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CAPITOLUL 3

TRATAREA APELOR INDUSTRIALE


3.1. CARACTERISTICILE CALITATIVE I CANTITATIVE ALE APELOR UZATE
INDUSTRIAL
Stabilirea originii i a arateri!tiilor alitati"e ale a#elor $%ate nee!it& $noaterea
#roe!$l$i te'nologi in($!trial #entr$ o #roietare )$(iioa!& a !ta*iilor (e e#$rare. Dei e!te
nee!ar& $noaterea originii #rini#alilor a+l$en*i i arateri!tiilor lor #rini#ale #entr$
(e+inirea ,o($l$i (e e#$rare. Re($erea (ebitelor (e a#& $%at& nee!it& $tili%area $nor te'nologii
noi. Prini#alele !$b!tan*e noi"e ale a#elor $%ate in($!triale !$nt substanele organice
-e.#ri,ate #rin C/O
0
12 substanele n suspensie, substanele toxice i metalele grele.
Re$#erarea !$b!tan*elor "aloroa!e (in a#ele $%ate are a !o# "alori+iarea ae!tora i re($erea
!$b!tan*elor noi"e e"a$ate. E.i!t& a#e $%ate in($!triale i a#e $%ate or&eneti. C3n( ae!tea a$
(ebite ,ii2 !e reo,an(& e#$rarea lor 4n o,$n2 (ar aea!t& !ol$*ie treb$ie bine +$n(a,entat&.
Dar e.i!t& a%$ri 3n( #entr$ a#ele $%ate in($!triale !$nt nee!are ,ateriale !#ei+ie i !$,#e.
De e.e,#l$ a#ele $%ate in($!triale #ot on*ine !$b!tan*e organie -e.#ri,at& #rin C/O
0
1. Ori
4n&rarea organi& a a#elor la !ta*iile (e e#$rare #oate #ro"oa (eran)a,ente 4n +$n*ionarea
ae!tora2 (eoaree o.igen$l e!te nee!ar #roe!elor aerobe2 re!#eti" bateriilor aerobe2 are
o.i(ea%& !$b!tan*a organi&. S$b!tan*ele 4n !$!#en!ie #l$titoare -*i*ei2 $lei$ri1 4,#ie(i& ab!orb*ia
(e o.igen #e la !$#ra+a*a a#ei i (ei a$toe#$rarea2 ol,atea%& +iltrele #entr$ tratarea a#ei.
S$b!tan*ele 4n !$!#en!ie are !e (e#$n #e +$n($l ree#tor$l$i -a ba%in$l$i (e a$,$lare1
4ngre$nea%& tratarea a#ei. Ai%ii i alalii on($ la (i!tr$gerea +a$nei i +lorei a"atie2 a "a!elor
#entr$ na"iga*ie.
Srurile anorganice on($ la ,&rirea !alinit&*ii a#ei i2 $neori2 #ot #ro"oa reterea
($rit&*ii2 are #ro($ (e#$neri #e on($te ,&rin($5le r$go%itatea i ,ior3n( (in a#aitatea (e
tran!#ort2 (e tran!+er a &l($rii la boilere. Ca (e e.e,#l$ !$l+at$l (e ,agne%i$2 biarbona*ii i
arbona*ii !ol$bili.
Metalele grele -Pb2 C$2 Zn2 Cr et.1 a$ o a*i$ne to.i& a!$#ra organi!,elor a"atie2
in'ib3n( i #roe!ele (e e#$rare -a$to12 C/O
0
i CCO2 !&r$rile (e a%ot i +o!+or -n$trien*i1 #ro($
(e%"oltarea ra#i(& a algelor. Dar 4n $lti,ii ani #roe!ele te'nologie in($!triale +olo!e! !$b!tan*e
to.ie noi -+ito+ar,ae$tie2 nitrolorben%en2 et.1 are !e (eter,in& gre$.
Substanele radioactive 4n a#a ree#torilor !$nt !tabilite #rin legi.
Culoarea a#ei 4,#ie(i& ab!orb*ia o.igen$l$i i +eno,en$l (e +oto!inte%& 4n a$toe#$rare.
Bacteriile (in a#ele $%ate #ot +i #atogene -bail$! antrai!1 i #ro($ in+etarea
ree#torilor.
Se (eo!ebe! trei ategorii (e a#e6
I. #entr$ ali,entarea #otabil&
II. #entr$ arbori!ti& i #i!i$lt$r&
III. #entr$ iriga*ii
7n ae!te a#e !e i,#$n onentra*ii (i+erite ,a.i,e -,g8l12 #entr$ a,oni$ -N9
:
12 a,onia
-N9
3
12 a%ota*i -NO
3
12 a%oti*i -NO
;
12 CO
;
2 Ca2 ian$ri -CN12 lor liber -Cl
;
12 lor$ri -Cl12 ioni (e
'i(rogen -#912 ro, tri"alent -Cr12 ro, 'e.a"alent -Cr12 C$2 (etergen*i anionii2 +enoli2 'i(rogen
!$l+$rat -9
;
S12 9g2 O
;
2 Pb2 !o(i$ -Na12 !$l+a*i -SO
:
12 Zn2 baili.
Pentru substanele organice se definete consumul biocimic de oxigen !CB"
#
$, mg%l i
consumul cimic de oxigen !CC"$, mg%l, ultimul prin metoda cu permanganat de potasiu !CC"&
Mn$ sau bicromat de potasiu !CC"&Cr$.
