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EAS 3312

AEROELASTICITY

ASSIGNMENT 2



Q1_i. Determine the flutter speed flow chart

Figure 1: Flow Chart


Q1_ii. Determine the flutter speed

The flutter speed was determined by looking at the damping ratio data.

Figure 2: Graph of frequencies and damping vs. speed
Flutter speed = 63 m/s as one of the mode of damping reach zero.
From the graph we could see that one of the modes of damping ratio is touching zero in increasing of air
speed. The wing is losing its ability to damp as the airspeed increase. Thus, we could say that the wing
will start to flutter when the damping ratio is reaching zero upwards.

Q1_iii. Varying the position of the flexural axis on the flutter speed

Figure 3: Flutter speed vs. Flexural axis position graph

The graphs shows that the increment of flexural axis position from the leading edge will decrease the
flutter speed.










Q1_iv. M_theta_dot vary with flutter speed


Figure 4: Flutter speed vs M_theta_dot graph











Q2_i. Determine flutter speed using k method flow chart

Figure 5: Flowchart


Q2_i. Determine flutter speed using k method

Figure 6: Vg graph

Flutter speed = 68.34 m/s as it reach zero of g.
From comparison the value is different for different methods. The value from k method shows that the
flutter speed is much higher. This may come from the way of solving is by not using extrapolation. Thus,
the value may give a big different. We could conclude that all above solution should use extrapolation
technique to give more accurate results.









Appendix
Q1_ii, Q1_iii, Q2_ii
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% START
clc; clear all; clear variable;

% GIVEN PARAMETER

m = 100; %kg/m^2
c = 2; %m
s = 7.5; %m
x_cm = 0.5*c;
x_f = 0.5*c;
e = (x_f/c)-0.25;
% k_kappa = 1.2277e7; %Nm/rad
% k_theta = 7.2758e5; %Nm/rad
ro = 1.225; %kg/m^3
M_theta_dot = -1.2;
aw = 2*pi;
b = c/2;

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Q1_ii DETERMINE THE CRITICAL FLUTTER SPEED
% MATRIX

I_k = (m*s^3*c)/3;
I_k_theta = ((m*s^2)/2)*((c^2)/2-c*x_f);
I_theta = m*s*((c^3)/3-c^2*x_f+c*x_f^2);

betha = 108;
k_kappa = ((((betha)^(1/2))/2)^2)*2*pi*I_k %Nm/rad
k_theta = (((betha)^(1/2))^2)*2*pi*I_theta%Nm/rad

A = [I_k I_k_theta
I_k_theta I_theta];

B(1,1) = (c*s^3*aw)/6;
B(1,2) = 0;
B(2,1) = -(e*c^2*s^2*aw)/4;
B(2,2) = -(c^3*s*M_theta_dot)/8;

C(1,1) = 0;
C(1,2) = (c*s^2*aw)/4;
C(2,1) = 0;
C(2,2) = -(e*c^2*s*aw)/2;

D = [k_kappa 0
0 k_theta];

ii = 1;
for v = 1:1:80;

% DETERMINE THE LAMBDA
Q = [zeros(2) eye(2)
-inv(A)*(ro*v^2*C+D) -inv(A)*(ro*v*B)];

Lambda = eig(Q);


for u = 1:4;

%SOLVE FOR THE DAMPING AND FREQ

im_Lambda(u) = imag(Lambda(u));
re_Lambda(u) = real(Lambda(u));
omega(u,ii) = sqrt(re_Lambda(u)^2+im_Lambda(u)^2);
damp(u,ii) = -100*re_Lambda(u)/omega(u,ii);
freq(u,ii) = omega(u,ii)/(2*pi);

end
x(ii) = v;

ii = ii+1;

end

% Plot frequencies and dampings vs speed

figure(1)
subplot(2,1,1); plot(x,freq,'k');
vaxis = axis; xlim = ([0 vaxis(2)]);
xlabel ('Air Speed (m/s) '); ylabel ('Freq (Hz)'); grid

subplot(2,1,2);
plot(x,damp,'k')
xlim = ([0 vaxis(2)]); axis([xlim ylim]);
xlabel ('Air Speed (m/s) '); ylabel ('Damping Ratio (%)'); grid

tt=1;

for ii=1:4;
for uu=1:1:numel(damp(1,:));

if damp(ii,uu)<=0

vflutter(tt) = x(uu);

tt=tt+1;
end
end

end
vf=min(vflutter)



