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U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration NHI Course No. 132036 Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071

U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration

NHI Course No. 132036

Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071 June 2008

Earth Retaining Structures

Reference Manual

132036 Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071 June 2008 Earth Retaining Structures Reference Manual National Highway Institute
132036 Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071 June 2008 Earth Retaining Structures Reference Manual National Highway Institute
132036 Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071 June 2008 Earth Retaining Structures Reference Manual National Highway Institute
132036 Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071 June 2008 Earth Retaining Structures Reference Manual National Highway Institute
132036 Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071 June 2008 Earth Retaining Structures Reference Manual National Highway Institute
132036 Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071 June 2008 Earth Retaining Structures Reference Manual National Highway Institute
132036 Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071 June 2008 Earth Retaining Structures Reference Manual National Highway Institute
132036 Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071 June 2008 Earth Retaining Structures Reference Manual National Highway Institute
132036 Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071 June 2008 Earth Retaining Structures Reference Manual National Highway Institute
132036 Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071 June 2008 Earth Retaining Structures Reference Manual National Highway Institute
132036 Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071 June 2008 Earth Retaining Structures Reference Manual National Highway Institute
132036 Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071 June 2008 Earth Retaining Structures Reference Manual National Highway Institute
132036 Publication No. FHWA NHI-07-071 June 2008 Earth Retaining Structures Reference Manual National Highway Institute

National Highway Institute

NOTICE

The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect policy of the Department of Transportation. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. The United States Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturer's names appear herein only because they are considered essential to the objective of this document.

Technical Report Documentation Page

1.

REPORT NO.

2. GOVERNMENT

3.

RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NO.

FHWA-NHI-07-071

ACCESSION NO.

 

4.

TITLE AND SUBTITLE

5.

REPORT DATE

Earth Retaining Structures

June 2008

6.

PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE

 

7.

AUTHOR(S)

8.

PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.

 

Burak F. Tanyu, Ph.D. and Paul J. Sabatini, P.E., Ph.D, and Ryan R. Berg, P.E.

 

9.

PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS

10. WORK UNIT NO.

 

Ryan R. Berg & Associates, Inc. 2190 Leyland Alcove Woodbury, MN 55125

11. CONTRACT OR GRANT NO.

 

DTFH61-06-D-00019

 

12.

SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS

13. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED

 

National Highway Institute Federal Highway Administration U.S. Department of Transportation Washington, D.C.

 

14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE

 

15.

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

This manual is the updated version of FHWA NHI-99-025 manual prepared by Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., authored by G. A. Munfakh, N. C. Samtani, R. J. Castelli, and J. Wang. This updated version presents design procedures for walls, except in-situ reinforced walls, using the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method.

FHWA COTR – Louisa M. Ward FHWA Technical Consultants – J. DiMaggio, B. Siel, and D. Alzamora.

 

16.

ABSTRACT

This is the reference manual for FHWA NHI course No. 132036 on Earth Retaining

Structures. Detailed information on subsurface investigation, soil and rock property design parameter selection, lateral earth pressures for wall system design, and load and resistance factor design (LRFD) for retaining walls are provided. Wall types discussed include gravity and semi-gravity walls, modular gravity walls, MSE walls, nongravity cantilever walls and anchored walls, and in-situ reinforced walls. Information on wall system feasibility and selection, construction materials and methods, cost information, design and performance information, and required elements of construction inspection are presented for each wall type. Different contracting approaches for the various wall systems are also discussed.

17.

KEY WORDS lateral earth pressures, LRFD,

18.

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

 

gravity and semi-gravity walls, modular gravity walls, mechanically stabilized earth walls, sheet pile walls, soldier pile and lagging walls, slurry walls, tangent/secant walls, anchored walls, soil nailing, micropiles, wall selection, and contracting approaches.

No restrictions.

 

19.

SECURITY CLASSIF.

20. SECURITY CLASSIF.

21.

NO. OF PAGES

22.

PRICE

Unclassified

Unclassified

764

 

---

 

SI CONVERSION FACTORS

 
 

APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS FROM SI UNITS

 
 

When You

     

Symbol

Know

Multiply By

To Find

Symbol

   

LENGTH

   

mm

millimeters

0.039

inches

in

m

meters

3.28

feet

ft

m

meters

1.09

yards

yd

km

kilometers

0.621

miles

mi

   

AREA

   

mm

2

square millimeters

0.0016

square inches

in

2

m

2

square meters

10.764

square feet

ft 2

m

2

square meters

1.195

square yards

yd

2

ha

hectares

2.47

acres

ac

km

2

square kilometers

0.386

square miles

mi

2

   

VOLUME

   

ml

millimeters

0.034

fluid ounces

fl oz

l

liters

0.264

gallons

gal

m

3

cubic meters

35.71

cubic feet

ft 3

m

3

cubic meters

1.307

cubic yards

yd

3

   

MASS

   

g

grams

0.035

ounces

oz

kg

kilograms

2.202

pounds

lb

tonnes

tonnes

1.103

tons

tons

   

TEMPERATURE

   

EC

Celsius

1.8 C + 32

Fahrenheit

EF

   

WEIGHT DENSITY

   

kN/m 3

kilonewton / cubic meter

6.36

poundforce / cubic foot

pcf

 

FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS

 

N

newtons

0.225

poundforce

lbf

kN

kilonewtons

225

poundforce

lbf

kPa

kilopascals

0.145

poundforce / square inch

psi

kPa

kilopascals

20.9

poundforce / square foot

psf

PREFACE

This document is the update of the 1999 NHI course manual for NHI Course 13236 – Module 6, Earth Retaining Structures. This document has been written to provide up-to- date information on earth retaining systems currently being constructed in the United States for highway applications. Earth retaining systems discussed in this manual include:

Rigid gravity and semi-gravity walls;

Prefabricated modular gravity walls;

Mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls;

Non-gravity cantilevered and anchored walls including sheet-pile walls, soldier beam and lagging walls, slurry walls, tangent and secant pile walls, soil mixed walls, and jet-grouted walls; and

In-situ reinforced walls including soil nail walls and micropile walls.

