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n\paperw12240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg1}{\bkmkend Pg1}\par\pard
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ql\li2521\sb370\sl-414\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex97 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f
2\fs36 CAP.I. MOTIVA\u354?IA-CONSIDERA\u354?II GENERALE \par\pard\ql \li2521\sb2
22\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs28 I.1.
INTRODUCERE - CONCEPTUL DE MOTIVA\u354?IE \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1608\sb156\sl276\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 Term
enul de motiva\u355?ie a aprut in literatura de specialitate in jurul anului 1930
\u351?i a \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 cunoscut pn astzi un mare succes. Ac
est termen poate fi ntlnit n aproape toate \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 dome
niile care vizeaz ntr-o m\u259?sur\u259? mai mare sau mai mic\u259? conduita uman:
economie, \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 pedagogie, politic, art, moral, relig
ie. Utilizarea sa generalizat se datoreaz n mare \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 parte conota\u355?iilor ambigue si atractive n acela\u351?i timp, ce trimit la
speran\u355?a secret de a \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ptrunde n resorturile
intime ale conduitei altora, de a o manipula \u351?i modela. Nu putem \line \up
0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 spune c dispunem de o teorie unificat asupra motiva\u35
5?iei, cu toate c\u259? n decursul anilor s-\line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 a
ar\u259?tat mult interes pentru aceas\u259? problem\u259?. O astfel de situa\u3
55?ie se datoreaz n bun\u259? \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 parte faptului c
termenul de motiva\u355?ie a fost lansat n arta publicitar pentru a desemna \line
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ansamblul factorilor incon\u351?tien\u355?i ce ac\
u355?ioneaz asupra conduitelor. La o examinare atent\u259?, \line \up0 \expndtw-2
\charscalex100 ace\u351?ti factori conduc la realit\u355?i extrem de diverse, rea
lit\u259?\u355?i ce nu pot fi restrnse n cadrul \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex10
0 unui singur concept operatoriu \par\pard\ql \li2101\sb4\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \e
xpndtw-2\charscalex100 Motiva\u355?ia este una din problemele tradi\u355?ionale
de studiu ale comportamentului \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1615\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \u
p0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 organiza\u355?ional si ani de zile a suscitat intere
sul managerilor, cercettorilor si antrenorilor \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 sportivi. n organiza\u355?iile contemporane, motiva\u355?ia a devenit \u351?i m
ai important\u259?. Acest fapt \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 se datoreaz ne
cesit\u355?ii unei productivit\u355?i ridicate, n ideea de a deveni competitive la
\line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 nivel global. Este totodat\u259? rezultatul
schimbrilor rapide pe care le strbat organiza\u355?iile de \line \up0 \expndtw-5\c
harscalex100 ast\u259?zi. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1843\sb0\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \
up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Termenul motiva\u355?ie nu este u\u351?or de defini
t. Din perspectiva unei organiza\u355?ii, putem \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 sp

une c o persoan este motivat atunci cnd acea persoan lucreaz \u8220?din greu\u8221?, \
line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u8220?persevereaz\u8221? n munc \u351?i \u351?i
dirijeaz comportamentul ctre ni\u351?te rezultate potrivite. \up0 \expndtw-2\chars
calex100 Formal, motiva\u355?ia poate fi definit ca fiind msura n care un efort per
sistent este dirijat \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 pentru realizarea unui scop.
\par\pard\ql \li2101\sb0\sl-216\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Efortul Primul aspect al motiva\u355?iei este for\u355?a compotamentului legat de munc al
\par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1931\sb7\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 pe
rsoanei sau cantitatea de efort pe care o depune persoana n timpul muncii. Eviden
t , \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 acest lucru implic activit\u355?i diverse n locur
i de munc diverse. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1623\sb4\sl-276\slmult0\fi300\tx2101\tx
2101 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Perseveren\u355?a - Cea de-a doua caracterist
ic a motiva\u355?iei este perseveren\u355?a pe care o \line \up0 \expndtw-4\chars
calex100 dovedesc indivizii atunci cnd depun efortul pentru a-\u351?i realiza sar
cinile de munc. \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Direc\u355?ia - Efortul
\u351?i perseveren\u355?a se refer n principal la cantitatea de munc depus \line \up
0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 de un individ. Calitatea muncii persoanei este ns de eg
al importan\u355?. Astfel, a treia \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 caracterist
ic a motiva\u355?iei este direc\u355?ia comportamentului legat de munc al persoane
i. Cu \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 alte cuvinte, \u351?i dirijeaz lucrtorii
efortul lor persistent n direc\u355?ia care aduce beneficii \line \up0 \expndtw-4
\charscalex100 organiza\u355?iei. Patronii a\u351?teapt din partea brokerilor s sf
\u259?tuiasc clien\u355?ii lor asupra celor \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 m
ai bune oportunit\u355?i investi\u355?ionale \u351?i din partea programatorilor s
proiecteze software, \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 nu s\u259? joace jocuri
electronice. Aceste decizii corecte cresc probabilitatea ca efortul lor \line \
up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 persistent s\u259? se transforme n final n rezultate
acceptate organiza\u355?ional. Prin urmare, \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100
motiva\u355?ie nseamn nu numai s lucrezi din greu ci \u351?i s lucrezi inteligent. \
line \tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Obiective - Orice comportament motivat a
re anumite scopuri sau obiective spre care \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 e
ste dirijat. Analiza s-a fcut dintr-o perspectiv organiza\u355?ional, ceea ce nseamn
c am \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 presupus c oamenii motiva\u355?i ac\u355?
ioneaz pentru realizarea obiectivelor organiza\u355?iei. \line \up0 \expndtw-2\ch
arscalex100 Scopurile angajatului ar putea include n acest caz o aten\u355?ie bun,
o productivitate nalt \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 sau decizii creative. D
esigur, salaria\u355?ii pot fi motiva\u355?i de scopuri care sunt contrare celor
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}}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P
g2}{\bkmkend Pg2}\par\pard\ql \li1801\sb0\sl-270\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb0
\sl-270\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb0\sl-270\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb0\s
l-270\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\ri2403\sb137\sl-270\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\ch
arscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 ale organiza\u355?iei, cum ar fi absente
ismul, sabotajul \u351?i frauda. n aceste cazuri, ei \u351?i \up0 \expndtw-2\chars
calex100 dirijeaz eforturile persistente n direc\u355?ii care nu sunt deloc func\u
355?ionale pentru \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 organiza\u355?ie. \par\par
d\qj \li1801\ri1918\sb6\sl-276\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Din p
unct de vedere psihologic, se poate spune c motiva\u355?ia reprezint \u8220?ansamb
lul \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 strilor de necesitate ce se cer satisfcute

\u351?i care l mping, l instig \u351?i l determin pe \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex


100 individ s \u351?i le satisfac\u8221?. Din aceast defini\u355?ie rezult c ntotdeaun
a la baza conduitei \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 umane se afl un ansamblu
de mobiluri care sus\u355?in realizarea anumitor ac\u355?iuni \u351?i care \line
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 sensibilizeaz diferit persoana la influen\u355?ele
externe, fcnd-o mai mult sau mai pu\u355?in \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 p
ermeabil la ele. Astfel, una \u351?i aceea\u351?i influen\u355?a extern produce ef
ecte diferite la \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1757\sb5\sl-275\slmult0\tx2161\tx2161 \u
p0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 persoane diferite sau chiar la aceea\u351?i persoan n
momente diferite ale existen\u355?ei sale. \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex1
00 In concep\u355?ia speciali\u351?tilor n management, motiva\u355?ia este defini
ta sub mai multe \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 aspecte. Astfel, Ovidiu Nic
olescu considera ca motivarea se prezinta sub \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 doua \
line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 accep\u355?iuni:motivarea in sens restrans si
motivarea in sens cuprinzator. \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Motivar
ea in sens restrans\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 , bazata pe o viziune clasica asu
pra organiza\u355?iei \u351?i \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 managementului
, are n vedere numai salaria\u355?ii sau personalul organiza\u355?iei.Ea consta n
\line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 corelarea necesita\u355?ilor, aspira\u355?ii
lor \u351?i intereselor resurselor umane din cadrul organiza\u355?iei \up0 \expn
dtw-2\charscalex100 cu realizarea obiectivelor si exercitarea sarcinilor, compet
en\u355?elor \u351?i responsabilita\u355?ilor \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex10
0 atribuite n cadrul organiza\u355?iei. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1617\sb1\sl-280\sl
mult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Motivarea
in sens larg\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 rezid\u259? n ansamblul de decizii \u351
?i ac\u355?iuni prin care se determina \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 stakeholder
ii organiza\u355?iei s\u259? contribuie direct \u351?i indirect la realizarea d
e func\u355?ionalita\u355?i \u351?i \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 performan\u355
?e de ansamblu superioare, pe baza corel\u259?rii intereselor acestora in aborda
rea \u351?i \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 realizarea obiectivelor organiza\u355?
iei \u351?i ale subsistemelor sale. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri2196\sb0\sl-280\slmul
t0\fi360 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Indiferent de modul n care este definit\u2
59? motiva\u355?ia, este unanim recunoscut c\u259? \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100
procesul de motiva\u355?ie are la baz\u259? nevoi ,interese, intentii, tendin\u
355?e sau idealuri ale \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 condi\u355?iei umane \u351?
i, n esen\u355?a, exprim\u259? o stare interioar\u259? \u351?i o dorin\u355?\u259
? puternic\u259? a unui \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 individ de a realiza un an
umit obiectiv. \par\pard\ql \li2521\sb247\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charsca
lex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs28 I.2. CON\u354?INUTUL \u350?I NATURA MOTIVA\u3
54?IEI \par\pard\ql \li2226\sb196\sl-276\slmult0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscal
ex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913? \tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u
l0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 FACTORI MOTIVA\u354?IONALI \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri2190
\sb141\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Motiva\u355?ia reprezi
nt suma energiilor interne \u351?i externe care ini\u355?iaz \u351?i dirijeaz \up0
\expndtw-2\charscalex100 comportamentul uman spre un scop care, odat atins, va de
termina satisfacerea unei \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 necesit\u355?i (H.Neuman)
. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1703\sb0\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscale
x100 Atunci cnd se analizeaz un comportament nu pot fi izolate condi\u355?iile int
erne care au \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 rolul principal n motivare. Foam
ea, securitatea sau recunoa\u351?terea sunt motive care nu se \line \up0 \expndt
w-2\charscalex100 pot vedea. Putem vedea doar comportamentele rezultante ale ace
stor nevoi interne. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1871\sb0\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \e
xpndtw-2\charscalex100 Toate analizele asupra motiva\u355?iei au la baz particula
rit\u355?ile individului, observa\u355?iile \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 outputului comportamental \u351?i ipoteze asupra ini\u355?ierii lui. \par\pard\ql \li2
101\sb1\sl-234\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Motivele care i anim pe oamen
i reprezint expresia nevoilor \u351?i a\u351?teptrilor lor. \par\pard\ql \li1801\s
b12\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Nevoile sunt definite ca lipsur
ile pe care un individ le resimte la un moment dat, iar \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1
887\sb1\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 a\u351?teptrile sunt credin\

u355?ele indivizilor n existen\u355?a unor \u351?anse ce pot fi ob\u355?inute pri


ntr-un \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 anume nivel al efortului \u351?i performan\
u355?ei. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1822\sb6\sl-273\slmult0\fi300\tx2101 \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 Rezultatul unei motiva\u355?ii este ac\u355?iunea. Oamenii rsp
und nevoilor lor interne prin \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ac\u355?iuni c
e vizeaz atingerea obiectivelor pe care ei le cred generatoare de satisfac\u355?i
i. \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Nu se poate confunda comportamentul c
u motiva\u355?ia. Motiva\u355?ia este un factor \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex
100 important n determinarea comportamentului dar nu este singurul, influen\u355?
ele fiind \u351?i de
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
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}}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P
g3}{\bkmkend Pg3}\par\pard\qj \li1801\sb0\sl-273\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0
\sl-273\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\sl-273\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\s
l-273\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\ri1616\sb123\sl-273\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\ch
arscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 natur biologic, social, cultural, organiza\u
355?ional \u351?i psihologic. Influen\u355?a sistemului de \line \up0 \expndtw-2\c
harscalex100 valori asupra motiva\u355?iei este evident. Aceasta va da o semnific
a\u355?ie precis consecin\u355?elor \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 comportam
entelor oamenilor \u351?i va influen\u355?a gradul de libertate al individului d
e a adera la \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 valori. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri
1817\sb2\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Motiva\u355?ia angaj
atului n ob\u355?inerea performan\u355?elor poate fi determinat de dou tipuri \up0
\expndtw-5\charscalex100 de factori : \par\pard\li2161\sb4\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx
2521\tx5655 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 1.\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \
ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Factori interni sau individuali\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\c
harscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 (percep\u355?ia sarcinilor, atitudini,
nevoi, interese,\par\pard\li2161\sb0\sl-276\slmult0\fi360 \up0 \expndtw-3\charsc
alex100 comportamente, sistemul de valori);(anexe fig.1.)\par\pard\ql \li2161\ri
1650\sb0\sl-280\slmult0\tx2521\tx2521\tx2521 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 2. \t
ab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Factori externi sau
organiza\u355?ionali\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 (sistemul de salarizare, preci
zarea sarcinilor, \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 grupul de munc, sistemu
l de control-supraveghere, comunicarea, feed-back-ul, \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-4
\charscalex100 timpul liber); \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1763\sb0\sl-275\slmult0\fi3
00\tx2101 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Interesele orienteaz aten\u355?ia, n scopu
l de a ob\u355?ine ceea ce este avantajos, necesar sau \line \up0 \expndtw-2\cha
rscalex100 folositor pentru individ. Totodat, managerii pot angaja sau avansa per
sonalul \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 corespunztor intereselor lor pentru a
spori motiva\u355?ia. Dac managerul poate determina \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charsc
alex100 interesele, atunci ele vor trebui integrate n definirea postului pentru a
asigura motivarea \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 continu a angajatului. Mot
iva\u355?ia personal este influen\u355?at \u351?i de atitudini care sunt \line \up
0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 predispozi\u355?ii de acceptare sau de respingere a u
nor evenimente, obiecte sau persoane. \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Astfel
, persoanele cu o atitudine pozitiv fa\u355? de ele nsele vor munci mai bine pentru
c \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 au ncredere n for\u355?ele proprii \u351?i d
eci, n atingerea scopului. Managerul poate ac\u355?iona \line \up0 \expndtw-5\cha
rscalex100 pentru a-l face pe angajat s-\u351?i modifice propria imagine despre s
ine. \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Nevoile sunt dezechilibrele care l
activeaz pe individ \u351?i-l determin s ac\u355?ioneze \line \up0 \expndtw-2\chars
calex100 pentru restabilirea echilibrului. Teoriile motiva\u355?ionale graviteaz n