%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Q1_iii EFFECT OF VARYING THE POSITION OF FLEXURAL AXIS ON THE FLUTTER SPEED

qq = 1;
for x_f1 = 0.1*c:0.01*c:1*c;

e = (x_f1/c)-0.25;

I_k = (m*s^3*c)/3;
I_k_theta = ((m*s^2)/2)*(c^2/2-c*x_f1);
I_theta = m*s*(c^3/3-c^2*x_f1+c*x_f1^2);

A = [I_k I_k_theta
I_k_theta I_theta];

B(1,1) = (c*s^3*aw)/6;
B(1,2) = 0;
B(2,1) = -(e*c^2*s^2*aw)/4;
B(2,2) = -(c^3*s*M_theta_dot)/8;

C(1,1) = 0;
C(1,2) = (c*s^2*aw)/4;
C(2,1) = 0;
C(2,2) = -(e*c^2*s*aw)/2;

D = [k_kappa 0
0 k_theta];

ii = 1;

for v1 = 1:1:180;

% DETERMINE THE LAMBDA
Q = [zeros(2) eye(2)
-inv(A)*(ro*v1^2*C+D) -inv(A)*(ro*v1*B)];

Lambda = eig(Q);


for u = 1:4;

%SOLVE FOR THE DAMPING AND FREQ

im_Lambda(u) = imag(Lambda(u));
re_Lambda(u) = real(Lambda(u));
omega(u,ii) = sqrt(re_Lambda(u)^2+im_Lambda(u)^2);
damp(u,ii) = -100*re_Lambda(u)/omega(u,ii);
freq(u,ii) = omega(u,ii)/(2*pi);

end


xx(ii) = v1;

ii = ii+1;

end


tt=1;
for ii=1:4;
for uu=1:1:numel(damp(1,:));

if damp(ii,uu)<=0

vflutter(tt) = xx(uu);

tt=tt+1;
end
end

end

yyy(qq)=x_f1;
vf1(qq)=min(vflutter);
qq=qq+1;

end

% f = [yyy
% vf1];


% PLOT FLUTTER SPEED AGAINST FLEXURAL AXIS POSITION

figure(2)
plot(yyy,vf1,'k');
vaxis = axis; xlim = ([0 vaxis(2)]);
xlabel ('Flexural Axis (m)/c '); ylabel ('Flutter Speed (m/s)'); grid


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Q3 EFFECT OF CHANGING THE STIFFNESS VALUES ON THE FLUTTER SPEED
qq = 1;


for k_kappan = 1.e7:1e7:5e7;

k_theta = 7.2758e5;


I_k = (m*s^3*c)/3;
I_k_theta = ((m*s^2)/2)*(c^2/2-c*x_f);
I_theta = m*s*(c^3/3-c^2*x_f+c*x_f^2);

A = [I_k I_k_theta
I_k_theta I_theta];

B(1,1) = (c*s^3*aw)/6;
B(1,2) = 0;
B(2,1) = -(e*c^2*s^2*aw)/4;
B(2,2) = -(c^3*s*M_theta_dot)/8;

C(1,1) = 0;
C(1,2) = (c*s^2*aw)/4;
C(2,1) = 0;
C(2,2) = -(e*c^2*s*aw)/2;

D = [k_kappan 0
0 k_theta];

ii = 1;

for v = 1:1:180;

% DETERMINE THE LAMBDA
Q = [zeros(2) eye(2)
-inv(A)*(ro*v^2*C+D) -inv(A)*(ro*v*B)];

