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The 108 Upanishads

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Table of contents
RIG-VEDA.......................................................................................... 6
1.Aitareya Upanishad........................................................................7
2.Aksha Malika Upanishad.............................................................15
3.Ata-!"dha Upanishad...............................................................25
#.!ah$ri%ha Upanishad...................................................................3&
5.'a(shitaki !rahana Upanishad.................................................3#
6.M(d)ala Upanishad.....................................................................62
7.*ada !ind( Upanishad................................................................67
+.*ir$ana Upanishad.......................................................................76
,.-a(.ha)ya /akshi Upanishad ..................................................+5
1&.0rip(ra Upanishad......................................................................,,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA...................................................................1&6
11.Adhyata Upanishad...............................................................1&7
12.Ad$aya 0araka Upanishad........................................................117
13.!hiksh(ka Upanishad...............................................................121
1#.!rihadaranyaka Upanishad......................................................12#
15.3asa Upanishad.....................................................................21+
16.Isa$asya Upanishad..................................................................222
17.2a.ala Upanishad......................................................................225
1+.Mandala !rahana Upanishad................................................231
1,.Mantrika Upanishad.................................................................2#3
2&.M(ktika Upanishad..................................................................2#7
21.*irala.a Upanishad...............................................................271
22.4ain)ala Upanishad..................................................................2+&
23.4araahasa Upanishad..........................................................2,6
2#.-atyayaniya Upanishad............................................................2,,
25.-(.ala Upanishad.....................................................................3&,
26.0ara -ara Upanishad.................................................................32#
27.0risikhi !rahana Upanishad..................................................33&
2+.0(riyatita A$adh(ta Upanishad................................................33,
2,.1a5na$alkya Upanishad............................................................3#3
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA..............................................................352
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3&.Akshi Upanishad......................................................................353
31.Arita !ind( Upanishad..........................................................361
32.Arita-*ada Upanishad...........................................................365
33.A$adh(ta Upanishad................................................................371
3#.!raha Vidya Upanishad.........................................................377
35.!raha Upanishad...................................................................3+&
36.Dakshina(rti Upanishad........................................................3++
37.Dhyana-!ind( Upanishad........................................................3,2
3+.Ekakshara Upanishad...............................................................#&6
3,.Gar.ha Upanishad....................................................................#1&
#&.'ai$alya Upanishad.................................................................#1#
#1.'ala)ni R(dra Upanishad........................................................#1,
#2.'ali -antarana Upanishad........................................................#22
#3.'atha Upanishad......................................................................#25
##.'athar(dra Upanishad..............................................................##2
#5.'sh(rika Upanishad.................................................................#5&
#6.Maha *arayana Upanishad......................................................#5#
#7.*arayana Upanishad 6M(ktika Upanishad "ther $ersi"n7........51&
#+.4an%ha !raha Upanishad.......................................................516
#,.4rana)nih"tra Upanishad.........................................................52&
5&.R(dra 3ridaya Upanishad........................................................526
51.-aras$ati-Rahasya Upanishad..................................................532
52.-ariraka Upanishad..................................................................552
53.-ar$a -ara Upanishad...............................................................556
5#.-kanda Upanishad....................................................................562
55.-(ka Rahasya Upanishad.........................................................565
56.-$etas$atara Upanishad............................................................572
57.0aittiriya Upanishad.................................................................5,3
5+.0e5"-!ind( Upanishad..............................................................612
5,.Varaha Upanishad.....................................................................656
6&.1")a-'(ndalini Upanishad......................................................6,6
61.1")a -ikha Upanishad.............................................................71,
62.1")a 0att$a Upanishad.............................................................727
-AMA-VEDA.................................................................................. 7#5
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63.Ar(ni Upanishad......................................................................7#6
6#.A$yakta Upanishad..................................................................75&
65.8hand")ya Upanishad..............................................................756
66.2a.ala Darsana Upanishad........................................................+52
67.2a.ali Upanishad......................................................................+5+
6+.'ena Upanishad.......................................................................+61
6,.'(ndika Upanishad..................................................................+67
7&.Maha Upanishad.......................................................................+7#
71.Maitrayani Upanishad..............................................................,26
72.Maitreya Upanishad.................................................................,3#
73.R(draksha 2a.ala Upanishad....................................................,#6
7#.-annyasa Upanishad.................................................................,5#
75.-a$itri Upanishad.....................................................................,77
76.Va5ras(%hika Upanishad...........................................................,+1
77.Vas(de$a Upanishad................................................................,+5
7+.1")a 8h(daani Upanishad....................................................,++
A03ARVA-VEDA...........................................................................,,7
7,.Annap(rna Upanishad..............................................................,,+
+&.Athar$asikha Upanishad........................................................1&36
+1.Athar$asiras Upanishad..........................................................1&#1
+2.Ata Upanishad.....................................................................1&#,
+3.!hasa 2a.ala Upanishad......................................................1&55
+#.!ha$ana Upanishad................................................................1&62
+5.!rihad 2a.ala Upanishad........................................................1&67
+6.Dattatreya Upanishad.............................................................1&7+
+7.De$i Upanishad......................................................................1&+#
++.Ganapati Upanishad...............................................................1&,3
+,.Gar(da Upanishad..................................................................1&,7
,&.G"pala-0apaniya Upanishad...................................................11&1
,1.3aya)ri$a Upanishad.............................................................1123
,2.'rishna Upanishad.................................................................112+
,3.Maha Vakya Upanishad..........................................................1131
,#.Mand(kya Upanishad.............................................................113#
,5.M(ndaka Upanishad...............................................................1166
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RIG-VEDA
,6.*arada 4ari$ra5aka Upanishad...............................................117+
,7.*risiha 0apaniya Upanishad...............................................125&
,+.4ara-!raha Upanishad.........................................................1275
,,.4araahasa-4ari$ra5aka Upanishad....................................12+#
1&&.4as(pata !rahana Upanishad............................................12,3
1&1.4rasna Upanishad.................................................................12,6
1&2.Raa Rahasya Upanishad....................................................131&
1&3.Raa 0apaniya Upanishad...................................................13#,
1&#.-andilya Upanishad..............................................................135+
1&5.-ara.ha Upanishad...............................................................13+3
1&6.-ita Upanishad.....................................................................13+7
1&7.-(rya Upanishad..................................................................13,7
1&+.0ripad$i.h(ti Mahanarayana Upanishad..............................1#&1
1&,.0rip(ra 0apini Upanishad.....................................................1#&6
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RIG-VEDA
RIG-VEDA
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RIG-VEDA
1. Aitareya Upanishad
9 : May y spee%h .e .ased "n 6i.e. a%%"rd ;ith7 the ind<
May y ind .e .ased "n spee%h.
9 -el=-e==(l)ent 9ne> re$eal 0hysel= t" e.
May y"( ."th 6spee%h and ind7 .e the %arriers "= the Veda t" e.
May n"t all that I ha$e heard depart =r" e.
I shall 5"in t")ether 6i.e. ".literate the di==eren%e "=7 day
And ni)ht thr"()h this st(dy.
I shall (tter ;hat is $er.ally tr(e<
I shall (tter ;hat is entally tr(e.
May that 6!rahan7 pr"te%t e<
May 0hat pr"te%t the speaker 6i.e. the tea%her7> ay 0hat pr"te%t e<
May that pr"te%t the speaker ? ay 0hat pr"te%t the speaker.
9 : 4ea%e : 4ea%e : 4ea%e :
I-i-1@ In the .e)innin) this ;as .(t the a.s"l(te -el= al"ne. 0here ;as
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RIG-VEDA
n"thin) else ;hats"e$er that ;inked. 3e th"()ht> A/et Me %reate the
;"rlds.B
I-i-2@ 3e %reated these ;"rld> $iC. a.has> ari%i> ara> apah. 0hat
;hi%h is .ey"nd hea$en is a.has. 3ea$en is its s(pp"rt. 0he sky is
ari%i. 0he earth is ara. 0he ;"rlds that are .el"; are the apah.
I-i-3@ 3e th"()ht> A0hese then are the ;"rlds. /et Me %reate the
pr"te%t"rs "= the ;"rlds.B 3a$in) )athered (p a 6l(p "= the7 h(an
="r =r" the ;ater itsel=> 3e )a$e shape t" it.
I-i-#@ 3e deli.erated ;ith re)ard t" 3i 6i.e. Virat "= the h(an
="r7. As 3e 6i.e. Virat7 ;as .ein) deli.erated "n> 3is 6i.e. ViratDE7
"(th parted> 5(st as an e)) d"es. Fr" the "(th eer)ed spee%h<
=r" spee%h %ae Fire. 0he n"strils parted< =r" the n"strils %ae "(t
the sense "= sell< =r" the sense "= sell %ae Vay( 6Air7. 0he t;"
eyes parted< =r" the eyes eer)ed the sense "= si)ht< =r" the sense
"= si)ht %ae the -(n. 0he t;" ears parted< =r" the ears %ae the
sense "= hearin)< =r" the sense "= hearin) %ae the Dire%ti"ns. 0he
skin eer)ed< =r" the skin %ae "(t hair 6i.e. the sense "= t"(%h
ass"%iated ;ith hair7< =r" the sense "= t"(%h %ae the 3er.s and
0rees. 0he heart t""k shape< =r" the heart iss(ed the internal "r)an
6ind7< =r" the internal "r)an %ae the M""n. 0he na$el parted<
=r" the na$el %ae "(t the "r)an "= e5e%ti"n< =r" the "r)an "=
e5e%ti"n iss(ed Death. 0he seat "= the pr"%reati$e "r)an parted< =r"
that %ae the pr"%reati$e "r)an< =r" the pr"%reati$e "r)an %ae "(t
Gater.
I-ii-1@ 0hese deities> that had .een %reated> =ell int" this $ast "%ean. 3e
s(.5e%ted 3i 6i.e. Virat7 t" h(n)er and thirst. 0hey said t" 3i 6i.e.
t" the 8reat"r7> A4r"$ide an a."de ="r (s> stayin) ;here ;e %an eat
=""d.B
I-ii-2@ F"r the 3e 6i.e. G"d7 .r"()ht a %";. 0hey said> A0his "ne is
+
RIG-VEDA
n"t %ertainly adeH(ate ="r (s.B F"r the 3e .r"()ht a h"rse. 0hey
said> A0his "ne is n"t %ertainly adeH(ate ="r (s.B
I-ii-3@ F"r the 3e .r"()ht a an. 0hey said A0his "ne is ;ell
="red< an indeed is a %reati"n "= G"d 3isel=B. 0" the 3e said>
AEnter int" y"(r respe%ti$e a."desB.
I-ii-#@ Fire entered int" the "(th takin) the ="r "= the "r)an "=
spee%h< Air entered int" the n"strils ass(in) the ="r "= the sense "=
sell< the -(n entered int" the eyes as the sense "= si)ht< the
Dire%ti"ns entered int" the ears .y .e%"in) the sense "= hearin)< the
3er.s and 0rees entered int" the skin in the ="r "= hair 6i.e. the sense
"= t"(%h7< the M""n entered int" the heart in the shape "= the ind<
Death entered int" the na$el in the ="r "= Apana 6i.e. the $ital ener)y
that presses d";n7< Gater entered int" the li. "= )enerati"n in the
="r "= seen 6i.e. the "r)an "= pr"%reati"n7.
I-ii-5@ 0" 3i 3(n)er and 0hirst said> A4r"$ide ="r (s 6s"e a."de7.B
0" the 3e said> AI pr"$ide y"(r li$elih""d a"n) these $ery )"ds< I
ake y"( share in their p"rti"ns.B 0here="re ;hen ".lati"n is taken (p
="r any deity ;hi%hs"e$er> 3(n)er and 0hirst .e%"e $erily sharers
;ith that deity.
I-iii-1@ 3e th"()ht> A0his> then> are the senses and the deities "= the
senses. /et Me %reate =""d ="r the.
I-iii-2@ 3e deli.erated ;ith re)ard t" the ;ater. Fr" the ;ater> th(s
.r""ded "$er> e$"l$ed a ="r. 0he ="r that eer)ed ;as $erily =""d.
I-iii-3@ 0his =""d> that ;as %reated> t(rned .a%k and attepted t" r(n
a;ay. 3e tried t" take it (p ;ith spee%h. 3e did n"t s(%%eed in takin)
it (p thr"()h spee%h. I= 3e had s(%%eeded in takin) it (p ;ith the
spee%h> then "ne ;"(ld ha$e .e%"e %"ntented erely .y talkin) "=
=""d.
,
RIG-VEDA

I-iii-#@ 3e tied t" )rasp that =""d ;ith the sense "= sell. 3e did n"t
s(%%eed in )raspin) it .y sellin). I= 3e had s(%%eeded in )raspin) it
.y sellin)> then e$ery"ne sh"(ld ha$e .e%"e %"ntented erely .y
sellin) =""d.
I-iii-5@ 3e ;anted t" take (p the =""d ;ith the eye. 3e did n"t s(%%eed
in takin) it (p ;ith the eye. I= 3e had taken it (p ;ith the eye> then
"ne ;"(ld ha$e .e%"e satis=ied .y erely seein) =""d.
I-iii-6@ 3e ;anted t" take (p the =""d ;ith the ear. 3e did n"t s(%%eed
in takin) it (p ;ith the ear. I= 3e had taken it (p ;ith the ear> then "ne
;"(ld ha$e .e%"e satis=ied .y erely .y hearin) "= =""d.
I-iii-7@ 3e ;anted t" take it (p ;ith the sense "= t"(%h. 3e did n"t
s(%%eed in takin) it (p ;ith the sense "= t"(%h. I= 3e had taken it (p
;ith t"(%h> then "ne ;"(ld ha$e .e%"e .een satis=ied erely .y
t"(%hin) =""d.
I-iii-+@ 3e ;anted t" take it (p ;ith the ind. 3e did n"t s(%%eed in
takin) it (p ;ith the ind. I= 3e had taken it (p ;ith the ind> then
"ne ;"(ld ha$e .e%"e satis=ied .y erely thinkin) "= =""d.
I-iii-,@ 3e ;anted t" take it (p ;ith the pr"%reati$e "r)an. 3e did n"t
s(%%eed in takin) it (p ;ith the pr"%reati$e "r)an. I= 3e had taken it
(p ;ith the pr"%reati$e "r)an> then "ne ;"(ld ha$e .e%"e satis=ied
.y erely e5e%tin) =""d.
I-iii-1&@ 3e ;anted t" take it (p ;ith Apana. 3e %a()ht it. 0his is the
de$"(rer "= =""d. 0hat $ital ener)y ;hi%h is ;ell kn";n as dependent
"= =""d ="r its s(.sisten%e is this $ital ener)y 6%alled Apana7.
I-iii-11@ 3e th"()ht> A3"; indeed %an it .e there ;ith"(t Me IB 3e
th"()ht> A0hr"()h ;hi%h "= the t;" ;ays sh"(ld I enter IB 3e
1&
RIG-VEDA
th"()ht> AI= (tteran%e is d"ne .y the "r)an "= spee%h> sellin) .y the
sense "= sell> seein) .y the eye> hearin) .y the ear> =eelin) .y the
sense "= t"(%h> thinkin) .y the ind> the a%t "= dra;in) in 6"r
pressin) d";n7 .y Apana> e5e%tin) .y the pr"%reati$e "r)an> then ;h"
6"r ;hat7 a I IB
I-iii-12@ 3a$in) split (p this $ery end> 3e entered thr"()h this d""r.
0his entran%e is kn";n as $idriti 6the %hie= entran%e7. 3en%e it is
deli)ht=(l. 9= 3i there are three a."des ? three 6states "=7 drea.
0his "ne is an a."de> this "ne is an a."de. 0his "ne is an a."de.
I-iii-13@ !ein) ."rn> 3e ani=ested all the .ein)s< ="r did 3e speak "=
6"r kn";7 anythin) else I 3e realised this $ery 4(r(sha as !rahan>
the "st per$asi$e> th(s@ AI ha$e realised thisB.
I-iii-1#@ 0here="re 3is nae is Idandra. 3e is $erily kn";n as Idandra.
Alth"()h 3e is Idandra> they %all 3i indire%tly Indra< ="r the )"ds
are $erily ="nd "= indire%t naes> the )"ds are $erily ="nd "= indire%t
naes.
II-i-1@ In an indeed is the s"(l =irst %"n%ei$ed. 0hat ;hi%h is the
seen is eJtra%ted =r" all the li.s as their $i)"(r. 3e h"lds that sel=
"= his in his ";n sel=. Ghen he sheds it int" his ;i=e> then he
pr"%reates it. 0hat is its =irst .irth.
II-i-2@ 0hat .e%"es n"n-di==erent =r" the ;i=e> 5(st as (%h as her
";n li. is. 0here="re 6the ="et(s7 d"es n"t h(rt her. -he n"(rishes
this sel= "= his that has entered here 6in her ;".7.
II-i-3@ -he> the n"(risher> .e%"es =it t" .e n"(rished. 0he ;i=e .ears
that e.ry" 6.e="re the .irth7. 3e 6the =ather7 pr"te%ts the s"n at the
$ery start> s""n a=ter his .irth. 0hat he pr"te%ts the s"n at the $ery
.e)innin)> 5(st a=ter .irth> there.y he pr"te%ts his ";n sel= ="r the sake
"= the %"ntin(an%e "= these ;"rlds. F"r th(s is the %"ntin(an%e "=
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RIG-VEDA
these ;"rlds ens(red. 0hat is his se%"nd .irth.
II-i-#@ 0his sel= "= his 6$iC. the s"n7 is s(.stit(ted 6.y the =ather7 ="r
the per="ran%e "= $irt("(s deeds. 0hen this "ther sel= "= his 6that is
the =ather "= the s"n7> ha$in) )"t his d(ties ended and ha$in)
ad$an%ed in a)e> departs. As s""n as he departs> he takes .irth a)ain.
0hat is his 6i.e. the s"nEs7 third .irth.
II-i-5@ 0his =a%t ;as stated .y the seer 6i.e. antra7@ AE$en ;hile lyin)
in the ;".> I %ae t" kn"; "= the .irth "= all the )"ds. A h(ndred
ir"n %itadels held e d";n. 0hen> like a ha;k> I ="r%ed y ;ay
thr"()h .y dint "= kn";led)e "= the -el=B. Vaade$a said this ;hile
still lyin) in the "therEs ;"..
II-i-6@ 3e ;h" had kn";n th(s 6had7 .e%"e identi=ied ;ith the
-(pree> and attained all desira.le thin)s 6e$en here7< and ha$in)
6then7 as%ended hi)her (p a=ter the destr(%ti"n "= the ."dy> he .e%ae
i"rtal> in the ;"rld "= the -el=. 3e .e%ae i"rtal.
III-i-1@ Ghat is It that ;e ;"rship as this -el= I Ghi%h "= the t;" is
the -el= I Is It that .y ;hi%h "ne sees> "r that .y ;hi%h "ne hears> "r
that .y ;hi%h "ne sells "d"(r> "r that .y ;hi%h "ne (tters spee%h> "r
that .y ;hi%h "ne tastes the s;eet "r the s"(r I
III-i-2@ It is this heart 6intelle%t7 and this ind that ;ere stated earlier.
It is sentien%e> r(lership> se%(lar kn";led)e> presen%e "= ind>
retenti$eness> sense-per%epti"n> ="rtit(de> thinkin)> )eni(s> ental
s(==erin)> e"ry> as%ertainent res"l(ti"n> li=e-a%ti$ities> hankerin)>
passi"n and s(%h "thers. All these $erily are the naes "=
8"ns%i"(sness.
III-i-3@ 0his 9ne is 6the in=eri"r7 !rahan< this is Indra> this is
4ra5apati< this is all these )"ds< and this is these =i$e eleents> $iC.
earth> air> spa%e> ;ater> =ire< and this is all these 6.i) %reat(res7>
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RIG-VEDA
t")ether ;ith the sall "nes> that are the pr"%reat"rs "= "thers and
re=era.le in pairs ? t" ;it> th"se that are ."rn "= e))s> "= ;".s> "=
"ist(re "= the earth> $iC. h"rses> %attle> en> elephants> and all the
%reat(res that there are ;hi%h "$e "r =ly and th"se ;hi%h d" n"t
"$e. All these ha$e 8"ns%i"(sness as the )i$er "= their reality< all
these are ipelled .y 8"ns%i"(sness< the (ni$erse has 8"ns%i"(sness
as its eye and 8"ns%i"(sness is its end. 8"ns%i"(sness is !rahan.
III-i-#@ 0hr"()h this -el= that is 8"ns%i"(sness> he as%ended hi)her (p
=r" this ;"rld> and )ettin) all desires =(l=illed in that hea$enly
;"rld> he .e%ae i"rtal> he .e%ae i"rtal.
9 : May y spee%h .e .ased "n 6i.e. a%%"rd ;ith7 the ind<
May y ind .e .ased "n spee%h.
9 -el=-e==(l)ent 9ne> re$eal 0hysel= t" e.
May y"( ."th 6spee%h and ind7 .e the %arriers "= the Veda t" e.
May n"t all that I ha$e heard depart =r" e.
I shall 5"in t")ether 6i.e. ".literate the di==eren%e "=7 day
And ni)ht thr"()h this st(dy.
I shall (tter ;hat is $er.ally tr(e<
I shall (tter ;hat is entally tr(e.
May that 6!rahan7 pr"te%t e<
May 0hat pr"te%t the speaker 6i.e. the tea%her7> ay 0hat pr"te%t e<
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RIG-VEDA
May that pr"te%t the speaker ? ay 0hat pr"te%t the speaker.
9 : 4ea%e : 4ea%e : 4ea%e :
3ere ends the Aitarey"panishad> as %"ntained in the Ri)-Veda.
1#
RIG-VEDA
2. Aksha Malika Upanishad
K0he Upanishad "= R"sary !eadsL
9 : May y spee%h .e .ased "n 6i.e. a%%"rd ;ith7 the ind<
May y ind .e .ased "n spee%h.
9 -el=-e==(l)ent 9ne> re$eal 0hysel= t" e.
May y"( ."th 6spee%h and ind7 .e the %arriers "= the Veda t" e.
May n"t all that I ha$e heard depart =r" e.
I shall 5"in t")ether 6i.e. ".literate the di==eren%e "=7 day
And ni)ht thr"()h this st(dy.
I shall (tter ;hat is $er.ally tr(e<
I shall (tter ;hat is entally tr(e.
May that 6!rahan7 pr"te%t e<
May 0hat pr"te%t the speaker 6i.e. the tea%her7> ay 0hat pr"te%t e<
May that pr"te%t the speaker ? ay 0hat pr"te%t the speaker.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
15
RIG-VEDA
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. 0hen the 4ra5apMti 68reat"r7 asked G(ha@ A9h -ir> 6please7 tell e
the r(les re)ardin) the r"sary "= .eads. Ghat is its %hara%teristi% I
3"; any $arieties "= r"saries are there I 3"; any threads 6d"es a
r"sary7 %"ntain I 3"; sh"(ld it .e ade I Ghat are its %"l"(rs I 3";
is it %"nse%rated I Gh" is its presidin) deity I And ;hat is the .ene=it
6"= (sin) it7 IB
2. G(ha replied@ A6It is ade "= any "ne "= the ="ll";in) 1& aterials7
8"ral> 4earl> 8rystal> 8"n%h> -il$er> G"ld> -andal> 4(tra-2N$ikM> /"t(s
"r R(drMksha. Ea%h head (st .e de$"ted and th"()ht "= as presided
"$er .y the deities "= AkMra t" 'shakMra. G"lden thread sh"(ld .ind
the .eads thr"()h the h"les. 9n its ri)ht sil$er 6%aps7 and le=t %"pper.
0he =a%e "= a .ead sh"(ld =a%e> the =a%e "= an"ther head and tail> the
tail. 0h(s a %ir%(lar ="rati"n (st .e ade.
3. 0he internal thread (st .e th"()ht "= as !raha 6the -(pree
!ein)7. 0he ri)ht side sil$er %ap (st .e %"nsidered t" .e the pla%e "=
-hi$a and 8"pper %aps .el"n)in) t" Vishn(. 0he =a%e (st .e th"()ht
"= as -aras$ati and the tail as Gayatri. 0he h"le is 'n";led)e. 0he
kn"t (st .e th"()ht "= as nat(re. 0he !eads representin) $";els
(st .e ;hite 6sin%e they represent -Mtt$ika G(na7. 0h"se ;hi%h
represent (tes-%"ns"nants (st .e yell";ish 6sin%e they are the
res(lt "= iJt(re "= -att$a and 0aas7. 0he .alan%e (st .e red in
%"pleJi"n 6sin%e they are RM5asi%7.
#. 0hen 6a=ter th(s editatin) the presidin) deities in di==erent part "=
the r"sary7 .athe it 6"r %lean it7 in the ilk )"t =r" 5 types "= %";s
6like *anda7< and then in 4an%ha-)a$ya 6a san%ti=ied liH(id prepared
=r" the %";-d(n)> %";Es (rine> )hee> %(rd and ilk7 and dar.ha
)rass iersed in ;ater and then in the indi$id(al 4an%ha-)a$ya 6in
the a="resaid 5 thin)s separately7 and in sandal ;ater. 0hen sprinkle
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;ater ;ith dar.ha )rass (tterin) 9kMra. !esear it ;ith ei)ht
=ra)rant 6pastes7 "= ei)ht 6s;eet-sellin) s(.stan%es like -andal>
'ast(ri et%.>7. 4la%e it "n =l";ers. Meditate 6all7 the letters in the
r"sary 6"r ea%h letter in ea%h .ead7.
5. 9 AOkMra> the %"nH(er"r "= death> 9nipresent> .e esta.lished in
the 1st head :
9 POkMra> 3e ;h" "= the nat(re "= attra%tin)> ="(nd e$ery;here> .e
esta.lished in the 2nd head :
9 IOkMra> the )i$er "= ;ealth and =irness> .e esta.lished in the 3rd
head :
9 QOkMra> the aker "= %larity in spee%h and %lear 9ne> .e
esta.lished in the #th head:
9 UOkMra> the )i$er "= stren)th> the essen%e "= e$erythin)> .e
esta.lished in the 5th head:
9 ROkMra> 9ne ;h" dri$es a;ay e$il spirits> the int"lera.le> .e
esta.lished in the 6th head :
9 SOkMra> 9ne ;h" dist(r.s the 6the dis-"rder7> the "$in) 9ne> .e
esta.lished in the 7th head :
9 TOkMra> the del(din) "ne> the e==(l)ent and shinin)> .e esta.lished
in the +th head :
9 UOkMra> the hater> the de$"(rer "= e$erythin) else 6"r "ne ;h"
%"n%eals e$erythin)7> .e esta.lished in the ,th head :
9 UOkMra> the del(din) "ne> .e esta.lished in the 1&th head :
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9 EOkMra> 9ne ;h" attra%ts e$ery"ne> -(ddha-satt$a> .e esta.lished
in the 11th head:
9 AiOkMra> the 4(re and *".le 6-(ddha-satt$ika7> attra%tin) h(an
.ein)s> .e esta.lished in the 12th head :
9 9OkMra> the 6.ase7 "= entire spee%h> eternally p(re> .e esta.lished
in the 13th head :
9 A(OkMra> "= the nat(re "= spee%h> %apa.le "= attra%tin) the
pea%e=(l> .e esta.lished in the 1#th head :
9 AOkMra> %apa.le "= attra%tin) elephants et%.> attra%tin)> .e
esta.lished in the 15th head:
9 AVkMra> %apa.le "= destr"yin) death terri.le> .e esta.lished in the
16th head :
9 'aOkMra> the re"$er "= all p"is"n> )i$er "= a(spi%i"(sness> .e
esta.lished in the 17th head :
9 'haOkMra> the t"rent"r 6"r dist(r.er7 spreadin) e$ery;here> .e
esta.lished in the 1+th head :
9 GaOkMra> 3e ;h" p(ts d";s all ".sta%les> the )reatest> .e
esta.lished in the 1,th head :
9 GhaOkMra> the )i$er "= WWW. 6san.hasya7> st(pe=ier> .e
esta.lished in the 2&th head:
9 XaOkMra> the destr"yer "= all p"is"ns> the sharp> .e esta.lished in
the 21st head :
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9 8aOkMra> the destr"yer "= WWW 6a.hi%hara7> %r(el> .e
esta.lished in the 22nd head :
9 8haOkMra> the destr"yer "= )".lins> terri=yin)> .e esta.lished in
the 23rd head :
9 2aOkMra> the destr"yer "= WW.. 6krityas - a.hi%hara7> (nst"ppa.le>
.e esta.lished in the 2#th head :
9 2haOkMra> the destr"yer "= WW. 6.h(tas7> .e esta.lished in the
25th head :
9 XaOkMra> the %h(rner "= WWW 6rity(7> .e esta.lished in the
26th head :
9 YaOkMra> the re"$er "= all diseases> the )""d 9ne> .e esta.lished
in the 27th head :
9 YhaOkMra> "= the nat(re "= ""n> .e esta.lished in the 2+th head :
9 ZaOkMra> the s"(l "= Gar(da> re"$er "= p"is"ns> .e esta.lished
in the 2,th head :
9 ZhaOkMra> the )i$er "= all ;ealth> the )""d 9ne> .e esta.lished in
the 3&th head :
9 [aOkMra> the )i$er "= all s(%%esses 6siddhis7> the del(der> .e
esta.lished in the 31st head :
9 0aOkMra> the )i$er "= ;ealth and )rains> ;h" pleases "ne> .e
esta.lished in the 32nd head:
9 0haOkMra> 9ne ;h" y"kes ;ith dhara> =a(ltless "ne> .e
esta.lished in the 33rd head:
1,
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9 DaOkMra> the de$el"per "= )r";th> ;ith pleasin) l""ks> .e
esta.lished in the 3#th head:
9 DhaOkMra> the destr"yer "= (ndane s(==erin) 6$isa5$ara7> the
eJpansi$e 9ne> .e esta.lished in the 35th head :
9 *aOkMra> the )i$er "= en5"yent and li.erati"n> the pea%e=(l 9ne>
.e esta.lished in the 36th head :
9 4aOkMra> the destr"yer "= p"is"n and ".str(%ti"ns> the E$"l$ed
9ne> .e esta.lished in the 37th head :
9 4haOkMra> the )i$er "= ei)ht siddhis> like at"i% ="r> takin)
%apa%ity> the e==(l)ent nat(re et%.> .e esta.lished in the 3+th head :
9 !aOkMra> the re"$er "= all de=e%ts> the a(spi%i"(s 9ne> .e
esta.lished in the 3,th head :
9 !haOkMra> 9ne ;h" H(ietens the )".lins> the terri=yin) 9ne> .e
esta.lished in the #&th head :
9 MaOkMra> the del(der "= haters> .e esta.lished in the #1st head :
9 1aOkMra> the 9nipresent> the p(ri=ier> .e esta.lished in the #2nd
head :
9 RaOkMra> the .(rnin) 9ne> the "dd shaped> .e esta.lished in the
#3rd head :
9 /aOkMra> the hearer "= the ;"rld> the e==(l)ent> .e esta.lished in
the ##th head :
9 VaOkMra> the all-per$adin) 9ne> the n".lest 9ne> .e esta.lished in
2&
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the #5th head :
9 \aOkMra> the )i$er "= all res(lts> the san%ti=ier> .e esta.lished in
the #6th head :
9 ]aOkMra> the )i$er "= ri)hte"(sness> ;ealth and pleas(re>
WWW..> .e esta.lished in the #7th head :
9 -aOkMra> the %a(se "= e$erythin)> the (nder%(rrent "= all letters> .e
esta.lished in the #+th head :
9 3aOkMra> the .ase "= all spee%h> the p(re 9ne> .e esta.lished in
the #,th head :
9 /aOkMra> the )i$er "= all p";er> the -(pree 9ne> .e esta.lished
in the 5&th head :
9 '^aOkMra> the 9ne ;h" instr(%ts "n the ain and s(.sidiary
%ate)"ries "= the ;"rld> "= the nat(re "= -(pree e==(l)en%e> .e =irly
esta.lished in the %rest )e :
Mrity( n"t "nly eans death .(t %arelessness> n"n-alertness
%"nseH(ent s;er$in) =r" the path "= spirit(ality. 3en%e a5nana>
nes%ien%e and the ."dily perils like h(n)er et%.> t"" are re=erred t" as
Mrity(.
-(%h in$"%ati"n "= sa%red sylla.les 6a$ahana7> their spirits and the
deity ;h" %"n=ers a parti%(lar .""n and "= the nat(re "= a parti%(lar
="r (st .e in$"ked in the =irst head - ri)ht "= %entral head.
In$"%ati"n (st .e d"ne %ir%(larly and end in %rest 5e;el.
6. 0hen "ne (st say@ A-al(tati"ns t" th"se )"ds ;h" are "n and "$e
a."(t in earth : !e =irly esta.lished in this r"sary and .less (s and
21
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="re=athers t"" a=ter )ettin) esta.lished in Aksha-alika perit (s ="r
a(spi%i"(sness and )""d :B
7. 0hen "ne (st say@ A-al(tati"ns t" th"se )"ds ;h" are in and "$e
a."(t in at"sphere: !e =irly esta.lished in this r"sary and .less (s
and ="re=athers t"" a=ter )ettin) esta.lished in Aksha-alika perit (s
="r a(spi%i"(sness and )""d :B
+. 0hen "ne (st say@ A-al(tati"ns t" th"se )"ds ;h" are in and "$e
a."(t in hea$en : !e =irly esta.lished in this r"sary and .less (s and
="re=athers t"" a=ter )ettin) esta.lished in Aksha-alika perit (s ="r
a(spi%i"(sness and )""d :B
,. 0hen "ne (st say@ A-al(tati"ns t" se$en %r"re antras and 6# artsB
and in$"ke their p";ers in r"sary.
1&. 0hen "ne (st say@ A-al(tati"ns t" !raha> Vishn( and -hi$aB
and in$"ke their p";ers in r"sary.
11. 0hen "ne (st say@ A-al(tati"ns (nt" the 36 0att$as 6the
=(ndaental %ate)"ries7B and in$"ke the presen%e "= the .est 0att$as
in it> prayin) t" the t" ake the r"sary %apa.le "= yieldin) the
desired =r(it like a di$ine-%"; 6'aadhen(7.
12. 0hen "ne (st say@ A-al(tati"ns (nt" 3(ndreds "= 0h"(sands "=
-ai$ites> Vaishna$ites and -aktas 6and seek their .lessin)s and
perissi"n t" (se the r"sary7< .e pleased and perit e t" (seB.
13. 0hen "ne (st say@ A-al(tati"ns (nt" the p";ers "= Mrity(< /et
y"( all ake e happy> happy :B
1#. 0hen editatin) "n the r"sary as representin) e$erythin) as the
="r "= G"d> sh"(ld start t"(%hin) east;ards> =eelin) )rate=(l t" its
help and t"(%h the heads 6.eads7 1&+ ties.
22
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15. 0hen )ettin) (p> pla%in) it 6"n =l";ers7 %ir%(a.(latin) (tter the
="ll";in) in%antati"n@ A9> 9h )"ddess> sal(tati"ns> "ther "= all
antras "= the ="rs "= letters> r"sary "= .eads< 3e ;h" attra%ts
e$ery"ne> -al(tati"ns : 9h )"ddess antra atrike> r"sary "= .eads>
st(pe=ier "= e$erythin)> -al(tati"ns : 9h )"ddess> the re"$er "=
A.hi%haras> -al(tati"ns : 9h )"ddess> eternal 9ne> %"nH(er"r "=
nes%ien%e> the ill(inat"r "= e$erythin)> pr"te%t"r "= the all ;"rld> li=e
)i$er ="r all ;"rld> %reat"r "= e$erythin)> "rdainer "= the day> "rdainer
"= the ni)ht> "$er t" the "ther ri$ers> "$er t" "ther pla%es> "$er t"
"ther islands> "$er t" "ther ;"rlds> shinin) e$ery;here al;ays> she
;h" ill(ines all hearts :
-al(tati"ns t" y"( "= the ="r "= 4arM :
-al(tati"ns t" y"( "= the ="r "= 4a_yanti :
-al(tati"ns t" y"( "= the ="r "= MadhyaM :
-al(tati"ns t" y"( "= the ="r "= Vaikhari :
-al(tati"ns : -al(tati"ns t" y"( "= the nat(re "= all 0att$as> all
kn";led)e> "= the nat(re "= all p";ers> "= the nat(re "= all )""d>
;"rshipped .y sa)e Vasistha> attended t" .y sa)e Vis$aitra :
16. I= "ne st(dies this in "rnin)> the sins "= ni)ht are destr"yed. I=
"ne st(dies this in e$enin) t;ili)ht> sins d"ne in day are destr"yed.
9ne ;h" reads this ."th in the "rnin) and e$enin)> e$en i= a sinner>
.e%"es rid "== sins. 0he antras re%ited ;ith r"sary iediately
)i$es .ene=its.B 0h(s said G(ha t" 4ra5apati. 0h(s ends the
Upanishad.
9: May y spee%h .e .ased "n 6i.e. a%%"rd ;ith7 the ind<
23
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May y ind .e .ased "n spee%h.
9 -el=-e==(l)ent 9ne> re$eal 0hysel= t" e.
May y"( ."th 6spee%h and ind7 .e the %arriers "= the Veda t" e.
May n"t all that I ha$e heard depart =r" e.
I shall 5"in t")ether 6i.e. ".literate the di==eren%e "=7 day
And ni)ht thr"()h this st(dy.
I shall (tter ;hat is $er.ally tr(e<
I shall (tter ;hat is entally tr(e.
May that 6!rahan7 pr"te%t e<
May 0hat pr"te%t the speaker 6i.e. the tea%her7> ay 0hat pr"te%t e<
May that pr"te%t the speaker ? ay 0hat pr"te%t the speaker.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the Aksha-Malik"panishad> as %"ntained in the Ri)-Veda.
2#
RIG-VEDA
3. Atma-Bodha Upanishad
9 : May y spee%h .e .ased "n 6i.e. a%%"rd ;ith7 the ind<
May y ind .e .ased "n spee%h.
9 -el=-e==(l)ent 9ne> re$eal 0hysel= t" e.
May y"( ."th 6spee%h and ind7 .e the %arriers "= the Veda t" e.
May n"t all that I ha$e heard depart =r" e.
I shall 5"in t")ether 6i.e. ".literate the di==eren%e "=7 day
And ni)ht thr"()h this st(dy.
I shall (tter ;hat is $er.ally tr(e<
I shall (tter ;hat is entally tr(e.
May that 6!rahan7 pr"te%t e<
May 0hat pr"te%t the speaker 6i.e. the tea%her7> ay 0hat pr"te%t e<
May that pr"te%t the speaker ? ay 0hat pr"te%t the speaker.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
25
RIG-VEDA

I-1. 0he inner"st !rahan is A> U> M ? sayin) this a 1")i .e%"es
=ree =r" the %y%le "= .irth. 9> I ."; t" *arayana> ha$in) -ankha>
8hakra and Gada. 0he (pasaka ;ill )" t" Vaik(ntha.
I-2-#. 0he !rahap(ra is a l"t(s> shinin) like li)htnin) and lap. 0he
s"n "= De$aki is !rahanya 6a !rahana ;ith ## sa%raents7< s" are
Madh(s(dana> 4(ndarikaksha> Vishn( and A%hy(ta. *arayana is the
"ne> eJistin) in all %reat(res> the %a(sal pers"n ;ith"(t a %a(se.
I-5. 9ne d"es n"t s(==er editatin) (p"n Vishn( ;ith"(t isery and
ill(si"n ? there is n" =ear< "ne ;h" sees any here )"es =r" death t"
death.
I-6-+. In the iddle "= the heart-l"t(s It 6!rahan7 eJists ;ith
kn";led)e as the eye< the ;"rld> kn";led)e are esta.lished in
!rahan. 3e> the seeker> departs =r" this ;"rld ;ith this kn";led)e>
)ettin) all desires in the "ther ;"rld .e%"es i"rtal. Ghere there
is al;ays li)ht and $al(e> there the pers"n attains i"rtality ? 9
*aah.
II-1-1&. 0he Maya has )"ne a;ay =r" e> I a the p(re $isi"n< y
e)" has )"ne d";n> s" has the di==eren%e .et;een ;"rld> )"d and
s"(l. I a the inner-sel=> ;ith"(t p"siti$e and ne)ati$e r(les< I a the
eJpansi$e !liss< I a the ;itness> independent> eJertin) in y
)reatness< ;ith"(t "ld a)e and de%ay> "pp"sin) sides> p(re kn";led)e>
the "%ean "= li.erati"n< I a s(.tle ;ith"(t any attri.(tes.
I a ;ith"(t three H(alities> all ;"rlds eJists in y .elly< the
%han)eless %"ns%i"(sness> .ey"nd reas"n and a%ti"n> I ha$e n" parts>
(n."rn> p(re reality.
26
RIG-VEDA

I a endless kn";led)e> a(spi%i"(s> indi$isi.le> =a(ltless> reality
(n."(nded. I a t" .e kn";n .y A)aas> attra%ti$e t" all the ;"rlds.
I a p(re 5"y< p(rity> s"le> e$er shinin)> .e)innin)less< I ha$e
as%ertained the hi)hest 0r(th.
I kn"; ysel= ;ith"(t a se%"nd> ;ith dis%riinati"n. E$en then
!"nda)e and /i.erati"n are eJperien%ed. 0he ;"rld has )"ne a;ay
that appears t" .e real like serpent and r"pe< "nly !rahan eJists as
the .asis "= the ;"rld< there="re the ;"rld d"es n"t eJist< like s()ar
per$aded .y the taste "= the s()ar%ane> I a per$aded .y !liss. All the
three ;"rlds> =r" !raha t" the sallest ;"r are ia)ined in e.
In the "%ean there are any thin)s> =r" the .(..le t" the ;a$e< .(t
the "%ean d"es n"t desire these ? -" als"> I ha$e n" desire ="r thin)s "=
the ;"rld< I a like a ri%h-an n"t desirin) p"$erty. A ;ise pers"n
a.and"ns p"is"n =a$"(rin) Arita. 0he s(n ;hi%h akes the p"t
shine is n"t destr"yed al"n) ;ith the p"t< s" als" the spirit is n"t
destr"yed ;ith the ."dy.
I ha$e n" ."nda)e n"r li.erati"n> n" -hastra> n" G(r(. I ha$e )"ne
.ey"nd Maya ? let li=e )" a;ay "r let the ind .e atta%ked ? I ha$e n"
isery as I a =illed ;ith 5"y> I kn"; ysel=< I)n"ran%e has r(n a;ay
s"e;here ? I ha$e n" d"ership n"r d(ty> k(la and )"tra. 0hese
.el"n) t" the )r"ss ."dy> n"t t" e di==erent =r" it. 3(n)er> thirst>
.lindness> et%.> .el"n) t" the /in)a-deha "nly. D(llness> desire et%.>
.el"n) "nly t" the 'arana-deha.
2(st as t" an ";l the s(n is dark> s" als" ="r an i)n"rant pers"n there is
27
RIG-VEDA
darkness in !rahan . Ghen $isi"n is .l"%ked .y %l"(ds he thinks
there is n" s(n. 2(st as Arita> di==erent =r" p"is"n is n"t a==e%ted .y
its de=e%ts> I d" n"t t"(%h the de=e%ts "= Inertia. E$en a sall lap %an
re"$e .i) darkness< s" e$en a little kn";led)e destr"ys .i)
i)n"ran%e.
2(st as there is n" serpent in the r"pe at any tie> there is n" ;"rld in
e.
E$en pra%tisin) this ="r a (h(rta 6a sh"rt tie7 "ne d"es n"t ret(rn
6t" this ;"rld7.
9: May y spee%h .e .ased "n 6i.e. a%%"rd ;ith7 the ind<
May y ind .e .ased "n spee%h.
9 -el=-e==(l)ent 9ne> re$eal 0hysel= t" e.
May y"( ."th 6spee%h and ind7 .e the %arriers "= the Veda t" e.
May n"t all that I ha$e heard depart =r" e.
I shall 5"in t")ether 6i.e. ".literate the di==eren%e "=7 day
And ni)ht thr"()h this st(dy.
I shall (tter ;hat is $er.ally tr(e<
I shall (tter ;hat is entally tr(e.
May that 6!rahan7 pr"te%t e<
2+
RIG-VEDA