This document is a synthesis of practical information on selection, construction, design, cost, and construction inspection for these wall systems. In addition, information on subsurface investigation, soil and rock design parameter selection, and lateral earth pressure evaluation applied specifically to wall systems, and LRFD methods for retaining walls is provided.

The design procedures presented in this manual are consistent with the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (AASHTO, 2007). Significant portions of this manual are based on the following FHWA references:

Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes – Design and Construction Guidelines, by V. Elias, B.R. Christopher and R.R. Berg, FHWA

NHI-00-043.

Design and Construction Monitoring of Soil Nail Walls, by R. J. Byrne, D. Cotton, J.Porterfield, C. Wolschlag and G. Ueblacker, FHWA-SA-96-069.

Earth Retaining Systems, Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 2, by P.J. Sabatini, V. Elias, G.R. Schmertmann, and R. Bonaparte, FHWA- SA-96-038.

Ground Anchors and Anchored Systems, Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 4, by P.J. Sabatini, D. Pass, and R.C. Bachus, FHWA- SA-99-015.

Evaluation of Soil and Rock Properties, Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 5, by P.J. Sabatini, R.C. Bachus, P.W. Mayne, J.A. Schneider, and T.E. Zettler, FHWA- IF-02-034.

Soil Nail Walls, Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 7, by C.A. Lazarte, V. Elias, R.D. Espinoza, and P.J. Sabatini, FHWA-IF-03-017.

Subsurface Investigations, by. P.W. Mayne, B.R. Christopher, and J. DeJong, FHA NHI-01-031.

The authors recognize the efforts of Barry Siel, Daniel Alzamora, and Jerry A. DiMaggio who served as FHWA Technical Consultants for this work.

The authors further acknowledge the efforts of the following individuals who provided valuable technical input during the development of this manual.

Craig Actis – FHWA Resource Center

Tom Armour – DBM Contractors

Donald Bruce – Geosystems, L.P.

Barry Christopher – Christopher Consultants

James Collin – The Collin Group

Dave Davis – Northstar Vinyl Inc.

Leo Fontaine – Connecticut DOT

Jeff Horsfall – Wisconsin DOT

Scott Ludlow – Earth Exploration Inc.

Steve Maxwell – Wisconsin DOT

Peter Osborn – FHWA

Bruce Pfister – Wisconsin DOT

Ray Poletto – Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers

Dan Priest – Contech Construction Products

Tom Richards – Nicholson Construction Company

Ray Sandiford - Port Authority of New York and New Jersey

Brian Sweeney - Haley & Aldrich, Inc.

Trevor Wang – Colorado DOT

Rob Wendt – North American Steel Sheet Piling Association

Joe Wiedemann – Berkel and Company Contractors

John Wolosick – Hayward Baker, Inc.

David Yang – Ratio, Inc.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1-1

1.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE

1-1

1.2 HISTORY OF EARTH RETAINING SYSTEMS

1-2

1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES

1-4

 

1.3.1 Classification by Load Support Mechanism

1-5

1.3.2 Classification by Construction Concept

1-5

1.3.3 Classification by System Rigidity

1-7

1.3.4 Temporary and Permanent Wall Applications

1-7

1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THE MANUAL

1-8

1.5 PRIMARY REFERENCES FOR THIS MANUAL

1-9

CHAPTER 2

EVALUATION OF GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS FOR EARTH RETAINING SYSTEMS

2-1

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2-1

2.2 PLANNING A SUBSURFACE INVESTIGATION AND LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAM

2-2

 

2.2.1 General

2-2

2.2.2 Identify Data Needs and Review Available Information

2-2

2.2.3 Developing a Site Investigation Program

2-4

2.2.4 Sampling Methods

2-9

2.2.5 Developing a Laboratory Testing Program 2-11

2.3 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF SHEAR STRENGTH

2-13

2.3.1 General

2-13

2.3.2 Drained Versus Undrained Loading

2-13

2.3.3 Drained Stress-Strain-Strength Behavior 2-14

2.3.4 Undrained Stress-Strain-Strength Behavior 2-17

2.3.5 Effective Stress Parameters

2-18

2.3.6 Total Stress Parameters

2-18

2.4 LABORATORY INDEX TESTS

2-19

2.4.1 General

2-19

2.4.2 Moisture Content

2-19

2.4.3 Unit Weight

2-20

2.4.4 Atterberg Limits

2-20

2.4.5 Particle Size Distribution

2-21

2.4.6 Laboratory Classification 2-22

2.4.7 Specific Gravity

2-22

2.4.8 Organic

Content

2-22

2.5 PARAMETERS FOR BACKFILL SOILS

2-23

2.5.1 General

2-23

2.5.2 Classification of Backfill Soils

2-23

2.5.3 Unit Weight

2-24

2.5.4 Backfill Shear Strength Parameters

2-25

2.5.5 Electrochemical Parameters of Backfill Soils 2-26

2-26

2.5.6 Placement and Compaction of Backfill Soils

2.5.7

Backfill Soil Permeability 2-30

2.5.8 Filtration Requirements

2-31

2.5.9 Other Backfill Materials

2-34

2.6 PARAMETERS FOR IN-SITU SOILS

2-37

2.6.1 General

2-37

2.6.2 Stratigraphy

2-37

2.6.3 Unit Weight

2-38

2.6.4 Shear Strength Parameters 2-39

2-44

2.6.5 Consolidation Parameters

2.6.6 Electrochemical Parameters 2-53

2.6.7 Permeability

2-53

2.7 ROCK PARAMETERS

2-56

2.7.1 General

2-56

2.7.2 Rock Mass Classification 2-56

 

2.7.3 Compressive Strength of Intact Rock

2-69

2.7.4 Smooth Discontinuity

2-71

2.7.5 Rough Discontinuity

2-72

2.7.6 Infillings

2-72

2.7.7 Shear Strength of Fractured Rock Masses

2-73

2.7.8 Permeability

2-77

CHAPTER 3

LATERAL EARTH AND WATER PRESSURES

3-1

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3-1

3.2 EARTH PRESSURE THEORY

3-2

 

