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telecom BCN Escola Tècnica Su p erior d ’ En g in y eria de
telecom BCN Escola Tècnica Su p erior d ’ En g in y eria de

telecom

BCN

telecom BCN Escola Tècnica Su p erior d ’ En g in y eria de Telecomunicació

Escola Tècnica Superior dEnginyeria de Telecomunicació de Barcelona

Departament de Teoria del Senyal i Comunicacions

Barcelona Departament de Teoria del Senyal i Comunicacions UNIVERSITAT POLITÈCNICA DE CATALUNYA FIBER-OPTIC

UNIVERSITAT POLITÈCNICA DE CATALUNYA

FIBER-OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS JOAN M. GENÉ BERNAUS
FIBER-OPTIC
COMMUNICATIONS
JOAN M. GENÉ BERNAUS

G C O

FIBER-OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS JOAN M. GENÉ BERNAUS G C O OPTICALOPTICAL COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS GROUPGROUP GCO

OPTICALOPTICAL COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS GROUPGROUP

G C O OPTICALOPTICAL COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS GROUPGROUP GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS CONTENTSCONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. OPTICAL FIBER 3. OPTICAL
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
CONTENTSCONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. OPTICAL FIBER
3. OPTICAL SOURCES
4. OPTICAL RECEIVERS
5. OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS
6. FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEMS
21 M ARCH 2011
CONTENTSCONTENTS
slide 2
GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS 3.3. OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES • INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
3.3. OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES
• INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL SOURCES
– CHARACTERISTICS, TYPES, AND APPLICATIONS
– LIGHT – MATTER INTERACTION
– PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF SEMICONDUCTORS
– QUANTUM EFFICIENCY
• LED DIODE
– WORKING PRINCIPLE
• LIGTH – CURRENT CHARACTERISTIC
• POWER SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY
• LED’S LOSSES
21
M ARCH 2011
CONTENTSCONTENTS
slide 3
GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS – LED DYNAMICS • LED’S RATE EQUATION • LED’S DIRECT
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
– LED DYNAMICS
• LED’S RATE EQUATION
• LED’S DIRECT MODULATION
LASER DIODE
– WORKING PRINCIPLE
• MATERIAL GAIN
• OSCILLATION CONDITION
• LIGHT – CURRENT CHARACTERISTIC
• LASER TYPES
– LASER DYNAMICS
• LASER’S RATE EQUATIONS
• THRESHOLD CURRENT
• LASER’S DIRECT MODULATION
– MODERN LASER STRUCTURES
21
M ARCH 2011
CONTENTSCONTENTS
slide 4

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O INTRODUCCTIONINTRODUCCTION TOTO OPTICALOPTICAL
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O INTRODUCCTIONINTRODUCCTION TOTO OPTICALOPTICAL
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O INTRODUCCTIONINTRODUCCTION TOTO OPTICALOPTICAL

INTRODUCCTIONINTRODUCCTION TOTO OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES

TOTO OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES OPTICAL ELECTRICAL SIGNAL SOURCE I OPTICAL SIGNAL P

OPTICAL

ELECTRICAL

SIGNAL

SOURCE
SOURCE
SOURCESSOURCES OPTICAL ELECTRICAL SIGNAL SOURCE I OPTICAL SIGNAL P QUADRATIC CONVERSION I  P 21 M

I

OPTICAL

SIGNAL

OPTICAL ELECTRICAL SIGNAL SOURCE I OPTICAL SIGNAL P QUADRATIC CONVERSION I  P 21 M ARCH

P

QUADRATIC CONVERSION

I P

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

slide 5

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O ContinuousContinuous WaveWave (CW)(CW) E E OUT OUT V
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O ContinuousContinuous WaveWave (CW)(CW) E E OUT OUT V
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O ContinuousContinuous WaveWave (CW)(CW) E E OUT OUT V

ContinuousContinuous WaveWave (CW)(CW)

EE OUTOUT

V cc IntensityIntensity ModulationModulation (IM)(IM)
V cc
IntensityIntensity ModulationModulation (IM)(IM)

V cc

I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)

I(t)

I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
ModulationModulation (IM)(IM) V cc I(t) t t f ~ 10 14 H z o E E
ModulationModulation (IM)(IM) V cc I(t) t t f ~ 10 14 H z o E E

tt

ModulationModulation (IM)(IM) V cc I(t) t t f ~ 10 14 H z o E E
f ~ 10 14 H z o
f ~ 10 14 H z
o

EE OUTOUT

I(t) tt
I(t)
tt
V cc I(t) t t f ~ 10 14 H z o E E OUT OUT

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

slide 6

GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS DESIRABLEDESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICSCHARACTERISTICS 
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
DESIRABLEDESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICSCHARACTERISTICS

HIGHHIGH E/OE/O CONVERSIONCONVERSION EFFICIENCYEFFICIENCY

WORKINGWORKING TEMPERATURETEMPERATURE ANDAND STABILITYSTABILITY

EMISSIONEMISSION FREQUENCYFREQUENCY

HIGHHIGH MODULATIONMODULATION SPEEDSPEED

LINEARLINEAR LIGHTLIGHT‐‐CURRENTCURRENT RESPONSERESPONSE

HIGHHIGH SPECTRALSPECTRAL PURITYPURITY (( LASERLASER))

FIBERFIBER COMPATIBILITYCOMPATIBILITY (COUPLING)(COUPLING)

SMALLSMALL SIZESIZE ANDAND CONSUMPTIONCONSUMPTION (INTEGRATION)(INTEGRATION)
 REDUCEDREDUCED COSTCOST
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
slide 7
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
TYPESTYPES ANDAND APPLICATIONSAPPLICATIONS
LEDLED DIODEDIODE
 Visible  visualization
 near IR  telecom
LASERLASER DIODEDIODE
 Vi sibl e
 industry
 medicine
 space telecom
 near IR  tel ecom
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
slide 8

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LILI GG HTHT ‐‐ MATTERMATTER INTERAINTERA CC TITI
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LILI GG HTHT ‐‐ MATTERMATTER INTERAINTERA CC TITI
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LILI GG HTHT ‐‐ MATTERMATTER INTERAINTERA CC TITI

LILI GG HTHT‐‐ MATTERMATTER INTERAINTERACC TITI OO NN

AtomicAtomic // MolecularMolecular EnergyEnergy LevelLevel

“The energy level of an isolated atom / molecule is discrete due to Pauli Exclusion Principle.