May 0hat pr"te%t the speaker 6i.e. the tea%her7> ay 0hat pr"te%t e<
May that pr"te%t the speaker ? ay 0hat pr"te%t the speaker.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the Ata."dh"panishad> as %"ntained in the Ri)-Veda.
2,
RIG-VEDA
4. Bahvricha Upanishad
9 : -pee%h is r""ted in y th"()ht 6ind7 and y th"()ht is r""ted
in y spee%h.
!e ani=est> patent> t" e< .e ye t;"> ="r e> the lyn%h-pins "= the
Veda.
/et n"t Vedi% l"re desert e.
Gith this astered l"re> I 5"in day ;ith ni)ht.
I shall speak ;hat is ri)ht< I shall speak ;hat is tr(e.
/et that pr"te%t e< let that pr"te%t the speaker.
/et that pr"te%t e.
/et that pr"te%t the speaker> pr"te%t the speaker :
9 : 4ea%e : 4ea%e : 4ea%e :
1. 9. 0he G"ddess ;as indeed "ne in the .e)innin). Al"ne she
eitted the ;"rld-e)). 6-he7 is kn";n as /"$eEs 4art 6IM7. 6-he7 is
kn";n as the hal=-sylla.i% instant a=ter 9M.
2. 9= 3er ;as !raha ."rn< ;as Vishn( ."rn< ;as R(dra ."rn. All
;ind-)"ds ;ere ."rn> %elestial instrels> nyphs> sei-h(an .ein)s
playin) "n instr(ents> ;ere ."rn 6"= 3er7> all ar"(nd. Ghat is
3&
RIG-VEDA
en5"yed ;as ."rn< e$erythin) ;as ."rn 6"= 3er7. E$erythin) "= 4";er
;as ."rn 6"= 3er7. 0he e))-."rn> the s;eat-."rn> the seed-."rn> the
;".-."rn> ;hate$er .reathes here> the stati"nary as ;ell as the
"$in)> and an ;ere ."rn 6"= 3er7.
3. -he> here> is the 4";er s(pree. -he> here> is the s%ien%e "=
-a.h(> 6kn";n7 either as the s%ien%e .e)innin) ;ith ka> "r as the
s%ien%e .e)innin) ;ith ha> "r as the s%ien%e .e)innin) ;ith sa. 0his is
the se%ret 9 )r"(nded in the ;"rd 9.
#. 4er$adin) the three %ities> the three ."dies> ill(inatin) ;ithin and
;ith"(t> -he> the 8"ns%i"(sness ;ithin> .e%"es the Maha-0rip(ra-
-(ndari> .ein) ass"%iated ;ith spa%e> tie and ".5e%ts.
5. -he al"ne is Atan. 9ther than 3er is (ntr(th> n"n-sel=. 3en%e is
-he !rahan-8"ns%i"(sness> =ree =r" 6e$en7 a tin)e "= .ein) and
n"n-.ein). -he is the -%ien%e "= 8"ns%i"(sness> n"n-d(al !rahan
8"ns%i"(sness> a ;a$e "= !ein)-8"ns%i"(sness-!liss. 0he !ea(ty "=
the three-)reat-%ities> penetratin) ;ith"(t and ;ithin> is resplendent>
n"n-d(al> sel=-s(.sistin). Ghat is> is p(re !ein)< ;hat shines is p(re
8"ns%i"(sness< ;hat is dear is !liss. -" here is the Maha-0rip(ra-
-(ndari ;h" ass(es all ="rs. 1"( and I and all the ;"rld and all
di$inities and all .esides are the Maha-0rip(ra--(ndari. 0he s"le
0r(th is the thin) naed `the !ea(ti=(lE. It is the n"n-d(al> inte)ral>
s(pree !rahan.
6. 0he =i$e="ld ="r relinH(ished
And e==e%ts like spa%e trans%ended>
Reains the "ne> the )reat .ein)>
0he s(pree Gr"(nd> the "nly 0r(th.
31
RIG-VEDA

7. It is de%lared either that `!rahan is 8"ns%i"(snessE "r that `I a
!rahanE. In dial")(e it is said@ `0h"( art 0hatE< "r `0his Atan is
!rahanE< "r `I a !rahanE< "r `!rahan al"ne a IE.
+. -he ;h" is %"nteplated as `0hat ;hi%h I aE "r `I a 3eE "r
`Ghat 3e is that I aE> is the -"dasi> the -%ien%e "= -ri> the =i=teen-
sylla.led 6s%ien%e7> the sa%red Maha-0rip(ra--(ndari> the Vir)in> the
M"ther> !a)ala> the Matan)i> the a(spi%i"(s "ne ;h" %h""ses her ";n
4artner> the Mistress "= the ;"rld> 8ha(nda> 8handa> the 4";er "=
the !"ar> -he ;h" $eils> the r"yal Matan)i> dark like a parr"t> li)ht
dark> "(nted "n a h"rse< "pp"sed t" An)iras< s"ke-.annered<
4";er "= -a$it(r> -aras$ati> Gayatri> part "= !rahi% .liss.
,. 0he s"n)s "= praise d;ell in the hi)hest sphere
Ghere d;ell all )"ds<
Gith Ri% ;hat ;ill he d" ;h" kn";s n"t this I
0hey ;h" kn"; this ;ell> they d;ell all ri)ht<
0his is the se%ret s%ien%e.
9 : -pee%h is r""ted in y th"()ht 6ind7 and y th"()ht is r""ted
in y spee%h.
!e ani=est> patent> t" e< .e ye t;"> ="r e> the lyn%h-pins "= the
Veda.
/et n"t Vedi% l"re desert e.
32
RIG-VEDA
Gith this astered l"re> I 5"in day ;ith ni)ht.
I shall speak ;hat is ri)ht< I shall speak ;hat is tr(e.
/et that pr"te%t e< let that pr"te%t the speaker.
/et that pr"te%t e.
/et that pr"te%t the speaker> pr"te%t the speaker :
9: 4ea%e : 4ea%e : 4ea%e :
3ere ends the !ah$ri%h"panishad> in%l(ded in the Ri)-Veda.
33
RIG-VEDA
5. Kaushitaki Brahmana
Upanishad
9 : May y spee%h .e .ased "n 6i.e. a%%"rd ;ith7 the ind<
May y ind .e .ased "n spee%h.
9 -el=-e==(l)ent 9ne> re$eal 0hysel= t" e.
May y"( ."th 6spee%h and ind7 .e the %arriers "= the Veda t" e.
May n"t all that I ha$e heard depart =r" e.
I shall 5"in t")ether 6i.e. ".literate the di==eren%e "=7 day
And ni)ht thr"()h this st(dy.
I shall (tter ;hat is $er.ally tr(e<
I shall (tter ;hat is entally tr(e.
May that 6!rahan7 pr"te%t e<
May 0hat pr"te%t the speaker 6i.e. the tea%her7> ay 0hat pr"te%t e<
May that pr"te%t the speaker ? ay 0hat pr"te%t the speaker.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
3#
RIG-VEDA

/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
I-1. 8hitra Gar)yayani> seekin) t" per="r a sa%ri=i%e> %h"se Ar(ni 6as
his priest7. 3e 6Ar(ni7 sent his s"n -$etaket( 6.iddin) hi t"7
"==i%iate 6as priest7. Ghen he 6%ae and7 sat> Gar)yayani asked hi@
`-"n "= Ga(taa : Is 6transi)rati"n7 terinated in the ;"rld in
;hi%h y"( ;ill pla%e e> "r is there any a."de in the ;"rld ;here y"(
;ill pla%e e IE 3e replied@ I kn"; this n"t.
Gell> let e ask 6y7 tea%her. 3e 6-$etaket(7 ;ent .a%k t" his =ather
and said@ `3e 6as a."$e7< asked e> h"; shall I ans;er IE 3e 6the
=ather7 said@ `I als" d" n"t kn"; this. /et (s p(rs(e "(r Vedi% st(dies
in his residen%e and )et ;hat 6in="rati"n7 "thers "==er. /et (s ."th
)"E.
0hen> ;ith =(el> in hand he 6Ar(ni7 ret(rned t" 8hitra Gar)yayani and
said> `/et e appr"a%h y"( as a dis%ipleE. 0" hi 6Ar(ni7 then> he
said@ `G"rthy "= sa%red kn";led)e are y"(> Ga(taa> ;h"
appr"a%hed e 6as a p(pil7. 8"e> I shall ake it kn";n t" y"(E.
I-2. 3e said @ `Gh"e$er depart =r" this ;"rld> all )et t" the ""n. In
the earlier hal= 6"= the l(nar "nth7 it 6the ""n7 =l"(rishes "n their
$ital .reaths< in the later hal=> it %a(ses the t" .e repr"d(%ed. 0he
""n $erily is the d""r "= the hea$enly ;"rld. Gh" s" ans;ers it
6ari)ht7> hi it sets =ree 6t" )" =(rther7. 6.(t7 hi ;h" d"es n"t
ans;er> ha$in) .e%"e rain> 6it7 rains d";n here. 3ere he .e%"es a
;"r "r an inse%t "r a =ish> "r a .ird> "r a li"n> "r a ."ar> "r a snake "r
a ti)er "r a pers"n "r s"e "ther in this "r that %"nditi"n a%%"rdin) t"
his deeds and kn";led)e. 3i ;h" has %"e th(s> "ne asks@ `Gh"
are y"( IE 3e sh"(ld reply@
`9 seas"ns> =r" the Resplendent 6""n7 the seed has .een )athered
as it ;as =allin) =r" the =i=teen-="ld 6the hal= l(nar "nth7 =r" the
35
RIG-VEDA
h"e "= the =athers. As s(%h> p(t e in a an as an a)ent. Gith the
an as an a)ent> in a "ther in=(se e.
`I a ."rn> .ein) ."rn ="rth as the t;el=th "r thirteenth s(%%eedin)
"nth .y eans "= t;el$e-="ld "r thirteen-="ld =ather 6the year7. In
the kn";led)e "= that a I< ="r the kn";led)e "= the "pp"site a I.
-" stri$e> 9 seas"ns> t" ake e i"rtal> .y that tr(th> .y that
a(sterity> I a a seas"n. I a "= the seas"n> Gh" are y"( I `I a y"(E.
3e lets hi )" =(rther.
I-3. `3a$in) entered (p"n this 4ath "= the )"ds> he %"es t" the ;"rld
"= F"re> 6then7 the ;"rld "= Air> 6then7 the ;"rld "= Var(na> 6then7 the
;"rld "= Aditya> 6then7 the ;"rld "= Indra< 6then7 the ;"rld "=
4ra5apati> 6then7 the ;"rld "= !raha. 0his ;"rld "= !raha has a
lake "= Ara> the "ents "= 1eshtihas the ri$er Vi5ara> the three Ilya>
the %ity -ala55a> the a."de Apara5ita> the d""r-keepers Indra and
4ra5apati> the hall Vi.h(> the thr"ne Vi%hakshana> the %"(%h
Aita(5as> the .el"$ed Manasi and her %"(nterpart 8haks(si> ;h"
takin) =l";ers $erily ;ea$e the ;"rlds> the "thers> the n(rses> the
nyphs and the ri$ers. 0" it %"es he ;h" kn";s this. 0" hi
!raha 6says7> `R(n ye. Gith y )l"ry $erily he has rea%hed the ri$er
Vira5a> the a)eless. 3e $erily ;ill n"t )r"; "ld.
I-#. `0" hi )" =i$e h(ndred Apsarases> h(ndred %arryin) )arlands>
h(ndred %arryin) "intents> h(ndred %arryin) ar"ati%s> h(ndred
;ith $estents> h(ndred ;ith =r(its. 0hey ad"rn hi ;ith the
"rnaents "= !raha. Ad"rned ;ith !rahaEs "rnaents> a kn";er
"= !raha )"es (nt" !raha. 3e %"es t" the lake Ara@ he %r"sses it
;ith his ind. 9n %"in) t" it> th"se ;h" kn"; 6"nly7 the iediate
6present7 sink. 3e %"es t" the "ents 1estihas these r(n a;ay
=r" hi. 3e %"es t" the ri$er Vira5a. 3e %r"sses it ;ith his ind
al"ne. 0here he shakes "== his )""d and e$il deeds. 3is dear relati"ns
s(%%eed t" the )""d deeds> th"se n"t dear t" the e$il deeds. 0hen 5(st
as "ne dri$in) a %hari"t l""ks at the ;heel "= the %hari"t> s" he l""ks
36
RIG-VEDA
(p"n day and ni)ht< s" (p"n )""d deeds and e$il deeds and (p"n "=
pairs "= "pp"sites. 0h(s he> the kn";er "= !rahan> de$"id "= )""d
deeds> de$"id "= e$il deeds> )"es "n t" !rahan.
I-5. 3e %"es t" the tree Ilya and the =ra)ran%e "= !raha enters int"
hi. 3e %"es t" the %ity -ala55a< the =la$"(r "= !raha enters int"
hi. 3e %"es t" the a."de Apara5ita< the i)ht "= !raha enters
hi. 3e %"es t" the d""r-keepers Indra and 4ra5apati< they r(n a;ay
=r" hi. 3e %"es t" the hall Vi.h(< the )l"ry "= !raha enters int"
hi. 3e %"es t" the thr"ne Vi%haksana< the !rihad and the
Rathantara saans are its t;" ="re-=eet< the `-yaita and *a(dhasa> the
t;" hind-=eet< the Vair(pa and the Vai%ha5a the t;" len)th;ise pie%es<
the -ak$ara and Rai$ata the t;" %r"ss "nes. It is Intelli)en%e< ="r .y
intelli)en%e "ne dis%erns.
3e %"es t" the %"(%h Aita(5as 6"= (neas(red splend"(r7< this is
the $ital .reath. 0he past and the =(t(re are its t;" ="re =eet< pr"sperity
and earth are the t;" hind-=eet< the !hadra and the 1a5naya5niya
6-aans7 the t;" head-pie%es. 0he !rihad and the Rathantara are the
t;" len)th;ise pie%es. 0he $erses and the %hants and the %"rds are
stret%hed len)th;ise. 0he sa%ri=i%ial ="r(las are the %r"ss "nes. -"e
stes are the spread< the Ud)itha the ."lster< pr"sperity the pill";. 9n
it !raha sits. 3e ;h" kn";s th(s as%ends it ;ith "ne =""t "nly at
=irst. !raha asks hi@ Gh" are y"( I 0" hi he sh"(ld ans;er@ I a
a seas"n> "= the seas"ns. Fr" spa%e as a ;". I a pr"d(%ed as the
seen ="r a ;i=e> as the .rillian%e "= the year> as the sel= "= e$ery
sin)le .ein). Ghat y"( are that a IE. 0" hi he says> `Gh" a IE.
I-6. -el= as 0r(th< it is the -el= "= all and is !rahan. 3e sh"(ld say>
`0he RealE. `Ghat is that> $iC.> the Real IE Ghat is "ther than the )"ds
6sense-"r)ans7 and the $ital .reaths> that is the sat 6;hat is7 As ="r the
)"ds and the $ital .reaths> they are the t$a 6the y"(7. 0his is
eJpressed .y the ;"rd satya. It is as eJtensi$e as all this. 1"( are
this ;"rld-all. 0h(s then he speaks t" hi. 0his $ery thin) has .een
eJpressed .y a Ri) $erse@
37
RIG-VEDA

3a$in) 1a5(s as her .elly> ha$in) the -aan as his head
3a$in) the Rik as his ="r iperisha.le.
Is !rahan ? th(s is he t" .e kn";n.
0he )reat seen %"nsists "n the Vedas.
3e says t" hi< `Ghere;ith d"es "ne a%H(ire any as%(line
naes IE 3e sh"(ld ans;er@
`Gith the $ital .reathE.
`Ghere;ith d"es "ne a%H(ire the =einine naesIE `Gith spee%hE.
`Ghere;ith the neater "nes IE Gith the indE.
`Ghere;ith the "d"(rs IE `Gith the sellE.
`Ghere;ith the ="rs IE `Gith the eyeE.
`Ghere;ith the s"(nds IE `Gith the earsE.
`Ghere;ith the taste "= =""d IE `Gith the t"n)(eE.
`Ghere;ith a%ti"ns IE `Gith t;" handsE.
`Ghere;ith pleas(re and pain IE `Gith the ."dyE.
`Ghere;ith .liss> deli)ht and pr"%reati"n IE `Gith the )enerati$e
"r)anE.
`Ghere;ith the )"in) IE `Gith the t;" =eetE.
3+
RIG-VEDA

`Ghere;ith th"()hts> ;hat is t" .e (nderst""d and desires IE `Gith
intelli)en%eE> he sh"(ld say.
0" hi he says> `0he ;aters> $erily> indeed are y ;"rld. 0hat is
y"(rs I Ghate$er $i%t"ry is !rahaEs> ;hate$er attainent> that
$i%t"ry he ;ins> that attainent he attains> ;h" kn";s this> ;h"
kn";s th(sE.
II-1. `4rana 6the $ital !reath7 is !raha> th(s indeed 'a(sitaki (sed t"
say. 9= this sae $ital !reath ;hi%h is !raha> $erily ind is the
essen)er< the eye the pr"te%t"r< the ear the ann"(n%er< spee%h the
en%l"ser. 3e ;h" $erily kn";s ind as the essen)er "= this Vital
!reath that is !raha .e%"es the essen)er. 3e ;h" kn";s eye as
the pr"te%t"r .e%"es p"ssessed "= a pr"te%t"r< he ;h" kn";s the ear
as the ann"(n%er .e%"es p"ssessed "= an ann"(n%er@ he ;h" kn";s
spee%h as the en%l"ser .e%"es p"ssessed "= an en%l"ser.
0" this $ital !reath as !raha all these )"ds 6i.e.> ind> a)e> ear>
spee%h7 .rin) "==erin)s (n.e))ed. /ike;ise> indeed> t" this $ital
!reath all .ein)s .rin) "==erin)s (n.e))ed.
0he se%ret d"%trine "= hi ;h" kn";s this@ 9ne sh"(ld n"t .e). It is
as i=> ha$in) .e))ed "= a $illa)e and n"t ha$in) re%ei$ed 6anythin)7>
"ne sh"(ld sit d";n sayin)> `I shall n"t eat 6anythin)7 that is )i$en
=r" hereE. 0h"se $ery "nes ;h" pre$i"(sly re=(sed n"; in$ite hi.
0his is the la; ="r "ne ;h" .e)s n"t. !(t th"se ;h" in$ite hi are the
)i$ers "= =""d 6sayin)7 `/et (s )i$e it t" y"(E.
II-2. `0he $ital !reath is !rahaE. 0h(s indeed 4ain)ya (sed t" say.
9= this $ital !reath "n !raha .ehind the spee%h the eye is en%l"sed<
.ehind the eye the ear is en%l"sed< .ehind the ear> the ind is
en%l"sed< .ehind the ind the $ital !reath is en%l"sed. 0" this sae
$ital !reath as !raha all these )"ds .rin) "==erin) (n.e))ed. E$en
3,
RIG-VEDA
s" t" this sae $ital !reath all .ein)s li$in) .rin) "==erin) (n.e))ed
"nly. 9= hi ;h" kn";s this the se%ret d"%trine is@ `9ne sh"(ld n"t
.e)E. It is as i=> ha$in) .e))ed and n"t ha$in) re%ei$ed 6anythin)7> "ne
sh"(ld sit d";n sayin) `I shall n"t eat 6anythin)7 that is )i$en =r"
hereE. 0h"se $ery "nes ;h" pre$i"(sly re=(sed n"; in$ite hi. 0his is
the la; ="r "ne ;h" .e)s n"t. !(t th"se ;h" in$ite hi are the )i$ers
"= =""d 6sayin)7 `/et (s )i$e t" y"(E.
II-3. *";> neJt> the pr"%(rin) "= the hi)hest treas(re.
I= "ne sh"(ld %"$et the hi)hest treas(re> either "n the ni)ht "= a =(ll
""n "r "n the ni)ht "= a ne; ""n "r d(rin) the .ri)ht hal= "= the
""n (nder an a(spi%i"(s %"nstellati"n ? at "ne "= these peri"ds ?
ha$in) .(ilt (p a =ire> ha$in) s;ept ar"(nd> ha$in) sh";n the sa%red
)rass> ha$in) sprinkled ar"(nd> ha$in) .ent the ri)ht knee> ;ith a
sp""n "r ;ith a ;""den .";l> "r ;ith a etal %(p> he "==ers ".lati"ns
"= elted .(tter 6;ith the ;"rds7<
0he di$inity naed spee%h is a pr"%(rer.
May it pr"%(re this thin) ="r e =r" s" and s". 0" it hail :
0he di$inity naed $ital !reath is a pr"%(rer.
May it pr"%(re this thin) ="r e =r" s" and s". 0" it hail :
0he di$inity naed eye is a pr"%(rer. May it pr"%(re this thin) ="r e
=r" s" and s".
0" it hail :
0he di$inity naed ear is a pr"%(rer. May it pr"%(re this thin) ="r e
=r" s" and s".
#&
RIG-VEDA
0" it hail :
0he di$inity naed ind is a pr"%(rer. May it pr"%(re this thin) ="r
e =r" s" and s".
0" it hail :
0he di$inity naed intelli)en%e is a pr"%(rer. May it pr"%(re this
thin) ="r e =r" s" and s".
0" it hail :
0hen ha$in) inhaled the sell "= the s"ke> ha$in) r(..ed his li.s
"$er ;ith the "intent "=
elted .(tter> silently he sh"(ld )" ="rth> de%lare his ".5e%t "r send a
essen)er. 3e ".tains here indeed.
II-#. *"; neJt the l"n)in) t" .e realiCed ;ith the di$ine p";ers.
I= "ne sh"(ld desire t" .e%"e .el"$ed "= a an "r "= a ;"an "r "=
en "r "= ;"en> at "ne
"= these sae p"ints "= tie> ha$in) .(ilt (p a =ire> he "==ers in eJa%tly
the sae anner> ".lati"ns "= elted .(tter> sayin) I `1"(r spee%h I
sa%ri=i%e in e> y"( s" and s"< 3ail :
1"(r $ital !reath I sa%ri=i%e in e> y"( s" and s"< 3ail :
1"(r eye I sa%ri=i%e in e> y"( s" and s"< 3ail :
1"(r ear I sa%ri=i%e in e> y"( s" and s"< 3ail :
1"(r ind I sa%ri=i%e in e> y"( s" and s"< 3ail :
1"(r intelli)en%e I sa%ri=i%e in e> y"( s" and s"< 3ail :
#1
RIG-VEDA
0hen ha$in) inhaled the sell "= the s"ke> ha$in) r(..ed his li.s
"$er ;ith a searin) "= the elted .(tter> silently he sh"(ld )" ="rth
and desire t" appr"a%h and t"(%h "r he ay siply stand and %"n$erse
=r" ;ind;ard. 3e .e%"es .el"$ed indeed.
0he l"n)in) ="r hi indeed.
II-5. *";> neJt> sel=-restraint a%%"rdin) t" 4ratardana "r the Inner
A)nih"tra as they %all it. Verily as l"n) as a pers"n is peakin)> he is
n"t a.le t" .reathe. 0hen he is sa%ri=i%in) $ital .reath in spee%h. As
l"n)> $erily> as a pers"n is .reathin)> he is n"t a.le t" speak. 0hen he
is sa%ri=i%in) spee%h in .reath. 0hese t;" are (nendin) i"rtal
".lati"ns. Gakin) "r sleepin)> "ne is %"ntin("(sly> (ninterr(ptedly
akin) the. *"; ;hate$er "ther ".lati"ns there are> they ha$e an
end> ="r they %"nsist "= ;"rks. 'n";in) this $ery thin)> $erily> the
an%ients did n"t "==er the A)nih"tra sa%ri=i%e.
II-6. *";> ;hat is !rahan : 0he Uktha 6Re%itati"n7 is !rahan
6sa%red ;"rd7 ? 0h(s indeed ;as -(shka.han)ara ;"nt t" say. 9ne
sh"(ld editate "n it as the Ri) 6the hyn "= praise7< Unt" hi indeed
all .ein)s sin) praise ="r his )reatness. 9ne sh"(ld editate "n it as
the 1a5(s 6the sa%ri=i%ial ="r(la7< Unt" hi indeed are all .ein)s
(nited ="r his )reatness. 9ne sh"(ld editate "n it as the -aan
6%hant7< Unt" hi indeed all .ein)s ."; d";n ="r his )reatness. 9ne
sh"(ld editate "n it as -ri 6.ea(ty7. 9ne sh"(ld editate "n it as
1asas 6)l"ry7< 9ne sh"(ld editate "n it as 0e5as 6splend"(r7. As this
6Uktha7 is the "st .ea(ti=(l> the "st )l"ri"(s> the "st splendid
a"n) the in$"%ati"ns "= praise 6-hastras7> e$en s" is he ;h" kn";s
this the "st .ea(ti=(l> the "st )l"ri"(s> the "st splendid a"n) all
.ein)s.
-" the Adh$ary( priest prepares this sel= ;hi%h is related t" the
sa%ri=i%e and ;hi%h %"nsists "= ;"rk. In it he ;ea$es ;hat %"nsists "=
#2
RIG-VEDA
the 1a5(s. In ;hat %"nsists "= the 1a5(s> the 3"tir priest ;ea$es ;hat
%"nsists "= the Ri). In ;hat %"nsists "= the Ri) the Ud)atir priest
;ea$es ;hat %"nsists "= the -aan. 0his is the sel= "= all the three-
="ld kn";led)e. And th(s he ;h" kn";s this .e%"es the sel= "=
Indra.
II-7. 0he all-%"nH(erin) 'a(sitaki indeed ;as ;"nt t" ;"rship the
risin) s(n> ha$in) per="red the in$estit(re ;ith the sa%red thread>
ha$in) =et%hed ;ater> ha$in) thri%e sprinkled the ;ater $essel sayin)>
` 1"( are a deli$erer< take y sin a;ayE. In the sae ;ay he ;as
6;"nt t" ;"rship the s(n7 ;hen it ;as in the ind-hea$en sayin)>
`1"( are the hi)h deli$erer> take y sin a;ay :E In the sae ;ay he
;as 6;"nt t" ;"rship the s(n7 ;hen it ;as settin) sayin). `1"( are the
=(ll deli$erer< take y sin =(lly a;ayE. Ghate$er sin he %"itted .y
day "r .y ni)ht that it takes a;ay.
/ike;ise als" he ;h" kn";s this ;"rships the s(n in the sae
anner. Ghate$er sin "ne %"its .y day "r .y ni)ht it takes a;ay
=(lly.
II-+. *";> "nth .y "nth at the tie "= the ne; ""n ;hen it
%"es r"(nd "ne sh"(ld> in the sae ;ay> ;"rship the ""n as it
appears in the ;est "r thr"; t;" .lades "= )rass t";ards it sayin)@
0hat heart "= ind> "= =air "(tlines
Ghi%h in the sky in ""n d"th rest>
I think I a kn";er "= that>
May I n"t ;eep ="r %hildrenEs ill.
Indeed his %hildren d" n"t pre-de%ease hi. 0h(s is it ;ith "ne t"
;h" a s"n has .een ."rn.
#3
RIG-VEDA

*"; in the %ase "= "ne t" ;h" a s"n has n"t .een ."rn. `In%rease.
May 6$i)"(r7 enter thee. May ilk and =""d )ather in thee> ay that
;hi%h the Adityas )ladden.E 3a$in) (ttered these three `e> $erses>
he says@ D" n"t in%rease .y "(r $ital .reath> .y "(r "==sprin)> .y "(r
%attle. 3e ;h" hates (s and hi ;h" ;e hate> in%rease .y his .reath>
.y his "==sprin)> .y his %attle. I t(rn ysel= ;ith IndraEs t(rn< I t(rn
ysel= al"n) ;ith the t(rn "= the s(nE. 0h(s he t(rns hisel=
t";ards the ri)ht ar.
II-,. 0h(s "n the ni)ht "= the =(ll ""n "ne sh"(ld ;"rship in the
sae ;ay the ""n as it appears in the east sayin)@ `1"( are the =ar
shinin) 'in) -"a> the =i$e-"(thed> the /"rd "= %reati"n. 0he
!rahana is "ne "(th "= y"(. Gith that "(th y"( eat the 'in)s.
Gith that "(th ake e an eater "= =""d. 0he 'in) is "ne "(th "=
y"(. Gith that "(th y"( eat the pe"ple. Gith that "(th ake e an
eater "= =""d. 0he ha;k is "ne "(th "= y"(. Gith that "(th y"( eat
.irds. Gith that "(th ake e an eater "= =""d. Fire is "ne "(th "=
y"(. Gith that "(th y"( eat this ;"rld. Gith that "(th ake e an
eater "= =""d. In y"( is a =i=th "(th. Gith that "(th y"( eat all
.ein)s. Gith that "(th ake e an eater "= =""d.E
II-1&. Gaste n"t a;ay ;ith "(r $ital .reath> "(r "==sprin)> "r %attle. 3e
;h" hates (s and hi ;h" ;e hate ? ;aste a;ay ;ith his $ital
.reath> his "==sprin)> his %attle. 0h(s I t(rn ysel= ;ith the t(rn "= the
)"ds< I t(rn ysel= ;ith the t(rn "= the s(n. A=ter;ards> he t(rns
hisel= t";ards the ri)ht ar.
*";> ;hen a."(t t" lie d";n ;ith a ;i=e "ne sh"(ld t"(%h her heart
and say@
0hat ;hi%h in thy heart> 9 =air "ne> is pla%ed-;ithin 4ra5apati.
0here;ith> 9 a(een "= I"rtality> ay y"( n"t %"e "n %hildrenEs
##
RIG-VEDA
ill.
3er %hildren d" n"t then pre-de%ease her.
II-11. *";> ;hen "ne has .een a;ay> "n ret(rnin)> he sh"(ld kiss his
s"nEs head and say@ Fr" e$ery li. "= ine are y"( ."rn. `Fr" y
heart are y"( ."rn< 9 s"n> y"( are indeed ysel=.
May y"( li$e a h(ndred a(t(ns l"n) : -" and s"> he takes his nae.
`!e%"e a st"ne : !e%"e an aJe. !e%"e (n%"nH(era.le )"ld. A
.rillian%e> s"n> indeed y"( are> s" li$e a h(ndred a(t(ns l"n) :E -"
and s"> he takes his nae.
0hen he e.ra%es hi sayin)> `Ghere;ith 4ra5apati e.ra%ed his
%reat(res ="r their ;el=are> there;ith I e.ra%e y"(> s" and s".
0hen he (tters in his ri)ht ear@ `8"n=er "n hi> 9 Ma)ha$an> 9
9nr(sherE and in his le=t 6ear7> `9 Indra> )rant "st eJ%ellent
p"ssessi"ns. D" n"t %(t "== 6the line "= "(r ra%e7. !e n"t a=raid< li$e a
h(ndred a(t(ns "= li=e. -"n I kiss y"(r head ;ith y"(r naeE. 0hri%e
he sh"(ld kiss his head. `I ake a l";in) "$er y"( ;ith a l";in) "=
%";sE. 0hri%e he sh"(ld ake a l";in) "$er his head.
II-12. *";> neJt> the dyin) ar"(nd "= the )"ds.
0his !rahan $erily shines ;hen the =ire .laCes< like;ise it dies ;hen
it .laCes n"t. Its .rillian%e )"es t" the s(n< its $ital .reath t" the ;ind.
0his !rahan $erily shines ;hen the s(n is seen< like;ise it dies
;hen it is n"t seen. Its .rillian%e )"es t" the ""n< its $ital .reath t"
the ;ind.
0his !rahan $erily shines ="rth ;hen the li)htnin) =lashes< like;ise
it dies ;hen it =lashes n"t. Its .rillian%e )"es t" the re)i"ns "= spa%e<
#5
RIG-VEDA
its $ital .reath t" the ;ind. All these di$inities> $erily> ha$in) entered
int" the ;ind> perish n"t ;hen they die in the ;ind. 0here =r">
indeed> they %"e ="rth a)ain. 0h(s ;ith re=eren%e t" the di$inities.
II-13. *";> ;ith re=eren%e t" the -el=.
0his !rahan> $erily> shines ="rth ;hen "ne speaks ;ith spee%h<
like;ise this dies ;hen "ne speaks n"t. Its .rillian%e )"es t" the eye<
its $ital .reath t" the $ital .reath. 0his !rahan $erily shines ;hen
"ne sees ;ith the eye< like;ise this dies ;hen "ne sees n"t. Its
.rillian%e )"es t" the ear< its $ital .reath t" the $ital .reath. 0his
!rahan $erily shines ;hen "ne hears ;ith the ear< like;ise this dies
;hen "ne hears n"t. Its .rillian%e )"es t" the ind< is $ital .reath t"
the $ital .reath. 0his !rahan> $erily> shines ;hen "ne thinks ;ith the
ind< like;ise it dies ;en "ne thinks n"t. Its .rillian%e )"es t" the
$ital .reath< its $ital .reath t" the $ital .reath. All these di$inities>
$erily> ha$e entered int" the $ital .reath perish n"t ;hen they did in
the $ital .reath. 0here=r"> indeed> they %"e ="rth a)ain. -"> $erily>
indeed> i= (p"n "ne ;h" kn";s this> ."th the "(ntains> the s"(thern
and the n"rthern> sh"(ld r"ll thesel$es ="rth seekin) t" %r(sh hi>
they ;"(ld n"t %r(sh hi. !(t th"se ;h" hate hi and th"se ;h" he
hisel= hates ? all these die ar"(nd hi.
II-1#. *";> neJt> the ass(pti"n "= s(peri"r eJ%ellen%e.
All these di$inities> $erily> disp(tin) a"n) thesel$es in re)ard t"
sel=-s(peri"rity ;ent ="rth =r" this ."dy. *"t .reathin)> it lay dry
like a pie%e "= ;""d. 0hen spee%h entered int" it. It 5(st lay speakin)
;ith spee%h. 0hen the eye entered int" it< it 5(st lay speakin) ;ith
spee%h> seein) ;ith the eye. 0hen the ear entered int" it< it 5(st lay
speakin) ;ith spee%h> seein) ;ith the eye> hearin) ;ith the ear. 0hen
the ind entered int" it< it 5(st lay speakin) ;ith spee%h> seein) ;ith
the eye> hearin) ;ith the ear> thinkin) ;ith the ind. 0hen the $ital
.reath entered int" it and then> indeed> it at "n%e ar"se. All these
#6
RIG-VEDA
di$inities> ha$in) $erily re%")nised t" s(peri"r eJ%ellen%e "= the $ital
.reath> ha$in) %"prehended the $ital .reath al"ne as the sel= "=
intelli)en%e> ;ent ="rth =r" this ."dy> all t")ether. 0hey ha$in)
entered int" the ;ind> ha$in) the nat(re "= spa%e ;ent t" the hea$enly
;"rld. /ike;ise als" indeed he ;h" kn";s this> ha$in) re%")nised the
s(peri"r eJ%ellen%e "= the $ital .reath> ha$in) %"prehended the $ital
.reath al"ne as the sel= "= intelli)en%e> )"es "(t "= the ."dy ;ith all
these. 3a$in) entered int" the ;ind> ha$in) the nat(re "= spa%e> he
)"es t" hea$en. 3e )"es there ;here these )"ds are. 3a$in) rea%hed
that> he ;h" kn";s this .e%"es i"rtal as the )"ds are i"rtal.
II-15. *";> neJt> the =ather-and-s"n %ere"ny "r the transissi"n> as
they %all it.
A =ather> a."(t t" depart> %alls his s"n. 3a$in) stre;n the h"(se ;ith
ne; )rass> ha$in) .(ilt (p the =ire> ha$in) pla%ed near it a $essel "=
;ater ;ith a 5()> hisel= %"$ered ;ith a =resh )arent the =ather
reains lyin). 3a$in) %"e> the s"n lies d";n "n t"p t"(%hin) "r)ans
;ith "r)ans. 9r 6the =ather7 ay transit t" hi seated =a%e t" =a%e.
0hen he deli$ers "$er t" hi 6th(s7@
Father@ My spee%h in y"( I ;"(ld pla%e.
-"n@ I take y"(r spee%h in e.
Father@ My .reath in y"( I ;"(ld pla%e.
-"n@ I take y"(r .reath in e.
Father@ My eye in y"( I ;"(ld pla%e.
-"n@ I take y"(r eye in e.
Father@ My ear in y"( I ;"(ld pla%e.
#7
RIG-VEDA
-"n@ I take y"(r ear in e.
Father@ My tastes "= =""d in y"( I ;"(ld pla%e.
-"n@ I take y"(r tastes "= =""d in e.
Father@ My deeds in y"( I ;"(ld pla%e.
-"n@ I take y"(r deeds in e.
Father@ My pleas(re and pain in y"( I ;"(ld pla%e.
-"n@ I take y"(r pleas(re and pain in e.
Father@ My .liss> deli)ht> pr"%reati"n in y"( I ;"(ld pla%e.
-"n@ I take y"(r .liss> deli)ht and pr"%reati"n in e.
Father@ My "$eent in y"( I ;"(ld pla%e.
-"n@ I take y"(r "$eent in e.
Father@ My ind in y"( I ;"(ld pla%e.
-"n@ I take y"(r ind in e.
Father@ My intelli)en%e in y"( I ;"(ld pla%e.
-"n@ I take y"(r intelli)en%e in e.
I=> h";e$er> he sh"(ld .e (na.le t" speak (%h> let the =ather say
s(arily> `My $ital .reaths in y"( I ;"(ld pla%eE and the s"n 6reply7
`1"( $ital .reaths I take in eE.
#+
RIG-VEDA
0hen t(rnin) t" the ri)ht he )"es t";ards the east. 0he =ather %alls "(t
a=ter hi@ `My )l"ry> sa%red l(st(re and =ae deli)ht in y"(E. 0hen the
"ther l""ks "$er his le=t sh"(lder. 3a$in) hid 6his =a%e7 ;ith his hand
"r ha$in) %"$ered 6it7 ;ith the ed)e "= his )arent> he says@ `May y"(
".tain hea$enly ;"rlds and all desiresE. I= the =ather sh"(ld .e%"e
;ell he sh"(ld d;ell (nder the l"rdship "= his s"n< "r> he sh"(ld
;ander 6as a endi%ant7. I=> h";e$er> he sh"(ld die let the per="r
".seH(ies as they sh"(ld .e per="red.
III-1. 4ratardana> the s"n "= Di$"dasa> .y eans "= =i)htin) and
$irility> $erily rea%hed the .el"$ed a."de "= Indra. 0" hi then Indra
-aid@ 4ratardana> %h""se a .""n. 0hen said 4ratardana@ D" y"(
y"(rsel= %h""se that .""n ="r e ;hi%h y"( dee "st .ene=i%ent ="r
an. 0" hi then Indra said@ A s(peri"r $erily %h""ses n"t ="r an
in=eri"r. D" y"( y"(rsel= %h""se. `*" .""n $erily then is it t" eE said
4ratardana. !(t Indra did n"t depart =r" the tr(th> ="r Indra is tr(th.
0" hi then Indra said@ `Understand e "nly. 0his indeed I dee "st
.ene=i%ent t" an> naely that "ne sh"(ld (nderstand e. I sle; the
three-headed 0$astir< I deli$ered the Ar(n(khas> the as%eti%s> t" the
;"l$es. 0rans)ressin) any %"pa%ts I killed the pe"ple "= 4rahlada
in the sky> the 4a(l"as in the at"sphere> the 'alakan5as "n the
earth. 9= e> s(%h as I ;as then> n"t a sin)le hair ;as in5(red.
-" he kn";s e th(s ? .y n" deed ;hate$er "= his is his ;"rld
in5(red> n"t .y stealin)> n"t .y killin) an e.ry"> n"t .y the (rder "=
his "ther> n"t .y the (rder "= his =ather. I= he has d"ne any e$il> the
dark %"l"(r departs n"t =r" his =a%e.
III-2. 0hen he 6Indra7 said@ I a the -pirit "= the $ital .reath> the
intelli)ent -el=. As s(%h> ;"rship e as li=e> as i"rtality. /i=e is the
$ital .reath@ the $ital .reath is li=e. F"r as l"n) as the $ital .reath
reains in the ."dy s" l"n) is there li=e. F"r indeed ;ith the $ital
.reath "ne ".tains i"rtality in this ;"rld< ;ith intelli)en%e> tr(e
%"n%epti"n. -" he ;h" ;"rships e as li=e> as i"rtality> rea%hes the
#,
RIG-VEDA
=(ll ter "= li=e in this ;"rld< he ".tains i"rtality and
indestr(%ti.ility in the hea$enly ;"rld.
*";> "n this p"int s"e say@ 0he $ital .reaths> $erily> )" int" a (nity@
6"ther;ise7 "ne ;"(ld n"t .e a.le at "n%e t" ake kn";n a nae .y
spee%h> a ="r .y the eye> a s"(nd .y ear> a th"()ht .y the ind. 0he
$ital .reaths> as a (nity> $erily> %a(se t" kn"; all thin)s here> "ne .y
"ne. All the $ital .reaths speak al"n) ;ith spee%h ;hen it speaks. All
the $ital .reaths see al"n) ;ith the eye ;hen it sees. All the $ital
.reaths hear al"n) ;ith the ear ;hen it hears. All the $ital .reaths
think al"n) ;ith the ind ;hen it thinks. All the $ital .reaths .reathe
al"n) ;ith the .reath ;hen it .reathes.
`0hat is indeed s"E> said Indra. 0here is h";e$er a s(peri"r eJ%ellen%e
a"n) the $ital .reaths.
III-3. 9ne li$es ;ith spee%h )"ne> ="r ;e see the d(..
9ne li$es ;ith eye )"ne> ="r ;e see the .lind.
9ne li$es ;ith ear )"ne> ="r ;e see the dea=.
9ne li$es ;ith ind )"ne> ="r ;e see the %hildish.
9ne li$es ;ith ars %(t "==< 9ne li$es ;ith le)s %(t "==< ="r th(s ;e
see.
!(t n"; it is the $ital .reath> e$en the sel= "= intelli)en%e> that seiCes
h"ld "= this ."dy and raises it (p. 0his> there="re> "ne sh"(ld ;"rship
as the Uktha. 0his is the all-".tainin) in the $ital .reath. As ="r the
$ital .reath> $erily> that is intelli)en%e< as ="r the intelli)en%e> $erily
that is $ital .reath. 0his is the $ie; there"=> this is the (nderstandin)
there"=.
5&
RIG-VEDA
Ghen a pers"n is s" asleep that he sees n" drea ;hate$er> then he
.e%"es "ne ;ith that $ital .reath. 0hen spee%h t")ether ;ith all
naes )"es t" it< the eye t")ether ;ith all ="rs )"es t" it< the ear
t")ether ;ith all s"(nds )"es t" it< the ind t")ether ;ith all th"()hts
)"es t" it. Ghen he a;akes> as =r" a .laCin) =ire sparks ;"(ld =ly in
all dire%ti"ns> e$en s" =r" this sel= the $ital .reaths pr"%eed t" their
respe%ti$e stati"ns< =r" the $ital .reaths> the )"ds 6the senses7< =r"
the )"ds> the ;"rlds. 0his sae $ital .reath> the sel= "= intelli)en%e>
seiCes h"ld "= the ."dy and raises it (p. 0his there="re "ne sh"(ld
;"rship as the Uktha. 0his is the all-".tainin) in the $ital .reath.
As ="r the $ital .reath> $erily that is the -el= as the intelli)en%e< as ="r
the intelli)en%e> that is the $ital .reath. 0his is the pr""= "= it> the
(nderstandin) "= it.
Ghen a ;eak pers"n is a."(t t" die> %"es t" s(%h ;eakness that he
=alls int" a st(p"r> they say "= hi> `3is th"()hts ha$e departed< he
hears n"t< he speaks n"t ;ith spee%h< he thinks n"tE.
0h(s he .e%"es "ne ;ith the $ital .reath al"ne. 0hen> spee%h
t")ether ;ith all naes )"es t" it< the eye t")ether ;ith all ="rs )"es
t" it< the ear t")ether ;ith all s"(nds )"es t" it< the ind t")ether ;ith
all th"()hts )"es t" it.
Ghen he departs =r" his ."dy> he departs t")ether ;ith all these.
Ghen he a;akens> as =r" a .laCin) =ire sparks ;"(ld =ly in all
dire%ti"ns> e$en s" =r" this -el= the $ital .reaths pr"%eed t" their
respe%ti$e stati"ns< =r" the $ital .reaths the )"ds< =r" the )"ds the
;"rlds.
III-#. Ghen he departs =r" the ."dy> spee%h p"(rs all naes int"
hi< .y spee%h he ".tains all naes. Vital .reath p"(rs all "d"(rs int"
hi< ;ith .reath he ".tains all "d"(rs. 0he eye p"(rs all ="rs int"
hi< ;ith the eye he ".tains all ="rs. 0he ear p"(rs all s"(nds int"
hi< ;ith the ear he ".tains all s"(nds. 0he ind p"(rs all th"()hts
51
RIG-VEDA
int" hi. Gith the ind he ".tains all th"()hts. 0his is the all-
".tainin) in the $ital .reath.
As ="r the $ital .reath> $erily that is the intelli)en%e. As ="r the
intelli)en%e> $erily that is the $ital .reath< ="r> t")ether> these t;"
d;ell in this ."dy< t")ether the t;" depart. *";> then> ;e ;ill eJplain
h"; all .ein)s .e%"e "ne ;ith this intelli)en%e.
III-5. -pee%h is "ne p"rti"n taken "(t "= it. *ae is its eJternally
%"rrelated ".5e%t eleent. !reath is "ne p"rti"n taken "(t "= it. 9d"(r
is its eJternally %"rrelated ".5e%t eleent. 0he eye is "ne p"rti"n taken
"(t "= it. F"r is its eJternally %"rrelated ".5e%t eleent. 0he ear is
"ne p"rti"n taken "(t "= it. -"(nd is its eJternally %"rrelated ".5e%t
eleent. 0he t"n)(e is "ne p"rti"n taken "(t "= it. 0aste "= =""d is its
eJternally %"rrelated ".5e%t eleent. 0he t;" hands are "ne p"rti"n
taken "(t "= it. G"rk is their eJternally %"rrelated ".5e%t eleent. 0he
."dy is "ne p"rti"n taken "(t "= it. 4leas(re and pain is its eJternally
%"rrelated ".5e%t eleent. 0he )enerati$e "r)an is "ne p"rti"n taken
"(t "= it. !liss> deli)ht and pr"%reati"n are its eJternally %"rrelated
".5e%t eleent. 0he t;" =eet are "ne p"rti"n taken "(t "= it. G"in)s
are their eJternally %"rrelated ".5e%t eleent. 0he ind is "ne p"rti"n
taken "(t "= it. 0h"()hts and desires are its eJternally %"rrelated
".5e%t eleent.
III-6. Gith spee%h> "(nted "n .y intelli)en%e> "ne ".tains all naes.
Gith the $ital .reath> "(nted "n .y intelli)en%e> "ne ".tains all
"d"(rs.
Gith the eye> "(nted "n .y intelli)en%e> "ne ".tains all ="rs.
Gith the ear> "(nted "n .y intelli)en%e> "ne ".tains all s"(nds.
Gith the t"n)(e> "(nted "n .y intelli)en%e> "ne ".tains all tastes.
52
RIG-VEDA