jurul acestei no\u355?iuni, \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 aceasta se expl


ic prin faptul c nevoile nesatisf\u259?cute sunt energizantele \line \up0 \expndtw
-3\charscalex100 comportamentului uman. \par\pard\ql \li2226\sb0\sl-276\slmult0
\par\pard\ql\li2226\sb19\sl-276\slmult0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul
0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913? \tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupe
rsub\cf3\f4\fs24 FORMELE MOTIVA\u354?IEI \par\pard\qj \li1801\sb0\sl-260\slmult0
\par\pard\qj\li1801\ri1791\sb38\sl-260\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex
100 Motiva\u355?ia poate mbrca mai multe forme n func\u355?ie de elementul generato
r. Formele \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 motiva\u355?iei apar de regul clasificat
e n perechi opuse, dou cte dou. \par\pard\ql \li2882\sb7\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndt
w-4\charscalex100 1. Motiva\u355?ia pozitiv\u259? \u351?i motiva\u355?ia negati
v\u259?. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1718\sb1\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\ch
arscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Motiva\u355?ia pozitiv\ul0\nosupersub\cf3
\f4\fs24 este produs de laud, ncurajare \u351?i se soldeaz cu efecte benefice \up0
\expndtw-4\charscalex100 asupra activit\u355?ii sau rela\u355?iilor interumane cu
m ar fi angajarea n anumite activit\u355?i sau \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 prefe
rarea unor persoane, etc. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1639\sb0\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \
up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Motiva\u355?ia negativ\u
l0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 este produs de folosirea amenin\u355?rii, blamrii sau pe
depsirii \u351?i se \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 asociaz cu efecte de ab\u355?in
ere, evitare, refuz. Reprezint un tip primitiv de motiva\u355?ie, ns \up0 \expndtw3\charscalex100 cu anumite precau\u355?ii. \par\pard\ql \li2882\sb1\sl-257\slmul
t0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 2. Motiva\u355?ia intrinsec\u259? \u351?i moti
va\u355?ia extrinsec\u259?. \par\pard\ql \li2161\sb8\sl-276\slmult0\tx4296 \up0
\expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Motiva\u355?ia intrinsec \ta
b \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 este aceea care are
ca surs obiective, scopuri proprii \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1676\sb0\sl-280\slmult0
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 individului n cauz, provenite din concep\u355?ia sa
despre via\u355? sau din munca desf\u351?urat \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 (ob\u3
55?inerea unor c\u351?tiguri economico-financiare asociate strii de performan\u355
?, nu numai \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 pentru a-\u351?i mri c\u351?tigul salaria
l, ci \u351?i pentru sau ndeosebi datorit faptului c desf\u351?oar \up0 \expndtw-3\ch
arscalex100 munca, activitatea care-i face plcere). \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1777\s
b0\sl-270\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs2
4 Motiva\u355?ia extrinsec\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 are ca surs scopuri determi
nate de for\u355?e exterioare individului \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 sau munc
ii desf\u351?urate (ex: particip la munc nu att pentru a ob\u355?ine un ca\u351?tig
salarial, \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 ct pentru a scpa de presiunea prin\u355?ilo
r, a familiei).
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(5104,276);(5104,0);(0,0)}}
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
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}}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P
g4}{\bkmkend Pg4}\par\pard\li2882\sb0\sl-276\slmult0\par\pard\li2882\sb0\sl-276\
slmult0\par\pard\li2882\sb0\sl-276\slmult0\par\pard\li2882\sb0\sl-276\slmult0\pa
r\pard\li2882\sb111\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx3242 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0
\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 3.\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Motiva\u355?ia cogn
itiv\u259? \u351?i motiva\u355?ia afectiv\u259?\par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1721\sb0\s
l-280\slmult0\fi540 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Acestea sunt forme ale motiva\
u355?iei n raport de gradul de implicare a cunoa\u351?terii \u351?i a \up0 \expnd
tw-5\charscalex100 afectivit\u355?ii. \par\pard\ql \li2161\sb1\sl-253\slmult0\tx4
216 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Motiva\u355?ia cog
nitiv \tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 presupune ca
procesul muncii s fie dominat de ideea de \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb8\sl-276\slmult
0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 cunoa\u351?tere, de crea\u355?ie, de a inova \u3
51?i inventa (ex.: participarea la munc aproape n \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1636\sb1\
sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 exclusivitate pentru a crea, pentru
a inventa, inclusiv din plcerea de a explica altora, de a \up0 \expndtw-3\charsc
alex100 rezolva diferitele probleme), din ra\u355?iunea \u8220?lucrului bine fac
ut\u8221?. \par\pard\ql \li2161\sb1\sl-255\slmult0\tx4082 \up0 \expndtw-3\charsc
alex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Motiva\u355?ia afectiv \tab \up0 \expndtw-3\c
harscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 este proprie individului care ob\u355?i
ne rezultate performante, dar nu \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb8\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \e
xpndtw-4\charscalex100 ca urmare a \u8220?pornirilor interioare\u8221?, ci din i
deea de a fi acceptat, apreciat, de regul n \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1683\sb1\sl-280
\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 lumea creatorilor (ex.:munca pentru a ocu
pa o func\u355?ie superioar, nu att pentru a-\u351?i mri \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex
100 c\u351?tigul salarial, ct pentru a demonstra celorlal\u355?i c este preocupat d
e performan\u355? \u351?i c \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 este capabil) \par\pard\
ql \li2226\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2226\sb8\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expnd
tw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs
24
MOTIVA\u354?IE \u350?I PERFORMAN\u354? \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri2282\sb1\sl-2
80\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Putem defini performan\u355?a ca
fiind msura n care un membru al unei organiza\u355?ii \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex10
0 contribuie la realizarea obiectivelor organiza\u355?iei. \par\pard\ql \li1801\
ri1823\sb5\sl-274\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 De\u351?i motiva\u
355?ia contribuie clar la ob\u355?inerea performan\u355?ei , rela\u355?ia nu est
e unu la unu \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 deoarece intervin un numr de al\u355?i
factori. Astfel este foarte posibil ca performan\u355?a unei \up0 \expndtw-4\ch
arscalex100 persoane s fie sczut, cu toate c aceasta este foarte motivat - aptitudini
sczute, \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 abilit\u355?i nedezvoltate, o proast n\u355?e
legere a sarcinii sau \u351?ansa pot diminua performan\u355?a \up0 \expndtw-4\ch
arscalex100 chiar \u351?i celei mai motivate persoane. Desigur, poate fi concepu
t \u351?i un efect invers. Un \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 individ cu o motiva\
u355?ie aproape de limit poate s n\u355?eleag sarcina att de bine nct s \up0 \expndtw
charscalex100 apar o anumit compensa\u355?ie - orict de mic efort ar face individul
, acesta este cheltuit \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 foarte eficient n ceea ce pr
ive\u351?te ndeplinirea scopului. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1671\sb2\sl-280\slmult0\

fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 O persoan cu o motiva\u355?ie redus poate s ob\


u355?in o performan\u355? satisfctoare datorit \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 noroculu
i sau unui factor favorizant care mbunt\u355?e\u351?te performan\u355?a. \u350?i as
tfel nu este de \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 mirare c lucrtorii se plng cteodat c per
forman\u355?a lor a fost notat mai slab dect a \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 coleg
ilor care \u8220?nu muncesc a\u351?a mult\u8221?. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1616\sb
0\sl-276\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Motiva\u355?ia nu trebuie c
onsiderat n mod izolat, o motiva\u355?ie nalt nu va conduce la \line \up0 \expndtw-4
\charscalex100 performan\u355? nalt dac angaja\u355?ilor le lipsesc aptitudini \u351
?i ndemnri de baz, nu-\u351?i \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 n\u355?eleg posturi
le sau ntlnesc obstacole de neevitat asupra crora nu au nici un control. \up0 \expn
dtw-2\charscalex100 Tehnici manageriale contemporane cum ar fi Managementul Cali
t\u355?ii Totale pur \u351?i simplu \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 nu func\u355?io
neaz dac angaja\u355?ii au deficien\u355?e n ceea ce prive\u351?te cititul, aritmet
ica sau \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 ndemnarea tehnic.(anexe fig.2.) \par\pa
rd\ql \li1801\sb270\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub
\cf2\f3\fs28 I.3.ROLURILE MOTIV\u258?RII PERSONALULUI \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri292
7\sb0\sl-280\slmult0\fi660 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\
fs24 Indiferent de con\u355?inutul motiv\u259?rii ,rolurile ndeplinite sunt multi
ple \u351?i \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 intense.Rolurile motiv\u259?rii pot fi
rezumate astfel: \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1692\sb0\sl-275\slmult0\fi60 \up0 \expn
dtw-2\charscalex100 \u9679?Rolul managerial reprezint\u259? calitatea deciziilor
, opera\u355?ionalizarea metodelor, tehnicilor \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex1
00 \u351?i procedurilor manageriale \u351?i efectele generale, acurate\u355?ea \
u351?i flexibilitatea subsistemului \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 informa\
u355?ional, ca \u351?i func\u355?ionalitatea modalit\u259?\u355?ilor organizator
ice din organiza\u355?ie-adic\u259? \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 elemente
de esen\u355?\u259? ale sistemului managerial-sunt nemijlocit condi\u355?ionate
de motivarea \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 personalului. \par\pard\ql \li
1801\sb3\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \u9679?Rolul organiza\u355
?ional-const\u259? n impactul major pe care motivarea l are direct asupra \par\par
d\ql \li1801\sb1\sl-256\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 modului cum func\u
355?ioneaz\u259? organiza\u355?ia \u351?i performan\u355?ele sale.Con\u355?inutu
l \u351?i modalit\u259?\u355?ile de
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}}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P
g5}{\bkmkend Pg5}\par\pard\qj \li1801\sb0\sl-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0
\sl-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\sl-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\s
l-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\ri1711\sb186\sl-260\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\ch
arscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 motivare utilizate ntr-o organiza\u355?ie
contribuie ntr-o m\u259?sur\u259? semnificativ\u259? la imprimarea \up0 \expndtw
-3\charscalex100 anumitor caracteristici culturii sale organiza\u355?ionale. \pa
r\pard\ql \li1801\ri1772\sb4\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u9679
?Rolul individual-vizeaz\u259? puternica dependen\u355?\u259? a satisfac\u355?ii
lor \u351?i insatisfac\u355?iilor fiec\u259?rui \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 sa
lariat din organiza\u355?ie, a evolu\u355?iei sale, de motiva\u355?ia exercitat\
u259? n organiza\u355?ie.Cu ct se \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 realizeaz\u259? o
motiva\u355?ie mai intens\u259?, bazat\u259? pe luarea n considerare a necesit\u2
59?\u355?ilor \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 aspira\u355?iilor \u351?i a\u3
51?tept\u259?rilor salaria\u355?ilor, cu att personalul,\u351?i va utiliza ntr-o m\
u259?sur\u259? mai \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 mare capacit\u259?\u355?ile \u3
51?i se va dezvolta mai rapid \u351?i mai intens. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1793\sb
0\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \u9679?Rolul economic -se refer\u
259? la condi\u355?ionarea indirect\u259?, dar substan\u355?ial\u259? a performa
n\u355?elor \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 economice ale fiec\u259?rei \u355?\u25
9?ri, de motivarea ce predomin\u259? n firmele \u351?i celelalte organiza\u355?ii
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ce opereaza pe teritoriul s\u259?u.Predominan\u35
5?a organiza\u355?iilor cu capital privat asigur\u259? \line \up0 \expndtw-4\cha
rscalex100 premisele economice pentru a realiza o motivare intens\u259?, ceea ce
s-a \u351?i reflectat n \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 ritmurile de cre\u35
1?tere a PIB-ului n Romnia din ultimii ani. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri2332\sb0\sl-280
\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u9679?Rolul social-reprezint\u259? efect
ul combinat al rolurilor men\u355?ionate mai sus n planul \up0 \expndtw-3\charsca
lex100 elementelor psiho-sociologice ce caracterizeaz\u259? popula\u355?ia unei
\u355?\u259?ri. \par\pard\ql \li2521\sb232\sl-414\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charsca
lex97 \ul0\nosupersub\cf1\f2\fs36 CAP.II. TEORII MOTIVA\u354?IONALE \par\pard\qj
\li1801\ri3034\sb217\sl-280\slmult0\fi382 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\no
supersub\cf3\f4\fs24 Analiznd factorii motiva\u355?ionali n procesul de munc\u259?
, Schein , explic\u259? \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 comportamentul uman dup\u2
59? cum urmeaz\u259?: \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri2282\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 1.\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Omul ra\u355?ional\ul0\nosupers
ub\cf3\f4\fs24 este motivat n procesul muncii de nevoi economice, respectiv de \
up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 c\u351?tiguri materiale(teoria mecanicist\u259?). \p
ar\pard\qj \li1801\ri2722\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 2.\ul
0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Omul social\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 este motivat de
rela\u355?iile sociale existente n cadrul firmei(teoria \up0 \expndtw-3\charscal
ex100 psihosociologic\u259?). \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1795\sb0\sl-270\slmult0 \up
0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 3.\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Omul autorealizat\ul0\n
osupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 reprezint\u259? personalul din firm\u259? care are nevoie
de automplinire \u351?i \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 este motivat de sentimente
de responsabilitate \u351?i mndrie pentru munca sa(teoria \line \up0 \expndtw-3\
charscalex100 psihosociologic\u259?). \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1656\sb0\sl-273\slm
ult0\tx2101 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 4.\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Omul com
plex\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 este acea persoan\u259? ale c\u259?rei nevoi se
pot schimba n timp \u351?i fa\u355?\u259? de care \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100
managerul trebuie s\u259? \u351?i adapteze comportamentul(teoria transcendent\u25