3.2.1 Active and Passive Earth Pressures

3-2

3.2.2 At-Rest Earth Pressure

3-5

3.2.3 Rankine Earth Pressure Theory

3-6

3.2.4 Coulomb Earth Pressure Theory

3-8

3.2.5 Effect of Wall Friction on Earth Pressures

3-8

3.2.6 Equivalent Fluid Pressure

3-11

3.3 TEMPORARY CONDITIONS 3-13

3.3.1 General

3-13

3.3.2 Softening

3-13

3.3.3 Tension Cracks

3-14

3.3.4 Soil Fabric

3-15

3.4 PERMANENT CONDITIONS 3-16

3.5 INFLUENCE OF MOVEMENT ON EARTH PRESSURES 3-17

3.5.1 General

3-17

3.5.2 Magnitude of Movement Needed to Mobilize Limit Pressures

3-17

3.5.3 Flexibility of the Wall

3-18

3.5.4 Influence of Movement on Soil Properties

3-18

3.6 DESIGN EARTH AND WATER PRESSURES

3-21

3.6.1 Wall Friction and Adhesion 3-21

3.6.2 Earth Pressure Coefficients 3-22

3.6.3 Theoretical Earth Pressures in Stratified Soils 3-27

3.6.4 Semi Empirical Earth Pressure Diagrams 3-28

3.6.5

Design Water Pressures

3-32

3.7 EARTH PRESSURE FROM SURCHARGE LOADS

3-36

3.7.1 General

3-36

3.7.2 Uniform Surcharge Loads 3-36

3.8 EARTH PRESSURES DUE TO COMPACTION 3-37

3.9 EARTH PRESSURES RESULTING FROM SILO EFFECT 3-40

3.10 EARTH PRESSURES RESULTING FROM SEISMIC FORCES

3-41

3.10.1 General

3-41

Seismic Earth

3.10.2 Pressures

3-41

3.10.3 Displacement Approach 3-46

3.11 LATERAL EARTH PRESSURES IN COHESIVE BACKFILLS 3-47

3.12 LOADS FROM JOINTED ROCK MASSES

3-49

3.13 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

3-49

 

3.13.1 Example Problem 1

3-50

3.13.2 Example Problem 2

3-51

3.13.3 Example Problem 3

3-52

CHAPTER 4

LOAD RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN FOR EARTH RETAINING SYSTEMS

4-1

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4-1

4.2 CONCEPT OF LIMIT STATES

4-2

4.3 COMMON LIMIT STATES IN ERS DESIGN

4-3

4.4 LOAD COMBINATIONS IN LIMIT STATES

4-3

4.5 EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE FACTORS

4-4

CHAPTER 5

CAST-IN-PLACE (CIP) GRAVITY AND SEMI-GRAVITY WALLS

5-1

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5-1

5.2 TYPES OF SEMI-GRAVITY CIP WALLS

5-3

 

5.2.1 Cantilever

5-3

5.2.2 Counterfort Walls

5-5

5.2.3 Buttress Walls

5-6

5.2.4 Other CIP Semi-Gravity Walls

5-6

5.3 WALL CONSTRUCTION

5-8

5.4 COST

 

5-9

5.5 WALL DESIGN

5-10

 

5.5.1

Steps 1, 2, and 3

5-10

5.5.2

Step 4 – Select Base Dimension

5-12

5.5.3

Step 5 – Select Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution 5-12

5.5.4

Step 6 – Evaluate Factored Loads 5-13

5.5.5

Step 7 - Evaluate Bearing Resistance

5-17

5.5.6

Step 8 – Check Eccentricity 5-19

5.5.8

Step 10 – Evaluate Overall Stability 5-21

5.5.9

Step 11 – Estimate Maximum Lateral Wall Movement, Tilt, and Wall Settlement at the

 

Service I Limit State

5-21

 

5.5.10

Step 12 – Design Wall Drainage Systems

5-23

5.6 CONSTRUCTION INSPECTION 5-29

CHAPTER 6

MODULAR GRAVITY WALLS

6-1

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6-1

6.2 CRIB WALLS

6-4

6.2.1 General

6-4

6.2.2 Wall Construction

6-4

6.2.3 Materials

6-6

6.2.4 Cost

6-7

6.3 CONCRETE MODULE WALLS

6-8

6.3.1 General

6-8

6.3.2 Wall Construction

6-8

6.3.3 Materials

6-11

6.3.4 Cost

6-11

6.4 GABION WALLS

6-12

6.4.1 General

6-12

6.4.2 Wall Construction

6-13

6.4.3 Materials

6-14

6.4.4 Cost

6-17

6.5 BIN WALLS

6-17

6.5.1 General

6-17

6.5.2 Wall Construction

6-18

6.5.3 Materials

6-23

6.5.4 Cost

6-23

6.6 MODULAR GRAVITY WALL DESIGN

6-23

6.6.1 General

6-23

6.6.2 Lateral Earth Pressures

6-25

6.6.3 Sliding

6-25

6.6.4 Limiting Eccentricity

6-27

6.6.5 Bearing Resistance

6-28

6.6.6 Structural Capacity of Wall Modules

6-29

6.6.7 Lateral and Vertical Displacements at the Service Limit State 6-29

6.6.8 Overall Stability at the Service Limit State

6-29

6.6.9 Gabion Walls

6-30

6.7 EXAMPLE PROBLEM

6-30

6.8 CONSTRUCTION INSPECTION 6-34

6.9 T-WALLS

 

6-36

 

6.9.1 Overview

6-36

6.9.2 T-Wall Construction

6-38

6.9.3 T-Wall Cost

6-38

6.9.4 T-Wall Design

6-38

CHAPTER 7

MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH WALLS

7-1

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7-1

7.2 PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF MSE WALLS

7-2

7.3 APPLICATIONS OF MSE WALLS

7-5

7.4 MATERIALS FOR MSE WALLS

7-9

 

7.4.1

Backfill Material

7-9

7.4.2

Reinforcing Elements

7-12

 

7.4.3

Wall Facing Elements

7-15

7.5 MSE WALL CONSTRUCTION

7-19

 

7.5.1 Construction of MSE Walls with Precast Facings

7-21

7.5.2 Construction of MSE Walls with Flexible Facings

7-22

7.5.3 Backfill Placement and Compaction

7-25

7.6 MSE WALL COST

 

7-27

7.7 CONSTRUCTION INSPECTION OF MSE WALLS

7-29

7.8 MSE WALL DESIGN

 

