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Amedeo Modigliani

(n. 12 iulie 1884, Livorno - d. 24 ianuarie 1920, Paris) a fost un pictor i sculptor
italian stabilit n Frana, reprezentant al "colii Pariziene" ("cole de Paris"), evideniat
n scurta sa via printr-o creaie plin de elegan i rafinament, care depete
graniele manierismului. Toat viaa sa Modigliani este n cutarea frumuseii perfecte,
uor abstracte, care s reprezinte sinteza idealului visat cu concretul, reprezentat de
model. Tema preferat a tablourilor sale este omul: nudurile de femei, portretele
prietenilor i ale unor necunoscui.
Amedeo Modigliani se nate la 12 iulie 1884 n Livorno, ntr-o familie italian de
origine evreiasc sefard. Tatl, Flaminio Modigliani, era un negustor originar
din Roma. Primii si ani, Amedeo i-a trit ntr-o atmosfer grea, cu privaiuni, firma
tatlui dduse faliment. Totui, cea mai important problem, este sntatea sa
ubred. La vrsta de unsprezece ani contracteaz o afeciune pulmonar grav, trei
ani mai trziu, n anul 1898, cade greu bolnav de tifos. Descoper n acest timp pictura
i o roag pe mama lui s i permit s ia lecii de desen. Din august 1898, tnrul
Modigliani frecventeaz atelierul pictoruluiGuglielmo Micheli din Livorno, unde execut
naturi moarte i portrete. Dup o nou agravare a sntii, i petrece iarna n clima
blnd a oraelor Napoli i Amalfi. nsntoit, Amedeo se nscrie n 1902 la "coala de
Nuduri" din Florena ("Scuola libera di Nudo"), condus de maestrul Giovanni Fattori iar,
un an mai trziu, frecventeaz cursurile "Institutului de Arte Frumoase" din Veneia.
La nceputul anului 1906, Modigliani se hotrte s se stabileasc la Paris, unde se
nscrie la "Acadmie Colarossi" i i gsete o locuin n cartierul Montmartre.
Modigliani, personaj pitoresc, ntr-o hain reiat, cu un fular rou n jurul gtului i
plrie cu boruri largi, este un obinuit al bistro-urilor i barurilor din mprejurimi. Aici
cunoate avangarda artistic, printre care Pablo Picasso, Juan Gris sau Diego Rivera,
precum i scriitorii Andr Salmon, Guillaume Apollinaire i Max Jacob. n perioada de
nceput, stilul su nu este nc definit iar uurina execuiei i lipsete, lucrrile sale
oscileaz ntre expresionism,fauvism i pastiarea lui Toulouse-Lautrec. Un admirator al
su, doctorul Paul Alexandre, l susine i l convinge s-i expedieze lucrrile la
"Salonul Artitilor Independeni", unde, n martie 1908, Modigliani va expune ase
tablouri.


Amedeo Modigliani -Cariatid (sculptur), 1914
n septembrie 1909, Modigliani se mut din Montmartre n Cit Falguire, un cartier
al Parisului din secolul al XIV-lea, unde Constantin Brncui, cu care ntre timp se
mprietenise, i gsise un atelier. Nu nceteaz s picteze, dar majoritatea timpului o va
consacra noii sale pasiuni, sculptura. Expune un numr de apte sculpturi i guae la o
expoziie deschis n martie 1911 n atelierul artistuluiportughez Amadeo de Souza
Cardoso iar n anul urmtor, 1912, Modigliani dobndete recunoaterea ca sculptor la
al "X-lea Salon de Toamn", unde se prezint cu alte apte lucrri.
Se ntmpla ns adeseori ca Modigliani s nu-i termine sculpturile, probabil din cauza
sntii firave, dar i ndoielilor artistice care-l tulburau. Extenuat din cauza efortului i
rmas fr mijloace de subzisten, pleac s se refac n casa printeasc
din Livorno.
Dup ce revine la Paris, se apuc din nou s picteze. Execut n special portrete la
comand, rapid, n timpul unei singure edine. i folosete acum n pictur propriile
experiene din domeniul sculpturii; datorit acestora reuete s redea, ntr-un desen
desvrit, forma chipurilor umane.