E nergy L evels
E nergy L evels

E

E

E

E

E

m

4

3

2

1

Boltzmann Statistics P(E )  exp   E K T  m mB K
Boltzmann Statistics
P(E
)  exp
 E
K
T
m
mB
K B : C. Boltzmann (1.38 ∙ 10 ‐ 23 J/K)
P(E m )

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

slide 9

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LightLight AbsorptionAbsorption // EmissionEmission
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LightLight AbsorptionAbsorption // EmissionEmission
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LightLight AbsorptionAbsorption // EmissionEmission

LightLight AbsorptionAbsorption // EmissionEmission ProcessesProcesses

“Any given material shows a particular light absorption characteristic. Some o f them, under specific conditions, have the capacity of light emission”.

hf photon energy

hf E 2 E 1 = E g (direct GAP)

STIMULATEDSTIMULATED ABSORPTIONABSORPTION Excited State N E 2 2 photon E = h·f E GAP N
STIMULATEDSTIMULATED ABSORPTIONABSORPTION
Excited State
N
E 2
2
photon E = h·f
E GAP
N
E 1
1

h: C. Planck (6,6310 34 Js) f: lig ht fre q uenc y

“The incident photon is absorbed by an electron which increments its energy level”

by an electron which increments its energy level” Photodetectors Ground State 21 M ARCH 2011 3.3.

Photodetectors

Ground State

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

slide 10

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O SPONTANEOUSSPONTANEOUS EMISSIONEMISSION Excited State N E
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O SPONTANEOUSSPONTANEOUS EMISSIONEMISSION Excited State N E
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O SPONTANEOUSSPONTANEOUS EMISSIONEMISSION Excited State N E
SPONTANEOUSSPONTANEOUS EMISSIONEMISSION Excited State N E 2 2 photon E GAP E = h·f N
SPONTANEOUSSPONTANEOUS EMISSIONEMISSION
Excited State
N
E 2
2
photon
E GAP
E = h·f
N
E 1
1

Ground State

RecombinationRecombination LifetimeLifetime

e - a E 2 [N]
e - a E 2 [N]

N 0

N

0 /e

LifetimeLifetime e - a E 2 [N] N 0 N 0 /e  r t [s]
LifetimeLifetime e - a E 2 [N] N 0 N 0 /e  r t [s]
 r t [s]
 r
t [s]
LifetimeLifetime e - a E 2 [N] N 0 N 0 /e  r t [s]
2   mm1  m
2
  mm1
m

“An excited electron releases energy in

the form of a photon with random frequency, phase, and direction”

I ncoh erent lig ht (LED)

Bose Einstein statistics

“Average time to return to ground state”

t  N  N e  r 0
t
N
 N e 
r
0

to return to ground state” t  N  N e  r 0 τ r

τ r : Carrier Lifetime



N

r

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

slide 11

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O STIMULATEDSTIMULATED EMISSIONEMISSION Excited State N E 2
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O STIMULATEDSTIMULATED EMISSIONEMISSION Excited State N E 2
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O STIMULATEDSTIMULATED EMISSIONEMISSION Excited State N E 2
STIMULATEDSTIMULATED EMISSIONEMISSION Excited State N E 2 2 1 photon 2 photons E GAP E
STIMULATEDSTIMULATED EMISSIONEMISSION
Excited State
N
E 2
2
1 photon
2 photons
E GAP
E = h·f
E = h·f
N
E 1
1

spectraspectra

Ground State

“An incident p hoton forces an excited electron to release its energy in the form of a new photon with exactly the

same frequency phase and direction ” , ,
same frequency phase and direction ”
,
,

h

i

h

À

Co erent L g t (L SER)

Poisson Statistics

2

, , h i h À Co erent L g t (L SER) Poisson Statistics 2

  m

m

P [W] coherent light incoherent light E g /h f [Hz]
P [W]
coherent
light
incoherent
light
E g /h
f [Hz]

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

slide 12

GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS ThermalThermal EEqq uilibriumuilibrium ConditionCondition
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
ThermalThermal EEqq uilibriumuilibrium ConditionCondition
SPONTANEOUSSPONTANEOUS EMISSIONEMISSION
STIMULATEDSTIMULATED EMISSIONEMISSION
Excited State
Excited State
N
E
N
E
2
2
2
2
photon
E
1 photon
2 photons
GAP
E GAP
E = h·f
E = h·f
E = h·f
N
E
N
E
1
1
1
1
Ground State
Ground State
STIMULATESSTIMULATES ABSORPTIONABSORPTION
hf  K
T
B
No external energy interchange
Excited State
N
E
2
2
Absor tions
Rate
p
Emissions
photon E = h·f
=
E GAP
Rate
N
E
1
1
Ground Sta te
E i : Energy
N
: Carriers Density
i
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
slide 13
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
EinsteinEinstein RelationsRelations
1
P
 

s


S
hf
r
3
A
v Wd
 J 
 
m
 
Spontaneous E. Rate r  AN N
sp
2
2
r
Stimulated A. Rate
r a  B N
avS  N
12
1
1
Thermal Equilibrium
Stimulated E Rate
.
r
 B
N
 avS  N
rr
 r
[m
‐3 s ‐1 ]
st
21
2
2
a
sp
st
3
av
m
B
B
12
21
hf
 
