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• "err e1aBernha

, • ,:)Tell 81 Amarrra

Akhmiffl

Anido ~ NaQ:;;lda

OrW~~

I ~,e:~~re1inSI~almna .IIl:ii1ZiOf1tiLJIIUI Atoo"t. 'CIJI!lOSI(:ut as!taZlisl!lb denlJlfii~ rea Tell ell·Amarng, S8 ami p,~ m alllli estie all ~illylui., ~[I 280 de 'ldlOlme:tJii sud die, t<lli~Q. urllt~· 1)1 c,ij'J'!1 pit' ilfl(;Onjuf;ata de fa'!eze stan !l;!lI:iI~e eame ~dal1l(l$ll.l'.$C: ooIe: ~ neeroJde ,aJi;! ,~.a. li'i i. Of3~t illile, carui m!lln~· mente >fI1!I ro~ P~i!ttlc ~w:s<e de p e fil!<l pa m,htu lui die a ri ill a rHlOI'ILJ~atoa ill fI tlI1l1P'U~Il!i. ,(lwst celu:ltril!J,i~ lilIiilll ,!l)~dl~nl~l~ Ilutii Akhenamn ('1356- 1333), ClIre ~ a ll'S pruIDna] loca~a revel3~ de,~rumu:of~e:del~~m

f):1iltirU Oil 31m ;flJJStragl~ purem:iceuilnfIIUJente: e.:.:.e flc1tate de ellenjl '~et:lalil cam servea In mmllll!l~ zeuhli Amon, f<lmonu~ AIiI1enmi 1.l~

1\,qe"~ cFee"1lIzai '!:i IlQUl51r'il"lig~l;lln eentrul carBilS :fiB

;3 Ha zeul A~Oiii, discull solar, ~i I~i schimllifi n uHH3:le ]h ~BnatQI'I LFol&sij)Dr IrLji Atmf S<l1U ..,SlIiiriW~ lu~ AtDnl Accam 1iD1I~Uldl IS mpJ~eimit dem®damantlll umri pmce!S lnoepUt 6U tnllliit tim,p m ttml~ earu! IPrinclpl.lllii zeil (li Eg~pfului 1.l miG ~n~~p sii i~l pi!)n:iH'i tmptat d~liiI ambl!l~B ajul"tga nd s1llie i{l'errlilic<l~i aill ze,ul flolar Ra, velilerat.fudeflselJi 101 He]iopoli;S,.Akl1!l[n~Wn hotllriji~'te ~5 Tif1:al~f:l !I(l m!il9t,!:1 ~~ tlL\l'[l'Iit8ltc parnmllJizibilli3 is ilstrului sD~alri ~i Siiill!lmU~ ~iscul) <ltlli'i:lUli;ndlu-i nu Iiluli'fla~ 'runnti1le rle c;ream ~i me:fi\ineffi a vnejli, el :lJ~ mJu! d~ ~faraon e~ms.c" ~i .2i!.'U8 I mmiqilDr" I r'i mil d gre§irt tcn~tii~elr,at lin sol de m[mo~eis~, cuU:ull,ul A~Qt) flill era r:leeit un mijloc de OJ spo~r] GJ~clibllit:Jta(i ~i pLHWrn~ f~lf;lli;i!IiIIJlni,,a c;nui siUJlrelmlaJ!ie IIiC,epU:5Je ~a fi,e <imle,nlin~~ eel iinllare a cre~t.erii 'Ill illll~orta~5 <I djy.e~rselor CUI,tS, mdeol'>ebi eela l.ileuIUl[ Aml;ln dlilnl 1 Ellb,a, [),~ rnmalrcat fup,tull ca una ~in li:9Jrrac~eri!S!:icne nO~1 re<ligii de lia Amama esta l(\cmalli,psa (:1 eml l,Ilj; F,ol!u'l de if1ltSrroediarlnltl"Jil cmtlin.ci(l~i ~i zeu iii nl,\i~nE1 rlmfl"'~ famO~injlui .. LlPS81 Ufltil Gier speilializat a avllt drept ,coTI'secil1l!~ t¢1il11(]IOla culhllll!li dli'ulrl inchiffilal regelui, WeCl!l1iD ~i Intllrure,a allsoliUi1llSlli'IulLlii teoerati,p. CJJI toarte OjlceSWJ[l, cu'lru I tlli Atorlnu s-a bUGurat de (I prea tm:1l re:

It,eem'e I'nl rnll·dluli pj'Jlp,uh'ltii(:ii, cam Si ,!':,Clnnlfilll<it Sa 'll'f!rleffiZe z,ejtal~l,e tmclitiolltllle, M<li rTil!!JI~, mlltmE!a Ci1lplit~.I~i tntNm !m: 1z()1;lJ11; <'l mClUt ca difu!2;.'l m8i cultu.llJ~ .aJkini,an Sa .se iimite:2!e ~a cua1j'!:8 1~'9i8illa, ingrelJTI!and propag<lF'e,@ <10 estlliil in restull~ Fii. a$fliel incill; 1i~(Jlra rea lui A1:!)n a i~~c.e~srr 1liprllil pill 'CIUI d&sa:v~ n~lre o data CU moaiil-e,a lui Akti.e n:aI~ll, pmmu.lg<'ltoml sau.

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n fl'IQ,C ~ i~!i, alhn& d'(l,parrc ,d e

T elba In sil d [11m ~f!,ii1t~ de doi mUII1iJi il c ti,ro r 1l1~1~~gmjlre l'Jllli'IinIU!8 liIe sen area tliefi® Q.ll1- fic'I' il, c:l!l!'SIJ1Jl!,!'1 ~ U A" rn ~s1!lbs~nU-v!.l1 ornilJ!,mt). siml!Jol~lIn~ dilimefllhllla I nail ~liIii cultsolOif. wcr5 ril e: de' ,Cl/llllsffim'uC!ie<lU ~osl inc:epute in I:oel de-al cia~me:a an de domnie a su'lefil)i'u • .!Il.!i; !penn eli! n'@-u'3 C<lpt;31.11 s;a fie iJl1Itli dl mai f'l!i,lieI!iI il! leu plLltin;i s,.,a II, ftTe.siit bIG''C!III ri de gliiecSie de mici d".meu-· sium. '.:len III mite ta/a!a~' I~cwarl'lt Clfib ce de rNal din

i! djI!G1iw:'I·C5r1l1f' ~ lrtiilil:al de tift munci~orii ~i con$lrl!,! e- 1i1ilm 'Ca~~ Iyer!!~illi Eigj~li!IJ sccllIh,lIl al Xlil(~lea). aesstna 'Ilinll! mlllll mai U~Of de a~el~t ACiI1!ea~i 1lel'!nidfusesJe ul:ili.ila~a penl:ru cltl:nslnn::pa Iloml'mciullJi d~!lI.!!1I1it Ge!1~,~iaawn (A~101l a f ost gasiO. teliflph:1I riill ic at (j e Akhel1fffon la

Kill m,aik Inure eel d{H! I dI o 11 ea ~i cell d~·~II:I!:!itn,lle1l 11111 die domnie.

ii .. L '.' 59"

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·ungllli unei !I~e nord~ .. and 0 I~me de IJn t:ia

-.ail ludIC III Se:HOIII Pireg]a~ f lin Ic'Ompl'i!'lII de , i !'Itll' see u n !I,are; in Clra~ulluj se il1l"'l~d ~ - :iE!mpl~ Cliemplul eel

~ emplul ",et micl de~ i Aroll. ra r,andul lor .--.c~., rl; .. "", ah~ s!.nre rln ulu i,

~;;UlJrl~e'l~ :sullJll.~ilor s'e ga· in lIartea sllIlIicii a ora,.. tot 'H:!G!l!!l'ilffii!ildu-se ~i

. aJtoP'll!lll. " 'gridil'lill 311t'l'e. plemlm.~ med j·ttaln e ~i

Tmi i1r1IlW £In mnri dimensiunl str,llli'i-

taau orasul de la nm d fa sLId. aeessa mnd impa I1it ulteri@r in Ita niereprin ennstruirea unoI' straiii de dimensiunl m i Imie'l eese -Ole rseetsu IC'U li:iel~ !l:001i:r,pale. R~ed1n:~"£! regali. I~ c,u] lUll die bUlilofllll~ itii inlifejilJllilel2l sa~lI:inife