Amedeo Modigliani - Femeie cu cravat neagr, 1917
Prin Max Jacob l va cunoate n anul 1914 pe Paul Guillaume, colecionar i negustor
de art, care i achiziioneaz mai multe tablouri. O legtur furtunoas a lui Amedeo cu
ziarista i poeta englez Beatrice Hastingsdureaz doi ani. Se despart n anul 1916,
cnd sntatea artistului ncepe din nou s se deterioreze. n aceast perioad,
Modigliani l cunoate pe poetul polonez Leopold Zborowski, care devine prietenul su
fidel, ngrijitorul i negustorul lui exclusiv i i pune la dispoziie cea mai mare ncpere
din locuina sa.
n aprilie 1917, la o petrecere de carnaval, Amedeo o cunoate pe Jeanne Hbuterne, o
student la "Acadmie Colarossi" n vrst de nousprezece ani, i se ndrgostete
nebunete de ea. Zborowski i ajut s se mute mpreun i i organizeaz lui
Modigliani prima expoziie individual: 32 de pnze expuse la galeria "Berthe Weill".


Amedeo Modigliani - Nud eznd, 1916
n ziua vernisajului, pe 3 decembrie 1917, poliia reine cteva nuduri ca fiind
"imorale". Nu reuete ns s vnd nici mcar un singur tablou.
Starea de sntate a lui Amadeo se nrutete, graie ajutorului lui Zborowski, pleac
n toamna lui 1918 la Nisa, n sudul Franei, unde Jeanne d natere unei fetie. i
prelungesc ederea n sud pn la sfritul lunii mai 1919. ntors la Paris, n atelierul
su din "Rue de la Grande Chaumire", Modigliani picteaz acum portrete ale
prietenilor si. Se simte tot mai ru. Este diagnosticat cu o
inflamaie tuberculoas a meningelor i este internat n spitalul "Charit", dar nu mai
exist nicio speran. Amedeo Modigliani moare la 24 ianuarie 1920. Avea doar treizeci
i ase de ani.
Din opera lui Modigliani[


Amedeo Modigliani - Portretul lui Jeanne Hbuterne, 1918-19
Lui Modigliani i-au plcut cu precdere dou genuri de pictur: portretul i nudul. n
portrete reuete remarcabil s surprind personalitatea modelului. Indiferent de faptul
c portretizeaz persoane cunoscute sau anonime, l intereseaz exclusiv omul i
sentimentele lui. n special n ultimii ani ai vieii, a pictat portretele prietenilor si Max
Jacob, Paul Guillaume, Leopold Zborowski, Lunia Czechowska, nenumrate versiuni
ale lui Jeanne Hbuterne precum i singurul lui autoportret (1919). Modigliani alungete
chipurile, deseneaz gturile, manifestnd nclinaie spre geometrizare i, asemenea
creatorilor de mti, "sculpteaz" cu ndrzneal nasuri abia schiate dup modelul
stilizrilor africane.
Aceeai atmosfer de melancolie vistoare i linite a sufletului pe care o ntlnim n
portrete caracterizeaz i nudurile sale de femei.


PORTRETUL
LUI MAUDE ABRANTES
Aceasta picture este una dintre primiele lucrari. Exista mult mai multe detalii in aceasta
picture decat in cele ce vor urma. Este caracterizata prin linii simple si cateva trasaturi
ce se discern in fundal.

MADAME POMPADOUR
1914
Este unul dintre cele mai clbre portrete ale lui Modigliani. Tabolul reprezinta o femeie,
Hastings, cu care artistul a avut o realtie timp de 2 ani, si i-a servit drept portret petrnu
multe dintre picturile sale. Portretul ilustreaza stilul artistului in a transforma fetele intr-o
masca (o imagine) precum si alungirea formei corpului, in acest caz un gat exagerat de
lung si de subtire.




Amedeo Modigliani - Nud culcat, 1917
Nudul devine n anul 1917 tema preferat a lui Modigliani. Pictorul respect n el
realitatea mai mult dect n portrete. Modigliani este n esen marcat de arta italian
clasic i acest aspect al temperamentului su artistic transpare n cutarea
expresieinaturaliste i a ritmicitii liniei trupului. n tabloul reprodus aici, "Nud culcat",
folosete o culoare groas i tonuri calde, ocrul cu reflexe portocalii se nvecineaz cu
cafeniul, viiniul cu verdele. Pielea aurie a modelului se evideniaz pe aternutul de un
rou nchis i pe verdele intens al pernei. Gestul de desfacere a braelor pare s fie din
parte femeii care pozeaz o expresie a druirii totale ochilor privitorului.
Amedeo Modigliani nu a avut predecesori direci i nici urmai, arta sa i aparine n
exclusivitate. Aceast particularitate vorbete despre valorile i frumuseea operei sale.
Dup anul 1910, Pablo Picasso va mprumuta ceva din tehnica artistului italian.
Patruzeci de ani mai trziu,Bernard Buffet realizeaz opere ale cror linii ferme, gam
cromatic restrns i sim al spaiului ne poart cu gndul la creaia lui Modigliani.