J
s 
N
Boltzmann
2

exp
E
K
T

exp
hf
K
T
gB
B
N
Statistics
1
B
N AN  B N
12
1
2
21
2
AN
A B
A B
2
21
21

BN
BN
BN
BN
1
B
B
exp
hf K
T
1
12
1
21
2
12
1
21
2
12
21
B
A: Sp. Em. Coef.
B 12 : St. Ab. Coef.
B 21 : St. Em. Coef.
 : E.S.D. radiation
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
slide 14
GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS 3 Blackb od y Radiation (Planck’s Formula) 8hfv  
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
3
Blackb od y Radiation
(Planck’s Formula)
8hfv

exp hf K
T
1
B
[J
∙ m ‐3 ]
3
A B
8hfv
21

B
B
exp
hf K
T
1
exp
hf K
T
1
12
21
B
B
8hfv
3 
A
B
BBB  
r
B
N
1
21
st
21
2
 exp  hf K T  1   1
B
r
AN
sp
2
12
21
P(Esp) >> P(Est)
Not interesting
Net Stimulated Emission Rate
r
r
r
N
  B
N
N
 N
e
st
a
2
1
2
1
[m
‐3 s ‐1 ]
Population Inversion
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
slide 15
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
SEMICONDUCTORSSEMICONDUCTORS PRINCIPLESPRINCIPLES
1. The electrons are located in discrete energy states being the last two the
Valence / Conduction Bands se p arated by an energy GAP
Gas
Solid
E
E
C
C
E
E
E
V
V
g
E
E
3
3
E
E
2
2
< 0.1 eV  Conductors
0. 1‐ 3 eV  Semiconductors
> 3 eV  Isolators
E
E
1
1
Depending on the energy GAP, the materials are divided among: isolators,
conductors and semiconductors .
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
slide 16
Ene r gy Leve ls

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O E electric field CONDUCTION BAND electron electron
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O E electric field CONDUCTION BAND electron electron
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O E electric field CONDUCTION BAND electron electron
E electric field CONDUCTION BAND electron electron transition hole VALENCE BAND
E
electric field
CONDUCTION BAND
electron
electron
transition
hole
VALENCE BAND
Energy 2k B T Electrons E C E GAP E V Holes
Energy
2k B T
Electrons
E C
E GAP
E V
Holes

Concentration

2. Electrons in the CB are not tied to any particular atom so they are free to

move along the semiconductor.

3. When an electron liberates from its atom and moves to CB leaves a hole in

the VB which is called to have positive charge.

4. An electron placed in CB may return to VB occupying a hole an releasing its

energy that can be in the form of a photon. This process is known as electron

hole recombination.

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

slide 17

GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS Ener gy CONDUCTION BAND 2k B T Electrons E E C photon
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
Ener gy
CONDUCTION BAND
2k B T
Electrons
E
E
C
photon
C
Fermi
E
E
Level
GAP
F
E = h·f
E
E
V
V
Holes
VALENCE BAND
0 1/2
1
Wave Vector (k)
f E (E)
Concentration
Direct GAP
Fermi ‐ Dirac Distribution
1
f(E)
 1
exp
E
E
E
K
total
E
 
f
B
T  
photon
E
phonon <<E photon
E f : Fermi Leve l
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
slide 18
Ene rgy (E)

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O PP ‐‐ typetype SemiconductorSemiconductor Some
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O PP ‐‐ typetype SemiconductorSemiconductor Some
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O PP ‐‐ typetype SemiconductorSemiconductor Some

PP ‐‐ typetype SemiconductorSemiconductor

Some “acceptor ” doping atoms are added which take electrons from the Conduction Band. A positive carrier flux is produced.

Energy 2k B T Electrons E C E GAP E V Holes
Energy
2k B T
Electrons
E C
E GAP
E V
Holes
E electric field CONDUCTION BAND electron
E electric field
CONDUCTION BAND
electron

Fermi Level (Acceptor)

hole VALENCE BAND
hole
VALENCE BAND

Concentration

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

slide 19

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O NN ‐‐ type type SemiconductorSemiconductor Some “
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O NN ‐‐ type type SemiconductorSemiconductor Some “
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O NN ‐‐ type type SemiconductorSemiconductor Some “

NN ‐‐ typetype SemiconductorSemiconductor

Some donor doping atoms are added which give electrons to the Conduction Band. A negative carrier flux is produced.

Energy Electrons E C E GAP E V Holes 2k B T
Energy
Electrons
E C
E GAP
E V
Holes
2k B T
E electric field CONDUCTION BAND electron
E electric field
CONDUCTION BAND
electron

Fermi Leve l ( Donor)

hole VALENCE BAND
hole
VALENCE BAND

Concentration

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

slide 20

E f

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O P P ‐ ‐ N N U n i
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O P P ‐ ‐ N N U n i
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O P P ‐ ‐ N N U n i

PP NN UnionUnion HomojunctionHomojunction

Thermal Equilib.

+ Voltage

P N E E f e h e h Conce ntration Energy (E)
P
N
E
E
f
e
h
e
h
Conce ntration
Energy (E)

Position

3.3.