- . ee. $t! ~I de:-a lultlu. arterei princip.ale ~Slrada eea Mand~i era 11rn:it5 printr-un tmd CUI templele alOal\'! in pOI rte'iIJ opusal a onl~uh!L IAunllJCltu I'e!!lial era, compus d'ililtli-o irmrOlm C!ll!! d5d!ea im;·o gradinai i1:U ~'<Izin, hnc:hinsilil de d Ii) III i!i rihilld I!Hi die Cl:lImere' - 115 la Ill!lmlh - imp'odIllDite' II:;!,! 1l1cturi all carer element (leI'!flra II i1 eonstltula ifllJJviyl NiL

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LDSr8n;,fI,. {jpl'j:~~,rMl P<i1".MR~g~IGe iffmPFOMif do,Jii ,din IjJcete {8fijomd.Ui iU(;Uldh'"!l.iI (MiDJ.YJ:JJI MlIsuum, ,(JXftjfdJ DiJIUJlpia. th;~(jt fil.f/DMlruit diR&/Df;lIJi de piIJif'1 f'.Ja1J1.-illd~ !I'e hi· edilial1e

1~,Il'tlmiro . Dl1aflW ~ I;amat,S'i

cans~',ra,~eIlJ"'iR~'-. MAt jas. 1m ~JlVror ~ ,1I...v,p"iSUJf i'ar~ (I ~atI'~ '!a.'it:PhtmJ 1ipldriKUlicill '~,d'iR~J

'.

nfh.lemall: LI~tu I UlllaUlh.Ji Atom GEl f1ililHlifestll CIl: l!lfIa r rnu ltin domQ;n~lul a rtei, und e no/lie ea no:a ne imgu$'e (j ~fa raOII(!, c are Ii irIc!rYfif! ij 1l'~rSitlf!la~ pea,rtl~'liH de i.1i e un:e a sa, u1;lr av~~ l~ln I.l co LI pl~te m i e, ~le~i ulte rio r~ef!dif!'!e!~e fmll1eeX(l ger.;;Jlte a len DLllu~ earsnt V[,If fi ~li1Itruc atva dcrne lire. ~nrfl ue Il~a

orie rIt&ilJ til: ani S€!f~IC'!lIS!! de},,, s~~ita il'l~mpLiI dam liIie! lui Am enl!l~~ al ~I ~·I~~~" ~mmdllJlc ~,n d hihnj;ci rU~l!;um eea a .itoff)i !!Id:e" (e:al'lll Hiel',N'! Cil ~e;5iilmli1'e $i:i se fru.lie2:e Pi ei@llp, ~i:"de<n~ii'l~ forme~er).

Ci!lnml [!caM sp.re un realism ee ~I.mea o1~Ile-JltuJI ~e sel'llill<llll.are ~i a ~Qrda o~el dI~sl!'bilji detaliifor. Ac~ i:2mlm~ Ii s-au ,adaUg<li mllile CaJUlilllU! wbod'USIl! de Aiflen.tlOn. care PfieGl.\pUnell U i! tUI1!llf,ea ~:O1 t-pufu]~. i'ni g;e;riera1l.. a '!millor ctO.u:!uii tesW sufi'eientd I'!e O"ImirrtlmWl1IDa caracreri~li~ij ~ !l~ m:igdaT~lL Mal mlilt '~w,JQrn uI e>t'li' lOOl'I:retmmt mi~aH el;e!l:ante. g,.a1foa~. ¢!.I 'forme <tnrlI~. 'pelltrml <I, simboliza UMlIle3 l:afacterelOiI mooculine ~ a ~Ior feminin~ l\G]lt~iIJe imfigura reqe!ui. i!~melileaJ il1l!! gino Djs;culuisDlaf ce fieYII£~e took! fumeh!!' de' 'oIi;8j~_ Chia:r~i leme'le ~rti~QE ;aOOM<ltl!e se ~ruil: inCrE!1!' siiap;lirj!i fi1ecv,em l'iepre2:eIli.Njl'rl aile u I'!Qr sc~llte dill :via~:dJ r;OlWiQ1iI!,a familiei re:g<l te car'e.sp re Ide Dse:bim lire e,plIlcl~~ 11re Gum .• <lllillffir IfllIlJ1!i'BliilQltfi ~i in eOlffi,[;miI1e liI,e cult; 101lDdarn, lUIiI putemieae elll nt se purne pe' flillJiJ]lIl,ImUi I e 1iI!l <!fl~cpllllille ~ri l1~imitat.e rdim,re 'rage ~ifirr s iii.

