0 on doros P6droig Go roibhmoith ogot. Beqn Tdf6ilte romhot.


Diologue 2
c, { ct o ri c
F cf



o u

Gobhmo leithsceol. Tdme og lorgteochThomdis Ui Cheolloigh. Beon An mAistir scoile. on eo? Sile Is eq.Sin6 otA uoim. Beon T6t0 imithethoiris.T6lghor oison b6thorseooris.N6 cqs qg on cheodchrosoire. Cosfooi dheis09 on dorocrosoire ogusni bheidh sCi bhfoduoitonsin.

trosnoon bh6thoir(m) An bhfeiceonn t0? bui os do chomhoiromoch

octoss tne road you Do see? yellow you opposite


Unit 16 Leonort leothmhile

2? S

Question How would you recognize Bean Ui Bhaoill's house?

Diologue 4

lion sibh le? An ngloconn (m) (m) creidmheoso cdrto soir mile deich (m) roimhon s6iPol qmoch do bi og foire (m) b6thoir(m) comhortho

fitl DoyouocceptT
creditcard ten mileseast beforethe church be lookingout for roadsign




$ ri
d F

Deirdre Beon Deirdre Beon

ledothoil? CdbhfuilOifigonPhoist, Tds6direoch trosnono sr6ide 6n seip6ol. An mbionns,6 or oscqiltog om l6in? Bionn, fodoogusis eoldom. chomh NilsC ibhfoduoit, or oonn6s.

Questions o An bhfuil an tiomdnaii bhfad6 Leitir Ceanainn? d6? a thus an freastalai b C na treoracha

direoch trosno E B or oscdilt chomhfodo ogusis eol dom J i bhfod uoit o or oon n6s ion Quest An mbionnOifig an Phoistd(nta directly across open osfar as I know far fromyou anyw0y AND INSTRUCTIONS 1 6IVING DIRECTIONS 'imperative' formsof the verb,whichcan be Thereare special formedasfollows:
Remove the present tense ending -ann from a Type r verb to get the singularform. Add -(a)igi to this to get the plural form. Cas faoi chl6. Turn left. casann trrrs Casaigi faoi dheis. Tzrn (pI) right. D6an i gceart6. Do it Pro\erly. dianann does Ddanaigiaris . Do (p1)it again. Cuir sa phost e. Put it in the Post. cuireann Prrls Cuirigi ansin 4.. Put lpl) it there. Lean an carr sin. Follotu that car. leanann follows Leanaigiar aghaidh. (eep goizg (pl) Remove-(a)ionn from the presenttenseof a Type z verb and add -(a)igh in the singularernd-(a)igi in the plural (note the two (s) aris. Startagain. Tosaigh tosaiowt begins

Diologue 5
Ag ceannach peitril.

Tlom6noi Freastolci I tomonol Freostdloi I tomonol Freostoldi

Lton suos l. Moith go leor.Tosego hon-bhre6. T6,cinnte. An ngloconn sibhle cartqicreidmheoso? gonomhros. Gloconn, An bhfuilmCor on mb6thorceortgo LeitirCeonoinn? T6.Deichmilesoir6n dit seootd s6.Cosfool chlog qn gcrosoire roimhon s6ipol. Leonort go moll.Bi og foireomoch donchomhortho bOthoir.

Tosaigiaris. Start \plJ again.


lJnit15 Leon ort leothmhile ZZ7

ceannaionn buys Ceannaigh ceann eile. Buy anotberone. Ceannaigi milseiin. Buy (pll some stzeets. 2 SOME EXPRESSIONS OF DIRECTION

teann suionn

Soes srts

T6igh ar ais. Go back, Tigi ar aghaidh. Continue\pll on. Suighsios. Sitdoun. Suigiansin. Sit (pl) there.

Type z verbswhich end in -ir, -il, -in, -im do not add -igh:
fueagraionn ceanglaionn seachnaionn foghlaimionn

faoi chl6 to the left faoi dheis to tberight ar aghaidh ahead

ar ais back thaiJis past it roimhe before it

Casfaoi chl6. Turn left. Casfaoi dheis. Turn rigbt. Lean ar aghaidh. Go ahead,continue. Direachar aghaidh. Straigbt ahead. T6igh ar ais. Go back. mile thairis a mile beyond it direach roimhe just before it

answers ties,binds auoids learns

Freagairan cheist. Ansuer the question. le ch6ileiad. Ceangail Tie them together. sin. Seachain Auoid that. Foghlaimi gcean. Learn it conectly,

The plural forms of theseare freagraigi, ceanglaigi' seachnaigi' foghlaimigi. The verb insionn (rells)is like this: insionn tells Inis an fhirinne. Tell the truth. Insigi d6ibh 6. Tell lpll it to them.

Direach(direct,straiglr) is also usedas an ordinary adiective, e.g.line dhireachla straight line).

Theseexpressions are also useful. or thaobh do fdimhedeise or thoobh do ldimhe cl6 on your right-hond side on your left-handside

4 HOW TO SAY 'DON'T' you put n5 zol to do something If you want to tell somebody It prefixes h to vowels: beforethe imperativeform of the verb. N6 t6igh suasansin. N6 d6andearmadair. N6 d6anaigi6 sin aris. N6 himigh go f6ill. Ni himigi anois. Don't go up there, Don't forget it. Don't lpll do tbat again, Don't leaue iust yet, Don't (pl) leauenou.

Theseliterally meanon the sideof your right/left hond;as a resultthe word l6mh is in the genitivecase(corresponding to of in English). 3 TWO SPECIALGROUPS OF VERBS Type r verbswhich end in a vowel, e.g.t6 + ann (goes), sui + onn (slrs) add -igh in the singularform of the imperativeand -igi in the plural:

z ?8

Unit 16 Leonolt leothmhile


Prohibitionsin public noticesusethe passive form of the present tnse: N6 caiteartobac. N6 dfntar an dorasseo. No smohing, llit. Let tobacco not be smokedl Let this door not be closed.

6 'NEAR' AND 'FAR' for theseare givenbelow.They involvethe Tbe expressions do (ro),6 lfroml andle (rzlrD), which combinewith an prepositions (rDa)as follows: do + an -- don 6 + an -' 6n le + an -- leis an + lenition + eclipsis + eclipsis

An.alternative (prohibitioz) - with ar (oz), causing is to ttsecose lem on: Coscar thobac. Coscar pheil. Tobacco prohibited. (lit. Probibition on tobaccol Football prohibited.

C6ngarachdo (near tol T6 s6c6ngarach do Bh6alFeirste. T6 s6c6ngarach don bhanc. T6 s6c6ngarach d'oifig an phoist. T6 s6 c6ngarachduit. It It It It is near to Belfast, is near to the bank. is near to the post office. is near to yoa.

S IRREGULAR IMPERATIVEFORMS Someverbsare irregularin the imperative: deireann mgann tugann tA says co?ttes giues rs Abair le Miire 6. Tell it to Mdire, Abraigi l6i 6. TelI lpll it to her. Tar isteach. Comein. Tagaigi liom. Come lpll with me. Tabhair d6ibh 6. Giue it to tber,. Tugaigi dom 6. Giue (pll it to me. Bi ci(in. Be quiet. Bigi ci6in. Be (pll quiet. N6 bi d6na. Don't be naughty. Nd bigi buartha. Don't be u'oried.

ln aicele (next to) llit. in proxirnity uithl Ti s6in aicele hoifig an phoist. Ti s6in aiceleis an mbanc. T6 s6in aiceleat. It is ,text to the post office. It is near to the bank. It is nearto you.

I bhfad6 lfar froml (lit. in lengh froml Td s6 Td s6 T:i s6 Tri s

bhfad 6 Chontaena Mi. bhfad 6n gcol6iste. bhfad 6n 6it seo. bhfad uait. lt lt lt lt is far from County Meath. k far from the college. is far from this place. is far from you.

Bi is usedto give instructionswith the progressive form of the verb: Bi ag faire amach don teach. Bi ag cabhni liom. Bigi ag lamh tanall. Ni bi ag caintt Be on the lookout for the house. (lit. Be loohing outl Giue me a hand (lit. Be belping nel Spmd some time reading. llit. Be reading a whilel Don't be ulking!

(ACROSS) 7 TRASNA This puts a following noun in the genitivecaseif it hasone (see Unit 4 for the forms): an b6thar (ml the road an tsriid (f) the street an fharraige(fl the sea an phiirc lIl the field trasna an bh6thair acrossthe road trasna na srlide acrossthe street trasna na farraige acrossthe sea trasnana olirce acrosstbe field
Unit 15 L4onort ledthmh . Z4I


(OPPOSITE) 8 OSCOMHAIR Thisrequires (see thegenitive case of nouns Unit 4 for theforms):
os comhair an dorais os comhair an bhainc os cornhair an ts6ip6il os comhair na fuinneoige facing the door (dotas(m) door) facing the bank (banc(ml bank) facing tbe cburch (sdp6al(m) chapel, church\ facing the uindou.t (fuinneog (f) uindoul

,IO MOREABOUT THE VERBAL AD'ECTIVE to almost everyverb is an adjective formed from it. Corresponding was described in Unit Irs formation 5 Grammar r r. Here are some of the verbaladjective usedwith tri (is); examples Ti s6d6antacheana. It is already done (or it has already been donel. closes Ti an siopadrinta. drinann Tbe shop is closed. T6 s scriofa anseo. scriobhann writes It is utritten here. criochnaiom finishes Nfl, sE ciochnaithe. It isn't fnished (ot it hasn'tbeen fnkhedl. dianann Notice that someof thesecan be translatedinto Enslishin rwo ways. Someverbs,like imionn lgoes,leaues) and 6irionn (getsup), do not take an object.When the verbaladjective of suchverbs is combinedwith t6 the meaningis similar to that of the English perfect: T6 tri imithe thairis. You havegonepast it. llit. You are gone ...) He basgonehome. llit. He is gone ...1 Tbey hauearriued, (lit. They are aniuedJ I am up. (lit. I am risen) does

It puts a pronoun in the possessive form, becomes my: os mo chomhair(amach) os do chomhair(amach) os bhur gcomhair(amach) facing me facing you facing you lpll

9 THAR(PAST,BEYOND,ACROSS) This refersto both space and time: Tigh thar an mbanc. Bhi s6thar am agat. Chuaigh muid thar an abhainn. Theseare the oersonalforms: Go past the bank. It utashigb time for you. (lit. past tirnel We crossedtbe riuer.

T6 s6imithe abhaile.

thomm thorot thqiris tholrsti

pastme postyou posfhimlit posthet

tholulnn pastus thomlbh postJou thoBtu postthem

: : :

Td siad tagtha. T6 m66irithe.

Here are someexamples: Chuaighsiadtharam ar an mb6thar. Ni tdigh thairis sin. They uent past ,ne on the road. Dorr't go past thdt (ot any furtherl.


unh 16 Leonort leathmhile


ETC. NUMBERS 11 THE ORDINAL - 'FIRST" 'SECOND', An ch6ad(tbe first) is followed by lenition. The other ordinal numbersend in a vowel and add h beforea vowel which follows them: on chodcheonn on doro ceonn on tri0 ceqnn qn ceothro ceonn on choduoir on doro huoir on tri0 huoir on ceothr! huoir the first one the second one the thitd one the fourth one the first time the secondtime the third time the fourth time

NAMES 13 STREET Theseoften involvethe genitivecase: P6&aLg Patrick 6 Conaill O'Connell stltsiin station caislei,n castle An PhSirc Tbe Park Sriid Phidraig Patrick Street Sr6idUi Chonaill O'Connell Street B6thar an Stdisiriin StationRoad Plis an Chaisleiin CastlePlace Ascaillna P6irce Park Auenue

1 Give directionsto the following placeson the map:
o an s6ipal b oifig an phoist c an banc d an scoil

The others are: cuigif lfifthl, sen $ixth), seachti (seuenth), ochti (eighth), naol!, (ninthl , deichiir ltenth) . These are also used with referenceto time and dates:

an triri 16de Mhdrta an d,ara16, d6agde Dheireadh F6rnhair an triri 16as a ch6ile

tbe third (day) of Marcb the tuelfth (day)of October the tbird day running


2 Practise these guided dialogues:

sr6id street ldmh hand 5it cersl scoil oifig lir place ques on scbool office country

trasnana sr6ide acrossthe street ar thaobh do liimhe cl6 on your left-hand side tirnpeallna hdite around the place to the question freagrana ceiste tbe anstuer mdistirscoile scboolmaster dorasna hoifige the officedoor teangana tire the language of tbe country

oA B A bA B A

(See alsoUnit 4.)

Asks whereRuoiri 6 Looire lives. Tells A to continue on for o mileond to turn right ot the crossroods. Thonks B. for Neoso AttroctsB's ottention.Indicotes sheis looking NicConIomoire's house. to continue on for holf o Tells A to turn left ot the church, mile. Thqnks B.


4 F

r{ o (,


Unit 15 Leonort leothmhile


wherethe following might be heardor seen? Can you guess that follow: Choosefrom the suggestions o Encouraging: Buail an liathr6id, a Ph6il' buail i! b Persuading: Cuir aithnear GhaeltachtDhrln na nGall. c Insmrcting: Cuir isteachan t-ubh, an salannagusan iad go l6idir' siricraagusmeasc N6 bigi ag caint! d Ordering: e Requestingi Ni caith tobac. i recipe ii public office iii tourist brochure iv classroom v footballmatch your child for Ullmhaigh do ph6istedon ospid6al(prepare hospital.)Below are extractsfrom a brochureoffering advice Before reading themtry to imagine: to a parent.
o What a parentmight sayto help preparethe child. 'Whatpreparations a parentmight makefor his or her b

lobhroionn sono bonoltro (f) iorronn minion (m) insteqllodh (f) folo t6st6il firinne (f) 60drom meirbh beirednn om o mheilt toronn(m) ceod(m)

speaks happy nutse osks explains injedion blood test truth light sultry,warm brings to passthe time no,se petmission

own comfort while stayingwith the child. Then studythe you anticipated. extractsto seewhich of the suggestions o Don Ospid6al tlllmhaigh do Ph6iste Labhair faoin ospid6almar 6it shonaina gcabhraionn dochtriiri agusbanaltraile sl6intea fheabhsri. D6anmar a iarrann dochtriiri agusbanaltrai. t6st6il fola etc. Inis an instealladh, Minigh x-ghathanna, fhirinne! b Duit F6in Caith 6adaiadroma- (bionn ospidilan-mheirbh). Beir leat rud 6igin leis an am a mheilt. Beir leat airgeaddon teileaf6n. ar dhaoineeile,n6 d6antorann istoiche. Smaoinigh N6 tabhair bia n6 deochd'aon ph6istegan chead. An Roinn Sliinte. Health Promotion lFrom: Lonad Cothri Slainte, of Health) Unit, Departrnent



Unft 16 Leono.t leothmhile


Near and far. Peadardescribeswhere he lives. Insert c6ngarach/ in aice le / i bhfad: T6 m6 i mo ch6nai ar an tSr6idMh6r. T{ mo theach an mbanc.Td s6don sip'6al ach ti s6_ gcoliiste. 6 The verbaladjective Find the verbs from which theseadiectivesare formed. Then completethe sentences with the adjectives: i scriofo d0nto cr-tochnoithe d6onto imithe I .'......'.:

I s 6 S r6 id -Is6B6thar-Is 6 Ascaill b C6n ddta 6 inniu?

an an _ an _

ceannar cl6, ceann at _ ceann at _

. .

8 The genitive casein -e

Is inniu an _


Example: scriofa - scriobhann Ti s6b T6 m C T6 tri _


cheana. anois. thairis. already

d T6 an siopa e T6 an litir


Ordinal numbers q F6achar an l6arsc6il, Look at the mao and say where the street/road/avenue is:

Removethe brackets: o Chuaighm6 trasnana (srfid). b Is m6istir (scoil) 6 P6l. c Td teachtaireacht duit ar dhorasna (ofig). d Thiom6in m6 timpeall na (6it). e Feicfidh tri Oif,g an Phoist ar thaobh do (lioh) cl6. teochtaireocht(f) message

Test yourself: Comprehension

How many of the following can you find on the map? post office police station theatre golf course church hotel


unlt 16 LGon ort lcqthmhl|E


6 33i6!3BBb,^,.

T6 o oifig thuoson stoighre Hisofficeis upstoirs
howto In thisunityouwillleorn . Talk dbout appointments and travet aftangements . Enquirc about location within d building (dircdions and location a,redealt with in more detdil than in Unit 76)




D O IR I \


Diologue 1
A visiror {cuaineoir)ro an officeof Udardsna Gaelrachta asksthe porter (doirseoir)what floor the director'sofficeis on.





pord0nogot.C6nt-urldro bhfuiloifig on Cuolrteoir Gobhoim stilrth6rooir? Doirseoir An bhfuilcoinneogqt leis? Cudirteolr Td.FuoirmClitir uoidh. Doirseoil Tdo olflg thuoson stoighre. Teighsuoschuigon trir: hurl6r. TO o Cosfooi chlogusteigh sioson posdiste. oinm scriofo or on doros- oifig triochoo nooi. Cuoirteoir Go roibhmile molth oqot.

o c

(Based N6isi6nta Dr6maiochta, r99o) on: F6ile


Unlt 17 Td o oifig thuoeon stoighre


t g

Gobhoimpordin ogot. C6nt-urldr(m)? o bhfuil oifig (f) qn sti0rth6ro(m) oir coinne(f) uoidh chuigon tri0 hurldr (m) pos6iste scriofo or qn doros(m) Question C6 bhfuiloifig an sti6rth6ra?

Excuse me. Whotfloor? whichthe director's office is on oppointment frcm him to the third floor corridor writtenon the door

Diologue 2
ro q! o o od c, F
fri t,

Cuoirteoir Cdbhfuilleithreos no bhfeor, ledothoil. Doirseoir T6igh sios on stoighre onsin, ogusbeidh s6direoch romhot.

Cdmbeidht0 og dul on tseochtoin seo? m og dul6 dheos Peodor Beidh go PortLdirge DCCodooin ogussiorgo MqighEo DCordooin. mbeidht0 og teocht An R0noi onior 6 Mhoigh Eooiche Dordooin? Tas6igceist Peodor Ni bheidh. ogomfonochtonn thor oicheqgusteochtonior moidin DAhAoine. cruinni0 ogotog o d6 D6hAoine. R!noi Beidh leis? Peodor CC Rinoi LehAodh0 Booill. Peodor Cehe sinoris? o roibh ti og cointleis or on bhf6ninnC. Rinoi An duine liom. Peodor 6, iseo.Is cuimhin


o o od c F

o tJ

(m) no bhfeor(m) leithreos direochromhqt

the men'stoilet directly in frcntof you

og dul 6 dheosgo siorgo qg teocht onior 6 Td s6 i gceistqgom fonochtonn thor oiche(f) (m) cruinni0 C6leis? An duine(m) d roibhtri 09 coint leis. Is cuimhin liom.

goingdown(lit.south) to (lit. over west) to comingbackfrom I intend to stoythereovernight meettng Withwhom? you weretolkingto. Theperson I remember.



Diologue 3
Peadar, who prrblishes lrish-language booksin Dublin,is asked by his secretary abouthis travelplansfor the week. Questions o Cd mbeidhPeadar ag dul D6ardaoin? b Cathain a bheidhs6ae teacht ar ais?


Unlt'17 T6o olflg thuosdn stoighre


Points of the composs

This diagramshowsthe various formsoI north, south, east and uest.

flere are someexamPles: T6ighsuasansin. T6ighsiosanstn. T6ighanonn/sallansin. Fanthuasansin. Fanthios ansin, Fanthall ansin. Go ap there. Go doun there. Go ouer tbere. Stay up there. Staydotantherc. Stay ouer there.

krkish upstairs and dounstairs becomezp the stairs and down tbe stairst T6ighsuasan staighre. T5 an oifig sin thuas an staighre. Nri t6igh siosan staighre. Ti m'6ras6nthios an staighre. Go upstairs. That office is upstairs. Don't go dounstairs, My apartmentis dowttstabs.

1 DIRECTIONAND LOCATION noticethat they You havealreadymet several words for directions; words for location,which all beginwith s. There are corresponding begin with th. The words 6or north (6 thuaidh) and soutb (6 dheas) do not make this distinction.The word for ozer (direction)is very often the exceptional anonn. Direction suas sios siar soir salVanonn Location thuas thios thiar thoir thall

are often accompanied by a reference to wherethe Irish placenames standsrelativeto them. When siat lwest\ and soir (east)are speaker as over. usedin this way they can be left untranslated or rendered in Dublin: The following might be said by somebody ag dul siar go Gaillimh T6 si thiar i nGaillimh 2 NORTHAND SOUTH going to Galuay Sheis (ouer) in Galway.

o CD2, TR8, 1:42 These do not distinguish between direction andlocation. 6 dheas (sozrh)
Beidhm6 ag dul 6 dheasgo Corcaigh. Bhi me 6 dheasi gCorcaigh. I'll be going (south) to Cork. I was down in Cork.

up down uest east ouer


Unlt t T Td o olflg thuos on stoighr.

2 55

6 thridh (nortbl Beidh m ag dul 6 thuaidh go Doire. Beidhm6 6 thuaidh i nDoire. 3 REVERSE DIR,ECTION The directionwords in Grammar r abovehavespecialforms beginningwith an, which are usedwhen you are talking about coming from that particulardirection: anuas from aboue Tar anuasas sin! Comedoutnfrom there! Thit s6anuasorm. It fell dou.,non me. Tar aniosas sin! Comeup from there! ag teachtaniar 6 Ghaillimh coming from Galway ag siril aniar an b6thar ualking along the /oad (from the west) ag sifl anoir an b6tharalong utalkingthe road (from the east) ag teachtanall 6 Shasana coming from (over in) England I'll be going (nortb) toDerry. I'll be up in Derry.

An ghooth onior, bionn si fiol An ghooth oneos,bionn si tois

Thewestwind tendsto be generous( crops) Thesouthwind tendsto be damp

Notice the useof bionn insteadof t6, as this is something regular,and of si referringto the femininenoun an ghaoth Ithe windl. 4 OTHERUSESOF THE DIRECTIONS Directionis often indicatedwhen referringto buildingsor especially in the countryside: institutions, Ti an siopathoir ag an gcrosarre. T5 m6 ag dul siar chuig an tdbhairne. 5 GO/CHUI6(TO) The most basicword meaningto is go, which puts an h before (oneswhich do vowels.It is usedespecially with many placenames not beginwith an tle) and in someexpressions of time. Beidhm6 ag dul go Drln na nGall. Friiltego BaileAtha Cliath. Ti m6 ag dul go Meirice6. Chuaighm6 go hArainn. Beidhsiad ag teachtgo hf,irinn. Bhi m amuighgo maidin. I'll be going to Donegal. Welcome to Dublin. I am going to America. I we?ttto Aran (in Galway Bay). They uill be nming to lreland. I uas out until the morning. The shop is (eastlat tbe crossroads. I'm going ouer (lit. uest) to the pAb.

aniosfrom below aniar from the uest

anok from the east anall from yonder

The useof thesean forms will seemdifficult at first. Here is a rhyme about the four winds which will help you to understand the idea- noticethat oduaidh (fromthe northl begins, exceptionally, with od: An ghooth qduoidh,bionn si cruo The nofthwind tendsto be nato An ghcoth onoir, bionn si tirlm Theeostwindtendstobedry

However,anotherform chuig is usedbeforenounspreceded by an (rbe)or by a possessive pronoun: T6 m6 ag dul chuig an mbanc. I am going to the bank. Chuaighm6 chuig an dochtriir. I uent to the doctor. T6igh anonnchuig d'athair. Go over to your father.
Unlt 17 T6o olflg thu6on stolghre 257


Notice the eclipsis on banc and compareag an mbancat the bank. after preposition+ Nouns beginningwith d (or t) are not eclipsed an ltbel. 6 ROIMH (BEFORE,IN FRONTOF) to both time You havealreadymet this prepositionwith reference and olace: roimhas6achlog roimh Chdisc roimh an dinnar direach roimh an s6ip6al before six o'clock before Easter before dinner iust before the cburch

Cuireadhf6ilte mh6r romhainn. We weregiuena great uelcome. idh f6ilte rompu mi thagann They will be welcomeif thef Be come. siad, TO WHOM I WAS TALKIN6' 7 HOW TO SAY 'THE PERSON which we havemet so far qualify or refer to All the relativeclauses subject of the verb (typicallythe doer of something) or eitherthe (typically whateversomething is doneto). The relative the object qualifiesa subjectin theseexamples: clause Beana dhiolannblithanna An duine a th6inig anuasan staighre and an object in theseexamples: A woman uho sellsflouters the person who came doutnstairs

Theseare the oersonalforms of roimh:

romhqm romhot roimhe : roimpi

in frontof me in ftont of you in frontof him in frontof her

romhoinn romholbh romPu

in frontof us in frontof you in frcntof them

an p6ip6ara cheannaim an bheana chonaicm6

the paper which I buy the utoman u.thomI saut

Here are someexamples: Bhi slua ann ronham. There was a croud there before me. Beidh an doras direach romhat. Tbe door uill be straight ahead. Beidhm6 romhat ag an stiisirin. I'll be utaiting for you dt tbe station. Tbere was an accident ahead Bhi timpist romhainn ar an mb6thar. of us on the road, Cuireadhdinn6arbredromhainn. A fine dinner wasset beforeus. an leathanach roinhe sin the preceding page llit. before thatl Theseforms are also usedin the idiom tor uelcoming; Ti fiilte romhat. You are uelcome. (lit, there is a utelcomebefore you)

In the first two, the woman and the persondo the sellingor coming downstairs; in the second two, the paperis bought and the woman is seen. Theseare traditionally calleddirect relativeclauses, and correspond to more basicsentences suchas: Diolann an bheansin bldthanna. Thdinigan duinesin anuas an staighre. Ceannaim an piip6ar sin. Chonaicm6 an bheansin. That utoman sells flouers. Tbat book fell dottn. I buy tbat paper. I sau that woman.

Direct relativeclauses beginwith a + lenition (for thoseconsonants which show lenition). Considernow what happens when the relativeclause refersto somebody or something which is preceded by a preposition,as in thesebasicsentences: Buailim leisan duine sin go minic. I meet (uith) that perconoftm. tmrim lead6gleis an mbeansin. I play tennisu)ith thdt u)omdn.
Unlt 17 T6 a olflg thuosan stalghre 259


will be formed differently: relativeclauses The corresponding an duine a mbuailim leis go minic an bhean a n-imrim lead6g 16 lit. tbe person that I meet uith him often lit. the uoman that I Play tennisui* ber

and Bhi dearth6iran fhir sin ag obairliom. That man'sbrother uorked utith me.

is to get around the ambiguity Another useof indirect relative clauses suchasthe following: of direct relativesin cases an mdinteoir a mhol na mic l6in.u u)hopraised. the students This can be either tle teacher or the pacber whom the students praised;recallthat direct relativesserve and oblects. To clarify you can say: for both subjects an miinteoir ar mhol na mic l6inn lit. tbe teacber that the pupils praisedhim

thereis a pronoun referringback to In theserelativeclauses in leis = uith him,l6i = with herl al;'d duine,bean (contained they beginwith a + eclipsis(for all vowels,and for those In the past tensea is replaced which show eclipsis). consonants by ar + lenition: an duine ar bhuail m leis an bheanar imir n6lead6g l6i lit. the personthat I met utith him lit. the utomanthat I played tennisuith her

This is of coursehow one dealswith 'speakingto somebody'. na daoine a labhraim leo an duine ar labhair m6 leis lit. the peoplethat I speahto tbem lit. the persofl thdt I sPoheto him

and usethe ambiguous type aboveonly when it is clearyou mean to saythe teacber uho praisedtbe pupik. 8 HOW TO EXPRESS 'OF THE' IN THE PLURAL The article na becomes na + ecliosrs: na callini the girls na buachailli the boys scoil na gcailini the girls' school scoil na mbuachailli the boys'school

to Eng)ishwhose,and indirect Irish hasno word corresponding relativeclauses are usedinstead,as in the following examples. forms of those requiresdependent Notice herealsothat a + eclipsis few verbs which have such: an bhean a bhfrril aithne agam
af a mac

fear a raibh a dhearth6ir ag obair liom

the woman uhose son I knou llit. that I know ber sonl a man uthosebrotber uorked uith me (lit. that his brother utas utorking uitb mel

Masculine nounswhich form their plural by making the final consonant slenderusethe basicform insteadafter na + ecliosis(the
'genitiveplural'): na fir the men na focail the words

leithreas na bhfear the men'stoilet inn6acs na bhfocal the index of words

hereare: The basicsentences Ti aithneagamar mhac na mn6 sin. I hnou that woman'sson. The basicform of suchwords is usedwith plural meaningeven whenthereis no anicle:
trosta focal

a list of words


Unlt 17 T6o oltlg thuoson itolghre


Words both masculineand feminine which form their plural with -a likewise use the basic form as a genitive plural:

Seof6gra a bhionn i mbusannadhi udAr lthis notice is to be buses\t fotnd in double-decker

nI @) apple cloch(f) sroze



clocha stozes

crannfill apple tree cica./cisterill an dpple tart carn cloch d heap of stones

At suithuos Ait suithios Ait seosoimh Ioml6n

28 29
14 71

9 THE GENITIVE CASEOF NOUNSIN -OIR,ETC. (See alsoUnit z,) The r becomes broad and a is added: 6ir --+6ra sti6fth6ir director feirmeoir farmer riir --+rira dochtifu doaor ir -- ara p'inttr painter btisttir butcher carr an ph6int6ara the painter'scar siopa an bhriist6ara tbe butcher's sbop teach an dochnira the doctor's house oifig an stirirth6ra the director's office teach an ftreirrneora the farmer's house o How many seatsare therein the upper deck? b How many seatsare therein the lower deck? c How many can stand (in the lower deck)? Ti tni i mBa e Atha Luain (points of the compass) Ifith the aid of the map say o where you were, and b where you went, as in the example. Gaillimh: o Bhi m6 thiar i nGaillimh. b Chuaighm6 siar go Gaillimh.

Fill the gapswith suasor thuas,siosor thios: o T6igh an staighre. b Fan ansin. c Td an boscaansin. d T6 m'oifig an staighre. e Suighansinaguslig do scith.


restyou limbs(lit. letyour tircdness,

Go/chuig(ro) Lion isteach na bearnai. o F6ilteLuimneach. b T6 m6 ag dul An Tulach Mh6r (Tullamore). c Chuaighm6 suas-an stidrth6ir.


Unlt 17 Td o otfig thuoson 3tolghre


d An bhfuil tri aBdul e Td Caitlinimirhe5 Roimh lbefore,in front ofl.

Ard Mhaca? an siopa.

Td Madhbh in Oifig an Phoist. Td deifiruinhi achtd slua m6r ann. Lion isteachna bearnai.M4adhbhis in a hurry but thereis a queueat the post offce.

D6 Luain z tolot ro.ooam (go dti rz.3opm)L6 na nOg - Ollphuball Ceolchoirm do dhaltaime6nscoile z..oopm (go dti 3.3opm) -Aras Chr6ndin 6.oopm S6laisti,tae aguscaidreamh agusfreagrai- Ollphuball 7.oopm Ceisteanna Cathaoirleach - CathalMac Coille q.oopm Oiche Cheoil.