E+iien*a2 gra($l (e e#$rare al a#elor $%ate2 !e al$lea%& $ rela*ia6
< --=5,18=1>1??
1
$n(e = e!te onentra*ia ini*ial& a !$b!tan*ei i , ($#& e#$rare. De obiei2 e+iien*a !e al$lea%&
#entr$ !$b!tan*ele 4n !$!#en!ie2 !$b!tan*ele organie -e.#ri,ate 4n C/O
0
12 o.igen O
;
2 #9 i
!$b!tan*e to.ie.
Deoaree i,#$rit&*ile in($!triale !e re+er& la 4n&rarea organi&2 (e+init& #e ba%& (e C/O
0
-l$3n($5l #e lo$itor i #e %i1 i la !$!#en!ii2 este necesar un indicator care s reuneasc aceste
date. 'stfel este folosit indicatorul (locuitori ecivaleni), care definete unele caracteristici
principale de poluare, n ca*ul de fa CB"
#
i suspensii2 (a& !e +olo!e!2 bine4n*ele!2 aeleai
$nit&*i (e ,&!$r&.
Deoaree a#ele re%i($ale a$ (ebite (i+erite i onentra*ii aleatoare 4n ti,#2 4naintea !ta*iilor
(e e#$rare e!te nee!ar& egali%area a#elor $%ate2 eea e !e reali%ea%& $ ba*ine de uniformi*are,
a,#la!ate 4n a,onte la !ta*ia (e e#$rare2 (ar ($#& !ta*iile (e #ree#$rare2 (e!tinate 4n(e#&rt&rii
i,#$rit&*ilor in!ol$bile gro!iere !a$ grele -$ gr&tare2 !ite2 (e%ni!i#itoare1. 7n ba%inele (e
$ni+or,i%are treb$ie ,en*in$te on(i*ii aerobe i2 #entr$ a e"ita (e#$nerea (e !e(i,ente treb$ie !&
!e a!ig$re !i!te,e (e a,e!teare i aerare2 (e reg$l& ?.?05?.?@ ,
3
8' #entr$ 1,
3
"ol$, (e !toare.
3.1.1. Proe!e $nitare #entr$ e#$rarea a#elor $%ate in($!triale
A. Proe!e +i%ie
Proe!ele +i%ie (e e#$rare !$nt aelea 4n are !$b!tan*ele #ol$ante n$ !$+er& tran!+or,&ri 4n
alte !$b!tan*e2 a"3n( la ba%& #rini#iile6
a1 !e#ararea gra"ita*ional& a #arti$lelor gro!iere2 ne(i%ol"ate 4n a#&2 !$b in+l$en*a
3,#$l$i gra"ita*ional al P&,3nt$l$i2 #rin !e(i,entare2 #rin +lota*ie !a$ #rin entri+$gare. E!te
#o!ibil +eno,en$l (e aglo,erare -+loonare12 +looanele a"3n( ,a!e ,ai ,ari i are
!e(i,entea%& ,ai re#e(e. Ca e.e,#l$ !e #re%int& +ig. 3.12 $n (eantor2 are #oate +i $ $rgere a
a#ei "ertial& i ori%ontal&. Eli,inarea n&,ol$l$i (in (eantor !e #oate +ae ,an$al i inter,itent.
D$#& +or,&2 (eantoarele #ot +i ir$lare i retang$lare. E"a$area a#ei li,#e%ite !e +ae #rin
(e"er!oare.
Aig 3.1
b1 +lota*ia e!te $n #roe! $nitar (e !e#arare (in a#&2 !$b a*i$nea 3,#$l$i gra"ita*ional
tere!tr$2 a #arti$lelor $ (en!itate ,e(ie ,ai ,i& (e3t a a#ei. Alota*ia #oate +i nat$ral& !a$ $
aer intro($! 4n a#& !$b +or,& (e b$le +ine #rin (i+$%oare #oroa!e. So#$l +lota*iei e!te (e a +or,a
o !#$,& !tabil& are !& 4nor#ore%e #arti$lele in!ol$bile. Alota*ia !e #oate +ae !e #oate +ae 4n
ba%ine ir$lare !a$ (re#t$ng'i$lare. 7n +ig. 3.; !e #re%int& !'e,a $nei in!tala*ii (e +lota*ie $ aer
!$b #re!i$ne.
;
Aig. 3.;
1 +iltrarea on!t& 4n treerea a#ei #rintr5$n ,e(i$ #oro! 4n are are lo re*inerea #rin
+eno,ene #re(o,inant +i%ie. Ailtrarea e!te $n #roe! (e !itare $ a)$tor$l $nei *e!&t$ri +ine !a$
4,#3!lit$ri.