Lambda = eig(Q);


for u = 1:4;

%SOLVE FOR THE DAMPING AND FREQ

im_Lambda(u) = imag(Lambda(u));
re_Lambda(u) = real(Lambda(u));
omega(u,ii) = sqrt(re_Lambda(u)^2+im_Lambda(u)^2);
damp(u,ii) = -100*re_Lambda(u)/omega(u,ii);
freq(u,ii) = omega(u,ii)/(2*pi);

end


xx(ii) = v;

ii = ii+1;

end


tt=1;
for ii=1:4;
for uu=1:1:numel(damp(1,:));

if damp(ii,uu)<=0

vfluttert(tt) = xx(uu);

tt=tt+1;
end
end

end

vf1(qq)=min(vfluttert);

xxx(qq)=k_kappan;
qq=qq+1;

end

zz = 1;




for k_theta = 7e5:1e5:15e5;


k_kappa = 1.2277e7;

I_k = (m*s^3*c)/3;
I_k_theta = ((m*s^2)/2)*(c^2/2-c*x_f);
I_theta = m*s*(c^3/3-c^2*x_f+c*x_f^2);

A = [I_k I_k_theta
I_k_theta I_theta];

B(1,1) = (c*s^3*aw)/6;
B(1,2) = 0;
B(2,1) = -(e*c^2*s^2*aw)/4;
B(2,2) = -(c^3*s*M_theta_dot)/8;

C(1,1) = 0;
C(1,2) = (c*s^2*aw)/4;
C(2,1) = 0;
C(2,2) = -(e*c^2*s*aw)/2;

D = [k_kappa 0
0 k_theta];

ii = 1;

for v = 1:1:180;

% DETERMINE THE LAMBDA
Q = [zeros(2) eye(2)
-inv(A)*(ro*v^2*C+D) -inv(A)*(ro*v*B)];

Lambda = eig(Q);


for u = 1:4;

%SOLVE FOR THE DAMPING AND FREQ

im_Lambda(u) = imag(Lambda(u));
re_Lambda(u) = real(Lambda(u));
omega(u,ii) = sqrt(re_Lambda(u)^2+im_Lambda(u)^2);
damp(u,ii) = -100*re_Lambda(u)/omega(u,ii);
freq(u,ii) = omega(u,ii)/(2*pi);

end


xx2(ii) = v;

ii = ii+1;

end


tt=1;
for ii=1:4;
for uu=1:1:numel(damp(1,:));

if damp(ii,uu)<=0

vflutters(tt) = xx2(uu);

tt=tt+1;
end
end

end

vf2(zz)=min(vflutters);

xxx1(zz)=k_theta;
zz=zz+1;

end

% Plot frequencies and dampings vs speed

figure(3)

subplot(2,1,1); plot(xxx,vf1(1:5),'k');
vaxis = axis; xlim = ([0 vaxis(2)]);
xlabel ('Flap Stiffness (Nm/rad) '); ylabel ('Flutter Speed (m/s)'); grid

subplot(2,1,2); plot(xxx1,vf2(1:9),'k')
vaxis = axis; xlim = ([0 vaxis(2)]);
xlabel ('Pitch Stiffness (Nm/rad) '); ylabel ('Flutter Speed (m/s)'); grid


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Q4 DETERMINE FLUTTER SPEED USING K METHOD



rr = 1;
for k = 1:-0.01:0.1

M_theta_dot1 = -(0.9/(0.75+k));

B(1,1) = (c*s^3*aw)/6;
B(1,2) = 0;
B(2,1) = -(e*c^2*s^2*aw)/4;
B(2,2) = -(c^3*s*M_theta_dot1)/8;

F = A-i*ro*(b/k)*B-ro*((b/k)^2)*C;

QQ1 = F*inv(D);

