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acids bases salts

E X P E R I ME N T 7 G ROU P S 8 & 9

parts
I. I. II. III. IV. Electrolytes and Common Household Items Conductivity Test Preparation of 1 M NaOH using NaOH pellets Preparation of 0.1 M from 1 M NaOH Titration of an Acid and a Base

concepts
electrolytes and common household items
o Electrolyte oAcids o Bases o Neutralization o Salts o pH

concepts electrol yte


a substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can conduct electricity

concepts acids
GENERAL PROPERTIES
sour taste color changes in plant dyes react with certain metals React with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce CO2 gas Aqueous acid solutions conduct electricity

concepts bases
GENERAL PROPERTIES
bitter taste slippery color changes in plant dyes aqueous base solutions conduct electricity

concepts acids vs. bases


ACIDS ARRHENIUS CONCEPT BRNSTEDLOWRY CONCEPT LEWIS CONCEPT
Ionize in water solution to produce H+(aq) or H3O+

BASES
Ionize in water solution to produce OH-(aq)

Proton donors

Proton acceptors

Electron-pair acceptors

Electron-pair donors

concepts neutralization
a reaction between an acid and a base. aqueous acid-base reactions produce water and a salt
acid + base salt + water

concepts salts
ionic compounds made up of a cation other than H+ and an anion other than OHor O2-

concepts pH
measure of acidity the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration (in mol/L):

concepts pH
INDICATORS

litmus paper phenolphthalein

congo red

pH paper

procedure
electrolytes and common household items

NaOH

NH4Cl

HCl

HC2H3O2 NaCl

C2H5OH C12H22O11

H2O

Test with litmus paper, phenolphthalein, and congo red Classify whether acidic, basic, or neutral Test pH using pH paper

procedure
electrolytes and common household items

shampoo conditioner feminine wash

liquid sosa

liquid soap

softdrink

fruit juice

Test with litmus paper, phenolphthalein, and congo red Classify whether acidic, basic, or neutral Test pH using pH paper

results
Reagents 0.1 M Solutions
NaOH NH4Cl Classification Base Base pH 12 8

Classification of Acid/Base
Strong Base Weak Base

HCl
HC2H3O2 NaCl

Acid
Acid Neutral

2
2 7

Strong Acid
Strong Acid -

H2O C6H12O11
C2H5OH

Neutral Neutral
Base

7 7
12

Strong Base

results
Solution Shampoo Conditioner Litmus Paper Phenolphthalein Colorless Colorless Congo Red Red Red Classification Base Acid

R-R B-R
B-BR-R

Feminine Wash
Liquid Sosa Liquid Soap Softdrink Fruit Juice

B-B R-R
R-B B-B R-B B-B B-R R-R R-R B-R

Colorless

Colorless

Acid

Violet

Red

Base

Colorless
Cloudy Cloudy

Red
Dark violet Violet

Base
Acid Acid

concepts
conductivity test
o strong electrolytes o weak electrolytes o non-electrolytes

concepts
strong el ectrol ytes
dissociate completely into ions and create a large current

weak el ectrol ytes


dissociate into ions very little, and most of their molecules remain intact.

procedure
conductivity test

Test conductivity of the solutions in 1-a

results
Reagents 0.1 M Solutions NaOH NH4Cl

Conductivity
Good Good

Classification (based on conductivity) Strong Electrolyte Strong Electrolyte

HCl
HC2H3O2

Good
Weak

Strong Electrolyte
Weak Electrolyte

NaCl
H2O C12H22O11 C2H5OH

Good
-

Strong Electrolyte
Non-electrolyte Non-electrolyte Non-electrolyte

concepts
preparation of 1 M NaOH using NaOH pellets
o Concentration of solution o Molarity

concepts concentration
a measure of the quantity of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solution

concepts molarity
molar concentration, which is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution

procedure
preparation of 1 M NaOH using NaOH pellets
Calculate the weight of NaOH pellets needed to prepare 50.0 mL of 1 M NaOH