M6odhbh Gobhmo lelthsceol ochtd on-deiflr orm. Custolm6lrTeigh mdtAdelflr ort. - milemoithoooL Meqdhbh Gorolbh custoimir T6frllte
sluo (m) deifir (f)

Busannaag freastalar an gCeantar 6 L6r na Cathrach go rialta:Busanna 5a,68,69 6 Thamhlacht: Bus75 Bus Speisialta 6 Ost6n GreenIsle go ldr na cathrachag 2.oo am an d6 dheireadh seachtaine, Aoine, Satharn,Domhnachagus OicheD6 Luain- z roloz. Seirbhis Tacsai Westside Taxis(or )574ooo
Questi ons o C6n t-am a thosaionn an choirm cheoil agus c6n t-am a chriochnaionn an choirm cheoil? b C6 dt6ann an bus 6 Ostan Green Isle?



Rewritethe sentences as in the examole.i.e. without the relativepronoun. Exarnple Sin an bheana chonaicm inn6.- Chonaicm6 an bheansin inn6. o Sin an carr a cheannaigh m6. b Sin an fear a ch6naionnin aiceliom. c Sin an teacha gc6naimann. d Sin an fear ar bhuail m leis. e Sin an bheana raibh tf ag caint l6i.

yourself Test : Comprehension

Td an tOireachtas ar siril i gCluain Dolc6in, ceannde bhruachbhailte BhaileAtha Cliath. Seoan cl6r don Luan agus eolasfaoi bhusanna go Cluain Dolc6in (hereis the programme Monday and infomation about the bus seruice to and from for Clondalkin,a suburb of Dublin, ulherethe Oireachtas(an lrishspeakingcubural festiual)is taking placel. 26a
Unlt 17 T6o oifig thuo5on stolghre 255

Buoilfidhm6 leot og o hocht youot eight I'll meet

howto In thisunityouwillleorn . Talkabout future events . Make plans and appointments . Exprcss intentions

(m) ort. Bhi me og smooineomh (m) or bith ogom. Nil geordn cogor(m, (m) sconn6n 6 sin. Bq mhqith on smooineomh (m) cuoirteoiri Cdmbuoilfidhm6 leot? fooi sin? C6qrd me isteochor on Rochoidh mbus(m). m6 th0 onsin. Feicfidh

I wasthinkingaboutyou. I haveno complaints. listen(lit. a whispet) film Thotwouldbe o goodidea. vlsttors Where will I meetyou? Whotaboutthot? I'll takethe bus.(lit. I'll go in thebus) I'll see you there.


Trueor folse? o Ba nhaith le Mdire dul chuigan scanndn le Liam. si saoroicheDi hAoinc. b tseidh si leisag a seacht c Buailfidh a chlog.

Diologue 2 1 Diologue
Liam phones M6ire to askher to go to a film with him.
or c{

Pridraigtells a colleaguefrom another sectionof the company rbout rr forthcoming meetingand asksif he will be able to attend.

Lidm M6ire Lidm Maire

Liom Mdire Liom M6ire Liom M6ire Liom

seoLiom. Hol6. o Mhdire. A, Diodhuit,q Liom.Ni fhoco me th6 le tomoll.Bhi m og smooineomh ort.Cchooiobhfuilt0? or mhoithleot dul chuig Nil georanor bith ogom.Cogor, Cigin? on sconnAn nuoseotr6thn6no 6 sin.Beidh m6soor Bomhoithon smooineqmh Cinnte. gochoicheon tseochtoin seo,och ni fidirliom beognoch Beidhcuoirteoiri ogoinn. dul omochoi'che D hAoine. fooinSothorn. mor sin? Cord me leot? Moithgo leor.Cdmbuoilfidh geoto cholaiste, og o hocht. C6qrd fooisin? Ag dn An-mhoith. An mbeidhti 09 tiomdint? Ni bheidh. Rochoidh me isteoch or on mbus. Feicfidh me th0 onsin.

Pddroig Beimid og buolodh leis on dliod6ir om6roch. An f6idir leot bheithonn? Eomonn Is feidir, gonomhros. Codo bheidh or si0l? Pddroig T6imid chunon mhonorcho nuoo ph16. Eomonn An mbeidhTom6s i lathoir? Pddroig Cuirfidh m6 sc6olo chuige. Lobhorfoidh m leisno cuntosoiri freisin. Eomonn C6n t-omo bheidh on cruinni0 og tos0? P6droig Direoch indioidh on l6in. Ag o d6 o chlog. Tru e or fo lse? u Is f6idirle hEamann bheithag an gcruinniri. b Bcidhrn cruinniriag tosirag a naoiar maidin.

? si



Unit18 Buoilfidh m6leot09 o hocht


dliod6ir(m) An f6ldlr leot bheith onn? Cod o bheidh or siil? Tdimld chun on mhonorcho(f) nuo o phl6. Culrfidh m6 sc6olq(m) chulge. Lobhorfoldhm leis no cuntos6irifreisin. DireochI ndioidh on l6in (m).

lawyer Canyou be therc? Whatwill be happening? Wearc goingto discuss the new fodory. I'll sendwordto him. also. I'll speok to the accountants I mmediotely oftet Iunch.

RADIOANNOUNCEMENT 4CD2,fR.9,227 Question: Wbat uill be the subject of the Taoiseach'sspeech torrroftou? Beidh lithair oidhreachta nua 6 oscailt amdrach i Ros Muc, agusti an Taoiseachle bheith ann. Buailfidh s6le hionadaithe pobail ina dhiaidh sin agustabharfaidh s66riid thibhachtach uaidh faoi pholasai Gaeilgean Rialtais. Beidh sag teacht isteach Rachaidhan chugainnsa trdthn6nale haghaidhagallaimh. anseo a chlog,tar 6isna Nuachta. t-agallamhsin amachag a seacht Tqoiseoch(m) cuoirt (0 fdthoir (f) oidhreochto (f) ionodoithe ( (m) prime minister visit he tage centre communityreprcsentatives speech delivers government interview

Here are two passages referring to future eyents. o Readthrough them and seehow much you can understand that follow. beforeconsultingthe translations Studythe grammarsections b Find the verbsin the future tense. z, 1 and4 below, and divide the verbsinto I groups- Type r verbs,Type z verbsand iregular verbs. WEATHERFORECAST {| CD2,TR 9, 1:41 Question: Vbat utill the ueather be like in the uest tontorrou? ar fud na tire maidin amirach. Tos6idhs Beidhs6scamallach ag cur b6isti san iarthar roimh mhein lae, agusleathfaidh an bhiisteachseosoir i rith an lae.Stopfaidhan bhiisteachamach sa 16,agus6ireoidh s6fuar i dtris na hoiche. Beidh sioc in iiteanna i lir na tire. Tiocfaidh feabhasar an aimsir 6n li amirach amach. Scomolloch cloudy, omach so fri (m) later (lil. outl in the day atthe beginning i dtis (m) sfoc(m) frost imprcvement feobhos(m)

6rdid(0 tugonn...uoidh rioltos(m) (m) ogollomh

Tronslotion 1 It will be cloudy throughout the country tomonow morning. It uill start raining in tbe utestbefore midday, and this ruin will spread east in the courseof the day. The rain utill stop later ;fl the day, and it uill becomecold at the beginning of the night. There uill be frost in placesin the centre of the country. Tbe weather uill improue from tomorrow on. Tronslotion 2 A neut heritagecentreuill be (being)openedtomonout in RosMuq and the Taoiseachis to be there. He uill meet uith community representatiues dfterwdrds and be will make an impottant speech policy of the Gouent nent. He uill be lrkh-language about the coming in here to us in the aftemoon for dn interuiew. That interuiew uill go out at seueno'clock, after the Neuts,


UnitlE Buofmdh malcot dqs||rrl,lf.. 259

1 REFERRING TO FUTURETIME There are two ways of referring to future events,the future progressive and the simplefuture tense. The future progressiveof a verb is forrned by using its verbal noun with beidh (uill refersto an event in progreis in the future. The Irish sentences that follow and their Enilisf, translations correspond closely in both form and use; Beidh tri ag bualadhleo. Beidh.m6_ag scriobhchuige. An mbeidh tri ag teachtar ais? Beidh muid ag 6iri ag a hocht. you'll be meetingtbem. I'lI be writing tibim, Will you be ioming back? We'li be genirg uf at eight.

TENSE THEFUTURE 2 FORMINo TR9,3:13 o CD2, it tense of a Type r verband replace Remove -annfrom the present (after i, e). vowels the a' o, u) or -6dh with -faidh(afterthevowels hi. Thisis oronounced
Present faljiaaa stays crirernn putslsends

Future fa#dilh uill sny lpron. fanhi) utill putlsend(pron.cuirhi) crsirfrdfi

ha or he, with an obscure Beforea pronoun -f(alidh is pronounced these: vowel. Compare FanfaidhSileanseo. (pron. fanhi shfle) Fanfaidh si anseo. (pron. fanha shi) Sheilautill stay here. Sheuill stay hne.

Remember that the verbalnoun doesn'talwayscorrespond closelv to the verb,as in the caseof ag te acht lcomiigl (r^g ; .-;, we saw in Unit 4 somenounsdenotingactivitiescin be used ";;;;; in this construction: Beidhm6 ag obair amirach. Beidhm6 ag caint leat aris. I'll be working tomonout. I'Il be talkingio you ogoin.

Here are someexamplesof other verbs in the future (note that faidh = ha or he beforeDronouns): D6anfaidhm6 6 sin duit. (pron. d6nham6) Feicfidh md thri ag a seacht. (pron, fecem6) An gcuirfidh ni glaoch orm. (pron. guirheni) Fanfaidh muid in 6st6n. (pron. fanha mwid) Scriobhfaidh siad chugainn. (pron. scrifashiud) F6gfaidh m6 n6ta duit. (pron. fdcam6) I'll do that for you. I'll seeyou at seuen, Will you call (i.e. pbone) me. We'll stay in 4 botel. They'll write to us. I'll leauea note for you,

The simplefuture iust srates that something will happen,without any indicationof whether it is momentaryor lengthy.Itias soecial endings -,-f(a)idh for Type r, -(e)oidhfoi fyp. i *f,i.f, attacheddirectly to the verb: "r.'--'-' Ni oibreoidhs6. Buailfidhm6 leat ag a hocht. Scriobhfaidh rn6chugat. Tiocfaidh m6 ar ais. Eireoidh muid ag a hocht. It won't work. I'll tneetyou at eight. I'll urite to you. I'll comeback. We'll get up at eilht.


tnh18 Euollfldhm lGotog o hocht


If a Type z verb endsin -aionn in the presentreplacethat with -6idh. If it endsin -ionn substitute -"oidh. Thl. i prorro,rrr.J 6i. Present tosaioronbegins imiorn goesau.,ay Future tos6idh will begin (pron. tos6i) imeoidh will go ata)y (pron. imy6i)

FORMS IN THEFUTURE TENSE 4 IRREGULAR in the future: A few verbsshowadditionalchanges

tagann comes teann goes $gann giues itheann eats deireann says beireann ar catches

The -(e)oidhis pronounced6 beforea pronoun. Tos6idh an obair am6rach, The ttork uill stdrttomoftow. (pron. tos6i) Tos6idh siad amrirach. They ttill start tomonow. (pron. tos6 shiud) Here are someexamples: Ceann6idhm6 c6ta nua. Imeoidh m6 ag a deich. Aithneoidhtri iad. I'll buy a nert coar. (pron. kyan6 m6) I'll leaue at ten.lpron. i-yO iei-' yotll recognize ih*. (pron.

tiocfaidh uill come (pron. tyuc'i) rachaidh will go (pron. rach"i) tabhartaidh uill giue (pron, nirhi) ioslaidh utill eat (pron. isil darfaidh uill say (pron. d6rhi) barfaidh ar utill carcb (pron. b6rhi)

Here are examplesof some of these.Rememberto shorten the final vowel beforea pronoun. Rachaidhm6 abhailego luath. Ni thabharfaidh siad pingin duit. Ni iosfaidhm6 tuilleadhde. D6arfaidhsiad leat 6. B6arfaidh na Gardai on. I'll go bome early. They uton't giue yoa a penny, I u)on't eat any ,norc of it. They'll tell you. The Guards (police) will cauh you.

ahnv6 ni) Criochn6idhmuid go luath. We'li firiih soon.(pron. krichn6 mwid) Cabhr6idhsiad leat. They'll help you (pron. Kowr6 shiud) 3 AN? AND Ni WITH THE FUTURE TENSE Negativeni and the questionmarker an are the samein the future as rn the present tense: ceannaionn bals fanann stays tagann comes An gceann6idhtri 6? Vill you buy it? Ni cheann6idh.No. (lit. Won't buvt An bhfanfaidhtu ann?Will you siay thnet Ni fhanfaidh. No. (lit. Will not stayl An dtiocfaidh ta linn? WiIl you coie utith us Ni thiocfaidh. No. (lit. Won't comel

The verb tugonn (gives)is usedin an idiom meaning to ul'sit (resemblingto pay o visit to). Here are someexamplesin the future tense: Tobhorfoldh on Toolseochcuoirt or Chonomoro. Tobhcrfioidh m6 cuoirt omlbh.

TheTooiseach will visit Connemaro. you. I'llvisit

(GETS)IN THE FUTURETENSE S THE VERBFAIGHEANN This verb has two forms - dependent(after an, ni, etc.) and independent - in the future tense: An bhlaighidh ni ar ais 6? Gheobhaidh. Ni bhfaighidh. Will you get it bacAi (pron. un wy hi) Yes.llit. Will getl (pron. y6i) No. llit. Will not ger) (pron. ni wyi)

UnltlE &|ofmdh


Notice that the form usedafter preverbs is the sameas the present, but it showseclipsis insteadof lenition after ni - remember ni bhfuair m (l didn't get). 6 THE FUTUREPASSIVE In Type r verbs this is formed by adding -far (-fear after i, e) instead of -faidh. The f in -far is pronounced f (unlike that in -faidh): Scriobhfarchuici. D6anfarsocruithear leith. Sheuill be utrinen to. Specialanangementsutill be made. Drinfar an oifig go luath. The offce utill be closedearly. Cuirfear foirm chugatgan mhoill. A form utill be smt to you witbout delay. Ni Iheicfear aris . Hellt uton't be seenagain. Bronnfar na duaiseannaanocht. Tbe prizes uill be presented tonight. The irregularverbsfollow this pattern: Tabharfar breisairgid driinn. Gheobhfarceanneile. Ni bhfaighfearin am 6. D6arfar leat , B6arfarorainn. We'll be giuenmorc mone)t Another one utill be got. (pron. y6far) It uon't be got on time. (pron. wyfar) You'll be told (it). We'll be caugbt.

Tos6far chomh luath agusis f6idir. (lit.l One uill begin 4s soon as possible. Criochn6farag a naoi. (lit.l One will finish at nine.

(TO,TOWARDS) 7 THEPREPOSITION CHUIG Herearethe personforms:

chugom chugot chuige chulcl

towards me you towards towards him towatds hel

chugoinn towards us chugoibh towards you chucu towadsthem

Someexamples: Tar anseochugam. Td s6 chugainn. Beidh si chugainn go luath. Cuirfidh m6 scdalachuige. Scriobh chuige. Cuir c6rta chucu. Come here to me. Herc he comes.(lit. He is toutar& usl She'll be joining us shortly. I'll send word to him. Wite n him. Sendthetn a card.

Both do and chuig can be usedwith the sameverb to give different shades of meaning: Tabhair d6 6 seo. Tabhair chuige6 seo. Scriobhlitir d6. Scriobh litir chuige. Giue this to him. Take this to him. Write a lener for him. Write a letter to him.

The passive corresponding to beidh Qaillbe) (oneutill be)t Beifear ag caint leat faoi. Somebodyuill be talking to you about it.

The form chugainn precededby seo (rlzrs)gives a phrasemeaning nexti an tseachtainseo chugainn an bhliain seochugainn next uteek llit. thk uteek touards usl next year (lit, this year totaards usl

Type z verbsadd -far to the 6 (or eo) which marks this classof verbsin the future: Oscl6far an doras ag a hocht. Baileofariad. The door will be openedat eigbt. Tbey utill be collected.


Unh 18 Budllftdh ma lcqt ag a hod|t


TNIENIIONS 8 EXPRESSI|'rG The prepositionchtn (toutardslfollowed by the verbal noun expresses an intention; Ti m6 chun dul abhaileanois. Ti m6 chun fanacht anseo. T6 m6 chun bualadhle Deirdre, I am going to go homenout, I am going to stay here. I intend meetingDeirdre.

li is masculine and i because ainsir is Note 6 herebecause feminine. giving: The past tenseform ba lenites, Ba bhre6an 166. B'olc an aimsir i. lt wasa fne day, lt uas bad uteathet

Notice the difference in word order here: Td m6 chun scriobhchucu. I am going to urite to them. but T6 m6 chun litir a scriobh. I am going to urite a letter. T6 m6 chun 6 a scriobh sios. I am going to utrite it doun, ln the secondtwo examples the verbalnoun has a direct oblect, and this must be placedbeforeit. Here are someother examples: T6 Brid chun teacha cheannach. Bridget is going to buy a bouse, T6 m6 chun an leabharsin a I am going to read that book. 16amh. This is the normal order of verbal noun clauses, which you have met before.Compare: Ni f6idir liom post a {h6il. Is maith liom peil a imirt. I can't get a iob. I like to play football.

Ba can also mean rzould be, accordingto contxt. Here is an exampleof how this works: Cheannaighm6 bronntanas do I bougbt a presentfor Mary. Mhiire. Ba dheasan smaoineamh sin. That was a nice idea. I'll buy ber a present. Ceann6idhm6 bronntanas di. Ba dheasan smaoineamh 6 sin. That would be a nice idea. Somefunher examples of ba + adlective: Ba mhaith an smaoineamh6. Ba mh6r an chabhair 6. Ba mh6r an trua 6. lt uasluould be a good idea, It utaslutould be a geat help. It uasluould be a great pity.

The last exampleis a very commonexpression but thereis no basic phrasetrua m6r (gre4tpityl corresponding to it. 10 SOMEEXPRESSIONS OF TIME o Dfueaeh(iust, immediatelyl This word is usedin variousways:

9 USIA'6 BA WITH AD]ECTIVES The copula (basicform is) is usedto bring an adjective to the beginningof the sentence for emphasis. Remember theseexamples from Unit 6: 16brei a fine day aimsir olc bad uteatber Is bred an 166. lt's a fne day. Is olc an aimsir i. It's bad ueather.

Tos6imid direach ag a naoi. Beidh m6 direach chugat. Ti s6 direach imithe amach. direach ina dhiaidh sin

We'll begin at nine on the dot. I'll be uitb you straight auay. He lras iust gone out. immediately after that


Unlt 18 Booffidhme hqt ogaMft.


and adverbohrases b Someadverbs go luoth sul I bhfod shottly beforelong

Here are someexamPlesin context: Feicfidh m6 thri i 16rna cathrach. I'll seeyo* in the city cenfiel'll seeyou at tbe end of the road. Buailfidh m6 leat ag bun an bh6thair. OF NOUNSTN J AND -O 12 THE PLUR,AL There are many nouns which end in -ai and refer to occuPation. In the plural they end in -aithe instead: iorrdaircPresmtztiue ritai secrettry anthrinai singer gadaithief ionadaithe rrinaithe amhr6naithe gadaithe

chomhfuothogusis f6idir
omoch so 16 omoch so bhlioin ino dhloldh sln or boll nios d6onoi

aspossible ossoon
lotet in the doy (lft. out in the doy) later in the yeal ofterwatds (lit. after thotl latel later

c The prepositions 6 (froml, go dti lup nl and idir lbetweenl are usedas follows (note that the fust usesan n to combine with a): 6na d6 go dti a tri a chlog idir a d6 is a tri a chlog from two to three o'clock tuo and three o'clock betu)ee?t

Verbal nounsin -6 (or -iri) end in -(ulithe: socriatangemenr sinii signaute cruirniimeetkg socruithe sinithe cruinnithe

11 AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLEARTICLE Here are some examplesillustrating the rule that in a phrasenoun + anicle + noun, the first noun is understood to be definite (the ...1 althoughan (tle) is not used.You havemet this rule before (Unit 5), in phrases suchasbeanan ti (the landladyl,Here are somemore examples: geataan choliiste bun an bh6thair barr an bh6thair l5r an lae lir na cathrach tris na hoiche lir na hoiche polasaian rialtais the gate of the college the md (lit. bottoml of the road tbe top of the road the middle of the day lll = dayl the ci4 centre (cathatr = cityl tbe beginning of the night the middle of the nigbt gouernmentpolicy (the policy of the gouentment)

The basic meaning of socri and cini6 is atranging ar,'dsigning respectively: ag socni rudai ag sini6 litrcacha aranging things signing lettels

1 Beidh s6ag ... Study Michael's diary and say what he will be doing tomorrow. Usethe furure progressive:


m6Lqt o(Ht Unlt18 Er|qflfidh


Diafann Mhichil (Micbael's diaryl Luan 4 6.45 9.30 1r.30- 12,15 200 c.4.OO 5.OO


baeingo Callinh bualadh le luine faoin bpost nua an taarasaiil nua a phli achoimrea scriobhar on futarosctii/ siopoddheacht - bronntauas a cheannach lAoife tnein abhaih



T6 peannuaim. Fan n6im6adagus(faigheann) m6 ceannduit. Nil pingin agam.Cad (deireann) m6 le mo bhean ch6ile? (Tugann) m6 iasacht airgid duit. C6ard(itheann)muid anocht? Is cuma liomsa.Nil ocrasorm. T6 m6 ag dul chuig na pictidir le Niamh. An (tagann) ni linn? (Tagann),cinnte. Td m6 an-tuirseach. Ni bheidhm6 ag dul chuig an gcruinnif anocht. Ceart go leor. (T6ann)miseann agus(deireann) m6 leat cad a tharl6idh.

.tl CD2,TR 9, 4:22 ochofmre (f) pl tuorosciiil (f) summary discuss report 4 Answerin the negative: o . An bhfanfaidh tri le Seoirseanocht? - Ni_. o An gceann6idh hi car nua? - Ni_. . An iosfaidhni ceapaire? - Ni_. . An dtiocfaidh s6amirach? - N(_. r An bhfaighidhtri ar ais 6? -Ni Seoui theachtaireachta ghlac an ninai nuair a bhi Pidraig as an oifig (the three messages below utereuher for Pddraig uthen he was out of tbe officel, o Cathaina bheidhan cruinniri ar siril? b C6 a bheidh ann go cinnte? (Who uill defninly be tboe?l c C6n duine nach mbeidh ag an gcruinnilil (Who uoit be at the meetbtg?l d C a chuirfidh glaochar Phidraig.

Example: Beidh Miche5l ag dul ar an traein go Gaillimh ag ceathrd chun a seacht. Beidhs6ag bualadhle Mine 6 leath tar 6isa naoi go dti leathtar 6isa deich. The verbsyou will need(in order of appearance) are: tConn buoileonn lobhronn ol6qnn scriobhonn ceonnoionn tooonn 2 The simplefuture: now describe Michael'splansfor tomorrow's trip to Galway usingthe simplefuture form of the verbslistedin the box. Example:Rachaidhs6ar an raein go Gaillimh. 3 Commonirregularverbs Insen the future form of the verbs in brackets:


Unlt tE Suollfldhm6lcot 09 o hocht


ChuiglTo: eddraig 6lFrom:

c ag scriobhlitreachchuig P6l d ag dul chuig na pictiriir le hOrla Isidora R6alteolas

DdtalData: AmlTime:

D! Luain u.5.zoot

TEACHTNREACI{ TlME SSAGE: qhhtijh Muirk d Jilhanhr'th- eciThs! a1angcrahnit uL Hih ti dirntuh. ra^6ha^rfa,blh sl u c&fihi dait a1 angcrda A. J.45 !.w. qhlAziJhorh Ni Bhtidtl o*. ra ti a1 lorl nb: faoin equah al Ddaittia. qlaoki t ci ort taaidift atutuacl. t-rit*sclnt 6 d2BwA. Ni 6hidh rAia ann aat*t cfu.g p.tor4.o5 dttlttlthrntl Cuirfdh td ftet dlagat aa tzatha.ln t+o J.zi ?.n. (f) c6ripis cruinni0(m) gfooch (m) document meeting call

what kind of text this is. L6igh an You can probably guess t6acsagusfreagair na ceisteannaseo a leanas. to do a lot of work this summer? o Who will manage b ITho will be rewardedfor hard work? his or her standingin some c Who is going to increase oeoole's estimation?

F6mhair ,,,- Deireadh .:::l;+ 24- senhah 22
"ttY An samhradh seo beidh

tean agdt dt stdl4r 4 ardi go mdr. Beidh daoineag bmth go mir ort - a.dlig shs iad agur dlanfaidh ni maitbearduit rtia!

6 The future passive.Insert the appropriate forms of the verbs in brackets. (This text outlines the time arrangementsfor a local Feis Cheoil, which is a popular competitive event for traditional singingand dancing.) Beidhan FheisCheoil ar siril ar an tri( 16dagsa halla m6r. (Cuireann)f6gra snanuachtiin. (Osclaionn) an halla ag a haon a chlog agus(tosaionn)ag a d6 a chlog. (Criochnaionn) thaa ar a cfig agus(bronnann)na duaiseanna direachina dhiaidh sin. 7 Using chun to express intention.Sayin Deirdre'sown words that she is going to do thesethings at the weekend. Example:ag imirt gailf le Neasa- T6 m6 chun galf a imirt le Neasa. o ag bualadhle P6l. b ag d6anamh siopad6ireachta

Fcabhra 20 -

NA l2-rsc

AN (Irbei

Metn F6nhair 24 Deireadh F6mhair 23 Td al ag obair an-chrua Itf aa hahanu seo,Nd stE anois, mar td an ll mh it ag teachtzga gbeobhaidhul k luach saoircag saothah Ach drcin bei.dh ar feadh dul dait. Glzc sos seachtafue nd dh6.

,lq ait{

M n^ 20 Taneimhse


an-teitneamhach Is duine romhat a Phisces! cruthaitheachtti, agw lireoidh hat obair mhdr a dhlanamh an Ach bt almmach, samhradhseo. mdr tl an grd sanaer! Nd kg dl ni a cbur ar sffae!

(From: Mabogany Gaspipe, Samhradh, ry9tl

z Bz

m6 leot 09 d hocht Unlt 18 Buqllfidh


r6olto (f) star eolos (m) knowledge st6dos (m) stotus ordolonn ralses brothonn depends llgeonn (sios)lets(down) treimhse (f) period toitnedmhoch pleasont sos (m) briefrest

cruthdltheoch creotive irionn le succeeds criromoch coreful grd (m) love cJuahard luoch (m) soothair reword saoi.e (f, holiday gloonn tokes dg dulduit due to you

yourself: Comprehension Test

Bainisteo[ Ghl6r na nGael Tithar ag lorg iarratasdon phost BainisteoirGhl6r na nGael. Duine fuinniriil a ghlacfaidh priirt iomlin i bhforbairt Ghl6r na nGaelagusa chuirfidh pleananna An ChoisteStirinhai gcrich atithar a lorg. T6liofacht i labhairt agusi scriobhna Gaeilge riachtanach. Ceapfar an bainisteoir ar chonradh 5 bliana agus socr6fartuarastaltaobh istigh de raon leathanag brath ar ch6iliochtaiagusar thaithi. Ba ch6ir iarrataisar an bhfoirm oifigifil m6ide C.V. a sheoladh chuig an seoladh thios lenashroichintroimh zg Samhainr99r. An Rrinai, Coiste Stirirtha Ghl6r na nGael, Aras na Comhdhila, 85 Sriid Ghardnar iochtair, BaileAtha Cliath 1. Com6rtasn6isirinta6 Gl6r na nGaelchun pobail a ghriosadh leis an nGaeilge a chur chun cinn ina gceantairf6in. lFrom: SundayTribrre, 17 November t99rl o b c d \9hat kind of text do you think this is? What kind of person would be interestedin it? What doesit tell us abot Gl6r na nGael? How many verbscan you find in the future tense?

below into a 9 Ba + adiective.Turn each of the sentences pronouns requiredare given The beginning with ba. sentence in parentheses. Ba mhaith an rud 6. Example: rud maith d aimsir olc (i) o 16bre6 (6) (6) maith (6) e smaoineamh b rud iontach c cabhairmh6r (6) 1O Expressions of time. Match up the Irish and English equivalents: i next week o i ndiaidh an chruinnithe ll as soon as possible b tar 6isna Nuachta l soon seochugainn c an tseachtain iv after that d sul i bhfad v after the News e go luath vi after the meeting f direach tar 6is na Nuachta Ytl beforelong I ina dhiaidh sin viii immediately after the h chomh luath agusis fdidir News following the examples. 11 Completethe expressions Example (r) l6n - i ndiaidh an l6in; (z) bothar - bun an bh6thair q dinnar-indiaidhan b Nuacht - tar 6is na C oiche - lar na d col6iste- geataan e b6thar - barr an f cathair- 16rna


Unit lE Buoittldh mCleat 09 o hocht


go bhfuil on bonc Ceopoim d0nto I thinkthe bonkisclosed
howto In thisunityouwillleorn . Report who.tyou have hea/d . ExpressoPinions . Express prcbability with Pan r of the Grammar. in coniunction two dialogues Readthese

duine(m) 6igin ononn is cosiil go is d6igh liom stoilc(f) idsocht(f) qirgid (m) md m6s moith leot nil uoim och

someDooy over It oppears thot sttike o loan (of money) if if you like I only want



Questions g C6n f6th go bhfuil an banc drinta? b C6 mh6adairgid atd ag teast6il6 Dh6nall?

2 Diologue
Mdir6ad is being interviewed for a job by a factory manager. He comments on her CV.

1 Diologue
that he is going to the bank. Shehasheard D6nall tells a colleague that it is closed.
o 4

D6noll Onq D6nqll ono D6noll Ono

mbonc. Tdmog dul ononnchuigon sedlintoinniu. 6igingo bhfuil D0irtduine CCn fdth? go bhfuilsiod or stqilc. Is cos(|il omdroch? se oscoilte An mbeidh olrgid Tobhorfoidh m6 iqsocht Is d6ighliom go mbeidh. duit,m6smoith leqt. D6nqll Go roibhmoith ogot.Nil uoimqchfichepunt. 0no Seoduit. 6, mObhionnon bonc t0 qI oisomoroch D6noll Gheobhoidh oscoilte.

go bhfuil c6imogotsocheimic. Boinisteoir Feicim M6ir6od T6. mor t[ blioin og oboiri Meiriced Boinisteoir Agusgurchoith theicneoir. M6irCdd Choith. Boinisteoir An d6ighleot gur fhoghloimt0 m6r6n? gurmhoithon toithi6,ogusgurthug Meosoim M6ir6od gn6. domor ch0rsoi setuiscint


o c

ceimic(f) foghloimionn meosqim toithi (f) tuiscint(f)

chemistry leorns I consider experience understonding

9 !