9?). \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 n func\u355?ie de mobilul care antr


eneaz\u259? \u351?i sus\u355?ine motivarea personalului s-au conturat \line \up0
\expndtw-2\charscalex100 mai multe teorii motiva\u355?ionale, dintre care princ
ipale sunt urm\u259?toarele: \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\q
l\li1801\sb4\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8
\fs28 II.1.TEORIA X \u350?I TEORIA Y \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1701\sb0\sl-280\slmu
lt0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 Conceptele c
u privire la Teoria X \u351?i Teoria Y au fost avansate de \ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f
9\fs24 Douglas McGregor\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 , \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex1
00 n cartea sa, \u8222?Partea umana a ntreprinderii ,publicat\u259? n 1960. Exist\u
259?, n realitate, un set \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 de presupuneri care subli
niaz\u259? atitudinile \u351?i convingerile managementului privind \line \up0 \e
xpndtw-3\charscalex100 comportamentul lucr\u259?torilor. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri
1678\sb0\sl-274\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Teoria X este un con
cept cu privire la motiva\u355?ia general\u259? a lucr\u259?torilor, consecvent
cu \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 managementul \u351?tiin\u355?ific al lui Taylor
. Teoria X presupune c\u259? angaja\u355?ilor le displace \line \up0 \expndtw-2\
charscalex100 munca \u351?i vor ac\u355?iona eficient numai ntr-un mediu de lucru
puternic controlat: oamenilor \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 le displace munca \
u351?i ncearc\u259? s\u259? o evite,deoarece oamenilor le displace munca, manager
ii \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 trebuie s\u259?-i conving\u259?, de regul\u259?
prin constrngere, s\u259?-i controleze \u351?i, frecvent, s\u259?-i \line \up0 \
expndtw-2\charscalex100 ameninte, pentru a ob\u355?ine obiectivele organiza\u355
?iei. Rezultatul logic al acestor presupuneri \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 va f
i un mediu de lucru puternic controlat, unul n care managerii iau toate deciziile
, iar \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 angajatii doar execut\u259? ordinele.
\par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1710\sb0\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex1
00 Teoria Y este un concept cu privire la motivarea general\u259? a angaja\u355?
ilor, consecvent cu \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ideea mecanismului rela\
u355?iilor umane. Teoria Y presupune ca angaja\u355?ii accept\u259? munca \u351?
i
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\sl-275\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb0\sl-275\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb0\s
l-275\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\ri1843\sb113\sl-275\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\ch
arscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 responsabilitatea spre ob\u355?inerea ob
iectivelor organiza\u355?iei, dac\u259? se face astfel nct s\u259? se \line \up0 \
expndtw-2\charscalex100 ob\u355?in\u259?, de asemenea, o recompens\u259? pentru
asta:oamenilor nu le displace natural munca; \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 de fa
pt munca este o parte important\u259? a vie\u355?ii lor,oamenii vor munci pentru
obiective \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 pentru care ei se simt angaja\u35
5?i, oamenii devin angaja\u355?i, pentru realizarea unor obiective, \line \up0 \
expndtw-4\charscalex100 cnd acestora le este foarte clar ca atingerea obiectivelo
r vor aduce recompense \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 personale, oamenii, a
desea, caut\u259? \u351?i doresc s\u259? accepte responsabilit\u259?\u355?i,anga
ja\u355?ii au \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 poten\u355?ialul necesar de a
ajuta eficient la atingerea obiectivelor organiza\u355?iei,organiza\u355?iile \l
ine \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 n general, nu fac tot posibilul pentru folosire
a eficient\u259? \u351?i ra\u355?ional\u259? a resurselor lor \line \up0 \expndt

w-2\charscalex100 umane.Desigur, aceast\u259? viziune este complet diferit\u259?


de cea a Teoriei X \u351?i mult mai \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 constru
ctiv\u259? dect aceasta. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1670\sb10\sl-270\slmult0\fi300 \u
p0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 McGregor argumenteaz\u259? c\u259? cei mai multi man
ageri se comport\u259? n acord cu Teoria X, \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 dar el
men\u355?ioneaz\u259? c\u259? Teoria Y este mult mai apropiat\u259? \u351?i efic
ient\u259? pentru un ghid al \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 ac\u355?iunilor manag
eriale. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri2196\sb2\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\cha
rscalex100 Mecanismul rela\u355?iilor umane, mpreun\u259? cu Teoria X, respectiv
cuTeoria Y, cresc \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 atitudinile sociale ale ma
nagementului \u351?i importan\u355?a factorilor sociali la locurile de \line \up
0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 munc\u259?. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1738\sb4\sl-276\sl
mult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Totu\u351?i, motiva\u355?ia umana este
un proces complex \u351?i dinamic, pentru care nu exist\u259? un \up0 \expndtw2\charscalex100 r\u259?spuns unic cu privire la importan\u355?a pe care o are in
fluen\u355?a banilor, sau factorii umani \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 asupra ca
pacit\u259?\u355?ii angaja\u355?ilor. Mai curnd, putem spune c\u259?, o varietate
de factori trebuie \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 s\u259? fie lua\u355?i n seam\u
259?, n oricare ncercare de a cre\u351?te motiva\u355?ia lucr\u259?torilor. n conti
nuare, \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 vom p\u259?rasi mediul cercet\u259?rilor di
n sfera productivit\u259?\u355?ii muncii, pentru a dezvolta \line \up0 \expndtw3\charscalex100 subiectul privind nevoile umane. \par\pard\ql \li2101\sb1\sl-256
\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Analiznd caracteristicile motiva\u355?iilo
r X \u351?i Y , speciali\u351?tii au explicat miracolul \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1
710\sb5\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 dezvolt\u259?rii economicosociale a Japoniei prin a\u351?a numita Teorie Z care explic\u259? faptul c\u259
? \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 omul mediu se caracterizeaz\u259? prin mbinarea p
ropor\u355?ional\u259? relativ egal\u259? a tr\u259?s\u259?turilor din \up0 \exp
ndtw-3\charscalex100 cele dou\u259? Teorii. \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb266\sl-322\sl
mult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 II.2.IERARHIA NE
VOILOR LUI MASLOW \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb0\sl-275\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\ri
1618\sb62\sl-275\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3
\f4\fs24 Conceptul de ierarhie a nevoilor a fost avansat de psihologul \ul0\nosu
persub\cf8\f9\fs24 Abraham Maslow\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 (1908-\line \up0 \
expndtw-4\charscalex100 1970). O nevoie este o cerin\u355?\u259? personal\u259?.
Maslow presupune c\u259? exist\u259? o varietate de \line \up0 \expndtw-4\chars
calex100 necesit\u259?\u355?i pe care oamenii le doresc ndeplinite \u351?i presup
une c\u259? aceste nevoi pot fi \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 aranjate con
form cu importan\u355? lor n secven\u355? cunoscute ca ierarhia nevoilor a lui Ma
slow. \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 La baza piramidei sunt nevoile fiziolo
gice, lucrurile care ne sunt necesare pentru a \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex1
00 supravie\u355?ui. Aceste nevoi includ hrana \u351?i apa,mbr\u259?c\u259?mintea
, ad\u259?postul \u351?i dormitul. Prin \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 pris
ma angajatului aceste nevoi sunt satisf\u259?cute de un salar adecvat.La urm\u25
9?torul nivel se \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 afl\u259? nevoia de siguran
\u355?\u259? \u351?i securitate, adic\u259? de acele lucruri necesare pentru sig
uran\u355?\u259? \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 fizic\u259? \u351?i emo\u35
5?ional\u259?. Nevoile de securitate pot fi satisf\u259?cute prin: locuri de mun
ca, \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 asigur\u259?ri de s\u259?n\u259?tate,pen
sii \u351?i condi\u355?ii de protec\u355?ie a muncii.Urmeaz\u259? nivelul nevoil
or \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 sociale, care se refer\u259? la cerin\u35
5?ele umane de dragoste \u351?i afec\u355?iune, necesitatea de a primi \u351?i \
line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 a oferi respect \u351?i afec\u355?iune \u351?
i sentimentul de apartenen\u355?\u259? la o organiza\u355?ie \u351?i la un segme
nt \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 al societ\u259?\u355?ii. ntr-un sens mai l
arg, aceste nevoi pot fi satisf\u259?cute prin mediul de lucru \u351?i \line \up
0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 prin organiza\u355?ii neoficiale. Rela\u355?iile soci
ale, dupa cele de munc\u259? . Urmeaz\u259? nivelul \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charsc
alex100 nevoilor de stim\u259?, sau prestigiu \u351?i se refer\u259? la respectu
l \u351?i recuno\u351?tiin\u355?a celor din jur \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex

100 (stima altora), precum \u351?i la propria noastra realizare \u351?i valoare.
Aceste nevoi pot fi \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 satisf\u259?cute prin p
ropria ndemnare - fizic\u259? \u351?i intelectual\u259? - prin promovare n locuri d
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15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
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}}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P
g7}{\bkmkend Pg7}\par\pard\ql \li1801\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb0
\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb0\s
l-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\ri1615\sb108\sl-276\slmult0\tx2101 \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 munc\u259? superioare, cu respons
abilitate m\u259?rita, sau prin diferite onoruri \u351?i premii, ori alte \line
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 forme de recuno\u351?tin\u355?\u259?.La cel mai nal
t nivel este nevoia de autorealizare (realizarea \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscale
x100 profesional\u259?), nevoia de cre\u351?tere \u351?i dezvoltare ca om \u351?
i de devenire profesional\u259? \u351?i \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 soci
al\u259?. Acestea sunt cele mai dificil de mplinit nevoi \u351?i n\u355?elegerea s
atisfacerii lor tinde \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 s\u259? ia diverse for
me \u351?i esen\u355?e, de la individ, la individ. Pentru unii oameni, nv\u259?\u
355?area unei \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 profesi noi,pornirea ntr-o cari
er\u259? nou\u259?, pot fi c\u259?i de satisfacere a nevoii de \line \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 autorealizare.Maslow sugereaz\u259? c\u259? oamenii lucreaz\u
259? pentru satisfacerea nevoilor lor \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 fiziol
ogice, la nceput, apoi a nevoilor de siguran\u355?\u259? \u351?i a\u351?a mai dep
arte pn\u259? la \u8222?nevoile din \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 vrf\u8221?
ale piramidei. n general, ei sunt motiva\u355?i de la cel mai de jos nivel, care
ramn, \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 par\u355?ial, nesatisf\u259?cute. Totu
\u351?i, nevoile de la un nivel nu vor putea fi complet satisf\u259?cute, \line
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 nainte ca nevoile de la nive1ul imediat superior, s
\u259? intre n joc. Dac\u259? majoritatea \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 nev
oilor fiziologice \u351?i de siguran\u355?\u259? personal\u259? sunt satisf\u259
?cute, acea persoan\u259? va putea fi \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 motiva
t\u259?, n principal, prin satisfacerea nevoilor sociale. Dar orice necesitate fi
ziologic\u259? \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u351?i de siguran\u355?\u259
?, care va acoperi o anume nevoie, va fi, de asemenea, important\u259?. \line \t
ab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Ierarhia nevoilor a lui Maslow ofer\u259? un mi
jloc uzual asupra viziunii motiv\u259?rii \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 an
gaja\u355?ilor, precum \u351?i un ghid pentru managementul organiza\u355?iei. \p
ar\pard\ql \li1801\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb4\sl-322\slmult0 \up
0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 II.3.TEORIA ERD A LUI ALD
ERFER \par\pard\ql \li2101\sb276\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u
l0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 Clayton Alderfer a propus (1972) o teorie similar cu
cea a lui Maslow dar care \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1635\sb0\sl-280\slmult0\tx2101
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 mparte nevoile n trei categorii: de existen\u355?, de
rela\u355?ii \u351?i de dezvoltare. O sintez a celor \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex1
00 dou teorii permite explicarea rela\u355?iilor dintre nevoi \u351?i motiva\u355
?ie.(anexe fig.3.) \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Nu toate nevoile au
o importan\u355? egal pentru individ, fiind chiar posibil ca unele \line \up0 \exp
ndtw-4\charscalex100 dintre ele s nu fie prezente la aceea\u351?i persoan. Configu
ra\u355?ia diferit a nevoilor face ca \u351?i \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 compo
rtamentul n munc s fie diferit. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1702\sb0\sl-280\slmult0\fi30
0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Alderfer este de acord cu Maslow n aceea c, pe msur
ce nevoile de nivel inferior \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 sunt satisfcute, dorin
\u355?a de a satisface nevoi de nivel superior cre\u351?te. Astfel, cnd nevoile \
up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 existen\u355?iale sunt satisfcute, nevoile rela\u355
?ionale c\u351?tig putere motiva\u355?ional. Alderfer \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100
explic acest lucru prin aceea c, pe msur ce necesit\u355?i mai \u8220?concrete\u8221
? sunt satisfcute, \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 energia poate fi dirijat spre sat
isfacerea necesit\u355?ilor mai pu\u355?in concrete. \par\pard\ql \li2101\sb0\sl216\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 n final, Alderfer, este de acord cu Mas
low n aceea c nevoile cele mai pu\u355?in concrete \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1835\sb1
1\sl-275\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 - necesit\u355?ile de dezvoltare d
evin din ce n ce mai presante \u351?i mai dorite pe masur ce \up0 \expndtw-4\chars

calex100 sunt satisfcute. Contribu\u355?ia lui Alderfer la in\u355?elegerea motiv


a\u355?iei este reprezentat de \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 diferen\u355?ele din
tre teoria ERD \u351?i ierarhia nevoilor. Mai nti, fa\u355? de aceasta din urm, \up0
\expndtw-4\charscalex100 teoria ERD nu presupune c o necesitate de rang inferior
trebuie satisfcut nainte ca o \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 necesitate mai pu\u355
?in concret s devin opera\u355?ional. \par\pard\ql \li2101\sb5\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \
expndtw-2\charscalex100 Teoria ERD nu presupune o ierarhie rigid a necesit\u355?il
or \u351?i anumi\u355?i indivizi, ca \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1756\sb7\sl-273\slmu
lt0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 urmare a pregtirii \u351?i experien\u355?ei lor
, pot cuta rela\u355?ii sau dezvoltare chiar dac nevoile \line \up0 \expndtw-2\cha
rscalex100 lor existen\u355?iale nu sunt nc satisfcute. Din acest motiv, teoria ERD
se pare c rspunde \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 la o mai mare varietate de difere
n\u355?ieri individuale n ceea ce prive\u351?te structura \line \up0 \expndtw-3\c
harscalex100 motiva\u355?ional. \par\pard\ql \li2101\sb5\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \exp
ndtw-2\charscalex100 n al doilea rnd, teoria ERD afirm c, dac nevoile de nivel superi
or nu sunt \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1671\sb7\sl-273\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charsc
alex100 satisfcute, va cre\u351?te dorin\u355?a indivizilor de a-\u351?i satisfac
e nevoile de nivel inferior. Aici \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 ntlnim o diferen\u
355?iere important fa\u355? de Maslow. Dup Maslow , dac necesit\u355?ile de \up0 \exp
ndtw-2\charscalex100 stim sunt puternice dar nesatisfcute, o persoan nu va reveni l
a interesul su n legtur \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 cu nevoile de apartenen\u355?,
deoarece acestea au fost satisfcute n mod necesar.
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}}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P
g8}{\bkmkend Pg8}\par\pard\ql \li2101\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2101\sb0
\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2101\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2101\sb0\s
l-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2101\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2101\sb0\sl276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2101\sb96\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 Teoria ERD este interesant n mod deosebit pentru imp
lica\u355?iile sale n motivarea \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb4\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \exp
ndtw-2\charscalex100 extrinsec \u351?i intrinsec. Evident, motivatorii extrinseci
satisfac probabil n special \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1634\sb4\sl-277\slmult0 \up0 \
expndtw-2\charscalex100 necesit\u355?ile existen\u355?iale \u351?i rela\u355?iona
le, n timp ce motivatorii intrinseci satisfac probabil n \line \up0 \expndtw-4\cha
rscalex100 special nevoile de dezvoltare. De re\u355?inut este faptul c Alderfer
afirma c toate trei \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 categoriile de nevoi pot
fi opera\u355?ionale n acela\u351?i timp. Astfel, \u351?ansa de a satisface \line
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 necesit\u355?i de dezvoltare printr-o munc stimulat
oare \u351?i provocatoare se poate dovedi \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 mo
tiva\u355?ional chiar dac nevoile existen\u355?iale nu sunt pe deplin satisfcute. S
imilar, \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 motivatorii extrinseci pot servi ca
substituen\u355?i pentru motivatorii intrinseci. De exemplu o \line \up0 \expndt
w-4\charscalex100 pesoan creia i se refuz un post ce i-ar satisface nevoile de dezv
oltare, s-ar putea s \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 rspund pozitiv la o suprav
eghere deschis, de ncredere \u351?i dispus la ajutor. \par\pard\ql \li2521\sb0\sl-3
22\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2521\sb84\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100
\ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 II.4.TEORIA A\u350?TEPTRILOR \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri
1586\sb153\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf
3\f4\fs24 Teoria a\u351?teptrilor a fost formulat de Victor Vroom (1964) \u351?i
se bazeaz pe a\u351?teptare \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \u351?i pe speran\u355

? ca mijloc de motivare. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1869\sb5\sl-275\slmult0\fi300 \up


0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Aceast teorie subliniaz importan\u355?a legturii dintre
efort \u351?i recompens: pentru a \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 depune un efort s
uplimentar, persoana n cauz trebuie s fie convins c \u351?i va spori \up0 \expndtw-2\c
harscalex100 astfel \u351?ansa de a ob\u355?ine recompensa a\u351?teptat. Unele r
ecompense vin oricum, indiferent \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 de efortul depus
\u351?i deci nu pot fi private ca factori motiva\u355?ionali efectivi. Altele su
nt \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 direct legate de efort \u351?i constituie a\u35
1?adar motiva\u355?ii. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1642\sb6\sl-275\slmult0\fi300 \up0
\expndtw-2\charscalex100 Unele recompense nu sunt garantate dar pot ac\u355?ion
a ca factori motiva\u355?ionali att timp \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ct individu
l este convins c exercitarea unui efort suplimentar i poate spori \u351?ansa de a
le \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ob\u355?ine. n practic, efortul este rareori rsplti
t dac nu are ca rezultat buna performan\u355?, \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 cum a
r fi de exemplu o cre\u351?tere a produc\u355?iei sau a calit\u355?ii. Deci n mod
evident \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 performan\u355?a este cea rspltit \u351
?i nu efortul n sine. \par\pard\ql \li2101\sb5\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-5\cha
rscalex100 Vroom consider c motiva\u355?ia este determinat\u259? de trei factori
: \par\pard\qj \li2161\ri2210\sb18\sl-260\slmult0\tx2521\tx2521 \up0 \expndtw-3\
charscalex100 1. \tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 a\u351?teptarea (credin\u355
?a angajatului c un anumit nivel de efort va conduce la un \line\tab \up0 \expndt
w-3\charscalex100 anumit nivel de randament); \par\pard\qj \li2161\ri2303\sb4\sl
-280\slmult0\tx2521\tx2521 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 2. \tab \up0 \expndtw-2
\charscalex100 instrumentalitatea (credin\u355?a angajatului n privin\u355?a prob
abilit\u355?ii de a ob\u355?ine \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 recompens
e propor\u355?ionale cu contribu\u355?ia lui n munc); \par\pard\li2161\sb9\sl-276\
slmult0\fi0\tx2521 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 3.\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscal
ex100 valen\u355?a (nivelul de satisfac\u355?ie pe care individul se a\u351?teap
t s-l aib din rezultatele\par\pard\li2161\sb0\sl-276\slmult0\fi360 \up0 \expndtw-3\
charscalex100 muncii lui).(anexe fig.4)\par\pard\ql \li2101\sb1\sl-255\slmult0 \
up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 De\u351?i este dificil de demonstrat practic aceast
teorie, ea explic mul\u355?umitor \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1641\sb9\sl-275\slmult0
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 mecanismul motiva\u355?iei. Limita ei provine din
faptul c presupune procesul motiva\u355?ional \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ca fi
ind n primul rnd con\u351?tient \u351?i nu se preocup deloc de aspectele incon\u351
?tiente. Aceste \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 limite nu mpiedic abordri concrete pe
ntru mrirea motiva\u355?iei. Managerul trebuie s \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex1
00 asigure un mediu n care cele trei elemente men\u355?ionate s fie prezente. Spre
exemplu, \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 pentru a mri ncrederea angaja\u355?i
lor c prin eforturile lor vor ob\u355?ine un randament ridicat, \up0 \expndtw-2\c
harscalex100 managerii pot introduce selec\u355?ia n func\u355?ie de competen\u35
5?e sau proceduri care s permit \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 nsu\u351?irea s
arcinilor simple, nainte de a se ncredin\u355?a sarcini complicate; pentru mrirea \
up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 instrumentalit\u355?ii, managerii trebuie s asocieze
clar randamentul cu recompensele iar \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 pentru
folosirea valen\u355?ei recompenselor, managerii vor cuta s atrag n organiza\u355?ie
\line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 angaja\u355?i care apreciaz acest principiu
de motivare.
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,275);(7862,275);(7862,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft2520\shptop10617\shpright4866\shpbottom10894\shpfhdr0\s
hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz554\shplid28
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 2346}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 277}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,277);(2346,277);(2346,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop10894\shpright2100\shpbottom11170\shpfhdr0\s
hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz565\shplid29
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 300}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(300,276);(300,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft2100\shptop10894\shpright9316\shpbottom11170\shpfhdr0\s
hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz576\shplid30
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 7216}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(7216,276);(7216,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}

{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop11170\shpright10232\shpbottom11446\shpfhdr0\
shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz595\shplid31
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 8432}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(8432,276);(8432,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop11446\shpright10404\shpbottom11722\shpfhdr0\
shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz614\shplid32
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 8604}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(8604,276);(8604,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop11722\shpright10044\shpbottom11997\shpfhdr0\
shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz633\shplid33
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 8244}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 275}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,275);(8244,275);(8244,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop11997\shpright9990\shpbottom12274\shpfhdr0\s
hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz652\shplid34
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 8190}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 277}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,277);(8190,277);(8190,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop12274\shpright10370\shpbottom12550\shpfhdr0\
shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz671\shplid35
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 8570}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(8570,276);(8570,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}

{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop12550\shpright10170\shpbottom12826\shpfhdr0\
shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz690\shplid36
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 8370}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(8370,276);(8370,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop12826\shpright10170\shpbottom13102\shpfhdr0\
shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz709\shplid37
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 8370}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(8370,276);(8370,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop13102\shpright10036\shpbottom13378\shpfhdr0\
shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz728\shplid38
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 8236}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(8236,276);(8236,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop13378\shpright9910\shpbottom13654\shpfhdr0\s
hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz747\shplid39
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 8110}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(8110,276);(8110,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop13654\shpright6710\shpbottom13930\shpfhdr0\s
hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz766\shplid40
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 4910}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(4910,276);(4910,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P

g9}{\bkmkend Pg9}\par\pard\ql \li2011\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2011\sb0