Active Region 110 microns

21 M ARCH 2011

V P + + + N P N + + +
V
P
+ + +
N
P N
+ +
+
Depletion Layer f E f qV 0 e h e h Position
Depletion Layer
f
E f
qV 0
e
h
e
h
Position
qV q(V 0 -V) e h e h
qV
q(V 0 -V)
e
h
e
h

Position

Diode

  qV   I  I  exp  1   
qV
I
I
exp
1
S
K
T
B

I S : Saturation Current

In Thermal Equilibrium, the Fermi Level has to be continuous along the PN junction

slide 21

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS PP ‐‐ NN UnionUnion HeterojunctionHeterojunction P P N
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
PP ‐‐ NN UnionUnion
HeterojunctionHeterojunction
P
P
N
Active
P
N
Region
0.1 microns
E
c
E
f
E g1
E g1
E g2
E
g
E
v
Position
Barrier
n 1
n 2
E
f
Guiding
ACTIVE
REGION
Position
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
slide 22
e +
T hermal Equilib.
Voltag
Energy (E)
Energy (E)
Light
Ref. i ndex
E nergy

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O MaterialsMaterials forfor OpticalOptical SourcesSources
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O MaterialsMaterials forfor OpticalOptical SourcesSources
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O MaterialsMaterials forfor OpticalOptical SourcesSources

MaterialsMaterials forfor OpticalOptical SourcesSources FabricationFabrication

NO METALS

III

IV

V

VI

VII

B

C

N

O

F

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

c hf  h  E g g g  GaAs
c
hf  h 
E g
g
g
 GaAs

Binaries

Ternaries Al x Ga 1 x As

In x Ga 1 x As

Material Material E E (eV) (eV)   (μm) (μm) GAP GAP g g g
Material
Material
E E
(eV)
(eV)
(μm)
(μm)
GAP
GAP
g g
g g

Ge

Ge

0.66

0.66

1.88

1.88

I

I

Si

Si

1.11

1.11

1.15

1.15

I

I

AlP

AlP

2.45

2.45

0.52

0.52

I

I

AlAs

AlAs

2.16

2.16

0.57

0.57

I

I

AlSb

AlSb

1.58

1.58

0.75

0.75

I

I

GaP

GaP

2.26

2.26

0.55

0.55

I

I

GaAs

GaAs

1.42

1.42

0.87

0.87

D

D

GaSb

GaSb

0 73

0 73

.

.

1 70

1 70

.

.

D

D

InP

InP

1.35

1.35

0.92

0.92

D

D

InAs

InAs

0.36

0.36

3.5

3.5

D

D

I

I

nn

Sb

Sb

0 17

0 17

7 3

7 3

D

D

(1 st window) (1 st window)

(2 nd & 3 rd window)

Quaternaries In x Ga 1 x As y P 1 y (1 st ,2 nd & 3 rd window)

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

slide 23

GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS QUANTUMQUANTUM EFFICIENCYEFFICIENCY I W o N fot seg P P
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
QUANTUMQUANTUM EFFICIENCYEFFICIENCY
I
W
o
N fot seg
P
P
hf
d
ACTIVE REGION

OUT
o
N e
h seg
I q
L
light‐ current characteristic
hf
P

I
[W]
OUT
q
dP
lasing
stimulated
0.8
emission
dI
LED    6%
LASER   ~ 70%
LED
spontaneous
emission
I th
q: electron charge (1,6 ∙ 10 ‐ 19 C)
Laser Diode Drive Current
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
slide 24
Re lative Outpu t Power

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O InternalInternal // ExternalExternal QuantumQuantum
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O InternalInternal // ExternalExternal QuantumQuantum
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O InternalInternal // ExternalExternal QuantumQuantum

InternalInternal // ExternalExternal QuantumQuantum EfficiencyEfficiency

  e i o o N fot seg N fot seg generated out o
e
i
o
o
N fot seg
N fot seg
generated
out
o
o
N fot seg
N
e  h seg
generated
total

i
e
Si   i  10 ‐ 5
AsGa   i  0.7
o N fot seg out   o N e  h seg total
o
N fot seg
out

o
N e
h seg
total

InefficiencInefficienc CausesCauses

yy

• Emitted light omnidirectionality

Non radiative recombinations thermal energy

• Stimulated absorption in the active region

• Reflection in the source air transition

• Phonon

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

slide 25

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LEDLED (Li (Li g g ht ht EmitinEmitin gg
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LEDLED (Li (Li g g ht ht EmitinEmitin gg
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LEDLED (Li (Li g g ht ht EmitinEmitin gg

LEDLED (Li(Li gg htht EmitinEmitin gg Diode)Diode)

O LEDLED (Li (Li g g ht ht EmitinEmitin gg Diode)Diode) confinement layers fiber bondin g

confinement

layers

fiber bondin g c ircu lar material etched well metalization substrate double hetero‐ junction SiO
fiber
bondin g
c ircu lar
material
etched well
metalization
substrate
double
hetero‐
junction
SiO 2 isolation
metalization
heat sink
circular metal contact
active region

SurfaceSurface‐‐EmittingEmitting LEDLED

stripe contact con f inement layers substrate active region metalization SiO 2 isolation metalization double
stripe contact
con f inement
layers
substrate
active region
metalization
SiO 2 isolation
metalization
double hetero‐
junction
heat sink
incoherent light

EdEd ggee‐‐EmittinEmittingg LEDLED

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE

slide 26

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LEDLED characteristiccharacteristic figuresfigures surface
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LEDLED characteristiccharacteristic figuresfigures surface
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LEDLED characteristiccharacteristic figuresfigures surface

LEDLED characteristiccharacteristic figuresfigures

surface LED linewidth 80 nm FWHM 100 nm edge LED 1140 1180 1220 1260 1300
surface LED
linewidth
80 nm
FWHM
100 nm
edge LED
1140 1180
1220
1260 1300
1340
1380
1420 1460
relati v e powe r

wavelength (nm)

BW up to 100 MHz R B u p to 100 Mb/s

 huge 100 nm

P OUT very small 20 dBm

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE

slide 27

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O WORKINGWORKING PRINCIPLEPRINCIPLE “LED source is a
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O WORKINGWORKING PRINCIPLEPRINCIPLE “LED source is a
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O WORKINGWORKING PRINCIPLEPRINCIPLE “LED source is a