Gith the hands> "(nted "n .y intelli)en%e> "ne ".tains all ;"rks.
Gith the ."dy> "(nted "n .y intelli)en%e> "ne ".tains pleas(re and
pain.
Gith the )enerati$e "r)an> "(nted "n .y intelli)en%e> "ne ".tains
.liss> deli)ht and pr"%reati"n.
Gith the =eet> "(nted "n .y intelli)en%e> "ne ".tains all )"in)s.
Gith the ind> "(nted "n .y intelli)en%e> "ne ".tains all th"()hts>
;hat is t" .e (nderst""d .y th"()ht and desire.
III-7. F"r $erily ;ith"(t intelli)en%e spee%h ;"(ld n"t ake any nae
;hats"e$er kn";n.
`My ind ;as else;hereE "ne says> `I did n"t %")nise that naeE.
F"r $erily ;ith"(t intelli)en%e .reath ;"(ld n"t ake any "d"(r
;hats"e$er kn";n.
`My ind ;as else;hereE "ne says> `I did n"t %")nise that "d"(rE.
F"r $erily ;ith"(t intelli)en%e the eye ;"(ld n"t ake any ="r
;hats"e$er kn";n.
`My ind ;as else;hereE "ne says> `I did n"t %")nise that ="rE.
F"r $erily ;ith"(t intelli)en%e the ear ;"(ld n"t ake any s"(nd
;hats"e$er kn";n.
`My ind ;as else;hereE "ne says> `I did n"t %")nise the s"(ndE.
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F"r $erily ;ith"(t intelli)en%e the t"n)(e ;"(ld n"t ake any taste "=
=""d ;hats"e$er kn";n.
`My ind ;as else;hereE "ne says> `I did n"t %")nise that taste "=
=""dE.
F"r $erily ;ith"(t intelli)en%e the t;" hands ;"(ld n"t ake any
a%ti"n ;hats"e$er kn";n.
`My ind ;as else;hereE "ne says> `I did n"t %")nise that a%ti"nE.
F"r $erily ;ith"(t intelli)en%e the ."dy ;"(ld n"t ake kn";n any
pleas(re "r pain ;hats"e$er.
`My ind ;as else;hereE "ne says> `I did n"t %")nise that pleas(re
and painE.
F"r $erily ;ith"(t intelli)en%e the )enerati$e "r)an ;"(ld n"t ake
kn";n any .liss> deli)ht and pr"%reati"n ;hats"e$er. `My ind ;as
else;hereE "ne says> `I did n"t %")nise that .liss> deli)ht and
pr"%reati"nE.
F"r $erily ;ith"(t intelli)en%e the t;" =eet ;"(ld n"t ake kn";n
any )"in) ;hats"e$er. `My ind ;as else;hereE "ne says> `I did n"t
%")nise that )"in)E.
F"r $erily ;ith"(t intelli)en%e n" th"()ht ;hate$er ;"(ld .e e==e%ted>
n"thin) %")nisa.le ;"(ld .e %")niCed.
III-+. 9ne has t" ;in the p(re kn";led)e "= the (nity "= !rahan and
Atan.
-pee%h is n"t ;hat "ne sh"(ld seek t" kn";< "ne sh"(ld kn"; the
speaker.
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-ell is n"t ;hat "ne sh"(ld seek t" kn";< "ne sh"(ld kn"; the
seller.
F"r is n"t ;hat "ne sh"(ld seek t" kn";< "ne sh"(ld kn"; the seer.
-"(nd is n"t ;hat "ne sh"(ld seek t" kn";< "ne sh"(ld kn"; the
hearer.
0aste "= =""d is n"t ;hat "ne sh"(ld seek t" kn";< "ne sh"(ld kn";
the kn";er "= the taste "= =""d.
Deed is n"t ;hat "ne sh"(ld seek t" kn";< "ne sh"(ld kn"; the d"er.
4leas(re and pain are n"t ;hat "ne sh"(ld seek t" kn";< "ne sh"(ld
kn"; the dis%erner "=
pleas(re and pain.
!liss> deli)ht and pr"%reati"n are n"t ;hat "ne sh"(ld seek t" kn";<
"ne sh"(ld kn"; the dis%erner "= .liss> deli)ht and pr"%reati"n.
G"in) is n"t ;hat "ne sh"(ld seek t" kn";< "ne sh"(ld kn"; the )"er.
Mind is n"t ;hat "ne sh"(ld seek t" kn";< "ne sh"(ld kn"; the
thinker.
0hese ten essential eleents> $erily> are ;ith re=eren%e t" intelli)en%e.
0hese ten intelli)ential eleents are ;ith re=eren%e t" eJisten%e.
Verily i= there ;ere n" eleents "= eJisten%e> there ;"(ld .e n"
eleents "= intelli)en%e. Verily i= there ;ere n" eleents "=
intelli)en%e> there ;"(ld .e n" eleents "= eJisten%e. 0r(ly =r"
either al"ne> n" ="r ;hate$er ;"(ld .e p"ssi.le.
And this 6the -el= "= intelli)en%e7 is n"t di$erse. !(t as "= a %hari"t>
the =elly is =iJed "n the sp"kes and the sp"kes are =iJed "n the h(.>
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e$en s" these eleents "= eJisten%e are =iJed "n the eleents "=
intelli)en%e< the eleents "= intelli)en%e are =iJed "n the $ital .reath.
0his $ital .reath> tr(ly> is the -el= "= intelli)en%e@ 6it is7 .liss> a)eless>
i"rtal. 3e d"es n"t .e%"e )reater ;ith )""d a%ti"n n"r indeed
lesser ;ith .ad a%ti"n. 0his "ne tr(ly indeed %a(ses hi ;h" he
;ishes t" lead (p =r" this ;"rld t" per="r )""d a%ti"n. 0his "ne
als" indeed %a(ses hi ;h" he ;ishes t" lead d";n;ards t"
per="r .ad a%ti"n. 3e is the pr"te%t"r "= the ;"rld< he is the
s"$erei)n "= the ;"rld< he is the /"rd "= all. `3e is ysel=E ? this "ne
sh"(ld kn";. `3e is y -el=E ? 0his "ne sh"(ld kn";.
IV-1. *"; then $erily there ;as Gar)ya !alaki> a =aed Vedi%
s%h"lar. 3e d;elt a"n) the Ushinaras> the -at$ans and the Matsyas>
a"n) the '(r(s and the 4an%halas> a"n) the 'ashis and the
Videhas. 3a$in) %"e t" A5atasatr( "= 'ashi> he said> `/et e de%lare
!rahan t" y"(E. 0" hi then A5atasatr( said@ `A th"(sand 6%";s7 ;e
)i$e t" y"(E. At s(%h a ;"rd as this> $erily indeed pe"ple ;"(ld r(n
t")ether> %ryin) `A 2anaka : A 2anaka :E
IV-2. In the s(n the )reat> in the ""n the =""d> in the li)htnin) tr(th>
in th(nder s"(nd> in ;ind Indra Vaik(ntha> in spa%e the plen(> in =ire
the VanH(isher> in ;ater .rillian%e ? th(s ;ith re=eren%e t" the
di$inities. *";> ;ith re=eren%e t" the sel=< in the irr"r the re=le%ti"n<
in the shad"; the d"(.le> in the e%h" li=e> in s"(nd death> in sleep
1aa 6the /"rd "= Death7> in the ."dy 4ra5apati> in the ri)ht eye
spee%h> in the le=t eye tr(th.
IV-3. 0hen said !alaki@ 3i ;h" is this pers"n in the s(n> "n hi I
indeed editate. 0" hi A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t" %"n$erse "n
hi : As the )reat> the ;hite-r".ed> the -(pree> the head "= all
.ein)s ? th(s $erily d" I editate "n hi. 3e ;h" editates "n hi
th(s .e%"es indeed the s(pree> the head "= all .ein)s.
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IV-#. 0hen said !alaki@ `hi ;h" is the pers"n in the ""n> "n hi
indeed d" I editateE. 0" hi then A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t"
%"n$erse "n hi : I editate "n hi askin) -"a> as the sel= "= =""d.
3e ;h" editates "n hi th(s .e%"es indeed the sel= "= =""d.
IV-5. 0hen said !alaki@ `I editate "n the pers"n> indeed> ;h" is the
pers"n in the li)htnin)E. 0" hi then A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t"
%"n$erse "n hi : I editate "n hi as the sel= "= tr(th. 3e ;h"
editates "n hi th(s .e%"es indeed the sel= "= tr(th 6"= .rillian%e7.
IV-6. 0hen said !alaki@ I editate "n the pers"n in the 0h(nderE. 0"
hi then A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t" %"n$erse "n hi : I editate
"n hi as the sel= "= s"(nd. 3e ;h" editates "n hi th(s .e%"es
indeed the sel= "= s"(nd.
IV-7. 0hen said !alaki@ I editate "n the pers"n in ;indE. 0" hi then
A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t" %"n$erse "n hi : I editate "n hi
as Indra Vaik(ntha "r as the (n%"nH(ered ary. 3e ;h" editates "n
hi th(s .e%"es indeed the tri(phant> the (n%"nH(era.le> a
%"nH(er"r "= ad$ersaries.
IV-+. 0hen said !alaki@ I editate "n the pers"n in spa%eE. 0" hi
then A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t" %"n$erse "n hi : I editate "n
hi as the =(ll ""n-a%ti$e !rahan. 3e ;h" editates "n hi th(s
.e%"es =illed ;ith "==sprin)> %attle> =ae> the radian%e "= san%tity
and the hea$enly ;"rld> he rea%hes the =(ll ter "= li=e.
IV-,. 0hen said !alaki@ I editate "n the pers"n in =ireE. 0" hi then
A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t" %"n$erse "n hi : I editate "n hi
as the VanH(isher. 3e ;h" editates "n hi th(s .e%"e $erily a
$anH(isher "= "thers.
IV-1&. 0hen said !alaki@ I editate "n the pers"n in ;aterE. 0" hi
then A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t" %"n$erse "n hi : I editate "n
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hi as the -el= "= !rillian%e "= nae. 0h(s ;ith re=eren%e t" the
di$inities..
IV-11. *";> ;ith re=eren%e t" sel=.
0hen said !alaki@ I editate indeed "n the pers"n in the irr"rE. 0"
hi A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t" %"n$erse "n hi : I editate "n
hi as 6the re=le%ted7 likeness. 3e> then> ;h" editates "n hi th(s> a
$ery likeness "= hi is ."rn in his "==sprin)> n"t an (nlikeness.
IV-12. 0hen said !alaki@ I editate indeed "n the pers"n in the
shad";E. 0" hi A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t" %"n$erse "n hi : I
editate "n hi as the insepara.le D"(.le. 3e> then> ;h" editates
"n hi th(s ".tains =r" his se%"nd and .e%"es p"ssessed "= his
d"(.le.
IV-13. 0hen said !alaki@ I editate indeed "n the pers"n in the e%h"E.
0" hi A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t" %"n$erse "n hi : I editate
"n hi as li=e. 3e> then> ;h" editates "n hi th(s passes n"t int"
(n%"ns%i"(sness .e="re his tie.
IV-1#. 0hen said !alaki@ I editate indeed "n the pers"n in s"(ndE. 0"
hi A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t" %"n$erse "n hi : I editate "n
hi as Death. 3e> then> ;h" editates "n hi th(s d"es n"t die .e="re
his tie.
IV-15. 0hen said !alaki@ I editate indeed "n the pers"n ;h"> ;hile
asleep> "$es a."(t in dreaE. 0" hi A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t
t" %"n$erse "n hi : I editate "n hi as 'in) 1aa : 3e> then> ;h"
editates "n hi th(s> t" his s(prea%y e$erythin) here is s(.d(ed.
IV-16. 0hen said !alaki@ I editate "n the pers"n ;h" is in this ."dyE.
0" hi A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t" %"n$erse "n hi : I editate
"n hi as 4ra5apati. 3e then ;h" editates "n hi th(s is a()ented
5+
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;ith "==sprin)> %attle> =ae> the l(stre "= san%tity> the hea$enly ;"rld<
he rea%hes the =(ll ter "= li=e.
IV-17. 0hen said !alaki@ I editate "n the pers"n in the ri)ht eyeE. 0"
hi A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t" %"n$erse "n hi : I editate "n
hi as the sel= "= spee%h> the sel= "= =ire> the sel= "= li)ht. 3e then ;h"
editates "n hi th(s .e%"es the sel= "= all these.
IV-1+. 0hen said !alaki@ I editate "n the pers"n in the le=t eyeE. 0"
hi A5atasatr( said@ Make e n"t t" %"n$erse "n hi : I editate "n
hi as the sel= "= tr(th> the sel= "= li)htnin)> the sel= "= .ri)htness. 3e
then ;h" editates "n hi th(s .e%"es the sel= "= all these.
IV-1,. 0here(p"n !alaki ;as silent. 0" hi then A5atasatr( said@ -"
(%h "nly !alaki I `-" (%h "nlyE replied !alaki. 0" hi> then>
A5atasatr( said@ In $ain> indeed> did y"( ake t" %"n$erse sayin) `/et
e de%lare !rahan t" y"(E. 3e> indeed. !alaki> ;h" is the aker "=
these pers"ns> "= ;h" $erily this is the ;"rk> he al"ne is t" .e
kn";n.
0here(p"n !alaki> =(el in hand> appr"a%hed sayin)> `Re%ei$e e as a
p(pilE. 0" hi then A5atasatr( said@ `0his I dee a ="r 6"= %"nd(%t7
%"ntrary t" nat(re that a 'shatriya sh"(ld re%ei$e a !rahana as
p(pil. 6!(t %"e7. I shall ake y"( (nderstandE. 0hen takin) hi .y
the hand> he ;ent ="rth. 0he t;" then %ae (p"n a pers"n asleep. 0he
A5atasatr( %alled hi 6sayin)7 `9 Great> Ghite-r".ed 'in)> -"a :E
!(t he 5(st lay silent. 0hen he p(shed hi ;ith a sti%k. 3e )"t (p at
"n%e. 0" hi then A5atasatr( said@ Ghere in this %ase> 9 !alaki> has
this pers"n lain I
Ghat has .e%"e "= hi here I Ghen%e has he ret(rned here I
0here(p"n !alaki (nderst""d n"t. 0" hi then A5atasatr( said@ Ghere
in this %ase> 9 !alaki has this pers"n lain> ;hat has .e%"e "= hi
here> ;hen%e he has ret(rned here as I asked is the arteries "= a pers"n
5,
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6"= the heart7 %alled 3ita 6the .ene=i%ent7. Fr" the heart they spread
="rth t" the peri%ardi(. *"; they are as in(te as a hair di$ided a
th"(sand-="ld. 0hey %"nsist "= a in(te essen%e> reddish-.r";n>
;hite> .la%k> yell"; and red. In these "ne reains ;hile asleep< he
sees n" drea ;hats"e$er.
IV-2&. 0hen he .e%"es (nitary in this $ital .reath. 0hen spee%h
t")ether ;ith all naes )"es t" it< the eye t")ether ;ith all ="rs )"es
t" it< the ear t")ether ;ith all s"(nds )"es t" it< the ind t")ether ;ith
all th"()hts )"es t" it.
Ghen he a;akes> as =r" a .laCin) =ire sparks pr"%eed in all
dire%ti"ns> e$en s" =r" this -el= the $ital .reaths pr"%eed t" their
respe%ti$e stati"ns< =r" the $ital .reaths> the )"ds 6the sense
=a%(lties7< =r" the sense =a%(lties the ;"rlds. 0his $ery $ital .reath>
e$en this -el= "= intelli)en%e> has entered this ."dily sel= (p t" the hair
and the =in)ernail. 2(st as a raC"r i)ht .e hidden in a raC"r-%ase "r as
=ire in the =irepla%e> e$en s" this sel= "= intelli)en%e has entered this
."dily sel= (pt" the $ery hairs and nails. 9n that sel= these "ther sel$es
depend as (p"n a %hie= his ";n 6en7 "r as his ";n 6en7 are "=
ser$i%e t" a %hie=> e$en s" these "ther sel$es are "= ser$i%e t" that sel=
"= 6intelli)en%e7. Verily as l"n) as Indra did n"t (nderstand this -el=>
s" l"n) the As(ras "$er%ae hi. Ghen he (nderst""d this> strikin)
d";n and %"nH(erin) the As(ras> he attained pre-einen%e a"n) all
)"ds and all .ein)s> s"$erei)nty and "$erl"rdship.
/ike;ise als" he ;h" kn";s this> strikin) "== all e$ils> attains pre-
einen%e> s"$erei)nty and "$erl"rdship "$er all .ein)s ? he ;h"
kn";s this> yea> he ;h" kn";s this.
9 : May y spee%h .e .ased "n 6i.e. a%%"rd ;ith7 the ind<
May y ind .e .ased "n spee%h.
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RIG-VEDA
9 -el=-e==(l)ent 9ne> re$eal 0hysel= t" e.
May y"( ."th 6spee%h and ind7 .e the %arriers "= the Veda t" e.
May n"t all that I ha$e heard depart =r" e.
I shall 5"in t")ether 6i.e. ".literate the di==eren%e "=7 day
And ni)ht thr"()h this st(dy.
I shall (tter ;hat is $er.ally tr(e<
I shall (tter ;hat is entally tr(e.
May that 6!rahan7 pr"te%t e<
May 0hat pr"te%t the speaker 6i.e. the tea%her7> ay 0hat pr"te%t e<
May that pr"te%t the speaker ? ay 0hat pr"te%t the speaker.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the 'a(shitaki-!rahana Upanishad> as %"ntained in the
Ri)-Veda
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. Mud!ala Upanishad
9 : May y spee%h .e .ased "n 6i.e. a%%"rd ;ith7 the ind<
May y ind .e .ased "n spee%h.
9 -el=-e==(l)ent 9ne> re$eal 0hysel= t" e.
May y"( ."th 6spee%h and ind7 .e the %arriers "= the Veda t" e.
May n"t all that I ha$e heard depart =r" e.
I shall 5"in t")ether 6i.e. ".literate the di==eren%e "=7 day
And ni)ht thr"()h this st(dy.
I shall (tter ;hat is $er.ally tr(e<
I shall (tter ;hat is entally tr(e.
May that 6!rahan7 pr"te%t e<
May 0hat pr"te%t the speaker 6i.e. the tea%her7> ay 0hat pr"te%t e<
May that pr"te%t the speaker ? ay 0hat pr"te%t the speaker.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
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I. A -UMMAR1 9F 4URU-3A-U'0A
Ge shall eJplain the 4(r(sha-s(kta@ In `a th"(sand-headedE th"(sand
eans %"(ntless< the ;"rd `ten =in)ersE> eans in=inite distan%e> .y
the =irst stanCa Vishn(Es per$asi"n in spa%e is stated> .y the se%"nd the
per$asi"n in tie< the third speaks "= his )i$in) li.erati"n. 0he )l"ry
"= Vishn( is )i$en in `Eta$anE 6s" (%h is his )reatness7. 0he sae
stanCa states his ="(r-="ld nat(re. `0ripadE et%.> speaks "= the )l"ry "=
Anir(ddha. In `=r" that Virat ;as ."rnE has .een sh";n the "ri)in "=
4rakriti and 4(r(sha =r" a H(arter "= 3ari. !y `1at 4(r(shenaE the
sa%ri=i%e "= %reati"n is stated as ;ell as M"ksha. In `0asadE ;"rld
%reati"ns are stated. `VedahaE speaks "= 3ariEs )l"ry. !y `1a5nenaE is
stated the end "= %reati"n and li.erati"n. 9ne ;h" kn";s it .e%"es
li.erated.
II. 03E -U4REME M1-0ER1
In M(d)al"panishad the )reatness "= 4(r(sha-s(kta has .een stated in
detail. Vas(de$a instr(%ted the kn";led)e "= !ha)a$an t" Indra< a)ain
iparted t" the h(.le Indra the )reat ystery ;ith t;" se%ti"ns "=
the 4(r(sha-s(kta. 0hese t;" are@ 0he 4(r(sha des%ri.ed a."$e )a$e
(p the ".5e%t ;hi%h ;as .ey"nd the s%"pe "= nae and ="r> hard ="r
;"rldly pe"ple t" (nderstand and t""k a ="r ;ith a th"(sand parts
and %apa.le "= )i$in) M"ksha "n si)ht> ="r (pli=tin) the s(==erin)
De$as and "thers. In that ="r> per$adin) the ;"rld he ;as .ey"nd it
.y an in=inite distan%e. 0his *arayana ;as the 4ast> 4resent and the
F(t(re. And ;as the )i$er "= M"ksha t" all. 3e is )reater than the
)reatest ? n"ne is )reater than 3e.
3e ade hisel= int" ="(r parts and ;ith three "= the eJists in the
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hea$en. !y the ="(rth> the Anir(ddha 6="r "=7 *arayana> all ;"rlds
ha$e %"e t" .e. 0his 6part "=7 *arayana %reated 4rakriti 6Matter7 ="r
akin) the ;"rlds 64rakriti stands ="r the ="(r-=a%ed !raha7. In =(ll
="r the latter did n"t kn"; the ;"rk "= %reati"n ? this Anir(ddha-
*arayana t"ld hi.
!rahan : Meditate (p"n y"(r "r)ans as the sa%ri=i%e> the =ir ."dy
"= the sheaths as the ".lati"n> e as A)ni> the sprin) seas"n as )hee>
s(er as =(el> a(t(n as the siJ tastes "= =""d and ake the "==erin)
in A)ni and t"(%h the ."dy ? this ;ill ake the ."dy 6str"n) like7
Va5ra 6dia"nd7. 0hen%e ;ill appear the pr"d(%ts like anials. Fr"
the> the ;"rld "= "$in) and (n"$in) thin)s. It (st .e (nderst""d
that the anner "= li.erati"n is stated .y the %".inati"n "= 2i$a and
4araatan.
Gh"e$er kn";s this 8reati"n and /i.erati"n li$es a =(ll li=e.
III
0he sin)le G"d .e%"in) any< (n."rn> is ."rn as any. 0he
Adh$ary(s ;"rship hi as A)ni. 0his as 1a5(s (nites e$erythin). 0he
-aa$edins ;"rship as -aan. All is esta.lished in hi. 0he serpents
editate "n his as p"is"n. 0he kn";ers "= snake-l"re as snake> )"ds
as ener)y> en as ;ealth> De"ns as Ma)i%> the anes as s(stenan%e.
0he kn";ers "= the s(perh(an as s(perh(an. Gandhar$as as
.ea(ty> Apsarases as per=(e. 3e .e%"es ;hate$er he is ;"rshipped
as< s"> "ne sh"(ld think `I a the s(pree .ein)E and ;ill .e%"e that
6;h" kn";s this7.
IV. 9*/1 !RA3MA* GI03 03E 03REEF9/D MI--I*G I- 2IVA
!ey"nd the three="ld isery> =ree =r" layers de$"id "= the siJ ;a$es>
6#
RIG-VEDA
"ther than the =i$e sheaths> (na==e%ted .y the siJ trans="rati"ns is the
!rahan. 0he three iseries are Adhyatika 6."dy disease7>
Adhi.ha(tika 6r"..ers> ;ild anials et%.>7 and Adhidai$ika 6rains
et%.>7. 0hey relate t" a)ents> a%ti"n and e==e%t< kn";er> kn";led)e and
the kn";n< eJperien%er> eJperien%e and the eJperien%ed. 0he siJ
layers are skin> =lesh> .l""d> ."nes> tend"ns and "rr";. 0he siJ
eneies are l(st et%. 0he =i$e sheaths are th"se "= =""d> $ital airs>
ind %")niti"n and .liss. 0he siJ trans="rati"ns are@ .ein)> .irth>
)r";th> %han)e> de%line and destr(%ti"n. 0he siJ ;a$es are h(n)er>
thirst> s"rr";> del(si"n> "ld a)e and death. 0he siJ del(si"ns are a."(t
=aily> linea)e> %lass> %aste> stati"ns 6ashraa7 and ="rs. 0hr"()h
%"nta%t ;ith the s(pree spirit .e%"es the 2i$a ? he is n"ne "ther.
3e ;h" st(dies this is p(ri=ied in =ire> ;ind and s(n< has health and
;ealth> .e%"es ri%h in %hildren and )rand%hildren> a s%h"lar> p(ri=ied
=r" )reat sin> drink> ipr"per %"nta%t ;ith "ther> da()hter and
da()hter-in-la;> stealin) )"ld> ="r)ettin) Vedi% learnin)> =ail(re t"
ser$e elders> sa%ri=i%in) ="r the (n=it> eatin) ;hat sh"(ld n"t .e> ;r"n)
)i=ts> %"nta%t ;ith an"therEs ;i=e> (na==e%ted .y l(st et%.> .e%"es the
pristine !rahan in this .irth. 0here="re "ne sh"(ld n"t ipart t" an
(ninitiated pers"n this 4(r(sha-s(kta ;hi%h is a se%ret> n"r t" "ne ;h"
d"es n"t kn"; the Vedas> a n"n-sa%ri=i%er> a n"n-Vaishna$a> n"n-
1")in> a talkati$e pers"n> a harsh talker> "ne ;h" takes "re than a
year t" learn> the dis%"ntented.
0he G(r( shall ipart this in a p(re pla%e> "n a sa%red star> a=ter
re)(latin) the $ital airs t" the h(.le dis%iple> in the ri)ht ear. It
sh"(ld n"t .e d"ne t"" "=ten ? it ;"(ld .e%"e stale .(t as "=ten as
needed> in the ear.
0h(s ."th the tea%her and the ta()ht ;ill .e%"e 4(r(sha in this .irth.
0his is the Upanishad.
65
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9: May y spee%h .e .ased "n 6i.e. a%%"rd ;ith7 the ind<
May y ind .e .ased "n spee%h.
9 -el=-e==(l)ent 9ne> re$eal 0hysel= t" e.
May y"( ."th 6spee%h and ind7 .e the %arriers "= the Veda t" e.
May n"t all that I ha$e heard depart =r" e.
I shall 5"in t")ether 6i.e. ".literate the di==eren%e "=7 day
And ni)ht thr"()h this st(dy.
I shall (tter ;hat is $er.ally tr(e<
I shall (tter ;hat is entally tr(e.
May that 6!rahan7 pr"te%t e<
May 0hat pr"te%t the speaker 6i.e. the tea%her7> ay 0hat pr"te%t e<
May that pr"te%t the speaker ? ay 0hat pr"te%t the speaker.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the M(d)al"panishad> as %"ntained in the Ri)-Veda.
66
RIG-VEDA
". #ada Bindu Upanishad
9 : May y spee%h .e .ased "n 6i.e. a%%"rd ;ith7 the ind<
May y ind .e .ased "n spee%h.
9 -el=-e==(l)ent 9ne> re$eal 0hysel= t" e.
May y"( ."th 6spee%h and ind7 .e the %arriers "= the Veda t" e.
May n"t all that I ha$e heard depart =r" e.
I shall 5"in t")ether 6i.e. ".literate the di==eren%e "=7 day
And ni)ht thr"()h this st(dy.
I shall (tter ;hat is $er.ally tr(e<
I shall (tter ;hat is entally tr(e.
May that 6!rahan7 pr"te%t e<
May 0hat pr"te%t the speaker 6i.e. the tea%her7> ay 0hat pr"te%t e<
May that pr"te%t the speaker ? ay 0hat pr"te%t the speaker.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
67
RIG-VEDA

1. 0he sylla.le `AE is %"nsidered t" .e its 6the .ird 9Es7 ri)ht ;in)>
`UpanishadE> its le=t< `ME> its tail< and the Ardha-Matra 6hal=-etre7 is
said t" .e its head.
2. 0he 6Ra5asi% and 0aasi%7 H(alities> its =eet (p;ards 6t" the l"ins7<
-att$a> its 6ain7 ."dy< Dhara is %"nsidered t" .e its ri)ht eye> and
Adhara> its le=t.
3. 0he !h(r-/"ka is sit(ated in its =eet< the !h($ar-/"ka> in its knees<
the -($ar-/"ka> in its l"ins< and the Mahar-/"ka> in its na$el.
#. In its heart is sit(ate the 2an"l"ka< 0ap"l"ka in its thr"at and the
-atya-/"ka in the %entre "= the ="rehead .et;een the eye.r";s.
56a7. 0hen the Matra 6"r Mantra7 .ey"nd the -ahasrara 6th"(sand-
rayed7 is eJplained 6$iC.>7 sh"(ld .e eJplained.
56.7-66a7. An adept in 1")a ;h" .estrides the 3asa 6.ird7 th(s 6$iC.>
%"nteplates "n 97 is n"t a==e%ted .y 'ari% in=l(en%es "r .y tens
"= 8r"res "= sins.
66.7-7. 0he =irst Matra has A)ni as its De$ata 6presidin) deity7< the
se%"nd> Vay( as its De$ata< the neJt Matra is resplendent like the
sphere "= the s(n and the last> Ardha-Matra the ;ise kn"; as
.el"n)in) t" Var(na 6the presidin) deity "= ;ater7.
+. Ea%h "= these Matras has indeed three 'alas 6parts7. 0his is %alled
9kara. 'n"; it .y eans "= the Dharanas> $iC.> %"n%entrati"n "n
ea%h "= the t;el$e 'alas 6"r the $ariati"ns "= the Matras pr"d(%ed .y
the di==eren%e "= -$aras "r int"nati"n7.
,-11. 0he =irst Matra is %alled Gh"shini< the se%"nd> Vidy(nali 6"r
6+
RIG-VEDA
Vidy(natra7< the third> 4atan)ini< the ="(rth> Vay($e)ini< the =i=th>
*aadheya< the siJth> Aindri< the se$enth> Vaishna$i< the ei)hth>
-ankari< the ninth> Mahati< the tenth> Dhriti 6Dhr($a7< the ele$enth>
*ari 6Ma(ni7< and the t;el=th> !rahi.
12. I= a pers"n happens t" die in the =irst Matra 6;hile %"nteplatin)
"n it7> he is ."rn a)ain as a )reat eper"r in !harata$arsha.
13. I= in the se%"nd Matra> he .e%"es an ill(stri"(s 1aksha< i= in the
third Matra> a Vidyadhara< i= in the ="(rth> a Gandhar$a 6these three
.ein) the %elestial h"sts7.
1#. I= he happens t" die in the =i=th> $iC.> Ardha-Matra> he li$es in the
;"rld "= the ""n> ;ith the rank "= a De$a )reatly )l"ri=ied there.
15. I= in the siJth> he er)es> int" Indra< i= in the se$enth> he rea%hes
the seat "= Vishn(< i= in the ei)hth> R(dra> the /"rd "= all %reat(res.
16. I= in the ninth> in Mahar-/"ka< i= in the tenth> in 2an"l"ka
6Dhr($a-/"ka -- I7< i= in the ele$enth> 0ap"l"ka> and i= in the t;el=th>
he attains the eternal state "= !raha.
17. 0hat ;hi%h is .ey"nd these> 6$iC.>7 4ara-!rahan ;hi%h is .ey"nd
6the a."$e Matras7> the p(re> the all-per$adin)> .ey"nd 'alas> the e$er
resplendent and the s"(r%e "= all 2y"tis 6li)ht7 sh"(ld .e kn";n.
1+. Ghen the ind )"es .ey"nd the "r)ans and the G(nas and is
a.s"r.ed> ha$in) n" separate eJisten%e and n" ental a%ti"n> then 6the
G(r(7 sh"(ld instr(%t hi 6as t" his =(rther %"(rse "= de$el"pent7.
1,. 0hat pers"n al;ays en)a)ed in its %"nteplati"n and al;ays
a.s"r.ed in it sh"(ld )rad(ally lea$e "== his ."dy 6"r =aily7
="ll";in) the %"(rse "= 1")a and a$"idin) all inter%"(rse ;ith s"%iety.
6,
RIG-VEDA
2&. 0hen he> .ein) =reed =r" the ."nds "= kara and the eJisten%e as
a 2i$a and .ein) p(re> en5"ys the s(pree .liss .y his attainin) "= the
state "= !raha.
21. 9 intelli)ent an> spend y"(r li=e al;ays in the kn";in) "= the
s(pree .liss> en5"yin) the ;h"le "= y"(r 4rara.dha 6that p"rti"n "=
past 'ara n"; .ein) en5"yed7 ;ith"(t akin) any %"plaint 6"= it7.
22-236a7. E$en a=ter Ata-2nana 6kn";led)e "= Atan "r -el=7 has
a;akened 6in "ne7> 4rara.dha d"es n"t lea$e 6hi7< .(t he d"es n"t
=eel 4rara.dha a=ter the da;nin) "= 0att$a-2nana 6kn";led)e "= 0att$a
"r tr(th7 .e%a(se the ."dy and "ther thin)s are Asat 6(nreal7> like the
thin)s seen in a drea t" "ne "n a;akin) =r" it.
236.7-2#. 0hat 6p"rti"n "= the7 'ara ;hi%h is d"ne in ="rer .irths
and %alled 4rara.dha d"es n"t at all a==e%t the pers"n 60att$a-2nani7> as
there is n" re.irth t" hi. As the ."dy that eJists in the dreain) state
is (ntr(e> s" is this ."dy.
256a7. Ghere then is re.irth t" a thin) that is ill(s"ry I 3"; %an a
thin) ha$e any eJisten%e> ;hen there is n" .irth 6t" it7 I
256.7-266a7. As the %lay is the aterial %a(se "= the p"t s" "ne learns
=r" Vedanta that A5nana is the aterial %a(se "= the (ni$erse and
;hen A5nana %eases t" eJist> ;here then is the %"s"s I
266.7-27. As a pers"n thr"()h ill(si"n istakes a r"pe ="r a serpent>
s" the =""l n"t kn";in) -atya 6the eternal tr(th7 sees the ;"rld 6t" .e
tr(e7. Ghen he kn";s it t" .e a pie%e "= r"pe> the ill(s"ry idea "= a
serpent $anishes.
2+-2,6a7. -" ;hen he kn";s the eternal s(.strat( "= e$erythin) and
all the (ni$erse .e%"es 6there="re7 $"id 6t" hi7> ;here then is
4rara.dha t" hi> the ."dy .ein) a part "= the ;"rld I 0here="re the
7&
RIG-VEDA
;"rd 4rara.dha is a%%epted t" enli)hten the i)n"rant 6"nly7.
2,6.7-3&. 0hen as 4rara.dha has> in %"(rse "= tie> ;"rn "(t> he ;h"
is the s"(nd res(ltin) =r" the (ni"n "= 4rana$a ;ith !rahan ;h" is
the a.s"l(te e==(l)en%e itsel=> and ;h" is the .est";er "= all )""d>
shines hisel= like the s(n at the dispersi"n "= the %l"(ds.
31. 0he 1")in .ein) in the -iddhasana 6p"st(re7 and pra%tisin) the
Vaishna$i-M(dra> sh"(ld al;ays hear the internal s"(nd thr"()h the
ri)ht ear.
32. 0he s"(nd ;hi%h he th(s pra%tises akes hi dea= t" all eJternal
s"(nds. 3a$in) "$er%"e all ".sta%les> he enters the 0(rya state
;ithin =i=teen days.
33. In the .e)innin) "= his pra%ti%e> he hears any l"(d s"(nds. 0hey
)rad(ally in%rease in pit%h and are heard "re and "re s(.tly.
3#. At =irst> the s"(nds are like th"se pr"%eedin) =r" the "%ean>
%l"(ds> kettle-dr( and %atara%ts< in the iddle 6sta)e7 th"se
pr"%eedin) =r" Mardala 6a (si%al instr(ent7> .ell and h"rn.
35. At the last sta)e> th"se pr"%eedin) =r" tinklin) .ells> =l(te> Vina
6a (si%al instr(ent7 and .ees. 0h(s he hears any s(%h s"(nds
"re and "re s(.tle.
36. Ghen he %"es t" that sta)e ;hen the s"(nd "= the )reat kettle-
dr( is .ein) heard> he sh"(ld try t" distin)(ish "nly s"(nds "re
and "re s(.tle.
37. 3e ay %han)e his %"n%entrati"n =r" the )r"ss s"(nd t" the
s(.tle> "r =r" the s(.tle t" the )r"ss> .(t he sh"(ld n"t all"; his
ind t" .e di$erted =r" the t";ards "thers.
71
RIG-VEDA
3+. 0he ind ha$in) at =irst %"n%entrated itsel= "n any "ne s"(nd =iJes
=irly t" that and is a.s"r.ed in it.
3,. It 6the ind7 .e%"in) insensi.le t" the eJternal ipressi"ns>
.e%"es "ne ;ith the s"(nd as ilk ;ith ;ater and then .e%"es
rapidly a.s"r.ed in 8hidakasa 6the Akasa ;here 8hit pre$ails7.
#&. !ein) indi==erent t";ards all ".5e%ts> the 1")in ha$in) %"ntr"lled
his passi"ns> sh"(ld .y %"ntin(al pra%ti%e %"n%entrate his attenti"n
(p"n the s"(nd ;hi%h destr"ys the ind.
#1. 3a$in) a.and"ned all th"()hts and .ein) =reed =r" all a%ti"ns>
he sh"(ld al;ays %"n%entrate his attenti"n "n the s"(nd and 6then7 his
8hitta .e%"es a.s"r.ed in it.
#2-#36a7. 2(st as the .ee drinkin) the h"ney 6al"ne7 d"es n"t %are ="r
the "d"(r> s" the 8hitta ;hi%h is al;ays a.s"r.ed in s"(nd> d"es n"t
l"n) ="r sens(al ".5e%ts> as it is ."(nd .y the s;eet sell "= *ada and
has a.and"ned its =littin) nat(re.
#36.7-##6a7. 0he serpent 8hitta thr"()h listenin) t" the *ada is
entirely a.s"r.ed in it and .e%"in) (n%"ns%i"(s "= e$erythin)
%"n%entrates itsel= "n the s"(nd.
##6.7-#56a7. 0he s"(nd ser$es the p(rp"se "= a sharp )"ad t" %"ntr"l
the addened elephant ? 8hitta ;hi%h r"$es in the pleas(re-)arden "=
the sens(al ".5e%ts.
#56.7-#66a7. It ser$es the p(rp"se "= a snare ="r .indin) the deer ?
8hitta. It als" ser$es the p(rp"se "= a sh"re t" the "%ean ;a$es "=
8hitta.
#66.7-#76a7. 0he s"(nd pr"%eedin) =r" 4rana$a ;hi%h is !rahan is
"= the nat(re "= e==(l)en%e< the ind .e%"es a.s"r.ed in it< that is
72
RIG-VEDA
the s(pree seat "= Vishn(.
#76.7-#+6a7. 0he s"(nd eJists till there is the Akasi% %"n%epti"n
6Akasa--ankalpa7. !ey"nd this> is the 6Asa.da7 s"(ndless 4ara-
!rahan ;hi%h is 4araatan.
#+6.7. 0he ind eJists s" l"n) as there is s"(nd> .(t ;ith its 6s"(ndEs
%essati"n7 there is the state %alled Unani "= Manas 6$iC.> the state "=
.ein) a."$e the ind7.
#,6a7. 0his s"(nd is a.s"r.ed in the Akshara 6indestr(%ti.le7 and the
s"(ndless state is the s(pree seat.
#,6.7-5&6a7. 0he ind ;hi%h al"n) ;ith 4rana 6Vay(7 has 6its7 'ari%
a==inities destr"yed .y the %"nstant %"n%entrati"n (p"n *ada is
a.s"r.ed in the (nstained 9ne. 0here is n" d"(.t "= it.
5&6.7-516a7. Many yriads "= *adas and any "re "= !ind(s ? 6all7
.e%"e a.s"r.ed in the !raha-4rana$a s"(nd.
516.7-526a7. !ein) =reed =r" all states and all th"()hts ;hate$er> the
1")in reains like "ne dead. 3e is a M(kta. 0here is n" d"(.t a."(t
this.
526.7. A=ter that> he d"es n"t at any tie hear the s"(nds "= %"n%h "r
D(nd(.hi 6lar)e kettle dr(7.
53. 0he ."dy in the state "= Unani is %ertainly like a l") and d"es
n"t =eel heat "r %"ld> 5"y "r
s"rr";.
5#. 0he 1")inEs 8hitta ha$in) )i$en (p =ae "r dis)ra%e is in -aadhi
a."$e the three states.
73
RIG-VEDA
55. !ein) =reed =r" the ;akin) and the sleepin) states> he attains t"
his tr(e state.
56. Ghen the 6spirit(al7 si)ht .e%"es =iJed ;ith"(t any ".5e%t t" .e
seen> ;hen the Vay( 64rana7 .e%"es still ;ith"(t any e=="rt> and
;hen the 8hitta .e%"es =ir ;ith"(t any s(pp"rt> he .e%"es "= the
="r "= the internal s"(nd "= !raha-4rana$a.
-(%h is the Upanishad.
9 : May y spee%h .e .ased "n 6i.e. a%%"rd ;ith7 the ind<
May y ind .e .ased "n spee%h.
9 -el=-e==(l)ent 9ne> re$eal 0hysel= t" e.
May y"( ."th 6spee%h and ind7 .e the %arriers "= the Veda t" e.
May n"t all that I ha$e heard depart =r" e.
I shall 5"in t")ether 6i.e. ".literate the di==eren%e "=7 day
And ni)ht thr"()h this st(dy.
I shall (tter ;hat is $er.ally tr(e<
I shall (tter ;hat is entally tr(e.
May that 6!rahan7 pr"te%t e<
May 0hat pr"te%t the speaker 6i.e. the tea%her7> ay 0hat pr"te%t e<
7#
RIG-VEDA
May that pr"te%t the speaker ? ay 0hat pr"te%t the speaker.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the *ada.ind( Upanishad> as %"ntained in the Ri)-Veda.
75
RIG-VEDA
$. #irvana Upanishad
9 : May y spee%h .e .ased "n 6i.e. a%%"rd ;ith7 the ind<
May y ind .e .ased "n spee%h.
9 -el=-e==(l)ent 9ne> re$eal 0hysel= t" e.
May y"( ."th 6spee%h and ind7 .e the %arriers "= the Veda t" e.
May n"t all that I ha$e heard depart =r" e.
I shall 5"in t")ether 6i.e. ".literate the di==eren%e "=7 day
And ni)ht thr"()h this st(dy.
I shall (tter ;hat is $er.ally tr(e<
I shall (tter ;hat is entally tr(e.
May that 6!rahan7 pr"te%t e<
May 0hat pr"te%t the speaker 6i.e. the tea%her7> ay 0hat pr"te%t e<
May that pr"te%t the speaker ? ay 0hat pr"te%t the speaker.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
76
RIG-VEDA