7-32

 

7.8.1 Initial Design Steps (Steps 1 through 3)

7-35

7.8.2 Strength Limit States – External Stability (Steps 4 through 8)

7-36

7.8.3 Strength Limit States – Internal Stability (Steps 9 through 13)

7-48

7.8.4 Service Limit States (Steps 14 and 15)

7-69

7.8.5 Design of Wall Drainage Systems (Step 16)

7-72

7.8.6 Additional Design Considerations

7-74

7.9 MSE WALL EXAMPLE PROBLEM

7-76

 

7.9.1 Problem

Statement

7-76

7.9.2 Solution of the Problem

7-77

CHAPTER 8

NONGRAVITY CANTILEVERED AND ANCHORED WALLS

8-1

8.1 INTRODUCTION

 

8-1

8.2 SHEET PILE WALLS

8-4

 

8.2.1 General

8-4

8.2.2 Wall Construction

8-7

8.2.3 Cost

8-12

8.2.4 Construction Inspection

8-12

8.3 SOLDIER PILE AND LAGGING WALLS 8-13

8.3.1 General

8-13

8.3.2 Wall Construction

8-17

8.3.3 Cost

8-19

8.3.4 Construction Inspection

8-19

8.4 SLURRY WALLS

8-20

8.4.1 General

8-20

8.4.2 Slurry Wall Types

8-23

8.4.3 Wall Construction

8-26

8.4.4 Cost

8-34

8.4.5 Construction Inspection

8-34

8.5 TANGENT/SECANT PILE WALLS

8-37

8.5.1 General

8-37

8.5.2 Wall Construction

8-39

8.5.3 Cost

8-40

8.5.4 Construction Inspection

8-40

8.6 JET GROUTED WALLS

8-42

8.6.1 General

8-42

8.6.2 Wall Construction

8-45

8.6.3 Cost

8-54

8.6.4

Construction Inspection

8-54

8.7 DEEP MIXING METHOD (DMM) WALLS 8-57

8.7.1 General

8-57

8.7.2 Wall Construction

8-60

8.7.3 Cost

8-64

8.7.4 Construction Inspection

8-64

8.8 GROUND ANCHORS

8-67

8.8.1 General

8-67

8.8.2 Wall Construction

8-68

8.8.3 Load Testing of Ground Anchors

8-76

8.8.4 Cost

8-84

8.8.5 Construction Inspection

8-84

8.9 DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE NONGRAVITY CANTILEVERED WALLS 8-86

8.9.1 Sheet Pile and Soldier Pile and Lagging Walls 8-86

8.9.2 Design Steps for Flexible Nongravity Cantilevered Walls

8-87

8.10 ANCHORED BULK HEAD (DEADMAN ANCHOR) WALLS

8-95

8.10.1 Overview

8-95

8.10.2 Free Earth Support

8-96

8.10.3 Fixed Earth Support

8-97

8.10.4 Deadman Anchor Systems 8-102

8.11 ANCHORED WALL DESIGN

8-102

8.11.1 Step 3: Select Corrosion Protection of Ground Anchors

8-106

8.11.2 Step 4: Select Earth Pressure Diagram

8-114

8.11.3 Step 5: Evaluate Factored Loads 8-118

8-118

8.11.5 Step 7: Evaluate Anchor Inclination 8-122

8.11.4 Step 6: Evaluate Individual Anchor Loads and Subgrade Reaction Force

8.11.6 Step 8: Select Tendon Type and Check Tensile Resistance 8-122

8.11.7 Step 9: Evaluate Anchor Bond Length

8-124

8.11.8 Step 10: Evaluate Factored Bending Moment and Flexural Resistance of Wall

8-127

8.11.9 Step 11: Evaluate Bearing Resistance of Vertical Wall Element 8-131

8.11.10 Step 12: Evaluate Overall Stability of Anchored Wall at Service Limit State 8-132

8.11.11 Step 13: Estimate Maximum Lateral Wall Movements and Settlements at the Service

8-135

8.12 DESIGN OF STIFF CANTILEVERED AND ANCHORED WALLS 8-137

8-137

8.12.2 Soil-Structure Interaction analysis Methods 8-140

Limit State

8.12.1

General

 

8.12.3 Slurry Walls

8-151

8.12.4 Tangent and Secant Pile Walls

8-152

8.12.5 Jet Grouted Walls

8-153

8.12.6 DMM Walls

8-156

8.13 DRAINAGE SYSTEMS FOR CUT WALLS

8-160

CHAPTER 9

IN-SITU REINFORCED WALLS

9-1

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9-1

9.2 SOIL NAIL WALLS

9-1

 

9.2.1

General

9-1

9.2.2

Feasibility of Soil Nails

9-3

9.2.3 Construction Materials and Methods 9-13

9.2.4 Soil Nail Corrosion Protection 9-30

9-34

9.2.5

9.2.6 Design Concepts for Soil Nails 9-35

9-72

9.2.7 Design of Soil Nail Walls

9.2.8 Soil Nail Load Testing 9-101

Cost

 

9.2.9 Construction Inspection of Soil Nail Walls

9-106

9.3

MICROPILE WALLS

9-108

9.3.1 Introduction

9-108

9.3.2 Construction Materials and Methods 9-109

 

9.3.3 Micropile Wall Design

9-112

9.3.4 Load Testing

9-114

9.3.5 Construction Inspection

9-115

CHAPTER 10

WALL SELECTION

10-1

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10-1

10.2 STEP 1: IDENTIFY NEED FOR AN EARTH RETAINING SYSTEM

10-1

10.3 STEP 2: IDENTIFY SITE CONSTRAINTS AND PROJECT REQUIREMENTS

10-2

10.4 STEP 3: EVALUATE PROJECT REQUIREMENTS AGAINST FACTORS AFFECTING WALL SELECTION

10-3

10.5 STEP 4: EVALUATE WALL ALTERNATIVES AGAINST WALL SELECTION FACTORS10-5

10.5.1 General

10-5

10.5.2 Selection Issues for Cut Wall Systems

10-5

10.5.3 Selection Issues for Fill Wall Systems 10-6

10-6

10.6 STEP 5: SELECT AN ACCEPTABLE WALL TYPE 10-14

10.7 WALL SELECTION EXAMPLE 10-14

10.8 HYBRID WALL SYSTEMS 10-19

10-19

10.8.2 Compatibility of Deformations 10-19

10-21

10.8.4 Example Hybrid Systems 10-23

10.5.4 Wall System Alternatives Evaluation

10.8.1

General

10.8.3 Overall Stability of Hybrid Systems

CHAPTER 11

CONTRACTING APPROACHES

11-1

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11-1

11.2 METHOD CONTRACTING APPROACH

11-2

 