Question C6n cinedloibre a bhi ag M6ir6ad i Meirice6?

go bhfuilon boncdlnto Unit '19 Ceopoim 287


Diologue 3
Siobhdnis back from her holidays.ShemeetsEibhlis.

duine ag obair ann ar dt[s, agus go bhfdsfaidhan lucht leathchad oibre go dti dhd ch6ad amach anseo.Dfirt an TeachtaD6la Liam go mbeidh postannai gcur ar O M6rdin linn go bhfuil sd an-sdsta buartha dfach go nd6anfardochar don friil. Td lucht turas(rireachta timpeallachtagus,mar thoradh air sin, don turas6ireacht.

: E i b hti s o i siobh6n : E i b hti s c, F i stobhan


o u

Chuolo mCAo roibht0 or sooire. Bhi,so Ghr6ig. C6nfhod o bhi t0 onn? Ar feodhcoicise. go mbionns6qn-teonn Eibhlis Tddoth no grCine ort. Creidim sq somhrodh. go roibhsCtimpeolldoicheod Siobh6n Bionn. Ceopoim cim. Eibhlis Ni moith liomsoteosmor sin. Siobh6n Cnf6th? Eibhlis Toisc robhon. Ao bhfuilmo chroiceonn

td s6 tugtho le fios og (f) Aire (m) Tionscloiochto f6sonn qmochonseo lucht (m) oibre(f) (f) lucht turos6ireochto buortho dochor(m) (f) timpeollocht mor thorodh(m) oir sin Trueor folse?

hosbeenmodeknownby (lit. hosbeengivento knowJ Minister for lndustry gtows in thefuture the wotkforce touristinterests worried domoge ronment(lit.surroun din gs) envi as a resultof that

t a,


or sooire(f) doth (m) no gr6ine(f) c6im (m) teos (m) toiscao (m) croiceonn

on holiday d ton (lit. the colour of the sun) degree heat becouse skin

duine ag obair sa mhonarcha nua ar ball. o Beidh leathch6ad b Td an TeachtaDdla O M6rriin buartha faoin rimpeallacht.

Questions a Cd raibhSiobhinar saoire? b C6n fhad a bhi si ann? c An maith le hEibhlisaimsir an-te? Hereis a radioannouncement abouta proposal to build a chemical factory. It is followed by two conversations in which peoplefrom the areain questiongive their viewson this plan. RADIOANNOUNCEMENT <l CD2,TR 10, 1:39 Ti s6tugtha le fios ag an Aire Tionsclaiochta go bhfuil monarcha ceimici le t6gdil sa Cheathni Rua. Dfirt an tAire go mbeidh 288

Diologue 4
nuolet6gdilin oice t0 go bhfuilmonorcho Ar chuolo leis on gcolodh? Is d6ighliom go mbeidhroicfooi. Seosomh Chuolo. qo bhfuilcruinnio le bheith so is docho. Cloisim Liom Beidh. poboil chun6 o phl. hqllo oiche D6ordooin, Seosomh An bhfuilti chundulonn? go rochoidh. An bhfuiloon tuoirimqgot c o Seons Llom coint? bheidh og qchsilimgo mbeidh c0plo Teochto Seosomh Nilme r6chinnte, Ddloonn. d0inndulonn,isd6cho. Liom Bocheort Tos0ilogomgo gcuirfeor stopleis. Seosomh Bocheort. Liom Aontoimleotso mheidsin.
go bhfuildnbonc dinto Unit19 Ceopoim

r..l d e F



colqdh(m) is d6lghliomgo ... rulc (f) le bhelth o phl6 tuolrlm (fl bo cheort do T6s0llogom Aontqim leot go Seons

pier I thinkthat ... (rocketl tow,dispute to be(held) to discuss it opinion,idea should I hope I agreewithyou maybe (lit. chonce that,

ii cosoll (m) solqchor ffiqiocht(f) buodhofool niosfeorr n6 denchine6l so dor llom tuohlm (0 or choror blth i gcoinne Questions

apparcntly ditt, pollution employment wotriedobout bettet thon of this kind in my view opinion at all 09ainst

Questlons o An bhfuil Seosamhi gcoinne na monarchan nua? b Cad a cheapannLiam faoin monarcha nua? c Ci rnbeidh an cruinnif faoin monarcha? d C6 a bheidh ann?

o C6n tuairim aa{ ag Tom5s faoin monarcha nua? b C6n f6th nach n-aontaionn Donncha leis?

Grqmmor Diologue 5
1 CO (THAT) The rnost basicuseof this is in quoting what somebodyhas said. For instanceif Sanhas said that he meetsMiire everyday - Buailim le Miirc gachli (f meetMfry eaeryday) - this can be quoted as follows with go, which causeseclipsis: DriLinSe6ngo nrbuaileann s le M6ire gach li. Sednsaid that he meets Mdire eueryday.

art CI

I c\i

Go is also usedin the future tense, go mbeidh s6ag bualadh le Mdire amirach. that he utill be meeting Mdhe tomofiou.

There are specialnegative and past tenseforms: nach mbuaileann s le M6jre gach lri 290 that be does't meet Mibe euerydcy

Unh 19 G.oFlmgothfull(nrbonc d0ntq 29I

gur bhuail # le Miire inn6 n6r bhuail s6 le Miire inn6

that he met Miire yesteday tbat be didn't mea lvldire yesterdzy

6. ChonaicSe6n Creidim go bhfaca Sein 6.

Sednsau it. I believe Sdansaut it.

4 OTHEREXPRESSIO'Vs REQUTRTNG A GO|NACHCLAUSE Here is a table summing up theseequivalentsoI thatt Positive go (+ eclipsis) gur (+ lenition) Negative nach (+ eclipsis) nir (+ lenition) Feicim go bhfuil carr aige. Cloisim go bhfuil carr aige. B'flr6idir go bhfuil car aige. T6 a fhios agam go bhfuil carr aige. T6 a fhios agam nach bhfuil si ansin. B'fh6idir nach bhfuil sar fdil. I seetbat he has a carI bear that he has a cat Perhapshe has a car. I knout tbat he bas a car. I knout she is not there. Perhapsit is not auailable.

Preseny'Future Past

2 REPORTING COPUU SENTENCES Theis form is replaced by gur (withoutlenition):

Is maith an smaoineamh 6. Ceapaimgur maith an smaoineamh 6. Is mfinteoir i. Silim gur mdinteoir i. It's a good idea. I think it's a good idea. Sheis a teacbet I think she is a teacher.

The phrasefor to knout literally meansits knowledge b at me (= I haue knoutledgeof itl. S SAYING 'BECAUSE' You havealreadymet n* lbecausel:

The ba form, which meansboth pas a;nduould be (dependingon context)is replaced by gur (with lenition): Ba mhaith an smaoineamh6. Ceapaim gur nrhaith an smaoineamh 6. Ba Gharda6. Creidim gur Gharda6. lt uasluould be a good idea. I think it utasluould be a good idea. He was a policentan. I belieuehe was a policeman.

D'fhan m6 istigh rnar bhi m breoite. I stzyed in because I utas sick. Another common way of sayingbecauseis toisc go, which requtes the dependentform of the verb where that exists: D'ftran m istigh toisc go raibh slaghd{norm. Here are somemore examples: I stayed in because I had a cokl.

3 DEPENDENT FORMSOF VERBSAFTERGO (THAT) If a verb hasspecialdependent forms thesemust be usedafter go (thatl: Td s6daor. Ceapaim go bhfuil s6daor. Chuaighsi abhaile. Sflim go ndeachaighsi abhaile. It k expensiue. I thinh it is exper.sive. Sbewent home. I tbinh she u.'mt bome. Fanfaidh m6 istigh, toisc go bhfuil sag cur b6isti. Nior fh6ad m6 labhain leo, toisc go raibh deifir orm. or toisc nach raibh an t-am agam. bectuse I didn't haue the time. I'll stay in, becauseit's raining. I couldn't talk to thetn, because I uas in a burry.


go tfitullon boncdlinb Unh 19 C.qpolm


Various verbs can be used to convev ooinions or tentativeness:

ls cosriil gur ph6s si 6 shin. Is cos(il gur goideadh6. T6 cruinniri ar sidl, is cosriil.

go bhfuilser6-dhaor. Ceapaim
Measaim Silim Glacaim leis... 7 EXPRESSING PROBABILITIES

It seemsthat sbe has maried since. It seemsto haue beenstolen, There is a meeting tahing place, app4le tly.


think that it is too dear, consider suspectlsuppose tahe it that ...

8 MA (IF) This is placedimmediatelybeforethe verb: Suighcois na tine, ni t6 fuacht ort. Sitby tbe fre, ifyou are cold. T6ighabhaile,mi t6 td breoite. Go bome,ifyou are sick. All verbsexceptti are subjectto lenition: Md thdannni ann ... Ifyou go there.., Fan sa bhaile, m6 bhionn s6 fliuch. Stayat home, if it is LUet. Tar linn, mi bhionn ni saor. Comeutith us,ifyou are ftee.

Copula phrases are very commonin this function, especially is d6igh liom ll thinh (it) lihely - lit. it is likely with mel: Is d6igh liom go bhfuil an banc drinta. Ni d6igh liom go bhfuil s6oscailte. Is d6igh liom . Ni d6igh liom 6. I I I I think tbe bank is closed, don't think it's open. tbink so. don't tbinh so.

The phraseis d6cha (it is probable)is similar in meaning,but impersonal: Is d6chago bhfuil oifig an phoist drinta. Ni d6chago bhfuil. Notice that m6 bhionn is usedwith reference to the future, M6 + ls givesm6s: Fonlstlgh,mds molth leot. Deonfofdhma 6, mds ftdtr. Stoy in,if you like. I' do it,if possibte.

Tbepost officeis probably closed. It is unlikelyto be.

These can be echoed usingis d6cha(if lihely)or ni d6cha(if unlikely\: Is d6chago mbeidh. Ni d6chago bhfuil. Is d6chago ndearna. Is d6chago ndearnadh. Thereprobably will be. (There)probably isn't. (Helshe) probably bas done. probably It bas beendone.

9 HOWTO SAY'I HOPE' Thephrase ti sriil ag (i.e,thereis erpectationdtl is vsed2
T6 srid agarngo mbeidh siad rn am. Ti sriLil agan nach mbeidh bdisteach ann. An dtiocfaidh Tom6s amirach? Ti sniil agam go dtiocfaidh. An mbuailfidhni leis? Ti sdil agamgo mbuailfidh. I hope that they will be on time. I bope therewon't be rain, come tomorrou? I hope he will (come). Vill you meet him? I hope I will (meet). Unlt19 C.opolm 90tfttutlonbomdnfto 295 'Will Tomrk

The phrase is cosfil (Iit. it is like) meansit appearsth4t, it seems that land can also translate the adverbsapparently, nidently): , Is cosfil go mbeidhstailc ann. lt appears therepill be a strike. Is cosiil nachbhfuil Una istigh. It seems that tna isn't in.


10 HOWTOSAY'TOBE DONE"ETC. Putle (withl before theverbal noun:

Ti s6le danamh. T6 scoil nua le t6gdil. Ti an mhonarchale drinadh. T6 Se6nle bheith ann. T6 cruinnif le bheith ann. It is to be done, A neu schoolis to be buib. The factory is to be closed. Sednis to be there, A ?neetingis to be held. (lit. to be therel

The negativeform is nior cheart: Nior chean duit dul ann. Nior cheart 6 a dh6anamh. You sbouldn't go there. It should,n't be done.

Ba chean (and nior cheart) can also be followed by go (r}ar): Ba cheart go mbeadh s6go bre6. Nior cheart go rnbeadh si i bhfad, lt sbould be fne. Sheshouldn't be long.


The phraseusedis ba chean do lshould),i.e. the baform of the is rorghly it would copula + ceart (rightl + do (to, for) - the sense be right for (me)to ... The imperativeform of the verb (a) is contrasted herewith ba cheartdo (b);
(a) T6igh abhaile.

(b) Ba chean duit dul abhaile.

Go bome. You shouldgo home,

1 Cad driin siad?(Reportubat is said.l Beidhm6 ag dul go londain am6rachagusbeidh m6 ag filleadh abhaile D6 Sathairn. Ni bheidh m6 in ann bualadh le Seosamh mar beidh m6 an-ghn6thach. Risteard. Example:DeireannRisteardgo mbeidhs6 ... agusnach mbeidhs6 ... D'ftran m6 istigh ar6ir toisc go raibh an-tuirseorm. Bhi m6 traocha agusnior fir6adm6 rud ar bith a dh6anamh.Shuigh m6 siosagusthit m6 i mo chodladh sachathaoir. N{riirin. tmochto f6qdqnn exhousted obleto

(a) Tabhair c6ta leat. Bring a coat utitb you. (D) Ba chean duit c6ta a thabhain You should take a coat (uith leat. "'tod.
(a) Labhair leis.

(b) Ba chean duit labhairt leis.

(a) Tosaigharis. (b) Ba chean duit tosri aris. @) Cuir stop leis.

Speaka him. You should talk to him. Start again. You should start again.

Stop hhnlit. (b) Ba cheartduit stoo a chur leis. You sbouldstoo bimlit. Dropping do (dom, duit, etc.)givesan impersonal meaning. Ba cheartstop a chur leis. It should be stopped. (lit. a stop sbould be put to itl

c Thiinig m6 abhaile thart ar a hocht a chlog ach ni ftaca rn6 Neasamar bhi si imithe amach, Chuaigh m6 amach nios d6anai agusd'fh6g m6 n6ta di. Ni raibh m6 in ann fanacht. Ciit. Expressyour opinion Ceapain,.. Example; Is iontach an smaoineamh6 sin. Crapaim gur ionach an smaoineamh6 sin. o Is maith an rud 6 sin. b Is m6r an trua 6 sin.
Unft19 Clopqh go tfttull sn b$.dfi.rta 297


c Ni fif 6. d Ti s6r6dhaor. c Ti do ghrinanua an-deas. probability Expresshg into these definitestatements Is d6da/ni d6ci. ... Change of probability. statements "+ Is d6ighliom go dtiocfaidh ExampleTiocfaidhsi am6rach si am6rach.
c Ti an ceart agat. b Beidh s6 ann. C Ni bheidh Sfle in ann teacht. d Chuaigh si go Nua Eabhrac an mhi seocaite.

Example An dtiocfaidh Siobhln arnrirach? Td sriil agam go dtiocfaidh. o An mbuailfidh Sein leat? b An gceann6idh d'athair an can sin duit? Giving advice.Ba cheart&i,t. .,. (Yot sho*ld ..,1 Transform the commeots into advice. The necessary forms of the verbs are supplied in brackets. Exryle Labhair le Miire faoi -- Ba cheart duit labhairt le Miile faoi. o Ldigh aris 6. 06amh) b Tar go luath. (teacht) C Cuir atop leis, (ctr) d Tabhair c6a leat. (tdbhairt) C N6 d6an 6. (deanamh)Nior t N6 t6igh ann. (dul) Nior -

There Join up the left and right columns to make sentences. are severalpossible combinations {or some of these. I mi fheiceanntd 6 o Buailfdh rn6 leat ag am l6in ll mis maith leat b Ni d6an 6 lii m6 ti tf tinn C Tabhair do Pheadar6 d D6anfaidh m6 6 sin duit lv mi ti tuirse on

yourself: Test Comprehension 1

Tomr{sfinds that Peadaris not in his office. He asks another colleaguewhere he might be, C'i bhfuil s6l

c T6ighabhaile f Fansaleaba

v m6 bhionntd r6-ghn6thach vi rnrisf6idir

Mri, Lion iaeachna beamaileis an bbloirm cheartden bhriatharidir lriibini. (Conpleu tbegapspith tbe coned form of the uerbin bracke*lz abair l6i go bhluil m6ag fanacht ni Pddraigin, o IWi l6i (feiceann). td saor am 6igin, buail isteach (bionn). b M6 C Mi d M6 (t6ann).

t nl
4 F N


t( seans,cuir glaoch orm (faigheann). ni ann, glaoigh ar Ph6l agusbuailfdh s6leat

buolllstecch collin
go ... ll hopethat ...1 6 Ti sriilagam asin the examDle. Answerthe ouestions

An bhfullq fhlosogot? C6nftth? gloodr(m) tinn

Doyouknow? wtry? (telephone) coll sick


go thtun on boac t nlt 19 C.dpolm dffi


2 Comprehension
...J Mura bhfuil ni cl6raithe... (If you are not rcgistered Seof6gra as nuachtin. L6igh na ceisteannaar dtfs. (Opposite k a neu./spaper dnnouncemml Read the questionsfirst.l o C6 chomh minic is a ullmhaitearcl6r nua toghth6iri?(Horz often is a neut register of uoters prepared?l b Ba ch6ir do dhaoine iirithe cinntiri go bhfuil siad cliraithe. C6 hiad? lcefiain people should ensurethey are registered.Wbo are theyll ar f6idir leat an cldr a scrridrl. c D6an liosta de na hditeanna places you can examine the register.l uthere a list of the lMake f6idir leat an cl6r a scrridri? d Cad an d6ta deireanach ar you can examinethe register?l lwhat is the last date on ubich muno = muro ullmhoionn Ni m6r duitse ... c16rqithe cl6r cinntionn go h6irithe scr0d0 othmionn breithl6 = 16brelthe buoil isteoch othroionn drocht idor6s 6iti0il prcpares It is necessory for you ... registercd regrter (here) makes sure especiolly examining, to examine aanges bifthdoy callin cnanges draft outhotity locol

nl Dnelcn vota agat.
Td sdchomhsimpltlcis sin. U mhalaar dlr nueoghth6irf gedr bliain - nI m6r duitsca chinntin go bhfuil nt dtraithc. Go hdirithct{ s{ dbhacheci an clCra scntdf rnddlthraigh nl do sheoladh lc d&od. n6 m{ blrJonn do lSri brithl4aget6oi 15Aibrdn. Mrr sia scddaigh.n &{echtchlft anois, Mula bhfuil tri cL{raithc nl bhcidhv6taag.c BUAIL ISTEACH GO DTf STAISIONAN GHARDA, AN PHOSTOIFIG,AN LEABHARI^ANN PHOIBLI, TEACH NACIIRTE N6 OIFIGAN UDARAISAITIOI

Scniidaighan drdachtchlCr

roimh 15 Eaniir
(From:Anois, z8-29 Nollaig, r99r)


Unlt 19 Ccopoh 9o bhtullon boncd6nto


C6ordo dh6onf6? youdo? would Whot
howto ln thisunityouwillleorn . Make rcquests . Offet hosPitalitY . Persuade . Give advice . Referto things which are likely, possible or probable

Question 6 Sheosamh? Cn deochasusc6n bia a theastaionn

2 Diologue
A telephone caller leaves a messagewith somebody's secretary.

lobhoirtle TomAs Moc NCill. le Dulneor on bhf6n An bhf6odfoinn do tholl? T6s6og freostolorchruinnio fooi l6thqir. R0noi Dulneor on bhf6n An bhfeodfr teochtoireocht o ghlocodh? Rinol Glocfoldh, cinnte. Aboirleot.

c) o o
4 F


on bhf6qdfoinn/qn bhf6qdf6? og freostol or chruinniO(m) teochtoireocht (f) o ghlocodh Aboir leot.

couldI/couldyou? attendinga meeting

ta tnkF n rnp<<nnp


Go ohead. (leot with you = oheod tt';'



1 Diologue
callsaround to Liam's housefor the first time in months. Seosamh c

Question Cad a iarrannan duinear an bhf6n?


o IJ

i i i i i i

tA t0?Totisteoch' Conos T0fCinotd onn,o Sheosoimh. Liom go moith.Is fodo 6 bhi m onseo. Seosomh TOim T6tomqllfodo onn.An 6lf6 cupdncoife? Liqm seosamh 0lfoidh. Ar mhoithleot oon ni le hithe? Liom m6 t6 siodqgot. Seosomh Bo mhoithliom c0plobriosco,

Diologue 3
A memberof the audience programmeis askedby in a television the host (fearan ti) how shewould spenda largelottery win.

F;;;;;;'a;il; ffi;;;; il;;i;;;;;


;il;; i;n;t''i

nuodomfin,oqus Cheonn6inn corr onsln rochoinn or

o o c


on 6lf6? le hithe m6 briosco

wouldyou drink? to ear if biscuit

500lre. Feqrqn tt An 6keo6 os do phost? qs mo Is d6ighliom go rochoinn Cqltlin Ni dh6onfoinn. mheqbhok murombelnnog oboir. (Contd)
Unlt 20 Caordo dh6onfd?




dh6anfainn dhlanff dh6anfadhs6/si dh6anfaimis sibh dh6anfadh dh6anfaidis C6ord o dhonf6? d6 mbuofo An 6lreof6 os? go rocholnnos mo mheobhdil mum mbeinn Conoso choithfed? B'fhldlr go gcuirfinn ... 6 go dti go smoolneoinnol What wouldyou do? if you won Wouldyou quit? that I wouldgo mad (lit. out of my mind) if I werenot you spend? How would MaybeI wouldput it ... until I thoughtof

I uould do you uould do helitlshewould do we u.,oulddo you utould do they uoald do

(pron.y6nhin) (pron.ynhi)
(pron. y6nhuchsh6/ shi) (pron. y6nhimish) (pron. y6nhuchshiv) (pron. y6nhidish)

Verbswhich beginwith a vowel or fhave a d prefixedto them. d'6lfadh u.,oalddinh (pron. d6lhuch) 6lann drinks f1adann is able to d'fh6adfadh uould be able to (pron. d6tuch) {DCD2,TR 11, 2:24 (bays):Add lenition, 6 and ending. Type z verb, e,g.ceannaionn cheann6inn cheann6fi cheann6dhsdsi cheann6imis cheann6dh sibh cheann6idis

Questions Caitlin di mbuafudhsi an o Cad 6 an ch6adrud a dh6anfadh Lotro? b C6n f6th a rachadhsi ar saoirechun na hAstriile?

I uould bry yo* uould buy

helitlshe utould buy ue would buy youuould buy they would buy

(pron. hyan6in) (pron. hyan6hi) (pron. hyan6ch sh6/shi) (pron. hyan6mish) (pron. hyan6chshiv) (pron. hyan6dish)

,I WOULD THE CONDITIONALMOOD OF THE VERB This refers to things which are not actual fact, but are likely, possible or probable; it correspondsto the utould forrn of the English verb, e.g. I tt,ould buylgo, etc. Its formation is as follows: rt CD2,TR 11, 1:38 Type r verb, e.g. d{atant ldoes, rzafes): Add lenition, f and ending.

Verbswhich beginwith a vowel or fhave a d'prefixed to them. Following a slenderconsonant 6 is wriften eo: imionn goes (auay) fog)tlaimionn leams d'imeodh would go (autay) lpron. dimy6ch) d'fhoghlaimeoch uould lean lpron. dowl"imy6ch)

2 THE USEOF THE CONDITIONAL It can be usedfor making requests,suggestions, advising, persuadingand offerhg hospitality: An dtiocf6 liom? Ni dh6anfainn 6 sin. Vould you come with me? I utouldn't do that.

Unlt2(t Caqdodhaqnft? 3O5

Ni cheann6inn an teach sin, Mholfainn duit glacadh leis. Dh6anfadh s6maitheas duit. Nach smaoineofi air? An 6lfri cuo6ntae?

I uouldn't buy that house. I uould aduiseyou to dccept it. lt would do yon good. Wouldn't you think about it? Would you drink a cup of tea?

Tabharfaidh. liom? An gcabhr6fi Cabhr6idh.

Yes,(lit. utill giuel Would you help me? Yes. llit. will helpl

3 THE CONDITIONALOF FEADANN 'IS ABLETO, CAN' When combined with verbal nouns this gives an equivalent to Eng)ishI could dolgo, etc.z

lslni f6idh lcanlcan'tl may be usedto reply to an bhf6adfi? of f6adfaidhwill be able to, which one Qould you?l (instead expect). would labhain le M6ire? An bhf6adfainn Is f6idir, cinnte. S THE CONDITIONALOF TA (IS) The conditionalform of ti (is) is bheadhluould bel (pron. vech). Its full range of forms is as follows: bheir'n I uould be (pron. ven) bheiled you utould 6a (pron. veh6) bheadh si:lsibelshewould be (pron. vech sh6/shi) bheimis ue uould be (pron. vemish) bheadhsibh yoz raonll be (pron. vechshiv) bheidis they uould De(pron. vedish) Here are someexamples: Bheinnbuioch diot. Bheadhs6sin go deas. I uould be grateful to you. Tbat uould be nice. Could I speak to lvfuiire? Yes,certainly,

D'ft6adfainn dul ann. D'ft6adfainn 6 sin a dh6anamh. s6bheithfuar anocht. D'fh6adfadh

I could go therc, I could do that. It could be told nnight.

of cozld The conditional of tadaionn lhappmsl canhave this sense also: Tharl6dh go mbeadh # fuar. It could (happen to) be cold.

4 QUESIIONS IN THE CONDITIONAL Questions about purely hypothetical things are both askedand replied to using the conditional: An bhf6adf66sin a dhanamh? Could voa do thatl I coald. D'fhadfainn. I couldn't. Ni fh6adfainn. are askedusingthe conditionaland Polite offersand requests repliedto usingthe future: An 6lfi deoch/cup6ntae? Woukl you like a drinklcup of tea? Yes.(lit. uill drinkJ No. (lit. uton't drinkl Would you do me a fauour? Yes.(lit. uill do\ lend me to?

insteadof lenition (see Unit 8): Remember that an?requireseclipsis An mbeifeds6staleis sin? An mbeadhcaogacent agat? Would yoa be happy uith that? Would you bauefifty cents?

Oraidtr. N( 6lfaidh.
An nd6anf6gar dom? D6anfaidh. An dtabharfri iasacht deich euro dom? jo6

The conditional progressiveconsistsof bheinn etc. + verbal noun:

Bheinnamuighagsi6l di mbeadh s6go bre6.

I uould, be out ualking if it were fne.

Unit20 Cddodhaoif6?


CONDITIONAL FORMS 5 IRREGULAR A verb which is irregularin the future tenseis also irregularin the conditional. Present togonn comes tConn goes tugonn gives foigheonn gets Future tiocfoidh wil/come rochoidhwil/ 90 tobhqrfoidh wil/ give gheobhoidhwili get wil/ ni bhfoighidh not geL iosfoidhwil/ eot daorfoidh will say biorfoidh will beor Conditionol thiocfodh wouldcome rochcdhwouldgo thobhorfodhwouidgive gheobhodhwouldget ni bhfoigheodhwould not get d'iosfodh wouldeat diorfadh would say bh6orfodhwouldbear

What wouldyou rccommend? Codo mholf6? to strengthen neort0 go mbun6foi ... There cheort shouldbe estoblished ... Bo l6nGhoelocho Irish-medium schools scoileonno Would... be interested? An mbeodhsuimog ... nios lobhorfoi m6 Goeilge ... If morc lrish werespoken ... D6 2 INTERVIEW o chuirfea on Choeilqe Iriseoir Conos chuncinn. dd mbeodh s6or do chumos? go mbeodh niosmOGoeilge Niomh Bocheort or on teilifis. Iriseoir Codeile? Niomh D6 mboinfeodh dooine lsoid oson m6idGoeilge otd ocu. Iriseoir Fi[ murobhfuilGoeilge mhojthocu? go dtiocfodh Niomh 6on omhros. B'fhidir feobhos orthu.

l ct

itheonn edts deireonnsays beireonnbears

The conditionalforms on the right of the table aboveare pronounced: hukuch,rachuch,hirhuch, y6ch, ni voych,disuch, d6rhuchand v6rhuch. lackslenition,and that thereis no f in rachadh. Notice that d6arfadh

Conos o chuirfe6... chuncinn? Bo cheortgo mbeodh... Do mboinfeodh dooineirs6id os... Fi! muro bhfuil gon omhros feobhos

Howwould you advance ...? There should be ... If people madeuseof ... Evenif (they)don't without a doubt imprcvement

Two interviews
Membersof the public are askedhow they would promotethe use of lrish: Cad a mholannsiad?lwbat do they recommend?l 1 INTERVIEW o neort0? Iriseoir Codo mholf6chunon Ghoeilge l6nGhqelocho. niosm6 scoileonno Donncho Bocheortgo mbun6foi Iriseoir An mbeodhsuimog go leordooineiontu,dor leot? go moith. dd mbeidis Donncho Boch6irgo mbeodh, Iriseolr Aon rudeile? so DOil, dh6onfodh sesin Donncho D6lobhorfoiniosm6 Goeilge mqitheos.
l his has a specialending -f(a)i whose f is pronouncedas such (and not as h). Type r verbs add -fi if the precedingvowel is i or e:


Bhrisfi6. \i chreidfi6 sin. Bheifiullamhfaoinam sin.

It would be broken. That wouldn't be belieued. One would be readyby that time.
Unlt 20 C6ord o dhont6? 3O9


Type r verbs otherwise add -fai: An nd6anfai in am 6? Ni ddarfai focal faoi. Dri nd6fai 6. Vould it be done on time! Not a word would be said about it. lf it were burnt.

LOmPare: An dtabharfd iasacht deich euro dom? D6anfaidh, m6 ti s6 agam. An dtabharfddom 6 amirach? D6anfaidh, mi bhionn s6 agam. Co d you lend me ten e ros (now)? I uill (tlo), if I baue it (nowl. Coukl you giue it nme tomolfow( I utill (alo),if I haue it (at that future time),

Type z verbs have -6fai or -eofai dependingon the preceding vowel: Ni cheann6fai 6 sin. D6 smaoineofai in am air. That utouldn't be bougbt. lf it uterethought of on time.

M6 td and m6 bhionn can both combine with verbal nouns: M6 ti s6ag obair anois. M6 bhionn s6 ag obair amdrach. 10 MURA (IF NOT) If belit is wo*ing nout. If helit k working totnoftott.

A HOW TO SAY 'IF': MA AND DA You will have noticed that there are two ways of saying if in Irish. a Mi (with lenition) refers to something which is likely. It is followed by the presenttensewhen either present or future eventsare being referred to. b Di (with eclipsis)refers to something which is lesslikely, or unlikely, and requires the conditional. Comoarethese:

This causes eclipsis,and requiresthe dependentform of the verb, if there is one. Here is a comparison with m6 and d6, both meaning i/: Likely (present) mi ti ni gn6thach if you are busy mura bhfuil tf gn6thach if you are not busy Unlikely (conditional) di mbeiferi gn6thach if you uterebusy mura mbeife6 gn6thach if you uere not busy

Positive Negative ti leis M6 bhuaileann D6 mbuailfedleis M6 th6annni ann D6 rachf6ann lf lf lf If you meethim you uterc to meet him you go tbere you wert there

Here are some examplesof mura: Tar linn, mura bhfuil tf Come utith us, if you are not gn6thach. busy. An mbeife6 ann, mura mbeife{ . Would you be therc, if you gn6thach? uercn't busy? Rachainn amach, mura mbeadh I utouWgo out if it uterm't s6 ag cur bSisti. raining.