1. *"; ;e shall eJp"(nd the *ir$an"panishad.
2. 0he 4araahasa@ I a 3e.
3. 0he endi%ant "nks ;h" ;ear arks "= ren(n%iati"n in;ardly.
K0hey are the as%eti%s
entitled t" st(dy this Upanishad.L
#. 60hey are7 the pr"te%t"rs "= the =ield in ;hi%h I-ness 6indi%ati$e "=
the separateness "= the -el=7 is destr"yed.
5. 0heir settled %"n%l(si"n is partless like ether.
6. 60heir heart7 is the ri$er "= i"rtal ;a$es.
7. 60heir heart7 is iperisha.le and (n%"nditi"ned.
+. 60heir pre%ept"r7 is the 6realiCed7 sa)e =ree =r" d"(.ts.
,. 0he di$ine .ein) 6they ad"re is7 =inal .eatit(de.
1&. 0heir a%ti$ity is =ree "= =aily 6and "ther7 ties.
11. 0heir kn";led)e is n"t is"lated.
12. 60hey st(dy andb"r tea%h7 the hi)her s%ript(re.
13. 60hey %"nstit(te7 the pr"pless "nasti% %entre.
1#. 0heir dedi%ati"n 6is t" re$eal !rahan7 t" a )r"(p 6"= ;"rthy
dis%iples7.
77
RIG-VEDA

15. 0he instr(%ti"n is the n"n-eJisten%e 6"= thin)s "ther than
!rahan7.
16. 0his dedi%ati"n .rin)s 5"y and p(ri=i%ati"n 6t" the dis%iples7.
17. 0heir si)ht is 6like7 seein) the t;el$e s(ns.
1+. Dis%riinati"n 6"= the real =r" the (nreal7 is 6their7 pr"te%ti"n.
1,. 0heir %"passi"n al"e is the sp"rt.
2&. 60hey ;ear7 the )arland "= .liss.
21. In the %a$e "= "ne seat 6is7 their a(dien%e "= happiness> =ree =r"
restri%ti"ns "= y")a-p"st(res.
22. 60hey7 s(.sist "n =""d n"t prepared 6spe%ially ="r the7.
23. 0heir %"nd(%t is in %"ns"nan%e ;ith the realiCati"n "= the "neness
"= the -el= and !rahan 63asa7.
2#. 0hey de"nstrate t" dis%iples 6.y their %"nd(%t7 that !rahan is
present in all .ein)s.
25. 0r(e %"n$i%ti"n is their pat%hed )arent. *"n-ali)nent is their
l"in-%l"th. Re=le%ti"n 6"= the tr(ths "= the Vedanta7 is their
6e.leati%-7sta==. 0he $isi"n "= !rahan 6as n"n-di==erent =r" the
-el=7 is their y")a-%l"th. -andals 6%"nsist in a$"idin) %"nta%t ;ith
;"rldly7 ;ealth. A%ti$ity 6="r .are li$in)7 at the .ehest "= "thers.
0heir ."nda)e 6is "nly in the desire t" dire%t7 the '(ndalini 6int" the
-(s(na7. /i.erated ;hile ali$e> as they are =reed =r" denial "= the
hi)hest 6!rahan7. 0he "neness ;ith -i$a is their sleep. 0r(e
kn";led)e 6.y denyin) 5"y in A$idya7 "r the 'he%hari-(dra is their
7+
RIG-VEDA
s(pree .liss.
26. 0he 6.liss "=7 !rahan is =ree =r" the 6three7 H(alities 6-att$a>
Ra5as and 0aas7.
27. 6!rahan7 is realiCed .y dis%riinati"n 6"= the real =r" the
(nreal7 6and7 it is .ey"nd the rea%h "= the ind and spee%h.
2+. 0he phen"enal ;"rld is iperanent as it is pr"d(%ed 6=r"
!rahan ;hi%h al"ne is real7< it is siilar t" a ;"rld seen in a drea
and an elephant in the sky 6i.e. ill(s"ry7@ siilarly the %l(ster "= thin)s
s(%h as the ."dy is per%ei$ed .y a net;"rk "= a (ltit(de "= del(si"ns
and it is =an%ied t" eJist as a serpent in a r"pe 6d(e t" iper=e%t
kn";led)e7.
2,. 0he 6;"rship "=7 )"ds naed Vishn(> !raha and a h(ndred
"thers %(linates 6in !rahan7.
3&. 0he )"ad is the path.
31. 60he path7 is n"t $"id> "nly %"n$enti"nal.
32. 0he stren)th "= the s(pree /"rd 6is the s(pp"rt t" the aerial
path7.
33. 0he 1")a a%%"plished .y tr(th is the "nastery.
3#. 0he p"siti"n 6hea$en7 "= )"ds d"es n"t %"nstit(te its real nat(re.
7,
RIG-VEDA

35. 0he prie s"(r%e !rahan is sel=-realiCati"n.
36. 60he as%eti%7 shall editate "n the a.sen%e "= distin%ti"n> .ased "n
the Gayatri thr"()h the A5apa Mantra.
37. Restraint "n the ind is the pat%hed )arent.
3+. !y 1")a 6there is7 the $isi"n 6eJperien%e7 "= the nat(re "=
e$erlastin) .liss.
3,. !liss is the als that he en5"ys.
#&. Residen%e e$en in the )reat %eetery is as in a pleas(re )arden.
#1. A s"litary pla%e is the "nastery.
#2. 8"plete H(ies%en%e "= the ind is the pra%ti%e "= !raha$idya.
#3. 3is "$eent is t" (nani state.
##. 3is p(re ."dy is the pr"pless seat "= di)nity.
+&
RIG-VEDA
#5. 3is a%ti$ity is the .liss "= the ;a$es "= i"rtality.
#6. 0he ether "= %"ns%i"(sness is the )reat esta.lished %"n%l(si"n.
#7. Instr(%ti"n in the ean%ipatin) antra res(lts in e==i%ien%y "=
."dily li.s and ind ="r p"ssessin) di$ine p";er in pra%tisin)
tranH(illity> sel=-restraint> et%.> and in the realiCati"n "= the "neness "=
the 6s"-%alled7 hi)her and l";er -el=.
#+. 0he presidin) deity 6"= the 0araka7 is the e$erlastin) .liss "= n"n-
d(ality.
#,. 0he $"l(ntary reli)i"(s ".ser$an%e is the restraint "= the inner
senses.
5&. Ren"(n%in) 6tya)a7 is the )i$in) (p "= =ear> del(si"n> s"rr"; and
an)er.
51. 6Ren"(n%in) res(lts is7 the en5"yent "= .liss in the identity "= the
hi)her and l";er 6sel=7.
52. Unrestrainedness is p(re p";er.
53. Ghen the reality "= !rahan shines in the sel= there is the
annihilati"n "= the phen"enal ;"rld ;hi%h is en$el"ped .y the
p";er "= -hi$a 6Maya7< siilarly the .(rnin) "= the eJisten%e "r n"n-
+1
RIG-VEDA
eJisten%e "= the a))re)ate "= the %a(sal> s(.tle and )r"ss ."dies.
5#. 3e realiCes !rahan as the pr"p "= the ether.
55. 0he a(spi%i"(s ="(rth state is the sa%red thread< the t(=t 6t""7
%"nsists "= that.
56. 60" hi7 the %reated ;"rld %"nsists "= %"ns%i"(sness< 6s" als"7 the
i"$a.le and the )r"(p "= $ari"(s .ein)s.
57. Upr""tin) 6the e==e%t "=7 karan is 6ere7 talk< in the %eetery
6-el=-!rahan7> ill(si"n> `ine-nessE and e)" ha$e .een .(rnt.
5+. 60he realiCed 4ari$ra5aka7 has his ."dy inta%t.
5,. Meditati"n "n the tr(e ="r ;hi%h is .ey"nd the three attri.(tes
6"= -att$a> Ra5as and 0aas7< 6e$en this7 %"nditi"n 6"= distin%ti"n `I
a !rahanE7 is a del(si"n ;hi%h shall .e annihilated 0he .(rnin) "=
the attit(de "= passi"n> et%.> 6"()ht t" .e d"ne7. 0he l"in %l"th "()ht t"
.e r"()h and ti)ht 6s" that the $ital ener)y "$es (p;ard in perpet(al
%eli.a%y7. Deer-skin )arent ="r l"n) 6and later t" .e (n%lad7. 0he
(nstr(%k antra 6the 9 in the ="(rth state t(riya7 is pra%tised .y
re=rainin) =r" 6;"rldly7 a%ti"n. 8"nd(%tin) hisel= =reely 6as he has
rea%hed a sta)e ;hi%h is .ey"nd )""d and .ad> he realiCes7 his tr(e
nat(re ;hi%h is li.erati"n.
6&. 3is %"nd(%t 6"= ser$in) a priary A$adh(ta7 as a ship 6t" %r"ss the
+2
RIG-VEDA
"%ean "= ;"rldly li=e and7 rea%h the trans%endent !rahan< pra%tisin)
%eli.a%y till tranH(illity is attained< )ettin) instr(%ti"n in the sta)e "= a
%eli.ate st(dent> "r learnin) 6the tr(th7 in the sta)e "= a d;eller in the
="rest 6Vanaprastha7 he 6e.ra%es7 ren(n%iati"n ;herein all 6tr(e7
kn";led)e is esta.lished< at the end he .e%"es "= the ="r "= the
indi$isi.le !rahan> the eternal> the annihilat"r "= all d"(.ts.
61. 0his *ir$an"panishad 6the se%ret d"%trine leadin) t" =inal
.eatit(de7 shall n"t .e iparted t" "ne "ther than a dis%iple "r a s"n.
0h(s 6ends7 the Upanishad.
9 : May y spee%h .e .ased "n 6i.e. a%%"rd ;ith7 the ind<
May y ind .e .ased "n spee%h.
9 -el=-e==(l)ent 9ne> re$eal 0hysel= t" e.
May y"( ."th 6spee%h and ind7 .e the %arriers "= the Veda t" e.
May n"t all that I ha$e heard depart =r" e.
I shall 5"in t")ether 6i.e. ".literate the di==eren%e "=7 day
And ni)ht thr"()h this st(dy.
I shall (tter ;hat is $er.ally tr(e<
I shall (tter ;hat is entally tr(e.
May that 6!rahan7 pr"te%t e<
+3
RIG-VEDA
May 0hat pr"te%t the speaker 6i.e. the tea%her7> ay 0hat pr"te%t e<
May that pr"te%t the speaker ? ay 0hat pr"te%t the speaker.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the *ir$an"panishad> as %"ntained in the Ri)-Veda.
+#
RIG-VEDA
%. &au'ha!ya (akshmi Upanishad
9 : -pee%h is r""ted in y th"()ht 6ind7 and y th"()ht is r""ted
in y spee%h.
!e ani=est> patent> t" e< .e ye t;"> ="r e> the lyn%h-pins "= the
Veda.
/et n"t Vedi% l"re desert e.
Gith this astered l"re> I 5"in day ;ith ni)ht.
I shall speak ;hat is ri)ht< I shall speak ;hat is tr(e.
/et that pr"te%t e< let that pr"te%t the speaker.
/et that pr"te%t e.
/et that pr"te%t the speaker> pr"te%t the speaker :
9 : 4ea%e : 4ea%e : 4ea%e :
I-1@ 0hen the G"ds said t" the /"rd@ /"rd : EJp"(nd ="r (s the s%ien%e
"= the G"ddess "= 4r"sperity.
I-2@ 0he /"rd> the prie$al *arayana> replied@ !e it s". Gith intent
inds> all "= y"( G"ds> listen : Gith the aid "= the =i=teen $erses
.e)innin) ;ith the $erse `hiranya$arnaE 6"= the h(e "= )"ld7> et%.>
+5
RIG-VEDA
editate "n the ="(r-ared -ri 6the G"ddess "= 4r"sperity7> ;h"se
="r is that "= the F"(rth> ;h" is .ey"nd the F"(rth> ;h" is s(pree
"$er all> ;h" is present in all %"nse%rated seats> and ;h" is en%ir%led
.y the di$inities "= the seats> a5"r and in"r.
I-3@ *";> the seers "= the hyn "n -ri %"nsistin) "= =i=teen $erses are
Ananda> 'ardaa> 8hiklita and Indiras(ta. 9= the =irst $erse> the seer
is -ri. 9= the 6neJt7 ="(rteen $erses> the seers are Ananda et%. 9= the
=irst three $erses> `hiranya$arnaE> et%.> the etre is An(st(.h. 9= the
$erse `kas"EsiE> the etre is .rihati> "= the t;" "thers 0rist(.h 6is
the etre7< "= the neJt ei)ht the etre is An(st(.h. 9= the reainder>
the etre is 4rastarapankti. 0he di$inity is the Fire ;hi%h is -ri. 0he
seed is `hiranya$arnaE. 0he p";er is `kas"EsiE. 0he %"nse%rati"n
"= the li.s is 6e==e%ted7 ;ith the ;"rds hiranaya %handra ra5atasra5a
hiranyasra5a hiranya hiranya$arna> .e)innin) ;ith 9> endin) ;ith
*aah 6i.e. sal(tati"n7> and ha$in) the n"(ns de%lined in the dati$e
%ase. *eJt 6="ll";s7 the %"nse%rati"n "= the li.s ;ith the triads "=
=a%es. Gith the $erses "= the -ris(kta thesel$es %"nse%rate> in "rder>
the head> the eyes> the ears> the n"se> the =a%e> the ne%k> the t;" ars>
the heart> the na$el> the pri$ies> the thi)hs> the knees and the shanks.
I-#@ -eated in the sp"tless l"t(s
8"l"(red as its p"llen heaps
!earin) in her l"t(s pals
/"t(s pair and sy."lled pr"ise
9= =ear dispelled and .""ns .est";ed<

Gith 5e;elled %r";n and "rnaents di$erse
+6
RIG-VEDA
G"ndr"(sly ad"rned ? /et -ri>
M"ther "= the ;"rld entire>
4r""te "(r ="rt(nes e$er.
I-5@ 3er seat@ Gith the )"al kept in $ie;> set d";n in the peri%arp the
seed-sylla.leE "= -ri< and in the ei)ht-petalled> t;el$e-petalled> and
siJteen-petalled l"t(ses> the hal= $erses "= the -ris(kta 6hyn "n -ri7<
"(tside it 6the siJteen-petalled l"t(s7> 6set d";n7 the $erse `yah s(%ihE>
et%.> t")ether ;ith the alpha.et 6=r" a t" la7< 6and "(tside> and all
ar"(nd7 set d";n the `seed-sylla.leE "= -ri. Als"> dra; the ten li.s "=
the dia)ra. 0hen in$"ke the G"ddess -ri.
I-6@ Gith the li.s 6e.). `-RA* sal(tati"n t" the heartE7> the =irst
en%asin) 6is a%%"plished7< ;ith 4ada> et%.> the se%"nd en%asin)<
;ith the antras "= the /"rds "= the ;"rld> the third< ;ith th"se "=
their ;eap"ns> the ="(rth en%asin). Gith the hyn "= -ri> in$"%ati"ns>
et%.> 6(st .e ade7. -iJteen th"(sand (tteran%es 6"= the hyn (st
.e ade7.
I-7@ 9= the "n"sylla.i% in%antati"n "= Raa> the G"ddess "=
4r"sperity> the seer> etre and deity are !hri)(> *i%ird-Gayatri and
-ri. 0he p";er "= the seed is -AM. 0he siJ li.s are -RIM> et%.
I-+@ A.idin) in the l"t(s> l"t(s-eyed>

3er h"e -ri 4adana.haEs .reast<
+7
RIG-VEDA
3er hands "= l"t(s pair (ph"ld>
And s(rety "= )i=ts and =ear diss"l$ed.
-hinin) like t" .(rnished )"ld
!athed in ;aters held in 5ars
!y tr(nks "= elephant pair a)lea
/ike ;hite and sp"tless %l"(ds<
3er %r";n ;ith %l(stered )es .ede%ked
In silk eJ%eedin) p(re enr".ed
Gith s;eet (n)(ents an"inted
May -ri "(r ;el=are still pr""te.
I-,@ 3er seat@ 0he seat "= Raa 6the G"ddess "= 4r"sperityL %"nsists "=
ei)ht petals> three %ir%les> di$isi"ns %"prisin) t;el$e h"(ses> and
="(r sides. In the peri%arp 6are ins%ri.ed7 the seed "= -ri> keepin) the
)"al in $ie;. G"rship the nine p";ers ;ith the ;"rds `pr"sperityE>
`ele$ati"nE> `)l"ryE> `%reati"nE> `h"n"(rE> `h(ilityE> `indi$id(alityE>
`(pli=tentE> and `;el=areE in the dati$e %ase> ea%h ha$in) 9 in the
.e)innin) and *aah 6sal(tati"n7 in the end.
I-1&@ 0he =irst en%asin) is d"ne ;ith the li.s< the se%"nd ;ith
Vas(de$a> et%.< the third ;ith !alaki> et%.< the ="(rth ;ith Indra> et%.
++
RIG-VEDA
0he (tteran%e 6"= the in%antati"n has t" .e repeated7 t;el$e lakhs "=
ties.
I-11@ -ri /akshi> the )i$er "= .""ns> the sp"(se "= Vishn(> the d"n"r
"= ;ealth> "= )"lden ="r> is de%ked ;ith a )arland "= )"ld> and a
%haplet "= sil$er. -he has the sheen "= )"ld> is in a ="rtress "= )"ld> and
d;ells in the l"t(s. -he h"lds a l"t(s in her hand and l"$es the l"t(s.
0he pearl ad"rns her. -he is the ""n-)"ddess and the s(n-)"ddess> is
="nd "= .il$a lea$es and is i)hty. -he is en5"yent> release>
pr"sperity> in%rease> tr(e in%rease> the pl"()hin) 6and the7
de$el"pent. -he is the )i$er "= ;ealth and the istress "= ;ealth.
-he is =aith> ri%h in en5"yents> the )i$er "= en5"yents> the (ph"lder>
the "rdainer ? these and siilar ters in the dati$e %ase> ;ith 9 in
the .e)innin) and *aah in the end> are the antras. 0he seat has
ei)ht li.s ;ith the "n"sylla.le ins%ri.ed "n it. A lakh 6in n(.er7
are the (tteran%es 6"= the in%antati"ns7. 0he pr"p"siti"n is 6ade ;ith7
a tenth 6"= the lakh7. 0he ".lati"n is 6ade ;ith7 a h(ndredth part. 0he
)rati=i%ati"n "= the t;i%e-."rn is 6;"n ;ith7 a th"(sandth part.
I-12@ Adeptship in the s%ien%e "= -ri is reser$ed ="r th"se ;h" are =ree
=r" desires< ne$er ="r th"se ;h" %herish desires.
II-1@ 0hen the )"ds said t" 3i@ EJp"(nd the prin%iple indi%ated .y
the ="(rth 6i.e. the =inal7 Maya. `!e it s"E> said 3e@
1")a thr"()h y")a (st .e kn";n<

Fr" y")a> y")a d"es in%rease<
+,
RIG-VEDA
Gh" thr"()h y")a is e$er alert>
0hat 1")in l"n) deli)hts therein.
II-2@ A;ake =r" sleep> eatin) .(t little
Ghen =""d %"ns(ed is di)ested ari)ht>
At ease .e seated in a sp"t se%l(ded>
Untr"(.led .y pests> e$er =ree "= desire ?
-(%h is e=="rt. Else restrain the .reath
And stray n"t =r" the path "= pra%ti%e.
II-3@ Fillin) the "(th ;ith .reath> and in FireEs seat
Dra;in) the d";n-.reath> there arrestin)>
Gith =in)ers siJ "= hands> =r" th(.s %"en%in)
-t"ppin) the ears> eyes and n"strils> t"">
1")ins .eh"ld al"n) this ;ay
0he inner li)ht< their inds ;rapt in the %"(rse
9= $aried (sin)s "n the sa%red 9.

II-#@ Ears> "(th> eyes and n"strils (st> per="r%e>
,&
RIG-VEDA
!e .y y")a st"pped<
8lear and =la;less then is heard the n"te
In %leansed -(s(naEs %hannel.
II-5@ In Anahata> then>
Res"nant ;ith stran)e n"tes> a s"(nd is heard.
-a%red .e%"es the y")inEs ."dy< th(s
Gith splend"(r =illed and "d"(r hea$enly
3e is ill n" l"n)er<
II-6@ 3is heart is =illed<
Ghen heart-spa%e res"(nds> a 1")in he
!e%"es< snappin) the se%"nd kn"t> =l";s
At "n%e the .reath t" iddle re)i"n.
II-7@ 4"ised in l"t(s seat and "thers> t"">
Fir esta.lished (st the 1")in .e.

0he kn"t "= Vishn(> then rent as(nder
,1
RIG-VEDA
Deli)ht ;ells (p s(pree.
II-+@ !ey"nd Anahata> `the (nstr(%k n"teE>
Rises the dr(Es res"(ndin) s"(nd<
Gith ener)y> pier%in) R(draEs kn"t
0he addalaEs n"te is heard.
II-,@ 0he $ital .reath "$es "n t" /ar)est -pa%e>
0he s(re a."de "= all per=e%ti"ns< then%e>
I)n"rin) indEs deli)ht> the .reath per$ades
All y")i% seats.
II-1&@ 1")a a%hie$ed> the all-per$adin) s"(nd
0inkles and hen%e is `the tinklerE styled.
0hen> inte)rated> the ind is ad"red
9= sa)es like -anaka and the rest.
II-11@ Identi=yin) the =inite ;ith the in=inite>
,2
RIG-VEDA
0he =ra)ents ;ith the Gh"le> "ne editates
9n the $ast -"(r%e< th(s =(l=ilent ="(nd
9ne i"rtal .e%"es.
II-12@ 0hr"()h (nity ;ith -el=> pre$ent %"nta%t
Gith "thers< s" t""> thr"()h -el=Es .ein)
9pp"se "()ht elseEs sel=< th(s> .e%"in)
0r(th s(pree> "= all d(alities =ree>
-(pree is "ne ="r e$er.
II-13@ Ren"(n%e the sense "= I< yea>
9= this ;"rld> "= appearan%e s" (nlike.
*e$er a)ain is s"rr"; ="r the sa)e>
R""ted in 0r(th trans%endent.
II-1#@ /ike salt in ;ater elted and =(sed>
-" sel= and ind in "neness are .lended.
0hat %"n%entrati"n is styled.

,3
RIG-VEDA
II-15@ !reath d;indles and ind diss"l$es
And !liss h"")ene"(s is ="(nd.
0his is %"n%entrati"n.
II-16@ F(si"n "= l";er and hi)her sel$es
Free =r" all ia)inin)s>
Is styled %"n%entrati"n.
II-17@ Rid "= the li)ht "= ;ake=(lness>
And "= the ind that dreas<
Rid "= sleep that kn";s n"ne "ther>
Free "= all that %a(ses pain<
0"tal $"id ;ith"(t re=le%ti"ns ?
-(%h is %"n%entrati"n.
II-1+@ 0hr"()h %easeless %"n%entrated si)ht
Ghen th"()ht "= ."dy there is n"()ht<
0hen (nstirrin) -el= is realiCed ?

0his> %"n%entrati"n is %alled.
,#
RIG-VEDA
II-1,@ Ghithers"e$er the ind ;anders
0here> 5(st there> is the prie a."de<
0here> 5(st there> is s(pree !rahan
0hat a.ides alike e$ery;here.
III-1@ *eJt> the )"ds said t" 3i@ 0ea%h (s h"; t" dis%ern the nine
;heels. `!e it siilarlyE> said 3e@ At the .ase is the ;heel "= !rahan
shaped like a three="ld %ir%le "= ;a$es. In that r""t is a p";er. 9ne
sh"(ld editate "n it in the ="r "= =ire. 2(st there is the seat in the
="r "= desires< it yields the ".5e%ts "= all desires. -(%h is the .asi%
;heel.
III-2@ 0he se%"nd is the ;heel "= -$adhisthana< it has siJ petals. In the
%entre "= it is a ;est-=a%ed phall(s. 9ne sh"(ld editate "n it as
rese.lin) a spr"(t "= %"ral. Ri)ht there is the `seat "= the )irdleE>
yieldin) the p";er t" attra%t the ;"rld.
III-3@ 0he third is the ;heel "= the na$el> a ;ide ;hirlp""l ;ith a ="r
%r""ked like a serpentEs. Meditate in its %entre "n the `serpent p";erE>
e==(l)ent like a %r"re "= risin) s(ns and rese.lin) li)htnin). It has
the p";er "= %"peten%e and yields all per=e%ti"ns. It is the ;heel
6%alled7 Manip(raka.

III-#@ 0he ;heel "= the heart has ei)ht petals and it =a%es .el";. In its
,5
RIG-VEDA
%entre> "n the phall(s "= li)ht> "ne sh"(ld editate. 0he sy."l 6"=
the di$ine 4";er7> here> is the s;an. -he is .el"$ed "= all and
en%hants all the ;"rlds.
III-5@ 0he ;heel "= the thr"at 6eJtends "$er7 the .readth "= ="(r
=in)ers. 0here "n the le=t is Ida> the ""n-ner$e< "n the ri)ht is
4in)ala> the s(n-ner$e. In its %entre> "n -(s(na "= =air %"l"(r> "ne
sh"(ld editate. Gh" kn";s th(s .e%"es the d"n"r "= the per=e%ti"n
"= Anahata 6`the (nstr(%k n"teE7.
III-6@ 0he ;heel "= the palate@ 0here =l";s the i"rtal eliJir< the
ia)e "= the tiny .ell is in the "ri=i%e ;hen%e is s(spended `the r"yal
t""thE 6the ($(la7 the tenth "penin). 9ne sh"(ld editate "n the $"id
there. 0he diss"l(ti"n "= the ind-st(== takes pla%e.
III-7@ 0he se$enth> the ;heel "= the .r";> is "= the eas(re "= the
th(.. 0here> "n the eye "= kn";led)e> shaped like a t"n)(e "= =lae>
"ne sh"(ld editate. 0hat is the r""t "= the sk(ll> the ;heel "= A5na>
the )i$er "= p";er "$er ;"rds.
III-+@ 0he !rahan-"ri=i%e is the ;heel "= nir$ana. 0here sh"(ld "ne
editate "n the "penin) shaped like a thread "= s"ke> thinner than a
needle. 0here is the seat "= eshes> the yielder "= release. 0here="re> it
is the ;heel "= s(pree !rahan.
III-,@ 0he ninth is the ;heel "= spa%e. 0here is the l"t(s ;ith siJteen
petals> =a%in) (p;ards. Its peri%arp in the iddle is shaped like the
D`riple peaksDE6the %entre "= the eye.r";s7. In its %entre "ne sh"(ld
editate "n the (p)"in) p";er> the s(pree $"id. 0here indeed is the
,6
RIG-VEDA
seat "= the `=(ll "(ntE> the instr(ent "= =(l=ilent "= all desires.
III-1&@ Gh"s" %"nstantly st(dies this Upanishad is p(ri=ied .y =ire and
.y air< he %"es in p"ssessi"n "= all ;ealth> )rains> )""d s"ns> ;i=e>
h"rses> lands> elephants> anials> she-.(==al"es> =eale attendants>
y")a> and kn";led)e. *" "re d"es he ret(rn. -(%h is the ysti%
d"%trine.
9 : -pee%h is r""ted in y th"()ht 6ind7 and y th"()ht is r""ted
in y spee%h.
!e ani=est> patent> t" e< .e ye t;"> ="r e> the lyn%h-pins "= the
Veda.
/et n"t Vedi% l"re desert e.
Gith this astered l"re> I 5"in day ;ith ni)ht.
I shall speak ;hat is ri)ht< I shall speak ;hat is tr(e.
/et that pr"te%t e< let that pr"te%t the speaker.
/et that pr"te%t e.
/et that pr"te%t the speaker> pr"te%t the speaker :
9 : 4ea%e : 4ea%e : 4ea%e :

,7
RIG-VEDA
3ere ends the -a(.ha)ya-/akshi Upanishad> in%l(ded in the Ri)-
Veda.
,+
RIG-VEDA
1). *ripura Upanishad
9 : -pee%h is r""ted in y th"()ht 6ind7 and y th"()ht is r""ted
in y spee%h.
!e ani=est> patent> t" e< .e ye t;"> ="r e> the lyn%h-pins "= the
Veda.
/et n"t Vedi% l"re desert e.
Gith this astered l"re> I 5"in day ;ith ni)ht.
I shall speak ;hat is ri)ht< I shall speak ;hat is tr(e.
/et that pr"te%t e< let that pr"te%t the speaker.
/et that pr"te%t e.
/et that pr"te%t the speaker> pr"te%t the speaker :
9 : 4ea%e : 4ea%e : 4ea%e :
1. 0hree %ities are there> and path;ays three ="r all.
69n the dais "= F"rt(ne7 are letters a> ka> tha and "thers.
In the there d;ells> ne$er-a)ein)> an%ient>
0he eJ%eedin) )rande(r "= the )"ds.
,,
RIG-VEDA

2. -(.5e%t t" 3er ;h"se s"(r%es are nine
-hine ="rth the %entres nine and 1")as nine>
*ine deities and re)ents "= the planets nine>
Gentle healin) deities nine and )est(res nine.
3. 0he 9ne she ;as> the F"re"st<
-he ;as the nine> the nineteen and the t;enty-nine<
0he ="rty> she< ay the radiant ener)ies three>
As ="nd "therEs l"$e> en%ir%le e.
#. In the .e)innin) ;as (p.laCin) /i)ht<
Gl"" and M"ti"n stret%hed ath;art the A)eless<
0he M""nli)ht )ladness and deli)hts< these spheres
Ad"rn indeed 6the kn";ers "= !rahan7.
5. 9= the three lines> a."des> three ;"rlds and three spheres
Gith triple %"nstit(ents 6-he is the pr"p7.
0his )r"(p "= three a"n) the sheaths is prie.
1&&
RIG-VEDA
In dia)ra dra;n ;ith ysti% ;"rds
0he G"d "= /"$e ;ith F"rt(neEs G"ddess d;ells.
6. 0he EJhilaratin) and the 4r"(d>
0he A(spi%i"(s> the /(%ky and the /"$ely>
0he 4er=e%ted> the shy> the Gitty 9ne>
0he Grati=ied> the %h"sen and the F(ll>
0he Gealthy> the F"r.idden> the Gra%e=(l>
0he El"H(ent ? 60hese "n 8"ns%i"(sness d" ;ait7.
7. Attended th(s the 4";er "= 8"ns%i"(sness
Is dr(nk ;ith the dra()ht "= I"rtality<
'n";in) 3er and ;"rshippin) 3er thr"ne
63er de$"tees7 "n hea$enEs )reat $a(lt d" d;ell
And enter the s(pree 0riple 8ity.
+. Desire> the ;".> the Di)it "= Desire>
0he Gielder "= the 0h(nder."lt> the 8a$e>
3a sa> the Gind> the 8l"(d> the 'in) "= 3ea$en>
1&1
RIG-VEDA

1et a)ain the 8a$e> sa ka la and aya ?
-(%h is the prie$al Gisd"> e.ra%in) all>
M"ther "= the $ast (ni$erse.
,. Utterin) in se%ret 3er three .asi% letters ?
0he siJth> the se$enth and the ei)hth ?
/a(din) the /"rd> the thee "= the Upanishads>
0he -eer> the Fashi"ner> the Free t" Gill>
6-eekers7 a%hie$e the state "= I"rtality.
1&. 0he M"ther "= the Uni$erse s(stains
3er a."de ? the Destr"yerEs Fa%e> the 8ir%le "= the -(n>
0he %"re "= s"(nds> the span "= tie>
0he Eternal> hal= the l(nar "nth<
Gith siJteen 6-he s(stains the %"re "= their a."de7.
11. 9r> ;"rshippin) the di)it "= desire in its ani="ld ="rs>
Enthr"ned in the three %a$ern"(s h"es and in sy."ls
1&2
RIG-VEDA
9= the r"(nded .reasts and =a%e set in the spheres>
0he an "= desires )ains that ;hi%h he ;ants.
12. Dressed =ish> )"atEs =lesh>
8""ked ri%e> pleas(re "= seJ>
Gh" "==ers t" the G"ddess )reat>
Merit and s(%%ess ="r hisel= a%hie$es.
13. Gith 6-aras$ati7 =air and 6/akshi7> G"rldEs M"ther>
6Ga(ri7> r"seate> prie$al 4";er> ;ithdra;er "= the ;"rld>
!inds ;ith n""se %reat(res ;h" )rasp> and tread
Atta%hentEs path< and s;i=tly sites ;ith ."; and arr";s =i$e.
1#-15. 0he 4";er "= 8"ns%i"(sness and desireEs /"rd>
/"rd "= a(spi%i"(s p";ers> %"eH(als ."th>
9= eH(al pr";ess> in ener)y eH(al>
Grant )i=ts t" the ="rt(nate here.
9= the t;"> the (n-a)ein) 4";er> the ;"rldEs ;".>
Gith "==erin) "= kn";led)e pleased>
1&3
RIG-VEDA

Re"$es the aspirantEs t;"="ld sheath.
Gith ind a$erted =r" ill(si"nEs sphere
3e .e%"es 8reat"r> 4r"te%t"r>
Githdra;er "= the ;"rld<
*ay> "ne ;ith 8"si% !ein).
16. 0his is 0rip(raEs )reat Upanishad>
Iperisha.le> ;hi%h> in )l"ri"(s ;"rds
0he Ri)> 1a5(s> -aan and Athar$an
And "ther ="rs "= kn";led)e la(d.
9> 3ri> 9> 3ri ? th(s ends the se%ret d"%trine.
9 : -pee%h is r""ted in y th"()ht 6ind7 and y th"()ht is r""ted
in y spee%h.
!e ani=est> patent> t" e< .e ye t;"> ="r e> the lyn%h-pins "= the
Veda.
1&#
RIG-VEDA

/et n"t Vedi% l"re desert e.
Gith this astered l"re> I 5"in day ;ith ni)ht.
I shall speak ;hat is ri)ht< I shall speak ;hat is tr(e.
/et that pr"te%t e< let that pr"te%t the speaker.
/et that pr"te%t e.
/et that pr"te%t the speaker> pr"te%t the speaker :
9 : 4ea%e : 4ea%e : 4ea%e :
3ere ends the 0rip(ra Upanishad> in%l(ded in the Ri)-Veda.
1&5
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
SUKLA-YAJUR-VEDA
1&6
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
11. Adhyatma Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
In the %a$e "= the ."dy is eternally set the "ne (n."rn.
0he earth is 3is ."dy.
60h"()h7 "$in) ;ithin the earth> the earth kn";s 3i n"t.
0he ;ater is 3is ."dy.
60h"()h7 "$in) ;ithin the ;ater> the ;ater kn";s 3i n"t.
0he =ire is 3is ."dy.
60h"()h7 "$in) ;ithin the =ire> the =ire kn";s 3i n"t.
0he air is 3is ."dy.
60h"()h7 "$in) ;ithin the air> the air kn";s 3i n"t.
0he ether is 3is ."dy.
60h"()h7 "$in) ;ithin the ether> the ether kn";s 3i n"t.
0he ind is 3is ."dy.
60h"()h7 "$in) ;ithin the ind> the ind kn";s 3i n"t.
0he intelle%t is 3is ."dy.
1&7
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
60h"()h7 "$in) ;ithin the intelle%t> the intelle%t kn";s 3i n"t.
0he e)" is 3is ."dy.
60h"()h7 "$in) ;ithin the e)"> the e)" kn";s 3i n"t.
0he ind-st(== is 3is ."dy.
60h"()h7 "$in) ;ithin the ind-st(==> the ind-st(== kn";s 3i
n"t.
0he (nani=est is 3is ."dy.
60h"()h7 "$in) ;ithin the (nani=est> the (nani=est kn";s 3i
n"t.
0he iperisha.le is 3is ."dy.
60h"()h7 "$in) ;ithin the iperisha.le> the iperisha.le kn";s
3i n"t.
0he Death is 3is ."dy.
60h"()h7 "$in) ;ithin Death>
Death kn";s 3i n"t.
3e> then> is the inner-sel= "= all .ein)s> sinless> hea$en-."rn>
l(in"(s> the s"le *arayana.
1. -(perip"siti"n is the th"()ht> `I a and ine are the ."dy> the
senses> et%.> ;hi%h are all "ther than the -el=. 0hr"()h de$"ti"n t"
!rahan> the ;ise an sh"(ld rep(diate it.
2. 'n";in) "nesel= t" .e the s(.5e%t> the ;itness "= intelle%t and its
"perati"ns> re5e%t the idea "= the -el= .ein) "ther than the s(.5e%t>
identi=yin) the `IE ;ith that 6the s(.5e%t7.
3. Re5e%tin) %"n="rity ;ith the ;"rld> the ."dy> and the -hastras>
re"$e s(perip"siti"n "n the -el=.
#. 0he ind "= the 1")in perishes as he stays ;ith"(t interissi"n in
the -el= al"ne> kn";in)> thr"()h reas"nin)> -hr(ti> and eJperien%e>
that "ne is the -el= "= all .ein)s.
1&+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

5. Gith"(t )rantin) ="r a "ent e$en a t"e-h"ld ="r sleep> )"ssip>
$er.al eJ%han)es> et%.> and sel=-="r)et=(lness> editate "n the -el= in
the sel=.
6. 8astin) the ."dy =ar aside> the "==sprin) "= parental eJ(dati"ns> as
its stat(s is n" .etter than that "= an "(t%ast> and .e%"in) !rahan>
seek =(l=ilent.
7. Diss"l$e the sel= in the s(pree -el= as the p"t-spa%e is diss"l$ed in
in=inite spa%e< then> as the In=inite .e silent ="r e$er> 9 sa)e :
+. 3a$in) .e%"e the sel=-l(in"(s -(.strat(> as !ein)> re5e%t ."th
the a%r"%"s and the i%r"%"s ;hi%h are .(t a."des "= ip(rities.
,. /"%atin) the ."dy-."(nd I-sense in the e$er-.liss=(l spirit(al -el=>
ren"(n%e the s(.tle ."dy< eternally .e the A.s"l(te.
1&. 'n";in) `I a that !rahanE in ;hi%h this ;"rld appearan%e
6eJists7 like a %ity re=le%ted in a irr"r> =ind =(l=ilent> 9 sinless "ne :
11. /i.erated =r" the )rip "= e)"is> like the ""n 6a=ter the
e%lipse7> =(ll> e$er .liss=(l> sel=-l(in"(s> "ne attains "neEs essen%e.
12. 0he destr(%ti"n "= a%ti"ns leads t" that "= th"()ht< then%e res(lts
the d;indlin) "= innate ip(lses 6t" a%t7. 0he ".literati"n "= innate
ip(lses is li.erati"n< it is held t" .e =reed" in li=e.
13. At all pla%es and .y all eans> per%ei$in) e$erythin) as -pirit> "ne
a%hie$es the diss"l(ti"n "= innate ip(lses as it stren)thens the
attit(de "= (ni$ersal )""d ;ill.
1#. *e$er sh"(ld "ne .e heedless in de$"ti"n t" !rahan<
`heedlessness is deathE s" a$er the phil"s"phers "= !rahan in re)ard
1&,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
t" 6this7 s%ien%e.
15. 2(st as a p(lled-(p ;ater-reed stays n"t still> e$en ="r a "ent>
s" d"es Maya 6%easelessly7 en$el"p e$en a ;ise an i= he a$erts his
=a%e 6=r" the 0r(th7.
16. Gh"s"e$er ;ins a.s"l(teness ;hile ali$e %"ntin(es t" .e a.s"l(te
e$en a=ter death. R""ted in %"n%entrati"n> 9 sinless "ne> reain
stead=ast.
17. Gith the $isi"n "= the n"n-d(al -el= thr"()h (n;a$erin)
%"n%entrati"n %"es the diss"l(ti"n ;ith"(t resid(e "= the kn"ts "=
i)n"ran%e in the heart.
1+. -tren)thenin) the sense "= -el= $is-M-$is this $isi"n> and re5e%tin)
it $is-M-$is the e)"> et%.> reain indi==erent t" the all> as t" ".5e%ts
like p"ts and %l"thes.
1,. All thin)s =r" !raha d";n t" %l(ps "= )rass are n"thin) .(t
(nreal ad5(n%ts. Distin%t =r" the> see "neEs -el= eJistin) as the
i(ta.le plen(.
2&. 9neEs -el= is !raha> Vishn(> Indra and -hi$a< this entire ;"rld is
"neEs -el=< "ther than this -el=> there is n"thin).
21. A=ter rep(diatin) all ".5e%ti$e appearan%es s(perip"sed "n "neEs
-el=> "ne reains al"ne as the s(pree !rahan> =(ll> n"n-d(al>
stirless.
22. 0he ;"rld is a p"st(lati"n> as )""d as n"n-eJistent> in the "ne
Reality that is i(ta.le> ="rless> (nH(ali=ied< ;hen%e is
di==eren%e I
23. 6In the "ne Reality7 de$"id "= distin%ti"ns like the per%ipient>
11&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
per%epti"n> and the per%ei$ed> and "= all s(==erin)s> in the a.s"l(tely
=(ll> spirit(al> -el=> like (nt" the "%ean at the tie "= %"si%
diss"l(ti"n> 6;hen%e is di==eren%e7 I
2#. Darkness ipli%it in It as in li)ht is the %a(se "= del(si"n. Ghen%e
is di==eren%e in the s(pree n"n-d(al and (nH(ali=ied Reality I
25. In this (ni="r and s(pree Reality> h"; %an the a)ent "=
di==eren%es d;ell I In deep sleep that is n"thin) .(t .liss ;h" has
per%ei$ed di==eren%e I
26. 0his per%epti"n "= di==eren%e is r""ted in the ind 6"= the
per%ipient7< there is n"ne "= it in the a.sen%e "= the ind. 0here="re>
%"n%entrate the ind "n the s(pree -el= as the s(.5e%t.
27. Up"n realiCin) the -el= that is ipartite .liss as "neEs ";n essen%e
6there ="ll";s7 the sa$"(rin) "= the tieless .liss that is the -el=> ."th
eJternally and internally.
2+. 9= deta%hent the =r(it is kn";led)e@ "= kn";led)e the =r(it is
;ithdra;al. EJperien%e "= -el= as .liss leads t" pea%e< a)ain> pea%e is
the =r(it "= ;ithdra;al.
2,. Gith"(t the %"nseH(ent states> the pre%edent "nes are =r(itless>
indeed. 8essati"n is s(pree satis=a%ti"n< at%hless .liss is
sp"ntane"(s.
3&. 0he eJpressed sense "= the ;"rd tat 6G"d7 has Maya ="r 3is
ad5(n%t< 3e is the ;"rld-%a(se. 3e is %hara%terised .y "nis%ien%e>
et%.< is tin)ed .y trans%enden%e> and is essentially 0r(th and s" ="rth.
31. 0he eJpressed sense "= the ;"rd `0$aE shines ="rth as the
%"ntent "= the idea and eJpressi"n `IE< it is a;areness .lended ;ith the
ind 6the inner "r)an "= per%epti"n7.
111
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