11.2.1 Introduction

11-2

11.2.2 Contract Documents for Method Approach

11-3

11.3 PERFORMANCE CONTRACTING APPROACH

11-8

 

11.3.1 Introduction

11-8

11.3.2 Implementing Performance Contracting Approach

11-8

11.3.3 Contract Documents for Performance Approach

11-10

11.3.4 Review and Approval

11-12

11.4 CONTRACTOR DESIGN/BUILD APPROACH

11-12

11.5 RECOMMENDATIONS

11-13

11.6

SPECIFICATION RESOURCES

11-14

CHAPTER 12

REFERENCES

12-1

APPENIDX – STUDENT EXERCISES AND SOLUTIONS Active Earth Pressure Calculation Lateral Load Distribution Due to Strip Load Sliding Resistance MSE Wall Design External Stability MSE Wall Internal Stability Corrosion Calculation Apparent Earth Pressure Diagrams Single-Tier Anchored Soldier Beam and Lagging Wall Design of a Two-Tier Anchored Soldier Pile and Lagging Wall Lateral Wall Movement Soil Nail Wall Design Fill Wall Selection Cut Wall Selection

A-1

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2-1

Summary of Information Needs and Testing Considerations for Fill and Cut Wall Applications

2-3

Table 2-2

Sources of Historical Site Data

2-5

Table 2-3

In-Situ Testing Methods Used in Soil

2-8

Table 2-4

Sampling Guidelines (after WFLHD, 2004)

2-12

Table 2-5

Typical Properties of Compacted Soils (after NAVFAC, 1986)

2-27

Table 2-6

Unconfined Compressive Strength of Particles for Rockfill Grades in Figure 2-4

2-28

Table 2-7

Range of Dry Densities for Lightweight Fills (after Elias et al., 2006)

2-35

Table 2-8

Correlation between N and g of Granular Soils (after Bowles, 1988)

2-38

Table 2-9

Correlation between N and g of Cohesive Soils (after Bowles, 1988)

2-38

Table 2-10

Relationship between SPT N Value and Internal Friction angle of Granular Soils (after AASHTO

LRFD, 2007)

2-45

Table 2-11

Summary of Correlations for Cc (after Holtz and Kovacs, 1981)

2-48

Table 2-12

Casagrande Method to Evaluate σ p

2-50

Table 2-13

Description of Geological Mapping Terms

2-59

Table

2-14

Rock Material

Strengths

2-60

Table 2-15

Weathering Grades

2-60

Table 2-16

Rock Quality Description Based on Rqd

2-61

Table 2-17

Csir Classification of Jointed Rock Mass

2-64

Table 2-18

Typical Ranges of Friction angles for a Variety of Rock Types

2-71

Table 2-19

Permeability of Typical Rocks and Soils (after Wyllie and Mah, 1998)

2-79

Table 3-1

Typical Values for Equivalent Fluid Unit Weight of Soils (after AASHTO, 2007)

3-12

Table 3-2

Wall Friction and Adhesion for Dissimilar Materials (after NAVFAC, 1986)

3-22

Table 3-3

Lateral Earth and Hydrostatic Pressures at Various Depths for Example 1

3-50

Table 3-4

Computation of Lateral Earth Pressures Due to Line Load

3-54

Table 4-1

Load Combinations and Load Factors (AASHTO, 2007)

4-5

Table 4-2

Load Factors for Permanent Loads, γ P (modified after AASHTO, 2007)

4-6

Table 4-3

Values of Resistance Factors Corresponding to Different Values of Factor of Safety and Dead to

Live Load Ratios for γ DC = 1.25 and γ LL = 1.75

4-8

Table 5-1

Design Steps for Gravity and Semi-Gravity Walls

5-11

Table 5-2

Suggested Gradation for Backfill for Cantilever Semi-Gravity and Gravity Retaining Walls

5-12

Table 5-3

Inspector Responsibilities for a Typical CIP Gravity and Semi Gravity Wall Project

5-30

Table 6-1

Typical Height-Thickness Relationship for Bin Walls (after Contech)

6-18

Table 6-2

Inspector Responsibilities for a Typical Modular Gravity Wall Project

6-34

Table 7-1

Summary of Reinforcement and Face Panel Details for Selected MSE Wall Systems (after Elias

et al., 2004)

7-3

Table 7-2

Recommended Limits of Electrochemical Properties for Select Backfills When Using Steel

Reinforcement

7-10

Table 7-3

Recommended Limits of Electrochemical Properties for Select Backfills When Using

Geosynthetic Reinforcements

7-11

Table 7-4

MSE Wall Field Inspection Checklist

7-30

Table 7-5

Design Steps for MSE Walls

7-34

Table 7-6

Minimum Embedment Requirements for MSE Walls (after AASHTO, 2007)

7-36

Table 7-7

Typical Values for a (after AASHTO, 2007)

7-58

Table 7-8

Resistance Factors for Tensile Resistance (after AASHTO, 2007)

7-62

Table 7-9

Installation Damage Reduction Factors (after Elias, 2000)

7-67

Table 7-10

Creep Reduction Factors (RFCR)

7-67

Table 7-11

Aging Reduction Factors (RFD) for PET

7-68

Table 7-12

Relationship between Joint Width and Limiting Differential Settlements for MSE Precast Panels

(after Elias et al., 2001)

7-71

Table 7-13

Equivalent Height of Soil for Vehicular Loading (after AASHTO, 2007)