WORKINGWORKING PRINCIPLEPRINCIPLE

“LED source is a diode (PN junction) directly polarized which emits light by spontaneous emission (incoherent light) thanks to an electronhole recombination process”

depletion diffused electrons region n type p type E field
depletion
diffused electrons
region
n type
p type
E field
diffused electrons region n type p type E field incoherentincoherent lightlight o mni d ir ecc

incoherentincoherent lightlight

o mnid ireccio n a l d iffe re nt frequency and phase

,

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE

slide 28

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O CarrierCarrier InjectionInjection –– OpticalOptical
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O CarrierCarrier InjectionInjection –– OpticalOptical
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O CarrierCarrier InjectionInjection –– OpticalOptical

CarrierCarrier InjectionInjection –– OpticalOptical PowerPower

d

quantumquantum efficiencyefficiency

o N fot seg P hf OUT I   o N e  h
o
N fot seg
P
hf
OUT
I

o
N e
h seg
I q
W
N
Joules
P

V
hf
N
s
N
r
r
L

N

r

P

OUT

3 recomb m N
3
recomb m
N

V

recomb

r  r L N  r P  OUT 3 recomb m N V 

N

V

fotons



s

hf

q

I



N V

r

hf

r s N I   r qV
r s
N
I
r qV

s

r

equilibriumequilibrium statestate

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE

slide 29

GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS LightLight –– CurrentCurrent characteristiccharacteristic
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
LightLight –– CurrentCurrent characteristiccharacteristic
“Representation of the optical power emitted by the source as a
function of the polarization electrical current intensity”
P o [mW]
SATURATION
15
R L
P O
I
10
LINEAR
V cc
5
0
0
50
100
I [mA]
hf
P

I
[W]
typical efficiency : 0.05 mW/mA
OUT
q
hf
AsGa   i  0 . 7
 0 8
.
q
21 M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE
slide 30
GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS PowerPower SpectralSpectral DensityDensity “One of the main
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
PowerPower SpectralSpectral DensityDensity
“One of the main characteristics of LED diodes is its spectral width due to the
fact t h at t h e lig ht is inco h erent ( spontaneous emission )”
E  2K T Direct band ‐ to ‐ band
E
nergy
B
most
Electron
RelativeRelative PowerPower
probable
2k B T
concentration
1
jump
distribution
f
0.5
E
C
no. of electron
states
E
f
ff [Hz][Hz]
E
f 1
0
f 2
0
GAP
no. of hole
states
 [m][m]
 1
0
 2
E
V

0.5
K
T
Hole
B
E
 E
concentration
0
1
distribution
RelativeRelative PowerPower
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE
slide 31
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
Peak wavelength ‐  (most robable jum ):
p
p
0
hc
K
T
hc
E
 E
B
 hf  h  c
 
0
g
0
0
2
E
KT2
E
0
g
B
g
[J]
thermal
Spectral width ‐  :
c
c
hc
hc
 E
E
E  E
1
2
 
   
 hc
0
2
1
ffEE
E E
E
 E
 
 
c
0
21
2
1
1
2
E
E
E
 hc
 hc
 hc
2
2
 E

E
E
 
0
E
E
2
E
c
c
c
2  
2 E   
 2  
2K T
2K T
B
2
B
h
c
0
K
T
2
E
hc
E  2K T
B
EE

E
g
B
0g
g
2
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE
slide 32
GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS 2K T 2K T B 2 B     
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
2K T
2K T
B
2
B
 
 


30 – 100 nm
0
0
0
hc
 hc
 E LED  3 ‐ 4 K B T/q
0.03
0.06
Temperature Effect :
K
T
E
ET
B

T
0g
0
2
2K T

T
B
2
(T)
 0.3 ‐ 0.4 nm/ºC
0
 LED
hc
Incoherent Light :
spontaneous em i ss i on  p h o tons w ith ran d om f requency, p h ase , an d
direction (incoherent light)
2
 mm1
Bose ‐ Einstein statistics
m
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE
slide 33

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LEDLED LOSSESLOSSES RadiationRadiation DiagramDiagram 50
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LEDLED LOSSESLOSSES RadiationRadiation DiagramDiagram 50
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LEDLED LOSSESLOSSES RadiationRadiation DiagramDiagram 50

LEDLED LOSSESLOSSES

RadiationRadiation DiagramDiagram 50 40 cos n  LED source cos 
RadiationRadiation DiagramDiagram
50 40
cos n 
LED
source
cos 

50 40

30

20

10

0

L am b ert ’s L aw

I  I cos  P  P cos  0 0  2 P
I  I cos 
P  P cos 
0
0
2
P
 
2
P

sin

T

0

 a 10 P   2  P   sin  i 0
a
10
P
 
2
P

sin

i
0
20
2
 NA 
2

P i  sin
 
c
P
n
30
T
0

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE

slide 34

GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS RReeffracractiti veve II nndidi cesces MiMi smasmattcchh
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
RReeffracractiti veve II nndidi cesces MiMi smasmattcchh ((rereflfl ecectiti onon ))
a
P
2
1
R
 
P
sin
  
IN
0
2
 n  n 
Z
A
0
R 
F resnel s Law
n
n
ZA
0
LED/fiberLED/fiber EffectiveEffective AreaArea MismatchMismatch
a
P
 2 LP  sin   

IN
0
2

fibra
L 
 
LED
fiber
LED
LED
fiber
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE
slide 35
GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS LEDLED DYNAMICSDYNAMICS “The way the carrier equilibrium is
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
LEDLED DYNAMICSDYNAMICS
“The way the carrier equilibrium is restored after a current fluctuation can be
mo d e le d by wh at is known as LED ’s rate equation”
carrier
carrier
carrier density
=
density
density
generation
variation
recombination
rate
rate
N
I
N 
,
r
t
I: electrical current
τ r : carrier lifetime
N: AR carrier density
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE
slide 36

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O d I ACTIVE REGION W I: AR polarization current
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O d I ACTIVE REGION W I: AR polarization current
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O d I ACTIVE REGION W I: AR polarization current

d

I ACTIVE REGION
I
ACTIVE REGION

W

COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O d I ACTIVE REGION W I: AR polarization current P  