32. 9nly thr"()h the eJ%l(si"n "= Maya and a$idya> the ad5(n%ts "=
G"d and 2i$a is the s(pree -pirit> the ipartite !ein)>
8"ns%i"(sness and !liss> indi%ated.
33. `0" listenE> th(s is t" p(rs(e .y eans "= senten%es their ip"rt.
9n the "ther hand> `thinkin)E %"nsists in per%ei$in) its %"nsisten%y
;ith reas"n.
3#. `Meditati"nE is indeed the eJ%l(si$e attenti"n "= the ind =iJed "n
6the ip"rt7 rendered ind(.ita.le thr"()h listenin) and thinkin).
35. `8"n%entrati"nE is said t" .e the ind ;hi%h> "(t)r";in) the
d(alis .et;een the editat"r and editati"n> )rad(ally d;ells
eJ%l(si$ely "n the ".5e%t 6"= editati"n7 and is like a =lae in a
;indless sp"t.
36. MindEs "di=i%ati"ns in re)ard t" the -el= are (n%")niCed in that
state< they are 6"nly7 in=erred as past> a=ter H(ittin) the state "=
-aadhi.
37. 8r"res "= karans> a%%((lated in this .e)innin)less
transi)rat"ry li=e> are diss"l$ed .y eans "= %"n%entrati"n@ 6then7
p(re $irt(e .e)ins t" =l"(rish.
3+. 0he .est kn";ers "= 1")a %all this %"n%entrati"n the %l"(d "=
$irt(es> sin%e it rains the =l""d-;aters "= $irt(e in a th"(sand streas.
3,-#&. Ghen the l"ad "= innate ip(lses is diss"l$ed ;ith"(t resid(e
.y eans "= this 6%l"(d "= $irt(es7 and heaps "= karans> )""d and
e$il> are t"tally eradi%ated> the a5"r teJt> ;hi%h at =irst sh"ne ="rth
iediately> n"; (n".str(%ted> yields iediate a;areness as 6%lear7
as the yr".alan in the pal 6"= "neEs hand7.
112
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
#1. 0he n"n-"%%(rren%e "= the ip(lse 6t" en5"y> et%.>7 in re)ard t" the
".5e%ts "= en5"yent arks the a%e "= deta%hent. 0he hi)hest pit%h
"= a;areness is 6arked .y7 the n"n-"%%(rren%e "= the e)"isti% sense.
#26a7. 0he a%e "= ;ithdra;al is 6arked .y7 the n"n-"%%(rren%e "=
6e$en7 the latent ip(lse 6t" en5"y7.
#26.7. 3e is the as%eti% "= stead=ast ;isd" ;h" en5"ys .liss ="r e$er<
#3-##6a7. Gh"se sel= is er)ed in !rahan al"ne< ;h" is i(ta.le
and H(ies%ent. Gisd" 6pra5na7 is de=ined as the (n;a$erin) spirit(al
"de ;h"se %"ntent is the (nity "= !rahan and Atan p(r)ed 6"= all
ad5(n%ts7.
##6.7. Gh"s"e$er p"ssesses it 6;isd"7 ;ith"(t a .reak is li.erated in
li=e<
#5. Gh" has n" %"n%eit "= `IE in re)ard t" ."dy and senses< n"r the
%"n%eit "= ".5e%ts in re)ard t" thin)s "ther than the ? ;h" is =ree
=r" these t;" %"n%eits in re)ard t" anythin) ;hats"e$er is li.erated-
in-li=e<
#6. Gh"> in his ;isd"> per%ei$es n" di==eren%e .et;een the s(.5e%t
and !rahan< ;h" neither re=ers t" the %reat"r n"r %reati"n is
li.erated in li=e.
#7. Gh"se attit(de is the sae ."th ;hen he is h"n"(red .y the
$irt("(s and ;hen he is perse%(ted .y the ;i%ked is li.erated in li=e.
#+. 3e ;h" has realiCed the tr(th "= !rahan n" l"n)er transi)rates>
as hithert"< i= he d"es> this tr(th has n"t .een realiCed .y hi< he is .(t
an eJtr"$ert.
#,. As l"n) as the eJperien%e "= pleas(re> et%.> lasts> s" l"n) "perati$e
113
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karans =r" the past are held t" persist. 68a(sal7 a%ti"ns pre%ede the
"%%(rren%e "= e==e%ts< ne$er is this (npre%eded .y a%ti"ns.
5&. 8"nseH(ent "n the eJperien%e `I a !rahanE> karans
a%%((lated in the %"(rse "= ae"ns are diss"l$ed> e$en as the a%ti"ns
in dreas are> (p"n ;akin) (p.
51. 2(st as n"thin) %lin)s t" spa%e> s" t" the sa)e> ;h" kn";s the -el=
t" .e (natta%hed and indi==erent> =(t(re a%ti"ns %lin) n"t in the least
de)ree.
52. 2(st as spa%e is (na==e%ted .y the sell "= liH("r th"()h it t"(%hes
the p"t 6%"ntainin) the liH("r7> s" is -el= (na==e%ted .y the attri.(tes
"= Its ad5(n%ts.
53. 'arans d"ne .e="re the da;n "= kn";led)e perish n"t as a res(lt
"= that kn";led)e< they (st pr"d(%e their pr"per e==e%t e$en as an
arr"; sh"t t" hit a tar)et 6st"ps n"t .e="re hittin) it7.
5#. 0he arr"; dis%har)ed 6t" hit7 ;hat ;as taken ="r a ti)er st"ps n"t>
th"()h> alter> 6the tar)et7 is kn";n t" .e a %";< the tar)et is hit ;ith
=(ll ="r%e.
55. `I a (n-a)ein)E< `I a i"rtalE ? h"; %an "ne ;h" kn";s his
-el= t" .e s(%h and li$es that kn";led)e =a.ri%ate "perati$e past
a%ti"ns I
56. 0hen "nly is "perati$e past a%ti"n real ;hen "ne istakes "neEs
-el= t" .e the ."dy. 0he treatent "= the ."dy as -el= is ipr"per<
there="re re5e%t 6the n"ti"n7 "= "perati$e past a%ti"n.
57. 0he =a.ri%ati"n "= "perati$e past a%ti"ns is als"> indeed> a del(si"n
d(e t" this ."dy.
11#
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5+. 3"; %an the s(perip"sed .e real I 3"; %an the (nreal .e ."rn I
3"; %an the (n."rn perish I 3"; %an the (nreal ";n "perati$e past
a%ti"ns I
5,-6&. 0" ans;er the d(ll-;itted 6;h"7 d"(.t=(lly ask h"; this ."dy
persists i= the entire e==e%ts "= nes%ien%e ;ith their %a(se are destr"yed
.y kn";led)e> -hr(ti> ;ith an "(t;ard eye> pr"p"(nds the the"ry "=
"perati$e past a%ti"ns< n"t t" s())est t" the ;ise that the ."dy> et%.>
are real.
61. A t"tal plen(> ;ith"(t .e)innin) and end> eas(re and %han)e.
Massed .ein) and intelli)en%e> assed eternal .liss> (ndiinishin)>
62. Gith the s"le sa$"(r "= the s(.5e%t> =(ll> endless> .eh"ld all>
*either t" .e sh(nned n"r seiCed> neither t" .e held n"r pr"pped<
63. !ey"nd inert ="r%es and a%ti"ns> s(.tle> %ertain> (n.leished<
Gh"se essen%e is .ey"nd th"()ht> .ey"nd id and ;"rds<
6#. EJistent> a plenit(de> sel=-pr"$en> p(re> a;ake and at%hless.
9ne "nly is n"n-d(al !rahan< here is n" pl(rality at all.
0" Apantarataas ;as this s%ien%e iparted. 3e iparted it t"
!raha> ;h" passed it "n t" Gh"ran)iras. 0he latter )a$e it t" Raik$a
and Raik$a t" Raa. Raa iparted it t" all .ein)s. 0his is the
in5(n%ti"n in re)ard t" *ir$ana< this is the in5(n%ti"n "= the Vedas> "=
the Vedas. 0his is the se%ret tea%hin).
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
115
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60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the Adhyat"panishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-1a5(r-Veda.
116
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12. Advaya *araka Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
0hat ;hi%h helps y"( %r"ss =r" the =ear "= .irth> a)in) and death is
%alled 0haraka 60harayathi eans 8r"sses7. Understandin) the
appearan%e "= the li$in) .ein) and G"d as separate entities is d(e t"
ill(si"n and then eJainin) and (nderstandin) the di==eren%es ;hi%h
eJist in the ;"rld .y the eth"d "=> AIt is n"t thisB> AIt is n"t thisB and
at last ;hat reains at last is the Adh$aya !rahan 6;hi%h d"es n"t
ha$e t;" ="rs7. 0" )et it ;e ha$e t" pra%ti%e three ais. 1
In the iddle "= ."dy there eJists the -(sh(na *adi ;hi%h is as
.ri)ht as the s(n and as %""l as the ""n. It starts =r" M""ladhara
and )"es (p t" !raharandra ;hi%h is in the t"p iddle "= the sk(ll. It
117
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is ;ell kn";n that in the iddle "= it there eJists '(ndalani ;hi%h is
as .ri)ht as %r"res "= s(ns and as thin as the l"t(s thread. 0he an
;h" sees that ;ith his indEs eye attains sal$ati"n .y )ettin) rid "= all
sins. 2
9ne ;h" sees %"nstant li)ht in the t"p p"rti"n "= his> in the iddle "=
his ="rehead has attained astery "= y")a. 3
Ghere$er it is> i= there is li)ht a."$e the head "= a "ne> he is a y")i. #
0he y")a ;ithin is "= t;" types $iC 4""r$a 6pre7 and Uthara 6p"st7.
0he pre y")a is tharaka and the p"st y")a is aanaska 6.ey"nd
ind7. 5
0hat ;hi%h %an .e realiCed .y sens"ry "r)ans is "ne ;hi%h has a ="r.
0hat ;hi%h is in .et;een the eye lids is ;ith"(t ="r. Al;ays ="r
(nderstandin) the thin)s ;ithin> pra%ti%e ;ith deep appli%ati"n "=
ind is ne%essary. In 0haraka y")a> the %"n%epts like Daharakasa are
(nderst""d "nly .y the indEs eye. 0he Uthara 6p"st7 y")a is ;ith"(t
="r. It is .ey"nd the ind. 6
Gith"(t .attin) the eye lids t" see inside and "(tside> ;hat ;e are
aiin) t" see is %alled -a.ha$i M(dra. 0he pla%e ;here an eJpert in
that type "= (dra li$es .e%"es $ery h"ly. 7
11+
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!y the help "= a )reat tea%her "ne tries t" =ind the 0h(riya state hidden
in either the sahasrara 6th"(sand petal l"t(s7 "r the %a$e "= the heart "r
end "= the 12 *adis. A.ility t" see it is "nly thr"()h the help "= a )reat
tea%her. +
I= the tea%her> ;h" is a s%h"lar in Vedas> ;h" is a de$"tee "= /"rd
Vishn(> ;h" d"es n"t ha$e 5eal"(sy in his ind> ;h" is a )reat eJpert
in y")a> ;h" pra%ti%es 1")a and ;h" is the pers"ni=i%ati"n "= 1")a
.lesses (s> all the ties ip"sed .y .irth ;ill $anish. At that "ent all
the sins %"itted in all the .irths ;ill .e destr"yed. 0he Upanishad
tells that he ;ill a%hie$e all the 4(r(sharthas. ,
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
11,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

3ere ends the Ad$aya-0arak"panishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-1a5(r-
Veda.
12&
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13. Bhikshuka Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.