9 MA WITH THE yERB TA (Is): MA TA AND MA BH'ONN The verb ti (rs) makesa distinction of its own betweentwo simple forms in the presenttense,namely ti (is) (right now) vs. bionn (ls) (normally or habitually). However, mi bhionn often refers to the future. M6 bheidh is not used.

You will also encountermuno, the older form of mum.

?I I


Unlt 20 CAad o dhqnft?

11 B'FHEIDIR(MAYBE,PERHAPS) This is a phrase,consisting of ba (conditional of the copula) + f6idir, and literally meaningit woukl be possible.Vhen used with referenceto future time it is followed by go (rbar) and the conditionalmood of the verb: An bhf6adf6 labhairt leo? B'ft 6idir go labharfainn. An mbeidh tri ann? B'ftddir go mbeinn.

13 EXPRESSING OELIGATI ON In the last unit you met Ba cheart... It taould be ight ... An form of this is Ba ch6ir ... It uould be proper ... alternative Theseare followed either by go lthatl ot by a verbal noun clause. For instancet at should be done can be translated either wav: Ba ch6ir go ndEanfai 6 sin. ch6ir Ba 6 sin a dheanamh. If you want to saythat a panicular personshoulddo something, usedo (to) to indicatethe personin question: Ba ch6ir do Mhiire bheith anseo. Ba ch6ir duit 6 a dhiol. Mdire should be bere, You sho d sell it.

Couldyot talk n them? MaybeI uill (lit. uouldl (talkl. 'Will you be there? MaybeI uill. (lit. utouldbel


Statement ba nior Question ar nit

Positive Negative

1 Here are four shon iumbleddialogues of two lineseach.Sort them out and note which tensesare used. o An 6lfi deoch? b Rachaidh. cinnte C Ni iosfaidh,go raibh maith agat. d An nd6anfdgar dom?

You have already met three of thesein connection with the phrase meaning'to like': Ar mhaith leat cupin tae? Ba mhaith. Nior mhaith. Here are someother examples: Is maith an rud 6. (lt's a good thing.l Is cuma liom faoi. (l don't careabout it,l Nich maith an rud 6? (lsn't it a good thingi) becomes Ba mhaith an rud 6, llt uould be a good tbing.l becomes Ba chumaliom faoi. (I wouldn't carcabout it.l becomes Ndr mhaith an rud 6? (Wouldn't it be a good thing?l Wo d you like a cup of tea? Yes. No.

a 6raian. f D6anfaidh. I An rachf6 go Londain liom? h An iosf6 ceapaire?

2 Completeand answertheshypotheticalquestions as you wish, putting the verbs in the conditional. Dri dtabharfai rogha druitlif you uteregium the choice); o an _ carr nua? b an as an tir? c an _ gar do strainsdirl

t rL

Unh20 Caordodhaonft? 3I3

sista 6iri as do phost? d an ar saoireamSrach? e an sa teach./san irasin anna bhfuil tri i do ch6nai f an faoi l6thair? iasachtdeichbpunt do charaduit? an -

og deisii teochtoireocht gldconn

repatnn9 message takes

'. . >, .g

4 Make up interviews like the one with Risteard on what Mf ir6ad and Eoghan would do if they won the Lotto.

:;:,*u,, ffi

favour stran9el
ceonnoionn t6 Ristedrd M6irod Eoghon

dononn fononn imionn t6onn tuqonn

teoch dul 6iri os oirgeodo c6isiro on ol o p(h) thbhoirt shocr0 cheonnoch sqoire ost oo no boicht x

cn t-airgeod o churso bhonc

The 3 Criochnaighna comhriite seolfnish thesedialoguesl. are listedhereto guideyou: missingrequests or enquiries : osking forhelp of someone : osking o fovour to speok to someone i osking

xl xt

osking someone to lendyou10 someone to tokeo messog osking for 20cfor the telephone osking

no boicht c6isir(f) socr0

thepoor a pafty to arronge

C6 at6 ag caint? D6nallO S. F6n n6im6ad,le do thoil. -? D6anfaidh,m6s fidir liom. ---? 6 ... Te b.6" orm, ach nil pingin agamfaoi l6thair. ---? F6ngo bhfeicfidh m6 ... seoduit. raibh maith agat. Go An bhfacati Pidraigin in 6it ar bith? Ni fhaca. ---? Glacfaidh,cinnte. Abair leisgur mhaith liom bualadhleis trdthn6na. ? T{ m6 ag deisirian chairr. cinnte. Cabh16idh,

x' = the first thing the personwould do x = would do ? = mightdo Cord o dh6onfddd mbuofdon duoismh6rso Lotto.o Risteoird? Risteord Is 6 on ch6odrud o dhonfqinn n6 c6isir o eqqro. Iriseoit Feiclm. Agusinodhioidh sin? Risteord D'6ireoinn os mo phost, ogusb'fh6idir go dtobhorfoinn roinntoirgid d'eogros corthonochto Iriseoit

duois(f) eqgr0 eogros corthonochto

prEe to orgontze o choritable organization


Unit 20 C6ord o dh6onfi?

3I S

theseguided conversarions: 5 Practise


o c

o (,

Al Tugonn B cuairt ar A.(B is visiting A offers B teo. B occepts. (cedpolre). A offerssondwich polltely refuses. I Ar on bhf6n. A osks to speok to P6l. B P6lisnotthere. A osksB to givehim q messoge. B ogrees.

Bhiodhm6rdnle d6onomh ogom I used to hove o lot to do
In thisunityouwillleorn . To talk about eventstho.t hdppenedrcgula yinthepo'st

yourself Test
1 Insertthe appropriateforms of the verbsbelow after mi or d6: o Me tf le P6l, abair leisgo bhfuil m6 anseo. b Md Brid ann, rachaidhmisel6i. si ann. c Tabharfaidhm do Mhiire 6, mi d6 s6an scal. d Cad a d6arfadhSe6n di au9eadagat? e Cad a cheann6f6 t6 tConn cloiseonn buoileonn

youstort Before
This unit will dealwith events that happened regularlyin the past, as opposed to individual past events. This distinctionis important not only in historicaltexts but also in talking about earlierperiods of one'slife.

B'{heirmeoir Tomis trdth, ach t6 s66irithe as anois.Tagann an sagartchuigear cuairt. (Tomds,a retired farmer, is uisitedby the a priest.He retfiinisces about former times,dnd compares inactiuity of retirementuitb his worhing life.l


ogom Unlt 21 thiodh m6.6nle d,Eonomh


4 F

Sqgort Tom6s


Sdgort Tom6s SogErt Tom6s Sogort Tom6s Sogqrt Tom6s

Sogqrt Tom6s

Conos td og 6iri leqt,o Thom6is? Ni ceortdom geor6n, o othoir,och b'fheorrliom bheith og oboir. is d6cho? Tdsedeocoir on t-om o choitheomh. D'fhCodfd o rd go bhfuil. An mbionnuoigneos ort onois? mqrni fheicim m6rdn dooine. Bionn, An irionnt0 go mochi gc6noi? go luoth. Eirim, mord0isim on nuoiro bhi on fheirmogot? Conos o choitea 16 ogom.D'Cirinn og o seso Bhiodh m6r6n ie d6onomh Is 6 on somhrodh ogusag o hochtsogheimhreodh. na dulomoch ch6od rudo dh6onoinn nuoir o d'eirlnn sCsinuoiron chloig or o og crrino mb6.Th6godh loghod. Achonois ni bhionn dodole donomh ogom rudoile d6onomh or on bhfeirm i rith or moidin. Bhiodh on loe. Agus d'fheideago leordooine. on teoch morthogodh no comhorsoin chuig D'fheicinn, q bhiodh go minic, go h6irithe nuoir le cobhoir. 96 on uoirsin. Chuidimis oo l6irlenqchCile

Trueor folse? o Td Tomis s6stabheith 6iritheas an obair. b Bionn uaigneas air anois. c Fananns6sa leabad6anach ar maidin. Here are sometexts about earlieroeriodsin Irish historv.

'tt CD?,TR 12, 1122 An bia a d'itheadh na Norrnannaigh Food in the Notman castle D'6iriodh muintir an chaisleiinle breacadh an lae.Ni bhiodh ach roinnt bheagardin agusfiona acu don bhricfeasta. D'fhanadhan chuid is rn6 acu ina seasamh agusiad ag ithe. Bhiodh an dinn6aracu ag me6nlae,agusd'ithidis an suip6ar timpeall a s6satr6thn6na. D'itheadhna tiarnai Normannachaa lin feola- mairteoil, caoireoilagusmuiceoil.Chuirti m6r6n den fheoil ar salann. D'ft6idti spiosraiagusluibheanna chun blasnios fearr a chur ar an bhfeoil.Bhi coscar fheoil ar an Aoine agusd'iti iascan ld sin. Bhiodhglasraiag na Normannaighfreisin.Bhi cabdiste, oinniriin aguscairidcoitiantaag an am sin. Ach ni raibh aon phr6tai ann. Ar6n b6n cruithneachtaa bhiodh acu.Th6gaidisbeacha agus mil a mhilsiri faoi mar a siricra inniu. d'fsdidti chunbia ris6idimidne Fion, beoir, agusbainnena deochanna is m6 a d'6laidis. od'itheodh muintiron choisle6in le breocodhqn loe roinnt bheog which(they)usedto eat the inhobitants of the castle at daybreok pottion,a little a smoll

geo16n Concso choite6? bhiodh... ogom D'Cirinn. a dh6dnoinn og crri no mb6 th6gcdh s6 sin dodo d'fheicte6 thogodhno comhqrsoin nuoiro bhiodh96 le cqbhoir Chuidimis ... lenochile. go l6ir


(olso, to complain oso noun, o complaint) Howdidyou useto spend? I used to have... I used to get up. whichI usedto do milkingthe cows(b6 = cow) thot usedto take nothing you usedto see the neighbours usedto come whenthetewos(lit. usedto be) needof help Weused to help... oneanother. all

lr 8

ogom Unlt 21 Bhiodhm6r6nle d6onomh


d'fhonodh ... lno seosomh tlorno chulrti ... or solonn d'6s6idti spiosm lulbh blqs d'tti crulthneocht beoch mil mllsi0 fool mol o fion beolr o d'6loidis

usedto remainstanding lit. in their standing) a lod (lit.put on so,t) usedto be salted usedto be used sptce heh toste usedto be eaten wheat a Dee honey sweetening, to sweeten in the sameway as wine Deel which they usedto drink

Bhi scoileannai gcuid de na mainistreacha.D'fhoghlairniodh na mic l6inn l6amh agusscriobh na Laidine. mdnoch de r6ir rioil docht och qmh6ln or s6lp6ol pqidlt db son direomh l6mh honto cuid ocu c6ip l6omh ogus scriobh

monk accodingto rule strict except on chapel ptayel abbot included a helping hond some of them(butcuidde before nouns) copy reading andwriting

Questions o C&rd a bhiodh ag na Normannaigh don bhricfeasta? b Cn cineil feolaa d'ithidis? c C6n l5 a d'iti iasc? d C6arda d'6laidisde ghn6th?

Questlons o C6n 16a d'itheadhna manaighiasc? b C6 a bhiodh ag obair ar an bhfeirm?


<f CD2,TR 12,2:38 An saol sa mhainistir Life in the morasnty D'oibriodh na manaighgo dian agusmhairidisde r6ir rialacha dochta.D'ithidis ar6n, iascagusuibheacha agusd'6laidisbainne. Ni iti feoil ach amhainar an Domhnach.Thagaidisle ch6ilesa sipal chun paidreacha a r5 roinnt uaireantasa li. Thugaidisgo l6ir, an t-ab san iireamh, limh chrinta ar an bhfeirm. D'oibriodh cuid acu sa leabharlann agusdh6anaidisc6ipeannade leabhair.

<fcD2,TR12,331 ,I THEPAST HABITUAL OFTHEVERB Therearespecial formsof the verbfor referringto recurringevents in the past.Theyareformedasfollows: Type r verbe.g.dinnanndoes,ma&es: Add lenitionand endings
dh6anainn dhanti

dh6anadh s6/si dh6anaimis

(pron.y6n"in) (pron.y6nti) helitlsheusedto do (pron.y6n"ch sh6/shi) (pron.yen.imish) ue usedto do (Cortd)

I usedto do you used to
Unlt21 Bhlodhm&tn l. dconomh ogom 32I


dhdanadhsibh dhanaidis

you usedto do they usedto do

(pron. y6nuchshiv) (pron. y6n'idish)

3 THEPAST HABITUAL OFTA This corresponds to the present habitu a.lYronn,k utont to bet

Verbswhich beginwith a vowel or f prefix d' 6lan:n drinhs itheann eats fanann stays d'6lainn Iusedto drizA (pron. d6l"in) d'ithitn lusedn ear (pron. dihin) d'Ihanainn I usedto stay (pron. dan'in)
$hinn bhitei I used to be ,'tou used to be

bhiodh s6lsi

bhiodh sibh
Type z verb, e.g. ceamraionnbuyst Add lenition and endings cheannainn cheannaitei s#si cheannaiodh cheannaimis cheannaiodh sibh


helitlsbe used to be ue used to be you usedto be they used to be

(pron. vin) (pron. vity6) (pron. viuch sh6/shi) (pron. vimish) (pron. viuch shiv) (pron. vidish)

I usedto buy you usedto buy helitlsheusedto buy ute usedto buy usedto buy ^you they usedto buy

(pron. hyan"in) (pron. hyan'iteri) (pron. hyan"ioch sh6/shi) (pron. hyanuimish) (pron. hyan'ioch shiv) (pron. hyan"idish)

Ir THE PASSM OF THE PASTHABITUAL The endingis ti after slender consonants or i, e, and tai elsewhere: cuireann pzls chuireadh usedto put chttiti usedto be put ris6ideann zses d'lirsiidea.dh usedto use d'ft{idti usedto be ssed. ceannaionn Drys cheannaiodhused to buy cheannaitiused to be bought 6lann drinks d'6ladh used to drink d'6ltrf usedto be drunk If a verb endswith th that is dropped before tiltai:

Verbswhich beginwith a vowel or f prefix d' iitiolln gets4p d'6iriodh usedto getup (pron. d6riodh) foghlaimionn learns d'fhoghlaimiodh used to learn (pron. dowl'im(och) 2 USING THE PASTHABITUAL It corespondsto the present habitual: gachmaidin. titim ag a seacht gach D'6irinn ag a seacht maidin. Ni 6laim caife. Ni 6lainn caife. Ceannaim an p6ip6ar sin uarreanta. Cheannainn an p6ip6ar sin uafeanra. I get up at seuen euerymorning. I usedto get up at seueneuery motning. I don't drink coffee. I usednot to drink coffee. I buy that paper so?netimes. I used to buy that paper sornetirnes.
Unh2l lhlodh m6dn h dadnalnh ogom 323

itheann eats d'itheadh usedto eat d'iti usedto be eaten caitheann spends chaitheadh used to spend &aiti usedto be spent

5 SOMEATTERNATIVE EXPRESSIONS The ideaof a past habitualcan also be conveyed by theseidioms basedon n6s (ml (babit, customl and gn th (usuallt

ff$i::::r:::::::_:::::::::: I
Bhi s6den6s... Baghnath l ...
It was the practice... It was usual (for somebody)to ...

Here are someexamples: Bhi s6de n6s againn6iri go noch. It was our custotfl to get uP eadY. Tltey used to Plant uegetdbles. Ba ghn6th leo glasrai a chur.

Naomh Colum Cille Rugadh Colum Cille i nGart6n i gContae Thir Chonaill. CiallaionnColum Cille col6r na cille. Thug a chairdean t-ainm sin air nuair a s66g toisc go gcaitheadhs6 a Theastaigh uaidh oireadsin ama ag rd a chuid paidreacha. bheith ina shagart aguss6 staid6ar i mainistreacha agsrilaar fud na tire. Nuair a rinneadh sagart de se ar ais go tuaisceart na hEireann agus bhunaigh s6mainistir san s6 6it ina bhfuil cathair Dhoire anois. Faoi dheireadhgo hAlbain agusbhunaigh s6mainistir eile ar Oilerin I. go hanJuath agus saol an-chrua ag na manaigh ansh. deiridis m6r6n paidreacha sula dt6idis amach ag obair. Bhiodh a thuilleadh cuid diobh ag obair ar an bhfeirm agusdiobh a gcuid ama ag c6ipeiil leabhar. bhiodh chuoioh d',liridis rinne choitheodh bhi thainiq Colnm (from Latin columbal is the original spelling of a word which is now colm d.oue.'fhe earlier spelling is still often used in as a (male)name.The word cill has beenlargelyreplaced the sense ol church by eaglaisand s6ip6al. clalloionn cohif cill og 16 d oireod cothoir cruo sulo (+ eclipsis) 6o9s0il or fud bunoionn molnlstir poidil tedstqlonn sogolt c6ipe6ll means dove,pigeon church saYin9 so mucn city hard before different, vorious throughout founds, establishes monastety ptoyer want5 priest copytng
oEqm Unh2l Bhlodhm6dn le daonomh 325

in the example: 1 Completethe conversation Exanple tf tobac? A An gcaitheann B -, ach stop m bliain 6 shin. o A An 6lann tri a l6n caife? cfig n6 s6chup6nsa 16ach d'6irigh m6 as mar B in ann titim i mo chodladhsan oiche. ni bA An itheanntri m6r6n feola? cuid mhaith ach ni ithim anoisach iasc.Ti s B nios sl6intirila. C A An 6irionn tfi go moch ar maidin? go han-mhochnuair a bhi m6 ag obair. Ach ti B md 6iritheas anoisagusfanaimsa leabaar maidin. tf carr nua gachbliain? dA An gceannaionn uair amhdin ach t6 siadr6dhaor anois' B Ni athraim mo charr anoisach gachtrid bliain. A An mbionn Treasaag obair san oichef6s? go dti le d6anaiach fuair si post nua. B 6irionnos titim sldinti0il moch gives up folling, to fall healthy tn early(alsoluoth, especia//y contexts) moreaeneral

2 Seocuntasgairid ar Naomh Colum Cille \hereis a sbort account of St Colum Cille, founder of the monasteryof lotw in soutbtuest verbsfrom the list below to completethe text. Scotlandl. Select Note that both the simplepast and the past habitual are used'


<t CD2,TR 12,5:00 Na Lochlannaigh Tle Vikings Talamh bocht a bhi san lorua. D'fh6sadhna Lochlannaigh coirceaguseornaina gcuid p6irceanna beaga. Bhiodh caoirigh agusmuca acu.D'fhaighidism6rin bia 6n bhfarraige. Dh6anaidis m6rin iascaireachta agusmharaidisr6nta freisin. D'fhis an daonraagusbhidis i gc6naiag lorg talamh nua. Sheolaidis i bhfad 6 bhaile ina gcuid b6d, chomh fada leis an Ioslainnsatuaisceart agusleis an Me6nmhuir sa deisceart. Is cosriilgo ndeachaigh cuid acu go MeiricedThuaidh. Thosaigh siad ag teachtgo hEirinn sa naori haois.D'ionsaidisna rnainistreacha agusthugaidisleo 6r agusairgead.Rinneadha ldn dochair don tir an uair sin. Shocraigh go leor acu siosin Eirinn agusph6s siad Eireannaigh. An loruo coerce eomo coom muc moroionn 16n f6sonn doonrq lorg seolonn i bhfcd 6 bhoile on iosldinn on Mhe6nmhuir oois ionsoionn 6r oirgeod dochor socroionnsios NoNay oots barley sheep pi9 ki s seal gtows population seeKtng sails for from home Iceland the Mediterronean age,century attacks gold (usuolly si/ver meonsmoney) damage settlesdown

Toking it further
As you progressin your study of Irish you will needmore dictionariesthan thosementionedin the Introduction. comprehensive The standard bilingual dictionaries aret English-lrish Dictionary, edited by Tomris de Bhaldraithe; Focl6ir-Gaeilge Biarla, edited by Niall 6 D6naill. Both are publishedby An Grim, the publications branch of the Depanment of Education in Dublin. Neither is up to date,however- the former appeared in 1959, the latter in 1979.You will still needto turn to the shorterdictionaries for terminology related to computers and other aspectsof modern life which have becomefamiliar in the past generetion. O D6naill's FGB, as it is often abbreviated, remains essentialfor reading literature in lrish.

Books ond newspopers

It should be rememberedthat the work of creative writers (novelists,poets etc.) is typically among the most taxing material you can attempt in a new language.The poetry of Nuala Ni Dhomhnaill, the leading Irish-languagepoet of recent years and the literary figure best known outside the Irish-speaking community, is available in bilingual form, the English versionsoften the work of other distinguished Irish poets. A glance at her work (if you come acrossit) will give you an idea of the literary world which may open up for you. But it is best not to aim too high at the beginning. An Grirn" mentioned above, producesexcellent children's books and school texts on a wide range of subiects,all written in clear, idiomatic lrish. Mdir6ad Ni Ghr6da's translations of well-known

32 6

Toklng ltftr hr


fairytales,publishedby An Grim, are particula y useful,and the the valueof language is not at all childish.Do not underestimate suchmaterialto the learner.If you are familiar with the Bible, remember study. that it has long beenusedfor privatelanguage If you know the story you havea headstart. Az Biobla Naofa (r98r), publishedby An Sagart,and availablefrom FiosFeasa, gm), is a very fine translation. Dingle, Co. Kerry ('f.ea9a",q If you are in Irelandyou will find srnallnumbersof the weekly The newspaper and the daily Ll in many newsagents. -Foizse contenttendsto be nationaland local, however.

Key to the exercises

Alternative answersare marked thus: (e.g.Ti na ranganna./siad suirnifil: the article and noun na ranganna or the pronoun siad may be used). lJfords that are not strictly necessary are put in brackets thus: e.g. Is Meirice6nach 6 (Bob).

Is fiorlni fror?


A searchon the internetwill revealthat thereare now several websites devotedto learningIrish and to aspects of Irish culture relatedto the language. The materialis often postedin the USA free of charge.Remember that and access appears to be generally the materialon suchsitesis often a mixture of the easyand the difficult, the immediatelyusefuland assorted curiosities. There proverbsetc. which are of tendsto be quite a lot on gretings, limited use.Thereis also likely to be a lot of very dialectalmaterial which is not quite identicalto the standardIrish taught in this book and found in dictionariesand publicationsof An Gfm. So approachwith somecaution.An excellent Dublin-based website for more advanced learners is, which carries features suchas articlesand interviewswith largenumbersof words underlinedin the text and glossed underneath. The national broadcasting companyRTE givesnewsheadlines in Irish on its site (rniyrv;f.e,ic.1,nuac,h.ffttm1). The contentis a mix of the international and the domestic. Beingableto figureout someof the international headlines with the aid of one of the pocket dictionaries will be a greatboost.However,remember that newsitemswill contain vocabularydealingwith official manersand public affairs,which falls outsidethe everyday communicative functionswhich are the main concernof this book.

For these sections Is fior indicates that the statement is true. the correctversionis given, Otherwise Unit 1 (Sean enrolment form: Ainm: Se6n 6 Ceallaigh Kellyl. Sedn's Mh6r Flat z. f6n Seoladh: Sr6id St.) lMain/Higb 9o567r, 3, 1 - Dia dhuit. Is misePeadar 6 Ndill. . Dia is Muire dhuit. Tar isteach. Conast6 ni? - Ti m6 go maith. . Suighsiosansin.- Go raibh maith asat.r T6 s6fuar inniu. - T6 cinnte.. Cad is ainm duit aris,le do thoil?- Peadar 6 N6ill. . Agusdo sheoladh? - T6 m i mo ch6naiin uimhir a naoi, Sr6idMh6r. . Agusd'uimhir teileaf6in? - A seacht, a s6,a c[ig, a ceathair, a hocht,naoi. r Go raibh maith agat. 3 - Dia dhuit. . Dia is Muire dhuit. - Conast6 t6? . Td m go maith. . Go raibh maith agat.4 o Dia is Muire duit (or dhuit). - Tar isteach. e Ti m6 b Go raibh maith agat.c Cad is ainm duit?d Is misePeadar. go maith.f T6 m i mo ch6naii Luimneach. 5 o T6 mEb Ti muid mo mh6thair,mo chara,m'dras6n, c T6 sd Ti si e T5 m6 5 Seo: mo sheoladh, mo rothar,m'uncail,m'uimhir teileaf6in, mo hata. a d6, a tri, a seacht; 7 a n6id,a d6, a haon,- a cf ig, a ceathair, a d6, Corcaigh - Cork. b n6id, a naoi, a haon,- a s6,a tri, a ceathair, a haon;Gaillimh- Galway.c n6id, a cfig, niid, a d6, - a s,a naoi, a tri, a hochqBaileAtha Luain - Athlone.d n6id, a s,a haon,- a d6, a criig;Luimneach a tri, a haon,a ceathair, - Limerick.e ndid,a s6, acfig; Cill Airne - Killarney. a criig,-a d6, a seacht, a s6,a ceathair, fn6id, a haon,- a seacht, a s,a criig,a ceathair, a hocht,a naoi; BaileAtha Cliath - Dublin.
(ry to the exercl.s 3 29

32 8

RecordingLuimneach o6157923; Corcaig! o2t48697; Cill Aime o55zr 678; Ath Lu ain o5oz663ziGaillimho9r 55639;BaileAtha Cliathor8zro657. Test yourselfcomprehension: o OutsideMiire's flat. b ro. Unit 2 Interview r c (Is) as TriL Li (Aine/0 b Is miinteoir Aine/i. Interviewz o Is Meirice6nach 6 (Bob)/Is asBoston6 (Bob).b T6 na ranganna./siad suimi(il. 1 o Ni Chonaillb 6 56c Ui Sh6d Mac Mathfna e Nic Mhathrina f Nic CSnhaigh 2 Una:Ni Bhriain;Ni Chonchfir; 9 Mhic C6nhaigh. Ni Mh6ille; Ni Ghrdda;Ni Chonaill;Ni Mhurch6;Nic Dh6naill; Nic Mh4nais;3 o Is Eireannach 6 Sedn. b Is Gearrn6nach 6 Ludwig. c Is Rriiseach i Maria. d Is Eireannach i Miire. e Is Francach i Michelle.f Is Rriiseach 6 Yuri. 4 o Sasanach, Eireannach, Albanach, M6iriceinach.b An Spiinn, An Fhrainc,An Ghearm6in, An Iod6il. 5 o ls ea.Is M6iricednach m.b Is ea.Is Eireannach m6.c Is ea.Is Francach 6. d Is ea.Is Rfiseachi. 6 o Bob O'Meara is ainm dom. Ti m6 i mo ch6naii mBoston. Is siriin6irm. b ColetteFortin is ainm dom. T6 m6 i mo ch6n6ii bP6ras. Is mriinteoirm6.c JiirgenHeim is ainm dom. T6 m6 i mo ch6naii Frankfurt.Is siopad6ir m6.d Ian Campbell is ainm dom. T6 m i mo ch6naii nGlaschri. Is amhrinai m.e Nancy Gilesis ainm dom. Ti m6 i mo ch6naii Nua Eabhrac. Is rfnai m6.7 o iv b vi c v d i c iii f ii. 8 o T5 m6 i mo ch6naii mBal Feirste; i dTr6 Li; i nDoire;i bPon L5irge;i gCill Airne; i nGaillimh. b T6 m ag obair: i mbanc;i ngardistqi siopa;in oi6g; in Eirinn. 9o Nil, s6b d, N , mo, c An bhfuil, in, d d is ea,ase Nihea 10-duit.dom-as.i-do Test yourselfcomprehension: TomdsO D6naill, Garda,Luimneach. M6ire Nic Gearailt,m6inteoir, BaileAtha Luain. SfleNi Chonaill, dochniir,Sligeach. Liam Mac C6rthaigh, feirmeoir,Corcaigh. Interviews: - Cad is ainm duit? o Mdire Nic Gearailtis ainmdom. - Cd bhfuil ni i do ch6nai?r Td m i mo ch6naii mBaileAtha Luain./- Cad is ainm duit? SileNi Chonaillis ainm dorn- C6 bhfuil ni i do ch6nai?r T6 m6 i mo ch6na(i Sligeach./ - Cad is ainm duit? . Liam Mac C6nhaighis ainm dom.- Cri bhfuil tri i do ch6nai?. Ti m6 i mo ch6naii gCorcaigh,

Unit 3 (T6 a theachf6in aige Dialogue1 a Ni fior. Ti s6ina ch6naii dteach. anois.)b Ni fior. Nil s6p6sta.Dialogue 2 o Ni 6or. Ti beirt mhac b Is fior. c Ni fior. Ti tririr macag Bean agusinion ag S6amas/aige.
ur )ne/alcl.