I: AR polarization current

P

 

L

J

I

I

 

àrea

 

WL

 

I

J

 

q

V

q

d

N

 

current

density

carrier

generation

carrier

recombination

r

LED’sLED’s raterate equationequation NIN   t qV  r  N  N Unstimulated
LED’sLED’s raterate equationequation
NIN 
t
qV
r
 N
N
Unstimulated state
0
t
0
I
0
N
N
t 

 N  N e
r
0
t
r

[m 3 s 1 ]

t

  0

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE

slide 37

GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS LEDLED ’’ss modulationmodulation ‐‐ ssiinusonusoididaall
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
LEDLED ’’ss modulationmodulation ‐‐ ssiinusonusoididaall momo dduu llaatitionon
PP oo [[mWmW]]
sinusoidal stimulus
j
 
t
I(t)
I
1
m e
0
0
 
I
 
j
 
t
N(t)
N
1
m
e
0
N
0
N
P
j
 t 
0
P(t) 
P
1
me
0
N
0
N
I 0 : DC electrical component
II
[mA[mA··mm --22 ]]
I
0
O ptical Power
N(t)
P(t) 
V  hf
r
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE
slide 38
GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS  j   t  0 ModulationModulation SignalSignal
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
j
 
t
0
ModulationModulation SignalSignal
I(t)
I
1
m e
u(t)
 
 
0
I
I 0
modulationmodulation indexindex
r
m j

t
j
t

t
r 
N(t)
  
1
e
r
I e
e
0
e
u(t)  
qV
1   j 
0
r
m
I
m
N
N
0
 
m
 
N
2
1  
r
0
N(t)
P(t) 
V  hf
r
hf
m

t
j 
j

t
P(t) 
I
 1e

r
I e
e
0 t
r 
e
u(t)  
t
 P 1  me
j t
0
q
1 j
0
N


0
r
P
 
m
 
0
N
I(t)
P(t)
(1+m I ) I 0
(1+m I ) P 0
(1+|m N |) P 0
I 0
P 0
(1-m I ) I 0
(1-|m N |) P 0
(1-m I ) P 0
0
0
t 0
t
t 0
t
21 M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE
slide 39
GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS LEDLED ’’ss TTransransfferer FF uncunc titi onon  P I
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
LEDLED ’’ss TTransransfferer FF uncunc titi onon
P
I
0
P
 
hf
H(
 
)
0
0
q
I
hf
1
m I t
j
j
H(
 ) 
P(t)
P
1
e
0
m I t
 PP 
e
0
0
0
0
1
 
j
q1
 
j
1  j
0
r
0
r
j
t
j
I(t)
I
m e
t
0
 
I
Ime
0
0
  1 
I
0
I
modulationmodulation cutoffcutoff frequencyfrequency
Low ‐ pass behavior
hf
1
H(
)

0
q
2
1  
0
r
1
1

f
0
3dB
2

r
r
typically: 10–100 MHz
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE
slide 40

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O DiDiggititaall MM oo dd uu ll aatiti onon graó
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O DiDiggititaall MM oo dd uu ll aatiti onon graó
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O DiDiggititaall MM oo dd uu ll aatiti onon graó

DiDiggititaall MM oo dd uu ll aatiti onon

graó de corrent

I(t) I

0

I

 I   u(t) 10
 I   u(t)
10
I II  0 10 N t ( )      t
I
II
0
10
N t
( )

t 
1
e
r t
u( )
r
r
qV
qV
 
N
N
 N
0
1
0
I
II
0
10
t 
P(t)

hf

hf
1
e
r 
u(t)
q
q
 
P
PP
0
10
u(t) q q   P PP  0 10 P(t)P(t) P 1 P 0 0
P(t)P(t) P 1 P 0 0 tt
P(t)P(t)
P
1
P 0
0
tt

I(t)I(t)

I

1

I 0

0

tt

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE

slide 41

GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS ResponseResponse TimeTime N(t) N 1 N +0.9(N 1 -N ) 0 0
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
ResponseResponse TimeTime
N(t)
N
1
N
+0.9(N
1 -N
)
0
0
t
r
N
+0.1(N
1 -N
)
0
0
N
0
0
t
N
N
1
0
t

ln  
e  
t
N(t)

N
N
N

1
r
0.1
r
0
10
N
 0.1 N
 N
N
 
1
10
0
t
N

N
N
N

1e  
f
r
N
N
1
0
f
0
10
t

ln  
0.9
r
N
 0.9 N
 N
N
 
1
10
0
N
N
N
 N
t
f
0
1
f
e
f
r
 
1
N
 N
N
 N
1
0
1
0
tt
 t
  ln
0.9 0.1
r
0.9
0.1
r
N
P
P
1
1
1 N
0
1
0
t

ln  

ln  
f
ln 0.9 0.1
3dB
f
r
r
N
1  N
P 1  P
2
2t
r
r
f
f
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE
slide 42

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O MaximumMaximum ModulationModulation SpeedSpeed II t ((t))
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O MaximumMaximum ModulationModulation SpeedSpeed II t ((t))
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O MaximumMaximum ModulationModulation SpeedSpeed II t ((t))

MaximumMaximum ModulationModulation SpeedSpeed

II t ((t)) I 1 I 0 0 T tt B PP((tt)) 3 r P
II t
((t))
I
1
I
0
0
T
tt
B
PP((tt))
3 r
P
1
P
0
0
T
tt
B

f

LED’s response time limits t he mo du l ati on speed

3dB,LED

1

2



r

f

3dB,NRZ

R

B

2

f 3dB,LED

1

R

B

2



r

2

 f 3dB,NRZ 1 R B   r
 f
3dB,NRZ
1
R
B
 
r

t yp icall y : r 10ns

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LEDLED DIODEDIODE

slide 43

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LASERLASER (Li(Li gg htht AmAm pp lificationlification
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LASERLASER (Li(Li gg htht AmAm pp lificationlification
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O LASERLASER (Li(Li gg htht AmAm pp lificationlification