9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. Mendi%ant "nks desirin) li.erati"n are "= ="(r kinds@ the
'(ti%haka> !ah(daka> 3asa and 4araahasa.
2. 0he '(ti%hakas 6h(t-d;ellin) as%eti%s7 s(%h as 6the sa)es "= y"re
like7 Ga(taa> !harad$a5a> 1a5na$alkya and Vasistha> s(.sist "n ei)ht
"(th=(ls "= =""d and seek li.erati"n al"ne .y the path "= y")a.
3. *eJt the !ah(daka as%eti%s 6reainin) ainly in a h"ly pla%e "=
sa%red ;aters7 ;h" %arry a three-="ld e.leati% sta== 6tridanda7 and
;ater $essel and ;ear t(=t> sa%red thread and "%hre %"l"(red )arent.
A$"idin) ;ine and eat> they s(.sist "n ei)ht "(th=(ls "= =""d
se%(red as als =r" the h"(ses "= !rahana sa)es and seek
li.erati"n al"ne in the path "= 1")a.
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#. 0hen %"e the 3asa as%eti%s ;h" shelter ="r "ne ni)ht in a
$illa)e> =i$e ni)hts in a t";n and se$en ni)hts "r "re in a h"ly pla%e.
-(.sistin) "n %";Es (rine and "ther pr"d(%ts =r" the %"; and al;ays
addi%ted t" the %handrayana $";> they seek li.erati"n al"ne in the path
"= 1")a.
5. 0hen there are the 4araahasa as%eti%s 6s(%h as the sa)es "= y"re
like7 -a$artaka> Ar(ni> -$etaket(> 2ada.harata> Dattatreya> -(ka>
Vaade$a and 3arita> ;h" li$e "n ei)ht "(th=(ls "= =""d and seek
li.erati"n al"ne in the path "= 1")a. 0hey take shelter (nder the shade
"= trees> in deserted h"(ses "r in a %eetery. 0hey ay ;ear a dress "r
.e (n%lad. 0hey ".ser$e neither Dhara n"r Adhara 6i.e. they are
a."$e the la;s "= the land7. 0hey are n"t %"ns%i"(s "= pr"=it and l"ss
"= anythin). 0hey dis%ard the d"%trines "= Visishtad$aita 6pr"p"(nded
.y Raan(5a7> the -(ddha D$aita 6"= Madh$a%harya7 and the
As(ddha D$aita. 8"nsiderin) eH(ally a pe..le> st"ne and )"ld they
re%ei$e als =r" 6pers"n "=7 all %astes and see the Atan al"ne
e$ery;here. Un%lad> (na==e%ted .y pairs 6"= "pp"sites> heat and %"ld>
et%.>7 re%ei$in) n" )i=ts> s"lely adherin) t" p(re editati"n>
esta.lished in the Atan al"ne> re%ei$in) als at the pres%ri.ed tie
="r s(stainin) li=e> 6takin) shelter d(rin) ni)hts7 in a deserted h"(se>
teple> hay sta%k> ant-hill> shade "= a tree> p"tterEs h(t> a pla%e ;here
rit(al =ire is kept> sandy .ank "= a ri$er> a "(ntain thi%ket "r %a$ity> a
h"ll"; in a tree> the $i%inity "= a ;ater =all> "r a pie%e "= %lean )r"(nd>
they are ;ell "n the ;ay t" realiCe !rahan< ;ith p(re ind> they
)i$e (p their ."dies in the state "= ren(n%iati"n as a 4araahasa.
0hey are indeed the 4araahasas 6as they .e%"e a.s"r.ed in
!rahan7. 0h(s 6ends7 the Upanishad.
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
122
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the !hiksh(k"panishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-1a5(r-Veda.
123
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14. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : 4ea%e : 4ea%e : 4ea%e :
I-i-1@ 9. 0he head "= the sa%ri=i%ial h"rse is the da;n> its eye the
s(n> its $ital ="r%e the air> its "pen "(th the =ire %alled Vais$anara>
and the ."dy "= the sa%ri=i%ial h"rse is the year. Its .a%k is hea$en> its
.elly the sky> its h""= the earth> its sides the ="(r H(arters> its ri.s the
interediate H(arters> its e.ers the seas"ns> its 5"ints the "nths
and ="rtni)hts> its =eet the days and ni)hts> its ."nes the stars and its
=lesh the %l"(ds. Its hal=-di)ested =""d is the sand> its .l""d-$essels
the ri$ers> its li$er and spleen the "(ntains> its hairs the her.s and
trees. Its ="repart is the as%endin) s(n> its hind part the des%endin)
s(n> its ya;nin) is li)htnin)> its shakin) the ."dy is th(nderin)> its
akin) ;ater is rainin)> and its nei)hin) is $"i%e.
I-i-2@ 0he 6)"ld7 $essel %alled Mahian in =r"nt "= the h"rse> ;hi%h
appeared a."(t it 6i.e. p"intin) it "(t7> is the day. Its s"(r%e is the
eastern sea. 0he 6sil$er7 $essel Mahian .ehind the h"rse> ;hi%h
appeared a."(t it> is the ni)ht. Its s"(r%e is the ;estern sea. 0hese t;"
$essels %alled Mahian appeared "n either side "= the h"rse. As a
3aya it %arried the )"ds> as a Va5in the %elestial instrels> as an Ar$an
the As(ras> and as an As$a en. 0he -(pree -el= is its sta.le and the
12#
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-(pree -el= 6"r the sea7 its s"(r%e.
I-ii-1@ 0here ;as n"thin) ;hats"e$er here in the .e)innin). It ;as
%"$ered "nly .y Death 63iranya)ar.ha7> "r 3(n)er> ="r h(n)er is
death. 3e %reated the ind> thinkin)> `/et e ha$e a indE. 3e "$ed
a."(t ;"rshippin) 6hisel=7. As he ;as ;"rshippin)> ;ater ;as
pr"d(%ed. 6-in%e he th"()ht7> `As I ;as ;"rshippin)> ;ater spran)
(pE> there="re Arka 6=ire7 is s" %alled. Gater 6"r happiness7 s(rely
%"es t" "ne ;h" kn";s h"; Arka 6=ire7 %ae t" ha$e this nae "=
Arka.
I-ii-2@ Gater is Arka. Ghat ;as there 6like7 ="rth "n the ;ater ;as
s"lidi=ied and .e%ae this earth. Ghen that ;as pr"d(%ed> he ;as
tired. Ghile he ;as 6th(s7 tired and distressed> his essen%e> "r l(stre>
%ae ="rth. 0his ;as Fire.
I-ii-3@ 3e 6Vira57 di==erentiated hisel= in three ;ays> akin) the s(n
the third ="r> and air the third ="r. -"> this 4rana 6Vira57 is di$ided
in three ;ays. 3is head is the east> and his ars that 6n"rth-east7 and
that 6s"(th-east7. And his hind part is the ;est> his hip-."nes that
6n"rth-;est7 and that 6s"(th-;est7> his sides the s"(th and n"rth> his
.a%k hea$en> his .elly the sky> and his .reast this earth. 3e rests "n
;ater. 3e ;h" kn";s 6it7 th(s )ets a restin) pla%e ;here$er he )"es.
I-ii-#@ 3e desired> `/et e ha$e a se%"nd ="r 6."dy7.E 3e> Death "r
3(n)er> .r"()ht a."(t the (ni"n "= spee%h 6the Vedas7 ;ith the ind.
Ghat ;as the seed there .e%ae the 1ear 6Vira57. !e="re hi there
had .een n" year. 3e 6Death7 reared hi ="r as l"n) as a year> and
a=ter this peri"d pr"5e%ted hi. Ghen he ;as ."rn> 6Death7 "pened his
"(th 6t" s;all"; hi7. 3e 6the .a.e7 %ried `!han:E 0hat .e%ae
spee%h.
I-ii-5@ 3e th"()ht> `I= I kill hi> I shall .e akin) $ery little =""d.E
0hr"()h that spee%h and the ind he pr"5e%ted all this> ;hate$er there
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is ? the Vedas Ri)> 1a5(s and -aan> the etres> the sa%ri=i%es> en
and anials. Ghate$er he pr"5e%ted> he res"l$ed t" eat. !e%a(se he
eats e$erythin)> there="re Aditi 6Death7 is s" %alled. 3e ;h" kn";s
h"; Aditi %ae t" ha$e this nae "= Aditi> .e%"es the eater "= all
this> and e$erythin) .e%"es his =""d.
I-ii-6@ 3e desired> `/et e sa%ri=i%e a)ain ;ith the )reat sa%ri=i%eE. 3e
;as tired> and he ;as distressed. Ghile he ;as 6th(s7 tired and
distressed> his rep(tati"n and stren)th departed. 0he "r)ans are
rep(tati"n and stren)th. Ghen the "r)ans departed> the ."dy .e)an t"
s;ell> 6.(t7 his ind ;as set "n the ."dy.
I-ii-7@ 3e desired> `/et this ."dy "= ine .e =it ="r a sa%ri=i%e> and let
e .e e."died thr"()h thisE> 6and entered it7. !e%a(se the ."dy
s;elled 6As$at7> there="re it %ae t" .e %alled As$a 6h"rse7. And
.e%a(se it .e%ae =it ="r a sa%ri=i%e> there="re the h"rse sa%ri=i%e %ae
t" .e kn";n as As$aedha. 3e ;h" kn";s it th(s indeed kn";s the
h"rse sa%ri=i%e. 6Ia)inin) hisel= as the h"rse and7 lettin) it reain
=ree> he re=le%ted 6"n it7. A=ter a year he sa%ri=i%ed it t" hisel=> and
dispat%hed the 6"ther7 anials t" the )"ds. 0here="re 6priests t" this
day7 sa%ri=i%e t" 4ra5apati the san%ti=ied 6h"rse7 that is dedi%ated t" all
the )"ds. 3e ;h" shines y"nder is the h"rse sa%ri=i%e< his ."dy is the
year. 0his =ire is Arka< its li.s are these ;"rlds. -" these t;" 6=ire
and the s(n7 are Arka and the h"rse sa%ri=i%e. 0hese t;" a)ain .e%"e
the sae )"d> Death. 3e 6;h" kn";s th(s7 %"nH(ers =(rther death>
death %ann"t "$ertake hi> it .e%"es his sel=> and he .e%"es "ne
;ith these deities.
I-iii-1@ 0here ;ere t;" %lasses "= 4ra5apatiEs s"ns> the )"ds and the
As(ras. *at(rally> the )"ds ;ere =e;er> and the As(ras "re in
n(.er. 0hey $ied ;ith ea%h "ther ="r 6the astery "= these ;"rlds.
0he )"ds said> `*"; let (s s(rpass the As(ras in 6this7 sa%ri=i%e
thr"()h the Ud)ithaE.
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I-iii-2@ 0hey said t" the "r)an "= spee%h> `8hant 6the Ud)itha7 ="r (sE.
`All ri)htE> said the "r)an "= spee%h and %hanted ="r the. 0he
%""n )""d that %"es "= the "r)an "= spee%h> it se%(red ="r the
)"ds .y %hantin)> ;hile the =ine speakin) it (tilised ="r itsel=. 0he
As(ras kne; that thr"()h this %hanter the )"ds ;"(ld s(rpass the.
0hey %har)ed it and str(%k it ;ith e$il. 0hat e$il is ;hat ;e %"e
a%r"ss ;hen "ne speaks ipr"per thin)s.
I-iii-3@ 0hen they said t" the n"se `8hant 6the Ud)itha7 ="r (sE. `All
ri)htE> said the n"se and %hanted ="r the. 0he %""n )""d that
%"es "= the n"se> it se%(red ="r the )"ds .y %hantin)> ;hile the =ine
sellin) it (tilised ="r itsel=. 0he As(ras kne; that thr"()h this
%hanter the )"ds ;"(ld s(rpass the. 0hey %har)ed it and str(%k it
;ith e$il. 0hat e$il is ;hat ;e %"e a%r"ss ;hen "ne sells ipr"per
thin)s.
I-iii-#@ 0hen they said t" the eye `8hant 6the Ud)itha7 ="r (sE. `All
ri)htE> said the eye and %hanted ="r the. 0he %""n )""d that
%"es "= the eye> it se%(red ="r the )"ds .y %hantin)> ;hile the =ine
seein) it (tilised ="r itsel=. 0he As(ras kne; that thr"()h this %hanter
the )"ds ;"(ld s(rpass the. 0hey %har)ed it and str(%k it ;ith e$il.
0hat e$il is ;hat ;e %"e a%r"ss ;hen "ne sees ipr"per thin)s.
I-iii-5@ 0hen they said t" the ear `8hant 6the Ud)itha7 ="r (sE. `All
ri)htE> said the ear and %hanted ="r the. 0he %""n )""d that
%"es "= the ear> it se%(red ="r the )"ds .y %hantin)> ;hile the =ine
hearin) it (tilised ="r itsel=. 0he As(ras kne; that thr"()h this %hanter
the )"ds ;"(ld s(rpass the. 0hey %har)ed it and str(%k it ;ith e$il.
0hat e$il is ;hat ;e %"e a%r"ss ;hen "ne hears ipr"per thin)s.
I-iii-6@ 0hen they said t" the ind `8hant 6the Ud)itha7 ="r (sE. `All
ri)htE> said the ind and %hanted ="r the. 0he %""n )""d that
%"es "= the ind> it se%(red ="r the )"ds .y %hantin)> ;hile the =ine
thinkin) it (tilised ="r itsel=. 0he As(ras kne; that thr"()h this
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%hanter the )"ds ;"(ld s(rpass the. 0hey %har)ed it and str(%k it
;ith e$il. 0hat e$il is ;hat ;e %"e a%r"ss ;hen "ne thinks ipr"per
thin)s. /ike;ise they als" t"(%hed these 6"ther7 deities ;ith e$il ?
str(%k the ;ith e$il.
I-iii-7@ 0hen they said t" this $ital ="r%e in the "(th> `8hant 6the
Ud)itha7 ="r (sE. `All ri)htE> said the $ital ="r%e and %hanted ="r the.
0he As(ras kne; that thr"()h this %hanter the )"ds ;"(ld s(rpass
the. 0hey %har)ed it and ;anted t" strike it ;ith e$il. !(t as a %l"d
"= earth> strikin) a)ainst a r"%k> is shattered> s" ;ere they shattered>
=l(n) in all dire%ti"ns> and perished. 0here="re the )"ds .e%ae 6=ire
et%.7> and the As(ras ;ere %r(shed. 3e ;h" kn";s th(s .e%"es his
tr(e sel=> and his en$i"(s kinsan is %r(shed.
I-iii-+@ 0hey said> `Ghere ;as he ;h" has th(s rest"red (s 6t" "(r
di$inity7IE 6and dis%"$ered7@ `3ere he is ;ithin the "(thE. 0he $ital
="r%e is %alled Ayasya An)irasa> ="r it is the essen%e "= the e.ers
6"= the ."dy7.
I-iii-,@ 0his deity is %alled D(r> .e%a(se death is =ar =r" it. Death is
=ar =r" "ne ;h" kn";s th(s.
I-iii-1&@ 0his deity t""k a;ay death> the e$il "= these )"ds> and %arried
it t" ;here these H(arters end. 0here it le=t their e$ils. 0here="re "ne
sh"(ld n"t appr"a%h a pers"n 6"= that re)i"n7> n"r )" t" that re)i"n
.ey"nd the ."rder> lest "ne i.i.e that e$il> death.
I-iii-11@ 0his deity a=ter takin) a;ay death> the e$il "= these )"ds> neJt
%arried the .ey"nd death.
I-iii-12@ It %arried the "r)an "= spee%h> the ="re"st "ne> =irst. Ghen
the "r)an "= spee%h )"t rid "= death> it .e%ae =ire. 0hat =ire> ha$in)
trans%ended death> shines .ey"nd its rea%h.
12+
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I-iii-13@ 0hen it %arried the n"se. Ghen it )"t rid "= death> it .e%ae
air. 0hat air> ha$in) trans%ended death> .l";s .ey"nd its rea%h.
I-iii-1#@ 0hen it %arried the eye. Ghen the eye )"t rid "= death> it
.e%ae s(n. 0hat s(n> ha$in) trans%ended death> shines .ey"nd its
rea%h.
I-iii-15@ 0hen it %arried the ear Ghen the ear )"t rid "= death> it
.e%ae the H(arters. 0h"se H(arters> ha$in) trans%ended death> reain
.ey"nd its rea%h.
I-iii-16@ 0hen it %arried the ind. Ghen the ind )"t rid "= death> it
.e%ae the ""n. 0hat ""n> ha$in) trans%ended death> shines
.ey"nd its rea%h. -" d"es this deity %arry "ne ;h" kn";s th(s .ey"nd
death.
I-iii-17@ *eJt it se%(red eata.le =""d ="r itsel= .y %hantin)> ="r
;hate$er =""d is eaten> is eaten .y the $ital ="r%e al"ne> and it rests "n
that.
I-iii-1+@ 0he )"ds said> `Ghate$er =""d there is> is 5(st this (%h> and
y"( ha$e se%(red it ="r y"(rsel= .y %hantin). *"; let (s ha$e a share
in this =""d.E `0hen sit ar"(nd =a%in) eE> 6said the $ital ="r%e7. `All
ri)htE> 6said the )"ds and7 sat d";n ar"(nd it. 3en%e ;hate$er =""d
"ne eats thr"()h the $ital ="r%e satis=ies these. -" d" his relati$es sit
ar"(nd =a%in) hi ;h" kn";s th(s> and he .e%"es their s(pp"rt> the
)reatest a"n) the and their leader> a )""d eater "= =""d and the
r(ler "= the. 0hat "ne a"n) his relati$es ;h" desires t" ri$al a an
"= s(%h kn";led)e is p";erless t" s(pp"rt his dependants. !(t "ne
;h" ="ll";s hi> "r desires t" aintain "neEs dependants .ein) (nder
hi> is al"ne %apa.le "= s(pp"rtin) the.
I-iii-1,@ It is %alled Ayasya An)irasa> ="r it is the essen%e "= the
e.ers 6"= the ."dy7. 0he $ital ="r%e is indeed the essen%e "= the
12,
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e.ers. 9= %"(rse it is their essen%e. 6F"r instan%e7> =r" ;hi%he$er
e.er the $ital ="r%e departs> ri)ht there it ;ithers. 0here="re this is
"= %"(rse the essen%e "= the e.ers.
I-iii-2&@ 0his al"ne is als" !rihaspati 6l"rd "= the Rik7. -pee%h is
indeed !rihati 6Rik7 and this is its l"rd. 0here="re this is als"
!rihaspati.
I-iii-21@ 0his al"ne is als" !rahanaspati 6l"rd "= the 1a5(s7. -pee%h
is indeed !rahan 6ya5(s7> and this is its l"rd. 0here="re this is als"
!rahanaspati.
I-iii-22@ 0his al"ne is als" -aan. -pee%h is indeed -a> and this is
Aa. !e%a(se it is -a 6spee%h7 and Aa 6$ital ="r%e7> there="re -aan
is s" %alled. 9r .e%a(se it is eH(al t" a ;hite ant> eH(al t" a "sH(it">
eH(al t" an elephant> eH(al t" these three ;"rlds> eH(al t" this
(ni$erse> there="re this is als" -aan. 3e ;h" kn";s this saan 6$ital
="r%e7 t" .e s(%h attains (ni"n ;ith it> "r li$es in the sae ;"rld as it.
I-iii-23@ 0his indeed is als" Ud)itha. 0he $ital ="r%e is indeed Ut> ="r
all this is held al"=t .y the $ital ="r%e> and spee%h al"ne is Githa. 0his
is Ud)itha> .e%a(se it is Ut and Githa.
I-iii-2#@ Re)ardin) this 6there is7 als" 6a st"ry7@ !rahadatta> the
)reat-)rands"n "= 8ikitana> ;hile drinkin) -"a> said> `/et this -"a
strike "== y head i= I say that Ayasya An)irasa %hanted the Ud)itha
thr"()h any "ther than this 6$ital ="r%e and spee%h7.E Indeed he
%hanted thr"()h spee%h and the $ital ="r%e.
I-iii-25@ 3e ;h" kn";s the ;ealth "= this -aan 6$ital ="r%e7 attains
;ealth. 0"ne is indeed its ;ealth. 0here="re "ne ;h" is )"in) t"
"==i%iate as a priest sh"(ld desire t" ha$e a ri%h t"ne in his $"i%e> and
he sh"(ld d" his priestly d(ties thr"()h that $"i%e ;ith a =ine t"ne.
0here="re in a sa%ri=i%e pe"ple l"n) t" see a priest ;ith a )""d $"i%e>
13&
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like "ne ;h" has ;ealth. 3e ;h" kn";s the ;ealth "= saan t" .e
s(%h attains ;ealth.
I-iii-26@ 3e ;h" kn";s the )"ld "= this -aan 6$ital ="r%e7 ".tains
)"ld. 0"ne is indeed its )"ld. 3e ;h" kn";s the )"ld "= -aan t" .e
s(%h ".tains )"ld.
I-iii-27@ 3e ;h" kn";s the s(pp"rt "= this -aan 6$ital ="r%e7 )ets a
restin) pla%e. -pee%h 6%ertain parts "= the ."dy7 is indeed its s(pp"rt.
F"r restin) "n spee%h is the $ital ="r%e th(s %hanted. -"e say> restin)
"n =""d 6."dy7.
I-iii-2+@ *"; there="re the edi=yin) repetiti"n 6Adhyar"ha7 "nly "= the
hyns %alled 4a$aanas. 0he priest %alled 4rast"tir indeed re%ites the
-aan. Ghile he re%ites it> these Mantras are t" .e repeated@ Fr"
e$il lead e t" )""d. Fr" darkness lead e t" li)ht. Fr" death lead
e t" i"rtality. Ghen the Mantra says> `Fr" e$il lead e t"
)""dE> `e$ilE eans death> and `)""dE i"rtality< s" it says> `Fr"
death lead e t" i"rtality> i.e. ake e i"rtalE. Ghen it says>
`Fr" darkness lead e t" li)htE> `darknessE eans death> and `li)htE>
i"rtality< s" it says> `Fr" death lead e t" i"rtality> "r ake
e i"rtalE. In the di%t(> `Fr" death lead e t" i"rtalityE> the
eanin) d"es n"t see t" .e hidden. 0hen thr"()h the reainin)
hyns 6the %hanter7 sh"(ld se%(re eata.le =""d ="r hisel= .y
%hantin). 0here="re> ;hile they are .ein) %hanted> the sa%ri=i%er
sh"(ld ask ="r a .""n ? anythin) that he desires. Ghate$er ".5e%ts this
%hanter p"ssessed "= s(%h kn";led)e desires> either ="r hisel= "r ="r
the sa%ri=i%er> he se%(res the .y %hantin). 0his 6editati"n7 %ertainly
;ins the ;"rld 63iranya)ar.ha7. 3e ;h" kn";s the -aan 6$ital
="r%e7 as s(%h has n"t t" pray lest he .e (n=it ="r this ;"rld.
I-i$-1@ In the .e)innin)> this 6(ni$erse7 ;as .(t the sel= 6Vira57 "= a
h(an ="r. 3e re=le%ted and ="(nd n"thin) else .(t hisel=. 3e =irst
(ttered> D` a heDE 0here="re he ;as %alled Aha 6I7. 3en%e> t" this
day> ;hen a pers"n is addressed> he =irst says> `It is I>E and then says
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the "ther nae that he ay ha$e. !e%a(se he ;as =irst and .e="re this
;h"le 6.and "= aspirants7 .(rnt all e$ils> there="re he is %alled
4(r(sha. 3e ;h" kn";s th(s indeed .(rns "ne ;h" ;ants t" .e
6Vira57 .e="re hi.
I-i$-2@ 3e ;as a=raid. 0here="re pe"ple 6still7 are a=raid t" .e al"ne.
3e th"()ht> `I= there is n"thin) else .(t e> ;hat a I a=raid "= IE
Fr" that al"ne his =ear ;as )"ne> ="r ;hat ;as there t" =ear I It is
=r" a se%"nd entity that =ear %"es.
I-i$-3@ 3e ;as n"t at all happy. 0here="re pe"ple 6still7 are n"t happy
;hen al"ne. 3e desired a ate. 3e .e%ae as .i) as an and ;i=e
e.ra%in) ea%h "ther. 3e parted this $ery ."dy int" t;". Fr" that
%ae h(s.and and ;i=e. 0here="re> said 1a5na$alkya> this 6."dy7 is
"ne-hal= "= "nesel=> like "ne "= the t;" hal$es "= a split pea. 0here="re
this spa%e is indeed =illed .y the ;i=e. 3e ;as (nited ;ith her. Fr"
that en ;ere ."rn.
I-i$-#@ -he th"()ht> `3"; %an he .e (nited ;ith e a=ter pr"d(%in)
e =r" hisel= I Gell let e hide ysel=E. -he .e%ae a %";> the
"ther .e%ae a .(ll and ;as (nited ;ith her< =r" that %";s ;ere
."rn. 0he "ne .e%ae a are> the "ther a stalli"n< the "ne .e%ae a
she-ass> the "ther .e%ae a he-ass and ;as (nited ;ith her< =r" that
"neh""=ed anials ;ere ."rn. 0he "ne .e%ae a she-)"at> the "ther a
he-)"at< the "ne .e%ae a e;e> the "ther .e%ae a ra and ;as
(nited ;ith her< =r" that )"ats and sheep ;ere ."rn. 0h(s did he
pr"5e%t e$ery thin) that eJists in pairs> d";n t" the ants.
I-i$-5@ 3e kne;> `I indeed a the %reati"n> ="r I pr"5e%ted all thisE.
0here="re he ;as %alled 8reati"n. 3e ;h" kn";s this as s(%h
.e%"es 6a %reat"r7 in this %reati"n "= Vira5.
I-i$-6@ 0hen he r(..ed .a%k and ="rth th(s> and pr"d(%ed =ire =r" its
s"(r%e> the "(th and the hands. 0here="re ."th these are ;ith"(t hair
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-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
at the inside. Ghen they talk "= parti%(lar )"ds> sayin)> `-a%ri=i%e t"
hiE> `sa%ri=i%e t" the "ther "neE> 6they are ;r"n)> sin%e7 these are all
his pr"5e%ti"n> ="r he is all the )"ds. *"; all this that is liH(id> he
pr"d(%ed =r" the seed. 0hat is -"a. 0his (ni$erse is indeed this
(%h ? =""d and the eater "= =""d. -"a is =""d> and =ire the eater "=
=""d. 0his is s(per-%reati"n "= Vira5 that he pr"5e%ted the )"ds> ;h"
are e$en s(peri"r t" hi. !e%a(se he> alth"()h "rtal hisel=>
pr"5e%ted the i"rtals> there="re this is a s(per-%reati"n. 3e ;h"
kn";s this as s(%h .e%"es 6a %reat"r7 in this s(per-%reati"n "= Vira5.
I-i$-7@ 0his 6(ni$erse7 ;as then (ndi==erentiated. It di==erentiated "nly
int" nae and ="r ? it ;as %alled s(%h and s(%h> and ;as "= s(%h and
s(%h ="r. -" t" this day it is di==erentiated "nly int" nae and ="r ?
it is %alled s(%h and s(%h> and is "= s(%h and s(%h ="r. 0his -el= has
entered int" these ."dies (p t" the tip "= the nails ? as a raC"r ay .e
p(t in its %ase> "r as =ire> ;hi%h s(stains the ;"rld> ay .e in its
s"(r%e. 4e"ple d" n"t see It> ="r 6$ie;ed in Its aspe%ts7 It is
in%"plete. Ghen It d"es the =(n%ti"n "= li$in). It is %alled the $ital
="r%e< ;hen It speaks> the "r)an "= spee%h< ;hen It sees> the eye< ;hen
It hears> the ear< and ;hen It thinks> the ind. 0hese are erely Its
naes a%%"rdin) t" =(n%ti"ns. 3e ;h" editates (p"n ea%h "= this
t"tality "= aspe%ts d"es n"t kn";> ="r It is in%"plete> 6.ein) di$ided7
=r" this t"tality .y p"ssessin) a sin)le %hara%teristi%. 0he -el= al"ne
is t" .e editated (p"n> ="r all these are (ni=ied in It. 9= all these> this
-el= sh"(ld .e realised> ="r "ne kn";s all these thr"()h It> 5(st as "ne
ay )et 6an anial7 thr"()h its =""t-prints. 3e ;h" kn";s It as s(%h
".tains =ae and ass"%iati"n 6;ith his relati$es7.
I-i$-+@ 0his -el= is dearer than a s"n> dearer than ;ealth> dearer than
e$erythin) else> and is inner"st. -h"(ld a pers"n 6h"ldin) the -el= as
dear7 say t" "ne %allin) anythin) else dearer than the -el=> `6;hat y"(
h"ld7 dear ;ill dieE ? he is %ertainly %"petent 6t" say s"7 ? it ;ill
indeed %"e tr(e. 9ne sh"(ld editate (p"n the -el= al"ne as dear. 9=
hi ;h" editates (p"n the -el= al"ne as dear> the dear "nes are n"t
133
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"rtal.
I-i$-,@ 0hey say@ Men think> `0hr"()h the kn";led)e "= !rahan ;e
shall .e%"e allE. Gell> ;hat did that !rahan kn"; .y ;hi%h It
.e%ae all I
I-i$-1&@ 0his 6sel=7 ;as indeed !rahan in the .e)innin). It kne;
"nly Itsel= as> `I a !rahanE. 0here="re It .e%ae all. And ;h"e$er
a"n) the )"ds kne; It als" .e%ae 0hat< and the sae ;ith sa)es
and en. 0he sa)e Vaade$a> ;hile realisin) this 6sel=7 as 0hat> kne;>
`I ;as Man(> and the s(nE. And t" this day ;h"e$er in like anner
kn";s It as> `I a !rahanE> .e%"es all this 6(ni$erse7. E$en the
)"ds %ann"t pre$ail a)ainst hi> ="r he .e%"es their sel=. Ghile he
;h" ;"rships an"ther )"d thinkin)> `3e is "ne> and I a an"therE>
d"es n"t kn";. 3e is like an anial t" the )"ds. As any anials
ser$e a an> s" d"es ea%h an ser$e the )"ds. E$en i= "ne anial is
taken a;ay> it %a(ses an)(ish> ;hat sh"(ld "ne say "= any anials I
0here="re it is n"t liked .y the that en sh"(ld kn"; this.
I-i$-11@ In the .e)innin) this 6the 'shatriya and "ther %astes7 ;as
indeed !rahan> "ne "nly. !ein) "ne> he did n"t =l"(rish. 3e
spe%ially pr"5e%ted an eJ%ellent ="r> the 'shatriya ? th"se ;h" are
'shatriyas a"n) the )"ds@ Indra> Var(na> the ""n> R(dra> 4ar5anya>
1aa> Death> and Isana. 0here="re there is n"ne hi)her than the
'shatriya. 3en%e the !rahana ;"rships the 'shatriya =r" a l";er
p"siti"n in the Ra5as(ya sa%ri=i%e. 3e iparts that )l"ry t" the
'shatriya. 0he !rahana is the s"(r%e "= the 'shatriya. 0here="re>
alth"()h the kin) attains s(prea%y 6in the sa%ri=i%e7> at the end "= it
he res"rts t" the !rahana> his s"(r%e. 3e ;h" sli)hts the !rahana>
strikes at his ";n s"(r%e. 3e .e%"es "re ;i%ked> as "ne is .y
sli)htin) "neEs s(peri"r.
I-i$-12@ 1et he did n"t =l"(rish. 3e pr"5e%ted the Vaisya ? th"se
spe%ies "= )"ds ;h" are desi)nated in )r"(ps@ the Vas(s> R(dras>
13#
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Adityas> Vis$ade$as and Mar(ts.
I-i$-13@ 3e did n"t still =l"(rish. 3e pr"5e%ted the -(dra %aste ? 4(san.
0his 6earth7 is 4(san. F"r it n"(rishes all this that eJists.
I-i$-1#@ 1et he did n"t =l"(rish. 3e spe%ially pr"5e%ted that eJ%ellent
="r> ri)hte"(sness 6Dhara7. 0his ri)hte"(sness is the %"ntr"ller "=
the 'shatriya. 0here="re there is n"thin) hi)her than that. 6-"7 e$en a
;eak an h"pes 6t" de=eat7 a str"n)er an thr"()h ri)hte"(sness> as
6"ne %"ntendin)7 ;ith the kin). 0hat ri)hte"(sness> as 6"ne
%"ntendin)7 ;ith the kin). 0hat ri)hte"(sness is $erily tr(th.
0here="re they say a."(t a pers"n speakin) "= tr(th> `3e speaks "=
ri)hte"(snessE> "r a."(t a pers"n speakin) "= ri)hte"(sness> `3e
speaks "= tr(thE> ="r ."th these are .(t ri)hte"(sness.
I-i$-15@ 6-"7 these 6="(r %astes ;ere pr"5e%ted7 ? the !rahana>
'shatriya> Vaisya and -(dra. 3e .e%ae a !rahana a"n) the )"ds
as F"re> and a"n) en as the !rahana. 63e .e%ae7 a 'shatriya
thr"()h the 6di$ine7 'shatriyas> a Vaisya thr"()h the 6di$ine7 Vaisyas
and a -(dra thr"()h the 6di$ine7 -(dra. 0here="re pe"ple desire t"
attain the res(lts "= their rites a"n) the )"ds thr"()h =ire> and a"n)
en as the !rahana. F"r !rahan ;as in these t;" ="rs. I=>
h";e$er> any."dy departs =r" this ;"rld ;ith"(t realisin) his ";n
;"rld 6the -el=7> It> .ein) (nkn";n> d"es n"t pr"te%t hi ? as the
Vedas n"t st(died> "r any "ther ;"rk n"t (ndertaken 6d" n"t7. E$en i=
a an ;h" d"es n"t kn"; It as s(%h per="rs a )reat any
erit"ri"(s a%ts in the ;"rld> th"se a%ts "= his are s(rely eJha(sted in
the end. 9ne sh"(ld editate "nly (p"n the ;"rld "= the -el=. 3e ;h"
editates "nly (p"n the ;"rld %alled the -el= ne$er has his ;"rk
eJha(sted. Fr" this $ery -el= he pr"5e%ts ;hate$er he ;ants.
I-i$-16@ *"; this sel= 6the i)n"rant an7 is an ".5e%t "= en5"yent t"
all .ein)s. 0hat he akes ".lati"ns in the =ire and per="rs sa%ri=i%es
is h"; he .e%"es s(%h an ".5e%t t" the )"ds. 0hat he st(dies the
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Vedas is h"; he .e%"es an ".5e%t "= en5"yent t" the Rishis 6sa)es7.
0hat he akes "==erin)s t" the Manes and desires %hildren is h"; he
.e%"es s(%h an ".5e%t t" the Manes. 0hat he )i$es shelter t" en as
;ell as =""d is h"; he .e%"es an ".5e%t "= en5"yent t" en. 0hat
he )i$es ="dder and ;ater t" the anials is h"; he .e%"es s(%h an
".5e%t t" he. And that .easts and .irds> and e$en the ants> =eed in his
h"e is h"; he .e%"es an ".5e%t "= en5"yent t" these. 2(st as "ne
;ishes sa=ety t" "neEs ."dy> s" d" all .ein)s ;ish sa=ety t" hi ;h"
kn";s it as s(%h. 0his indeed has .een kn";n> and dis%(ssed.
I-i$-17@ 0his 6a))re)ate "= desira.le ".5e%ts7 ;as .(t the sel= in the
.e)innin) ? the "nly entity. 3e desired> `/et e ha$e a ;i=e> s" that I
ay .e ."rn 6as the %hild7. And let e ha$e ;ealth> s" that I ay
per="r ritesE. 0his (%h indeed is 6the ran)e "=7 desire. E$en i= "ne
;ishes> "ne %ann"t )et "re than this. 0here="re t" this day a an
.ein) sin)le desires> `/et e ha$e a ;i=e> s" that I ay .e ."rn. And
let e ha$e ;ealth> s" that I ay per="r rites.E Until he ".tains ea%h
"ne "= these> he %"nsiders hisel= in%"plete. 3is %"pleteness als"
6%"es th(s7@ 0he ind is his sel=> spee%h his ;i=e> the $ital ="r%e his
%hild> the eye his h(an ;ealth> ="r he ".tains it thr"()h the eye> the
ear his di$ine ;ealth> ="r he hears "= it thr"()h the ear> and the ."dy is
its 6instr(ent "=7 rite> ="r he per="rs rites thr"()h the ."dy. 6-"7
this sa%ri=i%e has =i$e =a%t"rs ? the anials ha$e =i$e =a%t"rs> the en
ha$e =i$e =a%t"rs> and all this that eJists has =i$e =a%t"rs. 3e ;h"
kn";s it as s(%h attains all this.
I-$-1@ 0hat the =ather pr"d(%ed se$en kinds "= =""d thr"()h
editati"n and rites 6I shall dis%l"se7. 9ne is %""n t" all eaters.
0;" he app"rti"ned t" the )"ds. 0hree he desi)ned ="r hisel=. And
"ne he )a$e t" the anials. 9n it rests e$erythin) ? ;hat li$es and
;hat d"es n"t. Ghy are they n"t eJha(sted> alth"()h they are al;ays
.ein) eaten I 3e ;h" kn";s this %a(se "= their peranen%e eats =""d
;ith 4ratika 6pre-einen%e7. 3e attains 6identity ;ith7 the )"ds and
li$es "n ne%tar. 0hese are the $erses.
136
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I-$-2@ `0hat the =ather pr"d(%ed se$en kinds "= =""d thr"()h
editati"n and ritesE eans that the =ather indeed pr"d(%ed the
thr"()h editati"n and rites. `9ne is %""n t" all eatersE eans> this
=""d that is eaten is the %""n =""d "= all eaters. 3e ;h" ad"res
6"n"p"lises7 this =""d is ne$er =ree =r" e$il> ="r this is )eneral
=""d. `0;" he app"rti"ned t" the )"dsE eans akin) ".lati"ns in the
=ire> and "==erin) presents "ther;ise t" the )"ds. 0here="re pe"ple
per="r ."th these. -"e> h";e$er> say> th"se t;" are the ne; and
=(ll ""n sa%ri=i%es. 0here="re "ne sh"(ld n"t .e en)r"ssed ;ith
sa%ri=i%es ="r aterial ends. `9ne he )a$e t" the anialsE ? it is ilk.
F"r en and anials =irst li$e "n ilk al"ne. 0here="re they =irst
ake a ne;-."rn .a.e li%k %lari=ied .(tter "r s(%kle it. And they
speak "= a ne;-."rn %al= as n"t yet eatin) )rass. `9n it rests
e$erythin) ? ;hat li$es and ;hat d"es n"tE eans that "n ilk indeed
rests all this that li$es and that d"es n"t. It is said that .y akin)
"==erin)s "= ilk in the =ire ="r a year "ne %"nH(ers =(rther death. 9ne
sh"(ld n"t think like that. 3e ;h" kn";s as a."$e %"nH(ers =(rther
death the $ery day he akes that "==erin)> ="r he "==ers all eata.le
=""d t" the )"ds> `Ghy are they n"t eJha(sted> alth"()h they are
al;ays .ein) eaten IE ? eans that the .ein) 6eater7 is indeed the
%a(se "= their peranen%e> ="r the pr"d(%es this =""d a)ain and a)ain.
`3e ;h" kn";s this %a(se "= their peranen%eE eans that the .ein)
6eater7 is indeed the %a(se "= their peranen%e> ="r he pr"d(%es this
=""d thr"()h his editati"n ="r the tie .ein) and rites. I= he d"es n"t
d" this> it ;ill .e eJha(sted. `3e eats =""d ;ith 4ratikaE< `4ratikaE
eans pre-einen%e< hen%e the eanin) is> pre-einently. `3e attains
the )"ds and li$es "n ne%tarE is a e(l")y.
I-$-3@ `0hree he desi)ned ="r hisel=E eans@ the ind> the "r)an "=
spee%h and the $ital ="r%e< these he desi)ned ="r hisel=. 60hey say7>
`I ;as a.sent-inded> I did n"t see itE> `I ;as a.sent-inded> I did n"t
hear itE. It is thr"()h the ind that "ne sees and hears. Desires>
res"l$e> d"(.t> =aith> ;ant "= =aith> steadiness> (nsteadiness> shae>
intelli)en%e and =ear ? all these are .(t the ind. E$en i= "ne is
137
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t"(%hed =r" .ehind> "ne kn";s it thr"()h the ind< there="re 6the
ind eJists7. And any kind "= s"(nd is .(t the "r)an "= spee%h> ="r it
ser$es t" deterine a thin)> .(t it %ann"t itsel= .e re$ealed. 4rana>
Apana> Vyana> Udana> -aana and Ana - all these are .(t the $ital
="r%es. 0his ."dy is identi=ied ;ith these ? ;ith the "r)an "= spee%h>
the ind and the $ital ="r%e.
I-$-#@ 0hese are the three ;"rlds. 0he "r)an "= spee%h is this ;"rld
6the earth7> the ind is the sky> and the $ital ="r%e is that ;"rld
6hea$en7.
I-$-5@ 0hese are the three Vedas. 0he "r)an "= spee%h is the Ri)-Veda>
the ind is the 1a5(r-Veda and the $ital ="r%e the -aa-Veda.
I-$-6@ 0hese are the )"ds> the Manes and en. 0he "r)an "= spee%h is
the )"ds> the ind the Manes> and the $ital ="r%e en.
I-$-7@ 0hese are the =ather> "ther and %hild. 0he ind is the =ather>
the "r)an "= spee%h the "ther> and the $ital ="r%e the %hild.
I-$-+@ 0hese are ;hat is kn";n> ;hat it is desira.le t" kn";> and ;hat
is (nkn";n. Ghate$er is kn";n is a ="r "= the "r)an "= spee%h> ="r it
is the kn";er. 0he "r)an "= spee%h pr"te%ts hi 6;h" kn";s this7 .y
.e%"in) that 6;hi%h is kn";n7.
I-$-,@ Ghate$er it is desira.le t" kn"; is a ="r "= the ind> ="r the
ind is ;hat it is desira.le t" kn";. 0he ind pr"te%ts hi 6;h"
kn";s this7 .y .e%"in) that 6;hi%h it is desira.le t" kn";7.
I-$-1&@ Ghate$er is (nkn";n is a ="r "= the $ital ="r%e> ="r the $ital
="r%e is ;hat is (nkn";n. 0he $ital ="r%e pr"te%ts hi 6;h" kn";s
this7 .y .e%"in) that 6;hi%h is (nkn";n7.
I-$-11@ 0he earth is the ."dy "= that "r)an "= spee%h> and this =ire is its
13+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
l(in"(s "r)an. And as =ar as the "r)an "= spee%h eJtends> s" =ar
eJtends the earth and s" =ar d"es this =ire.
I-$-12@ 3ea$en is the ."dy "= this ind> and that s(n is its l(in"(s
"r)an. And as =ar as the ind eJtends> s" =ar eJtends hea$en> and s"
=ar d"es that s(n. 0he t;" ;ere (nited> and =r" that the $ital ="r%e
eanated. It is the -(pree /"rd. It is ;ith"(t a ri$al. A se%"nd .ein)
is indeed a ri$al. 3e ;h" kn";s it as s(%h has n" ri$al.
I-$-13@ Gater is the ."dy "= this $ital ="r%e> and that ""n is its
l(in"(s "r)an. And as =ar as the $ital ="r%e eJtends> s" =ar eJtends
;ater> and s" =ar d"es that ""n. 0hese are all eH(al> and all in=inite.
3e ;h" editates (p"n these as =inite ;ins a =inite ;"rld> .(t he ;h"
editates (p"n these as in=inite ;ins an in=inite ;"rld.
I-$-1#@ 0his 4ra5apati 63iranya)ar.ha7 has siJteen di)its and is
represented .y the year. 0he ni)hts 6and days7 are his =i=teen di)its>
and the %"nstant "ne is his siJteenth di)it. 3e 6as the ""n7 is =illed as
;ell as ;asted .y the ni)hts 6and days7. 0hr"()h this siJteenth di)it
he pereates all these li$in) .ein)s "n the ne;-""n ni)ht and rises
the neJt "rnin). 0here="re "n this ni)ht "ne sh"(ld n"t take the li=e
"= li$in) .ein)s> n"t e$en "= a %haele"n> in ad"rati"n "= this deity
al"ne.
I-$-15@ 0hat 4ra5apati ;h" has siJteen di)its and is represented .y the
year is indeed this an ;h" kn";s as a."$e. Gealth %"nstit(tes his
=i=teen di)its> and the ."dy his siJteenth di)it. 3e is =illed as ;ell as
;asted .y ;ealth. 0his ."dy stands ="r a na$e> and ;ealth is the
=ell"e. 0here="re i= a an l"ses e$erythin)> .(t he hisel= li$es>
pe"ple say that he has "nly l"st his "(t=it.
I-$-16@ 0here are indeed three ;"rlds> the ;"rld "= en> the ;"rld "=
the Manes and the ;"rld "= the )"ds. 0his ;"rld "= en is t" .e ;"n
thr"()h the s"n al"ne> and .y n" "ther rite< the ;"rld "= the Manes
13,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
thr"()h rites< and the ;"rld "= the )"ds thr"()h editati"n. 0he ;"rld
"= the )"ds is the .est "= the ;"rlds. 0here="re they praise editati"n.
I-$-17@ *"; there="re the entr(stin)@ Ghen a an thinks he ;ill die>
he says t" his s"n> `1"( are !rahan> y"( are the sa%ri=i%e> and y"(
are the ;"rldE. 0he s"n replies> `I a !rahan> I a the sa%ri=i%e> and
I a the ;"rld.E 60he =ather thinks `Ghate$er is st(died is all (ni=ied
in the ;"rd c!rahanc. Ghate$er sa%ri=i%es there are> are all (ni=ied
in the ;"rd csa%ri=i%ec. And ;hate$er ;"rlds there are> are all (ni=ied
in the ;"rld c;"rldc. All this 6the d(ties "= a h"(seh"lder7 is indeed
this (%h. 3e> .ein) all this> ;ill pr"te%t e =r" 6the ties "=7 this
;"rld.E 0here="r they speak "= an ed(%ated s"n as .ein) %"nd(%i$e t"
the ;"rld. 3en%e 6a =ather7 tea%hes his s"n. Ghen a =ather ;h" kn";s
as a."$e departs =r" this ;"rld> he penetrates his s"n t")ether ;ith
the "r)an "= spee%h> the ind and the $ital ="r%e. -h"(ld anythin) .e
le=t (nd"ne .y hi thr"()h any slip the s"n eJ"nerates hi =r" all
that. 0here="re he is %alled a s"n. 0he =ather li$es in this ;"rld
thr"()h the s"n. Di$ine and i"rtal spee%h> ind and $ital ="r%e
pereate hi.
I-$-1+@ 0he di$ine "r)an "= spee%h =r" the earth and =ire pereates
hi. 0hat is the di$ine "r)an "= spee%h thr"()h ;hi%h ;hate$er he
says is =(l=illed.
I-$-1,@ 0he di$ine ind =r" hea$en and the s(n pereates hi. 0hat
is the di$ine ind thr"()h ;hi%h he "nly .e%"es happy and ne$er
"(rns.
I-$-2&@ 0he di$ine $ital ="r%e =r" ;ater and the ""n pereates
hi. 0hat is the di$ine $ital ="r%e ;hi%h> ;hen it "$es "r d"es n"t
"$e> =eels n" pain n"r is in5(red. 3e ;h" kn";s as a."$e .e%"es
the sel= "= all .ein)s. As is this deity 63iranya)ar.ha7> s" is he. As all
.ein)s take %are "= this deity> s" d" they take %are "= hi. 3";s"e$er
these .ein)s ay )rie$e> that )rie= "= theirs is %"nne%ted ;ith the.
1#&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
!(t "nly erit )"es t" hi. *" deerit e$er )"es t" the )"ds.
I-$-21@ *"; a %"nsiderati"n "= the $";@ 4ra5apati pr"5e%ted the
"r)ans. 0hese> "n .ein) pr"5e%ted> H(arrelled ;ith "ne an"ther. 0he
"r)an "= spee%h t""k a $";> `I ;ill )" "n speakin)E. 0he eye@ `I ;ill
seeE. 0he ear@ `I ;ill hearE. And s" did the "ther "r)ans a%%"rdin) t"
their =(n%ti"ns. Death %apt(red the in the ="r "= =ati)(e ? it
"$ert""k the> and ha$in) "$ertaken the it %"ntr"lled the. 0here="re
the "r)an "= spee%h in$aria.ly )ets tired> and s" d" the eye and the ear.
!(t death did n"t "$ertake this $ital ="r%e in the ."dy. 0he "r)ans
res"l$ed t" kn"; it. `0his is the )reatest a"n) (s that> ;hen it "$es
"r d"es n"t "$e> =eels n" pain n"r is in5(red. Gell> let (s all .e "= its
="r.E 0hey all ass(ed its ="r. 0here="re they are %alled .y this
nae "= `4ranaE. 0hat =aily in ;hi%h a an is ."rn ;h" kn";s as
a."$e> is indeed naed a=ter hi. And he ;h" %"petes ;ith "ne ;h"
kn";s as a."$e shri$els> and a=ter shri$ellin) dies at the end. 0his is
;ith re=eren%e t" the ."dy.
I-$-22@ *"; ;ith re=eren%e t" the )"ds@ Fire t""k a $";> `I ;ill )" "n
.(rnin).E 0he s(n@ `I ;ill )i$e heatE. 0he ""n@ `I ;ill shineE. And s"
did the "ther )"ds a%%"rdin) t" their =(n%ti"ns. As is the $ital ="r%e in
the ."dy a"n) these "r)ans> s" is Vay( 6air7 a"n) these )"ds.
9ther )"ds sink> .(t n"t air. Air is the deity that ne$er sets.
I-$-23@ *"; there is this $erse< `0he )"ds ".ser$ed the $"; "= that
=r" ;hi%h the s(n rises and in ;hi%h he sets. It is 6="ll";ed7 t"-day>
and it ;ill .e 6="ll";ed7 t"-"rr";.E 0he s(n indeed rises =r" the
$ital ="r%e and als" sets in it. Ghat these 6)"ds7 ".ser$ed then> they
".ser$e t" this day. 0here="re a an sh"(ld ".ser$e a sin)le $"; ? d"
the =(n%ti"ns "= the 4rana and Apana 6respirati"n and eJ%reti"n7> lest
the e$il "= death 6=ati)(e7 sh"(ld "$ertake hi. And i= he ".ser$es it>
he sh"(ld seek t" =inish it. 0hr"()h it he attains identity ;ith this
deity> "r li$es in the sae ;"rld ;ith it.
1#1
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
I-$i-1@ 0his 6(ni$erse7 indeed %"nsists "= three thin)s@ nae> ="r and
a%ti"n. 9= th"se naes> spee%h 6s"(nd in )eneral7 is the Uktha
6s"(r%e7> ="r all naes sprin) =r" it. It is their -aan 6%""n
=eat(re7> ="r it is %""n t" all naes. It is their !rahan 6sel=7> ="r it
s(stains all naes.
I-$i-2@ *"; "= ="rs the eye 6anythin) $isi.le7 is the Uktha 6s"(r%e7>
="r all ="rs sprin) =r" it. It is their -aan 6%""n =eat(re7> ="r it
is %""n t" all ="rs. It is their !rahan 6sel=7> ="r it s(stains all
="rs.
I-$i-3@ And "= a%ti"ns the ."dy 6a%ti$ity7 is the Uktha 6s"(r%e7> ="r all
a%ti"ns sprin) =r" it. It is their -aan 6%""n =eat(re7> ="r it is
%""n t" all a%ti"ns. It is their !rahan 6sel=7> ="r it s(stains all
a%ti"ns. 0hese three t")ether are "ne ? this ."dy> and the ."dy>
alth"()h "ne> is these three. 0his i"rtal entity is %"$ered .y tr(th
6the =i$e eleents7@ 0he $ital ="r%e is the i"rtal entity> and nae
and ="r and tr(th< 6s"7 this $ital ="r%e is %"$ered .y the.
II-i-1@ 9. 0here ;as a an "= the Gar)a =aily %alled 4r"(d !alaki>
;h" ;as a speaker. 3e said t" A5atasatr(> the kin) "= !enares> `I ;ill
tell y"( a."(t !rahanE. A5atasatr( said> `F"r this pr"p"sal I )i$e y"(
a th"(sand 6%";s7. 4e"ple indeed r(sh sayin) c2anaka> 2anakac. 6I t""
ha$e s"e "= his H(alities.7E
II-i-2@ Gar)ya said> `0hat .ein) ;h" is in the s(n> I editate (p"n as
!rahanE. A5atasatr( said> `4lease d"nEt talk a."(t hi. I editate
(p"n hi as all-s(rpassin)> as the head "= all .ein)s and as
resplendent. 3e ;h" editates (p"n hi as s(%h .e%"es all-
s(rpassin)> the head "= all .ein)s and resplendent.
II-i-3@ Gar)ya said> `that .ein) ;h" is in the ""n> I editate (p"n as
1#2
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
!rahanE. A5atasatr( said> c4lease d"nEt talk a."(t hi. I editate
(p"n hi as the )reat> ;hite-r".ed> radiant -"a.E 3e ;h" editates
(p"n hi as s(%h has a.(ndant -"a pressed in his prin%ipal and
a(Jiliary sa%ri=i%es e$ery day> and his =""d ne$er )ets sh"rt.
II-i-#@ Gar)ya said> `0hat .ein) ;h" is in li)htnin)> I editate (p"n as
!rahanE. A5atasatr( said> c4lease d"nEt talk a."(t hi. I editate
(p"n hi as p";er=(lE. 3e ;h" editates (p"n hi as s(%h .e%"es
p";er=(l> and his pr")eny t"" .e%"es p";er=(l.
II-i-5@ Gar)ya said> `0his .ein) ;h" is in the ether> I editate (p"n as
!rahanE. A5atasatr( said> c4lease d"nEt talk a."(t hi. I editate
(p"n hi as =(ll and (n"$in)E. 3e ;h" editates (p"n hi as s(%h
is =illed ;ith pr")eny and %attle> and his pr")eny is ne$er eJtin%t =r"
this ;"rld.
II-i-6@ Gar)ya said> `0his .ein) ;h" is in air> I editate (p"n as
!rahanE. A5atasatr( said> c4lease d"nEt talk a."(t hi. I editate
(p"n hi as the /"rd> as irresisti.le> and as the (n$anH(ished ary.E
3e ;h" editates (p"n hi as s(%h e$er .e%"es $i%t"ri"(s and
in$in%i.le> and %"nH(ers his eneies.
II-i-7@ Gar)ya said> `0his .ein) ;h" is in =ire> I editate (p"n as
!rahanE. A5atasatr( said> c4lease d"nEt talk a."(t hi. I editate
(p"n hi as ="r.earin)E. 3e ;h" editates (p"n hi as s(%h .e%"es
="r.earin)> and his pr")eny t"" .e%"es ="r.earin).
II-i-+@ Gar)ya said> `0his .ein) ;h" is in ;ater> I editate (p"n as
!rahanE. A5atasatr( said> c4lease d"nEt talk a."(t hi. I editate
(p"n hi as a)reea.leE. 3e ;h" editates (p"n hi as s(%h has "nly
a)reea.le thin)s %"in) t" hi> and n"t %"ntrary "nes< als" =r" hi
are ."rn %hildren ;h" are a)reea.le.
II-i-,@ Gar)ya said> `0his .ein) ;h" is in a l""kin)-)lass> I editate
1#3
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
(p"n as !rahanE. A5atasatr( said> c4lease d"nEt talk a."(t hi. I
editate (p"n hi as shinin)E. 3e ;h" editates (p"n hi as s(%h
.e%"es shinin)> and his pr")eny t"" .e%"es shinin). 3e als"
"(tshines all th"se ;ith ;h" he %"es in %"nta%t.
II-i-1&@ Gar)ya said> `0his s"(nd that iss(es .ehind a an as he ;alks>
I editate (p"n as !rahanE. A5atasatr( said> c4lease d"nEt talk a."(t
hi. I editate (p"n hi as li=eE. 3e ;h" editates (p"n hi as s(%h
attains his =(ll ter "= li=e in this ;"rld> and li=e d"es n"t depart =r"
hi .e="re the %"pleti"n "= that ter.
II-i-11@ Gar)ya said> `0his .ein) ;h" is in the H(arters> I editate
(p"n as !rahanE. A5atasatr( said> c4lease d"nEt talk a."(t hi. I
editate (p"n hi as se%"nd and as n"n-separatin)E. 3e ;h"
editates (p"n hi as s(%h )ets %"pani"ns> and his ="ll";ers ne$er
depart =r" hi.
II-i-12@ Gar)ya said> `0his .ein) ;h" identi=ies hisel= ;ith the
shad";> I editate (p"n as !rahanE. A5atasatr( said> c4lease d"nEt
talk a."(t hi. I editate (p"n hi as deathE. 3e ;h" editates (p"n
hi as s(%h attains his =(ll ter "= li=e in this ;"rld> and death d"es
n"t "$ertake hi .e="re the %"pleti"n "= that ter.
II-i-13@ Gar)ya said> `0his .ein) ;h" is in the sel=> I editate (p"n as
!rahanE. A5atasatr( said> c4lease d"nEt talk a."(t hi. I editate
(p"n hi as sel=-p"ssessed.E 3e ;h" editates (p"n hi as s(%h
.e%"es sel=-p"ssessed> and his pr")eny t"" .e%"es sel=-p"ssessed.
Gar)ya reained silent.
II-i-1#@ A5atasatr( said> `is this all IE `0his is allE. `!y kn";in) this
(%h "ne %ann"t kn"; 6!rahan7E. Gar)ya said> `I appr"a%h y"( as a
st(dentE.
II-i-15@ A5atasatr( said> `It is %"ntrary t" (sa)e that a !rahana sh"(ld
1##
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
appr"a%h a 'shatriya thinkin)> che ;ill tea%h e a."(t !rahanc.
3";e$er I ;ill instr(%t y"(E. 0akin) Gar)ya .y the hand he r"se.
0hey %ae t" a sleepin) an. 6A5atasatr(7 addressed hi .y these
naes> Great> Ghite-r".ed> radiant> -"aE. 0he an did n"t )et (p.
60he 'in)7 p(shed hi ;ith the hand till he a;"ke. 0hen he )"t (p.
II-i-16@ A5atasatr( said> `Ghen this .ein) =(ll "= %"ns%i"(sness
6identi=ied ;ith the ind7 ;as th(s asleep> ;here ;as it> and ;hen%e
did it th(s %"e IE Gar)ya did n"t kn"; that.
II-i-17@ A5atasatr( said> `Ghen this .ein) =(ll "= %"ns%i"(sness is th(s
asleep> it a.s"r.s at the tie the =(n%ti"ns "= the "r)ans thr"()h its
";n %"ns%i"(sness> and lies in the Akasa 6-(pree -el=7 that is in the
heart. Ghen this .ein) a.s"r.s the> it is %alled -$apiti. 0hen the
n"se is a.s"r.ed> the "r)an "= spee%h is a.s"r.ed> the eye is a.s"r.ed>
the ear is a.s"r.ed> and the ind is a.s"r.edE.
II-i-1+@ Ghen it th(s reains in the drea state> these are its
a%hie$eents@ It then .e%"es an eper"r> as it ;ere> "r a n".le
!rahana> as it ;ere> "r attains states hi)h "r l";> as it ;ere. As an
eper"r> takin) his %itiCens> "$es a."(t as he pleases in his ";n
territ"ry> s" d"es it> th(s takin) the "r)ans> "$e a."(t as it pleases in
its ";n ."dy.
II-i-1,@ A)ain ;hen it .e%"es =ast asleep ? ;hen it d"es n"t kn";
anythin) ? it %"es .a%k al"n) the se$enty-t;" th"(sand ner$es
%alled 3ita> ;hi%h eJtend =r" the heart t" the peri%ardi( 6the ;h"le
."dy7> and reains in the ."dy. As a .a.y> "r an eper"r> "r a n".le
!rahana li$es> ha$in) attained the a%e "= .liss> s" d"es it reain.
II-i-2&@ As a spider "$es al"n) the thread 6it pr"d(%es7> and as =r"
a =ire tiny sparks =ly in all dire%ti"ns> s" =r" this -el= eanate all
"r)ans> all ;"rlds> all )"ds and all .ein)s. Its se%ret nae 6Upanishad7
is `the 0r(th "= 0r(thE. 0he $ital ="r%e is tr(th> and It is the 0r(th "=
1#5
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
that.
II-ii-1@ 3e ;h" kn";s the %al= ;ith its a."de> its spe%ial res"rt> its
p"st and its tether kills his se$en en$i"ns kinsen@ the $ital ="r%e in
the ."dy is indeed the %al=< this ."dy is its a."de> the head its spe%ial
res"rt> stren)th its p"st> and =""d its tether.
II-ii-2@ 0hese se$en )"ds that pre$ent de%ay ;"rship it@ 0hr"()h these
pink lines in the eye R(dra attends "n it< thr"()h the ;ater that is in
the eye> 4ar5anya< thr"()h the p(pil> the s(n< thr"()h the dark p"rti"n>
=ire< thr"()h the ;hite p"rti"n> Indra< thr"()h the l";er eye-lid the
earth attends "n it< and thr"()h the (pper eye-lid> hea$en. 3e ;h"
kn";s it as s(%h ne$er has any de%rease "= =""d.
II-ii-3@ Re)ardin) this there is the ="ll";in) pithy $erse@ `there is a
.";l that has its "penin) .el"; and .(l)es at the t"p< $ari"(s kinds "=
kn";led)e ha$e .een p(t in it< se$en sa)es sit .y its side> and the
"r)an "= spee%h> ;hi%h has %"(ni%ati"n ;ith the Vedas> is the
ei)hthE. 0he `.";l that has its "penin) .el"; and .(l)es at the t"pE is
the head "= "(rs> ="r it is the .";l that has its "penin) .el"; and
.(l)es at the t"p. `$ari"(s kinds "= kn";led)e ha$e .een p(t in itE>
re=ers t" the "r)ans< these indeed represent $ari"(s kinds "=
kn";led)e. `-e$en sa)es sit .y its sideE> re=ers t" the "r)ans< they
indeed are the sa)es. `0he "r)an "= spee%h> ;hi%h has %"(ni%ati"n
;ith the Vedas> is the ei)hthE> .e%a(se the "r)an "= spee%h is the
ei)hth and %"(ni%ates ;ith the Vedas.
II-ii-#@ 0hese t;" 6ears7 are G"taa and !harad$a5a@ this "ne is
G"taa> and this "ne is !harad$a5a@ 0hese t;" 6eyes7 are Vis$aitra
and 2aada)ni@ this "ne is Vis$aitra> and this "ne 2aada)ni. 0hese
t;" 6n"strils7 are Vasistha> and 'ashyapa@ this "ne is Vasistha> and this
"ne 'ashyapa@ the t"n)(e is Atri> ="r thr"()h the t"n)(e =""d is eaten.
`AtriE is .(t this nae `AttiE. 3e ;h" kn";s it as s(%h .e%"es the
eater "= all> and e$erythin) .e%"es his =""d.
1#6
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

II-iii-1@ !rahan has .(t t;" ="rs ? )r"ss and s(.tle> "rtal and
i"rtal> liited and (nliited> de=ined and (nde=ined.
II-iii-2@ 0he )r"ss 6="r7 is that ;hi%h is "ther than air and the ether. It
is "rtal> it is liited> and it is de=ined. 0he essen%e "= that ;hi%h is
)r"ss> "rtal> liited and de=ined is the s(n that shines> ="r it is the
essen%e "= the de=ined.
II-iii-3@ *"; the s(.tle ? it is air and the ether. It is i"rtal> it is
(nliited> and it is (nde=ined. 0he essen%e "= that ;hi%h is s(.tle>
i"rtal> (nliited and (nde=ined is the .ein) that is in the s(n> ="r
that is the essen%e "= the (nde=ined. 0his is ;ith re=eren%e t" the )"ds.
II-iii-#@ *"; ;ith re=eren%e t" the ."dy@ the )r"ss ="r is .(t this ?
;hat is "ther than 6the %"rp"real7 air and the ether that is in the ."dy.
It is "rtal> it is liited and it is de=ined. 0he essen%e "= that ;hi%h is
)r"ss> "rtal> liited and de=ined is the eye> ="r it is the essen%e "= the
de=ined.
II-iii-5@ *"; the s(.tle ? it is 6the %"rp"real7 air and the ether that is in
the ."dy. It is i"rtal> it is (nliited> and it is (nde=ined. 0he
essen%e "= that ;hi%h is s(.tle> i"rtal> (nliited and (nde=ined is
this .ein) that is in the ri)ht eye> ="r this is the essen%e "= the
(nde=ined.
II-iii-6@ 0he ="r "= that `.ein)E is as ="ll";s@ like a %l"th dyed ;ith
t(reri%> "r like )rey sheepEs ;""l> "r like the 6s%arlet7 inse%t %alled
Indra)"pa> "r like a t"n)(e "= =ire> "r like a ;hite l"t(s> "r like a =lash
"= li)htnin). 3e ;h" kn";s it as s(%h attains splend"(r like a =lash "=
li)htnin). *"; there="re the des%ripti"n 6"= !rahan7@ `*"t this> n"t
thisE. !e%a(se there is n" "ther and "re appr"priate des%ripti"n than
this `*"t thisE. *"; Its nae@ `0he 0r(th "= tr(thE. 0he $ital ="r%e is
tr(th> and It is the 0r(th "= that.
1#7
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