a 8-_ un roll foane - - [Ili1ant 'Das! a - mei.IRegma

~<lnii eu 0 mao • cii\ !JKIS'l3ri b;jIica ,de rqJlUermne a [~raonulul ~nce,alld illS:i CIJII c:cl d!l~al dOisprn:l;ecft.a an de dlilmraie II lui AkhenltOn. £III 'Sil' mai mell1ioROOllia nimic ,de-spre_ i!!fuifliti, prob bil din '(:OIiUlI. mDf!U ~~ei,,_lMilluraalele blJtswri ~rll c:aleafp.ic1at,(!i !!Inlsi!l - prowl1ind dill ".nelienrll SClllptllrlJTui IiIj~lI~me:s,

d escoperi!: de a rnec'l'o 911111 LudWig 8~fC lI:iln'l~ - trg'lill!liB rulJite mai de~lraba ca studii sau modhale ale chipului regjn~i df!C3t caopere de al'l!uwrmin~ilie. U~UJ~ din ele pciiiiSlff!<lZa ]nC3 pe ,chip linliilo rle ConwlF 'Ce: ill :l'e'FVie~,u s~l!I~ptml!lltli (lrep~ repi1l r til d~hlri~e fti~~ ;)10 rea I~zijriii., die ta dOlll1re palll@ 1<lI fi I1r$illrfl,

Urma ,aripa _ a d'mimSlir:ativf.i" a p~lahlrll:i. illleluziinlll s6ila tro .. nl!lhJ;. ijl'jc=,on~lfIlr.ual de sali hipo e - de~mele ~ ,arf:Jivele in c"liIe au fo!H. descllpe'" Irill:! tC!lebrel'e 18bli!e de !lrg"ls. SancwtiUl mefil]J<illt [IlAton reune;pe insj CClAct'eliirice llempl'efor s1iIlarn spacifice IDinastiei 1::1 V-a ~ C1l!:le .d-e I'emplului t:lnic~ asuel, se pistre81l,il [IlEriilrea suspnuta de coloa"e. dillf ,diiSlliHl! amiUft,Vill p efltnJ C iJ Irazele seerelui ,sa nu intilmpine ni£i UII1 olJ,s~i1col mn drl!lmlul h)lr. Tra'\jelFsiilndl IilIIiiI P:Qllj Ii 11111' {;E! puna dCnI!IImiru de Pef~h8'i, se ajliJnglHi la ~ase e ur~i lnterio an deschise: u It.i mele d eu ~ all c atui!llu G ~m p a atnnol, ssu sanctuasul prepriu-zls.

La ~ail5<\ .!i~lJ iJill' (;-lIi('1iJ!i pin,n,y ll:tiNef:e'iifiti, pa~'tili ,MilUm tNn, Bulin. De:.:lSiJpflt llD'pmr:ut IllftJgitw:i ~!:m~',iJiR lIDa<!itga1inm IfM~1 dig eMt:fJ).

1.1, d«iI/lI1t. ,UlI' ~'IIP II' mgi!l~i ti~ tletli!1l'llii1at p:e ale' S'e'pgl,ulaaw,~JI!lC'illiruil~ller~i1te,Cli ~BJi'liIMlii iiUyd. t.I.l/~' 'Fe'!" pie:re'pnllli'l:l!IJn 3li!!hl!'.miI:!aJ1p.fWiiWi :I.li~

_I dilll ~i g{i'ehli,rifiuqiitegaI6:

Pliimclc paw cu!1lii interi0are 11:1D.npneau l'Iuooemase al!an:! !lie mlel dlmensi~H\!i,. i1!1~i!l1Il.!1 ,rhl ci pa~ ,(I Jilin If!.! -SlE! illl; cea 1L'l'I!~a tifl~ea. !La :sud de olla~; Sf.:! ifuinlll'e:a Ma ryatolilu~- 0 !,radi Ria, ing rijfti. GY lI'omfmii 'il:e flan. 'm ean:!. 11:1 e ~a.nga QI :serie' de edIITit'1 regl~t:e in1!!rie ele pnn alei pi elate. se mai aaau ~n ISiIC ~i 0 il1lsyl;a C:~ pawlion_

Salul muncitnrilnr cawe au lue rat ~<I censtrucna :a~'!'!liriii~i a millCOO P o~ ii!i1 or se a~1 a I~ j!l!.ma.tateal di$ta 11~(! ~ ~ iln~rl[l acastaa {OJ mira~. CU!!lle en;'! ~ construlte lInl~le ihga git~re ~l inl;lQn]uUrte de un z~~ CLlI in" trare u nid. tccu ~n~a II e

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1~'sdIfDmdL ' ~,~~~ ~1Im ,~,

~e IW a:l1}lra,. ~afe !!Il'~c ~-I~I_a~ E1>e 1;;!A.marn;t. au WSil: d'escapeliite din, m~m,~JIl!~ 1n. UI1. n::l O~JJ<Illcal i!le! sapa pliimm Moele palalltlrn, reg:a1. ~l1IIecti-;d

fliimol ,pemru aH folosi ea ingli~mi''It. SE! cunosu: 382, Q~ astieltfe f.jb~. care ~n;Qpelil p!!lOOada eupriflsi i~ cell d~la'eizecf~ an de dmnniE al !ui Amrmofi allll.Jea ~i ~rim!ll an dC' iffillmHie 011 :Ii Tutal4harmm_ De (I imprllt-an~ de:osehilij. ta~le lellln!i'fi c'OJlE!splllllli:elil.¥<lliUplomalic3 :aJ 'EgJ~l1Ului ell milril'e :pllrtiBri din, DriMtUI A-p.IDJ!]iP~<ll TI~;a1lij:fuj!i)s~sC S(;q'll ~rea Ci.lni~Qmil~: ~c~e Imai m:illbe! sum sm~::>e~liIa~tal!l~;a ~l'i" ~~rnlba ~@llili5i~~ 'illil d~,,1 om ar~llerna()e;a :penleadl I.llt:ellep~h;tre!tlzil teXIDe in h urrla ~~, (hj r~rnlJll fioioS1til'l :re~aru~

Mila IiiIrl1i~~i illr hititl'i.

1111 ime IlJIsi el'li maj 1'1111 ria pillqim!!!!iI fumr;~ionQjmtuiii:n~l"ClnQlt 'eu $Y pri! '1egh i'l!r,e'di iii iii iii U~I'I i men ilil [uClr,iirilor; &e~e ilI~e mUfi citonloF €lira Ul compuse >d i n patll'iUlin ca pi/!! fl: <I'mDI!;,<iImna. c.a rn e ra de oa.s PIE!'~ •. iu! e,§taIlllEl ;i d'arn1itor~ SUIIDlfai~~ ora ~yl'lJ~ em,:~ d'enmnai~ p.li'in ,a~ iii· !'IIU n'! ilt~!I!!: sll!i!ile. lillie ,Pi!llIS~ de I1Ih'1'Dne: de, bl!l~:g,f:

III fls;pRlece pc m1iJI'ul esfi 1:;,. re:aIi!zi!OO,iJll O£'1Idle-.~1 ~seleill U 81 domniei hI - Ji!!l.UJre:naton. ~i ITei pe eel'lJ{!'sl1il:. d:atii.1iI1I1 din !CIt de~il ().~hld eaan .me d Dmfl! e. ~'e'~rea a f,'os~ lac ILl iCi,tim p die: apmx~ma~i1li' dl(il,uiiz'elci ,die .g 11I1~, pal1lta la milia MIa,s fa ra'Q'1iI U ~l!Ii. UilJelrior .• eurtea rleglall~a revenir la Tebs, 1 (l r I O!;lIU(lri~ Amar.rn e i s-au fnllJ'l,flt: rr:r aprn piatul Hermop'olis,

r