FEMEIA CU PALARIA DE PAIE
The main influences on Modigliani would be the work of:


Portrait of Chaim Soutine
Toulouse-Lautrec
Toulouse-Lautrec is most famous for his drawing and the way the contours
would be suggestive and completely define his subject. This approach is
actually also in line with the Italian tradition and to Modigliani the work of
Toulouse-Lautrec must have seemed as a contemporary confirmation of
artistic principles he was already familiar with.
Czanne
Nearly every avant garde artist in Paris would refer to Czanne for the way
he had made the first moves in the direction of abstract art by reducing
forms to elementary geometric shapes (cubes, spheres, cylinders etc.) and
in the way he would flatten his images.
Brancusi
The sculpture of Rumanian artist Brancusi would re-ignite Modigliani's love
of sculpture and would greatly influence the way he would depict the
human figure.

Portrait of Hanka Zborowska
European classical art
Italy possesses a massive collection of European art from all ages, much of
which Modigliani was familiar with, in particular the Byzantine cariatides.
In spite of his desire to "leave behind everything that is old and rotten",
Modigliani would remain faithful to his classicist roots, resulting in a style
that is a remarkable mix of abstract art and classicism.
Non-European art
Modigliani was greatly influenced by African art, to which many of his
deformations of the human figure are due, most notably the elongation of
faces. He was also interested in Cambodian (Khmer) sculpture.
Pablo Picasso
Modigliani had a deep respect for Picasso as an artist. He used some
aspects of Picasso's cubism, and the way Picasso would depict his artistic
friends during his blue period would remain one of the main themes in
Modigliani's own work. When Picasso lost a close friend, he expressed his
grief in a series of paintings, which besides genuine expressions of
mourning, also contain an element of (post-)adolescent pathos and are in
a sense a celebration of lifestyle. While artistically much more mature than
Picasso's blue period, Modigliani's paintings of his art-friends lack
Picasso's motivation (the suicide of his friend) and rather than a real life
tragedy, they express the discontentment and boredom of a group of
young bohemians. They do however, reveal Modigliani's unique artistic
temperament, which we will get to later.


Jeanne Hbuterne with straw hat
More than anything, Modigliani was a portraitist and it is this author's
belief that the way he drew and painted the human face motivated Picasso
in such a way that he would eventually come to the "Picasso style", which
would make him the most celebrated artist of the 20th century. As an
artist I have found that, on trying to reduce Picasso's style to it's essence,
what one comes up with is Modigliani's style, as least as far as the drawing
is concerned. Picasso's style is a fascinating synthesis of many of the
important styles in modern art, in which he "borrowed" from many of his
contempories, and in Modigliani's case he would borrow from a man who
had initially borrowed from him.
If you look at Picasso's painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon then you'll see
faces that are crude, and made that even the artistic avant garde would
doubt his sanity. It was Modigliani who introduced subtlety to abstract
portraiture and it took Picasso decades to construct his version of a mature
style of abstract portraiture, which had come naturally to Modigliani.
One of the best examples of Modigliani's style is his painting Jeanne
Hbuterne wearing a straw hat. One of the key-elements of
Modigliani's portraitism were the slanted heads, derived from
Byzantine cariatides. However, the eyes and mouth are almost
horizontal and the curvature of the nose makes it almost vertical.
Regardless of these artefacts, the portrait is still as subtle and
descriptive as a figurative portrait but has the directness and
expression of abstract art. The portrait's subtlety is due to
Modigliani's unique talent, but it's essence, the facial construction is
one of the most important artistic inventions of modern art.
Picasso would go on schematize Modigliani's facial constructions,
which would become the key-element of his own style and what
people associate Picasso with, today. This schematized version of
Modigliani's style would prove to be far more copyable and hence of
far greater direct influence, but would never attain Modigliani's
artistic maturity and subtlety, nor would it result in portraits that
accurately resembled the subject, as Modigliani's portraits did.
Put in sportive terms: Picasso was the most successful center-
forward in the history of art, scoring goals from other people's
assists, especially Modigliani's. If this sound negative, bear in mind
that one has to admire Picasso for his massive intelligence and his
uncanning ability to analyze the work of other artists and to come to
a style that summarizes modern art, providing an ideal stepping
stone for his successors.