1 c Mhiire, She6in b Shfle, Thom6is 2 o I D6nall,ll Aine,iii Eoghan, vlll Brian.2 b I Is fior; lv Miche6l,v Muireann,vl P6l, vll Sinad, ii Ni fior. T6 tririr clainneacu;lll Is fior; lv Ni fior. T6 bein chlainne acu;v Is ffor; vi Is fior. 3 o An bhfuil n6im6adagat?b An bhfuil carr agat?c An bhfuil ni posta? d An bhfuil clannagatl 4 Shaiin,ch6nai,g, T6, mhac,in(on,T6. 5 o i deichmbliana,li ocht mbliana,iii ciig bliana,iv daichead a tri bliain,v triochaa s6bliain. b tririr: bein 6 muintir Phidraig;inion Eibhlin;macMh5ire; deirfifr Shile; dearth5ir Thomiis; teachLiam; clannGhear6id. Test yourself1 a aici, b aige,c acu,d agam.2 o T6 beirt mhacagam. b An bhfuil tu p6stal c Ti cfigear clainneagam.d An bhfuil clann agat?c An bhfuil tf gn6thach? Unit 4 Dialogue1 o Is ffor. b Ni fior. Ti si ag obair mar rinai pdinaimseartha. Dialogue 2 o Ni ffor. c Ni ffor. T6 s6ag dul abhaile. Ti Donnchaag obair le P6draig. b Ni fior. Beidhgloineoriiste aige/ ag Donncha. 1 o A Pheig, seomo chol ceathar Nuala. b Conastd tri, a Nuala? 2 o Mh6ire;Muire, Sheiin. c Ti 6thasorm bualadhleat,a Pheig. Thomiis. d Sheosamh b Conas; a Shfle; t6 ni. c Thomriis; a Phddraig; (i); Sheosamh; a Shiobhdn. 3 o agat;Beidhb agat;agam;beidh, agam(sa). c mbeidh;gloine.d An; bheidh.e deoch;Ni. 4 o sateach b in Oifig an Phoist, c ar saoire, d sa bhaile,e ag an t6bhairne, aerfort,f sadiosc6,g sacharr.5 o scriobh,obair,caint,dul, cur. b carr b scriobh,61,damhsa, teacht,dul. 6 o beanShdamais, Dh6naill,c teachMh6ire,d cup6ntae,c macChiar6in,f gloine g 6ras6n uisce, Aine.7 o l6i, b leat,c leis. o S6amas b Nil. (Beidhs6 Test yourselfcomprehension 6 Ceallaigh. ar aisag a s6a chlog.)

tt o

f..y to th. exe]ti!6


Unit 5 Dialogue I o Is fior. b Is fior. c Ni fior. T6 s6sheomraleapasateach/ go han-mhaith ann. Dialogue 2 c T6 aintin Mhich(Usi b Ni bheidh piosaciste(aige). c (Beidh) 1 o Seo(6)mo charr.Seo()an gairdin. Seo(6)an siopa. b Sin(6)mo theach.Sin (i) an scoil.Sin (i) rno mhithair. 2 o Seomra suiteb Seomra c Fuinneogd Cistin e Cathaoirf Bord g Leabah Halla i Doras: kithreas. 3 o i ag an bhfuinneog,ii ag an doras,iii ag an mbanc;b i sa chistin, ii saghairdin,iii saseomra folctha;c saleithreas. 4 i d; ll b; iil f; iv e;v a; vl c. 5 c An bhfuil tuirseon? b An bhfuil ocrason? c An bhfuil eaglaairluirthi? d An bhfuil ocrasoraibh? Testyourself: 1 o i 3,li 4, ili z. b TeachHifdai Comprehension P6draig O Baoill (caoga 2 o Ni fior. [5o] slat6n tr6). Comprehension T6 'P6ircShaoire an Spidil'ann.b Is fior. T6 '6st6n na P6hce'ann. c Is fior. (p6isti ar leathphraghas - half price for children). Unit 5 The weatherforecast rz Ean6iro Ni fior. Beidhs6ag glanadhsan iarn6in b Ni fior. Beidhcorrchithsaniarthar anocht.rz l6il o Is fior. b Ni fior. Beidhsscamallach satuaiscean nios d6anai, agusbeidh ceathanna in aiteanna. 1 o iii; b i; c ii. 2 Beidhs6fuar satuaisceart/Beidh siocsatuaisceart. Beidhsgaofarsanianhar. Beidhs6scamallach sanoinhear.Beidh s6ceathach sadeisceart/Beidh ceathanna sadeisceart. 3 Bhi an aimsir go donaDdardaoin. (Bhi Bhi s6go deas D6 M6in agusD6 C6adaoin s6tirim aguste).4 ! iii; b i; c iv; d ii. 5 raibh; Bhi; te; raibh; tirim. 6 Dia dhaoibh,T6 an aimsirgo hdlainn.Ti an bia go maith.T6 an t-6st6ngo hiontach- t6 diosc6maith ann. Bhi m6 ag damhsa ar6ir. T6 m6 ag dul siosag sn6mhanois.Sl6n,Muireann.7 o Mi na Nollag. b Mi Mhe6n F6mhair.c Mi na Bealtaine. d Mi na Samhna. Mi lfil. 815 brellfuar; oiche bhred/fhuar;tr6thn6na brei./fuar; maidin bhrei,/ fhuar.9 o Is bogan 166. b Is bre6an oichei. c Is fuar an mhaidini. d Is bre6an trdthn6na6. e Is maith an aimsiri. 10 o grianmhar, scamallach, stoirmiriil;b gaofar,ceathach. Test yourselfcomprehension o i; b ii.

U ni t 7 Dialogues 1,2 and 3 o fear poist 6.oo - r4.oo; feirmeoir 640 - c. zr.oo;banaltra 8.oo - zo.oo (usually), r6.oo (sometimes); b An feirmeoir; c An bhanaltra. Dialogue 4 8.3o. Dialogue 5 8.r5. 1 Nuair atd s6a cfig a chlog imBaile Atha Cljath. rd s6 a si a chlog i bP6ras;a hocht a chlog i Mosc6; a d6 a chlog i dTokyo; me6n lael me6n oiche i Nua Eabhrac.2 r5.r5 Simi agus P6idi lcbildren's programme)t17.45Nuacht \neuts); r8.r5 An Aimsir \weather); r9-o5 Citsai (name of current affairs programmel; zo.zo Drdma na (ueehlyplay).3 o iii; b v; c i; d vi; e ii; fiv.4 Eirim ag Seachtaine leath tar 6is a seacht.Ithim no bhricfeastaag ceathrf chun a hocht. Faighim an bus ag a deich tar 6is a hocht. Tosaim ag obair ag a naoi a chlog. F6gaim an oifig ag ceathri tar 6is a cfig/Criochnaim aglT|im abhaile ag. Tim a chodladh ag me6n oiche/thart ar mhe6n oiche. 5 o thim; b ithim; c {hanaimid; d thosaimid; e cheannaim; f bhailim; g chreidiq h thuigim.6 c Eirionn Peadarag leath tar is a seacht. b Tosaionn s6 ag obair ag a naoi a chlog. c Oibrionn s6 6na naoi go dti a cfig a chlog. d Itheann s6ceapairesan oifig ag ceathni chun a haon. e Tann s6 a chodladh de ghndth timpeall me6n oiche. 7 o 6lann; b gceannaionn;c nddanann; d dt6ann; e dtosaionn; f oibrionn; 9 bhfanann. Test yourself: Comprehension 1 o (Fdgann s) ag a d6 a chlog (r4.oo). b Yes (Ti go leor ama aige). Comprehension2 r84o - zz3o eachevening from 19 October to r November, Unit 8 Dialogue 1 o Is fior. b Is fior. Dialogue 2 o Is fior. b Ni fior. Ti gruaig fhionn uinhi. Dialogue 3 (Is) fear bre6 ard 6 (Niall). Tri gruaig dhubh agus f6as6gair. T6 s6 ci6in. T6 s an-chriirt6iseachagus taitneamhach. Dialogue 4 Imrionn (si) lead6g. 1 a daor \expensiue) - the others are colours; b rud (tbing) - the others are clothes. 2 o le; b Is liom; c Ni liom.3 With Orla: - An maith leat ceol? . Is maith. cinnte. - Cn cine6l ceoil? . Is bre6 liom With Driithi: - An maith leat sp6rt? . Ni maith. ceol clasaiceach. . C6n frith? T6 m6 leisciriil.4 o sp6rt; leis; b le; l6i; c thaitnionn; d Ni thaitnionn. 5 duine ard (tallllbocht \poorllgorm (black personl;blis Key to theexercises J3J

31 2

Botm lblue); c6ta gorrnlfada(long); gtttaig fhionn lfairllfhada; teach folamh(empty), 6 o na fu mh6ra,b na stocaigorma,c na leabhair fhada,d na mn6 leiscirila. 7 o Baindiot do ch6ta.b T6 m6 tuirseach de.c Cad a cheapann ni de?d Td cuid de na daoineanseo. 8 o iv; bv;cii;di;eiii. Test yourselfcomprehension a Mondays,startingFebruary r7th, at 7 pm; at the CommunityHall. b March zrst at 9 pm; at Ostin Highlands. c Saturdays at 8.3o pm; at StJohn'sHall. d Sundays at 8 pm; at StJohn'sHall. Unit 9 lnterviews1-3 Pidraig:sp6rt.Deirdre:ceol.Mdirad;teilifis. 1 o vi, b vii, c i, d ii, e iii, f v, g iv. 2 o iii, b iv, c i, d ii. 3 o bhionn; b bhirn; c bionn; d bhimid; e bionn. 4 Bim ag imirt gailf ar an Satharn.b B(onn c6ili anr/anseoar an Aoine. c Bionn Aifteann anrv anseo ag leathtar isa haon d6ag.d Fachaim ar an nuachtgach tr6thn6na.e Leim an pdip6argachtrithn6na. 5 With Brid: - C6n caitheamh aimsirea bhionnagat?. Bim ag imirt gailf. Is maith liorn ceolfreisin.- C6ns6rt ceoil?. Is fearr liom ceoltraidisifnta.I(ith Prionsias: - C6ncaitheamh aimsirea bhionnagat?r Bim ag imirt peile.Is maith liom scanniinfreisin.- C6ns6rt scam6in?o Is fearr grinn.5 o - leat;r Is fidir. b - in ann; . T6. c - An' liom scann4in o Ni f6idir. d - bhfuil; . Nil. 7 o Seoan ceanna thaimionnliom. b Sin an t-am a thagannsi de ghnith. c Gruaigfhionn ati uirthi, ghormati uinhi. e Carr b6nat5 agam. d Cas6g Test yourself comprehension Trithn6 na D6 Ciadaoin (Wednesday pm. euefling),8.oo Unit 10 Dialogue1 c Ni fior. 6lann s6gloineuisce. b Is fior. c Is fior. Dialogue 2 c Ni fior. Nil aon phi6g 6ll f6gtha.Itheannsiadciste seacl6ide. b Ni fior. 6lann Eibhlincupin caifeach 6lann Gear6id (cup6n) tae. 1 - Ar mhaith leatcupin caife.. Ba mhaith,go raibh maith agat.. Nior mhaith.2 o Glass Ar mhaithleat si6cra? of wine offeredand accepted. b Soupofferedbut refused. c Breadofferedand accepted. d More chickenofferedand accepted.3 o Ba mhaith,go raibh maith agat. b Beidh, go raibh maith agat. c Nior mhaith, go raibh maith

agat.d Nior mhaith,go raibh maith agat.(T5 mo dh6thainagam.) e Ni bheidh,go raibh maith agat.(Td mo dh6thainagam.) 4 o Ar mhaithleat/Anmbeidhcup6ncaifeagat?b An mbeidhdeochagat?/ Nach mbeidh...?/Ar mhaithleat deoch? c Ar mhaithleat/Anmbeidh tuilleadh ciste agat?Nore: N6r mhaith leat could also be usedinstead o/fu mhaithleat.5 c te; b mhilis;c fhuar; d bhlasta; e deas. 6 c - CE . B'fheac liom (bainne/uisce) acuab fhearrleat,bainnen6 uisce? le r B'fhearr do thoil. b - C acuab fhearrleat,pionta n6 leathphionta? liom (pionta./leathphionta), le do thoil. c - C6 acu ab fhearrleat,ciste r B'fhearrliom (ciste/brioscai), n6 brioscai? le do thoil. d C6 acu ab fhearrleat,beoirn6 fion? . B'fhearrliorn beoir/fion.le do thoil. 7 Menu (Tbe dishesorderedare sbown in bold, typel Mushroon soup,potato soup,onion soup;freshsalmonwith parsley pan sauce, fried solewith tartar sauce, half dozenfreshoysters on a bedof ice, baconand cabbage, roastchickenand ham; boiledpotatoes, chipped potatoes, freshvegetables; icecream,appletan with creamor ice cream,chocolate cake,freshfruit salad,choiceof Irish farmhouse cheesesl teaor coffee. Test yourself: Comprehension1 o Because they haveprotein, (e.g.calcium)and vitaminsaswell asprovidingenergy, minerals all of which are veryimportantfor youngpeople's growh.b Because theyare full of sugar.c Sandwich: brown bread,chee selmeatleggl juice.Fruit: apple/orange. vegetables. Drink: milk/yogurt/orange Comprebension 2 o Fananns(yes, he staysfor luzcD).b Fresh salmon. Unit 1 1 Dialogue1 o Ni fior. Nil s6r6-{huar.b Ni fior. Ceannaionn sc6is. c Is fior. Dialogue 2 o T6 siadin oifig an phoist.b Teastaionn tri (dh6stampa stampa6n gcustaim6ir amhiin 4op agusceann/stampa Caitheann go s6uimhir a seacht 3op).Dialogue3 o Ni chaitheann. leith 17 z), b T6 an ch6ad cheann r6bheag. c Glacann. 1 o tae,ubh, bainne,uachtarreoite,sifcra, piseanna; b ar6in,suibhe, ime.2 o i, ii. Tabhaircannapiseanna dom, le do thoil agus(boll6g arSin). uibheacha dom - Seoduit. Cad eile?. An dtabharf6dosaen freisinaguspr6casuibhe. - Sin uile?o Is ea,go raibh maith agat. b i, ii o Ti cannapiseanna uaim,le do thoil agus(boll6gar6in).Seo duit. Cad eile?. Ti dosaen uibheacha uaim freisin(pr6casuibhe). - Sin uile?.Is ea,go raibh maith agat.3 Custaim6ir: C6 mhadatd
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tj 4

euro ar an gc6talgcas6glngeansaTgcarbhat so? Siopad6ir: Seasca ( 6o)./Caoga a ciig a naoi euro,n6chaa naoi cent( 59.99)./Fiche An bhfadfainn euro ( z5)./Seacht eurocaoga( Custaimir: ceannacu a thriail?Siopad6ir: Cinnte.4 o saoire; b An bhfuil ceannnios m6 agat? c An bhfuil ceannniosEadroime agat?d deise. punt; litear;dosaen; pota; mal6. 5 Horizontally:paic6ad; bosca; Vertically:boll6g;pr6ca;buid6al;slios;canna. (dtop ofl; g:eimbia lbite Test yourself1 braon uisce/tadffonalbainne (glass ol); gloine uisce/fiona./bainne ol); sliosar6inlbagriin/ciste lsliceofli piosaciste(pieceofl; cipla cktelprita (a fez + singularform); cup6n (bonleofl; boll6g ariin lloaf tae (cup ofl; bidlal uisce/fiona/bainne T6 an bhib6g agus an ol).2TA b6b6gldaif)ag teastdil 6 Aoife/uaithi. leabharagusan carr agusan scdthin beagagusan leorai ro-dhaor. Unit 12 Dialogue o Ni fior. D'fhan s6i dteachar cios/fuair s6teachar cios. b Ni fior. Bhi s6go bre6.Thug siadna leanaichunna tr6. c Is fior. M6irtin: q Is fior. b Ni fior. Chaiths6tri blianai Meiricei. c Is fior. g (D6ardaoin); 1 e (D6 Luain);b (D6 M6irt); o (D6 C6adaoin); c (D6 (letter (D6 (D hAoine);f Sathairn); d Domhnaigh). 2 o Seosamh (shoes) from Nathalie),b Seosamh from Gr6inne), Orla (postcard (sleptlateon Saturday c P6draig(letterto Breand6n), d P5draig (came moming),e Orla (at concen),f Pddraig homeat 3.oo a.m. on Friday),9 Orla (workedin the gardenon Saturday). 3 o i Ph6sm, li Chaith,ill Bhuail,iv D'ith, v Scriobh, vi Chuir, vli D'fhdg; iv D'athraigh;c i Th6inig, b i Thosaigh, ii D'6irigh,iii Chr(ochnaigh, ii Fuair, iii Rinne,iv Driin, v Chuala,vi Chuaigh. Test yourself1 o Triona: An raibh deireadh seachtaine deasagat? Dara: Bhi, chuaighm6 chuigna pictidir tr6thn6naD hAoinele Noel. Triona: Feicim.Aguscad a rinne tri D6 Sathairn? Dara: Cheannaigh m rothar nua (agus chuaighm6 ag rothaiocht). D6 Domnaighd'fhan m6 istigh,/sa bhaile(mar bhi m6 an-tuirseach). Trionar An-deas. Bhi an-mhaithagatsa. deireadh seachtaine b Triona: An raibh deireadh seachtaine deasagat?Orla: Bhi, d'fhan m sabhaile/istigh trithn6na D6 hAoine(mar bhi m an-tuirseach). Triona: Feicim.Aguscad a rinnetri D6 Sathairn? Orla: Bhi m ag obair sanoifig. Ach D6 (Bh(s6an-bhlasta.) Domhnaigh m6 cistedeas. cheannaigh Triona: An-deas. Bhi deireadh seachtaine rdasfntamaith agatsa. 2 o iv, ii, i, v, iii; b iii, iv, ii, i.

Unit 13 Dialogue1 o Is fior. b Ni fior. Cheannaigh si carr d5 muintir. gachseachtain. 2 c Ni fior. Ceannaionn si ticdad/ceann Dialogue o Nior 6irighleispost a fh6il nuair a d'fh6gs6an scoil.b Bhi s6ag obair i mbialannagusi ngar6iste. c Chuaighs6ann/araisgo hEirinn (ar feadhmiosa)anuraidh. Dialogue3 D'fhan si in 6st6nbeagin aice le 16rna cathrach. 1 q - Ar chaithtf tobacriamhl o Chaith.b - Ar . D'{han.c - Ar thug tri cuairt Ihan tf saleabamaidin D Sathairn? . Thug. d - Ar fh6achtri ar an gcoirmcheoil ar Mh6ir6adle d6anai? - Ar thaitin s6leat?. Thaitin. 2 a - Ar ar an teilifisarir?. D'fhach. ith tri bricfeasta maith ar maidin?. D'ith. b - Ar fhdg sibhan teach go luath ar maidin?. D'fh6C.c - An ndearna ti dearmad ar do hata? . Rinne.d - An bhfuairtf na ticid?r Fuair.e - An ndeachaigh tri ann?. Chuaigh. 3 o Nior bhuail,b Nior irigh,c Nior 61,d Nior g Ni dheachaigh.4 th6inig,e Ni bhfuair,fNi dhearna, o bhfaca; Chonaic. b fhaca.5 c D'ith; nior ith. b D'fhrig;nior fhig. c Thosaigh; ni dhearna/ nior thosaigh. d Chuaigh; ni dheachaigh. e Rinne/Dhein; nior dhein.f Fuair;ni bhfuair.6 o . Ar thiinig; - Th6inig.b . Ar irnigh; - D'imigh. c . bhfuair; - Fuair. d . An ndearnatri,/Ardhein;Rinne/Dhein. Test yourself1 o - An ndeachaigh tf chuigan diosc6inn6 (arir)? . Chuaigh. ni ag - Ar thaitin s6leat?. Thaitin. b - An ndeachaigh peile siril inn6?. Chuaigh. c - An ndeachaigh nl chuigan gcluiche inn6?. Chuaigh. 2 o T6 fonn orm dul abhaile.b T6 6thasorm bualadhleat.c Ar mhaithleat teachtlinn? d Ba mhaith liom post c go Sasana, d chun na a fh6il. 3 o go P6ras, b chunna Fraince, Sp6inne, e chunna Gaillimhe. Unit 14 Dialogue 1 o Ni fior. T6 s6/siag foghlaim Gaeilge/6foghlaim le dhri b Is fior (r6asfntamaith).Dialogue2 o Ni fior. bhliain anuas. Ti s6/si an-s6sta leis.b Ni fior. Bionn beirt mhriinteoiriaige/aici. Someadvice Dialogue3 Nior thuig s/si(an focal)'ceobhr5n'. o Do you agree with this advicelb In your opinion,what is the How I learntIrish Chaiths/si coicis bestway to learna language? b Is iad na rudai is m6 a thaimionnleis/l6i lfornightl saGhaeltacht. ar fhist6ipeanna agusp6tuta n6: l6itheoireacht, bheithag fachaint ghlacadhi ndr6mai lreading, utatcbinguideotapes and taking part in plays).


lfty to theexrcB! 337

length.)b Is i cearn6g A an ceann 1 o Ni fior, (Bothlinesare the same is daoire' is m6. Is i cearn6g B an ceannis lf. c Is 6 rothar C an ceann 2 q Sinan ceann is fearr.b Sin an Is 6 rothar B an ceann is saoire. c Sin an ceannis fusa.d Sin an ceannis deacra. ceann is measa. m6 n6 gina dearg.b Is 6 an duinea 3 o Is 6 an rud a cheannaigh i is fearrliom n6 an Ghaeilge. ni Tomis. c Is an teanga chonaicm6 4 o G An bhfuil morin Gaeilgeagat?F Ti m6 ag foghlaim Gaeilge. G C6n fhad at6 tu 6 foghlaim?F (T6 m6 ag foghlaim Gaeilge)le s6 mhi anuas.G Conasti ag 6iri leat?F Go han-mhaith.b G Conast{ Gaeilgeagam. F Reasrinta maith, t6 beag6n ag iri leat saGhaeilge? (saGhaeilge)? go leor, F T6 an litriri deacair G Cad6 an rud is deacra agust6 s6deacairfocail a fhoghlaim. G C6n mrlinteoir at6 agat? Is iNuala Ni Bhriaina bhionn F (Bionnbeirt mhiinteoiri againn.) 6 Cathail a bhionn againn/ againn/agam ar maidin agusis 6 S6amus agamar 6is l6in. 5 a focail a fhoglaim ni bheith ag leamh.b liofacht a fh6il n6 bheith ag caint. c Gaeilgea fhoghlaim n6 dul chun na Gaeltachta.d Gaeilgea chloisint n6 bheith ag 6isteachtle teipeanna. 6 o Nuair a bhionntuirseorm satrithn6na, bionn orm dul a chodladhgo luath. b Nuair a bhionn tinneasfiacaileorm, bionn orm dul chuig an bhfiacl6ir. c Nuair a bhionn a l6n oibre le danamh d Nuair nach mbionn agam,bionn orm fanacht san oifig d6anach. pingin agam,bionn orm iasachtairgid a fhdil. e NuaL a bhionn agamleis an riomlnire, bionn orm cabhair a f}a6il., o it deacrachtai f i ndiol. c 5 chur;d 6 cur; e 6 bhfoghlaim; cheannach; b 6 dh6anamh; The coursesfrom zo to 3r July Test yourself comprehensionr (z weeksduration)are for primary and secondary teachers. The of Irish from abroad. course17 July-r4 Augustis for learners Unit 15 Dialogue 1 o RugadhEibhlin i gCorcaigh(bom in CorA) agust6gadh i Luimneachi (grew up in Limerich). b Bronnadh BA uirthi tri bliana 6 shin (BA degreeconferredthreeyearsago). Dialogue 2 a Chuaigh si s(osan staighreaguschuir si an solasar sitl lutent downstairsond put on the lightl. b Nior ghoid siadaon rud./ Nior goideadh aon rud (no damage (nothinguas stolen). c Ni dhearnadh donel. 1 o Briseadh, b Dioladh,c Rugadhm,t6gadh,d Goideadh, g Ceapadh, i Bunaiodh. e Cuireadh, f Cailleadh, h Bronnadh, 2 o Nior goideadh, b Nior briseadh, c Nior ceapadh, d Nior dioladh,

e Nior cuireadh, f Ni dheamadh/i.{ior deineadh. 3 o Is i Meirice6 a chaithm bliain. b Is i gCorcaigh a t6gadhm6.c Is i nGaillimha chuaighm6 ar scoil.d Is in F,irinna rugadhm6.e Is inn6a cuireadh chucu.4 o T6gadhi i nGaillirnh/T6gadh sc6ala i nGaillimhi. b Cailleadh anuraidh/Cailleadh anuraidh. c Ceapadh 6 ina stiirth6ir/Ceapadh ina stirirth6ir6 criplami 6 shin.d Dioladh 6 le d6anailD(oladh le d6anai . e Briseadh i ar maidin/Briseadh ar maidin i. 5 o Rugadh sabhliain mile, ocht gc6ad, ocht6 is a haon (r88r)/ Rugadhsabhliain ... 6. b Bunaiodhiad sa bhliainmile, naoi gc6ad, daichead is a cfig (rl+S). c Cailleadh 6 sabhliainmile, ceithrech6ad (rloo)/ Cailleadh sa bhliainmile ceithrech6ad 6 (r4oo). 6 o Ba gharda. b B'6,ireannach 6. c Ba dhochniir6 a athair.d Ba fheirmeoir mor 6 a uncail.e Ba bheanan-deas ar fad i.7 tl C mhadagaibh at6 ag dul ann?ii C6 mh6adacuat6 ag teachtinniu?iii CEmh6adacu againnag imeachtanois. at6 ann?b i Thdinigbeirt acu.ii Ti ceathrar iii T6 seisear acuanseo/ann anois.8 o amach.b leat.c l6i. d amach? g liom.9 Rugadh; e faoi deara. f ar siril? t6gadh; B'Eireannach; ba Shasanach; mh6thair;amach;bhliain;chaith;mar; liom; th6inig; gCorcaigh. Test yourselfcomprehension o mBaileAtha Cliath; bhliain;sa bhliain rgzz; Meiriced;Bhreatain. Fuai-:', bis; Zvich. b nouel; c Rugadh; D'fh6g;chaitfuScriobh; Chaith;Foilsiodh; nior cuireadh coscair: mhaith. Unit 16 Dialogue1 Straighton for half a mile, turn left at crossroads. Dialogue 2 Turn around,go backdown the road and turn right at the second crossroads, Dialogue3 Her house hasa yellow door, Dialogue Dialogue5 o T6 s 4 N( bhionn (It is openat lunchtirne). deichmile lto miles\6 Leitir Ceanainn. b Tum left at the crossroads beforethe church{it's signpostedl. I o Casfaoi dheis(anseo) agusfaoi dheisaris.b Casfaoi chlag an chad chrosaire agusansinfaoi dheis.c Leanort aguscasfaoi dheis ag an darasrdid.d Leanort aguscasfaoi chl6ag an daracrosaire. C6 bhfuil c6naiar Ruairi O Laoire? 2 o A (Gabhmo leithscal). B Leanon mile aguscasfaoi dheisag an gcrosaire. A Go raibh maith T6 m6 ag lorg teachNeasa Nic Con agat.b A Gabhmo leithscdal. leanort leathmhfle. A Go Iomaire.B Casfaoi chl6ag an s6ip6al,


Key to theexerclsB 3 39

raibh maith agat.3 o - v; b - iii; c - i; d - iv; e - ii. 4 Translationof extract* o Preporeyour cbild for hospital. Speahabout the hospital help to mdkepeople asa happyplacein uhich doctorsard nurses (lit, nursesash. Explain to improue heabh). Do as doctors and better x-rays,iniections,blood testsetc. Tell the truth! b Yourself. Wear light clothes- (hospitalsare uery warm). Bring somethinguitb you to passthe time. Bting moneyfor the telephone.Think of other people. Don't t?Ekenoiseat flight. Dofl't giuefood or drink to a i bhfad. child utithoutpermissioz. 5 in aiceleis;c6ngarach; 6 o d6anta.b criochnaithe.c imithe. d drinta. c scriofa. 7 t an dheis;an Phiarsaigh; dara;cl6. Chaisle6in; triri; an Stiisidin;ch6ad; c hoifige.d h6ite b seachni, de Mhi Ean6ir.E c sriide. b scoile; e ldimhe. Test yoursel{ comprehension PostOffice/OifiB an Phoist (z); Police (r); theatre/amharclann (r); golf course/ Station/Garda Sioch6na (z); hoteUOstdn (j ). faichegailf (r); church/eaglais/s6ip6al Unit 17 Dialogue 1 T6 oifig an stirirth6ra ar an trif hurl6r (oifig 39). Dialogue 2 Td s6thios an staighreldownstairsl, Diilogue 3 c Beidh sag dul siar go Muigh Eo D6ardaoin (He will be going westlouerto Mayo on Thursday). b Beidhs6ag teachtar ais maidinD6 hAoine lHe'll be comingbackon Fiday moming). 1 o suas/sios; b thuas/thios; c thuas/thios; d thuaVthios; e sios. 2 a zSib z9; c 14. 3 Corcaigh: Bhi m6 6 dheas i gCorcaigh. Chuaigh go Corcaigh. BaileAtha Cliath: Bhi m6 thoir i mBaile m6 6 dheas Atha Cliath. Chuaighm soir go BaileAtha Cliath.B6alFeirsteBhi m 6 thuaidhi mB6alFeirste. Chuaighm6 6 thuaidhgo B6alFeirste. na Mart Bhi m6 Cathair thiar i gCathairna Mart. Chuaighm6 siar go Cathairna Mart. 4 o go, b chuig,c chuig,d go hfud, e chuig. 5 romham;romhat.6 o Cheannaigh m an carr sin. b C6naionn an fear sin in aiceliom. c C6naimsateachsin.d Bhuailm6 leisan bhfearsin.e Bh(tf ag caint leisan mbeansin. Test yourselfcomprehension o Tosaionnan choirmcheoil(concertl ag a d6 a chlog(begins at 2,oo pffil aguscriochnaionn si ag leathi ndiaidha tri (fnishesat 3Jo pm). b T6annsgo 16rna cathrach Ito the city cefirel.