(1 re*inerea #e gr&tare i !ite a i,#$rit&*ilor gro!iere -rengi2 +ire et1 #e gr&tare i a elor
,ai ,ii #e !ite. Vite%a a#ei la 4ntrarea 4n gr&tare e!te (e a. ?.3 ,8! #entr$ a e"ita (e#$nerile #e
gr&tar (ar n$ ,ai ,are (e a. 1 ,8! #entr$ a n$ 4n*e#eni or#$rile gro!iere 4ntre bare. Sitele
!er"e! #entr$ re*inerea i,#$rit&*ilor ne(i%ol"ate (e (i,en!i$ni ,ai ,ii i !$nt reali%ate (in table
,etalie !a$ (in #l&i (e ,aterial #la!ti #er+orat. Sitele #ot +i !tatie i ,obile -i$r$ri $ ,iare
(e "ibra*ie !a$ giratoare1. 7n(e#&rtarea ,aterialelor (in !ite !e +ae $ #erii2 #rin !i,#la al$neare
-+ig. 3.31 $n(e !e #re%int& o !it& +or,at& (in bare tri$ng'i$lare. Sitele +ine (in *e!&t$ri (in +ire
,etalie !a$ +ire (in ,ateriale #la!tie !e +olo!e! #entr$ !$!#en!ii (e #arti$le +ine.
e1 e#$rarea 4n +iltre gran$lare i +iltre $ #re!trat. =aterial$l gran$lar +olo!it a $,#l$t$r&
+iltrant& e!te ni!i#$l $ar*o!. Se ,ai +olo!e! +iltre $ ,ai ,$lte !trat$ri (e ,ateriale gran$lare2 $
(en!it&*i (i+erite -(e e.. (in antrait2 ni!i# $ar*o!2 granat1 are #ot +i !#&late2 gran$lele aran)3n($5
!e $ (ia,etr$l (e!re!3n( 4n !en!$l (e $rgere.
3
Aig. 3.3
+1 e#$rarea #rin ,e,brane. =e,brana e!te o barier& #entr$ !#eiile ,ole$lare !a$
ionie #re%ente 4n $rent$l (e a#& are o !tr&bate. Ca ,ateriale #entr$ ,e,brane !e +olo!e!
aetat$l (e el$lo%&2 ,ateriale #oli,erie !tabile 4n ti,# -#olia,i(e2 #oli!$+lone2 et.1. Proe!$l (e
e#$rare $ ,e,brane !e n$,ete osmo*2 are #oate +i (iret& !a$ in"er!&2 4n +$n*ie (e (ire*ia
a#ei (e la o !ol$*ie (il$at& la $na onentrat& !a$ in"er!. Pot e.i!ta ,ai ,$lte ti#$ri (e ,o($le (e
o!,o%&2 a (e e.e,#l$ t$b$lare2 +ig. 3.:.
Alte ,eto(e (e e#$rare #rin ,e,brane !$nt6
- ultrafiltrarea 5 !e +olo!e! ,ai ,$lte ,e,brane $ #er,eabilitate !eleti"& #entr$ an$,i*i
o,#onen*i.
- electrodiali*a 5 +olo!ete ,e,brane $ #er,eabilitate !eleti"& la anioni2 re!#eti" ationi2
(e#la!area ae!tora +&3n($5!e !$b in+l$en*a $n$i 3,# eletri2 a la eletroli%&.
Aig.3.:
g1 tran!+er$l 4ntre +a%e !e ba%ea%& #e treerea #ol$an*ilor 4ntr5o alt& +a%&2 ne,i!ibil& $
a#a2 are #oate +i li'i(&2 !oli(& !a$ ga%oa!&. A!t+el e.i!t& extracia licid&licid -!e +olo!ete $n
!ol"ent 4n are #ol$ant$l e!te ,$lt ,ai !ol$bil (e3t 4n a#&2 a#oi2 ($#& agitare2 are lo #roe!$l (e
!e(i,entare2 3n( !e +or,ea%& (o$& !trat$ri6 a#a e.tra!& i e.trat$l12 e.tra*ia licid&ga* -4n lo
(e !ol"ent !e +olo!ete aer2 ga%e (e ar(ere1.
De e.e,#l$2 la "alori ,ii (e #9 e!te #o!ibil& 4n(e#&rtarea 'i(rogen$l$i !$l+$rat6
S
;5
B ;9
B
9
;
S -'i(rogen !$l+$rat ,ole$lar
!$l+$ra !ol$bil& ,ai gre$ !ol$bil 4n a#&1
4n a#&
iar la "alori ri(iate ale #95$l$i a a,onia$l$i i2 4n general2 a ba%elor !labe "olatile6
N9
:
B
B O9
5
N9
3
B 9
;
O -a,onia ,ole$lar
ioni (e a,oni$ gre$ !ol$bil 4n a#&1
!ol$bili 4n a#&
:
'1 (i!tilarea !e +ae #rin e#$rarea a#elor $%ate #rin treerea a#ei 4n +a%& (e "a#ori2 #rin
4n&l%ire2 $r,at& (e on(en!area "a#orilor2 (eoaree i,#$rit&*ile a$ o "olatilitate ,ai re($!& a
a#&.
i1 4ng'e*area on!t& 4n treerea a#ei 4n +a%& !oli(& !$b +or,& (e ri!tale (e g'ea*&2 are !e
!e#ar& (e !ol$*ia re%i($al& 4,bog&*it& 4n i,#$rit&*i.