\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2011\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2011\sb0\s
l-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2011\sb186\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscale
x100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 II.5.TEORIA NTRIRILOR (A CONDI\u354?IONRII OPERANT
E) \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\ri1764\sb60\sl-27
6\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 Teoria
are la baz procesele de nv\u355?are \u351?i de condi\u355?ionare descrise de B.F.S
kinner. \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Principiul de baz n aceast abordare beh
aviorist este c comportamentul se manifest \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 n fun
c\u355?ie de consecin\u355?ele sale. Comportamentele cu consecin\u355?e pozitive
au tendin\u355?a de a \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 se repeta, iar cele c
u urmri neplcute au tendin\u355?a de a nu mai aprea. Managerii pot \line \up0 \expn
dtw-2\charscalex100 consolida comportamentele dorite \u351?i sanc\u355?iona pe c
ele nedorite. Exist patru metode \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 pentru aplic
area acestei teorii: ntrirea pozitiv, ntrirea negativ, exctinc\u355?ia \u351?i \line \
up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 pedeapsa. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1608\sb0\sl-276\sl
mult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 ntrirea pozi
tiv\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 - este urmarea pozitiv a unui comportament dorit \
u351?i are drept scop \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 mrirea frecven\u355?ei acestu
ia; ea nu trebuie confundat cu recompensa, care este o \line \up0 \expndtw-2\char
scalex100 consecin\u355? pur \u351?i simplu. ntririle pozitive nu se limiteaz la ava
ntaje materiale, cum \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 sunt mririle de salariu, prime
le, participarea la beneficii etc, ci pot fi \u351?i un cuvnt de \line \up0 \expn
dtw-4\charscalex100 ncurajare, o not de apreciere, o scrisoare din partea director
ului general, un articol n \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 ziarul ntreprinderii, un
surs, o invita\u355?ie la o cafea. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri5217\sb0\sl-300\slmult0
\tx2226 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Aplicarea ntririi pozitive urmeaz cteva princi
pii: \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913
?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
Definirea clar a comportamentelor dorite; \par\pa
rd\ql \li2226\sb1\sl-262\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\c
f5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
Alctuirea unei liste a recompen
selor pentru ntrirea pozitiv; \par\pard\qj \li2226\ri1844\sb24\sl-280\slmult0\tx258
6 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosuper
sub\cf3\f4\fs24
Cunoa\u351?terea diferen\u355?elor individuale n privin\u355?a
recompenselor pentru a \u351?ti care \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 es
te valoarea lor pentru angaja\u355?i; \par\pard\ql \li2226\sb24\sl-276\slmult0 \
up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub
\cf3\f4\fs24
Informarea fiecruia asupra a ceea ce trebuie s ndeplineasc pentru a
avea \par\pard\qj \li2586\ri1773\sb18\sl-260\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex1
00 dreptul la recompens; stabilirea de obiective precise pentru fiecare \u351?i a
cordarea \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 feed-back-ului asupra randamentului; \par
\pard\qj \li2226\ri2230\sb24\sl-280\slmult0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100
\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
Atribuirea r
ecompenselor n func\u355?ie de comportamentul dorit, imediat dup \line\tab \up0 \e
xpndtw-4\charscalex100 apari\u355?ia acestuia; \par\pard\qj \li2226\ri2238\sb21\
sl-280\slmult0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24
\u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
Utilizarea judicioas a programului de ntrire
pentru ca valorificarea s fie \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 deplin. \pa
r\pard\ql \li1801\sb4\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupers
ub\cf4\f5\fs24 ntrirea negativ\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 - const n faptul c un compo
rtament dorit atrage evitarea unei \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb1\sl-256\slmult0 \up0
\expndtw-2\charscalex100 consecin\u355?e neplcute. Managerii care i ceart pe angaja
\u355?ii care ntrzie sau au un \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1770\sb5\sl-280\slmult0 \up0
\expndtw-2\charscalex100 randament nesatisfctor aplic acest tip de ntrire. Salaria\u
355?ii \u351?i vor da seama destul de \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 curnd c trebuie
s fie punctuali sau performan\u355?i, pentru a evita consecin\u355?a neplcut. \up0
\expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Exctinc\u355?ia\ul0\nosupe
rsub\cf3\f4\fs24 - este o form de sanc\u355?iune care const n retragerea unei cons
ecin\u355?e plcute, \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 ca urmare a comportamentelor ne
dorite iar aplicarea sa are loc n trei etape: \par\pard\ql \li2226\sb24\sl-276\sl

mult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nos


upersub\cf3\f4\fs24
Identificarea comportamentului de eliminat sau redus; \pa
r\pard\qj \li2226\ri2422\sb5\sl-300\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 \ul0\n
osupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
Identificarea ntritor
ului care ncurajeaz men\u355?inerea comportamentului; \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
Eliminarea n
tritorului. \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb1\sl-251\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100
\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Pedeapsa \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 - presupune o
consecin\u355? neplcut ca urmare a unui comportament nedorit. \par\pard\qj \li1801\
ri1637\sb6\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ntruct efectele secundare
pot fi multiple \u351?i uneori mult mai grave dect comportamentul \line \up0 \exp
ndtw-2\charscalex100 care s-a dorit a fi nlturat, pedepsele trebuie aplicate numai
n situa\u355?iile n care este strict \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 necesar.
\par\pard\ql \li1801\sb4\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Pentru a
fi eficient, pedeapsa trebuie s fie: \par\pard\qj \li2226\ri2300\sb1\sl-280\slmult
0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\
nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
impersonal, aplicndu-se comportamentului \u351?i fr a se a
tinge demnitatea \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 persoanei; \par\pard\ql
\li2226\sb24\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6
\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
imediat ; \par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\
paperw12240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg10}{\bkmkend Pg10}\par\pard
\qj \li2226\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li2226\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \par\pard\
qj\li2226\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li2226\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \par\pard\qj
\li2226\ri2833\sb109\sl-280\slmult0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\no
supersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
puternic, adic suficie
nt de sever pentru a fi perceput ca atare, dar \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscale
x100 propor\u355?ional cu fapta; \par\pard\qj \li2226\ri4273\sb4\sl-300\slmult0 \
up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub
\cf3\f4\fs24
constant, uniform n timp \u351?i de la o persoan la alta; \up0 \expn
dtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\f
s24
asociat clar cu comportamentul nedorit. \par\pard\ql \li2011\sb0\sl-322\sl
mult0 \par\pard\ql\li2011\sb80\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0
\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 II.6.TEORIA SENTIMENTULUI COMPETEN\u354?EI PERSONALE \pa
r\pard\qj \li1801\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\ri1838\sb33\sl-280\slmu
lt0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 Sentimentul
competen\u355?ei personale const n ncrederea unei persoane n capacitatea \up0 \expnd
tw-3\charscalex100 sa de a atinge un obiectiv sau de a ndeplini o sarcin. \par\par
d\qj \li1801\ri1704\sb5\sl-275\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Dac ma
nagerul are ncredere n poten\u355?ialul angaja\u355?ilor, convingerile lui pot ind
uce n \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 rndul acestora o mai mare siguran\u355? n
competen\u355?ele personale. Sentimentul, sprijinit pe \line \up0 \expndtw-2\cha
rscalex100 aprecierea performan\u355?elor anterioare, a competen\u355?elor, a ad
aptabilit\u355?ii, a ingeniozit\u355?ii \u351?i \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 a altor factori personali, are efect asupra comportamentului \u351?i randament
ului n munc. \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 (anexe fig.5.) \par\pard\ql \li21
01\sb5\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Pentru a dezvolta sentimentu
l competen\u355?ei personale la angaja\u355?i este recomandabil : \par\pard\li222
6\sb29\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\c
f5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs2
4 ncurajarea angaja\u355?ilor pentru acceptarea obiectivelor dificile \u351?i rea
lizabile;\par\pard\li2226\sb24\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charsca
lex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u
l0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 convingerea acestora asupra faptului c obiectivele pot
fi atinse ;\par\pard\li2226\sb22\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\chars
calex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100
\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 crearea unui mediu de lucru plcut \u351?i ntre\u355?in
erea rela\u355?iilor de sus\u355?inere;\par\pard\li2226\sb24\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\
tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\tab \u
p0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 furnizarea informa\u355?
iilor necesare cu privire att la natura \u351?i exigen\u355?ele sarcinii,\par\par

d\li2226\sb1\sl-276\slmult0\fi360 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 ct \u351?i la met


odele necesare pentru ducerea ei la ndeplinire;\par\pard\li2226\sb21\sl-276\slmul
t0\fi0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?
\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 eviden\u355?ierea
reu\u351?itelor personale \u351?i garantarea ocaziilor de a ob\u355?ine succesu
l ;\par\pard\li2226\sb24\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100
\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nos
upersub\cf3\f4\fs24 favorizarea dezvoltrii competen\u355?elor prin programe de pe
rfec\u355?ionare;\par\pard\li2226\sb22\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3
\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscal
ex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 evitarea e\u351?ecurilor previzibile;\par\pard
\li2226\sb24\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupe
rsub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\
f4\fs24 alocarea sarcinilor n mod progresiv, n func\u355?ie de competen\u355?e;\pa
r\pard\li2226\sb23\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\
nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersu
b\cf3\f4\fs24 ncurajarea angaja\u355?ilor de a pune succesele pe seama competen\u
355?elor iar e\u351?ecurile\par\pard\ql \li2586\sb1\sl-263\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw
-3\charscalex100 pe seama efortului insuficient. \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb289\sl-3
22\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 II.7. TEORI
A BIFACTORIAL \par\pard\qj \li1801\sb0\sl-270\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\ri1844\
sb51\sl-270\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\f
s24 Frederick Herzberg \u351?i colaboratorii si au efectuat (1971) un studiu amp
lu, n urma \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 cruia au descoperit c factorii de satisfac
\u355?ie n munc sunt de natur diferit fa\u355? de cei \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 a
socia\u355?i cu sursele de insatisfac\u355?ie. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1658\sb6\s
l-276\slmult0\fi300\tx2101 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Intervieva\u355?ilor le
-a fost cerut mai nti s descrie factorii care i-au fcut s se simt cu \line \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 adevrat bine n legtur cu slujba \u351?i cu munca lor iar apoi s de
scrie factorii ce au \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 condus la momente de in
satisfac\u355?ie n legtur cu locul de munc. \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100
Factorii pe care Herzberg i-a gsit cel mai adesea asocia\u355?i cu satisfac\u35
5?ia sunt \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 realizrile, recunoa\u351?terea, res
ponsabilitatea, posibilitatea de avansare, dezvoltarea proprie \line \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 \u351?i munca ns\u351?i. Ace\u351?ti factori sunt denumi\u355?i
factori motiva\u355?ionali deoarece, n prezen\u355?a \line \up0 \expndtw-2\chars
calex100 lor cre\u351?te motiva\u355?ia. Totu\u351?i, absen\u355?a lor nu conduc
e n mod necesar la apari\u355?ia \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 sentimentulu
i de insatisfac\u355?ie. Cnd factorii motiva\u355?ionali sunt prezen\u355?i, ei a
c\u355?ioneaz ca \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 surs de satisfac\u355?ie. Fac
torii cita\u355?i drept cauze ale insatisfac\u355?iei sunt: supravegherea, \line
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 condi\u355?iile de munc, rela\u355?iile interperso
nale, salariul, securitatea muncii administrarea \u351?i \line \up0 \expndtw-2\c
harscalex100 politica organiza\u355?iei. Ace\u351?ti factori, numi\u355?i factor
i de igien, cnd sunt la niveluri \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 acceptabile r
educ insatisfac\u355?ia.
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft2584\shptop7374\shpright9992\shpbottom7650\shpfhdr0\shp
bxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz358\shplid18
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 7408}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(7408,276);(7408,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft2584\shptop7674\shpright9346\shpbottom7950\shpfhdr0\shp
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 6762}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(6762,276);(6762,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft2584\shptop7972\shpright5502\shpbottom8248\shpfhdr0\shp
bxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz396\shplid20
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 2918}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
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{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft2584\shptop8272\shpright8602\shpbottom8548\shpfhdr0\shp