Lambda3 = eig(QQ1);

for pp = 1:2;

omega2(pp,rr) = 1/sqrt(real(Lambda3(pp)));
g(pp,rr) = imag(Lambda3(pp))/real(Lambda3(pp));
vv2(pp,rr) = (omega2(pp)*c)/(2*k);

end

rr = rr + 1;
end

mm=1;
for aa=1:1:2;
for dd=1:1:numel(g(1,:));

if g(aa,dd)>=0 ;

vflutterr(mm) = vv2(2,dd);

mm=mm+1;

end

end

end

vf4=min(vflutterr)
figure(4)
plot(vv2(2,:),g(2,:));grid on; hold on
plot(vv2(1,:),g(1,:));grid on;hold on
xlabel('Air Speed (m/s)')
ylabel('Coefficient Of Damping, g')

% END
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%




Q1_iv
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% START
clc, clear all, clear variable;

% GIVEN PARAMETER

m = 100; %kg/m^2
c = 2; %m
s = 7.5; %m
x_cm = 0.5*c;
x_f = 0.5*c;
e = (x_f/c)-0.25;
% k_kappa = 1.2277e7; %Nm/rad
% k_theta = 7.2758e5; %Nm/rad
% k_kappa = 1.2271e7; %Nm/rad
% k_theta = 6.2832e5; %Nm/rad
ro = 1.225; %kg/m^3
%M_theta_dot = -1.2;
aw = 2*pi;
b = c/2;


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Q1_iv DETERMINE THE CRITICAL FLUTTER SPEED
% MATRIX
ww = 1;


I_k = (m*s^3*c)/3;
I_k_theta = ((m*s^2)/2)*(c^2/2-c*x_f);
I_theta = m*s*(c^3/3-c^2*x_f+c*x_f^2)

betha = 108;
k_kappa = ((((betha)^(1/2))/2)^2)*2*pi*I_k %Nm/rad
k_theta = (((betha)^(1/2))^2)*2*pi*I_theta%Nm/rad


for M_theta_dot = -5:0.1:0;
A = [I_k I_k_theta
I_k_theta I_theta];

B(1,1) = (c*s^3*aw)/6;
B(1,2) = 0;
B(2,1) = -(e*c^2*s^2*aw)/4;
B(2,2) = -(c^3*s*M_theta_dot)/8;

C(1,1) = 0;
C(1,2) = (c*s^2*aw)/4;
C(2,1) = 0;
C(2,2) = -(e*c^2*s*aw)/2;

D = [k_kappa 0
0 k_theta];

ii = 1;
for v = 1:1:180;

% DETERMINE THE LAMBDA
Q = [zeros(2) eye(2)
-inv(A)*(ro*v^2*C+D) -inv(A)*(ro*v*B)];

Lambda = eig(Q);


for u = 1:4;

%SOLVE FOR THE DAMPING AND FREQ

im_Lambda(u) = imag(Lambda(u));
re_Lambda(u) = real(Lambda(u));
omega(u,ii) = sqrt(re_Lambda(u)^2+im_Lambda(u)^2);
damp(u,ii) = -100*re_Lambda(u)/omega(u,ii);
freq(u,ii) = omega(u,ii)/(2*pi);

end
x(ii) = v;

ii = ii+1;

end

% Plot frequencies and dampings vs speed
%
% figure(1)
% subplot(2,1,1); plot(x,freq,'k');
% vaxis = axis; xlim = ([0 vaxis(2)]);
% xlabel ('Air Speed (m/s) '); ylabel ('Freq (Hz)'); grid
%
% subplot(2,1,2);
% plot(x,damp,'k')
% xlim = ([0 vaxis(2)]); axis([xlim ylim]);
% xlabel ('Air Speed (m/s) '); ylabel ('Damping Ratio (%)'); grid

tt=1;

for ii=1:4;
for uu=1:1:numel(damp(1,:));

if damp(ii,uu)<=0

vflutter(tt) = x(uu);

tt=tt+1;
end
end

end
vf(ww)=min(vflutter);
x111(ww) = M_theta_dot;
ww = ww+1;
end

plot(x111,vf)
xlabel ('M_theta_dot '); ylabel ('Flutter Speed (m/s)'); grid