LASERLASER (Li(Li gg htht AmAm pp lificationlification bbyy EstimulatedEstimulated EmissionEmission ofof Radiation)Radiation)

EmissionEmission ofof Radiation)Radiation) confinement layers FabryFabry ‐‐ PerotPerot

confinement

layers

FabryFabry‐‐PerotPerot resonantresonant cavitycavity

dielectric reflecting layers crystal plane‐cleaved cavity ends transverse size 0.1 ‐0.2 μ m lasing spot
dielectric reflecting
layers
crystal plane‐cleaved
cavity ends
transverse size
0.1 ‐0.2 μ m
lasing spot
l
atera s ze
5 ‐15 μ m
l
i
DFBDFB laserlaser

confinement

layers

ze 5 ‐15 μ m l i DFBDFB laserlaser confinement layers feedback grating active region lasing
ze 5 ‐15 μ m l i DFBDFB laserlaser confinement layers feedback grating active region lasing

feedback

grating

active region

lasing spot

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LASERLASER DIODEDIODE

slide 44

GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS LASERLASER MainMain FiguresFigures multi‐mode single ‐mode
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
LASERLASER MainMain FiguresFigures
multi‐mode
single ‐mode
laser
laser
spectral width
FWHM
linewidth
0.1 pm
10 nm
FWHM
1530 1535
1540
1545 1550
1555
1560 1565
1570
1530 1535
1540
1545 1550
1555
1560 1565
1570
wavelength (nm)
wavelength (nm)
 BW up to 10 GHz  R B up to 10 Gb/s
  very narrow  10 MHz (0 . 08 pm)
 P OUT high  3 dBm
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LASERLASER DIODEDIODE
slide 45
relative power
relative power

GCO

DIODEDIODE slide 45 relative power relative power G C O FIBERFIBER- -OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

C O FIBERFIBER- -OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS TYPESTYPES OFOF LASERSLASERS SolidSolid -- StateState
C O FIBERFIBER- -OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS TYPESTYPES OFOF LASERSLASERS SolidSolid -- StateState

TYPESTYPES OFOF LASERSLASERS

COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS TYPESTYPES OFOF LASERSLASERS SolidSolid -- StateState Lasers:Lasers: RubyRuby Ener gy

SolidSolid--StateState Lasers:Lasers: RubyRuby

Ener gy

Rapid decay
Rapid decay

i

Metastable State

Optical

Pumping

Population

I

nvers on

3 Levels

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LASERLASER DIODEDIODE

slide 46

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O GasGas Lasers:Lasers: HeHe- -Ne Ne Energy He Ne Rapid
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O GasGas Lasers:Lasers: HeHe- -Ne Ne Energy He Ne Rapid
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O GasGas Lasers:Lasers: HeHe- -Ne Ne Energy He Ne Rapid

GasGas Lasers:Lasers: HeHe--NeNe

Energy

G C O GasGas Lasers:Lasers: HeHe- -Ne Ne Energy He Ne Rapid Decay Collisions Metastable State
He Ne Rapid Decay Collisions Metastable State Electronic Population Impact Inversion R ap id D
He
Ne
Rapid Decay
Collisions
Metastable State
Electronic
Population
Impact
Inversion
R ap
id D
ecay

4 Levels

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LASERLASER DIODEDIODE

slide 47

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O SemiconductorSemiconductor Lasers:Lasers: GaAsGaAs Ener gy
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O SemiconductorSemiconductor Lasers:Lasers: GaAsGaAs Ener gy
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O SemiconductorSemiconductor Lasers:Lasers: GaAsGaAs Ener gy
SemiconductorSemiconductor Lasers:Lasers: GaAsGaAs Ener gy Conduction Band Rapid Decay Metastable State ec r ca
SemiconductorSemiconductor Lasers:Lasers: GaAsGaAs
Ener gy
Conduction Band
Rapid Decay
Metastable State
ec r ca
Current
El
t
i
l
Population
Inversion
3 Levels

Valence Band

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LASERLASER DIODEDIODE

slide 48

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O WORKINGWORKING PRINCIPLEPRINCIPLE “The LASER source
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O WORKINGWORKING PRINCIPLEPRINCIPLE “The LASER source
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O WORKINGWORKING PRINCIPLEPRINCIPLE “The LASER source

WORKINGWORKING PRINCIPLEPRINCIPLE

“The LASER source consists of an optical resonant cavity based on the stimulated emission process and provides coherent light”

Optical Cavity

Laser Medium Total External Energy Mirror
Laser Medium
Total
External Energy
Mirror

Population Inv.

Medium Total External Energy Mirror Population Inv. Stimulated Em. Laser Amplification Partial Mirror

Stimulated Em.

External Energy Mirror Population Inv. Stimulated Em. Laser Amplification Partial Mirror 21 M ARCH 2011

Laser Amplification

Partial

Mirror

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LASERLASER DIODEDIODE

slide 49

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O EEququiivavallenentt MM oo dd ee ll “The LASER can
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O EEququiivavallenentt MM oo dd ee ll “The LASER can
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O EEququiivavallenentt MM oo dd ee ll “The LASER can

EEququiivavallenentt MM oo dd ee ll

“The LASER can be modeled as an amplification system with feed back”

as an amplification system with feed ‐ back” Feedback Amplification Coherent Light Condition  Gain