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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(6018,276);(6018,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
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{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft2584\shptop8570\shpright10286\shpbottom8846\shpfhdr0\sh
pbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz434\shplid22
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
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}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft2584\shptop8846\shpright5490\shpbottom9122\shpfhdr0\shp
bxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz453\shplid23
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 2906}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(2906,276);(2906,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P
g11}{\bkmkend Pg11}\par\pard\qj \li1801\sb0\sl-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\s
b0\sl-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\sl-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0
\sl-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\ri1675\sb186\sl-260\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expn
dtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 Totu\u351?i ei nu conduc n mod ne
cesar la niveluri ridicate ale motiva\u355?iei. Cnd factorii de \up0 \expndtw-2\c
harscalex100 igien lipsesc, ei ac\u355?ioneaz, tocmai prin absen\u355?a lor, ca su
rs de insatisfac\u355?ie. \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li
1801\sb7\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs2
8 II.8. TEORIA ECHIT\u354?II \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb0\sl-275\slmult0 \par\pard\ql
\li1801\ri1869\sb62\sl-275\slmult0\fi300\tx2101 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u
l0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 Teoria echit\u355?ii se orienteaz asupra sentimentelor s
alaria\u355?ilor privind corectitudinea \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 rela
tiv cu care sunt trata\u355?i. Astfel, modelul motiva\u355?ional se bazeaz pe cons
tatarea c \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 oamenii doresc s fie trata\u355?i n m
od egal \u351?i corect, n circumstan\u355?e egale; acestora li se \line \up0 \exp
ndtw-2\charscalex100 cuvin recompense egale la munc egal, dup tratament nediscrimin
atoriu n timpul de \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 lucru \u351?i facilit\u355?
i echivalente n timpul liber. Teoria echit\u355?ii opereaz cu mrimi de \line \up0 \e
xpndtw-2\charscalex100 intrare (calificri, competen\u355?e, abilit\u355?i, experie
n\u355?, talent, spirit de ini\u355?iativ, \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 pro
ductivitate) \u351?i cu mrimi de ie\u351?ire (recompense, recunoa\u351?tere, pres
tigiu, stim) . \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 n opinia individului mrimile
de ie\u351?ire trebuie s fie n acord cu cele de intrare, ca \line \up0 \expndtw-2
\charscalex100 msur a propriei activit\u355?i, dar \u351?i comparativ cu balan\u355
?a respectiv pentru ceilal\u355?i \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 salaria\u35
5?i. \par\pard\ql \li2101\sb5\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Indiv

idul percepe situa\u355?ia ca echitabil atunci cnd raportul Retribu\u355?ie/Contri


bu\u355?ie \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1634\sb0\sl-284\slmult0\tx2101\tx2226\tx2586\t
x2586 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 proprie este similar cu al celorlal\u355?i; n
caz contrar apare o situa\u355?ie de inechitate, care poate \line \up0 \expndtw
-2\charscalex100 produce un sentiment de insatisfac\u355?ie sau de vinov\u355?ie n
func\u355?ie de sensul inegalit\u355?ii. \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100
Pentru a reduce inechitatea individul recurge la una din urmtoarele solu\u355?ii
: \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?
\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
Modificarea cognitiv a c\u351?tigurilor sau contrib
u\u355?iilor proprii: individul se \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 conv
inge c are o contribu\u355?ie mai mare sau mai mic n sensul stabilirii \line \tab \
up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 echilibrului; \par\pard\ql \li2226\ri1731\sb0\sl-28
0\slmult0\tx2586\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs2
4 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
Modificarea cognitiv a c\u351?tigurilor s
au contribu\u355?iilor altora: subiectul consider \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\chars
calex100 mai mic sau mai mare importan\u355?a muncii persoanei cu care se compar;
\line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nos
upersub\cf3\f4\fs24
Schimbarea grupului de compara\u355?ie: se poate compara
cu al\u355?i colegi, trata\u355?i ntr-\line\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 un
mod asemntor lui; \par\pard\qj \li2226\ri1970\sb19\sl-280\slmult0\tx2586 \up0 \exp
ndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\
fs24
Modificarea contribu\u355?iei : mic\u351?orarea sau mrirea acesteia n func
\u355?ie de sensul \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 inechit\u355?ii; \par\
pard\qj \li2226\ri1618\sb21\sl-280\slmult0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100
\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
Modificarea c\
u351?tigurilor: individul care se simte mai pu\u355?in remunerat poate cere o \l
ine\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 mrire de salariu, sau poate sustrage materi
ale de la serviciu; \par\pard\qj \li2226\ri2533\sb37\sl-260\slmult0\tx2586 \up0
\expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3
\f4\fs24
Abandonarea situa\u355?iei: cel tratat inechitabil \u351?i poate da d
emisia sau cere \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 transferul la un alt ser
viciu unde sper s aib o situa\u355?ie mai bun. \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb293\sl-414\slm
ult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex95 \ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs36 III. SATISFAC\u354
?IA N MUNC \par\pard\qj \li1801\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\ri1990\sb11
7\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
Satisfac\u355?ia n munc reprezint n sens strict o emo\u355?ie plcut, pozitiv, rezulta
\up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 urma muncii depuse \u351?i a rezultatelor ob\u355
?inute. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1684\sb6\sl-273\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\cha
rscalex100 De aici putem deduce c satisfac\u355?ia este perceput prin evaluarea in
dividual a muncii \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 desf\u351?urate. Aceast evaluare es
te intern \u351?i personal \u351?i doar par\u355?ial extern, fiind \line \up0 \expn
dtw-2\charscalex100 influen\u355?at de colegi \u351?i manageri .Cnd a\u351?teptrile
angajatului n raport cu munca depus \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 nu sunt realiza
te apare sentimentul de insatisfac\u355?ie. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1777\sb2\sl-2
80\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Satisfac\u355?ia n munc are mai mul
te dimensiuni: unele privesc salariile, recunoa\u351?terea, \line \up0 \expndtw2\charscalex100 etc, n timp ce altele privesc satisfacerea muncii prin ea ns\u351?i
(a lucrului bine fcut). \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Fiecare din aceste d
imensiuni contribuie la conturarea sentimentului de satisfac\u355?ie sau \par\pa
rd\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg12}{\bkm
kend Pg12}\par\pard\qj \li1801\sb0\sl-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\sl-260
\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\sl-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\sl-260\s
lmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\ri1671\sb186\sl-260\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscale
x100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 insatisfac\u355?ie, chiar dac munca ntr-un anumit
post \u351?i rezultatele acestora se percep diferit \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex1
00 de ocupan\u355?ii postului. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1649\sb7\sl-276\slmult0\fi
300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Aceasta deoarece fiecare angajat are propriile
etaloane pentru msurarea satisfac\u355?iei n \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 munc, n
eexistnd formule de calcul pentru nivelul de satisfac\u355?ie. n plus, s-a constat
at c \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 fericirea angaja\u355?ilor nu conduce ntotdeaun

a la cre\u351?terea productivita\u355?ii \u351?i unui nivel \line \up0 \expndtw2\charscalex100 ridicat al productivita\u355?ii nu i se poate asocia un nivel ri
dicat al satisfac\u355?iei, deci rela\u355?ia \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 dintre productivitate \u351?i satisfac\u355?ie nu este suficient de bine clari
ficat. \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Satisfac\u355?ia n munc depinde att de ca
racteristicile personale ale angajatului ct \u351?i de \line \up0 \expndtw-5\char
scalex100 caracteristicile postului ocupat. \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb4\sl-276\slmu
lt0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Cercetrile ntreprinse au pus n eviden\u355? faptul
c satisfac\u355?ia n munc conduce la \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1651\sb1\sl-280\slmult
0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 cre\u351?terea ncrederii n firm, iar insatisfac\u35
5?ia la manifestri negative cum ar fi absenteism, \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 f
luctua\u355?iei, furt. (anexe fig.6.) \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri2038\sb0\sl-280\slm
ult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Efectele insatisfac\u355?iei n munca afe
cteaz performan\u355?ele, respectiv productivitatea, \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 inova\u355?ia \u351?i loialitatea. Din acest motiv, managerii trebuie s previn \
u351?i s controleze \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 aceste efecte. \par\pard\
qj \li1801\ri1970\sb0\sl-270\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Un stud
iu efectuat de economi\u351?ti americani la sfr\u351?itul anilor 70 arat c motiva\u
355?ia, \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 calitatea, satisfac\u355?ia \u351?i absent
eismul se vor mbunt\u355?i dac locurile de munc vor fi \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100
proiectate astfel nct s includ urmtoarele elemente : \par\pard\li2226\sb31\sl-276\slm
ult0\fi0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-391
3?\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 varietatea ndemnri
lor (priceperilor): aceasta nsemn ca angaja\u355?ii s nu fac\par\pard\li2226\sb1\sl276\slmult0\fi360 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 acela\u351?i lucru n mod repetat;
\par\pard\li2226\sb22\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u
l0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupe
rsub\cf3\f4\fs24 n\u355?elegerea sarcinilor pe care le au de ndeplinit angaja\u355
?ii;\par\pard\li2226\sb24\sl-276\slmult0\fi0\tx2586 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex10
0 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\no
supersub\cf3\f4\fs24 libertatea - posibilitatea salaria\u355?iilor de a de\u355?
ine controlul asupra sarcinilor de\par\pard\qj \li2226\ri4478\sb0\sl-300\slmult0
\fi360 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 efectuat \u351?i de a fi responsabili pentr
u rezultatele lor; \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u3913? \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 feedback : cunoa
\u351?terea rezultatelor muncii lor. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri4119\sb236\sl-420\sl
mult0\fi90 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex95 \ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs36 IV.MODALIT\u
258?\u354?I DE MOTIVARE A \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex96 PERSONALULUI \par\pard\ql
\li2101\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2101\sb3\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 Problema cheie din punct de vedere a
practicii manageriale, o reprezinta realizarea \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1610\sb0\
sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 unei motivatii cu eficacitate indic
ata. Contributia decisiva pe acest plan poate si trebuie sa \up0 \expndtw-2\char
scalex100 o aiba managerii. Stiinta managementului prin toate conceptele si meto
dele sale ofera \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 elemente de imbunatatire a motivar
ii. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1694\sb0\sl-276\slmult0\fi300\tx2251\tx2101 \up0 \exp
ndtw-2\charscalex100 \u350?tiinta si practica manageriala au conturat o serie de
elemente relativ mai simple, care \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 vizeaza n
emijlocit si in principal cresterea rationalitatii si eficacitatii motivarii. \l
ine \tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Cand vine vorba despre motivarea angajati
lor pentru a obtine rezultate profesionale \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 m
ai bune, banii sunt prima optiune. Ani de-a randul, primele, majorarile de salar
iu au \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 reprezentat solutiile adoptate de mana
geri pentru a pastra performanta si echipa de lucru. \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-5\c
harscalex100 Recompensarea angaja\u355?ilor \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 - are
drept scop asigurarea unor recompense financiare \u351?i \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb
1\sl-262\slmult0\tx7745 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 nonfinanciare consistente,
echitabile \u351?i motivante, salarizarea \tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 fi
ind componenta central\u259? a \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri2070\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \u
p0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 sistemului de recompense. Salariile acordate trebuie

s\u259? fie corelate cu productivitatea \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 muncii, \


u351?i anume cre\u351?terile fondului de salarii trebuie s\u259? se situeze, ca
ritm, n urma \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 cre\u351?terii productivit\u259?\u355?
ii.
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
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}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft2100\shptop4751\shpright10010\shpbottom5028\shpfhdr0\sh
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{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft6538\shptop12296\shpright6752\shpbottom12572\shpfhdr0\s
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{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft6752\shptop12296\shpright7744\shpbottom12572\shpfhdr0\s
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{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft7744\shptop12296\shpright8196\shpbottom12572\shpfhdr0\s
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}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft8196\shptop12296\shpright10416\shpbottom12572\shpfhdr0\
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
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{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop12572\shpright9976\shpbottom12847\shpfhdr0\s
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}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop12847\shpright9818\shpbottom13124\shpfhdr0\s
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{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 8018}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 277}}
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772


15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop13124\shpright4054\shpbottom13400\shpfhdr0\s
hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz761\shplid35
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
\sn geoRight}{\sv 2254}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 276}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,276);(2254,276);(2254,0);(0,0)}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}
}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P
g13}{\bkmkend Pg13}\par\pard\ql \li1801\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\s
b0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb0\sl-322\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb2
48\sl-322\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs28 IV.1
. \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 MOTIVAREA FINANCIARA SI NON FINANCIARA \par\pard
\ql \li2101\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2101\sb40\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \exp
ndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 Cnd vorbim de motivare financiar
\u259? \u351?i non financiar\u259? vorbim automat \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb4\sl-27
6\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u351?i de performan\u355?\u259?! Acesta
este \u351?i scopul motiv\u259?rii, anume de a atinge \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri28
28\sb7\sl-273\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 performan\u355?\u259?! Motiv
area non financiar\u259? \u355?i poate optimiza afacerea! O aten\u355?ie \up0 \ex
pndtw-4\charscalex100 m\u259?rit\u259? asupra acestor factorilor motivatori duce
la performan\u355?\u259?, duce la un \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 profit mai m
are! Performan\u355?\u259? nsemn\u259? att calitatea bun\u259? ct \u351?i volum mar
e \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 de munc\u259?, nsemn\u259? p\u259?strarea clien\u
355?ilor vechi \u351?i c\u351?tigarea altora noi, sau \line \up0 \expndtw-4\chars
calex100 poate nsemna pur \u351?i simplu mul\u355?umirea clien\u355?ilor. Un indi
cator ferm al \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 performan\u355?ei este dat de
raportul costuri beneficii. Cu cat avem un raport mai \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex
100 bun cu att nsemn\u259? c\u259? avem de-a face cu performan\u355?\u259?. \par\p
ard\ql \li2101\sb5\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 In plus, capacit
atea intelectual\u259? a oric\u259?rui angajat se dezvolt\u259? atunci \par\pard
\qj \li1801\ri2862\sb7\sl-273\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 cnd este moti
vat non financiar. Att motivarea financiar\u259? cat \u351?i motivarea \line \up0
\expndtw-2\charscalex100 non financiar\u259? contribuie la dezvoltarea angajatu
lui ntruct l pune pe acesta \line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 n situa\u355?ia de a
furniza performan\u355?\u259?. Un indicator al dezvolt\u259?rii acestuia este \
line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 dat de volumul \u351?i calitatea muncii unui
angajat n aceia\u351?i unitate de timp. \par\pard\ql \li2101\sb5\sl-276\slmult0 \
up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 Dezvoltarea intelectual\u259? vine din multi-taskur
ile pe care le are de \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb4\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\ch
arscalex100 rezolvat n acela\u351?i timp, eficien\u355?a \u351?i rapiditatea cu c
are acesta rezolv\u259? \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb4\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\
charscalex100 sarcinile. Totodat\u259? vom \u351?ti dac\u259? un angajat \u351?i
-a dezvoltat capacit\u259?\u355?ile \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri2997\sb18\sl-260\slmu
lt0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 intelectuale dac\u259? el identific\u259? solu
\u355?ii inovative mai eficiente \u351?i vine totodat\u259? \up0 \expndtw-3\char
scalex100 cu propuneri care mbun\u259?t\u259?\u355?esc eficien\u355?a \u351?i per
forman\u355?a n companie! \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li
1801\sb11\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 CON\u354?INUTUL \u350?I N
ATURA RECOMPENSELOR \par\pard\ql \li2101\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2101\
sb48\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Literatura de management care
abordeaz problematica recompensrii resurselor \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1610\sb7\sl-2
73\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 umane, precum \u351?i n practica firmelo