7-79

Table 7-14

Summary of Unfactored Vertical Loads and Moment Arms for Design Example

7-80

Table 7-15

Summary of Unfactored Horizontal Loads and Moment Arms for Design Example

7-80

Table 7-16

Load Factors and Load Combinations

7-80

Table 7-17

Factored Vertical Loads and Moments

7-81

Table 7-18

Factored Horizontal Loads and Moments

7-81

Table 7-19

Summary for Eccentricity Check

7-81

Table 7-20

Summary for Checking Bearing Resistance

7-84

Table 8-1

Inspector Responsibilities for a Typical Sheet Pile Wall Project

8-12

Table 8-2

Inspector Responsibilities for a Typical Soldier Pile and Lagging Wall Project

8-19

Table 8-3

Inspector Responsibilities for a Typical Slurry Wall Project

8-35

Table 8-4

Inspector Responsibilities for a Typical Tangent/Secant Pile Wall Project

8-41

Table 8-5

Inspector Responsibilities for a Typical Jet-Grouted Wall Project

8-56

Table 8-6

Inspector Responsibilities for Typical DMM Walls

8-65

Table 8-7

Example of QA/QC Testing Program for DMM Walls

8-66

Table 8-8

Load Schedule and Observation Periods for Extended Creep Test for Permanent Anchor

8-79

Table 8-9

Inspector Responsibilities for Ground Anchors and Anchored Walls

8-85

Table 8-10

Design Steps for Flexible Nongravity Cantilevered Walls

8-88

Table 8-11

Recommended Thickness of Wood Lagging (after Goldberg et al., 1976)

8-94

Table 8-12

Bending Moments for Facing Design (AASHTO, 2007)

8-95

Table 8-13

Design Steps for Anchored Walls

8-105

Table 8-14

Criteria for Electrochemical Properties of Soils for Ground Anchor Applications

(after Cheney, 1988)

8-113

Table 8-15

Properties of Prestressing Steel Bars (ASTM A722)

8-123

Table 8-16

Properties of 0.6 in. Diameter Prestressing Steel Strands (ASTM A416, Grade 270)

8-123

Table 8-17

Guidance Relationship between Tendon Size and Trumpet Opening Size

(after Sabatini et al., 1999)

8-124

Table 8-18

Presumptive (Nominal) Bond Stress for Ground/Grout Interface Along Anchor Bond Zone

(after PTI, 1996)

8-128

Table 8-19

Cutoff Functions and Watertightness of Excavation Walls (after ASCE, 1997)

8-148

Table 8-20

Summary of System Variables and their Impact on Basic Design Elements

8-154

Table 8-21

Typical Range of Jet Grouting Parameters and Jet-Grouted Soil Properties

(adapted from Kauschinger and Welsh, 1989)

8-155

Table 8-22

Range of Typical Soilcrete Strengths (Three Fluid System) (after Elias et al., 2006)

8-156

Table 8-23

Typical Improved Engineering Characteristics of Soils Treated with DMM (Wet Mix)

(after Elias et al., 2006)

8-157

Table 9-1

Criteria for Assessing Ground Corrosion Potential

9-31

Table 9-2

Recommendations for Minimum Levels of Corrosion Protection for Soil Nails

9-33

Table 9-3

Estimated Ultimate Bond Strength of Soil Nails in Soil and Rock (after Elias and Juran, 1991)

9-47

Table 9-4

Factors C F (after Lazarte, 2003)

9-56

Table 9-5

Values of (δ h /H) i and C As Functions of Soil Conditions

9-68

Table 9-6

Design Steps for Soil Nail Walls

9-72

Table 9-7

Minimum Recommended Factors of Safety for the Design of Soil Nail Walls Using the ASD

Method (after Lazarte, 2003)

9-73

Table 9-8

Variable Parameters Used in Design Charts (Lazarte et al., 2003)

9-87

Table

9-9

Threaded Bar Properties

9-90

Table 9-10

Welded Wire Mesh Dimensions (after WRI, 2001)

9-94

Table 9-11

Headed-Stud Dimensions (Metric and English Units) (after Byrne et al., 1996)

9-96

Table 9-12

Facing Resistance for Various Failure Modes (after Lazarte et al., 2003)

9-98

Table 9-13

Soil Nail Load Test Types

9-102

Table 9-14

Inspector Responsibilities for a Typical Soil Nail Wall

9-106

Table 9-15

Inspector Responsibilities for a Typical Micropile Wall Project

9-115

Table 10-1

Wall Selection Factors

10-4

Table 10-2

Summary of Evaluation Factors for Cut Walls (after Sabatini et al., 1997)

10-7

Table 10-3

Summary of Evaluation Factors for Fill Walls (after Sabatini et al., 1997)

10-8

Table 10-4

Summary of Cut Wall Costs

10-15

Table 10-5

Summary of Fill Wall Costs

10-15

Table 10-6

Initial Rating of Each Wall Selection Factor for Each Wall Alternative

10-18

Table 10-7

Wall Selection Matrix and Total Score of Each Wall Alternative

10-20

Table 11-1

Identified Sources for Wall Specifications

11-15

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1-1

Schematic of a Retaining Wall and Common Terminology

1-1

Figure 1-2

Variety of Retaining Walls (after O’Rourke and Jones, 1990)

1-3

Figure 1-3

Classification of Earth Retaining Systems (after O’Rourke and Jones, 1990)

1-6

Figure 2-1

Boring Layout for Anchored Wall

2-6

Figure 2-2

Drained Stress-Strain Behavior

2-16

Figure 2-3

Mohr-Coulomb

Failure Criteria

2-16

Figure 2-4

Typical Ranges of Friction angle for Rockfills, Gravels, and Sands (after Terzaghi et al., 1996)

2-28

Figure 2-5

Correlation between Drained Friction angle and the Dry Unit Weight, Relative Density, and Soil

Classification (after NAVFAC, 1986)

2-29

Figure 2-6

Example Shear Strength Property Evaluation for Clayey Backfill

2-30

Figure 2-7

Classification Chart for Swelling Potential (after Seed et al., 1962)

2-36

Figure 2-8

Test Data from Triaxial Compression Test with Pore Pressure Measurements

2-40

Figure 2-9

Plasticity Based VST Correction Factors

2-41

Figure 2-10

Relationship between φ’ and PI (after Terzaghi et al., 1996)

2-43

Figure 2-11

Residual Friction angles for Clayey Soils (after Stark and Eid, 1994)