Unit 18 Dialogue1 o Is fior. b Ni fior. Beidhcuairteoiriaici.c Ni fior. 2 o Is fior. b Ni fior. Buailfidhsi leisag a hocht a chlog.Dialogue o Weatherforecast It will Beidhs6ag tosi ag a d6 a chlog.Reading be wet in the westin the morning,stoppinglater and turning cold The TaoiseachlPrime Ministerl will at night. Radio announcement policy. b Verbsin aboutthe Government's Irish language speak the furure tense:ln addition to beidh, the following occur: Group 1 leathfaidh, stopfaidh, buailfidh; Group z tos6idh, 6ireoid\ Irregular tabharfaidh, rachaidh. riocfaidh, 1 Beidh s6ag dul ar an traein go Gaillimh ag ceathni chus a seacht. Beidhs6ag bualadhle hAine faoin bpostnua ag leatlrtar 6isa naoi/6 leathtar 6isa naoi go dti leathtar isa haon d6ag.Beidhsag pl6 na tuarascilanua ag leathtar 6isa haond6agl6leathtar isa haon d6ag go dti ceathrf tar is a d6 dhag.Beidh s6ag scriobh achoirnrear an tuarasc6il ag a d6 a chlog/6na d6 a chloggo dti a ceathair a chlog. Beidhsag ceannach brontannais d'Aoife ag a ceathair a chlog. Beidhs6ag teachtabhaile ar an traeinag a cfig a chlog._ 2 Rachaidh s6ar an traeingo Gaillimh.Buailfidhs6le hAine faoin bpostnua. Pl6ifidhsdan tuarasciilnua. Scriobhfaidh sdachoimre ar an tuarasc6il.Ceann6idhs6bronntanasd'Aoife. Tiocfaidh s6abhaile ar an traein.3 o gheobhaidh; b d6arfaidh; Tabharfaidh; c iosfaidh; d dtiocfaidh,Tiocfaidh;e Rachaidh, d6arfaidh. 4 a fhanfaidh; b cheann6idh; c iosfaidh;d thiocfaidh; e bhfaiehidh. 5 a Beidhan cruinnif ar si6l D6ardaoin. b BeidhMuiris O Sriilleabh5in ann go cinnte.c Ni bheidhSe6n de Brircaag an gcruinniri,/ann. d Cuirfidh Orla Ni Bhriainglaochar Phddraig/Glaofaidh Orla Ni Bhriainar Phidraig.5 Cuirfear;Oscl6far;Tos6far;Criochn6far; Bronnfar. 7 o T6 m6 chun bualadhle P6l. b T5 m6 chunsiopad6ireacht a dh6anamh. c Ti m chun litir a scriobhchuigP6l. d T6 m6 chundul chuigna pictiriir le hOrla. 8 o Pisces. b Libra. c Scorpio. 9 o Ba bhre6 an la 6. b B'iontachan rud 6. c Ba mh6r an chabhair6. d B'olc an aimsiri. e Ba mhaithan smaoineamh 6. 10 o vi; b v; c i; d vii; e iii; f viii; g iv; h ii. 11 o dinn6ir;b Nuachta;c hoiche;d chol6iste; e bh6thair;f cathrach. Testyourselfcomprehension o Job advenisement in a newspaper. b The post couldsuit a person with managerial skills(Bainisteoir manager),energetic - fuinniriil, with fluency in speakingand writing


K.y to the exer<iie! 34I

Irish (liofacht i labhain agusi scriobh na Gaeilge).c Gl6r na nGael peopleto is a nationalorganisation with the aim of encouraging promoteIrish in their locality.d verbsin future:glacfaidh(tafte (part)); cuirfidh ,.. i gcrich lcarry througb/achieuel;ceapfarlappointl; socr6far larrange... salaryl. Unit 19 Dialogue1 o T6 siadar stailc/Td stailcar siril lTbereis a svike (He needs oz). b Ti fichepunt ag teasteil 6 Dh6nalVuaidh. f,zo.\ (technician; Dialogue2 Bhi si ag obair mar theicneoir herelaboratory tecbnicianl. Dialogue 3 o Bhi si saGhrig.b Bhi si ar saoire ar feadh coicise aimsir lon holidayfor a fortnigbtl. cNi maith le hEibhlis/l6i an-tetoiscgo bhfuil a craiceann r6bhin. (She doesn'tlike ueryhot weather assheis too fair-skinned.l Radioannouncement o Is fior. go mbeidhpostanna b Ni fior. T6 s6an-sdsta i gcur ar f6il. (He r's very pleasedtbat jobs are to be created.)Dialogue 4 o T6. T5 sfil aigego cuirfear stop leis. lHe hopesthat it (the ,tew factory) will (He agrees be stopped.l b Aontaionnsle Seosami. witb loseph.) c Beidhs6sahallapobail. lThe meeting will takeplacein the go mbeidhcfpla TeachtaD6la CommunityHall.l d Sileann Seosamh ann-(loseph tbinks that there u.,ill be a couple of T.D.s (members of the DdillParliament) at it.l Dialogpe 5 o Ti Tomis an-s6sta faoi mar t6 fostaiocht ag teastiil. lThomas is uery pleasedas iobs are needed.l b Ni aontaionn Donnchaleismar sileann sgo nd6anfaidh s6dochar (Donnchadisagrees don timpeallacht. utitb Tom6sbecause he thinks that it will barm the evuironment.l go mbeidhs6ag dul go Londainamdrach 1 o Diirt Risteard agus go mbeidhs6ag filleadhabhaileD6 Sathairn. Diirt snachmbeidh s6in ann bualadhle Seosamh mar beidhs6an-ghn6thach. b Driin M6irin gur fhan si istighar6ir toiscgo raibh an-tuirse uirthi. Dfirt si gur shuighsi siosagusgur thit si ina codladhsachathaoir. c Dfirt C6it gur th6inigsi abhailethan ar a hocht a chlogach nachbhfacasi Neasamar bhi si imithe amach. Dfirt si go ndeachaigh si amachnios ddanaiagusgur fh6g si n6ta di. Duirt sillosoldnachraibh si in ann gur maith an rud 6 sin. b Ceapaim fanacht.2 o Ceapaim gur m6r an trua 6 sin. c Ceapaim nachfiri . d Ceapaim go bhfuil s6r6dhaor. go bhfuil do ghrlnanua an-deas. e Ceapaim 3 o Is d6ighliom go bhfuil an ceanagat.b Is d6igh liom go mbeidhs6ann. c Ni d6igh liom go mbeidhSilein ann teacht.d Is d6igh liom go ndeachaigh si go Nua Eabhrac an mhi seocaite.4 o iilvi; b iii/iv; c i/ii; d iiliv/v;

b bhionn;c {haigheann; d thann. e iiliii/iv; f iiliii/iv. 5 o fheiceann; 6 o T6 sriil agamgo mbuailfidh.b Ti sriil agamgo gceann6idh. 7 o Ba cheartduit 6 a lamharis.b Ba cheartduit teachtgo luath. c Ba cheanstopa chur leis.d Ba cheartduit c6ta a thabhairtleat. f Nior cheartduit dul ann. e Nior cheartduit 6 a dh6anamh. (imithe)abhaile(mar Test yourselfr Comprehension 1 Ti Peadar (Peadat hasgonehomebecause td s6breoite/tinn). be is sick.l year).b Daoinea d'athraigh 2 c gachbliain (euery Comprehension a seoladhle danai,Tbosewho changedaddtessrecently; daoir,le a mbeidha r8f 16breitheacuroimh 15 Aibredn- thoseutbo have tbeh rSth birthdty beforeApril r 5. c Stdisifana nGardai(the Garda Station).Oifig an Phoist(tbe PostOffice).An Leabharlann Phoibli QbePublic Library). Teachna Ciirte (the Courthousel. Oifig an ridar6is 5itiriil lLocal authorityoffice- couxrylciry counciloffcesJ. d x 5 Eanlir (lanuary t 5l . Unit 20 Dialogue1 Teastaionn cupin caifeaguscriplabriosca(brirairs)6 Sheosamh./uaidh. Dialogue 2 Iarrann s6/siar an runai teachtaireacht a ghlacadh.(HelSheasksthe secretaryto take a message.l Dialogte 3 o Cheann6dh si carr nua (di f6in).b T6 deir66raici ann.Interview 1 Donncharecommends that moreIrish-medium schools be provided and that moreIrish be spokenin the Ddil (padiament). Interview 2 Niamh recommends moreIrish on television and that peopleuse whatever Irish theyhave. 1 o (conditional) e (future);d (conditional)-- f (future); g (conditional) + c (future). -- b (future);h (conditional) gceann6f6; 2a b imeof5;c ndanf6; d mbeifei;e rachf6;I bhfanf6; g dtabharfi.3 o An bhfEadfainn labhairtle (N.)?b An nd6anfi gar dom?c An dtabharfdiasacht deicheurodom, le do thoil? d An mbeadh fichecent(zoc)agatdo ghlaochf6in?e An nglacfd (do P.)?/An (do teachtaireacht bhfdadfd teachtaireacht a ghlacadh P.)?f T5 m6 ag deisi( an chairr.An gcabhr6fd liom?4 hiseoir Cad a dh6anfi dd mbuaf6an duaismh6r saLotto, a MhSir6ad? M6ir6ad Is 6 an ch6ad rud a dh6anfainn n6 dul ar saoire. IriseoirFeicim. Agusina dhiaidhsin?M6ir6adCheann6inn teach,agusb'fh6idirgo n-6ireoinn asmo phost,IriseoirCad a dh6anfd d6 mbuafdan duais mh6r salono, a Eoghain? Eoghan Is 6 an ch6ad rud a dh6anfainn n6 an t-airgead a chur sabhanc. Iriseofu Feicim. Agusina dhiaidhsin?
r.ey to theexercl!6 343


EoghanShocr6innc6isir, agusb'fh6idir go rachainn ar saoire. 5 o A An 6lf6 cup6n tae?/Ar mhaith leat cup6n tae?B Olfaidh (go raibh maith agat).Ea mhaith. A Ar iosf6 ceapaire?/Armhaith leat capaire? B Ni iosfaidh,(go raibh maith agat)/Niormhaith.b A An bhfadfainnlabhairt le P6l, le do thoil? B Ti br6n orm. Nfl P6l anseo. A An bhf6adfS teachtaireacht a ghlacadh? B Glacfaidh, cinnte. Test yourself 1 o bhuaileann;b th6ann;c bhionn; d gcloisfeadh; c mbeadh. Unit 21 Dialogue c Nil (s6s6sta).b Bionn. c Ni fhanann. Text 1 q Bhiodh ar6n agusffon acu, b D'ithidis feoil, iasc agus glasrai, c fu an Aoine (a d'ithidis iasc).d D'6laidis fion, beoir agus bainnede ghn6th. Text 2 o I-6 ar bith. b Gach duine de na manaigh. I The answerto the samplequestionis: chaithinn. o D'6lainn, bhinn. b D'ithinn. c D'6irinn. d Cheannainn.c Bhiodh. 2 The corect order is: bhi, rinne, th6ini& chuaigh, bhiodh, d'iridis, chaitheadh.

possession 1 - Expressing Appendix
, pronouns My, your, etc.t possessive mo theach try bouse do theadr your house a theach his bouse a teachher house 6r dteachou howe bhw dez&your house a dteach their bouse m'6tasin my flat d'fuisat yotr fat a Arasin his flat a hlrasAn her flat 6r n-6tasin ow flat bhvr t-6rasitryour flat a *6rasin rteir flat mo rzy (lcnition) do lorr (lcnition) a h! (lenition) a her (h + vowell ir orr (eclipsis) bhur yor (eclipsis) a rDeir (eclipsis)

Theseare reinforced before collective nouns by cuid (part, portior. ofl, which requires the genitive case:
mo c}rnid money do chuid graaigeyort hair 2 Using do (lo) dearthiir do Mhiire a brother of Mary In some areaslc (aith) is used here: cara liom. 3 To hate Ti calt agMdite. Mary has a car. 4 To outtt C6 leis seo? Who does rtb belong n? Is liomsa an carr seo , This car is mine. Ti teach agam,I bave a horse, ara don a ftiend of mine a culd ama her time

Appendix 2 - Howto tronslote is

1 Is with indefi.oitenouas: Is mriintmir m. ls Albanachi. ls cl6r teiliffse . I arn d tedchel. Sheis Scottish, It k a teleaision programme. ApFdlc..



2 Is mise/tusa, etc.with definitenouns: Is misean miinteoir. Is i an t-ridar i. An tusa an rrinai? ls iad na cainteoiriiad. I am tbe teacher Sheis tbe author. Are you the secrct1ry? They are the speahers.

in this construction. Rernember that 6, i, iad must be repeated 3 T6 with adjectives: T6 s6sp6isiriil. T6 s6go bred inniu. 4 Ti ina + noun: T6 Sednina chathaoirleach. Sednis chairman. He/it is interesting. It k fine today.

Masculine -al '6ar -Cir -6ir -eoir -fir bottle piipeat paper sii)inaft arpeflter diolt6ir sellet feirmeoir farmer dochtift d.octor

with short vowels,are masculine: Theseendings,

-as -ad -all -adh

doras(door), costas(cost) b6thar (road), rcthar (bicyclel droichead lbridge), adhmad.(timb er) leagat (uersion) samhradh(sarzzer) (the dh is silent)

poibliochta. T6 M6ireina hoifigeach Mlire is publicityofficer to Theseare of their naturetemporarypositions,as opposed nationality. lifelong characteristics like occupationor

Appendix 3 - Gender
Nouns in Irish are classified aseithermasculine or feminine. The gender of a noun hasimportantgrammatical consequences, includingthe way in which it combines with an (the),and with adjectives an fear (m) m6r lthe big manl with an bhean - compare which lfl nh6r lthe big uomanl.In yiew oI thevariouschanges to leam them occurat the beginning of Irish nounsit is advisable preceded by an (rbe),so an bord (m) (thetablel, at ftiinneog (fl (the window), ar t-nisce lml (the water), an oiche (f) lthe nightl, etc,The genderof many nounswhich end in consonants can be told from The endings listedhereshow the genderof a noun of their shape. two or rnoresyllables, but thereare someexceptions with -in, -cht.

You will notice a generaltendency for masculine nounsto end in a broad consonant(with the exceptionof -in and the words denoting and for femininenounsto end in a slender occupations), consonant (with the exceptionof -6gleogand -cht).This is true of one syllable words aswell. For instance the following are recognizably ferninine: 6it (placel, c6islcheesel,splir. (sky). In contrast, bid (boatl, fuacht (coldness),and cl6r (programmel arc typical shapes of masculine nouns. Two endingsrequirefurther comment: 'lfhen -in is not an integralpart of the word - as in cailin (gizl), caipin (cap),l6istin (lodgings, accommodation) - but rather a suf6x addedto give the meaning stnall, little, it d.oesnot alter the gender of the word it is addedto, e.g.bean luomanl (f) + -in givesbeainin Either masculine or femininenounsmay end in lf) (smallu,'omanl. Comparean t-6adach -ach, but they differ in their genitivecases. (tbe clothl, ar ladaigh (of the clotbl, with an bhiisteach (the rainJ, nabiisti (of the rain). Grammaticalgenderwas originally basedon biologicalsex,The ideawas that words referringto malesform one classand those referringto females form another,with all other nounsconforming to one or other group. Genderand sexstill correspond in Irish to (rzanl, (btl/) the extent that words such as fear tarbh and coileach whereas bean luoman),b6 (coul, ceauc lcockerellare masculine \henl are feminine. However, there are significant exceptionssuch
lP]pndtce J !'/

-in -6r

-us -6ad

5ras6nllat caipin caP casir hammer bagin bacon bunis origin, basis seaiciadjacket

Feminine -69 -eog -6is -is -cht -eil

lead6gtennis fuinteoguind.otu r|imCis nonsen-se seirbhisseruice filiocht poetry sileiil ceilbtg


as cailin (m) (grrl) and stail (f) (stallionl, whose genderis to be explainedfrom their shape.

8 Somefemininewords endingin a slenderconsonant add -ach;the slenderconsonant may also becomebroad lltir lener cabhair help ag scriobh litreach n'riting a letter ag lorg cabhrach /ooking for assistarce

Appendix 4 - Theforms of the noun

The genitive singulor The changeof form known as the genitivesingularcaseaffects variouskinds of noun when they are dependent on a preceding (i.e. noun closelylinked to it). Theseare the most important ways in which the genitivesingularis formed. 1 Thefinalconsonant of manymasculine nouns becomes slender
b6that toad 5tasin flat comhartha b6thai a rcad sign seoladh m'5rasiin tbe add.ress of my llat

9 A few feminine nouns which end in a vowel add -n (sometimes -nlr) lacha drck ubh lachar. a duck egg

monatcha factory fire lreland (f) Gaeilge (m)zilA bainne

obair mhonarchan /actoryutork muintir na hEireann tbepeopleof lrehnd.

whichendin a voweldo not change: Mostnouns Forasta Gaeilge the bish Language Boatd buidal bainne c bottleof milk

2 A slenderfinal consonantbecomes broad in a few words athair (m) father abhairn lf) rtuer dearthdir m'athar my fatber's brotber bruach na habhann ,be bank of the riuer

3 -ach becomes -aigh in a masculine noun adach clothing mo chuid 6adaighzy (setofl clothes

The plurol Most nounsare put in the plural by addinga specialending.An important exceptionis that many masculine nounswhich end in a broad consonant take the sameform in the plural as in the genitive singular, e.g. t-atisaD,(the flat\, cios at 6rasiin (the rent of the ^n (the nahirasim flatl, flatsl. The principal endingsusedby other nounsare -a, -(a)i, -t(h)a, +(h)e, -(e)anna, -(e)acha. It takespracticeto know how to usetheseendingscorectly but thesegeneral ruleswill help.
(i) Add i to in: cailin (girll, cailini \gi*\. (iD Add i to nounsdenotingoccupations, aqd endingin -6ir, etc. feirmeolr lfarmerJ, Ieirmerlliri (farmers). (iiD Replacethe i which delrotesoccupation by ithe, e.g. ninai (se creury), rirajlhe (seqetsies). (iv) Replace the -(i)riL of verbal nounsby -(u)ithe,e.g. socri larranging, atangementl, soctsithe (atrangements). (v) Add a to 6gleog: fuinneog lwindoul, fuinneoga (utind.ows). (vD Add ta to one-syllable masculine nounswhich end in broad n or l: ddl lpoen), d6nta (poemsl; scial lstory), sc6alta (stones).

4 -ach becomes -ai in a femininenoun biisteach rain braor.biisti a drop of ruin

5 -a is addedto somemasculine nounswhich end in a broad consonant, and to femininenounswhich end in -cht teasbeat frliochtpoetry m6rAn teasaa lot of heat leabharfiliochta a 6ook of poe*y

6 -e is addedto many femininenounswhich end in a slender consonant scoil school muinteoir scoilec schooheacber

7 In somewords a final slenderconsonantbecomes broad and -a is added dochtii ln) doctor n6in lf) peat teachan dochtrirathe doctor'shouse Bord na M6na ,lre stotepeat company

If a noun doesnot belongto one of thesepredictable groupsit is bestto learn its plural form in coniunctionwith the singular.


ADqJendtc?s 349

Appendix 5 -The verb

The variousdistinctionsmadeby the Irish verb are shownhere with scriobhann (razles) - verbal noun scriobh luritingl, verbal adjective scriofalwittenl, Irish, like English,distinguishes strictly between progressive and non-progressive forms: an English example is I write (often) vs. I am uriting (now). The notion of habitual pastis rather more important in Irish.
ag scriobh lireacha litir a scriobh Scriobhaimlitreacha. T6 m6 (or t6im) ag scriobh Bim ag scriobh litreacha. Scriobhm litir. Bhi m ag scriobhlitreacha. Scriobhainn litreacha. Bhinn ag scriobh litreacha. Scriobhfaidh m6 litir. Beidh m6 ag scriobh litreacha. Scriobhfainn litir. Bheinn ag scriobh litreacha. writing letters to wtite o lerter I unite hner. I am writing lette6. I terd to be uniting letters. I wtote o letteL I was uriting letters. I xsed to &rite letters. I $ed to be uiting letters. I ttill utite a lettet I tlill be udting a lettel I uot ld urrite a let er. I woald be uriting leners.

phrqses 5 - Idiomotic Appendix

Idiomatic phrases basedon ti + preposition(oz, at, etc.).
(o) (rs... oz) I am htngry td ocras orm taIr thitsty tulrse tbed codladh . sbepy fuacht coa ti 6thasorm I an de6ghted br6n sorfy eaglalfaitios afraid amhras susqicious ionadh (pron. iona) slrprised fearg 4ngry neire ashamed pro,ad br6d jealous 6ad uaigneas Ionely (b) ti.., ag Ti sfil agam(go) T5 a fhios agam(go) (cl t6...6 (wantsl ti bainne uaim (dl tA faoi (interds tol I utantlneed milk I hope tbat I k rou (that)

There are two kinds of perfect in lrish, one based on the verbal adjective, e.g, scriofa urinen, and another based on the verbal noun, e.g. scriobh uriting,t Td litir scriofa agam. Bhi litir scriofa agam. Beidh litir scriofa agam. T6 m6 tar 6is/i ndiaidh litir a scriobh. Bhi m6 tar 6is/i ndiaidh litir a scriobh. Beidh m6 tar 6is/i ndiaidh litir a scriobh. I baue a letter urrinenl I hat)e utritten a btter. I bad a letter urittenl I bad urinet a lettet. I will hauea letter uninerr I uill have uriaen a lener. I haue written a letter. I bad urinen a lener. I utill have urinet a letter.

Ti frim dul ann, I intend to go there. Trifaoi6adh6anamh. He intends to do it.

Idiomatic phrases with Is: Is maith liom Is brei liom Is fuath liom Is f6idir liom Is cuimhin liom Is d6igh liom (go) Is mian liom I I I I I I I like love bate ctn rcmembet suppose(th6t) desireluish

As the translations suggest the first of these often tends to convey a senseof state (of the letter in this case).The latter unambiguously conveys action. It literally means I arz after uiting a leno, etc. The i ndiaidh phrase is used in Ulster, where it is pronounced i ny6.


Appcodlces 35I

Is oth liom (go) Is cuma liom

I reget (that) I don't care

but not in beoir beer fiot\ wine gloine beonch a glassof beer gloine tiona a ghss of wine

Theseare basedonlfiir lclear) (in other contextsthis adjective is soil6ir):

Is lir go ... Is l6ir dom go ... It b clearthat ... It's clear ro tne thot ,,.

(e) when a nameis dependent on a preceding noun, eithermasculine or feminine Miire Mary Tir Cholaaill Donegal Maigh Eo Mayo (f) at\air Mh6te Mary's father muintir Thir C\onaill the peoph of Donegal Contae Mhuigh Eo CotantyMayo

after mo (zt), do lyott), a (hisl mo bhe*t nry u.,ife do theach yotr horse a mhac his son

Appendix 7 - Rules for initiolmutotions

A full table of the relevant changesis given in the Introduction. The contexts in which they occur are listed in detail here. Lenition The rules given here for lenition are subiect to the proviso that h, l, n, r are not lenited; neither are the unusual letters v, x, z; or s before c, p, t, m, f. The frst consonant of a noun is lenited: (al aftet at tbe if thenoun is feminine
bean wotnan cathaot cbair an bhf, n the uoman at chathaoi the chair

bean womqft rcach house mac son

(9) after the prepositions ar (oz), do (lo, forl, de (from, ofl,laoi (underJ, gaa lwithortl, mat lasl, 6 (ftoml, toimh lbeforel,tJlar lpast, over, beyondJ,ni (thtoryhl clidach cover SeAn John bainne milk cathaoir chait maith good(ness) m:.iJrtteoft teacher Sasara England Ciisc Eastet colliste allege contae county ar chlfdach an leabhair on the cover ofthe book glaoch do Shein a cztl for John lin de bhainne full of milk faoi chathaot undet a chait gan mhaith zseless(lit. utithout goodl ag obair mar mhriintcoi utorkbrg as a teacher 6 Shasaraftom Enghnd roimh Ch6isc before Eastet ag dul thar Chol6iste na Trion6ide going past Trinity College ag dul tri Chontae na Mi going tbrotgb County Meatb

(b) after an, when it means o/ tle, if the noun is masculine b6thar road 16ran bh6thair the middle of the road.

(c) after a, when addressingsomebody caide frierds duine person a chaide (my) friends a dhuine uasail dear sir

NB The prepositions ar (oa), thar (parr, ove4 beyondl do totlenite it phrasesin which the noun has a general or indefinite reference,often describing states,such as at ball late4 at baile vety angry, at deireadh, finally, ar tad, ahogether, at l6il, availabh, at siillat btr, rnderuay, going on, thar ban, excellert, t\at sdile,overseas.Comparel. T6 s6agamat cios, I am rcntirlg it. llit. I haueit on rcrt) T6 s6 agam ar chios ceid eluto I am renting it for a hrndred euros a ueek. sa seachtain. llit. I have it for a rcnt of a hundred eurosa week)

(d) in somephrases when a noun is uscdas a qualificr of a preceding feminine noun (whether or not the secondnoun is in the genitive case) m6in pest tir,e mh6r.a a peat fire


App.ndlc. 3 5 3

(h) after don (ro rb el, den lof tbeJ and sat lin the); the latter becomessa before all consonantsexcept f, which it makes silent (written It) bain\srcotrmatuger ciste cake farraige sea gaidin garden litir don bhainisteoir piosa den chiste sin sanfharraige amuigh sa ghairdin a lener for the marager a piece of tbat cahe in the sea lpron. sat out in the gardet

ceannheod voigh foot

ri. cinn aclutbree (head) of them s6 toithe sir feet lcompare dh6 thtoi$ two feetl

(m) after an chtad lthe firstl ceant head cljd part an ch6ad cheant the frst one an chiad chuid the first part

Exception: none of these lenites s, t, or d: sa siopa lin the shop), si teach lin the housel, sa deoch sin lin that drinkl (l) after various prefxes ceol music cairr talk comharsaneighbour Pvnt poutd an-cheolvery good music dr och-ehait bad bngaage dea-chomharsagood neighbour leathphunt half-potnd

The first consonant of an adiective is lenited: (o) following a feminine noun lada long maithgood sr6id fhada a long street aimsi mhaith good uteathet

Notice that not all prefixes are given a hyphen. () in the second elementof a compoundword priomhsfufiid main street dubhghorm tauy blue fiordheas reallt nice seanbhean oli womatt

NB There is no lenition following a feminine noun in the genitive, e.g, ag brm oa sr6ide fada at the end of tbe long street; or in the plural, e.g. sr6ideaonafada long sfteets. (b) after a masculine noun which depends on anothernoun. Compare these an b6thar fada bun an bh6thair fhada tbe long road tbe end of the lorg rcad

pdort- principal + sriid street &tbh black + gotm blue ftor true + deasnice seanold + beaa womaa

But when dental consonants come together lenition is usually blocked: seat old. + duine person lin full + sista satisfied seanduineold person lins staf ly satisfted

(c) after plural noun forms which end in a slender consonant (almost all nouns) theseare masculine fear m6r a big man leabhar beaga small book fu mh6ra big men leabhail bheagasmall books

(k) to indicate that a definite noun phrase is dependent on a preceding noun rothar fhear an phoist the postman's bicycle llit. the bicycle of the nan of the postl

(d) after a noun preceded by dh6 (rrzo)(orbeirt (trlo) when counting people), in which casethe adjective takes the plural form teach m6r a big borse fear beaga small man dh6 theach mh6ra rrzo big houses bein fhear bheagarrzo small met

(f) in counting, when the noun is precededby aot (one), dh6 \twol, tri Ithreel, ceithre lfour), ciig lfvel, sE(sixl ceist question ctrid pan purlt pound teach bouse seonua footlt bord ubk aon cheistamh6inlzst one q estiort dh6 chuid.tuo parts tri plunt three pounds cei:tbrctheach four horses cl6'igsheomrafiue rooms s6. bhord sir tables

(e) after ao (rbe), when the adjective is prefixed to a feminine noun priom\principal + ceist lf) an phriomhcheis question the pincipal question

(O after thcse forms of the copula is (is) ba lwaslwould bel, tior luasn'tluouWn't bel, at? lwas?lwouUbe?1, 16r luasn'tlutouldn't ... be?),g$r lthat (it) uadwoaU be): Ba mhaith liom cupdn tae. Ba mh6r an chabhair6, Nior cheart6 a dh6anamh. I would like a cup of tea. It waslwould be a great help. It shouldn't (lit. ttould rot be ight) be lppendlce I JJ

Exception: a few nouns are counted from three upwards using their plural forms and theseare not lenited:


The first consonant of a verb is lenited: (d in the past,past habitual and conditional bhtail mt leis I met him bhtailint L6iI rced to meet her bhuailfinn leo I por A meet them

(b) T and d are not lenited by sa (shonened from san) s teach lin the house) sa dotchadas Un the dark\

brail le lmeetl

(c) Although s cannot be lenited to sh after an (rhe) it becomests instead an tsli (fl abhaile rle utay home tsfil (D tbe eye ^t tsriid lfl the street ^t nls an tsamhraidh (m) tbe beginting of summer (pron. di) (pron. triil) (pron. tr6id) (pron. towri)

(b) after ni (zor) and mi (il) bu,ail le (meetl ni bhuailim leisI don't meethim ni bhuailfidh m6 leo I won't nteet therrt m6 bhuaileann tri leo if yo* meetthem

This also happenswith feminine nouns after sa lin thel (from san): sa tsli in the way sa tsldil it the eye sa tsrAid in the s*eet

(c) after the relative pafticle a which, toho, uborrt ceannaim an p{ip6ar an pdipEara cheannaim feicim daoine ar an mb6thar na daoine a fheicim ar an mb6thar Restictions I bt4ythe pdper the paper which I b*y I seepeople on the rcad. tbe people I seeon the road

(m)). thesrzzer is an samhradh m lDesummerlbecatse But sasamhradh Eclipsis The first consonantof a noun is eclipsed: (q) afteri (rr)

on the lenition of 'd', 't', 's':

balle m6t a toutn triobl6id touble

(o) Theseare not lenited after dental consonants (easily rememberedas d, n, t, l, s - dentals!).Sobean(womanl + deas(zice)shouldgive bean dheas(a nice u,orraz) but is more usually bean deas;likewise an-deas(very nicel, instead of atr-dheas.Here are some examples:

i mbaile m6r in a towtt i dtriobl6ld in *ouble

(b) after 6r (orr), bhur lyour), a ltheit) teach hoase caide friends
catt caf

at-dorchauerydark -tirim uerydry ^ uerydirty an-salach


an-g\ealuerybright an-fhliuch ueryuet an-glianveryclean

6r dteach flin oar ou'tt house bhv gcaide yott friends a gca* their car

Lenition is alsoabsentin phrases suchas: slat (f) tomhais yard.stick, critetion llit. stich of measutingl cos (fl tosaigh front leg (oI arnnall cos (f) deiridh back leg After aa lthelz an tine (f) an tft (f) Ar Deil (fl cearta an duine bean an ti Roinn an Taoisigh the firc the co ntry the D,iil (Iower hotse of parliament) humat rights the hndlad.y the Deparbnent of the Taoiseachl= Cabinet Office)

(c) after the numerals7 to ro, seacht, ocht, naoi, deich prr.t pound toithe feet cirrr de bead of pingin penny seachtbputt seuet Pounds ocht dtroitbe eight feet (long) ntoi gcirn de bha nine cows deich bping.inete?tPence

(d) after a preposition+ an lthe) (with the exceptionof don to tbe atd dcn of the) banc bank f6.argrass bus bas baitisteoi manager ag an mbarc at the bank ar an bhfiar on the grcss as an mbus out of the bus scriobhchuig an mbainisteoir wtite to the manager Appendices3 57

3J 6

bord table Garda Guard, PolicemLn cruir,tild meeting gearagdte

faoin mbotd under the able labhair leisan nGardaspeakto the policernan roimh an gcruinni6 before the fteetilg that an nge ta post the gate

gets,tp oibrim 'irionn I uork

di n-'ireofd h am if you got up on time na daoinea n-oibrimleo tbepeopleI work with

Exception: nouns beginning with t, d are not affected: ag an teach (a! tbe housel,ag aa dotas (at the doorl. (a) after na when it rneanso/#e in the plural (the genitive plural) feat lmanl leithreas tabhlear ltbe men's toiletl The first consonant of a verb is eclipsed: (o) after an (which introduces questions'1, ci lwhere?), sula lbeforel, go

'h' Prefixed is used to break up a sequence of two vowels,when a word This by certainwords endingin a beginningin a vowel is preceded vowet. With nouns: (o) after the plural articlea lthel iit place na hiiteanna the Dlaces

(b) after na, meaning of the, if the noun is feminine

Ithatl tann(goes)

oiche night fire Ireland (cl aker a (herl

ltu ta hoiche the midd.leof the dght Rialtasna hEireannthe Govemmentof Irelard

An dt6ann t6? Do you go? Cd dt6ann ni? Wbere do yon go? sula dt6anntd abhailebeforeyou go bome is d6cha go dtann ni ann you probably go there

(b) after de (tfl and mwa Qtnless, if totl chean6ti you tuould buy di gceararo6{A 6.if yor bought it nruta gceann6f6(. if you'tbuy it

6lasi:r flat inion daugbter

a biLrasinherflat ahirlior' her daughtet

(d) when counting with ti. (three), ceitfue (four) and s6.lsixl uair bour, time
t h! i-lethree tirnes

(c) after a in indirect relative clauses buailm leis na daoinesin na daoinea mbuailim leo Note 'Words L,teet thosepeople the peopleI meet

(e) after the forms m ean.irgtbe second., the thid, etc. (but not including an ch6adthe frrst\ uait hou, time 6it place at dara hrair the second time a\ trii h6it the thitd Dlace

beginning with a vowel are treated as follows:

(f) After go (ro) andle lwith)

(o) i {rn) becomes inritl.6i'lrm (itt lrclq.ndl (b) no change after an (lDe)and the questionmarker an:

Eirelreland Aine Anne With adiectives:

ag teacht go hEirinn coning to Ireland ag caint le hAine ralting to Anne

o1frg office
ith eat

ag an oiftgat the office An itheanntri? Do you eat?