r din diverse \u355?ri ale lumii folosesc o serie de termeni \up0 \expndtw-4\char
scalex100 cum ar fi cei de recompens, compensa\u355?ie, salariu, retribu\u355?ie,
remunera\u355?ie, plat, sporuri, \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 premii, sti
mulente, bonifica\u355?ii, comisioane, indemniza\u355?ii, avantaje, facilit\u355?
i, asigurare, \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 indexri etc. \par\pard\ql \li18
01\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb9\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\cha
rscalex100 BANII CA ELEMENT MOTIVATOR \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1663\sb265\sl-275\s
lmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Fie lichizi, pachete de ac\u355?iuni/
p\u259?r\u355?i sociale, poli\u355?e de asigurare;sau orice fel de alte \line \u
p0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 bonuri, banii reprezint\u259? unul dintre elementele
motivatoare, fiind mai importan\u355?i pentru \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 oam
enii tineri, afla\u355?i n faza de a-\u351?i cl\u259?di o familie, dect pentru cei
mai n vrst\u259?. Pentru \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 unii oameni, banii reprezi
nt\u259? un scop n sine, de maxim\u259? importan\u355?\u259?, n timp ce pentru \li
ne \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 al\u355?ii acest lucru nu se ntmpl\u259?. Pe de o
parte, majoritatea afacerilor \u351?i activit\u259?\u355?ilor \line \up0 \expnd
tw-2\charscalex100 antreprenoriale folosesc banii doar ca un mijloc de p\u259?st
rare n via\u355?\u259? a unei organiza\u355?ii \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 (pentru a atrage/p\u259?stra oamenii salariile \u351?i recompensele financiare
trebuie s\u259? fie \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 competitive), iar pe de
alt\u259? parte banii sunt considera\u355?i un element motivator (p\u259?strare
a n \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 cadrul companiei salariile diferi\u355?ilor man
ageri la un nivel echitabil, iar recompensele \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex10
0 trebuie s\u259? reflecte performan\u355?ele lor individuale). \par\pard\qj \li
1801\ri1830\sb1\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 De\u351?i est
e aparent cel mai folosit mod de motivare a angaja\u355?ilor, salariul se dovede
\u351?te \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 de multe ori insuficient. Motivul e
ste simplu: \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 nu toata lumea este motivat\u259? de sal
ariu \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 sau, mai bi
ne spus, cre\u351?terea remunera\u355?iei se folose\u351?te de pu\u355?ine ori c
a unic mod de a
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1800\shptop1439\shpright2392\shpbottom1761\shpfhdr0\shp
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}}
{\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft2392\shptop1439\shpright8940\shpbottom1761\shpfhdr0\shp
bxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz19\shplid1
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{
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{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,322);(6548,322);(6548,0);(0,0)}}
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{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772
15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv
1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
}}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P
g14}{\bkmkend Pg14}\par\pard\qj \li1801\sb0\sl-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\s
b0\sl-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\sl-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0
\sl-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\ri2209\sb186\sl-260\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\
charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 p\u259?stra un angajat. n general este
nevoie de un mix de instrumente, practic un intreg \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100

sistem de recompensare. \par\pard\ql \li2101\sb7\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2


\charscalex100 Una dintre gre\u351?elile pe care multi manageri le fac frecvent
este aceea de a crede c\u259? \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb4\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expn
dtw-2\charscalex100 simpla cre\u351?tere a salariului rezolv\u259? orice insatis
fac\u355?ie a angajatului. n primul rnd, \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1621\sb4\sl-276\sl
mult0\tx2101 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 trebuie \u355?inut cont de faptul c\u
259? \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 salariul trebuie s\u259? fie dimensionat n strns\
u259? leg\u259?tur\u259? cu \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 munca depus\u259? de a
ngajat\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 . Astfel, chiar dac\u259? poate p\u259?rea ciu
dat, un angajat care este \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 pl\u259?tit cu mai mult
decat consider\u259? el c\u259? merit\u259?, este foarte posibil c\u259? n scurt
timp s\u259? fie \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ncercat de sentimente de culpabili
tate care i pot sc\u259?dea serios performan\u355?ele. \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-2
\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Recompensa angajatului\ul0\nosupersub
\cf3\f4\fs24 - reprezint totalitatea veniturilor materiale \u351?i bne\u351?ti, a
\line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 nlesnirilor \u351?i avantajelor prezente sau
viitoare, determinate direct sau indirect de calitatea \up0 \expndtw-3\charscal
ex100 de angajat \u351?i de activitatea desf\u351?urat de acesta. \par\pard\qj \li
1801\ri1796\sb18\sl-260\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosuper
sub\cf4\f5\fs24 Plata\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 - reprezint un element al recom
pensei care se concretizeaz n sumele de bani \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 primite
de angaja\u355?i. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri2070\sb4\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \ex
pndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Recompensele directe\ul0\nosup
ersub\cf3\f4\fs24 - includ sumele de bani pe care le primesc angaja\u355?ii pen
tru \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 activitatea depus \u351?i rezultatele ob\u355?i
nute, fiind concretizate n salarii, sporuri sau \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex1
00 stimulente. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1715\sb6\sl-273\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndt
w-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Salariul\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs2
4 - reprezint suma primit pentru munca desf\u351?urat sau pentru rezultatele \line
\up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ob\u355?inute de un angajat ntr-o anumit unitate de
timp (or, zi, sptmn, lun, an). \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Aceea\u351?i semnif
ica\u355?ie o au \u351?i no\u355?iunile de remunera\u355?ie sau retribu\u355?ie.
\line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 La rndul su, salariul poate fi: \ul0\nosupers
ub\cf8\f9\fs24 de baz sau tarifar\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 (stabilit n condi\u3
55?ii standard, fr \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 sporuri), \ul0\nosupersub\c
f8\f9\fs24 nominal\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 (valoare de moment, suma de bani)
, \ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f9\fs24 real\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 (cantitate de bun
uri \u351?i servicii \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 ce pot fi cumprate cu suma pri
mit), \ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f9\fs24 minim\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 (parametru al
protec\u355?iei sociale, fiind un \line \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 nivel sta
bilit de guvern). \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1887\sb2\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \exp
ndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Sporurile la salariu\ul0\nosupe
rsub\cf3\f4\fs24 - sunt componente ale recompensei acordate pentru condi\u355?i
i de \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 lucru, supraefort, munc n afara programului nor
mal, vechime. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1777\sb9\sl-270\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw
-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Premiile\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
- sunt sume de bani acordate angaja\u355?ilor, n mod diferen\u355?iat, pentru r
ealizri \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 deosebite. Pot exista premii individuale pe
ntru performan\u355?e deosebite \u351?i premii anuale \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex
100 pentru to\u355?i membrii organiza\u355?iei, din realizrile globale ale aceste
ia. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1775\sb6\sl-276\slmult0\fi300\tx2101\tx2101 \up0 \exp
ndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Comisioanele\ul0\nosupersub\cf3
\f4\fs24 - reprezint sumele calculate ca procent din vnzri sau ncasri. \line \tab \u
p0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Participarea la profit\u
l0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 - reprezint sumele de bani ob\u355?inute de ctre angaja
\u355?i, ca \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 procente din profit n func\u355?i
e de contribu\u355?ia la rezultatele firmei. \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscal
ex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 Recompensele indirecte\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\f
s24 - se refer la facilit\u355?ile personalului att pe perioada \line \up0 \expndt
w-2\charscalex100 angajrii ct \u351?i dup aceea, datorit statutului de fost angajat.

Recompensele indirecte \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 sunt foarte diverse, porni


nd de la plata concediului de odihn, a jutorului de \u351?omaj, pn \up0 \expndtw-3\
charscalex100 la pensii sau dividende ob\u355?inute ca ac\u355?ionari ai firmei.
\par\pard\ql \li1801\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb8\sl-276\slmult0
\up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 TEHNICI NON-FINANCIARE DE MOTIVARE \par\pard\qj \l
i1801\ri1823\sb261\sl-280\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Motivarea
non-financiar\u259? nseamn\u259? stimularea angajatului s\u259? lucreze mai bine,
mai \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 mult, mai eficient, cu drag, cu tragere
de inim\u259?, f\u259?r\u259? s\u259? fie vorba la mijloc de stimulente \up0 \e
xpndtw-3\charscalex100 financiare. \par\pard\ql \li2101\sb4\sl-276\slmult0 \up0
\expndtw-3\charscalex100 De asemenea, pe termen lung, bonusurile financiare i fac
pe angaja\u355?i \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri2773\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4
\charscalex100 s\u259? fie nemul\u355?umi\u355?i \u351?i s\u259? intre ntr-un soi
de competi\u355?ie cu colegii lor. Lucrul in \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex10
0 echipa devine astfel de domeniul basmelor. Solu\u355?ia este un sistem de \lin
e \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 motivare non-financiara. Motivare non-financiara
nsemn\u259? implementarea \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 unui sistem de Rec
ompens\u259? \u351?i Recunoa\u351?tere (Rewards and Recognition). \par\pard\sect
\sectd\fs24\paperw12240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg15}{\bkmkend Pg
15}\par\pard\qj \li1801\sb0\sl-270\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\sl-270\slmult
0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\sl-270\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\sl-270\slmult0
\par\pard\qj\li1801\ri2016\sb137\sl-270\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex
100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 Scopul motiv\u259?rii non-financiare este acela
de a cre\u351?te productivitatea firmei, de a-i \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 mbu
n\u259?t\u259?\u355?i calitatea, de a avea angaja\u355?i multumi\u355?i, lucru c
are duce direct la cre\u351?terea \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 performan\u355?e
i angaja\u355?ilor. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1615\sb6\sl-275\slmult0\fi300 \up0 \e
xpndtw-2\charscalex100 Motiva\u355?ia trebuie s\u259? fie determinat\u259? att de
elemente materiale privind c\u351?tigul concret \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 ct
\u351?i de elemente morale legate de satisfac\u355?ia lucrului bine f\u259?cut,
mndria profesional\u259? \u351?i \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 altele . Alturi de
pachetul de recompense materiale oferit de firm \u351?i n completarea \line \up0 \
expndtw-4\charscalex100 acestuia, companiile au experimentat aplicarea unor prog
rame de motivare ce cuprind \u351?i o \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 serie de teh
nici nonsalariale.Dintre care putem enumera: \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb5\sl-276\slm
ult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 1. Recunoa\u351?t
ere / Aten\u355?ie\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 . Atunci cnd un angajat duce la bun
sfr\u351?it o opera\u355?iune \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1844\sb1\sl-280\slmult0 \up
0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 dificil\u259?, ce a necesitat mult\u259? munc\u259?,
nu v\u259? mpiedic\u259? nimeni s\u259?-l felicita\u355?i de fa\u355?\u259? cu to
\u355?i \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 ceilal\u355?i colegi \par\pard\qj \li1801\
ri1797\sb17\sl-260\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\
fs24 2. Aplauze\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 . Aplauzele sunt un puternic factor m
otiva\u355?ional. Att aplauzele propriu-zise, \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 la o
petrecere special\u259?, ct \u351?i cele indirecte cum ar fi: o medalie, o plache
t\u259? etc. \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb7\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex1
00 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 3. Formare\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 . Un angaja
t tn\u259?r pune pe formarea sa continu\u259? mai mult pret dect pe o \par\pard\qj
\li1801\ri1611\sb1\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 cre\u351?tere c
onsiderabil\u259? a salariului. Acordndu-i o aten\u355?ie deosebit\u259? \u351?i
punndu-l n contact \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 cu toate elementele care \u355?in
de formarea sa, i dovedi\u355?i angajatului c\u259? v\u259? pas\u259? ntr-adev\u2
59?r \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 de el \u351?i c\u259? este unul din oamenii p
e care dori\u355?i s\u259? conta\u355?i n viitor. \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb1\sl-255
\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 4. Cariera\ul
0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 . A\u351?a cum \u351?i dumneavoastr\u259?, la nceputuri,
dorea\u355?i s\u259? \u351?ti\u355?i pn\u259? unde pute\u355?i \par\pard\ql \li1
801\sb8\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 ajunge din punct de vedere
profesional, tot a\u351?a, un angajat vrea s\u259? stie care este limita sa. \pa
r\pard\ql \li1801\ri1649\sb7\sl-273\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \ul0\n

osupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 5. Func\u355?ii\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 . Dac\u259? ave