)1 !#$,area e!te $n #roe! (e !e#arare (in a#& a $nor i,#$rit&*i organie (i%ol"ate2
(atorit& a(&$g&rii $nor agen*i (e !#$,are i #rin barbotarea a#ei $ aer !$b +or,& (e b$le +ine.
C1 ab!orb*ia are la ba%& +eno,en$l (e re*inere #e !$#ra+a*a $n$i or# a ,ole$lelor $nei
!$b!tan*e (i%ol"ate 4n a#& -+ig. 3.01. =aterial$l2 li'i( !a$ !oli(2 #e are are lo re*inerea !e
n$,ete absorbant2 iar !$b!tan*a re*in$t& absorbat.
Ca ab!orban*i !e +olo!e! ,ateriale !oli(e $ !$#ra+a*& !#ei+i& ,are2 &rb$nele ati"2
en$a +in&2 et. Cele ,ai $tili%ate in!tala*ii (e e#$rare #rin ab!orb*ie !$nt (e ti# (ina,i 2 $
#&t$ri +i.e (e &rb$ne ati". Treb$ie e"itat& ol,atarea $ #arti$le 4n !$!#en!ie. C&rb$nele ati"
#oate re*ine o ,a!& (e !$b!tan*e organie (e #3n& la 0D (in gre$tatea !a. Regenerarea !e +ae #e
ale ter,i&2 la ira E??
o
C 4n at,o!+er& ontrolat&.
Aig.3.0
/. Proe!e 'i,ie
Prin #roe!ele 'i,ie (e e#$rare2 #ol$an*ii !$nt tran!+or,a*i 4n alte !$b!tan*e ,ai $or (e
!e#arat2 #rei#itate in!ol$bile2 ga%e2 are #ot +i !ti#ale2 are a$ o ati"itate noi"& ,ai re($!& !a$
!$nt ,ai !$!e#tibile (e a +i 4n(e#&rtate.
a1 ne$trali%area e!te $n #roe! #rin are #95$l $nei !ol$*ii $%ate e!te reglat #rin a(ao! (e
ai%i !a$ ba%e.
+eutrali*area apelor acide !e +ae $ !$b!tan*e $ arater ba%i -o.i%i2 'i(ro.i%i2
arbona*i1. Ne$trali%an*ii are !$nt $tili%a*i !$nt6 #iatra (e "ar -arbonat (e ali$12 (olo,ita
-arbonat (e ali$ i ,agne%i$12 "ar$l -o.i( (e ali$1 !$b +or,& (e 'i(ro.i( (e ali$ -la#te (e
"ar !a$ "ar !tin! #ra+1.
+eutrali*area apelor alcaline !e +ae $ ai%i re%i($ali2 $ ga%ele (e ar(ere bogate 4n CO
;
-1:D1 et. Deoaree in+l$en*ii a$ (ebite "ariabile 4n ti,#2 e!te nee!ar& o b$l& (e reglare a #92
,&rin( (ebit$l (e agent ne$trali%ant2 +ig. 3.F.
0
Aig.3.F
b1 o.i(area i re($erea
Scopul oxidrii e!te (e a on"erti o,#$ii 'i,ii ne(ori*i 4n al*ii ,ai #$*in noi"i. Ca
o.i(an*i !e #ot +olo!i6 o.igen$l2 o%on$l2 #er,angana*i2 a#& o.igenat&2 lor$l i bio.i($l (e lor.
Ca e.e,#l$ !e (& (i!tr$gerea ian$rilor $ lor #3n& la +or,area (e iana*i !a$ a%ot ,ole$lar6
CN
5
B OCl CNO B Cl
5
; CNO B 3 OCl N
;
B ;9CO
3
5
B 3Cl
5
,educerea on!t& 4n tran!+or,area $nor #ol$an*i $ arater o.i(ant 4n !$b!tan*e
ino+en!i"e are #ot +i $or e#$rate. Ca e.e,#l$ !e (& re($erea ro,$l$i 'e.a"alent la ro,
tri"alent2 4n "e(erea #rei#it&rii ae!t$ia a 'i(ro.i(6
Cr
;
O
@
;5
B F Ae SO
:
B @ 9
;
SO
:
Cr
;
-SO
:
1
3
B 3 Ae
;
-SO
:
1
3
B @ 9
;
O B SO
:
;5
Ca agen*i re($&tori !e +olo!e! !&r$rile +ier$l$i tri"alent2 !$l+a*i2 ai($l !$l+$ro!.