(o) after go (in the examples below it turns them into adverbs of

(c) by prefixingn in all other cases: timhk number oiche night 69 young 6r n-uimhil our namber seachtn-oiche sevennights Tit ra nOg Land of the Young lin folktalesl

manner) otc bad 6lant beautifrl

go holc badly gohSlaim beartifully


Appendlc6 3 59

(b) after chomh (as, so) 6gyouag adrom light Nil m6 chomh h6g leat. I 4m ,rot 4s young as yotl. Ti s6chomh h6adrom sin. Ir is so ligbr.

terms of grommoticol Glossory

odJectlveA word which givesfurther information about a nonn, e.g, a big hotse, interesting classes, ubite paper. odverb Adverbsgive further information about words other than nouns.For instancein to ualk fast, the verb ,ualk is modified by /asr, which tells us about the mannerof walking; in I go theresometimes, I get up eaiy; I hauelunch at one, the times of the actionsare specified with varying degrees of precisionby sorzetimes, early, at one.ln uteshall probably haue to pay, the entire sentenceis qualifred by probably. The typesof adverbshown here are respectively an adverb adverb. of adverb of time and a sentence clouse A term used when a sentencecan be divided into two parts, eachcontaining a main verb. For instancein I? do it uhen I haue tbe time, I'll do it is the main clatse end uther I hauethe time is the subordinateclause(a subordinateclause of time). The time clausehere beginswith a conjunction u.,hen,arad, by drcpping uhen we get a perfectly good free sentence,l haue the time lakhotgh this does not always happenwhen we drop a confunction). conjunctlon A word which joins. Co-ordinatingconjunctions link two expressions of equal status,e.g. men and women, reading and utriting, blach and uthite, I got up and walked For instance ont. Subordinatingconjunctionslink clauses. ulben introdttces A tirne clause in I read a lot utben I was young, and if a conditional clause in Yor'll do utell if you utork at it. by verbs nood A goup of non-factualnotions expressed which includeconditions,wishesetc.lnlf I utererich, pere is a subiunctiveform of the verb ro De(i.e. it is in

Other instancesof prefixed 'h': (o) verbsbeginning in a vowel aftern6

616. Drink ;t. Oscailan doras Opefl the door. lnighl Go, clear off! N6 h6l E, Don't drinh it. Nd hoscailan doras.Don't open the door. N6 himigh go f6ill! Don't leaveyet!

(b) the pronouns (hel, i lshel, iad lthey) and ea (it, that) after rt Qsnotl and.c6?(uho?l

Is e,n's him.
Is ea, It is so. ls i^d. lt k them.

Ni he. It isn't hirn. Ni hea. It irr't so. C6.hiad? Who arc tbey?

(c) in a few phrasessuch as D6 bAoine lFridayl, Cd hint? (Wbere?), a haon (oze), a hocht leightl; and,after 6 in sumames:6 h6giio lHoganl.


Gforsofyot gtlmmotlcol tfi:6


the subjunctivemood). Conditionalsare very important in Irish but subjunctives are more marginal in the contemporarylanguage. noun A noun is the nam of a person,place,thing or idea.The most basickind of noun is a name for an object in the space around us: table, chair, tlan, woman etc.Other kinds of nouns refer to abstractideas,e.g. clarity, expense, bedutyi or to emotions,e.g. loue,anger etc. phrosa A number of words combinedto form a unit. Phrases are namedafter their 'head words'. For instancea big house is a noun phtaseand at tbe door is a prepositionalphrase. pluml Referringto more than one exampleor instanceof something,e.g. books, u.,e, rley. Seesingulor. possessivc A word which indicatesownershipor possession. Irish has a set of possessive markers,mo my, d,oyour etc., which are often called 'possessive adjectives'(asin English) but which are better called 'possessive pronouns' for the purposesof Irish grammar. preposition Theseare placedbeforenouns to form phrases which express spatial relations,e.g.on the chair, at the door, under the table; and someother notions including time, e.g. at frve o'clock, aftel midnight. Theseare simpleprepositions. There are also complex prepositionssuch as on top of the table. pronoun SEictlyspeaking, a word which can replace a noun. The third personforms are alternative rather than uniqueways of referringto something and are usedto avoid repetition,e.g. I boughta ticket lnoun) but I gavelt (pronoun)to my brother; 'When I seeMary (noun)I will tell Del (pronoun).l, me, you, we andthey are alsopronouns.See alsounder possessive.

singulor Referringto one exampleor instanceof something; for instance(a) book, I, you referto singleentities. Seeplurol. tense The namefor the way in which time relationsare distinguishes indicatedby verbs.Irish, like many languages, betweenpresent,past andfuture by adding endingsto verbs, e.g. present l6ann /eads, past l6igh read, luture laifrgh will read. yerb The most basickind of verb refersto an action: comes, goes,eats,drinks, reads,urites etc.Other kinds refer to perceptions, e.g.sees, hears;or to mental operations, etc. e.g, thinks, belieues by verbscan take verbdl odjective The conceptsexpressed adjectivalform, e.g. eatenin eatenbread is soon forgotten. Suchforms are called 'past participles'in Englishgrammar in Irish grammar. but they are known as 'verbal adjectives' by verbs can be turned vrbol noun The conceptsexpressed into nouns,e.g. readingin readinghelpsyou to learn languages. Suchforms are called 'presentparticiples'in grammar but they are known as 'verbal nouns' in English
r-:^L ------rrD u ts'raIIudr.


Glo6so,y of g.d|nmotlcolte.rn


gIishvocobulory Irish-En
Abbreviations: m = masculine; f= feminine;g. = genirive; pl = plural. qbholl home och but oiefioft (m) anpott ogus ond oice; In olce le next to Alfreonn (m) (9..rlnn) Mass dlmsft (f) (9. -e) weather oinm (mJ(p/.neochoJname oinnis (p/ -e, nios oln nlse)awful olnlln (fl (pl -i) ount ohgp.d(m) (q. -gld) money (lit- silvet) 6irtthe porticulorj go hdirithe in particulor ols; or qls bock 6ls (f) (9.'e, pl -ednn(I) focility, convenience 6il (fl @. -e,pl -etnna) place olthne (f) ocquaintonce 6iti0il (p/.01o)/ocal 6foinn (! 6ille, nios dille) beoutiful om (m) (9.4) time o;m6rochtomorrcw qmoch out omh6lnjust one dmuigh outside on. (+ lenltion)yery onios from beneath onn there onocht tonight onois now onrcllh (m) soup onseohere onsln there onuos from above, hence qnuroldh /ostyear ools (f) (9. -e,pl -eanno) oge oon one,ony oosto elderly or qls bock or blth ony, ot oll ar f6ll available or fud (+ genltlve)throughout oJ slo,lin progrcss,undewoy ol6n (m) (9. -6ln) bread arasan (m) (9. -ln, pl .in) flot, apoftment ord (p/ -o, nios olrde) high,to/ oftft last night o'tis ogoin orti o.t |nne the day b{orc yesterday:oit amarcch the doy oftet tomorow os otd out of otdet ds out of,ftom qtholr (m),(9. .or, pl qithreocho) father drhgs (m) (9. -ols)joy othroionn chonges qthr6 (m) (pi .rulthe) o chonge

bdb6g (fl -o')do hocsch (pl -q) lame bqile (m) sett/ement, town,so bholl at home boile m6r (p/ boilte mor6) town boilionn collects boilithe col/ected boilit colleding boineqnn omoch reoches,ochieves boinne (m) mi,l bolneonn extracts,goins bqineonn de takesoff bqinisteoir (m) (9. -eolo,p/ -eolli) manoger bdlsteoch (f) (9. b6lstl) ratn bdn (p/ -q, nios bdlne) white honollt o (f) (pl -ai) nurse bonc (m) (9. bolnc,p/ balnc)bonk bar (m) (9. balft, pl a) top beog (pl -d, -nios 16)srnoll beog6n o /ittle beqgnocha/most bon (t (9. mnd, p/ m n6) womon beonnocht (f) biessrng be6. (m) bar b6tle (m) (pl 1l) neol beirednnbears beireqnnqr cotches belfttwo (of people) beoir (f) (9. beorcch) beer bheith being,to be bla (m) (pl -nn]o)food biolonn f) (9. -cinne,pl -o) rcstourant bifeog (t (9. -eoige,pl-o) leoflet blos (m) toste blosto tosty bl6th (n) (9. -a, pl -onno) flower

blioin (r) (9. bliano,p/ bliontdyear bliont0il (p/ bliontolo)yearly bloc (m) (9, -olc, pl -olc) block b6thor (m) (9.{h, p/ b6lthre) food bocht (p/ -o, nios bolchte) poor bog (p/ -o, nios boige)soft,mild pl -o) loof boll6g (fl @. -619e, botd (m) (g.boitd, p, bolrd) tab/e btondo, (m) brcndy bred (pl -tho, nios brdtho) fine brcis (+ genitive)more breis (is) morethon breoite sick bt6g (fl G. br6lge, pl -a) shoe b16n (m) sorrow blonntonqs (m) (9. -ols,p/ -ols) prcsent,gift buochoilf(m) (p/ -i) boy,youngmon, boyftiend buqileqnnhits buoileonn le meets(with) buolodh le meetmg buonn !,vins bui yellow buiochos(m) grotitude pl -6tl) bottle buided h) (9. -611, bvn (m) bottom, end cobhruionnle helps corbh6n corovon cobhoir (t (9. cabhroch) heh colbhri helping cod? whot? colle (m) coffee cfiiliochr 0 G. -o, pl -ol) quolification coint (f) (9. -e) tolking cdis (f) (9. -e) cheese


I.kHndkh wcobr ory

36 5

(f) (g.C6scd) Easter C.6lsc cqite spe,t (seo coite this past) cqitheqmh spending coltheonn spends, ryeors campo,(m) (pl -o'i)camp, tent (qnodh singlng c(lnqnn5ir9s co'ogdfifty copoll (m) (9. .oill, p/.oill) horse coro (m) (plcofide) friend co (m) (9. -ltt, pl -o,nno,) car c6stt (m) (pl -oi) cord cds6g (f) (9. .etige,pl -o,)coat,jacket cothqin? whenT cqthqir f) (9. cothrqch,p/ -rocho) ctty cothooir (f) (9. .eoch,p/.eqchq) choir ceqnn tui thotched (m) (9. -olr, pl -aif) district ce(J,ntot ceonnochbuying ceonnoionnbuys .eq,poirc (m) (pl -ri) sandwich ceqponn thinks, oppoints cearc (f) (pl -o) hen caord? what? ceoft (pl -o) right ceqthqir four ceqthnl guorter c6n chooi?how? ceo (m) mist ceol (m) (9. ceoil) music ceolchoirmf) (9. .e) concert cheo,naoheady chomh (with odj.)so,as chonoic sow chuoighwent chuolq heord chuigto

ciollmhor (p/ -o, nios ciollmhqire) sensible cinnte surc,certain , certainly cinnti0 ensuring cios (m) (9. -o.)rcnt: or cios rcnted, fot rent ciste (m) (pl -ti) coke cistin (f) (9. -,pi -edcho)kitchen cith (m) (p/ ceothqnno)shower cith (m) (9. ceotho,p/ -onno) shower ciiin (pi -e, nios ci0ine) guiet cl6r (m) (9. cl6ir, plcl6ir) progrcmme clann children (as paft of fomily) clqsoiceoch c/ossico/ clog (m) (9. cloig, pl cloig) clock cloiseqnnheors cluiche (m) (pl -chi) gome c6frc (m) cupboard coicis (f) (9. -e,pl -i) foftnight c6ip (f) (9. -e,pl -etana) copy .itipeail copying coirm cheoil (f) (pi coirmedcho ceoil) conceft cetisit(f) (9. -e,pl -i) party (social) coitiqntq cornmon colaiste (m) (pl -ti) college col ceothqr (m) (p/ col ceothrqchq) cousin comhorso(f) (9.-n,pl -no') neighboul comhghoirdeqsfm) (9. -dis) congratulotions comhlocht (m) f9. -o,pi -oi) (commercial) compony comhorchumonn(m) (9. -o.inn) cooperative society com6rtqs(9..qis,p/.ois) competition conoshow

coryodh (m) contrad; qr conrqdh on conttoct contae (m) (pl -tho) county co66il(nios cosolo)simi,ar;is co6oil golnoch it seems that (not) cosnoionncosts citto (m) (pl -si) coot creideqnnbelieves criochnoionnfinishes cru.r hord cruinnit (m) (9. -ithe,p/ -ithe) meeting cuo'itt (f) (9. -e,pl -esnno) visit citig five cuireqnnputs,serds ctpl(! couple(of) ct(sa (m) (pl -oi) course ct soj affois, things cuntqs (m) fg. -ois,pl -dis)occount, description cup6n (mJ(9. -din,pl-Ai cup pl codqnnq) port, cuid (f) G. codo., portion;mo chuid my,6r gcuid out, etc. cuidionn le heips dqdo nothing dqicheodforty dolto (n) (pl -oi) pupil dom6iste (m) domoge damhso (m) (pl -oi) donce (olso doncing) dqor (p/'q, nios dqoirc) expensive (in counting) doro second (m) (9. doth -o,p/ .qnno) coloul (t deqnoi /oteness; le donoi oflote de ghn6th usuaily de of deqchoighwent

deocoir (p/ deocro,ofter ni, on etc. nio6 deacto) difficult dao'g teen (in counting) donqch (p/ -q, nios d6onoi) lote dCqno;mh doing, moking d6qnqnndoes, makes deontq done d6orfoidh wil soy dearg (p/ -q, nios deirge)red deormqd (m) (9. -qid, pl -o,id)mistake dealth6k (m) (9. -ar,pl -$dro) brother deireqdh(m) (9. 'ridh) end;fooi dheireodhaf /ast deqs (pl -q, nios deise)nice deich ten deifit (f) (9. -frc) hurry deireonnsoys deirti0r (f) (9. -fisr, p/ -qchq) sister oteo deisceqrt(m) (9. -cirt) southern deoch (f) @. di, pl-onno) d nk dh6 two Dla (n) (g.Dq God Diobhol devl/ diqn (p/ -o, nios dine)severe, intensive difrliff (p/ -iofq, nios diftitlo.) different diolqnn se/ls dtuea.h (pl -o) straight, dned(ly) dinnCot (m) (9. -ei , d -eir) dinnel dioscd (m) (pl -ai) disc diosc6 (m) disco dli (n) (pldlithe) Iow dliod6ir (n) (9. -6m, pl -i) lawyel do to, for do yout dochu (m) (9.-oir) horm,damage dochtiir (m),(9. .0tq, pl-i) dodor dono bod doros (m) (9. -ais,pl doi6e) door vocobulory 3 67 trish-Engllrh

3 66

dorcho dork dosoendozen d6lhola sufficiency duofs (f) (9. -e,p/ -eonna)p ze dubh (p/'o, nios dulbhe) block dulne (m) (pl ddolne) pe6on dolrt soid d0lslonn wal<es up dul going 6 he,him 6odoch (m) (9. -algh) clothing: aqdoi c/othes eoglo (f) feor 6lgln sorne elle other 6lri tising,becoming 6lrlonn rises,gets up ldonn os guits, givesup elrtonn le succeeds alsteocht (le) ,rstening(to) eolos (m) (9. -ls) infomotion tu (m) (g.Jold)length;i bhfod for fodo (nios folde) /ong 16ll getting: at f6ll ovoiloble ldg6ll leaving fdgonn /eoyes fdgthq ieft folde longet, longest folgheonn gets falke (f) welcome fg,llo (m) (pl -oi) wo fonocht stoying fqnqnn stoys fool ldtholl ot present fqrmlge f) seo feobhos (m) (9. -ols) improvement

f6ochoint (qr) /oo,ting(ot) f6qchqnn (or) iooks(ot) feot (m) (g.flr, plfir) mon feorr better,best feice6il seeing feiceqnnsees feldlll is f6idil con f6in self, own fei'm (f) (9. -e,pl -eocho)fom fefrmeoir (m) (9. -om, pl -i) fomer teoll (f) (g.teoln) neot fio(:oil (f) (9. -e,pl -clo) tooth fiche twenty fillfd,h returning, to retum fion (m) (9.-o) wine fist6ip (, (9. -e,p/ -ednnlo)videotape fliuch (p/ -o, nios fliche) wet foghloim /eorning foghloimionn /eorns f6gro (m) (pl -oi) onnouncement f6grcithe onnounced fitill: go f6ill for the moment foi.m (D G. -e,pl -eachd) form folcodh washing(somro folctho bathroom) f6n (m) phone lonn (m) inclinotion forbqirt (f) (9. forbqnhoj development J6s still,yet fieisin a/so fuor,ht (m) (9. -o) cold(ness) Juoimnib (m) pronunciotion fuolr got fuor (p/ -o, nios fuoire) cold fufnneog (t (9. -olge,pl -o) window tuinnioif (p/.fulnniolo.)eneryetic frrd; or fud (+ genltlye) thtoughout

96 (m) need gqbhonn takes, seizes gsch evetY Gdellge (f) Itish longuage gofudin (m) (pl -1)gorden golrld (do) neor(to) gdlo (n) (pl -o,i)gole goolar windy gotfiiste (m) (pl -tl) garcge g (m) a fovour Goidt (m) (pl -l) policeman gor do closeto gonsoi (m) (p/ -qith e) pullover geotdn compIoi nt, comp Iaining geimhreodh(m) (9. -ridh,p/ -i) wintel gheobhoidhwil get gloconn ta*es,accepts glqconn le occepts glonodh c/eoning glononn cleons glooch (m) col glos (pl -a) green(of plonts) glotne (f) @l -ni) gloss gn6 (m) business gn6thqch (pl -o) busy go to,towotds go dtl until (olso to) go leot (+ genitive)plenty go/noch thot, thot not gorm (p/.o, nfos goirme) biue greoinn(m) (9. grlnn) humour {elm (m) bite,g p grlon (f) (9. 9r6ine)sun gtiosdh urging, encou ngin g gr6saefr(m) (9. -qem,pl -i) grccel gtuolg (fl G. -d hon g.6eo(m) (d-s gtoup

hollo (n) (pl -sl) ho hato (n) (pl -i) hot i she,hel lod they, them iorthor (m) (9. -thoh) w$tern area iorroldh asking, to ask ioronn requests iosc (n) (9. 6lsc,pl 6lsc) fish i bhtod long,farowoy idir between i gc6noi olwoys i leilh hithet, this woy i ndiqidh dfter I mblianq thisyedr imeo'cht leoving,going away imionn goes(oway), leaves imitt playing imithe gone inion (f) (9. -ine,pl. {r'to) doughter innCyestedoy inniu today ioc payinq, to poy ioconn poys iomldn (pl -q, nio6 lomldlne) complete io'nod (m) (9. -old, pl -old) locotion, centrc I rith (+ genitive) du ng iontoch (pl -o) wondetful itis (f) (9.-e, pl-l)journal iriseoir (m) (9. -orq,pl -l)jounolist is is (is shortfor ogus and) lsteoch in(wofds) istigh inside lstoicheby night ite eoten ithe eoting itheqnn eats


t rHnglbh vocobulory 3 59

fuqth (p, -o, nios luoilhe) eorly 16(m) (9. loe pl lqethonto) doy (9o) luoth soon lqg (pi -q, nios loige) weok loghod /ittlenessi or o loghodot ieost moc (m) (9. mic, pl clonn mhoc) son l6ldlr (p/ -e, nios l6idre)strorg mqc (m) l6inn student l6ithreoch immediately l6mh (t (9. l6imhe,pi l6mhq) hond mdidfn f) (9, , p/ -eochn)moming mqith (p/.e, nios feqlr) good l6n full: ! l6n a lot m6lo (n) (pl -ai) bog losonn /ights moll (p, -o, nios moille) slow le with leobo (f) (9. leqpq, p/ leopocho) bed mot (+ lenition)os mqr becouse book feobhor (m) (9. -oir,pl -q'ir) mor sin of thot k nd;olsotherefore leobhorlonn f) (9. -olnne,pl -q) m'itholr f) (9. -qr,p/ m6ithreocho) librcry mothet l ocht (f) (9. -o,pl -oi) ledure m6I, me focht6ir (m) (9. -6ru, pl -i) Ieduer m6ld (mJomount,but m6od in leo;mh reading phroses suchos c6 mh6od how lecncnn fol/ows much? leonbh (m) (9. llnbh, plleonol) child meg,isin(m) (pl -i) mochine l6onn reods me6n-midleaniint fol/owin9 meoso worse,worst lecth hof moderotely wide meqsortho rother, leothon fpl. -o, nios lelthne) (f) (9. (m) (9. pl p/ mi -osa, -onna) month leothqnqch -oigh, -olgh) (m) (pl pa9e mile -lte) mile milis (pi Jse,nios mils)sweet leis(ifiif (p/ -01o,nios leisci|ilo) lazy minic (nios minice)freguent feithreqs (m) (9. -rls, pl -tls) toilet mise me leithscql(m) f9. leithsc6il,p/ -to) mo my excuse m6 bigge biggest llo,tht6id (f) (9. -e,pl -i) boll moch ea y ligeqnn /ets m6lde pius ligthe let moill (f) O..e) delay liofo fluent m& (pl -o) big liteor (m) (9. -ft,pl -|l) litrc m6r6n much,plenty lltlr (, (9. -reoch,pl -reqchq)letter ( gs, lblslin m) lodgin occommodati on muid we m(ineonn teaches l6n (m) (9.l6in) lunch m0fnteoir (m) (9. -oro,pl -i) teacher lorg seeking muintl( (f) (9. -e) parents,inhabitants It smoller/smollest

n6ld nought, zero nool nlne n6im6qd (m) (9. -ld,pl -6ld) minute Nollolg f) (9. -og) Chnitrnos n6td (m) (pl -d,i)note nu(l new p/ -dln) nuocht6n (m) (9. -61n, newspopel 6 (+ lenition) frcm obolt (f) (9. olbre) work (olso workln9) ocht eight 0<16 (m) (9. -ols) hunger itg @l -a, nlos 6ige) young olbrlonn work, operates oiche (f) (pl -etnto) night otfig n @.-e,pt -i) offtce oireod, o olreod so much oirtheor (m) (9. -thir) eastemoreo oisre (m) (pl -ri) oyster 6ld nking 6lonn drinks olc (p/ -o, nios meqs{) bod or6iste oronge osclolonnopens 6stdn (m) (9. -6in,p/ "6ln) hotel poic6od (m) (9. -61d, pl -6ld) packet p6fic ff) (9. -e,pl lonno') potk, field p6irtolmseqrthqport-time Palsre (n) (pl -ti) child peonn (m) (9. pinn, p/ pinn) pen petl (fl @.-e)footboll peitreal (t -ril) petrol ploso (m) (pl -ai) piece plr''lEt (n) (9. -nit, pl .ith) pidue plngln (fl (9. -e,pl -i) penny

piocqnn (omoch)prtks(out) plonta (m) (pl -dli)pint pobol (n) (9. -all,pl -oll) community ptulm) @l-i) pocket polbli public polnte (m) (pl -11) point pololtiocht (f) (9. -a) politics p6.tat (m) (9. -alr) stout (dink) p65[dh mo ying p6sdnn rnonies post (m) (9. polst, pl polst) post,job p6sto maffied pi6td (m) (pl -ol) pototo priobh6ideoch(p, -o) privote priomh- (+ lenition) Nincipal rA saying mchoidh wll/ 90 roldi,t (m) rcdio rqng (m) (9. -o, p, -onno) c,oss ro.on(m) range fttd (n) (pl -ol) rote r6iteas (m) (9. -tls, p/ -tis) statement ra$onto reasonable, reosonably t|'th rcody rfoff (t (9. rioloch,pl -ochoJ rule rlochtqnoch(p/ -oJessentio/ llnne did t6 (+ lenition,with odj) too rclmh (+ Ienition)befote rolnnt some tothoj (m) (9. -oh, pl -on) bicycle pl -ol) thing rud (m) (9. -o., (m) (9. firn ttln, pl r'!,ln) sectet (m) (pl ttnoi -lthe) secrctory so (+ lenition) in the so bhoile ot horne




, 7I

sogort (m) (9. -oirt,pl-aful)p est saibhir (pl -e, nios salbhre)rich soff6od(m) (9. -id,pl -ekDsolod solonn (m) (9. -oinn) salt somhrodh (m) (9. -qidh,p/-oi) summer sootrc(f)holiday solol(m) (g.sooil) life sqor (p/ -o, nlos soolre) free sAsto sotisfied l (m) (9. -qill,pl -o,lll) cloud scomof sconn6n(mJ(9. -din,pl -Ain)film scaf(m) (9.sc6ll,p/ -to) *ory, news sciotta (m) (pl -o'i) skitt scoil (f) (9. -e,pl -eonno,)school scriobh writing, to w te scriobhonnwfites seqllqi (m) chaiet 56 he se six seocht seven seochtoln(f) (9. -e,p/ -i) lveek seqn oio seqrbh (p/ -o, nios sirbh)b,tter seic(m) (pi -eqnno)chegue seinm ploying seinneonnp/oys(music) seirbhis (f) (9. -e,pl -i) sewice seisl0n(m) (p/ -riin) session seo thts seolodh(m) (p/ seoltoi)oddrcss seomro (m) (pl. -i) room, somto suite sittrngroom shuighsot si she siqd they sibh you (plurol) sin tiat

slnn(e)we sioc (m) (9. seaco) frost siopd (m) (9. -i) a shop siopod6freocht(f) (9. -o)shopping slocrc (m) sugor shifnlr(m) (9. -6010,pl-i) caryenter slttl walking,to wolk sldlnte f) heo/th sl6intl0ll (9. -rilo,nios sl6lnti0lo) healthy sfoghd6n(m) (9.-din,pl .6ln) a cold slot o yotd (measurement) sli (f) (pl sltte) woy sfi bheotho occupotion (woy of life) slios (m) (9. sleoso,p/ sleoso)slice sluo (m) (plsluo'it) crowd thought,ideo smoofneomh thinking, smooinlonn (or) thinks(of) sn6mh swimming socrqionnoffonges socr! (m) (p/. -uithe) ornngement down socroionnsiossett/es (m) (9. p/ solqs -ols, soilse)/ight (+ genitive) sirt kind of spelsioltqspecro, sp0n69 (f) (9. -6ige,pl 'o')spoon (f) G. -e,pl -ennno) street s"dl,id sroichint reoching stoldeor (m) (9. -Afi) study stoighre (m) stairs st6isi6n (m, (9. -6in,pl -oin) station sti0rth6ir (m) (9. -6m,pl-i) director subh (f) (9. suibhe)jom slil (f) G.'e, pl 'e) eye suionn sits suigh (suionn)sit suim f) (9. -eJtnterest

ttr,cht (f) (9. -o) tempenturc thqll over theos south thios be/ow t6 ,s thiqr west tdbhochtoch (p/ -q, nios thoir eost tdbhochtoi) important thuoidh tobhqrfqidh lv, give thuqs obove tqe (m.)tea thug gave tqgonn comes $cead h) @..atd,p/ .6id) trcket togtho come timpep;ll (+ genitive) orcund (m) (9. toisteol tine (f) fire -til) travel (f) toiithl expeience tinn sick,sore toitnionn le p/eoses poin tinnos (m) (9. -nls) sickness, tolonh (f) (9.toloimh or tol0n) /ond liomflint diving,to d ve tqmofl (9. -olll) whiie,shott petiod tit (f) (9. -e, pltiotths) countty tqobh (m) (9. tqoibh, p/ -onno) side titlm dry topo, fost, quick t6gonn .o,ses,builds,totes tot come roil (f) @.rolo) wi tqr 6ls ofter tiosc Ao/noch becouse tort (m) (9. -a) thirst torsdh (m, (p/ todhoi) rcsult,ftuit tdthor possiveof td tosolonn begins te hot tosoithe begun teoch (m) (9. ti, p/ tithe) house tosqch (m) (9. tosoigh) front teqch t6bhqlme publichouse tosit beginning teocht corning tr6 (f) (pl -nno) beach teqchtolreocht (t messoge tt6thn6no (m) (pl -nt!,) aftenoon, teongo (f) (pl -cho,)longuage eveningfup to nightfoll) t6onn goes tmidisi6ntq troditionol teas (m) (9. -o,)heat tmo(hto exhausted teostos (m) (9. -ois, pl -dis) diploma timhse (f) (p/ -si) petiod of time teqstoionn is wonting treomcho directions teqstoionn 6 (somebody)wants tri thrce tigh 90 triocha thtrty teilof6n (m) (9. -6in,p/ -6ln) ttitu three (of people) telephone t0, tuso you tellifis (f) (9. -e) te/evision tuoisceort (m) (9. -cirt) notthen oreo tEip (D G. -e,pl -eo,nno.) tope tugann giyes

sulmi0il (p/ -rilo,nios suimirilo) intercsting suip6or (m) (9. '6ir, pl -alt) suppel


liirHngllshvo<ohrlory 373

tuig undeqtond tuigeqnn understands tuilleodh nore tuiRe (f) tiredness tulrsedch (p/ -o, nios tuhsi) tired tuiscint f) (9. tuisceono) undeEtanding, to understond to,s(m) (9. titls) beginning uoine green uott (f) (9. -e,pl -ean6) hour uolreontq sometimes ubh (f) (9. ulbhe,pl uibheocho)egg

itdoltfis (m) (9. -6is) outhotity uile ol, uimhlr (t (9. uimhreoch,pl uimhreocho)number(ond size of shoes,clothes) uisce (rn) woter (ulsc beotho whiskey) ltll (n) (9. tlll, pl tllo) opple vtncoll (m) (pli) uncle tr (pl -n, nios ute) ftesh utlw (m) (9. -Air,pl -6lr) floor 6s6ldonnuses osdld use,using