\u355?i un singur om n departamentul de vnz\u259?ri, de ce s\u259?-l numi\u355?i s
implu \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u351?i fad \u8222?vnz\u259?tor\u8221? cnd el
ar putea fi, f\u259?r\u259? mari eforturi, \u8222?responsabil vnz\u259?ri\u8221?
sau, mai \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 bine, \u8222?director de vnz\u259?ri
\u8221?. Pentru un asemenea titlu anumite persoane \u351?i-ar da jum\u259?tate \
line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 din salariu. \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb5\sl-276\
slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 6. Mediu de lu
cru\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 . Cu ct atmosfera de la locul de munc\u259? este m
ai buna, cu att \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1623\sb1\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\ch
arscalex100 productivitatea muncii creste. Nu trebuie s\u259? ave\u355?i master n
management ca s\u259? fi\u355?i convins \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 de acest
lucru, dar trebuie s\u259? demonstra\u355?i reale calit\u259?\u355?i de lider pe
ntru a p\u259?stra o atmosfer\u259? \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 nealterat\u259
?. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1657\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100
\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 7. Rol de lider\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 . Alege\u
355?i un angajat de care ave\u355?i nevoie, competent \u351?i lua\u355?i-l deopa
rte. \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Spune\u355?i-i ct este el de important pentru
companie \u351?i c\u259?, de azi ncolo, l considera\u355?i un \up0 \expndtw-2\char
scalex100 lider pentru cei din jurul s\u259?u. Mai spune\u355?i-i c\u259? v\u259
? baza\u355?i pe el n aducerea unui nou suflu \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 n comp
anie. Mai mult, atunci cnd ave\u355?i anumit\u355?i vizitatori, ruga\u355?i-l pe e
l s\u259? fie cel ce le \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 face turul organiza\u355?i
ei. A\u355?i c\u351?tigat un om fidel pna la moarte. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1684\s
b0\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 8. S
pirit de echip\u259?\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 . Oamenii ador\u259? s\u259? mun
ceasc\u259? n echip\u259?, s\u259?-\u351?i mp\u259?rt\u259?\u351?easc\u259? secret
ele \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u351?i s\u259? se simt\u259? utili ntr-un grup
. Tot ceea ce trebuie este s\u259?-i determina\u355?i pe oamenii care \up0 \expn
dtw-3\charscalex100 muncesc pentru dumneavoastr\u259? s\u259? o faca n echip\u259
?. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1649\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100
\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 9. Recunoa\u351?tere executiva\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4
\fs24 . Un angajat care, de la un simplu angajat, trece n func\u355?ie mai \up0 \
expndtw-4\charscalex100 mare, fiind abilitat s\u259? ia decizii, este un angajat
care se va sim\u355?i binecuvntat. \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb0\sl-216\slmult0 \up0
\expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 10. Reprezentare\ul0\nosupe
rsub\cf3\f4\fs24 . Dac\u259? sesiza\u355?i c\u259? un angajat se descurc\u259? f
oarte bine n societate \u351?i face \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1618\sb8\sl-280\slmult
0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 o buna reclam\u259? companiei dumneavoastr\u259?
, oferi\u355?i-i competen\u355?e de reprezentare. Preciza\u355?i\up0 \expndtw-2\
charscalex100 i ct de important\u259? este imaginea firmei \u351?i ct de potrivit
este el pentru misiunea pe are i-\line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 o ncredin\u3
55?a\u355?i \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb4\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 11. Evenimente speciale\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24
. O data pe lun\u259? organiza\u355?i pentru angaja\u355?ii dumneavoastr\u259?
\par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1649\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 con
cursuri de paint-ball sau de golf. Le ve\u355?i oferi prilejul de a se cunoaste
mai bine \u351?i ve\u355?i \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 nt\u259?ri spiritul de e
chip\u259?, o alt\u259? metod\u259? de a motiva un angajat f\u259?r\u259? a-i cr
e\u351?te salariul. \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Evenimentele speciale (p
etrecerea de Cr\u259?ciun, anivers\u259?ri ale companiei, reu\u351?ita unui \lin
e \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 proiect) sunt un factor motivator de care trebui
e s\u259? \u355?ine\u355?i seam\u259?. \par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12240\pap
erh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg16}{\bkmkend Pg16}\par\pard\qj \li1801\sb0
\sl-275\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\sl-275\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\s
l-275\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\sb0\sl-275\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li1801\ri1741\
sb113\sl-275\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 1
2. Zile libere\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 . Cnd desf\u259?\u351?urarea activit\u2
59?\u355?ii v\u259? permite, oferi\u355?i doua-trei zile libere unui \line \up0
\expndtw-2\charscalex100 angajat pentru a se reface dup\u259? o perioad\u259? ma

i dificil\u259?. Spune\u355?i-i c\u259? v\u259? gndi\u355?i la el \u351?i c\u259?


\line \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 sunte\u355?i convins c\u259? are nevoie de
un timp de refacere. Este un om important, de care ave\u355?i \line \up0 \expndt
w-2\charscalex100 nevoie n plenitudinea for\u355?elor, l ve\u355?i impresiona pl\u
259?cut \u351?i l ve\u355?i motiva pentru ac\u355?iunile \line \up0 \expndtw-3\ch
arscalex100 viitoare. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1789\sb10\sl-270\slmult0 \up0 \expn
dtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 13. Cursuri externe\ul0\nosupers
ub\cf3\f4\fs24 . Este mai avantajos pentru dumneavoastr\u259? s\u259?-i pl\u259?
ti\u355?i unui angajat \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 un curs dect s\u259?-i
da\u355?i o prim\u259? sau s\u259?-i cre\u351?te\u355?i salariul. Angajatul n ca
uza va dobndi \u351?i \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 competen\u355?e noi pe
care le pute\u355?i folosi \u351?i, n plus, l ve\u355?i face s\u259? se simt\u259?
important. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1994\sb2\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\chars
calex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 14. Responsabilit\u259?\u355?i adi\u355?ion
ale\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 . Un angajat de la un anumit departamentul dovede
\u351?te \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 competen\u355?e deosebite n alt dome
niu nsarcina\u355?i-l cu anumite lucruri \u351?i n acel \line \up0 \expndtw-2\char
scalex100 compartiment \u351?i men\u355?iona\u355?i-i ct de important este pentru
dumneavoastr\u259? \u351?i ct de \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 bucuros sun
te\u355?i c\u259? ave\u355?i un angajat att de bine preg\u259?tit n mai multe dome
nii. \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1923\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 15. Concursuri\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 . Dac\u2
59? ave\u355?i n companie departamente sau angaja\u355?i n acela\u351?i domeniu \u
p0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 organiza\u355?i concursuri. Cine este cel mai profit
abil? Cine vinde cel mai mult? Cine are \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 cele mai m
ici costuri? \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb1\sl-257\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex1
00 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs24 16. Destindere\ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 . Locul
de munc\u259? ne acapareaz\u259?, n medie, cam 2/3 din timpul nostru \par\pard\q
j \li1801\ri1651\sb13\sl-270\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 zilnic. Petre
cem mai multe ore la serviciu dect acas\u259?, cu familia, \u351?i acest lucru tr
ebuie s\u259? \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 v\u259? dea de gndit. O atmosfer\u259
? rigid\u259?, f\u259?r\u259? m\u259?car cteva clipe de destindere, nu poate avea
\up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 un efect benefic asupra eficien\u355?ei angaja\u3
55?ilor. \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb10\sl-276
\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 1. Puneti-va oamenii la curent cu planuri
le pe care le aveti \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1657\sb9\sl-270\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw
-2\charscalex100 Este cel mai bun mijloc de a motiva pe cineva: lasandu-l sa vad
a imaginea de ansamblu a \line \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 activitatii firmei
in care lucreaza si oferindu-i posibilitatea sa realizeze importanta muncii \lin
e \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 lui. \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb6\sl-276\slmult0 \up
0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 4. Atentie cand criticati \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri1683
\sb5\sl-275\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Cel mai important aspect privi
nd acest subiect este urmatorul: criticati intotdeauna in \up0 \expndtw-2\charsc
alex100 particular, intre patru ochi. Angajatul care primeste critica e si asa d
estul de nefericit \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 pentru ca a gresit, iar o umili
re in fata colegilor lui poate sa-l demoralizeze de tot. El se \up0 \expndtw-2\c
harscalex100 va intreba doar cum va mai putea da ochii cu acesti colegi si nicid
ecum ce trebuie sa faca \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 pentru a-si imbunatati per
formantele. \par\pard\ql \li1801\ri3450\sb1\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\chars
calex100 Alte idei de motivare non financiar: \line \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100
In functie de rezultate \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb1\sl-255\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3
\charscalex100 \u8226? Felicitri scrise de man de ctre managerul firmei; \par\pard\
qj \li1801\ri3210\sb5\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 \u8226? Mici
cadouri, de aceeasi valoare, dar diferite, oferite variat in functie de \up0 \ex
pndtw-5\charscalex100 performane; \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb4\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \e
xpndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8226? Abonament pe un an la internet la domiciliu; \par
\pard\ql \li1801\sb4\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8226? O zi l
iber; \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri3406\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex10
0 \u8226? Pune o stelut aurit pe computerul angajatului care a avut un rezultat \u
p0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 bun impreun cu un bilet de multumire; \par\pard\qj \l

i1801\ri3572\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \u8226? Un billet/


poster la intrarea in birou cu numele colegului care trebuie \up0 \expndtw-3\cha
rscalex100 recompensat; \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb1\sl-258\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\
charscalex100 \u8226? Un picnic cu toi colegii din echip; \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb4
\sl-256\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8226? Anunt in newsletter-ul com
paniei; \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb8\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u
8226? Pizza party cu tot departamentul; \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb4\sl-276\slmult0
\up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8226? S citeti scrisori de la clienii multumii in faa
angajailor; \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb4\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex10
0 \u8226? Un program de recunoatere in public; \par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12
240\paperh15840\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg17}{\bkmkend Pg17}\par\pard\ql \li1
801\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li180
1\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb0\sl-276\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\
sb108\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs24 \
u8226? Ingheat/cafea/etc druite de ctre manager personal; \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri393
4\sb0\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 \u8226? Recunoatere one-on-one
: intalnire intre manager i angajatul de \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 recompensa
t; \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb1\sl-257\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \u8226?
Tricouri cu logo-ul firmei;si multe altele \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb0\sl-276\slmu
lt0 \par\pard\ql\li1801\sb12\sl-276\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 DIMENS
IUNILE \u350?I FUNC\u354?IILE RECOMPENSELOR \par\pard\qj \li1801\ri1790\sb261\sl
-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Rolul, utilitatea \u351?i necesitatea
social a activit\u355?ilor/serviciilor prestate sau a produselor \up0 \expndtw-4\
charscalex100 ob\u355?inute determin elementele componente ale recompenselor, mrim
ea \u351?i ponderea lor. \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Recompensa, privit prin pr
isma analizei valorii, are dou dimensiuni : \par\pard\ql \li2226\sb24\sl-276\slmu
lt0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosup
ersub\cf3\f4\fs24
utilitatea (ceea ce dore\u351?te angajatul) reprezentnd reco
mpensa intrinsec, \par\pard\qj \li2586\ri1612\sb1\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\
charscalex100 concretizat n sentimentul de realizare, de recunoa\u351?tere a merit
elor, de satisfac\u355?ie \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 n munc, de dezvoltare pers
onal \u351?i pozi\u355?ia n societate; \par\pard\ql \li2226\sb4\sl-276\slmult0 \up
0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs24 \u-3913?\ul0\nosupersub\c
f3\f4\fs24
costul (ceea ce se cheltuie\u351?te pentru angajat) reprezentnd rec
ompensa \par\pard\qj \li2586\ri2005\sb1\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscale
x100 extrinsec, concretizat n recunoa\u351?terea oficial, material sau nematerial, a \
up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 activit\u355?ii \u351?i calit\u355?ii angajatului. \p
ar\pard\qj \li1801\ri2023\sb1\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Reali
zarea n mod concret a corela\u355?iei dintre cele dou dimensiuni ale recompensei s
e \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 face prin intermediul urmtoarelor func\u355?ii: \
par\pard\ql \li2882\sb1\sl-255\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 1. recunoa
\u351?terea importan\u355?ei activit\u355?ii desf\u351?urate \u351?i a calit\u355?i
i angajatului; \par\pard\ql \li2882\ri1949\sb5\sl-280\slmult0\tx3242 \up0 \expnd
tw-3\charscalex100 2. asigurarea mijloacelor de existen\u355? pentru angajat \u3
51?i familia sa, pe toat \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 durata de via\u3
55?; \par\pard\ql \li2882\ri2553\sb1\sl-280\slmult0\tx3242 \up0 \expndtw-4\charsc
alex100 3. ob\u355?inerea unor rezultate economice optime pentru firm \u351?i pe
ntru \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 societate. \par\pard\ql \li1801\sb1
\sl-255\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Importan\u355?a acestor func\u355?
ii difer de la o \u355?ar la alta, de la un grup social la altul, fiind \par\pard\
qj \li1801\ri1835\sb5\sl-280\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 influen\u355?
ate de puterea economic a societ\u355?ii, de bog\u355?ia membrilor si sau de gradul
de \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 civiliza\u355?ie. \par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24}