Weigh pellets in a watch glass and dissolve in 50 mL water

Transfer in 100-mL volumetric flask and dilute to the mark with water

results

1 mol NaOH x 0.1 L x 40 g NaOH = 4g NaOH in 1L 1 mol NaOH the beaker

concepts
preparation of 0.1 M NaOH from 1 M NaOH
o dilution

concepts dilution
a procedure for preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated solution.

procedure
preparation of 0.1 M NaOH from 1 M NaOH
Determine volume of NaOH from available concentration needed to prepare 100 mL of 0.1 M NaOH

M1V1=M1V2

Dilute the measured volume to 100.00 mL with water in a volumetric flask

results
M1V1=M1V2 1M (V1) = 0.1 M (250 mL) V1 = 25 mL

concepts
titration of an acid with a base
o titration o equivalence point o indicator o end point

concepts titration
a method of determining the concentration of a solution by monitoring its reaction with a solution of known concentration.

concepts equivalence point


the point at which the acid has completely reacted with or been neutralized by the base

concepts indicators
are substances that have distinctly different colors in acidic and basic media.

concepts end point

the pH at which the indicator changes color.

procedure
titration of an acid with a base
Wash base buret with soap and water then rise with 0.1 M NaOH. Fill buret with 0.1 M NaOH and remove airspace

Pipet a 10-mL aliquot of the unknown acid in an erlenmeyer flask, add 50 mL water then add 2-3 drops phenolphtalein. Titrate until pink coloration. Calculate molarity of unknown acid solution

results
Trial 1 Volume of 0.1 M NaOH Volume of unknown acid solution Molarity of unknown acid solution Average molarity of unknown acid solution
2.8 mL 2mL

Trial 2
2.9 mL 2mL

Trial 3
3 mL 2mL

0.14 M

0.145 M

0.15

0.145 M

results
Trial 1: MacidVacid=MbaseVbase Macid(2 mL) = (0.1 M)(2.8 mL) Macid = 0.14 M Trial 2: MacidVacid=MbaseVbase Macid(2 mL) = (0.1 M)(2.9 mL) Macid = 0.145 M

Trial 3: MacidVacid=MbaseVbase Macid(2 mL) = (0.1 M)(3 mL) Macid = 0.15 M

guide questions
1. From your results, what relationship can you draw between the acidity/basicity of a substance and its electrolyte property?

There is a direct relationship between the acidity/basicity of a substance and its ability to conduct electricity. Strong acids/bases have stronger conductive ability because of their almost complete dissociation in an aqueous substance. Although other properties must be considered if an acid/base is also a salt, whether weak or strong, when dissolved in water, it is also a good conductor of electricity.

guide questions
2. Why are electrolytes conductors of electricity?
Electrolytes dissociate in aqueous solutions, thus they are ionized. Positively charged ions move toward the negative electrode and negatively charged ions move to the positive electrode. This resembles the movement of electrons along a metal wire which explains the conductive property of electrolytes.

conclusion
Electrolytes are compounds that dissociate into its constituent ions. Strong acids/bases completely dissociate. Thus make a good conductor because there is abundance in ions that would complete an electrical circuit. Weak acids and bases, on the other hand, do not completely dissociate. This partial dissociation causes their low conductivity because there is a low availability of ions that would complete the circuit. Non-electrolytes do not produce ions at all because they exist as uncharged molecules.

recommendation
It is recommended that one be careful and observant in using indicators when getting the pH of the solution in order to obtain accurate results. For the preparation of the titrant, one must accurately measure the weight of NaOH pellets and the volume of water to use. It must also be completely dissolved in water before being diluted in a 100mL volumetric flask. During the titration, one must be careful in transferring of the titrant to the unknown solution in order to avoid over-titration.

references
Chang, R. (2010). Chemistry (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Chemistry: the molecular nature of matter and change (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Silberberg, M.S. (2009).