2-43

Figure 2-12

Friction Angle of Cohesionless Soils (a) from Uncorrected SPT N Values (modified after Peck,

Hanson, and Thornburn 1974) and (b) As a Function of Normalized Overburden (modified after Schmertmann, 1975)

2-45

Figure 2-13

Correlation of φ’ with Normalized CPT q t Data in Clean Sands

2-46

Figure 2-14

Definition of Cc, Cr, Cs, and σ p ’ (Sabatini et al., 2002)

2-47

Figure 2-15

Illustration of Casagrande Method to Evaluate Preconsolidation Stress

2-50

Figure 2-16

Evaluation of Cα

2-53

Figure 2-17

Range of Hydraulic Conductivity Values Based on Soil Type (after Holtz and Kovacs, 1981)

2-55

Figure 2-18

Range of Hydraulic Conductivity Based on Grain Size (after Geosyntec, 1991)

2-56

Figure 2-19

Illustration of Geological Mapping Terms (after Wyllie, 1999, Foundations on Rock, Figure 4.4b,

p. 101, E&Fn Spon)

2-57

Figure 2-20

List of Parameters and Categories Describing Rock Mass Characteristics (after Wyllie, 1999)

2-58

Figure 2-21

Calculation of Core Recovery and ROD

2-62

Figure 2-22

General Chart for GSI Estimates from Geological Observations (after Marinos et al., 2004)

2-67

Figure 2-23

GSI Estimates for Heterogeneous Rock Masses (after Marinos et al., 2004)

2-68

Figure 2-24

Point Load Strength Test Equipment

2-70

Figure 2-25

Definition of Joint Roughness Coefficient, JRC (after Barton, 1973)

2-74

Figure 2-26

Simplified Division of Filled Discontinuities into Displaced, and Normally Consolidated and

Overconsolidated Categories (after Wyllie, 1999)

2-75

Figure 2-27

RocLab Window to Select Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Intact Rock

2-76

Figure 2-28

RocLab Window to Select GSI

2-77

Figure 2-29

RocLab Window to Select m i Value

2-78

Figure 2-30

Shear Strength Parameters for Weathered Shale Using RocLab Software

2-79

Figure 2-31

Influence of Joint Openings and Joint Spacing on the Permeability of Rocks

(after Hoek and Bray, 1977)

2-80

Figure 3-1

Magnitudes and Patterns of Movement to Develop Lateral Earth Pressures

(after Sabatini et al., 1997)

3-3

Figure 3-2

Mobilization of Rankine Active and Passive Horizontal Pressures for a Smooth Retaining Wall

3-4

Figure 3-3

Limiting Active and Passive Horizontal Pressures

3-4

Figure 3-4

(a) Wall Pressures for a Cohesionless Soil; and (b) Wall Pressures for Soil with a Cohesion

Intercept (after Padfield and Mair, 1984)

3-7

Figure 3-5

Coulomb Coefficients Ka and Kp for Sloping Wall with Wall Friction and Sloping Backfill

(after NAVFAC, 1986)

3-9

Figure 3-6

Wall Friction on Soil Wedges (after Padfield and Mair, 1984)

3-10

Figure 3-7

Comparison of Plane and Curved (Log-Spiral) Failure Surfaces (a) Active Case and

(b) Passive Case (after Sokolovski, 1954)

3-12

Figure 3-8

Earth Pressure Immediately after Loading (after Padfield and Mair, 1984)

3-15

Figure 3-9

Effect of Wall Movement on Wall Pressures (after Canadian Foundation Engineering

Manual, 1992)

3-19

Figure 3-10

Simplified Drained Stress-Displacement Relationship for a Stiff Clay (modified after

Padfield and Mair, 1984)

3-20

Figure 3-11

Passive Coefficients for Sloping Wall with Wall Friction and Horizontal Backfill (Caquot and

Kerisel, 1948; NAVFAC, 1986)

3-25

Figure 3-12

Passive Coefficients for Vertical Wall with Wall Friction and Sloping Backfill (Caquot and

Kerisel, 1948; NAVFAC, 1986)

3-26

Figure 3-13

Pressure Distribution for Stratified Soils

3-27

Figure 3-14

Cross Section of Model Wall (modified after Mueller et al., 1998)

3-28

Figure 3-15

Lateral Wall Movements and Earth Pressures with Excavation at First Anchor Level (Cantilever

Stage) (modified after Mueller et al., 1998)

3-29

Figure 3-16

Lateral Wall Movements and Earth Pressures During Anchor Stressing (modified after

Mueller et al., 1998)

3-30

Figure 3-17

Lateral Wall Movements and Earth Pressures with Excavation at Lower Anchor Level

(modified after Mueller et al., 1998)

3-31

Figure 3-18

Lateral Wall Movements and Earth Pressures with Excavation at Design Grade

(modified after Mueller et al., 1998)

3-31

Figure 3-19

Apparent Earth Pressure Diagram for Anchored Wall in Sand

3-33

Figure 3-20

Computation of Lateral Pressures for Static Groundwater Case

3-33

Figure 3-21

Flow Net for a Retaining Wall (after Padfield and Mair, 1984)

3-34

Figure 3-22

Gross and Net Water Pressures Across a Retaining Wall (modified after

Padfield and Mair, 1984)

3-35

Figure 3-23

(a) Retaining Wall with Uniform Surcharge Load and (b) Retaining Wall with Line Loads

(see Railway Tracks) and Point Loads (see Catenary Structure)

3-38

Figure 3-24

Lateral Pressure Due to Surcharge Loadings (after USS Steel Sheet-Pile Manual, 1975)

3-39

Figure 3-25

Typical Residual Earth Pressure after Compaction of Backfill Behind an Unyielding Wall

(after Clough and Duncan, 1991)

3-40

Figure 3-26

Estimation of “Silo” Pressures

3-42

Figure 3-27

Seismic Forces Behind a Gravity Wall

3-43

Figure 3-28

Effects of Seismic Coefficients and Friction angle on Seismic Active Pressure Coefficient

(after Lam and Martin, 1986)