Feedback

Amplification
Amplification

Coherent

Light

Condition Gain > Losses

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LASERLASER DIODEDIODE

slide 50

GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS MATERIALMATERIAL GAINGAIN  P OPTICAL POWER  gP I 
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
MATERIALMATERIAL GAINGAIN
P
OPTICAL POWER
 gP
I
z
p-type
P 0 e gz
P
P=P 0 e gL
0
gz
P(z)  P e
P
P(z)
P(z  z)
0
0
d
POSITION
z
z z
n-type
W
g  material unity gain [m ‐ 1 ]
L
300
300
250
N = 1.8 x 10 18 cm -3
InGaAsP
250
200
1.6
 = 1.3 m
150
200
1.4
100
1.2
transparency
50
150
0
N
0
1.0
100
-50
-100
50
-150
 hc E eV
q
-200
0
0.90
0.92
0.94
0.96
0.98
0
1.00
1.25
1.50 1.75
2
photon energy [eV]
carrier density [10 18 cm -3 ]
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LASERLASER DIODEDIODE
slide 51
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
[m
‐1 ]
material unity gain
g()
g
2
working
max
gNN 

f
region
2
1
2

g max
2
2
g 
lineshape
 [m]
   

f

 p
ff1
function
0
MaterialMaterial GainGain perper unitunit lengthlength
mathematical model
2
[m
‐1 ]
g()
g
N,
 a
N  N
 
m
0p 
g
max

a: gain coefficient
: curvature factor
 p : peak wavelength
N 0 : transparence level
g p : peak gain
 1
 2
 [m]
p
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LASERLASER DIODEDIODE
slide 52
opt ical gain [cm -
1
]
pe ak gain [cm -1 ]

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O ConfinementConfinement FactorFactor “Energy fraction
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O ConfinementConfinement FactorFactor “Energy fraction
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O ConfinementConfinement FactorFactor “Energy fraction

ConfinementConfinement FactorFactor

“Energy fraction inside the active region

  1

 1

g  g

m





y x z
y
x
z

far field pattern

2

 aN N     

0

p

NetNet MaterialMaterial GainGain perper unitunit lengthlength

2     g   g n  aN  N 
2
 
  g  
g n
 aN  N       
s
0
ps

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LASERLASER DIODEDIODE

slide 53

GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS OSCILLATIONOSCILLATION CONDITIONCONDITION FABRY‐ PEROT CAVITY
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
OSCILLATIONOSCILLATION CONDITIONCONDITION
FABRY‐ PEROT CAVITY
EE ++
EE
--
EE
++
outout
outout
gg
 ss
--
R 1
EE
R 2
r 1
r 2
z
0
L
R : Reflectivity
i
g: Material Gain Coef. [m ‐1 ]
 s : Scattering Loss Coef. [m ‐1 ]
r i : Reflectance
21 M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LASERLASER DIODEDIODE
slide 54
GCO FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS Propagation Equations (plane wave) Boun d ary C on dit ions
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
Propagation Equations (plane wave)
Boun d ary C on dit ions
g

z
s
e 
j
z

j
t
E (z)
 E e
1 2 
e
E
(0)
 r E
(0)
1
0
E (L)
 r E
(L)
g


Lz 
2
s
e  
j
L z

j
t
E (z)
 E
e
1 2 
e
L
1
g

L
g

L
 
j
t
s
 
jL
jt
s
 j
L
E (0)
 E e
 r E
(0)
 r
Ee
1
2 
e
e
E
rE e
2
e
0
1
1
L
0
1L
1
g

L
2 
s
 
j
L
jt
E (0)
E
e
e
e
L
1
1
g

L
g

L
 
j
t
s
 
j
L
jt
s

j
L
E (L)
 E
e
rE
(
L)  r
 Ee
2
e
e
E
rE e
2
e
L
2
2
0
L
20
1
g

L
s
 
j
L
jt
E (L)
E
e
2
e
e
0
g

g

L
L

j2
L
j2
L
s
E 
 rrE e
s
e
rre
e
1
0
12
0
1
2
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LASERLASER DIODEDIODE
slide 55
GCO
FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS
ModuleModule OscillationOscillation ConditionCondition
g

L
1
 rre
th
s
1
2
1
g th : threshold gain
 c : cavit y losses
 t : total losses
g

L
1 th
 e
s
ln
g

L
th
s
r r
r r 2  
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
g
 
ln  
 
ln
 
th
s
s
t
L
rr
2L
R R
1
2
1
2

2
c
R
r
i
i
e
gL
scattering losses
cavity
[m
‐1 ]
ThresholdThreshold GainGain
losses
e
(g –  s )L
(g –  s –  c )L
1
1
e
g  g 
ln 
th
s
1
2L
R R
2 
1
0
L
POSITION
21
M ARCH 2011
3.3.
OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LASERLASER DIODEDIODE
slide 56
GA IN

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O GainGain SaturationSaturation g(P)  1  PP sat g
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O GainGain SaturationSaturation g(P)  1  PP sat g
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O GainGain SaturationSaturation g(P)  1  PP sat g

GainGain SaturationSaturation

g(P)  1  PP sat g  t Unstable Situation (No Oscillation) g 
g(P) 
1
 PP
sat
g

t
Unstable Situation (No
Oscillation)
g

Stable Situation
t
(Oscillation)
g

 Unstable Situation
t (Saturation)

OPTICAL POWER

ACTIVE REGION EQUILIBRIUM SITUATION g(P)=α t α t g( P) 0 L
ACTIVE REGION
EQUILIBRIUM
SITUATION
g(P)=α t
α
t
g( P)
0
L

POSITION

21 M ARCH 2011

3.3.

OPTICALOPTICAL SOURCESSOURCES -- LASERLASER DIODEDIODE

slide 57

FIBERFIBER--OPTICOPTIC COMMUNICATIONSCOMMUNICATIONS

GCO

-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O PhasePhase OscillationOscillation ConditionCondition 1
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O PhasePhase OscillationOscillation ConditionCondition 1
-OPTIC OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS G C O PhasePhase OscillationOscillation ConditionCondition 1

PhasePhase OscillationOscillation ConditionCondition

1

e  

j2

L

2L  m2 2  2 n L  m 2  c f m
2L
 m2
2
2
n
L