Engl ish-Irish vocobulory

This glossary of English words has beencompilcd ftom a variety of lists of common English words and cross-checked with word frequenciesin hish. Many words given in the book have also beenincluded. Thc abbreviations are (m) for masculine and (f) for feminine; (g.) for genitive and (pl.) for plural. The endingsto be added are marked with a hlphen. Note that we have followed the practice in dictionaries of Irish of sometimesincluding a constant part of the word after the hlphen when the degreeof change warrants that. For instance the plural of am time is amanta and it is suf6cient to note pl. -aata. However in the caseof piiste child we have plural piisti and it is necessaryto give pl. -ti, carrying over the t, rather than jusc-i, wbich is not clcar enough. obility ctlmas (m) (9. -oils) obleto ln onn. 6bolto obout (concerning)lool; (otound) timpeoff gloconn fe occepts accommodationl6lslln occountcunt6 (m) (9. -ols, p/..ois) ocquaintancesithne (f) od (of padioment) ocht (m) (9.-d,pl.-annn) acttongnlomh (m) (9. gnimh, pl. -ortho) announcementfitgto (n) (pl. -ol) onswe(fter'igm (m) (pl. -ol) onybody ehne onything dcdo apattment &Mn (m)(9.{ln,p,.{ln) appointment coinre (m) (pl. colnfi) oreo cllntgf (m) (9. -olr, pl. -dir) oround (orcund sixo'cloc*) thqrt al (m) (9. -ohhe, p,. arrcngementsrc,crtt -ulthe) ott ealoln (f) Q. -e,p/. eololono) (osts for) iorrqnn, flotolonn os/<s

gntomhoiodf (fl (g.s, octivity oddress scolodh(rn)(9.seolto, pl. seoltol)

oge ools (m) (9. -e,pl. -ednno) agreesoontolonn (le with) aI ser (m),(9.oet) a/ive bo

de inquires of at og ottending 09 freostolol p/. -dis) authorityt totas(m) (9..61s, (m)(9.-oli, pl.{i|,) autumn f6mh6I available ot i6il (withti is) (of person) bod< drolm(n) (9. (ofhead) dromo,pl dromonno); (ofbuilding c6lon chlnn; etc) col
Englbh-t.khrccobuhry 375

amount mld(m) onimolnlnmhi(m) (9.olnmhlthe, pLolnmhlthe,

3 74

bad olc, dono, droch-(ptefixto noun,tokes lenition) bonkbonc (m) (9. boinc,pl boinc) boslcbun0sach beoch ttA (f), (pl. -nnd) beout,ful6lqinn (nios 6ille) beerbeolr f) (9. beorqch) beginninglost beginningt(ts(m) begirstosoionn beingbhelth bel,eves creldeonn pl. -oit) bicyclerclhor (m) (9. -o,lr, (nios big m6r m6 bigge) b/ac[ dubh gorm D,ue boot b6d (n) (9. b6id, pl. bAid) body cotp (m) (9. cofup,pl. coitp) bookleobhor (m) (9. -oft,pl. -ott) born (wos born) rugodh bottom bun (m) (g.buin, p/. -qnnq); (of pe6on) t6ln (f) (9. -t6no, p/.t6nocho) .i) box bosco (m) (p1. (9. boy buocholll -ollo,p/. -i) breo*fost bricfeostq (m) breols brlseonn brightgeol (nlos gll brighter) brotherdeorthdt (m) (9.-6r,pl eochq) brcwn donn follgneqmh (m) (9. -nimh, build/ng p/..ntmh) busbus (m) (p/.-onnc) gn6 (m) (pl. -thdi) business buysceonnoionn coi/sgloonn (or) cot co.|.(m) (9.colrr,pl.collfi): gluoistedn (m) (9. -6in,pl. -6in)

cotd cafto (m) (pl. -i) corc aire (m) cosecAs(m) (9. ciris,p/. c6sonno) centre 16r(m) (9.16fi,pl.16lr), olso l6rphointe;(bu,/ding) ldrionod (m) @. -oid, pl. -o'id) centuryExpressed by 'hundrcd'ol 'age' qv.:the nineteenth centwy on nqo0 hqoivc6qd d6og, the twentiethcentuy onfichl! hqols certoin clnnt cho,rcqthooir(f) (9. -eqch, p/. -eqcho) chonge (lthriJ (m) (9- othmithe, pL othruithe); (money)briseodh(m) qirgid, s6inse'iil(f) (9.s6inse6lq) cheap soor chld leonbh (rn) (9. llnbh,pl leonol); pAiste (m) (p/. -ti) church(building) saipol (m) (q. -611, d.-aiD; hstitution) e{q,lois(f) @ .-ep , t.-i ) cttycothoir f) (9. cothroch, pi. cothrocho) c/oss rong (m) (9. -o,pi. -onno) c/eorsoil6ir clockclog (m) (9.cloig,p/.cloig) c/oseto gdr to c/oses d0nqnn clothinggddoch(m) (g..slgh) cloudsr,smdl (m) (9.-oill,p/.-olll) c/ubclub (m) (p/.-onno) coot c6t! (m) (pl. -i) cold fuor collecting hoiliiJ collection boili0ch6n(m) (9. -Ah, p/. -6in);cnuosqch(m) (9. -oigh, pl. -qigh) college colitiste (m) (pl. -fi)

colout doth (m) (9. -o,pl. -onno.) comes togqnn comingteqcht committee coiste (m) (pl. -li) community pobol (m) (9. -oil, pl.'o,il) comp any (comm.) comhlnchL (m) (9. -dchto, pl. -nchtoi); (soc) comhluodqr(9. -oir) complointgen;dn (m) (9. -din,pl.{lin) complete iomlan computer riomhoire (n) (pl.-ri) condition colnnioll (m) @..ill,pl..eho) congrotulotionscomhghoirdeos (m) @. -dts) control snocht (m) (9. -o) cost costos (m) (9. -qis, p/. -ois) costscosnoionn country lit (l) (9. -e,pl.liottho) county cotfioe (m) (p/.contqetho) coursectrsd (m) (pl. ctrsoi) coutt (law) ctitt (f) (9. -e, pl -eonno) culturc culttu (m) (9. -iir, pl. -itit) cup cupfln (m) (9.'irin, pl. -6ln) customn6s (m) (9. nitis,pl -onno) damoge dochat (m) (9. -o,ft) donce damhsa (m) (pl. -i,) , rlnce (m) (pl.-ci) dorkdorcho doughter inion (f) (g. lnine, p/. -qcho,clonn inion) doy 16(m),(g.lge,pl.loethqntd) deod molbh death b6s (n) (9. bitls) decisioncinneodh (m) (9. -nnidh), also soc:r!!offongement (m) (9-socmithe,p/. socruithe)

depaftmentrcinn (f),(9. -e, p/. mnnqJ developmentfotbo'ht (f) (g. -ortho) diory dio,lann(f) (9. -olnne,pl -o) dictionory focl6|J (m) (9..6to, pl..i) difference dlJfiocht (f) (9. -o,pl. .o'i) differcnt dllrl0tl difficult deoco'lr(nios deocrc more difficult) difficulty deo(Iochr (f) (9. -o',pl. .oi); in difficulty. I bponc dinner dlnn6o; (m) (9. -efi, pl. -en) direct direoch disc diosco (m) (pl. -q,i):olso dlothdhloscocompoct disc disco dlosr,6 (m) (pl. -rno) doctor dochtitiJ (m) (9. -ttm, pl. -i) doesd6onqnn dog modm (m) (pl. -oi) doingd6onomh done deonto door dorgs (m) (9. -sls, pl. -dls) doubtqmhros (m) (9. -ois,) d nk deoch (f) (9.di,p/. -onno) d nking6l drinks6lonn driving tlomfilnl (f) G. .6no) dry tlrlm duringle linn, or feodh eorlyluoth easyfurosto (nios fuso) eotinglthe eotsftheonn edlcotion oldeqchos (m) (9. -ols) emoil riomhphost (m) (9. -phoist,p/. -phoist) emptyfolomh
EnglltlFldrhvocqbuhry 377


end del(g'dh (m) (9. -tidh, pl. -ti) enoughd6thqin, 90 leor entertoinment slomsoiocht (f) G. -o) equioment tlqlqmh (m) (9. {imh) essent o, riochtonoch eveningtr6thn6no (m) (p,. trdthn6nto,) event 6c6id (f) @. -e,pl. -i) evety gach (beforc noun) evidenceflonqise (f,) examination *.iJdt (m) (9. -ollhe, pl. -uithe) examplesom?lo (m) (pl. -oi) exce,/entor fheobhqs (with ti is) exhibition toispedntqs(n) (9-.ots, pl. -ois) expensiyedoor experience tnlthi (f) exploinsminionn explonotion minit (m) (9- -lthe, pL -ithe) eye s|!|tl(fl @. -e, pl.a) foceoghqidh (r) (9. -e, p/. oghoidheqnno) focility 6ris(f) (9. -e,pl. -snno) fod (f) (g. -e,pl. -i) fomily t3s,ghlo,ch(n) (9. -olgh, p/.-qigh) fomousc6iliriil form fetm (f) (9. -e,pl. -g,cho) formerfeirmeoir(m) (9. -eom, pt.'i) fother nthdt (m) (9. -ot, pl. qithreocho.) fear eoglo (f), fditios (m) (9. -ls) field pfiitc (f) (9.-e,p/.-eonno), (of odivitl ftimse (n) (pl. -sl)

figure flglitt (m) (9. -tm, pl. -l) file (fot infomotion) comhod (rn) (9. -o,ld, pl. -old) film *ann6n (m) (9. -6h, p/. -6ln) finger m&t (f) (9. mlre, pl. -o) Jiochnoionn finishes (f) (pl.tinte) tine firc (m) (9. -Afi) utltu floor (f) (9. -a) ltofaclft fluency leondnn follows fool blo,(m) (pl. hlonno) foot trolgh (m) (pLtrolthe) footbo pell (m) (9.-e) fot .to (m) (pl. f6rsol); f6rsal force f6ts;o, ormlho omed forces fotgetting .t&tmod (m) (9. -old) fom fofim (f) (9. -e,pl.-eficho): (= shape)cruth (m) (9. -o, pl -onnd) foftnight colcis (f) (9. -e) ftee soor: (ftee of charge)soor in olsce fresh ir ftiend cam (m) (pl. co'lrde) from 6 Frort tosdch (m) (9. tosoigh) fulll6n gome clulche (m) (pl. -chi) gotden go;ifdin (m) (pl. -l) getsup eirionn getsfiolghonn getting fail g collln (n) (pl. collini) gives(to) tugonn (do) goestonn goes(to) tonn (go/chulg/do dti) goesowayimionn

going dul goodmofth (nlosfeofr better) got falghte govenment rlo,llos (m) (9. -ols,pl. -ois, gtossf6al (n) (9. f6L) greot (praising sth) lontorch qrcen glos (of plants): uolne (of manufadured things) grey lloth grcup gr(tpo (m) (pl. -ol): (of people) dreom (m) han gruolg (f) (9. -e) holf leg,th (m) hond l6mh (f) (9. ldlmhe,p/. -o) host6xogy head cf,nn (m) (9. clnn, p,. cinn) heolrh sl6tnte (f) heorsclolseonn heoft ctoi (m) (pl. -the) heovyliom helpscobhroionnle, cuidionn le high ntd hill cnoc (m) (9. cnolc, pL cnoic) histoty srah (f) (9.-e) holiday sE.olrc(m) home(to go horne)obholle;ot horne so bholle; oway frcm home 6 bholle hoped&hc (m) (9.-ols);e.9.In t6 d6ch6ogom=Ihope hot te (nlos teo) hotel 6sl6n (n) (9.-Ain,pl -6ln) hou ua|, (fl @. -e,pl. -eonto) house teoch (m) (9.ti, p/.tithe) hurnidmeirbh (m) (9.grlnn) humourgrcp,nn

hundred ceod (m) (9. caid,, p/. c6odto) hurry deilh (f) (g. -fp) rdeasmoolneomh(m) (9. -n|mh, p/. -nte) important t6bhochtoch improyernent fobhos (m) (9. -als) ini industty tions/col (m) (9. -o;il,pl. -oil) information eolo6 (m) (9. -ols) inside istigh interest sulm (t (9. -e), speis (f.) @.-e);(money)G(n) (9. its) tnteresting sp6isi6il,suimi0il internotionol idirn6isirintq into lsteoch ii ls, t6 issuesee guestion,result job posr h) @. polsr, pl. poist) jouney lwo6 (m) (9. -ois, pL -ois) joy 6tho5 (n) (9.-als) pl. -ocho) kind dneAl h) @.-611, lnolvs t6 o fhios dg x lokeloch (m) (9. -o, pl. -o) lond tabmh (m/f) (m9. tololmh, f9. tolon, pl. toilte) lane(ubon) l6no, (m) (pl. -i): (rural) b6hhrin (m) (pl. -i) language tflngo (f) (pl. tedngocho) loptop computer.iomholre gloine lorye, big m6t (niot m6 bigqet) lost (weeketc) so calte (oftet noun) /afe deqnoch



low dli (n) (pl. dlithe) leaflet hileog (f) (9. -eoige, p,. -eogo,) learning foghlaim (f) /eorns foghlqimionn leavingimqcht ledure l6scht (m) (9. -a, pl. -ai) leduter l6o(,hftttu (m) @."&a,pt..i) left (ovet) l6gthd /e9 cos (f) (9. coise,p/. coso) /etterlitir f) (9. litreoch, p/.litreucho) p/.-6il) /eveileibhCol(m) (9.-6i1, (= standard) coighdedn (m), pl.-6in) @.-Ain, /,fe beotho (f) (p/. -oi); sool (m) f9. sqoll) light (in weigh) eadrcm light (i.e.source of light) solos(m) (9. -ois,pl. soilse) (so./ikes /ikes sth.)is moith le x y; y toitnionn le x line line (f) (pl.linte) listening eisi.3ocht (f) (9. -o) /ivesmoileqnn, (ilves in) c6noionn i /ocalditi!ll iong fqdo (nios foide ionger) lookingfot (dg,lotg lorviseol lunch litn (m) (9. -6i^, pl. -itin) magazine itit (f) (g.itise,pl. -i) mokedononn man feo;t(m) (, manogement boinistiocht (f) G. -o.) monogerbqinisteoir (m) (9.'eorc, pl. -i)

morketmorgddh (m) (9. -o'idh, pl.-oi) maffiage p6sodh (m) (9. p6sto, p6stoi) maffied p6sls mattet Seequestion;olso (phys.) 6bhot (m) (9. -o,it , pl. -niI) meaning bri (f) (pl. brion nq); oiso citll (f) (9. c6llle, pl. -o) meeting (event) (ulnnliJ (m) (9. -nnithe,p/. -nnithe);(meeting so) og buolodh le meetsbuqileonnle, costqrx qr y membet bnll (n) (9. bnlll, p/. bqill) memory cuimhne (m) mile mile (m) (pl. milte) milftbolnne (m) mind intinn (f) (9. -e) mrnuten6im6od (m) (9. -6id, . -aid) minokebottn (m) (9. -0in,p/--iln) mobile phonef6n p6co (m) momentSeeminute money oirgetd (m) (9. -gid) month mi (f), @.mloso,pl. mionno) moming maidin (f) (9. -e, p/. -eochd) (f) (9.-or, mothet m6,tho:it p/, mdithreochq) p/. beil,) mouth b6ol (m) (9.b6i1, music ceol (m) (9. ceoil) nome o,lnm(m) (pl. q,inmneqchq) need96 (m) neighbour cor.hotso, (f) (9. -n, pt. -no) newnuo newssc6ql;nuqcht (broadcast)

p6ipeor nuochtq; newspoper nuocht6n next (weeketc.) (on tseochtoln seo chugoinn)(ofternoun) nicedeqs night oiche (f) (pl. -onto,) no,se tomnn (rn) (9. -oinn) nose sr6n (f) (9. sr6ine, pl. -s) note nifio,(m) (pl. -oi) nothingddda (in negative sentence5) novel trs'c6ol (m) (9. -e , pi. 0rsc6oltoJ numbetuimhir (D (9. uimhreoch, pi. uimhreochc) occupotion sli bheqtho (t (pi.slite beotho) offet toi(lsclnt (f) G. -ceono,pl 'i) office oifig (f) (9. -e,pl. -i) official oifigiflil o/dseqn (nios sine o/der) on (theprognmme is or) qr siol on of open (adjedive) oscsilte, or oscqilt (with !6 is) open(verb) oscloionn opinion tuoitim (f) (9. -e,pl. -i), boriil (fl (9. -nlo,pi. -nlocho) order (= command) ordt (m) (9. ordqithe,p/. orduithe); (ornngement) od (m) (9. oird, pl.oitd) othereile out of os outsideomuigh outwordsomqch over (direction) that; (nr,,shed)thort

page leothonoch (m) (9. -oigh, p/. -qigh) papet pA|!J6or(n) (9. -6ir, p/. -6lr) poragraph olt (m) (9. oilt, p/. qilt) parenttuismltheolr (m) (9. -eon, pt.-i) potl culd (f) G. codo, p/. codqnno); p6irt (9. p6irte,p/. pdirteqnno) potticular ar leilh,fooi leith (ofter noun) patty (soc.)c6lst (f) (9. -e,pl. -i): (pol.) pfiitti (pl. -tithe) patient othot (m) (9. -(rit,pl. -oiil) percentagecCdtadAn(g. -6in, d.-ain) period tlaimhse (f) (pl. -si) pemission ceo.d(m) (9. -tJ) personduine (m) (p/.doolne) pidure pi(tllr (m) (9. -itt|l, pl. -liti() piecepiosa(m) (pl.-ai) ploceatit(f) (9.-e,pl. -i) planeeitleAn(n) (9.-Ain,pi. -6in) (n) (pl..i) plote p|/6ltu ploy (theatre) drimo (m), (pl. dfimai) plays (gome) imrionn; (music) seinneonn plean pleo,n(m) (pl. -dnno.) poem din (m) (9. diin, pl. -to) point pointe (m) (pl. -ti) police pl. (no'l p6ilini; An Gordq olios nq Siochdno(the force), Gordoi (piJ policy polosq,i(n) , (pl. -so,ithe) postt,on suiomh (m) (9. -imh, p/.-imh) pound punt (m) (9.puint, p/. puint) powercumhqcht (m) (9. -q)

38 0

English-tri3h vocobuldry 3 8I

procticol teicni0il procticecleochtodh (m) (9. -oidh) prolses molonn pfesent bronntqnos (n) (9. -sis, pl. -ois) prce pmghos (m) (9. -ois, p/. -ghsonno,) priestsogort (m) (9. -oirt, p/. -qirt) privotepriobh6ldeqch problem fadhb (f) (9. fatdhbe, p/. -onno) processpr6iseos (rn) (9. pr6isis, pl proisisJ programme cl6r (m) (9. cl6lr, p/, cl6ir, o/socl6rochqJ p.ojecttions(nqmh (m) (9. -qimh, p/. -oimh) public poibll putscuireqnn putting cur question celst (f) (9. -e,p/. -eqnno) guicktoPo guiet ciriin guietness cionqs(m) (9. -ols) todio raidi6 (m) roin bdisteoch (, (9. b6tsti) rcte ftto (m) (9. -oi) reod5l6qn readyr6idh,ullomh reosonlAth (m) (9. -a,pl -qnno); c(ls (t (9. -e,p/. c0iseanno) red deorg regular rioltd rclotionship gool (m) (g. gaofi) rcnt cios (m) (9. -o, pl. -anno) rcpott tttq'irlsr, (m) (9. -e, pl. -i); (doc) tuorqsc6il (, (9. -dlo,pl -6lochq)

reseorchtdighde (m) rcsped meas (m) (9. -o) restouront blolqnn f) (9. -olnne, p/. -qnno) resulttomdh (m) (9. -oidh, p/. torthqi) right (odjedive) ceaft tight ceaft (m) (9. citt, p/. ceorto, e.9.cdrto doonno humon ights) riverdbhoinnf) (9. -onn, p/. qibhneocho) rood bt*hor (m) (9. -otr,pl b6ithre) role 16l(m) (pl. r6lonna) room seomrc (m) (pl. "ti); (= space)spis (m) (9. sp6is) tule rlotl (f) (9. tio'loch, p/. riqtochq) solotytuotg6to;l(m) (9. -oil,pl -c ) satisnedsdstq soysdelronn (f) (9. -e,p/.-eonno) schoolscoll screen s{j,lltrln(m) (9. -6in,pl -6h) seaforrclge (f) (pl. .gi) seotsuiochdn (m) (9. dln, pl -din) sedion ro;nn6g(f) (9. -619e, pi. -69o) seeking(o9) lorg sees feiceonn sending cur sends culreonn sense ciall (t (9. c6ille) seNiceseftbhis (f) (9. -e,pt. -i) ship long (f) (9.lolnge, pl. .a) shift laine (f) ( . |Eint) shoebr6g (n) (9. br6tge, pl. -o) shop slopa (m) (pl. -i) shortgeo|r (nlos 9lor1o) showerclth (m) (9. ctth, pl. cathonno) shows tolspednonn

stdetoobh (m) (9. tooibh, P,.'onno) silencelost (m) (9. -o) singingcqnodh (m) sisterdeirfior (f) (9. -lbor, p/. 'qcho) sitssuionn s/eepcodlodh (m) (9. codloto) smailbeog (nios l( smolier) s6isioltq socio, societypobol (n) (9. 'oil, p/. 'oil.); (= orgonizotion) cumonn (m) (9. -qinn,p/. -oinn) soft boq so/utionrGiteoch(m) (9. lgh, pl.'igh) uolleontq Sometimes sonmoc (m) (9. mic, P,.mlc, clqnn mhoc) p/. -6in, song tmhfin (m) (9. -61n, kind,tyqe sott See speakercolnteoir (m) (9. '@to, pl 'l) spelslolto specio, spott sp6tt (m) (9. sp6ltt) springeormch (m) (9. -oigh, pl..oigh) staff Seeteam stoge(theot.)st6itse (m) (pl.'ls,i), ot this stoge = 09 on bPolnte seo seosonn stonds stote (po,.)st6t (m) (9. st6it, pi. st6it); (phys.)stoid (f) @. -e, -eonno, stoysfononn stonecloch f) (9. cloiche,P/.'o) story*&l (m) (9. sc6il, P/.sc6alto) streetsldiid (f) (9. .e, Pl. 'eonnq) studentmoc l6lnn (m) (9. mic l6inn' pi. mic l6lnn) study(activity)*.onde{f @) (9.'eV' pl. -eir); (room)seomm stoid6il

subject6bh (m) (9. -oir,p,. 'qir) molqnn suggests somhrqdh(m) (9. -oidh, surnmer pl. -oi) sungriqn f) (9. 9r6lne) sunny gr6lne (9. of g(lan sun) ollmholgodh (m) supermorket (9.'oidh, pl.'oi) supper sulp6ot (m) (9. '6ir, pl. 'Elt) support to(:oio<ht (f) o. "cr) surecinnte c6ros(m) (9.'ois, P,.'ois) system toble bo,d (m) (9. bolrd, Pi. bohd); also tdblo (m) (pl. -oi) tokes t6gqnn, glqconn x le Y tokingp/aceor si0l,or bun talk co,int (f) (9. -e) tollc (ta/ls to) lobhronn le task,enand ctnom (m) (9. 'oim, p/. -oim, tosteblos (m) tox cdin (f) (9. c6noch, p/. cdnochoJ teo toe (m/ teocher mointeolr (m) (9.'@to, pl. 'i) teom foireonn (ll (9.foirne, p/. foirne) telephonel6n (m) (g.f6ln, p/.f6in), P/.-6ln) 9uth6n (m) (9.-61n, teievisionteilifis f) (9. -e) te,lingInslnt tei/s Insionn(do) (rn) (pl. -al) ,"r, 16s1711,6 that, thosesin thing rlud(m) (9. -o,Pl.oi);in some ni, P,.nithe contexts thrnkceaponn,sileonn this, tnese seo

J8 z


3 83

time om (m) (9. a, pl. -onto) tiredtuirseqch to do (givin ; go, go dtl chulg (diredion) toilet lelthreos(m) (9. -ris,pl. -ris) top bwt (m) (g.boifr, pl. -o') town boile m6r (m) (p/.bollte m6m) trode ceird (f) @--e,pl. -snno) troin troein (f) (9. tmenoch, pi. tmenqchqJ trcining olllftlnl (f) (9. -ltnd) tnvel(ling) tollst3ol (m) (g. -til) treecronn (m) (9. cmlnn, p/. cminn) t ousers treobhsqr(m) (9. -qir, pl. -o,it),btlsle (n) (pl. -tt) trysbqineqnntrioil os type citredil(n) (9. -Ail,p/. -ocho); (p nting) cl6 (m) doillr unclear undet f@i understonds tuigeonn (m) union(trcde)ceordchumqnn (9. -oinn,pl. -oinn) univesity ollscoil (f) (9. -e, pL .eonnq) usets6id (f) @. -e, pl. -1) useful osdideoch volueluoch (m) (9. -q, p/. 'qnnq) videotopellst6lp (f) (9. -e, pl. -eonno.) view rodhorc (f) @. 'olrc, pL -olrc) voiceE)th (m) (9. -o, pl. -annq)

wolksslolonn r.volbqllo (m) (9. bollai) wontsteqstoionnx6y wotches feochqnn qr woter llsce (m) (pl. -cl) woy beolxh (m) (9. -olgh, pL qi); sli (f) (pl. sllte) weathet o'lms'f (f) @. -e) website suiomh |tn (m) (9. suimh p/. lin, suimh lin) week*tchLoin (f) (9. -e,pl. -i) welcomefd,ilte (f) wet fliuch (nios fliche wettet) whiletomoll (m) (9. -oill) whitebdn wifebeon ch6ile (f), (9. mnd celle, p,. mn6 c6ile) windgooth f) (9. gaoithe) window fulnneog (f) (9. -eoige, pl. -eogq) winterglmhreodh (m) (9. -rldh, . -rt) with le woman beoln(f) (9. mn6, pL mnd) wonderionadh (m) word foctl (m) (9. all, pl. -oll) workobolr f) (9. olbre, p/. oibredchd) wor,(er olbri (m) (9. olbrith, p/. olbrlthe) worlddomhan (m) (9. dn, pl dn) writesscriobhqnn yeor blloln (f) (9. bllono,pL bllonto) yellow blf young 69 (pl.6gd, nlos 6ige younget)

Grommor index
This is an index to grammarnotesand idiomatic constructions. The fust numberin eachentry refersto the unit, the second to the sectionnumberwithin the unit. odjectives beforenoun3/5 emphosized 6/9, 18/9 following noun3/5, 6/5 formsmeqningmoreond most 't1t9,14t1 from nouns6/10 lenited6/5, 8/8 possessive 1/4 plurolforms8/6, 8/7 preceded by go 6/3 referring to weother 6/2 verbolodjectives 5/10, 5/11, 16t10 odverbs ond odverbphroses ploce1I 1, 16I F9, 17| 1-2 time 514,7 19,12f7, 18110 odvice 19/11 ofter 1217,18110 ag (at) 3l3,Sl 4, 5110, 7 11,1518 oge 3/8 ollSl't1,11tA on (afticlel1 11,212,21 4, 513, 5t4, 616,6t9, 6t11, 7 t6, 17 t8, 18/11 an- (very) 517 onn (there)518,617 onother 11/4 ony 4114,1517 oon (any, 4114 oois (oge)3/8 dt (on)516, 618, 7 11, 9111, 12t9, 1qB o? sitl (underwoyl 15110 orticle(the) 1 11,513,616,18111 with prepositions 5/4 os (out of, ftom) 213 becouse 19/5 b'fiiildb (maybe) 2Ol1O cit? (wherel Sl9 cdd?(what?)213,411'l, 1013, 11t6 ttl&,716,812, c6 (who, whatl217, 918,9t12,11t6 ceonn(in counting) 11/5 chuig (towatds, 1817 chun (to, towotds) 13111 clann (children\ 3l1O c6nol 1/5 conos?how?\ '116 (is)1/3,2/1,619,8134, copulo 10t8, 14t1, 14t2, 14t4, 15t4, 15t6, 1At9,',19t2, 19t11, 20t12 present tense1/3, 211,8134, 1Afl

, 84

Gonnor Indcx l8 !

copulo(Contd) 19111, 10/8,1819, conditionol 20t12-13 posttense 15/6,18/9 speech 19/2 in reported 14l1 in relotive clouses ln emphotic/constrostive 5/9, 15/4 sentences counung 11/6,'11l7 money numbers 16/11 ordlnol people 13/9,15/8 yeots3lT cuid (pott, Pottion,U4, alll 11/5, 16/11 de (of, fron) 819-'10, dnedions1612,17114 do (tot 217,412,1111-2, 13111 10/5 d6thoin (sufficiency) droch- (bad)6/12 11/4 eile (other) 3/3, 5/9, 'l5/4 emphosis laoi (under , about)914 6/8 feobhos (improvement) obility)9/6 feidir (expressing f6in (sef) 3/4 go (to) 13111,1715 go (that) 191'14 go leor (plenty)718 holf4/13 hopes 19/9 | (inl 216 18/10 ldlr (between)

if 19t8,20t8-9,20110 -in (littlel 7 l1o mutotions initiol 5, 7I 4, 21 6, 317, 5I 4, 51 eclipsis 17t8 lenition 1/1,1/4,3/1,315,317, 717, 7 14, \l1 tt, 615, 3110,417, 1516 1017, 1118, 8t8, 919, 716 6111, 513, 616, rs 111, 1/1, 7/6 t beforevowels 1/4,212,214, vowels h before 6t3 813,8f.,1011 is moith le (/ikes) knows1416,19/4 le (withl 316,416,515,811-5, 1011, 1013, 9 111, 9t3, 916, 15t11,19110 likes 8/3, 8/5 leoth- (haf) 4/1 locotion17l1-4 md (tD 19/8, 20/8-9 mor (os)4/7 11/6 m6id,mod(omount) miste13/12 mwa (if notl 2Ol1O our,etc.'ll4, 8/11 my,your, nd (than)9/8 nouns gender 1/1 genitive cose 4/10, 5/3, 5/6, 917, 9110, 6t11,8111, 915, 10t6,15t12-13,1718-9 plurols 214,18112 41 4, 41 3, 9I 5, 13 18, 14l S verbol

6 (fron) 1113,18110 obligotion 14l3,20113 only13/9 os comhoir (opposlte) 16/8 ownership 8/1, 8/2 possive 10/10, 1816,19110 possession 114, 312,31 4, 412, 4t9, 5t3,8t1,8t10 possibility 9/5, 20/3,20111 preference 9/3, 10/10 prepositions, personol forms of t 15,516,811, 313, 812,815, 4t10, 9t3, 10t4, 10t8, 1019, 11t1, 11t2,'t 413, 1ya, 16t9, 17t5,17t7,18t7 probobility 19/7 pronouns 1/2,2/8, 411,511,715, 13t6,14t4-5,1StS quontities 8/12 relotive clouses 4/8, 717,9 19, 17t7 16-(withodj.,roo)11/8 roimh (before) 7 13,1612,1716 seo(thisl411, 512,8112, 1115, 11t6 sin (thot)51 1, 512, anz, 17t7 s6tt lkind ofl 917 surnomes 15/2 td (is)112,215, 312,hl3,4lq, sno, 6t1, 17t7, 20t5, 20t9,2'tB with onn (there)5/7 tor Cis(+ gen., after) 12l8 that (past, beyond)1619

too 11/8 trosno (ocross) 15/7 ulle (alll 1114 verb closses 7/3, 1212-3,1611, 18t2,20t1 conditionol 11/1,20/1-5 futuretense 18/1-5 imperotive tFs 10/2, 1611,161 possive forms10/10,15/1-3, 14t6,21t4 irregulor verbs 13/2,18/4-5, 2016 porticulor verbs 11/10,13/4, 16t3,'t9t4 posttense 12l1-16 perfect tense5/10, 13/7, 16t10 preceded by on, ni, 90 etc. 7t4, 7t7, 9t9, 13t1,13t3, 1 5t3,17t7, 1at3,19t2,20tr1 present tense7/2 present hobituol 9/1, 9/2, 20t9 progressive forms4/4, 12l1 with prepositions 9111,1519 very517,10117 wont11/3 when? 9/8 where? 5/9, 13/3 which of two?10/9 whoT lwhot?217,318,418,512, 7t6, 8t2, 9t9,9t12,11t6 wordorder 1/8,3/5,419,615, 13t8,14t5,lstS


GrEmmor Indcx 3 87