II-i$-1@ `Maitreyi> y dearE> said 1a5na$alkya> `I a )"in) t"
ren"(n%e this li=e. All"; e t" =inish .et;een y"( and 'atyayaniE.
II-i$-2@ 0here(p"n Maitreyi said> `-ir> i= indeed this ;h"le earth =(ll
"= ;ealth .e ine> shall I .e i"rtal thr"()h that IE `*"E> replied
1a5na$alkya> `y"(r li=e ;ill .e 5(st like that "= pe"ple ;h" ha$e plenty
"= thin)s> .(t there is n" h"pe "= i"rtality thr"()h ;ealth.E
II-i$-3@ 0hen Maitreyi said> `Ghat shall I d" ;ith that ;hi%h ;ill n"t
ake e i"rtalI 0ell e> sir> "= that al"ne ;hi%h y"( kn"; 6t" .e
the "nly eans "= i"rtality7.E
II-i$-#@ 1a5na$alkya said> `My dear> y"( ha$e .een y .el"$ed 6e$en
.e="re7> and y"( say ;hat is a=ter y heart. 8"e> take y"(r seat> I
;ill eJplain it t" y"(. As I eJplain it> editate 6"n its eanin)7.
II-i$-5@ 3e said@ `It is n"t ="r the sake "= the h(s.and> y dear> that he
is l"$ed> .(t ="r "neEs ";n sake that he is l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake
"= the ;i=e> y dear> that she is l"$ed> .(t ="r "neEs ";n sake that she
is l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake "= the s"ns> y dear> that they are l"$ed>
.(t ="r "neEs ";n sake that they are l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake "=
;ealth> y dear> that it is l"$ed> .(t ="r "neEs ";n sake that it is l"$ed.
It is n"t ="r the sake "= the !rahana> y dear> that he is l"$ed> .(t
="r "neEs ";n sake that he is l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake "= the
'shatriya> y dear> that he is l"$ed> .(t ="r "neEs ";n sake that he is
l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake "= ;"rlds> y dear> that they are l"$ed> .(t
="r "neEs ";n sake that they are l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake "= the
)"ds> y dear> that they are l"$ed> .(t ="r "neEs ";n sake that they are
l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake "= .ein)s> y dear> that they are l"$ed> .(t
="r "neEs ";n sake that they are l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake "= all> y
dear> that all is l"$ed> .(t ="r "neEs ";n sake that it is l"$ed. 0he -el=>
y dear Maitreyi> sh"(ld .e realised ? sh"(ld .e heard "=> re=le%ted "n
and editated (p"n. !y the realisati"n "= the -el=> y dear> thr"()h
1#+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
hearin)> re=le%ti"n and editati"n> all this is kn";n.
II-i$-6@ 0he !rahana "(sts 6sli)hts7 "ne ;h" kn";s hi as di==erent
=r" the -el=. 0he 'shatriya "(sts "ne ;h" kn";s hi as di==erent
=r" the -el=. G"rlds "(st "ne ;h" kn";s the as di==erent =r" the
-el=. 0he )"ds "(st "ne ;h" kn";s the as di==erent =r" the -el=.
!ein)s "(st "ne ;h" kn";s the as di==erent =r" the -el=. All "(sts
"ne ;h" kn";s it as di==erent =r" the -el=. 0his !rahana> this
'shatriya> these ;"rlds> these )"ds> these .ein)s> and this all are this
-el=.
II-i$-7@ As> ;hen a dr( is .eaten> "ne %ann"t distin)(ish its $ari"(s
parti%(lar n"tes> .(t they are in%l(ded in the )eneral n"te "= the dr(
"r in the )eneral s"(nd pr"d(%ed .y di==erent kinds "= str"kes.
II-i$-+@ As> ;hen a %"n%h is .l";n> "ne %ann"t distin)(ish its $ari"(s
parti%(lar n"tes> .(t they are in%l(ded in the )eneral n"te "= the %"n%h
"r in the )eneral s"(nd pr"d(%ed .y di==erent kinds "= playin).
II-i$-,@ As> ;hen a Vina is played> "ne %ann"t distin)(ish its $ari"(s
parti%(lar n"tes> .(t they are in%l(ded in the )eneral n"te "= the Vina
"r in the )eneral s"(nd pr"d(%ed .y di==erent kinds "= playin).
II-i$-1&@ As =r" a =ire kindled ;ith ;et =a))"t di$erse kinds "=
s"ke iss(e> e$en s"> y dear> the Ri)-Veda> 1a5(r-Veda> -aa-Veda>
Athar$an)irasa> hist"ry> yth"l")y> arts> Upanishads> pithy $erses>
aph"riss> el(%idati"ns and eJplanati"ns are 6like7 the .reath "= this
in=inite Reality. 0hey are like the .reath "= this 6-(pree -el=7.
II-i$-11@ As the "%ean is the "ne )"al "= all s"rts "= ;ater> as the skin
is the "ne )"al "= all kinds "= t"(%h> as the n"strils are the "ne )"al "=
all "d"(rs> as the t"n)(e is the "ne )"al "= all sa$"(rs> as the eye is the
"ne )"al "= all %"l"(rs > as the ear is the "ne )"al "= all s"(nds> as the
Manas is the "ne )"al "= all deli.erati"ns> as the intelle%t is the "ne
1#,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
)"al "= all kinds "= kn";led)e> as the hands are the "ne )"al "= all s"rt
"= ;"rk> as the "r)an "= )enerati"n is the "ne )"al "= all kinds "=
en5"yent> as the an(s is the "ne )"al "= all eJ%reti"ns> as the =eet are
the "ne )"al "= all kinds "= ;alkin)> as the "r)an "= spee%h is the "ne
)"al "= all Vedas.
II-i$-12@ As a l(p "= salt dr"pped int" ;ater diss"l$es ;ith 6its
%"p"nent7 ;ater> and n" "ne is a.le t" pi%k it (p> .(t =r"
;heres"e$er "ne takes it> it tastes salt> e$en s"> y dear> this )reat>
endless> in=inite Reality is .(t 4(re Intelli)en%e. 60he -el=7 %"es "(t
6as a separate entity7 =r" these eleents> and 6this separateness7 is
destr"yed ;ith the. A=ter attainin) 6this "neness7 it has n" "re
%"ns%i"(sness. 0his is ;hat I say> y dear. -" said 1a5na$alkya.
II-i$-13@ Maitreyi said> `2(st here y"( ha$e thr";n e int" %"n=(si"n>
sir ? .y sayin) that a=ter attainin) 6"neness7 the sel= has n" "re
%"ns%i"(snessE. 1a5na$alkya said> `8ertainly> I a n"t sayin) anythin)
%"n=(sin)> y dear< this is H(ite s(==i%ient ="r kn";led)e> 9
MaitreyiE.
II-i$-1#@ !e%a(se ;hen there is d(ality> as it ;ere> then "ne sells
s"ethin)> "ne sees s"ethin)> "ne hears s"ethin)> "ne speaks
s"ethin)> "ne thinks s"ethin)> "ne kn";s s"ethin). 6!(t7 ;hen
t" the kn";er "= !rahan e$erythin) has .e%"e the sel=> then ;hat
sh"(ld "ne sell and thr"()h ;hat> ;hat sh"(ld "ne see and thr"()h
;hat> ;hat sh"(ld "ne hear and thr"()h ;hat> ;hat sh"(ld "ne speak
and thr"()h ;hat> ;hat sh"(ld "ne think and thr"()h ;hat> ;hat
sh"(ld "ne kn"; and thr"()h ;hat I 0hr"()h ;hat sh"(ld "ne kn";
0hat ";in) t" ;hi%h all this is kn";n ? thr"()h ;hat> 9 Maitreyi>
sh"(ld "ne kn"; the 'n";er I
II-$-1@ 0his earth is 6like7 h"ney t" all .ein)s> and all .ein)s are 6like7
h"ney t" this earth. 60he sae ;ith7 the shinin) i"rtal .ein) ;h"
is in this earth> and the shinin)> i"rtal> %"rp"real .ein) in the ."dy.
15&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
60hese ="(r7 are .(t this -el=. 0his 6-el=-kn";led)e7 is 6the eans "=7
i"rtality< this 6(nderlyin) (nity7 is !rahan< this 6kn";led)e "=
!rahan7 is 6the eans "= .e%"in)7 all.
II-$-2@ 0his ;ater is 6like7 h"ney t" all .ein)s> and all .ein)s are 6like7
h"ney t" this ;ater. 60he sae ;ith7 the shinin) i"rtal .ein) ;h"
is in this ;ater> and the shinin)> i"rtal .ein) identi=ied ;ith the
seed in the ."dy. 60hese ="(r7 are .(t this -el=. 0his 6-el=-kn";led)e7
is 6the eans "=7 i"rtality< this 6(nderlyin) (nity7 is !rahan< this
6kn";led)e "= !rahan7 is 6the eans "= .e%"in)7 all.
II-$-3@ 0his =ire is 6like7 h"ney t" all .ein)s> and all .ein)s are 6like7
h"ney t" this =ire. 60he sae ;ith7 the shinin) i"rtal .ein) ;h" is
in this =ire> and the shinin)> i"rtal .ein) identi=ied ;ith the "r)an
"= spee%h in the ."dy. 60hese ="(r7 are .(t this -el=. 0his 6-el=-
kn";led)e7 is 6the eans "=7 i"rtality< this 6(nderlyin) (nity7 is
!rahan< this 6kn";led)e "= !rahan7 is 6the eans "= .e%"in)7
all.
II-$-#@ 0his air is 6like7 h"ney t" all .ein)s> and all .ein)s are 6like7
h"ney t" this air. 60he sae ;ith7 the shinin) i"rtal .ein) ;h" is
in this air> and the shinin)> i"rtal .ein) ;h" is the $ital ="r%e in the
."dy. 60hese ="(r7 are .(t this -el=. 0his 6-el=-kn";led)e7 is 6the
eans "=7 i"rtality< this 6(nderlyin) (nity7 is !rahan< this
6kn";led)e "= !rahan7 is 6the eans "= .e%"in)7 all.
II-$-5@ 0his s(n is 6like7 h"ney t" all .ein)s> and all .ein)s are 6like7
h"ney t" this s(n. 60he sae ;ith7 the shinin) i"rtal .ein) ;h" is
in this s(n> and the shinin)> i"rtal .ein) identi=ied ;ith the eye in
the ."dy. 60hese ="(r7 are .(t this -el=. 0his 6-el=-kn";led)e7 is 6the
eans "=7 i"rtality< this 6(nderlyin) (nity7 is !rahan< this
6kn";led)e "= !rahan7 is 6the eans "= .e%"in)7 all.
II-$-6@ 0hese H(arters is 6like7 h"ney t" all .ein)s> and all .ein)s are
151
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
6like7 h"ney t" these H(arters. 60he sae ;ith7 the shinin) i"rtal
.ein) ;h" is these H(arters> and the shinin)> i"rtal .ein) identi=ied
;ith the ear and ;ith the tie "= hearin) in the ."dy. 60hese ="(r7 are
.(t this -el=. 0his 6-el=-kn";led)e7 is 6the eans "=7 i"rtality< this
6(nderlyin) (nity7 is !rahan< this 6kn";led)e "= !rahan7 is 6the
eans "= .e%"in)7 all.
II-$-7@ 0his ""n is 6like7 h"ney t" all .ein)s> and all .ein)s are 6like7
h"ney t" this ""n. 60he sae ;ith7 the shinin) i"rtal .ein) ;h"
is in this ""n> and the shinin)> i"rtal .ein) identi=ied ;ith the
ind in the ."dy. 60hese ="(r7 are .(t this -el=. 0his 6-el=-kn";led)e7
is 6the eans "=7 i"rtality< this 6(nderlyin) (nity7 is !rahan< this
6kn";led)e "= !rahan7 is 6the eans "= .e%"in)7 all.
II-$-+@ 0his li)htnin) is 6like7 h"ney t" all .ein)s> and all .ein)s are
6like7 h"ney t" this li)htnin). 60he sae ;ith7 the shinin) i"rtal
.ein) ;h" is in this li)htnin)> and the shinin)> i"rtal .ein)
identi=ied ;ith li)ht in the ."dy. 60hese ="(r7 are .(t this -el=. 0his
6-el=-kn";led)e7 is 6the eans "=7 i"rtality< this 6(nderlyin)
(nity7 is !rahan< this 6kn";led)e "= !rahan7 is 6the eans "=
.e%"in)7 all.
II-$-,@ 0his %l"(d is 6like7 h"ney t" all .ein)s> and all .ein)s are 6like7
h"ney t" this %l"(d. 60he sae ;ith7 the shinin) i"rtal .ein) ;h"
is in this %l"(d> and the shinin)> i"rtal .ein) identi=ied ;ith s"(nd
and $"i%e in the ."dy. 60hese ="(r7 are .(t this -el=. 0his 6-el=-
kn";led)e7 is 6the eans "=7 i"rtality< this 6(nderlyin) (nity7 is
!rahan< this 6kn";led)e "= !rahan7 is 6the eans "= .e%"in)7
all.
II-$-1&@ 0his ether is 6like7 h"ney t" all .ein)s> and all .ein)s are
6like7 h"ney t" this ether. 60he sae ;ith7 the shinin) i"rtal .ein)
;h" is in this ether> and the shinin)> i"rtal .ein) identi=ied ;ith
the ether in the heart> in the ."dy. 60hese ="(r7 are .(t this -el=. 0his
152
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
6-el=-kn";led)e7 is 6the eans "=7 i"rtality< this 6(nderlyin)
(nity7 is !rahan< this 6kn";led)e "= !rahan7 is 6the eans "=
.e%"in)7 all.
II-$-11@ 0his ri)hte"(sness 6Dhara7 is 6like7 h"ney t" all .ein)s> and
all .ein)s are 6like7 h"ney t" this ri)hte"(sness. 60he sae ;ith7 the
shinin) i"rtal .ein) ;h" is in this ri)hte"(sness> and the shinin)>
i"rtal .ein) identi=ied ;ith ri)hte"(sness in the ."dy. 60hese ="(r7
are .(t this -el=. 0his 6-el=-kn";led)e7 is 6the eans "=7 i"rtality<
this 6(nderlyin) (nity7 is !rahan< this 6kn";led)e "= !rahan7 is
6the eans "= .e%"in)7 all.
II-$-12@ 0his tr(th is 6like7 h"ney t" all .ein)s> and all .ein)s are
6like7 h"ney t" this tr(th. 60he sae ;ith7 the shinin) i"rtal .ein)
;h" is in this tr(th> and the shinin)> i"rtal .ein) identi=ied ;ith
tr(th in the ."dy. 60hese ="(r7 are .(t this -el=. 0his 6-el=-kn";led)e7
is 6the eans "=7 i"rtality< this 6(nderlyin) (nity7 is !rahan< this
6kn";led)e "= !rahan7 is 6the eans "= .e%"in)7 all.
II-$-13@ 0his h(an spe%ies is 6like7 h"ney t" all .ein)s> and all
.ein)s are 6like7 h"ney t" this h(an spe%ies. 60he sae ;ith7 the
shinin) i"rtal .ein) ;h" is in this h(an spe%ies> and the shinin)>
i"rtal .ein) identi=ied ;ith the h(an spe%ies in the ."dy. 60hese
="(r7 are .(t this -el=. 0his 6-el=-kn";led)e7 is 6the eans "=7
i"rtality< this 6(nderlyin) (nity7 is !rahan< this 6kn";led)e "=
!rahan7 is 6the eans "= .e%"in)7 all.
II-$-1#@ 0his 6%"si%7 ."dy is 6like7 h"ney t" all .ein)s> and all .ein)s
are 6like7 h"ney t" this 6%"si%7 ."dy. 60he sae ;ith7 the shinin)
i"rtal .ein) ;h" is in this 6%"si%7 ."dy> and the shinin)>
i"rtal .ein) ;h" is this 6indi$id(al7 sel=. 60hese ="(r7 are .(t this
-el=. 0his 6-el=-kn";led)e7 is 6the eans "=7 i"rtality< this
6(nderlyin) (nity7 is !rahan< this 6kn";led)e "= !rahan7 is 6the
eans "= .e%"in)7 all.
153
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