1 #rei#itarea e!te $n #roe! (e e#$rare ba%at #e tran!+or,area #ol$an*ilor (in a#ele
re%i($ale 4n #ro($i in!ol$bili. Ca e.e,#l$ !e (& 4n(e#&rtarea +l$or$l$i (in a#& #rin intro($erea
(e ioni (e ali$6
; A
5
B Ca
;
CaA
;
5 #rei#itat
(1 oag$larea i +lo$larea - 4n(e#&rtarea $nor #arti$le #rin !e(i,entare -oag$lare1 i
(e!tabili%area #rin ab!orb*ia $nor ,ole$le ,ari (e #oli,eri are +or,ea%& #$n*i (e leg&t$r& 4ntre
#arti$le -+lo$lare1. Se +olo!e! #entr$ #arti$le oloi(ale. 7n ae!t !o# !e +olo!e! #oli,eri
organii !intetii !a$ anorganii.
e1 !'i,b$l ioni
S'i,b&torii (e ioni !e $tili%ea%& ,ai ale! #entr$ (e($ri%area a#elor2 +olo!in( ationa*i 4n
+or,a !o(i$ -Na12 iar regenerarea lor !e +ae $ lor$r& (e !o(i$6
; ZNa B Ca
;B
Z
;
Ca B ; Na
B
Aolo!irea !'i,b&torilor (e ioni e!te o !ol$*ie ,ai !$,#&.
F
C. Proe!e biologie
S$b!tan*ele organie #ot +i 4n(e#&rtate (in a#& (e &tre ,iroorgani!,e are le $tili%ea%&
a 'ran&2 re!#eti" !$r!& (e arbon.
Rea*iile en%i,atie a$ (o$& +a%e6
-11 ,ole$lele (e en%i,& i (e !$b!tan*& $tili%at& a 'ran& -!$b!trat1 +or,ea%& o,#lei
-;1 o,#leii !e (e!o,#$n eliber3n( #ro($!$l (e rea*ie i en%i,a
En%i,a B S$b!trat -En%i,a !$b!trat1
G
;
-En%i,& !$b!trat1 En%i,& B Pro($! rea*ie
E#$rarea biologi& aerob& !e reali%ea%& 4n on!tr$*ii 4n are bio,a!a e!te !$!#en(at& 4n
a#& !$b +or,& (e agregate (e ,iroorgani!,e -+looane12 !i!te,ele +iin( a#ro"i%ionate $ o.igen.
E#$rarea biologi& anaerob& a a#elor $%ate !e reali%ea%& 4n ininte 4n'i!e -ba%ine (e
+er,entare1 +erite (e ae!$l o.igen$l$i are in'ib& ati"itatea ,iroorgani!,elor anaerobe. Prin
(e!o,#$nerea #ol$an*ilor organii !e ob*in ga%e (e +er,entare o,b$!tibile2 (atorit&
on*in$t$l$i ri(iat (e ,etan.
D. De%in+e*ia
De%in+e*ia e!te nee!ar& 4n a%$l a#elor $%ate are on*in ,iroorgani!,e. Da&
!terili%area #re!$#$ne (i!tr$gerea t$t$ror ,iroorgani!,elor2 #rin (e%in+e*ie n$ !e (i!tr$g toate.
De%in+etant$l #&tr$n(e #rin #eretele el$lar i (enat$rea%& ,ateriile #roteie (in #roto#la!,&2
inl$!i" en%i,ele. Un (e%in+etant #entr$ a#& e!te lor$l ati" are a*ionea%& !$b +or,& (e ion (e
'i#olorit2 $ e+ete #ron$n*ate la "alori ,ii ale #9. Dintre ,eto(ele +i%ie (e (e%in+e*ie2 ele
,ai $tili%ate !$nt ,eto(a ter,i& i ira(ierea $ ra(ia*ii (e energie ri(iat&.
3.;. PRO/LE=E PRIVIND =ODELAREA PROCESELOR PENTRU TRATAREA APELOR
@.1. Proble,a on!$,$l$i (e o.igen -/iologial O.Hgen De,an( 1 !i re!$r!ele !ale
a1 =ateria organi& (e"er!at& 4n !i!te,$l a"ati e!te ataat& (e baterii i (e!o,#$!& 4n
!$b!tan*e ,ai !i,#le2 +olo!in( o.igen. De e.e,#l$ gl$o%a are /OD (e 11?,g8l2 4n onor(an*&
$ rea*ia6
C
F
9
1;
O
F
B FO
;
555I FCO
;
B F9
;
O
Aea!ta o.i(are e!te ter,inat& o,#let 4n ,ai #$*in (e 0 %ile. Pentr$ a,e!te$l (e o,#$i
organii rea*ia "a +i6
el$le
CO9N B O
;
555I CO
;
B 9
;
O B N9
3
B el$le
a(i& #rin rea*ie -;1 !e reea%& o no$& !$b!tan*& baterial&2 are n$ !e (egra(ea%& 4n 0 %ile.
Re%i($$rile (o,e!tie re#re%int& o 'ran& bine e'ilibrat& #entr$ ,iroorgani!,e2 #re$, tabel$l
-,g8l1
/OD
0
10?53??
N5total ;05:0
P5total F51;
b1 =o(elele ,eanie 4nl&t$r& ,ateria 4n $n$l !a$ ,ai ,$lte tre#te2 +olo!in( gr&tare2
a,ere $ ni!i#2 !e(i,entare2 +iltrare2 +lotare. Ca e.e,#le2 4n +ig. 3.@.a2b !e (a$ (o$a ti#$ri (e
"a!e (e !e(i,entare2 #ri,$l #entr$ (ebite ,ii2 al (oilea #entr$ (ebite ,ari.