3-45

Figure 3-29

Example Problem 1 Geometry and Soil Conditions

3-50

Figure 3-30

(a) Lateral Effective Earth Pressure Diagram and (b) Water Pressure Diagram

3-51

Figure 3-31

Pressure Diagrams for Example Problem 2

3-52

Figure 3-32

Geometry of Example Problem 3

3-52

Figure 3-33

Lateral Pressure with Depth Due to Line Load

3-54

Figure 4-1

Equations Used to Relate LRFD Resistance Factor to ASD FS (after Samtani, 2007)

4-6

Figure 5-1

Cast-in-Place Gravity Wall

5-2

Figure 5-2

Cast-in-Place (CIP) Concrete Retaining Walls and Terminology (a) Cantilever Wall (Bowles,

1988); (b) Counterfort Wall; and (c) Buttress Wall (Teng, 1962)

5-3

Figure 5-3

Common Proportions of Cantilever Walls (after Teng, 1962)

5-4

Figure 5-4

CIP Cantilever Retaining Wall

5-4

Figure 5-5

Common Proportions of Counterfort Walls (after Teng, 1962)

5-5

Figure 5-6

CIP Counterfort Wall Construction in a Cut Application

5-6

Figure 5-7

Other Types of Cast-in-Place (CIP) Walls: (a) Fill Wall with Limited Row, (b) Cut Wall with

Limited Row, and (c) U-Wall for Depressed Roadway

5-7

Figure 5-8

CIP U-Wall for Depressed Roadway

5-8

Figure 5-9

Strength Limit States for Rigid Gravity and Semi-Gravity Walls

5-10

Figure 5-10

CIP Abutment with Integral Wingwalls

5-13

Figure 5-11

Typical Application of Load Factors for Eccentricity and Sliding

5-14

Figure 5-12

Typical Application of Load Factors for Bearing Resistance

5-14

Figure 5-13

Example CIP Wall with Traffic Barrier

5-16

Figure 5-14

Computation of Barrier Load at Footing Level

5-16

Figure 5-15

Loading and Eccentricity for Walls Founded on Soil

5-18

Figure 5-16

Loading and Eccentricity for Walls Founded on Rock

5-19

Figure 5-17

Typical Modes of Global Stability (after Bowles, 1988)

5-22

Figure 5-18

Typical Movement of Pile Supported Cast-in-Place (CIP) Wall with Soft Foundation

5-23

Figure 5-19

Potential Sources of Subsurface Water

5-25

Figure 5-20

Typical Retaining Wall Drainage Alternatives (after Sabatini et al., 1997)

5-25

Figure 5-21

Inclined Drain for Reducing Water Pressure Behind Wall (after Cedergren, 1989)

5-26

Figure 5-22

Drains Behind Backfill in Cantilever Wall in a Cut Situation

5-27

Figure 6-1

Modular Gravity Walls (a) Metal Bin Wall; (b) Precast Concrete Crib Wall; (c) Precast Concrete

Module Wall; and (d) Gabion Wall (after AASHTO, 2007)

6-1

Figure 6-2

Examples of Modular Gravity Wall Applications (after Contech, 1997)

6-3

Figure 6-3

Crib Walls (a) Uniform Cross-Section; (b) Stepped Cross-Section; and (c) Typical Details of a

Reinforced Concrete Crib Wall (after HKGEO, 1993)

6-5

Figure 6-4

Setting Precast Elements for an Open Faced Crib Wall

6-6

Figure 6-5

Concrete Module Wall (a) Typical Section; (b) Typical Module; and (c) Precast Parapet (after

Doublewal Corporation)

6-9

Figure 6-6

Construction of Concrete Module Wall (a) Placement of Precast Modules; (b) Placing Fill Within

the Modules; and (c) Compacting the Infill Material (after Doublewal Corp.)

6-10

Figure 6-7

Gabion Baskets (a) Module Without Diaphragms and (b) Module with Diaphragms

6-13

Figure 6-8

Gabion Wall Construction (a) Filling Gabion Baskets with Stone and (b) Closing Gabion Lid

for Tying

6-15

Figure 6-9

Typical Geometry of Type 2 Bin Wall (a) Plan, (b) Elevation and (c) Section a-a

(after Contech)

6-19

Figure 6-10

Elements of Bin Walls (a) T-Shaped Vertical Connector for Bin Wall Type 2 and

(b) Channel Shaped Vertical Connector for Bin Wall Type 1(after Contech)

6-20

Figure 6-11a

Construction of a Bin Wall (a) Setting Preassembled Panels and (b) Filling the Completed Bins

(after Contech)

6-21

Figure 6-11b

Construction of a Bin Wall (a) Setting Preassembled Panels and (b) Filling the Completed Bins

(after Contech)

6-21

Figure 6-12

Construction of Bin Walls at Curves (a) Typical Outside Corner; and (b) Typical Inside Corner

(after Contech)

6-22

Figure 6-13

Bin Wall with (a) Corrugated Steel Face Panels; and (b) Precast Concrete Face Panels

(after Contech)

6-24

Figure 6-14

Earth Pressure Distribution for Modular Walls with Continuous Pressure Surfaces

(Figure 3.11.5.9-1 from AASHTO, 2007)

6-26

Figure 6-15

Earth Pressure Distribution for Modular Walls with Irregular Pressure Surfaces

(Figure 3.11.5.9-2 from AASHTO, 2007)

6-27

Figure 6-16

Load Distribution for Modular Wall with Footings

6-28

Figure 6-17

Geometry and Parameters of Example Problem

6-31

Figure 6-18

Vertically Installed T-Wall Units (after The Neel Company, 2004)

6-36

Figure 6-19

Battered T-Wall Units (after The Neel Company, 2004)

6-37

Figure 7-1

Principal Components of a Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall (after Christopher, et al., 1990)

7-2

Figure 7-2

Examples of MSE Wall Applications (a) Retaining Wall; (b) Access Ramp; (c) Waterfront

Structure; and (d) Bridge Abutment

7-6

Figure 7-3

Examples of MSE Walls

7-7

Figure 7-4

Metallic Reinforcements (a) Ribbed Metal Strip and (b) Welded Bar Mat

7-13

Figure 7-5

Geosynthetic Reinforcements (a) Geogrid and (b) Geotextile Facing

7-14