@
Aig.3.@
1 Proe!ele (e tratare biologi& !e ba%ea%& #e $tili%area $nor organi!,e2 are a$
#ro#riet&*i !#ei+ie6 #ot nee!ita energie ra(iant& #entr$ retere2 nee!it& o,#$i organii a
n$trien*i2 +olo!e! (onori -eletroni1 anorganii -(e e.. ga% 'i(rogen12 nee!ita o.igen ,ole$lar
#entr$ retere -a o.i(ant12 nee!ita !a$ n$ o.igen (in aer. Cele ,ai ,$lte !i!te,e biologie (e
tratare a re%i($$rilor organie (e#in( (e organi!,e 'eterotro+ie2 are +olo!e! arbon$l a !$r!a
lor (e energie. E.i!t& trei la!e (e ,etaboli!, $ rea*ii (e o.i(are6 +er,entare2 re!#ira*ie
aerobi& -$ o.igen ,ole$lar1 i re!#ira*ie anaerobi& -+&r& o.igen1. Ae!te rea*ii !e (e!ri$ #rin
#roe!e.
=aterie organi& B O
;
B N9
3
B el$le 555I CO
;
B 9
;
O B noi el$le
Nitri+iarea are ; #ai6 -11 a,onia$l e!te o.i(at 4n nitritJ -;1 nitrit$l e!te o.i(at 4n nitra*i
;N9
B
:
B 3O
;
555I ;NO
5
;
B ;9
;
O B :9
B
;NO
5
;
B O
;
555I ;NO
3
O#era*ia (e (enitri+iare e!te6
;NO
5
;
B 9
;
O 555I N
;
B ;O9
5
B 0O
Nitrat$l !e #oate +olo!i a o !$r!& (e o.igen #entr$ #roe!ele (e (e!o,#$nere biologi&.
(1 Si!te,e (e tratare ,eanio5biologie2 !$nt +oarte $tili%ate #entr$ re($erea /OD
0
4n
a#e ,$nii#ale. 7n!& o,bina*ii (e ,eto(e +i%ie2 'i,ie i iriga*ii !$nt +olo!ite i #entr$ a#e
in($!triale. Co,#ar3n(2 ,eto(ele 'i,io5+i%ie n$ !$nt !en!ibile la o$ri (e !arin& i la
#re%en*a $nor o,#onente to.ie2 ele nee!it& $n !#a*i$ ,ai ,i2 ele #er,it re$#erarea (e
gr&!i,i2 (e #roteine (in in($!tria ali,entar&2 (ar a$ $n o!t (e in"e!ti*ie ,ai ,are. Cele ,ai
$tili%ate ,eto(e +i%io5'i,ie (e re($ere a /OD !$nt6 #rei#ita*ie 'i,i&2 !'i,b ioni2
a(!orb*ia i o!,o%a re"er!ibil& -$lti,a +iin( !$,#&1.
7n +ig.. 3.K. !e (& $n e.e,#l$ (e o,binare a ,eto(elor #rei#it&rii 'i,ie i a
!'i,b$l$i (e ioni #entr$ tratare a#elor $%ate (in in($!tria ali,entar&2 (e e.e,#l$ $n abator.
Co,#arati" !e (a$ (atele 4n (i+erite +a%e 4n ,g8l6
=aterie
#ri,&
D$#& +iltr$
biologi
D$#& #rei#itare
'i,i& $ gl$o%&
D$#& !'i,b
ioni
/DO
0
10?? :?? F?? 0?
K
G=nO
:
E0? 30? :F? F?
N total 1:? :; K0 10
N9
3
5N ;? 10 1K ;
NO
3
5N : 0 : 1
P :0 3K 3E 1.0
Pentr$ a#ele $%ate (in in($!tria ali,entar& !e #ot +olo!i irig&ri (e !$#ra+e*e agriole2 (ar
treb$ie aor(at& aten*ie a(3ni,ii !ol$l$i #3n& la a#e +reatie -!& +ie ,are12 on*in$t$l$i ini*ial al
a#ei 4n ra#ort $ +or,a teren$l$i -4n #ant& !e ob!orb ,ai #$*ine !$b!tan*e1 i nat$rii !ol$l$i -!ol$l
ni!i#o! e!te ,ai +iltrant2 el leio! n$1.
3.;.;. Re$#erarea n$trien*ilor
S$r!ele (e n$trien*i 4n a#e !$nt (ate 4n tabel -,g8,
;
>an1
P&,3nt Ao!+or A%ot
Igneo$! Se(i,entar Igneo$! Se(i,entar
P&($re :.@ 11.@ ;?? 3:?
P&($reB#&$ni 1?.; ;3.3 :?? F??
Arii $lt$ri agriole ;; 5 1?? 0?? 5 1;??
7n a#a (e #loaie -,g8l1 ?.?@ 1?
Ao!+or$l #oate +i re$#erat #rin #rei#itare 'i,i& !a$ !'i,b (e ioni2 iar a%ot$l #rin
nitri+iare i (enitri+iare2 !'i,b (e ioni i a,bele ele,ente #rin alge 4n 'eletee.
a1 Prei#itarea 'i,ia a o,#$ilor (e +o!+or !e +ae +olo!in( !$l+at (e al$,ini$
-Al
;
-SO
:
1
3
2 1K9
;
?12 'i(ro.i( (e ali$ -Ca-O91
;
1 !a$ lorat (e +ier -AeCl
3
12 (ar treb$ie e.a,inat&
+ieare !it$a*ie !e#arat.
De e.e,#l$ #rei#itarea +o!+a*ilor +olo!in( 'i(ro.i( (e ali$ !e ba%ea%& #e +or,area (e
Ca
1?
-PO
:
1
F
-O91
;
2 are i,#$ne $n #9 ,are2 (e 1?.0 5 1;.?. Ae!t +eno,en e!te il$!trat 4n +ig. 3.E.2
$n(e !e #re%int& (e#en(en*a e+iien*ei #rei#it&rii (e #92 #entr$ #rini#alii oag$lan*i +olo!i*i
in($!trial.
E
Aig.3.K.
Prei#itare -D 1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
1
2
3
1'
2'
Aig.3.E
1 5 !$l+at (e Al2 ; 5 lorat (e +ier2 3 5 'i(ro.i( (e ali$
P$ntat !$nt #re%entate aeleai $rbe #entr$ a%$l #re%en*ei ionilor (e ali$2 eea e arat&
o,#le.itatea +eno,enelor are a$ lo 4n e#$rarea a#elor.
b1 Nitri+iarea i (enitri+iarea
Proe!$l (e nitri+iare 4n!ea,n& o.i(area a,onia$l$i
N9
B
:
B ;O
;
555I NO
5
3
B 9
;
O B ;9
B
Nitra*ii #ot +i re($i $ baterii 'eterotro+ie2 are 4n!& nee!it& o !$r!& (e
arbon organi2 (e e.e,#l$ aetat6
0C9
3
COO
5
B KNO
3
555I :N
;
B @9CO
5
3
B 3CO
;5
;
B :9
;
?
Ae!te #roe!e (e#in( (e ti,#$l (e re*inere.
1 /arbotare -!tri##ing1
Proe!$l e!te +olo!it #entr$ a re$#era ga%e "olatile2 #re$, N9
:
2 'H(rogen !$l#'i(e2
'H(rogen Hani(e2 (in a#ele $%ate #rin !$+larea (e aer. 7n +ig. 3.1?. !e (& a e.e,#l$ on!tr$*ia
$n$i t$rn (e barbotare. Deoaree ae!te !$b!tan*e !$nt ai(e2 e+iienta #roe!$l$i "a (e#in(e (e
#95$l !ol$*iei. Dar ga%ele e,i!e 4n at,o!+er& #ot #ol$a aer$l6
N9
B
:
555I N9
3
B 9
B
1?
#9
Aig.3.1?
(1 Clor$rarea !i a(!orb*ia #e &rb$ne
O.i(area a,onia$l$i !e +ae on+or, rea*iilor6
Cl
;
B 9
;
O 555I 9OCl B 9Cl
N9
3
B 9OCl 555I N9
;
Cl B 9
;
O
N9
;
Cl B 9OCl 555I N9Cl
;
B 9
;
O
N9Cl
;
B 9OCl 555I NCl
3
B 9
;
O
A(!orb*ia #e &rb$ne ati"at #entr$ lora,in& e!te6
C B ;N9Cl; B 9;O 555I N; B :9B B :Cl5 B CO
Ae!te rea*ii (e#in( (e #$ritatea arbon$l$i.
e1 S'i,b$l (e ioni #entr$ re$#erarea n$trien*ilor
S'i,b$l (e ioni e!te $n #roe! 4n are ionii (e #e !$#ra+a*a $n$i !oli( !$nt !'i,ba*i $
ioni !i,ilar 4n&ra*i 4n !ol$*ia $ are !oli($l e!te 4n ontat. S'i,b$l (e ioni are a !o# !& !e
re$#ere%e ionii ne(ori*i (in a#e $%ate. Cationii -ioni #o%iti"i1 !$nt !'i,ba*i #entr$ 'i(rogen !a$
!o(i$2 a (e e.e,#l$ 4nl&t$rarea ionilor (e ali$ -Ca
;B
1 e a$%ea%& ($ritatea a#ei.
9
;
R B Ca
B;
555I CaR B ;9
B
2 $n(e R re#re%int& o r&in&.
Anionii -ionii negati"i1 !e +olo!e! #entr$ ionii (e 'i(ro.i( !a$ lori(e. Seleti"itatea 4n !'i,b$l
(e ioni (e#in(e (e !arina ioni&2 a!t+el !ele*ia anionilor "a +i 4n or(inea6
PO
35
:
I SO
;5
:
I Cl
5
2 iar #entr$ ationi
Al
3B
I Ca
;B
I Na
B
+1 Alge #entr$ la$ri
Pentr$ a !oate n$trien*ii $ alge !e +olo!e! 'eletee. Pentr$ 1??g. (e ,a!&
$!at& (e +ito#lanton2 !e ob*in :51?g. a%ot i ?.;5?.0g. +o!+or. Dar ,eto(a !e #oate
+olo!i la tro#ie i !$btro#ie2 $n(e e!te !$+iient& energie !olar& 4ntr5$n an2 $n(e !e
11
#ot +olo!i !$#ra+e*e ,ari (e teren i n$ !$nt o,#$i organii 4n a#e2 a (e e.e,#l$
$lei$ri.
3.;.3.. Re$#erarea o,#$ilor organii to.ii
7n general !$b!tan*ele to.ie organie !$nt !oa!e #3n& la (e"er!area a#elor
$%ate 4n !i!te,$l ,$nii#al. Pentr$ !oaterea lor !e +olo!e!6
- !e#aratoare #entr$ $lei$ri
- +lo$larea #entr$ oloi(ale organie
- +lotarea #entr$ i,#$rit&*i $ gre$tate !#ei+i& ,ai ,are a 1
- a(!orb*ia2 #entr$ in!etii(e #e arbon ati"at
- !e(i,entarea2 4,#re$n& $ #rei#itarea 'i,i&
- o.i(area i re($erea #entr$ Hani(e2 'lor,ate2 +olo!in( aer !i O
;
- (i!tilarea2 #entr$ a#e ra(ioati"e2 #entr$ & e!te !$,#a
- +iltrarea #entr$ !$!#en!ii ,ateriale 4n "ol$,e re($!e (e a#&
- ne$trali%area2 3n( treb$ie (e"er!ate !ol$*ii $ #9<F5K2 +olo!in( ne$trali%an*i a
'i(ro.i( (e ali$2 9
;
SO
:
i CO
;
3.;.:. Re$#erarea ,etalelor -grele )
=etalele grele !$nt "&t&,&toare 4n eo!i!te,e. Soaterea lor #rin #roe(ee
,eanie are o e+iien*& (e 3?5@?D2 n$ #oate +i +olo!it& tratarea biologi&2 ae!tea
+iin( e.e,#le (e in'ibatori. Pentr$ re$#erare !e #ot +olo!i ,eto(ele6 #rei#itarea
'i,i&2 e.tra*ie !i o!,o%a re"er!ibil&.
Ca e.e,#l$ !e (& !oaterea ro,at$l$i (in a#e $%ate are #oate +i !$b +or,a CrO
3
J
Na
;
Cr
;
O
@
>;9
;
O. Agen*ii +olo!i*i #entr$ o.i(are !$nt !$l+a*i (e +ier2 !$l#'$r (io.i(e2 ($#& rea*iile6
CrO
3
B 9
;
O 555I 9
;
CrO
:
;9
;
CrO
:
B FAeSO
:
B F9
;
SO
:
555I Cr
;
-SO
:
1
;
B 3Ae
;
-SO
:
1
3
B K9
;
O
Cr
;
O
;5
@
B FAeSO
:
B @9
;
SO
:
555I Cr
;
-SO
:
1
3
B 3Ae
;
-SO
;
1
3
B @9
;
O B SO
;5
:
Prin !e(i,entare !e 4nl&t$r& (in a#& !$b!tan*ele noi"e.
Ca e.e,#l$ (e +olo!ire a ,eto(ei !'i,b$l$i (e ioni !e (& +olo!irea ationilor #entr$
!oaterea ionilor (e ,etal2 a Ae
;B
2 Ae
3B
2 Cr
3B
2 Al
3B
2 ZN
;B
2 C$
;B
.
3.;.0. Re!$r!ele (e a#a
O,$l n$ #oate !& e.i!te +&r& a#&. A#ele !$bterane !$nt ,ai b$ne a a#ele (e
!$#ra+a*&2 (ar ele #ot on*ine Ae i =n. N$ toate a#ele nee!it& $n il$ o,#let (e
#retratare !i tratare. De e.e,#l$ #entr$ a#ele (e !$#ra+a*& e!te !$+iient il$l (in
+ig. 3.11 6
1;
D$ritatea a#ei #oate +i 4nl&t$rat& #rin +ierbere
Ca-9CO
3
1
;
555I CaCO
3
B CO
;
B 9
;
O
($ritatea !e #oate (atora i =g 4n =g-9CO
3
1
;
.
A#a treb$ie !$#$!& i (e%in+e*iei2 +olo!in( agen*i 'i,ii a o%on$l2 'lorine (io.i(e i
'lorine2 are #ro"oa& o (egra(are 'i,i& a ,ateriei el$lare2 inl$!i" en%i,e2 4n ti,# e #rin
+ierbere !e (i!tr$g +i%i ,iroorgani!,ele. Dar ,iroorgani!,ele !$nt o,or3te (e on(i*iile (e
#92 ,ai )o! (e 3.? !i ,ai !$! (e 11.?. Ra%ele L i ga,,a2 (e l$ngi,i (e $n(& !$rt& a$
a#aitatea (e a (i!tr$ge ,iroorgani!,ele. Ca e.e,#l$2 4n +ig.3.1; !e (& #roent$l (e (i!tr$gere
al $nor baili 4n +$n*ie (e o,bina*ia (e o%on O
3
!i Cl
;
2 reali%3n($5!e a!t+el (e%in+e*ia a#ei.
Procentul de distrugere functie de concentratie
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Cl2
O3
13
Aig.3.11
Aig.3.1;