II-$-15@ 0his -el=> already enti"ned> is the r(ler "= all .ein)s> and the
kin) "= all .ein)s. 2(st as all the sp"kes are =iJed in the na$e and the
=ell"e "= a %hari"t-;heel> s" are all .ein)s> all )"ds> all ;"rlds> all
"r)ans and all these 6indi$id(al7 sel$es =iJed in this -el=.
II-$-16@ 0his is that editati"n "n thin)s (t(ally help=(l ;hi%h
Dadhya%> $ersed in the Athar$a-Veda> ta()ht the As$ins. 4er%ei$in)
this the Rishi 6Mantra7 said> `9 As$ins in h(an ="r> that terri.le
deed %alled Dasa ;hi%h y"( %"itted "(t "= )reed> I ;ill dis%l"se
as a %l"(d d"es rain ? 6h"; y"( learnt7 the editati"n "n thin)s
(t(ally help=(l that Dadhya%> $ersed in the Athar$a-Veda> ta()ht y"(
thr"()h a h"rseEs head.
II-$-17@ 0his is that editati"n "n thin)s (t(ally help=(l ;hi%h
Dadhya%> $ersed in the Athar$a-Veda> ta()ht the As$ins. 4er%ei$in)
this the Rishi said> `9 As$ins> y"( set a h"rseEs head "n 6the sh"(lders
"=7 Dadhya%> $ersed in the Athar$a-Veda. 9 terri.le "nes> t" keep his
;"rd> he ta()ht y"( the 6rit(alisti%7 editati"n "n thin)s (t(ally
help=(l %"nne%ted ;ith the s(n> as als" the se%ret 6spirit(al7 editati"n
"n the.E
II-$-1+@ 0his is that editati"n "n thin)s (t(ally help=(l ;hi%h
Dadhya%> $ersed in the Athar$a-Veda> ta()ht the As$ins. 4er%ei$in)
this the Rishi said> `3e ade ."dies ;ith t;" =eet and ."dies ;ith
="(r =eet. 0hat s(pree !ein) =irst entered the ."dies as a .ird 6the
s(.tle ."dy7.E 9n a%%"(nt "= his d;ellin) in all ."dies> 3e is %alled
the 4(r(sha. 0here is n"thin) that is n"t %"$ered .y 3i> n"thin) that
is n"t per$aded .y 3i.
II-$-1,@ 0his is that editati"n "n thin)s (t(ally help=(l ;hi%h
Dadhya%> $ersed in the Athar$a-Veda> ta()ht the As$ins. 4er%ei$in)
this the Rishi said> `63e7 trans="red 3isel= in a%%"rdan%e ;ith ea%h
="r< that ="r "= 3is ;as ="r the sake "= akin) 3i kn";n. 0he
15#
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/"rd "n a%%"(nt "= Maya 6n"ti"ns s(perip"sed .y i)n"ran%e7 is
per%ei$ed as ani="ld> ="r t" 3i are y"ked ten "r)ans> nay> h(ndreds
"= the. 3e is the "r)ans< 3e is ten and th"(sands ? any and
in=inite. 0hat !rahan is ;ith"(t pri"r "r p"steri"r> ;ith"(t interi"r "r
eJteri"r. 0his sel=> the per%ei$er "= e$erythin)> is !rahan. 0his is the
tea%hin).
II-$i-1@ *"; the line "= tea%hers@ 4a(tiasya 6re%ei$ed it7 =r"
Ga(pa$ana. Ga(pa$ana =r" an"ther 4a(tiasya. 0his 4a(tiasya
=r" an"ther Ga(pa$ana. 0his Ga(pa$ana =r" 'a(sika. 'a(sika
=r" 'a(ndinya. 'a(ndinya =r" -andilya. -andilya =r" 'a(sika
and Ga(taa. Ga(taa ?
II-$i-2@ Fr" A)ni$esya. A)ni$esya =r" -andilya and Ana.hilata.
Ana.hilata =r" an"ther "= that nae. 3e =r" a third Ana.hilata.
0his Ana.hilata =r" Ga(taa. Ga(taa =r" -aita$a and
4ra%inay")ya. 0hey =r" 4arasarya. 4arasarya =r" !harad$a5a. 3e
=r" !harad$a5a and Ga(taa. Ga(taa =r" an"ther !harad$a5a. 3e
=r" an"ther 4arasarya. 4arasarya =r" !ai5a$apayana. 3e =r"
'a(sikayani. 'a(sikayani ?
II-$i-3@ Fr" Ghrtaka(sika. Ghrtaka(sika =r" 4arasaryayana. 3e
=r" 4arasarya. 4arasarya =r" 2at(karnya. 2at(karnya =r"
As(rayana and 1aska. As(rayana =r" 0rai$ani. 0rai$ani =r"
A(pa5andhani. 3e =r" As(ri. As(ri =r" !harad$a5a. !harad$a5a
=r" Atreya. Atreya =r" Manti. Manti =r" Ga(taa. Ga(taa =r"
an"ther Ga(taa. 3e =r" Vatsya. Vatsya =r" -andilya. -andilya
=r" 'ais"rya 'apya. 3e =r" '(araharita. '(araharita =r"
Gala$a. Gala$a =r" Vidar.hi-ka(ndinya. 3e =r" Vatsanapat
!a.hra$a. 3e =r" 4athin -a(.hara. 3e =r" Ayasya An)irasa. 3e
=r" A.h(ti 0$astra. 3e =r" Vis$ar(pa 0$astra. 3e =r" the As$ins.
0hey =r" Dadhya% Athar$ana. 3e =r" Athar$an Dai$a. 3e =r"
Mrty( 4radh$asana. 3e =r" 4radh$asana. 4radh$asana =r"
Ekarsi. Ekarsi =r" Vipra%hitti. Vipra%hitti =r" Vyasri. Vyasti =r"
155
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-anar(. -anar( =r" -anatana. -anatana =r" -ana)a. -ana)a =r"
4araesthin 6Vira57. 3e =r" !rahan 63iranya.ar.ha7. !rahan is
sel= ."rn.
-al(tati"n t" !rahan.
III-i-1@ 9. 2anaka> Eper"r "= Videha> per="red a sa%ri=i%e in
;hi%h )i=ts ;ere =reely distri.(ted. Vedi% s%h"lars =r" '(r( and
4an%hala ;ere asse.led there. Eper"r 2anaka "= Videha had a
desire t" kn";> `Ghi%h is the "st er(dite "= these Vedi% s%h"lars IE
3e had a th"(sand %";s %"n=ined in a pen> and "n the h"rns "= ea%h
%"; ;ere =iJed ten 4adas 6"= )"ld7.
III-i-2@ 3e said t" the> `Re$ered !rahanas> let hi ;h" is the .est
Vedi% s%h"lar a"n) y"( dri$e these %";s 6h"e7.E *"ne "= the
!rahanas dared. 0hen 1a5na$alkya said t" a p(pil "= his> `Dear
-aasra$as> please dri$e these %";s 6h"e7.E 3e dr"$e the. 0he
!rahanas ;ere enra)ed. `3"; d"es he dare t" %all hisel= the .est
Vedi% s%h"lar a"n) (s IE there ;as a 3"tr "= Eper"r 2anaka "=
Videha naed As$ala. 3e n"; asked 1a5na$alkya> `1a5na$alkya> are
y"( indeed the .est Vedi% s%h"lar a"n) (s IE 1a5na$alkya replied> `I
."; t" the .est Vedi% s%h"lar> I 5(st ;ant the %";sE. 0here(p"n the
3"tr As$ala deterined t" interr")ate hi.
III-i-3@ `1a5na$alkyaE> said he> `sin%e all this is "$ertaken .y death>
and s;ayed .y it> .y ;hat eans d"es the sa%ri=i%er )" .ey"nd the
%l(t%hes "= death IE `0hr"()h the "r)an "= spee%h ? thr"()h =ire>
;hi%h is the 6real7 priest %alled 3"tr. 0he sa%ri=i%erEs "r)an "= spee%h
is the 3"tr. 0his "r)an "= spee%h is =ire< this =ire is the 3"tr< this 6=ire7
is li.erati"n< this 6li.erati"n7 is ean%ipati"nE.
III-i-#@ `1a5na$alkyaE> said he> `sin%e all this is "$ertaken .y day and
ni)ht> and s;ayed .y the> .y ;hat eans d"es the sa%ri=i%er )"
156
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.ey"nd the %l(t%hes "= day and ni)ht IE `0hr"()h the eye ? thr"()h
the s(n> ;hi%h is the 6real7 priest %alled Adh$ary(. 0he eye "= the
sa%ri=i%er is the Adh$ary(. 0his eye is the s(n< this s(n is the
Adh$ary(< this 6s(n7 is li.erati"n< this 6li.erati"n7 is ean%ipati"nE.
III-i-5@ `1a5na$alkyaE> said he> `sin%e all this is "$ertaken .y the .ri)ht
and dark ="rtni)hts> and s;ayed .y the> .y ;hat eans d"es the
sa%ri=i%er )" .ey"nd the .ri)ht and dark ="rtni)hts bE `0hr"()h the
$ital ="r%e ? thr"()h air> ;hi%h is the 6real7 priest %alled Ud)atir. 0he
$ital ="r%e "= the sa%ri=i%er is the Ud)atir. 0his $ital ="r%e is air> and it
is the Ud)atir< this 6air7 is li.erati"n< this 6li.erati"n7 is ean%ipati"n.E
III-i-6@ `1a5na$alkyaE> said he> `sin%e the sky is> as it ;ere> ;ith"(t a
s(pp"rt> thr"()h ;hat s(pp"rt d"es the sa%ri=i%er )" t" hea$en IE
`0hr"()h the ind ? thr"()h the ""n> ;hi%h is the 6real7 priest
%alled !rahan. 0he ind "= the sa%ri=i%er is the !rahan. 0his ind
is the ""n< the ""n is the !rahan< this 6""n7 is li.erati"n< this
6li.erati"n7 is ean%ipati"nE. -" =ar a."(t the ;ays "= ean%ipati"n<
n"; a."(t the editati"ns .ased "n rese.lan%e.
III-i-7@ `1a5na$alkyaE> said he> `;ith h"; any kinds "= Rik ;ill the
3"tr d" his part in this sa%ri=i%e t"-day IE `Gith three kindsE. `Ghi%h
are th"se three IE `0he preliinary> the sa%ri=i%ial> and the e(l")isti%
hyns as the thirdE. `Ghat d"es he ;in thr"()h the IE `All this that
is li$in)E.
III-i-+@ `1a5na$alkyaE> said he> `h"; any kinds "= ".lati"ns ;ill the
Adh$ary( "==er in this sa%ri=i%e t"-day IE `0hreeE. `Ghi%h are th"se
three IE `0h"se that .laCe (p "n .ein) "==ered> th"se that ake a )reat
n"ise> ;hen "==ered> and th"se that sink "n .ein) "==eredE. `Ghat d"es
he ;in thr"()h theIE `0hr"()h th"se that .laCe (p "n .ein) "==ered
he ;ins the ;"rld "= the )"ds> ="r this ;"rld shines> as it ;ere.
0hr"()h th"se that ake a )reat n"ise> ;hen "==ered> he ;ins the
;"rld "= the anes> ="r this ;"rld is =(ll "= (pr"ar. And thr"()h th"se
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that sink "n .ein) "==ered> he ;ins the h(an ;"rld> ="r this ;"rld is
l";er.E
III-i-,@ `1a5na$alkyaE> said he> `thr"()h h"; any )"ds d"es this
!rahan =r" the ri)ht pr"te%t the sa%ri=i%e t"-day IE `0hr"()h "neE.
`Ghi%h is that "ne IE `0he ind. 0he ind is indeed in=inite> and
in=inite are the Vis$ade$as. 0hr"()h this editati"n he ;ins an
in=inite ;"rldE.
III-i-1&@ `1a5na$alkyaE> said he> `h"; any %lasses "= hyns the
Ud)atir %hant in this sa%ri=i%e t"-day IE `0hree %lassesE. `Ghi%h are
th"se three IE `0he preliinary> the sa%ri=i%ial> and the e(l")isti%
hyns as the thirdE. `Ghi%h are th"se that ha$e re=eren%e t" the
."dy IE `0he 4rana is the preliinary hyn> the Apana is the
sa%ri=i%ial hyn> and the Vyana is the e(l")isti% hynE. `Ghat d"es he
;in thr"()h the IE `0hr"()h the preliinary hyns he ;ins the
earth> thr"()h the sa%ri=i%ial hyns he ;ins the sky> and thr"()h the
e(l")isti% hyns he ;ins hea$enE. 0here(p"n the 3"tr As$ala kept
silent.
III-ii-1@ 0hen Arta.ha)a> "= the line "= 2aratkar(> asked hi.
`1a5na$alkyaE> said he> `h"; any are the Grahas> and h"; any are
the Ati)rahas IE `0here are ei)ht Grahas and ei)ht Ati)rahasE. `Ghi%h
are th"se ei)ht Grahas and ei)ht Ati)rahas IE
III-ii-2@ 0he 4rana 6n"se7 indeed is the Graha< it is %"ntr"lled .y the
Ati)raha> the Apana 6"d"(r7> ="r "ne sells "d"(rs thr"()h the Apana
6the air .reathed in7.
III-ii-3@ 0he "r)an "= spee%h indeed is the )raha< it is %"ntr"lled .y the
Ati)raha> nae> ="r "ne (tters naes thr"()h the "r)an "= spee%h.
III-ii-#@ 0he t"n)(e indeed is the Graha< it is %"ntr"lled .y the
Ati)raha> taste> ="r "ne kn";s tastes thr"()h the t"n)(e.
15+
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III-ii-5@ 0he eye indeed is the Graha< it is %"ntr"lled .y the Ati)raha>
%"l"(r> ="r "ne sees %"l"(rs thr"()h the eye.
III-ii-6@ 0he ear indeed is the Graha< it is %"ntr"lled .y the Ati)raha>
s"(nd> ="r "ne hears s"(nds thr"()h the ear.
III-ii-7@ 0he ind indeed is the Graha< it is %"ntr"lled .y the Ati)raha>
desire> ="r "ne ;ishes desires thr"()h the ind.
III-ii-+@ 0he hands indeed is the Graha< it is %"ntr"lled .y the Ati)raha>
;"rk> ="r "ne d"es ;"rk thr"()h the hands.
III-ii-,@ 0he skin indeed is the Graha< it is %"ntr"lled .y the Ati)raha>
t"(%h> ="r "ne =eels t"(%h thr"()h the skin. 0hese are the ei)ht Grahas
and ei)ht Ati)rahas.
III-ii-1&@ `1a5na$alkyaE> said he> `sin%e all this is the =""d "= death>
;h" is that )"d ;h"se =""d is death IE `Fire is death< it is the =""d "=
;ater. 69ne ;h" kn";s th(s7 %"nH(ers =(rther deathE.
III-ii-11@ `1a5na$alkyaE> said he> `;hen the 6li.erated7 an dies> d" his
"r)ans )" (p =r" hi> "r d" they n"t IE `*"E> replied 1a5na$alkya>
`60hey7 er)e in hi "nly. 0he ."dy s;ells> is in=lated> and in that
state lies dead.E
III-ii-12@ `1a5na$alkyaE> said he> `;hen this an dies> ;hat is it that
d"es n"t lea$e hi IE `*ae. 0he nae indeed is in=inite> and in=inite
are the Vis$ade$as. 3e 6;h" kn";s th(s7 ;ins there.y a really in=inite
;"rldE.
III-ii-13@ `1a5na$alkyaE> said he> `;hen the $"%al "r)an "= a an ;h"
dies is er)ed in =ire> the n"se in air> the eye in the s(n> the ind in
the ""n> the ear in the H(arters> the ."dy in the earth> the ether "= the
15,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
heart in the eJternal ether> the hair "n the ."dy in her.s> that "n the
head in trees> and the .l""d and the seed are dep"sited in ;ater> ;here
is then the an IE `Gi$e e y"(r hand> dear Arta.ha)a> ;e ;ill de%ide
this .et;een "(rsel$es> ;e %ann"t d" it in a %r";ded pla%e.E 0hey
;ent "(t and talked it "$er. Ghat they enti"ned there ;as "nly
;"rk> and ;hat they praised there ;as als" ;"rk al"ne. 60here="re7
"ne indeed .e%"es )""d thr"()h )""d ;"rk and e$il thr"()h e$il
;"rk. 0here(p"n Arta.ha)a> "= the line "= 2aratkar(> kept silent.
III-iii-1@ 0hen !h(5y(> the )rands"n "= /ahya> asked hi.
`1a5na$alkyaE> said he> `;e tra$elled in Madra as st(dents> and ;e
%ae t" the h"(se "= 4atan%hala "= the line "= 'api. 3is da()hter ;as
p"ssessed .y a Gandhar$a. Ge asked hi> cGh" are y"( Ic 3e said> cI
a -(dhan$an> "= the line "= An)irasc. Ghen ;e asked hi a."(t the
liits "= the ;"rld> ;e said t" hi> cGhere ;ere the des%endants "=
4ariksit Ic And I ask y"(> 1a5na$alkya> ;here ;ere the des%endants "=
4ariksit I 60ell e7 ;here ;ere the des%endants "= 4ariksit IE
III-iii-2@ 1a5na$alkya said> `0he Gandhar$a e$idently t"ld y"( that
they ;ent ;here the per="rers "= the h"rse sa%ri=i%e )"E. `And ;here
d" the per="rers "= the h"rse sa%ri=i%e )" IE `0hirty-t;" ties the
spa%e %"$ered .y the s(nEs %hari"t in a day akes this ;"rld< ar"(nd
it> %"$erin) t;i%e the area> is the earth< ar"(nd the earth> %"$erin)
t;i%e the area> is the "%ean. *";> as is the ed)e "= a raC"r> "r the ;in)
"= a =ly> s" is there 5(st that (%h "penin) at the 5(n%ti"n 6"= the t;"
hal$es "= the %"si% shell7. 60hr"()h that they )" "(t.7 Fire> in the
="r "= a =al%"n> deli$ered the t" the air< the air> p(ttin) the in
itsel=> t""k the ;here the 6pre$i"(s7 per="rers "= the h"rse sa%ri=i%e
;ereE. 0h(s did the Gandhar$a praise the air. 0here="re the air is the
di$ersity "= indi$id(als> and the air is the a))re)ate. 3e ;h" kn";s it
as s(%h %"nH(ers =(rther death. 0here(p"n !h(5y(> the )rands"n "=
/ahya> kept silent.
III-i$-1@ 0hen Usata> the s"n "= 8hakra> asked hi. `1a5na$alkyaE>
16&
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said he> `eJplain t" e the !rahan that is iediate and dire%t ? the
sel= that is ;ithin all.E `0his is y"(r sel= that is ;ithin allE. `Ghi%h is
;ithin all> 1a5na$alkya IE `0hat ;hi%h .reathes thr"()h the 4rana is
y"(r sel= that is ;ithin all. 0hat ;hi%h "$es d";n;ards thr"()h the
Apana is y"(r sel= that is ;ithin all. 0hat ;hi%h per$ades thr"()h the
Vyana is y"(r sel= that is ;ithin all. 0hat ;hi%h )"es "(t thr"()h the
Udana is y"(r sel= that is ;ithin all. 0his is y"(r sel= that is ;ithin all.E
III-i$-2@ Usata> the s"n "= 8hakra> said> `1"( ha$e indi%ated it as "ne
ay say that a %"; is s(%h and s(%h> "r a h"rse is s(%h and s(%h.
EJplain t" e the !rahan that is iediate and dire%t ? the sel= that
is ;ithin allE. `0his is y"(r sel= that is ;ithin allE. `Ghi%h is ;ithin all>
1a5na$alkya IE `1"( %ann"t see that ;hi%h is the ;itness "= $isi"n<
y"( %ann"t hear that ;hi%h is the hearer "= hearin)< y"( %ann"t think
that ;hi%h is the thinker "= th"()ht< y"( %ann"t kn"; that ;hi%h is the
kn";er "= kn";led)e. 0his is y"(r sel= that is ;ithin all< e$erythin)
else .(t this is perisha.le.E 0here(p"n Usata> the s"n "= 8hakra> kept
silent.
iii-$-1@ 0hen 'ah"la> the s"n "= '(sitaka> asked hi> `1a5na$alkyaE>
said he> `eJplain t" e the !rahan that is iediate and dire%t ? the
sel= that is ;ithin allE. `0his is y"(r sel= that is ;ithin allE. `Ghi%h is
;ithin all> 1a5na$alkya IE `0hat ;hi%h trans%ends h(n)er and thirst>
)rie=> del(si"n> de%ay and death. 'n";in) this $ery -el= the
!rahanas ren"(n%e the desire ="r s"ns> ="r ;ealth and ="r the
;"rlds> and lead a endi%antEs li=e. 0hat ;hi%h is the desire ="r s"ns is
the desire ="r ;ealth> and that ;hi%h is the desire ="r ;ealth is the
desire ="r ;"rlds> ="r ."th these are .(t desires. 0here="re the kn";er
"= !rahan> ha$in) kn";n all a."(t s%h"larship> sh"(ld try t" li$e
(p"n that stren)th ;hi%h %"es "= kn";led)e< ha$in) kn";n all
a."(t this stren)th and s%h"larship> he .e%"es editati$e< ha$in)
kn";n all a."(t ."th editati$eness and its "pp"site> he .e%"es a
kn";er "= !rahan. 3"; d"es that kn";er "= . .eha$e I 3";s"e$er
he ay .eha$e> he is 5(st s(%h. EJ%ept this> e$erythin) is perisha.le.E
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0here(p"n 'ah"la> the s"n "= '(sitaka> kept silent.
iii-$i-1@ 0hen Gar)i> the da()hter "= Va%akn(> asked hi>
`1a5na$alkyaE> she said> `i= all this is per$aded .y ;ater> .y ;hat is
;ater per$aded IE `!y air> 9 Gar)iE. `!y ;hat is air per$adedIE `!y
the sky> 9 Gar)iE. `!y ;hat is the sky per$aded IE `!y the ;"rld "= the
Gandhar$as> 9 Gar)iE. `!y ;hat is the ;"rld "= the Gandhar$as
per$aded IE `!y the s(n> 9 Gar)i.E `!y ;hat is the s(n per$aded IE `!y
the ""n> 9 Gar)i.E `!y ;hat is the ""n per$aded IE `!y the stars> 9
Gar)iE. `!y ;hat are the stars per$aded IE `!y the ;"rld "= the )"ds>
9 Gar)iE. `!y ;hat is the ;"rld "= the )"ds per$aded IE `!y the ;"rld
"= Indra> 9 Gar)iE. !y ;hat is the ;"rld "= Indra per$adedIE `!y the
;"rld "= Vira5> 9 Gar)iE. `!y ;hat is the ;"rld "= Vira5 per$adedIE `
!y the ;"rld "= 3iranya)ar.ha> 9 Gar)iE. `!y ;hat is the ;"rld "=
3iranya)ar.ha per$aded IE 3e said> `D" n"t> 9 Gar)i> p(sh y"(r
inH(iry t"" =ar> lest y"(r head sh"(ld =all "==. 1"( are H(esti"nin)
a."(t a deity that sh"(ld n"t .e reas"ned a."(t. D" n"t> 9 Gar)i> p(sh
y"(r inH(iry t"" =ar.E 0here(p"n Gar)i> the da()hter "= Va%akn(> kept
silent.
III-$ii-1@ 0hen Uddalaka> the s"n "= Ar(na> asked hi. `1a5na$alkyaE>
said> `in Madra ;e li$ed in the h"(se "= 4atan%hala 'apya
6des%endant "= 'api7> st(dyin) the s%ript(res "n sa%ri=i%es. 3is ;i=e
;as p"ssessed .y a Gandhar$a. Ge asked hi ;h" he ;as. 3e said>
c'a.andha> the s"n "= Athar$anc. 3e said t" 4atan%hala 'apya and
th"se ;h" st(died the s%ript(res "n sa%ri=i%es> c3apya> d" y"( kn";
that -(tra .y ;hi%h this li=e> the neJt li=e and all .ein)s are held
t")ether Ic 4atan%hala 'apya said> cI d" n"t kn"; it> sirc. 0he
Gandhar$a said t" hi and the st(dents> c'apya> d" y"( kn"; that
Internal R(ler ;h" %"ntr"ls this and the neJt li=e and all .ein)s =r"
;ithin Ic 4atan%hala 'apya said> cI d" n"t kn"; 3i> sirc. 0he
Gandhar$a said t" hi and the st(dents> c3e ;h" kn";s that -(tra
and that Internal R(ler as a."$e indeed kn";s !rahan> kn";s the
;"rlds> kn";s the )"ds> kn";s the Vedas> kn";s .ein)s> kn";s the
162
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sel=> and kn";s e$erythin)c. 3e eJplained it all t" the. I kn"; it. I=
y"(> 1a5na$alkya> d" n"t kn"; that -(tra and that Internal R(ler> and
still take a;ay the %";s that .el"n) "nly t" the kn";ers "= !rahan>
y"(r head shall =all "==E. `I kn";> 9 Ga(taa> that -(tra and that
Internal R(lerE. `Any "ne %an say> cI kn";> I kn";c. 0ell (s ;hat y"(
kn";.E
III-$ii-2@ 3e said> `Vay(> 9 Ga(taa> is that -(tra. 0hr"()h this -(tra
"r Vay( this and the neJt li=e and all .ein)s are held t")ether.
0here="re> 9 Ga(taa> ;hen a an dies> they say that his li.s ha$e
.een l""sened> ="r they are held t")ether> 9 Ga(taa> .y the -(tra "r
Vay(.E `a(ite s"> 1a5na$alkya. *"; des%ri.e the Internal R(ler.E
III-$ii-3@ 3e ;h" inha.its the earth> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" the earth
d"es n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is the earth> and ;h" %"ntr"ls the earth
=r" ;ithin> is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-#@ 3e ;h" inha.its ;ater> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" ;ater d"es n"t
kn";> ;h"se ."dy is ;ater> and ;h" %"ntr"ls ;ater =r" ;ithin> is the
Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-5@ 3e ;h" inha.its =ire> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" =ire d"es n"t
kn";> ;h"se ."dy is =ire> and ;h" %"ntr"ls =ire =r" ;ithin> is the
Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-6@ 3e ;h" inha.its the sky> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" the sky d"es
n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is the sky> and ;h" %"ntr"ls the sky =r"
;ithin> is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-7@ 3e ;h" inha.its air> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" air d"es n"t
kn";> ;h"se ."dy is air> and ;h" %"ntr"ls air =r" ;ithin> is the
Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-+@ 3e ;h" inha.its hea$en> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" hea$en d"es
163
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n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is hea$en> and ;h" %"ntr"ls hea$en =r"
;ithin> is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-,@ 3e ;h" inha.its the s(n> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" the s(n d"es
n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is the s(n> and ;h" %"ntr"ls the s(n =r"
;ithin> is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-1&@ 3e ;h" inha.its the H(arters> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" the
H(arters d"es n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is the H(arters> and ;h" %"ntr"ls
the H(arters =r" ;ithin> is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-11@ 3e ;h" inha.its the ""n and stars> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h"
the ""n and stars d"es n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is the ""n and stars>
and ;h" %"ntr"ls the ""n and stars =r" ;ithin> is the Internal R(ler>
y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-12@ 3e ;h" inha.its the ether> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" the ether
d"es n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is the ether> and ;h" %"ntr"ls the ether
=r" ;ithin> is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-13@ 3e ;h" inha.its darkness> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" darkness
d"es n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is darkness> and ;h" %"ntr"ls darkness
=r" ;ithin> is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-1#@ 3e ;h" inha.its li)ht> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" li)ht d"es n"t
kn";> ;h"se ."dy is li)ht> and ;h" %"ntr"ls li)ht =r" ;ithin> is the
Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=. 0his (%h ;ith re=eren%e t"
the )"ds. *"; ;ith re=eren%e t" the .ein)s.
III-$ii-15@ 3e ;h" inha.its all .ein)s> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" n" .ein)
kn";s> ;h"se ."dy is all .ein)s> and ;h" %"ntr"ls all .ein)s =r"
;ithin> is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=. 0his (%h ;ith
re=eren%e t" the .ein)s. *"; ;ith re=eren%e t" the ."dy.
16#
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III-$ii-16@ 3e ;h" inha.its the n"se> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" the n"se
d"es n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is the n"se> and ;h" %"ntr"ls the n"se
=r" ;ithin> is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-17@ 3e ;h" inha.its the "r)an "= spee%h> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h"
the "r)an "= spee%h d"es n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is the "r)an "= spee%h>
and ;h" %"ntr"ls the "r)an "= spee%h =r" ;ithin> is the Internal
R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-1+@ 3e ;h" inha.its the eye> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" the eye
d"es n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is the eye> and ;h" %"ntr"ls the eye =r"
;ithin> is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-1,@ 3e ;h" inha.its the ear> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" the ear d"es
n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is the ear> and ;h" %"ntr"ls the ear =r"
;ithin> is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-2&@ 3e ;h" inha.its the ind 6Manas7> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h"
the ind d"es n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is the ind> and ;h" %"ntr"ls
the ind =r" ;ithin> is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-21@ 3e ;h" inha.its the skin> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" the skin
d"es n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is the skin> and ;h" %"ntr"ls the skin
=r" ;ithin> is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-22@ 3e ;h" inha.its the intelle%t> .(t is ;ithin it> ;h" the
intelle%t d"es n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is the intelle%t> and ;h" %"ntr"ls
the intelle%t =r" ;ithin> is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=.
III-$ii-23@ 3e ;h" inha.its the "r)an "= )enerati"n> .(t is ;ithin it>
;h" the "r)an "= )enerati"n d"es n"t kn";> ;h"se ."dy is the "r)an
"= )enerati"n> and ;h" %"ntr"ls the "r)an "= )enerati"n =r" ;ithin>
is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n i"rtal sel=. 3e is ne$er seen> .(t is
the Gitness< 3e is ne$er heard> .(t is the 3earer< 3e is ne$er th"()ht>
165
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.(t is the 0hinker< 3e is ne$er kn";n> .(t is the 'n";er. 0here is n"
"ther ;itness .(t 3i> n" "ther hearer .(t 3i> n" "ther thinker .(t
3i> n" "ther kn";er .(t 3i. 3e is the Internal R(ler> y"(r ";n
i"rtal sel=. E$erythin) else .(t 3i is "rtal.E 0here(p"n
Uddalaka> the s"n "= Ar(na> kept silent.
III-$iii-1@ 0hen the da()hter "= Va%hakn( said> `Re$ered !rahans> I
shall hi t;" H(esti"ns> -h"(ld he ans;er e th"se> n"ne "= y"( %an
e$er .eat hi in des%ri.in) !rahan.E `Ask> 9 Gar)iE.
III-$iii-2@ -he said> `I 6shall ask7 y"( 6t;" H(esti"ns7. As a an "=
!anaras "r the 'in) "= Videha> s%i"n "= a ;arlike dynasty> i)ht
strin) his (nstr(n) ."; and appear %l"se .y> %arryin) in his hand t;"
.a.""-tipped arr";s hi)hly pain=(l t" the eney> e$en s"> 9
1a5na$alkya> d" I %"n=r"nt y"( ;ith t;" H(esti"ns. Ans;er e th"seE.
`Ask> 9 Gar)iE.
III-$iii-3@ -he said> `!y ;hat> 9 1a5na$alkya> is that per$aded ;hi%h
is a."$e hea$en and .el"; the earth> ;hi%h is this hea$en and earth as
;ell as .et;een the> and ;hi%h they say ;as> is and ;ill .e IE
III-$iii-#@ 3e said> `0hat> 9 Gar)i> ;hi%h is a."$e hea$en and .el";
the earth> ;hi%h is this hea$en and earth as ;ell as .et;een the> and
;hi%h they say ;as> is and ;ill .e> is per$aded .y the Unani=ested
ether.E
III-$iii-5@ -he said> `I ."; t" y"(> 1a5na$alkya> ;h" ha$e =(lly
ans;ered this H(esti"n "= ine. *"; .e ready ="r the "ther H(esti"n.E
`Ask> 9 Gar)ic.
III-$iii-6@ -he said> `!y ;hat> 9 1a5na$alkya> is that per$aded ;hi%h
is a."$e hea$en and .el"; the earth> ;hi%h is this hea$en and earth as
;ell as .et;een the> and ;hi%h they say ;as> is and ;ill .e IE
166
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III-$iii-7@ 3e said> `0hat> 9 Gar)i> ;hi%h is a."$e hea$en and .el";
the earth> ;hi%h is this hea$en and earth as ;ell as .et;een the> and
;hi%h they say ;as> is and ;ill .e> is per$aded .y the Unani=ested
ether al"ne.E `!y ;hat is the Unani=ested ether per$adedIE
III-$iii-+@ 3e said@ 9 Gar)i> the kn";ers "= !rahan say> this
I(ta.le 6!rahan7 is that. It is neither )r"ss n"r in(te> neither
sh"rt n"r l"n)> neither red %"l"(r n"r "iliness> neither shad"; n"r
darkness> neither air n"r ether> (natta%hed> neither sa$"(r n"r "d"(r>
;ith"(t eyes "r ears> ;ith"(t the $"%al "r)an "r ind> n"n-l(in"(s>
;ith"(t the $ital ="r%e "r "(th> n"t a eas(re> and ;ith"(t interi"r "r
eJteri"r. It d"es n"t eat anythin)> n"r is It eaten .y any."dy.
III-$iii-,@ Under the i)hty r(le "= this I(ta.le> 9 Gar)i> the s(n
and ""n are held in their p"siti"ns< (nder the i)hty r(le "= this
I(ta.le> 9 Gar)i> hea$en and earth aintain their p"siti"ns< (nder
the i)hty r(le "= this I(ta.le> 9 Gar)i> "ents> M(h(rtas> days
and ni)hts> ="rtni)hts> "nths> seas"ns and years are held in their
respe%ti$e pla%es< (nder the i)hty r(le "= this I(ta.le> 9 Gar)i>
s"e ri$ers =l"; east;ard =r" the Ghite M"(ntains> "thers =l";in)
;est;ard %"ntin(e in that dire%ti"n> and still "thers keep t" their
respe%ti$e %"(rses< (nder the i)hty r(le "= this I(ta.le> 9 Gar)i>
en praise th"se that )i$e> the )"ds depend "n the sa%ri=i%er> and the
anes "n independent "==erin)s 6Dar$ih"a7.
III-$iii-1&@ 3e> 9 Gar)i> ;h" in this ;"rld> ;ith"(t kn";in) this
I(ta.le> "==ers ".lati"ns in the =ire> per="rs sa%ri=i%es and
(nder)"es a(sterities e$en ="r any th"(sand years> =inds all s(%h a%ts
.(t perisha.le< he> 9 Gar)i> ;h" departs =r" this ;"rld ;ith"(t
kn";in) this I(ta.le> is isera.le. !(t he> 9 Gar)i> ;h" departs
=r" this ;"rld a=ter kn";in) this I(ta.le> is a kn";er "=
!rahan.
III-$iii-11@ 0his I(ta.le> 9 Gar)i> is ne$er seen .(t is the Gitness<
167
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It is ne$er heard> .(t is the 3earer< It is ne$er th"()ht> .(t is the
0hinker< It is ne$er kn";n> .(t is the 'n";er. 0here is n" "ther
;itness .(t 0his> n" "ther hearer .(t 0his> n" "ther thinker .(t 0his>
n" "ther kn";er .(t 0his. !y this I(ta.le> 9 Gar)i> is the
6Unani=ested7 ether per$aded.
III-$iii-12@ -he said> `Re$ered !rahans> y"( sh"(ld %"nsider
y"(rsel$es ="rt(nate i= y"( %an )et "== =r" hi thr"()h sal(tati"ns.
*e$er shall any "= y"( .eat hi in des%ri.in) !rahanE. 0hen the
da()hter "= Va%hakn( kept silent.
III-iJ-1@ 0hen Vida)dha> the s"n "= -akala> asked hi. `3"; any
)"ds are there> 1a5na$alkya IE 1a5na$alkya de%ided it thr"()h this
6)r"(p "= Mantras kn";n as7 *i$id 6sayin)7> `As any as are
indi%ated in the *i$id "= the Vis$ade$as ? three h(ndred and three>
and three th"(sand and threeE. `Very ;ellE> said -akalya> `h"; any
)"ds eJa%tly are there> 1a5na$alkya IE `0hirty-threeE. `Very ;ellE> said
the "ther> `h"; any )"ds eJa%tly are there> 1a5na$alkya IE `siJE.
`Very ;ellE> said -akalya> `h"; any )"ds eJa%tly are there>
1a5na$alkya IE `0hreeE. `Very ;ellE> said the "ther> `h"; any )"ds
eJa%tly are there> 1a5na$alkya IE `0;"E. `Very ;ellE> said -akalya>
`h"; any )"ds eJa%tly are there> 1a5na$alkya IE `9ne and a hal=E.
`Very ;ellE> said -akalya> `h"; any )"ds eJa%tly are there>
1a5na$alkya IE `9neE. `Very ;ellE> said -akalya> `;hi%h are th"se
three h(ndred and three and three th"(sand and three IE
III-iJ-2@ 1a5na$alkya said> `these are .(t the ani=estati"n "= the>
.(t there are "nly thirty-three )"ds.E `Ghi%h are th"se thirty-three IE
`0he ei)ht Vas(s> the ele$en R(dras and the t;el$e Adityas ? these are
thirty-"ne and Indra and 4ra5apati ake (p the thirty-threeE.
III-iJ-3@ `Ghi%h are the Vas(s bE `Fire> the earth> air> the sky> the s(n>
hea$en> the ""n and the stars ? these are the Vas(s> ="r in these all
this is pla%ed< there="re they are %alled Vas(s.E
16+
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III-iJ-#@ `Ghi%h are the R(dras IE `0he ten "r)ans in the h(an ."dy>
;ith the ind as the ele$enth. Ghen they depart =r" this "rtal
."dy> they ake 6"neEs relati$es7 ;eep. !e%a(se they then ake the
;eep> there="re they are %alled R(dras.E
III-iJ-5@ `Ghi%h are the Adityas IE `0he t;el$e "nths 6are parts7 "= a
year< these are the Adityas> ="r they )" takin) all this ;ith the.
!e%a(se they )" takin) all this ;ith the> there="re they are %alled
Adityas.E
III-iJ-6@ `Ghi%h is Indra> and ;hi%h is 4ra5apati IE `0he %l"(d itsel= is
Indra> and the sa%ri=i%e is 4ra5apatiE. `Ghi%h is the %l"(d IE `0h(nder
6stren)th7.E `Ghi%h is the sa%ri=i%e IE `AnialsE.
III-iJ-7@ `Ghi%h are the siJ 6)"ds7 IE `Fire> the earth> air> the sky> the
s(n> and hea$en ? these are the siJ. !e%a(se all th"se 6)"ds7 are
6%"prised in7 these siJ.E
III-iJ-+@ `Ghi%h are the three )"ds IE `0hese three ;"rlds al"ne>
.e%a(se in these all th"se )"ds are %"prised.E `Ghi%h are the t;"
)"ds IE `Matter and the $ital ="r%e.E `Ghi%h are the "ne and a hal= IE
`0his 6air7 that .l";s.E
III-iJ-,@ `Re)ardin) this s"e say> `-in%e the air .l";s as "ne
s(.stan%e> h"; %an it .e "ne and a hal= IE ` It is "ne and a hal= .e%a(se
thr"()h its presen%e all this attains s(rpassin) )l"ryE. `Ghi%h is the
"ne )"d IE `0he $ital ="r%e 63iranya)ar.ha7< it is !rahan> ;hi%h is
%alled 0yat 6that7.E
III-iJ-1&@ `3e ;h" kn";s that .ein) ;h"se a."de is the earth> ;h"se
instr(ent "= $isi"n is =ire> ;h"se li)ht is the Manas> and ;h" is the
(ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans> kn";s tr(ly> 9
1a5na$alkyaE. `I d" kn"; that .ein) "= ;h" y"( speak ? ;h" is the
16,
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(ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans. It is the $ery .ein) ;h"
is identi=ied ;ith the ."dy. G" "n> -akalya.E `Gh" is his deity
6%a(se7 IE `*e%tar 6%hyle7E> said he.
III-iJ-11@ `3e ;h" kn";s that .ein) ;h"se a."de is l(st> ;h"se
instr(ent "= $isi"n is the intelle%t> ;h"se li)ht is the Manas> and ;h"
is the (ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans> kn";s tr(ly> 9
1a5na$alkyaE. `I d" kn"; that .ein) "= ;h" y"( speak ? ;h" is the
(ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans. It is the $ery .ein) ;h"
is identi=ied ;ith l(st. G" "n> -akalyaE. `Gh" is his deity IE `G"enE>
said he.
III-iJ-12@ `3e ;h" kn";s that .ein) ;h"se a."de is %"l"(rs> ;h"se
instr(ent "= $isi"n is the eye> ;h"se li)ht is the Manas> and ;h" is
the (ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans> kn";s tr(ly> 9
1a5na$alkyaE. `I d" kn"; that .ein) "= ;h" y"( speak ? ;h" is the
(ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans. It is the $ery .ein) ;h"
is in the s(n. G" "n -akalyaE. `Gh" is his deity IE D0r(th 6the eye7>E
said he.
III-iJ-13@ `3e ;h" kn";s that .ein) ;h"se a."de is the ether> ;h"se
instr(ent "= $isi"n is the ear> ;h"se li)ht is the Manas> and ;h" is
the (ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans> kn";s tr(ly> 9
1a5na$alkyaE. `I d" kn"; that .ein) "= ;h" y"( speak ? ;h" is the
(ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans. It is the $ery .ein) ;h"
is identi=ied ;ith the ear and ;ith the tie "= hearin). G" "n>
-akalyaE. `Gh" is his deity IE `0he H(artersE> said he.
III-iJ-1#@ `3e ;h" kn";s that .ein) ;h"se a."de is darkness> ;h"se
instr(ent "= $isi"n is the intelle%t> ;h"se li)ht is the Manas> and ;h"
is the (ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans> kn";s tr(ly> 9
1a5na$alkyaE. `I d" kn"; that .ein) "= ;h" y"( speak ? ;h" is the
(ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans. It is the $ery .ein) ;h"
is identi=ied ;ith shad"; 6i)n"ran%e7. G" "n> -akalyaE. `Gh" is his
17&
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deityIE `DeathE> said he.
III-iJ-15@ `3e ;h" kn";s that .ein) ;h"se a."de is 6parti%(lar7
%"l"(rs> ;h"se instr(ent "= $isi"n is the eye> ;h"se li)ht is the
Manas> and ;h" is the (ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans>
kn";s tr(ly> 9 1a5na$alkyaE. `I d" kn"; that .ein) "= ;h" y"(
speak ? ;h" is the (ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans. It is
the $ery .ein) ;h" is in a l""kin)-)lass. G" "n> -akalyaE. `Gh" is his
deity IE `0he $ital ="r%eE> said he.
III-iJ-16@ `3e ;h" kn";s that .ein) ;h"se a."de is ;ater> ;h"se
instr(ent "= $isi"n is the intelle%t> ;h"se li)ht is the Manas> and ;h"
is the (ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans> kn";s tr(ly> 9
1a5na$alkyaE. `I d" kn"; that .ein) "= ;h" y"( speak ? ;h" is the
(ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans. It is the $ery .ein) ;h"
is in ;ater. G" "n> -akalyaE. `Gh" is his deity IE `Var(na 6rain7E> said
he.
III-iJ-17@ `3e ;h" kn";s that .ein) ;h"se a."de is the seed> ;h"se
instr(ent "= $isi"n is the intelle%t> ;h"se li)ht is the Manas> and ;h"
is the (ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans> kn";s tr(ly> 9
1a5na$alkyaE. `I d" kn"; that .ein) "= ;h" y"( speak ? ;h" is the
(ltiate res"rt "= the entire ."dy and "r)ans. It is the $ery .ein) ;h"
is identi=ied ;ith the s"n. G" "n> -akalyaE. `Gh" is his deity IE
`4ra5apati 6the =ather7E> said he.
III-iJ-1+@ `-akalyaE> said 1a5na$alkya> `ha$e these Vedi% s%h"lars
ade y"( their instr(ent ="r .(rnin) %har%"als IE
III-iJ-1,@ `1a5na$alkyaE> said -akalya> `is it .e%a(se y"( kn";
!rahan that y"( ha$e th(s =l"(ted these Vedi% s%h"lars "= '(r( and
4an%hala IE `I kn"; the H(arters ;ith their deities and s(pp"rtsE. `I=
y"( kn"; the H(arters ;ith their deities and s(pp"rts --
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III-iJ-2&@ `Ghat deity are y"( identi=ied ;ith in the east IE `Gith the
deity> s(nE. `9n ;hat d"es the s(n rest IE `9n the eyeE. `9n ;hat d"es
the eye rest IE `9n %"l"(rs> ="r "ne sees %"l"(rs ;ith the eyeE. `9n
;hat d" %"l"(rs rest IE `9n the heart 6ind7E> said 1a5na$alkya> `="r
"ne kn";s %"l"(rs thr"()h the heart< it is "n the heart that %"l"(rs
restE. `It is 5(st s"> 1a5na$alkyaE.
III-iJ-21@ `Ghat deity are y"( identi=ied ;ith in the s"(th IE `Gith the
deity> 1aa 6the )"d "= 5(sti%e7E. 9n ;hat d"es 1aa rest IE `9n the
sa%ri=i%eE. `9n ;hat d"es the sa%ri=i%e rest IE `9n the re(nerati"n 6"=
the priests7.E `9n ;hat d"es the re(nerati"n rest IE `9n =aith> .e%a(se
;hene$er a an has =aith> he )i$es re(nerati"n t" the priests<
there="re it is "n =aith that the re(nerati"n restsE. `9n ;hat d"es =aith
rest IE `9n the heartE> said 1a5na$alkya> `="r "ne kn";s =aith thr"()h
the heart< there="re it is "n the heart that =aith restsE. `It is 5(st s">
1a5na$alkyaE.
III-iJ-22@ `Ghat deity are y"( identi=ied ;ith in the ;est IE `Gith the
deity> Var(na 6the )"d "= rain7E. `9n ;hat d"es Var(na rest IE `9n
;aterE. `9n ;hat d"es ;ater rest IE `9n the seedE. `9n ;hat d"es the
seed rest IE `9n the heart. 0here="re d" they say "= a ne;-."rn %hild
%l"sely rese.les 6his =ather7> that he has spr(n) =r" 6his =atherEs7
heart> as it ;ere ? that he has .een ade "(t "= 6his =atherEs7 heart> as
it ;ere. 0here="re it is "n the heart that the seed restsE. `It is 5(st s">
1a5na$alkyaE.
III-iJ-23@ `Ghat deity are y"( identi=ied ;ith in the n"rth IE `Gith the
deity> -"a 6the ""n and the %reeper7E `9n ;hat d"es -"a rest IE
`9n initiati"nE. `9n ;hat d"es initiati"n rest IE `9n tr(th. 0here="re d"
they say t" "ne initiated> c-peak the tr(thc< ="r it is "n tr(th that
initiati"n restsE. `9n ;hat d"es tr(th rest IE `9n the heartE> said
1a5na$alkya> `="r "ne kn";s tr(th thr"()h the heart< there="re it is "n
the heart that tr(th restsE. `It is 5(st s"> 1a5na$alkyaE.
172
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III-iJ-2#@ `Ghat deity are y"( identi=ied ;ith in the =iJed dire%ti"n
6a."$e7 IE `Gith the deity> =ireE. `9n ;hat d"es =ire rest IE `9n
spee%hE. `9n ;hat d"es spee%h rest IE `9n the heartE. `9n ;hat d"es
the heart rest IE
III-iJ-25@ `1"( )h"stE> said 1a5na$alkya> `;hen y"( think the heart is
else;here than in (s> 6then the ."dy is dead7. -h"(ld it .e else;here
than in (s> d")s ;"(ld eat this ."dy> "r .irds tear it t" pie%esE.
III-iJ-26@ 9n ;hat d" the ."dy and the heart rest IE `9n the 4ranaE.
`9n ;hat d"es the 4rana rest IE `9n the Apana.E `9n ;hat d"es the
Apana rest IE `9n the Vyana.E `9n ;hat d"es the Vyana rest IE `9n the
UdanaE. `9n ;hat d"es the Udana rest IE `9n the -aanaE. 0his sel= is
0hat ;hi%h has .een des%ri.ed as `*"t this> n"t thisE. It is
iper%epti.le> ="r it is ne$er per%ei$ed< (nde%ayin)> ="r It ne$er
de%ays< (natta%hed> ="r It is ne$er atta%hed< (n=ettered ? It ne$er =eels
pain> and ne$er s(==ers in5(ry. `0hese are the ei)ht a."des> the ei)ht
instr(ents "= $isi"n> the ei)ht deities and the ei)ht .ein)s. I ask y"(
"= that !ein) ;h" is t" .e kn";n "nly =r" the Upanishads> ;h"
de=initely pr"5e%ts th"se .ein)s and ;ithdra;s the int" 3isel=> and
;h" is at the sae tie trans%endent. I= y"( %ann"t %learly tell e "=
3i> y"(r head shall =all "==E. -akalya did n"t kn"; 3i< his head
=ell "==< and r"..ers snat%hed a;ay his ."nes> istakin) the ="r
s"ethin) else.
III-iJ-27@ 0hen he said> `Re$ered !rahanas> ;hi%hs"e$er a"n)st
y"( ;ishes ay interr")ate e "r all "= y"( ay. 9r I shall H(esti"n
;hi%hs"e$er a"n)st y"( ;ishes> "r all "= y"(E. 0he !rahanas did
n"t dare.
III-iJ-2+617@ 3e asked the thr"()h these $erses@ As a lar)e tree> s"
indeed is a an. 60his is7 tr(e. 3is hair is its lea$es> his skin its "(ter
.ark.
173
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III-iJ-2+627@ It is =r" his skin that .l""d =l";s> and =r" the .ark
sap. 0here="re ;hen a an is ;"(nded> .l""d =l";s> as sap =r" a
tree is in5(red.
III-iJ-2+637@ 3is =lesh is its inner .ark> and his tend"ns its inner"st
layer "= .ark< ."th are t"()h. 3is ."nes lie (nder> as d"es its ;""d<
his arr"; is %"para.le t" its pith.
III-iJ-2+6#7@ I= a tree> a=ter it is =elled> sprin)s a)ain =r" its r""t in a
ne;er ="r> =r" ;hat r""t indeed d"es an sprin) ="rth a=ter he is
%(t "== .y death I
III-iJ-2+657@ D" n"t say> `Fr" the seedE. 6="r7 it is pr"d(%ed in a
li$in) an. A tree sprin)s als" =r" the seed< a=ter it is dead it
%ertainly sprin)s a)ain 6=r" the seed as ;ell7.
III-iJ-2+667@ I= s"e"ne p(lls "(t a tree ;ith its r""t> it n" "re
spr"(ts. Fr" ;hat r""t d"es a an sprin) ="rth a=ter he is %(t "== .y
death I
III-iJ-2+677@ I= y"( think he is e$er ."rn> I say> n"> he is a)ain ."rn.
*"; ;h" sh"(ld a)ain .rin) hi ="rth I -- 'n";led)e> !liss>
!rahan> the s(pree )"al "= the dispenser "= ;ealth as ;ell as "=
hi ;h" has realised !rahan and li$es in It.
IV-i-1@ 9. 2anaka> Eper"r "= Videha> t""k his seat> ;hen there
%ae 1a5na$alkya. 2anaka said t" hi> `1a5na$alkya> ;hat has
.r"()ht y"( here I 0" ha$e s"e anials> "r t" hear s"e s(.tle
H(esti"ns asked IE `!"th> 9 Eper"rE> said 1a5na$alkya.
IV-i-2@ `/et e hear ;hat any "ne "= y"(r tea%hers ay ha$e t"ld
y"(E. `2it$an> the s"n "= -ilina> has t"ld e that the "r)an "= spee%h
17#
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6=ire7 is !rahanE. `As "ne ;h" has a "ther> a =ather and a tea%her
sh"(ld say> s" has the s"n "= -ilina said this ? that the "r)an "= spee%h
is !rahan> ="r ;hat %an a pers"n ha$e ;h" %ann"t speakI !(t did he
tell y"( a."(t its a."de 6."dy7 and s(pp"rtIE `*"> he did n"tE. `0his
!rahan is "nly "ne-=""ted> 9 Eper"rE. `0hen y"( tell (s>
1a5na$alkyaE. `0he "r)an "= spee%h is its a."de> and the ether 6the
Undi==erentiated7 its s(pp"rt. It sh"(ld .e editated (p"n as
intelli)en%eE. `Ghat is intelli)en%e> 1a5na$alkya IE `0he "r)an "=
spee%h itsel=> 9 Eper"rE> said 1a5na$alkya> `thr"()h the "r)an "=
spee%h> 9 Eper"r> =riend is kn";n< 0he Ri)-Veda> 1a5(r-Veda>
-aa-Veda> Athar$an)irasa> 6Vedi%7 hist"ry> yth"l")y> arts>
Upanishads> $erses> aph"riss> el(%idati"ns and eJplanati"ns> 6the
e==e%ts "=7 sa%ri=i%es> 6"=7 "==erin) ".lati"ns in the =ire and 6"=7 )i$in)
=""d and drink> this ;"rld and the neJt> and all .ein)s are kn";n
thr"()h the "r)an "= spee%h al"ne> 9 Eper"r. 0he "r)an "= spee%h> 9
Eper"r> is the s(pree !rahan. 0he "r)an "= spee%h ne$er lea$es
hi ;h"> kn";in) th(s> editates (p"n it> all .ein)s ea)erly %"e t"
hi> and .ein) a )"d> he attains the )"ds.E `I )i$e y"( a th"(sand %";s
;ith a .(ll like an elephantE> said Eper"r 2anaka. 1a5na$alkya
replied> `My =ather ;as "= "pini"n that "ne sh"(ld n"t a%%ept 6;ealth7
=r" a dis%iple ;ith"(t =(lly instr(%tin) hiE.
IV-i-3@ `/et e hear ;hate$er any "ne ay ha$e t"ld y"(E. `Udanka>
the s"n "= -(l.a> has t"ld e that the $ital ="r%e 6Vay(7 is !rahanE.
`As "ne ;h" has a "ther> a =ather and a tea%her sh"(ld say> s" has
the s"n "= -(l.a said this ? that the $ital ="r%e is !rahan> ="r ;hat
%an a pers"n ha$e ;h" d"es n"t li$e I !(t did he tell y"( a."(t its
a."de 6."dy7 and s(pp"rt IE `*"> he did n"tE. `0his !rahan is "nly
"ne-=""ted> 9 Eper"rE. `0hen y"( tell (s> 1a5na$alkyaE. `0he $ital
="r%e is its a."de> and the ether 6the Undi==erentiated7 its s(pp"rt. It
sh"(ld .e editated (p"n as dearE. `Ghat is dearness> 1a5na$alkya IE
0he $ital ="r%e itsel=> 9 Eper"rE> said 1a5na$alkya< `="r the sake "=
the $ital ="r%e> 9 Eper"r> a an per="rs sa%ri=i%es ="r "ne ="r
;h" they sh"(ld n"t .e per="red> and a%%epts )i=ts "ne =r" ;h"
175
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they sh"(ld n"t .e a%%epted> and it is ="r the sake "= the $ital ="r%e> 9
Eper"r> that "ne r(ns the risk "= "neEs li=e in any H(arter "ne ay )"
t". 0he $ital ="r%e> 9 Eper"r> is the -(pree !rahan. 0he $ital
="r%e ne$er lea$es hi ;h"> kn";in) th(s> editates (p"n it> all
.ein)s ea)erly %"e t" hi> and .ein) a )"d> he attains the )"dsE. `I
)i$e y"( a th"(sand %";s ;ith a .(ll like an elephantE> said Eper"r
2anaka. 1a5na$alkya replied> `My =ather ;as "= "pini"n that "ne
sh"(ld n"t a%%ept 6;ealth7 =r" a dis%iple ;ith"(t =(lly instr(%tin)
hiE.
IV-i-#@ `/et e hear ;hate$er any "ne ay ha$e t"ld y"(E. `!ark(> the
s"n "= Vrsna> has t"ld e that the eye 6s(n7 is !rahanE. `As "ne ;h"
has a "ther> a =ather and a tea%her sh"(ld say> s" has the s"n "= Vrsna
said this ? that the eye is !rahan. F"r ;hat %an a pers"n ha$e ;h"
%ann"t see I !(t did he tell y"( a."(t its a."de 6."dy7 and s(pp"rt IE
`*"> he did n"tE. `0his !rahan is "nly "ne-=""ted> 9 Eper"rE.
`0hen y"( tell (s> 1a5na$alkyaE. `0he eye is its a."de> and the ether
6the Undi==erentiated7 its s(pp"rt. It sh"(ld .e editated (p"n as
tr(thE. `Ghat is tr(th> 1a5na$alkyaIE `E0he eye itsel=> 9 Eper"rE> said
1a5na$alkya< i= a pers"n> 9 Eper"r> says t" "ne ;h" has seen ;ith
his eyes> c3a$e y"( seen Ic and the latter ans;ers> c1es> I ha$ec> then
it is tr(e. 0he eye> 9 Eper"r> is the -(pree !rahan. 0he eye
ne$er lea$es hi ;h"> kn";in) th(s> editates (p"n it< all .ein)s
ea)erly %"e t" hi< and .ein) a )"d> he attains the )"dsE. `I )i$e y"(
a th"(sand %";s ;ith a .(ll like an elephantE> said Eper"r 2anaka.
1a5na$alkya replied> `My =ather ;as "= "pini"n that "ne sh"(ld n"t
a%%ept 6;ealth7 =r" a dis%iple ;ith"(t =(lly instr(%tin) hiE.
IV-i-5@ `/et e hear ;hate$er any "ne ay ha$e t"ld y"(E.
`Garda.hi$ipita> "= the line "= !harad$a5a> has t"ld e that the ear
6the H(arters7 is !rahanE. `As "ne ;h" has a "ther> a =ather and a
tea%her sh"(ld say> s" has the des%endant "= !harad$a5a said this ?
that the ear is !rahan. F"r ;hat %an a pers"n ha$e ;h" %ann"t hear I
!(t did he tell y"( a."(t its a."de 6."dy7 and s(pp"rt IE `*"> he did
176
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
n"tE. `0his !rahan is "nly "ne-=""ted> 9 Eper"rE. `0hen y"( tell
(s> 1a5na$alkyaE. `0he ear is its a."de> and the ether 6the
Undi==erentiated7 its s(pp"rt. It sh"(ld .e editated (p"n as in=initeE.
`Ghat is in=inity> 1a5na$alkya IE `0he H(arters thesel$es> 9
Eper"rE> said 1a5na$alkya< `there="re> 9 Eper"r> t" ;hate$er
dire%ti"n "ne ay )"> "ne ne$er rea%hes its end. 63en%e7 the H(arters
are in=inite. 0he H(arters> 9 Eper"r> are the ear> and the ear> 9
Eper"r> is the -(pree !rahan. 0he ear ne$er lea$es hi ;h">
kn";in) th(s> editates (p"n it< all .ein)s ea)erly %"e t" hi< and
.ein) a )"d> he attains the )"dsE. `I )i$e y"( a th"(sand %";s ;ith a
.(ll like an elephantE> said Eper"r 2anaka. 1a5na$alkya replied> `My
=ather ;as "= "pini"n that "ne sh"(ld n"t a%%ept 6;ealth7 =r" a
dis%iple ;ith"(t =(lly instr(%tin) hiE.
IV-i-6@ `/et e hear ;hate$er any "ne ay ha$e t"ld y"(E.
`-atyakaa> the s"n "= 2a.ala> has t"ld e that the Manas 6here> the
""n7 is !rahanE. `As "ne ;h" has a "ther> a =ather and a tea%her
sh"(ld say> s" has the s"n "= 2a.ala said this ? that the Manas is
!rahan. F"r ;hat %an a pers"n ha$e ;ith"(t the Manas I !(t did he
tell y"( a."(t its a."de 6."dy7 and s(pp"rt IE `*"> he did n"tE. `0his
!rahan is "nly "ne-=""ted> 9 Eper"rE. `0hen y"( tell (s>
1a5na$alkyaE. `0he Manas is its a."de> and the ether 6the
Undi==erentiated7 its s(pp"rt. It sh"(ld .e editated (p"n as .lissE.
`Ghat is .liss> 1a5na$alkya IE `0he anas itsel=> 9 Eper"rE> said
1a5na$alkya< `;ith the Manas> 9 Eper"r> a an 6=an%ies and7 ;""s a
;"an. A s"n rese.lin) hi is ."rn "= her> and he is the %a(se "=
.liss. 0he Manas> 9 Eper"r> is the -(pree !rahan. 0he Manas
ne$er lea$es hi ;h"> kn";in) th(s> editates (p"n it< all .ein)s
ea)erly %"e t" hi< and .ein) a )"d> he attains the )"dsE. `I )i$e y"(
a th"(sand %";s ;ith a .(ll like an elephantE> said Eper"r 2anaka.
1a5na$alkya replied> `My =ather ;as "= "pini"n that "ne sh"(ld n"t
a%%ept 6;ealth7 =r" a dis%iple ;ith"(t =(lly instr(%tin) hiE.
IV-i-7@ `/et e hear ;hate$er any "ne ay ha$e t"ld y"(E. `Vida)dha>
177
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the s"n "= -akala> has t"ld e that the heart 6ind> here> 4ra5apati 7 is
!rahanE. `As "ne ;h" has a "ther> a =ather and a tea%her sh"(ld
say> s" has the s"n "= -akala said this ? that the heart is !rahan. F"r
;hat %an a pers"n ha$e ;ith"(t the heart I !(t did he tell y"( a."(t
its a."de 6."dy7 and s(pp"rt IE `*"> he did n"tE. `0his !rahan is
"nly "ne-=""ted> 9 Eper"rE. `0hen y"( tell (s> 1a5na$alkyaE. `0he
heart is its a."de> and the ether 6the Undi==erentiated7 its s(pp"rt. It
sh"(ld .e editated (p"n as sta.ilityE. `Ghat is sta.ility>
1a5na$alkya IE `0he heart itsel=> 9 Eper"rE> said 1a5na$alkya< `the
heart> 9 Eper"r> is the a."de "= all .ein)s> and the heart> 9 Eper"r>
is the s(pp"rt "= all .ein)s< "n the heart> 9 Eper"r> all .ein)s rest<
the heart> 9 Eper"r> is the -(pree !rahan. 0he heart ne$er lea$es
hi ;h"> kn";in) th(s> editates (p"n it< all .ein)s ea)erly %"e t"
hi< and .ein) a )"d> he attains the )"dsE. `I )i$e y"( a th"(sand
%";s ;ith a .(ll like an elephantE> said Eper"r 2anaka. 1a5na$alkya
replied> `My =ather ;as "= "pini"n that "ne sh"(ld n"t a%%ept 6;ealth7
=r" a dis%iple ;ith"(t =(lly instr(%tin) hiE.
IV-ii-1@ 2anaka> Eper"r "= Videha> r"se =r" his l"(n)e and
appr"a%hin) 1a5na$alkya said> `-al(tati"ns t" y"(> 1a5na$alkya>
please instr(%t eE. 1a5na$alkya replied> `As "ne ;ishin) t" )" a l"n)
distan%e> 9 Eper"r> sh"(ld se%(re a %hari"t "r a ."at> s" ha$e y"(
=(lly eH(ipped y"(r ind ;ith s" any se%ret naes 6"= !rahan7.
1"( are like;ise respe%ted and ;ealthy> and y"( ha$e st(died the
Vedas and heard the Upanishads< 6.(t7 ;here ;ill y"( )" ;hen y"(
are separated =r" this ."dy IE `I d" n"t kn";> sir> ;here I shall )"E.
`0hen I ;ill tell y"( ;here y"( ;ill )"E. `0ell e> sirE.
IV-ii-2@ 0his .ein) ;h" is in the ri)ht eye is naed Indha. 0h"()h he
is Indha> he is indire%tly %alled Indra> ="r the )"ds ha$e a ="ndness> as
it ;ere> ="r indire%t naes> and hate t" .e %alled dire%tly.
IV-ii-3@ 0he h(an ="r that is in the le=t eye is his ;i=e> Vira5
6atter7. 0he spa%e that is ;ithin the heart is their pla%e "= (ni"n.
17+
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0heir =""d is the l(p "= .l""d 6the =inest essen%e "= ;hat ;e eat7 in
the heart. 0heir ;rap is the net-like str(%t(re in the heart. 0heir r"ad
="r "$in) is the ner$e that )"es (p;ard =r" the heart< it is like a
hair split int" a th"(sand parts. In this ."dy there are ner$es %alled
3ita> ;hi%h are pla%ed in the heart. 0hr"()h these the essen%e "= "(r
=""d passes as it "$es "n. 0here="re the s(.tle ."dy has =iner =""d
than the )r"ss ."dy.
IV-ii-#@ 9= the sa)e 6;h" is identi=ied ;ith the $ital ="r%e7> the east is
the eastern $ital ="r%e> the s"(th the s"(thern $ital ="r%e> the ;est the
;estern $ital ="r%e> the n"rth the n"rthern $ital ="r%e> the dire%ti"n
a."$e the (pper $ital ="r%e> the dire%ti"n .el"; the nether $ital ="r%e>
and all the H(arters the di==erent $ital ="r%es. 0his sel= is 0hat ;hi%h
has .een des%ri.ed as `*"t this> *"t thisE> `It is iper%epti.le> ="r It is
ne$er per%ei$ed< (nde%ayin)> ="r It ne$er de%ays< (natta%hed> ="r It is
ne$er atta%hed< (n=ettered ? It ne$er =eels pain> and ne$er s(==ers
in5(ry. 1"( ha$e attained 0hat ;hi%h is =ree =r" =ear> 9 2anakaE> said
1a5na$alkya. `Re$ered 1a5na$alkyaE> said Eper"r 2anaka> `ay 0hat
;hi%h is =ree =r" =ear .e y"(rs> ="r y"( ha$e ade 0hat ;hi%h is =ree
=r" =ear kn";n t" (s. -al(tati"ns t" y"( : 3ere is this 6epire "=7
Videha> as ;ell as ysel= at y"(r ser$i%e :E
IV-iii-1@ 1a5na$alkya ;ent t" 2anaka> Eper"r "= Videha. 3e th"()ht
he ;"(ld n"t say anythin). *"; 2anaka and 1a5na$alkya had "n%e
talked "n the A)nih"tra> and 1a5na$alkya had "==ered hi a .""n. 3e
had .e))ed the li.erty "= askin) any H(esti"ns he liked< and
1a5na$alkya had )ranted hi the .""n. -" it ;as the e ;h" =irst asked
hi.
IV-iii-2@ `1a5na$alkya> ;hat ser$es as the li)ht ="r a an IE `0he li)ht
"= the s(n> 9 Eper"rE> said 1a5na$alkya< `it is thr"()h the li)ht "=
the s(n that he sits> )"es "(t> ;"rks and ret(rnsE. `It is 5(st s">
1a5na$alkyaE.
17,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
IV-iii-3@ `Ghen the s(n has set> 1a5na$alkya> ;hat eJa%tly ser$es as
the li)ht ="r a an IE `0he ""n ser$es as his li)ht. It is thr"()h the
li)ht "= the ""n that he sits> )"es "(t> ;"rks and ret(rnsE. `It is 5(st
s"> 1a5na$alkyaE.
IV-iii-#@ `Ghen the s(n and the ""n ha$e set> 1a5na$alkya> ;hat
eJa%tly ser$es as the li)ht ="r a an IE `0he =ire ser$es as his li)ht. It
is thr"()h the =ire that he sits> )"es "(t> ;"rks and ret(rnsE. `It is 5(st
s"> 1a5na$alkyaE.
IV-iii-5@ Ghen the s(n and the ""n ha$e ."th set> and the =ire has
)"ne "(t> 1a5na$alkya> ;hat eJa%tly ser$es as the li)ht ="r a an IE
`-pee%h 6s"(nd7 ser$es as his li)ht. It is thr"()h the li)ht "= spee%h
that he sits> )"es "(t> ;"rks and ret(rns. 0here="re> 9 Eper"r> e$en
;hen "neEs ";n hand is n"t %learly $isi.le> i= a s"(nd is (ttered> "ne
ana)es t" )" there.E. `It is 5(st s"> 1a5na$alkyaE.
IV-iii-6@ Ghen the s(n and the ""n ha$e ."th set> the =ire has )"ne
"(t> and spee%h has st"pped> 1a5na$alkya> ;hat eJa%tly ser$es as the
li)ht ="r a an IE `0he sel= ser$es as his li)ht. It is thr"()h the li)ht "=
the sel= that he sits> )"es "(t> ;"rks and ret(rns.E `It is 5(st s">
1a5na$alkyaE.
IV-iii-7@ `Ghi%h is the sel= IE `0his in=inite entity 64(r(sha7 that is
identi=ied ;ith the intelle%t and is in the idst "= the "r)ans> the 6sel=-
e==(l)ent7 li)ht ;ithin the heart 6intelle%t7. Ass(in) the likeness 6"=
the intelle%t7> it "$es .et;een the t;" ;"rlds< it thinks> as it ;ere>
and shakes> as it ;ere. !ein) identi=ied ;ith drea> it trans%ends this
;"rld ? the ="rs "= death 6i)n"ran%e et%.7.E
IV-iii-+@ 0hat an> ;hen he is ."rn> "r attains a ."dy> is %"nne%ted
;ith e$ils 6the ."dy and "r)ans7< and ;hen he dies> "r lea$es the ."dy>
he dis%ards th"se e$ils.
1+&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
IV-iii-,@ 0hat an "nly t;" a."des> this and the neJt ;"rld. 0he
drea state> ;hi%h is the third> is at the 5(n%ti"n 6"= the t;"7. -tayin)
at that 5(n%ti"n> he s(r$eys the t;" a."des> this and the neJt ;"rld.
Ghate$er "(t=it he ay ha$e ="r the neJt ;"rld> pr"$idin) hisel=
;ith that he sees ."th e$ils 6s(==erin)s7 and 5"ys. Ghen he dreas> he
takes a;ay a little "= 6the ipressi"ns "=7 this all-e.ra%in) ;"rld
6the ;akin) state7> hisel= p(ts the ."dy aside and hisel= %reates 6a
drea ."dy in its pla%e7> re$ealin) his ";n l(stre .y his ";n li)ht ?
and dreas. In this state the an hisel= .e%"es the li)ht.
IV-iii-1&@ 0here are n" %hari"ts> n"r anials t" .e y"ked t" the> n"r
r"ads there> .(t he %reates the %hari"ts> the anials and the r"ads.
0here are n" pleas(res> 5"ys> "r deli)hts there> .(t he %reates the
pleas(res> 5"ys and deli)hts. 0here are n" p""ls> tanks> "r ri$ers there>
.(t he %reates the p""ls> tanks and ri$ers. F"r he is the a)ent.
IV-iii-11@ Re)ardin) this there are the ="ll";in) pithy $erses@ `0he
radiant in=inite .ein) 64(r(sha7 ;h" "$es al"ne> p(ts the ."dy aside
in the drea state> and reainin) a;ake hisel= and takin) the
shinin) =(n%ti"ns "= the "r)ans ;ith hi> ;at%hes th"se that are
asleep. A)ain he %"es t" the ;akin) state.
IV-iii-12@ `0he radiant in=inite .ein) ;h" is i"rtal and "$es
al"ne> preser$es the (n%lean nest 6the ."dy7 ;ith the help "= the $ital
="r%e> and r"as "(t "= the nest. 3isel= i"rtal> he )"es ;here$er
he likes.
IV-iii-13@ `In the drea ;"rld> the shinin) "ne> attainin) hi)her and
l";er states> p(ts ="rth inn(era.le ="rs. 3e sees t" .e en5"yin)
hisel= in the %"pany "= ;"en> "r la()hin)> "r e$en seein)
=ri)ht=(l thin)s.
IV-iii-1#@ `All see his sp"rt> .(t n"ne sees hiE. 0hey say> `D" n"t
;ake hi (p s(ddenlyE. I= he d"es n"t =ind the ri)ht "r)an> the ."dy
1+1
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
.e%"es di==i%(lt t" d"%t"r. 9thers> h";e$er> say that the drea state
"= a an is n"thin) .(t the ;akin) state> .e%a(se he sees in drea
"nly th"se thin)s that he sees in the ;akin) state. 60his is ;r"n)7 In
the drea state the an hisel= .e%"es the li)ht. `I )i$e y"( a
th"(sand 6%";s7> sir. 4lease instr(%t e =(rther a."(t li.erati"nE.
IV-iii-15@ A=ter en5"yin) hisel= and r"ain)> and erely seein) 6the
res(lt "=7 )""d and e$il 6in drea7> he 6stays7 in a state "= pr"="(nd
sleep> and %"es .a%k in the in$erse "rder t" his ="rer %"nditi"n> the
drea state. 3e is (nt"(%hed .y ;hate$er he sees in that state> ="r this
in=inite .ein) is (natta%hed. `It is 5(st s"> 1a5na$alkya. I )i$e y"( a
th"(sand 6%";s7> sir. 4lease instr(%t e =(rther a."(t li.erati"n itsel=.E
IV-iii-16@ A=ter en5"yin) hisel= and r"ain) in the drea state> and
erely seein) 6the res(lts "=7 )""d and e$il> he %"es .a%k in the
in$erse "rder t" his ="rer %"nditi"n> the ;akin) state. 3e is
(nt"(%hed .y ;hate$er he sees in that state> ="r this in=inite .ein) is
(natta%hed. `It is 5(st s"> 1a5na$alkya. I )i$e y"( a th"(sand 6%";s7>
sir. 4lease instr(%t e =(rther a."(t li.erati"n itsel=.E
IV-iii-17@ A=ter en5"yin) hisel= and r"ain) in the ;akin) state> and
erely seein) 6the res(lt "=7 )""d and e$il> he %"es .a%k in the
in$erse "rder t" his ="rer %"nditi"n> the drea state 6"r that "=
pr"="(nd sleep7.
IV-iii-1+@ As a )reat =ish s;is alternately t" ."th the .anks 6"= a
ri$er7> eastern and ;estern> s" d"es this in=inite .ein) "$e t" ."th
these states> the drea and ;akin) states.
IV-iii-1,@ As a ha;k "r a =al%"n =lyin) in the sky .e%"es tired> and
stret%hin) its ;in)s> is ."(nd ="r its nest> s" d"es this in=inite .ein)
r(n ="r this state> ;here> =allin) asleep> he %ra$es n" desire and sees n"
drea.
1+2
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
IV-iii-2&@ In hi are th"se ner$es %alled 3ita> ;hi%h are as =ine as a
hair split int" a th"(sand parts> and =illed ;ith ;hite> .l(e> .r";n>
)reen and red 6ser(s7. 60hey are the seat "= the s(.tle ."dy> in ;hi%h
ipressi"ns are st"red7. *"; ;hen 6he =eels7 as i= he ;ere .ein)
killed "r "$erp";ered> "r .ein) p(rs(ed .y an elephant> "r =allin) int"
a pit> 6in sh"rt7 %"n5(res (p at the tie thr"()h i)n"ran%e ;hate$er
terri.le thin)s he has eJperien%ed in the ;akin) state> 6that is the
drea state7. And ;hen 6he .e%"es7 a )"d> as it ;ere> "r a kin)> as it
;ere> thinks> `0his 6(ni$erse7 is ysel=> ;h" a allE> that is his
hi)hest state.
IV-iii-21@ 0hat is his ="r ? .ey"nd desires> =ree =r" e$ils and
=earless. As a an> =(lly e.ra%ed .y his .el"$ed ;i=e> d"es n"t kn";
anythin) at all> either eJternal "r internal> s" d"es this in=inite .ein)
6sel=7> =(lly e.ra%ed .y the -(pree -el=> n"t kn"; anythin) at all>
either eJternal "r internal. 0hat is his ="r ? in ;hi%h all ".5e%ts "=
desire ha$e .een attained and are .(t the sel=> and ;hi%h is =ree =r"
desire and de$"id "= )rie=.
IV-iii-22@ In this state a =ather is n" =ather> a "ther n" "ther> ;"rlds
n" ;"rlds> the )"ds n" )"ds> the Vedas n" Vedas. In this state a thie= is
n" thie=> the killer "= a n".le !rahana n" killer> a 8handala n"
8handala> a 4(lkasa n" 4(lkasa> a "nk n" "nk> a herit n" herit.
60his ="r "= his7 is (nt"(%hed .y )""d ;"rk and (nt"(%hed .y e$il
;"rk> ="r he is then .ey"nd all the ;"es "= his heart 6intelle%t7.
IV-iii-23@ 0hat it d"es n"t see in that state is .e%a(se> th"()h seein)
then> it d"es n"t see< ="r the $isi"n "= the ;itness %an ne$er .e l"st>
.e%a(se it is iperisha.le. !(t there is n"t that se%"nd thin) separate
=r" it ;hi%h it %an see.
IV-iii-2#@ 0hat it d"es n"t sell in that state is .e%a(se> th"()h
sellin) then> it d"es n"t sell< ="r the sellerEs =(n%ti"n "= sellin)
%an ne$er .e l"st> .e%a(se it is iperisha.le. !(t there is n"t that
1+3
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
se%"nd thin) separate =r" it ;hi%h it %an sell.
IV-iii-25@ 0hat it d"es n"t taste in that state is .e%a(se> th"()h tastin)
then> it d"es n"t taste< ="r the tasterEs =(n%ti"n "= tastin) %an ne$er .e
l"st> .e%a(se it is iperisha.le. !(t there is n"t that se%"nd thin)
separate =r" it ;hi%h it %an taste.
IV-iii-26@ 0hat it d"es n"t speak in that state is .e%a(se> th"()h
speakin) then> it d"es n"t speak< ="r the speakerEs =(n%ti"n "=
speakin) %an ne$er .e l"st> .e%a(se it is iperisha.le. !(t there is n"t
that se%"nd thin) separate =r" it ;hi%h it %an speak.
IV-iii-27@ 0hat it d"es n"t hear in that state is .e%a(se> th"()h hearin)
then> it d"es n"t hear< ="r the listenerEs =(n%ti"n "= hearin) %an ne$er
.e l"st> .e%a(se it is iperisha.le. !(t there is n"t that se%"nd thin)
separate =r" it ;hi%h it %an hear.
IV-iii-2+@ 0hat it d"es n"t think in that state is .e%a(se> th"()h
thinkin) then> it d"es n"t think< ="r the thinkerEs =(n%ti"n "= thinkin)
%an ne$er .e l"st> .e%a(se it is iperisha.le. !(t there is n"t that
se%"nd thin) separate =r" it ;hi%h it %an think.
IV-iii-2,@ 0hat it d"es n"t t"(%h in that state is .e%a(se> th"()h
t"(%hin) then> it d"es n"t t"(%h< ="r the t"(%herEs =(n%ti"n "= t"(%hin)
%an ne$er .e l"st> .e%a(se it is iperisha.le. !(t there is n"t that
se%"nd thin) separate =r" it ;hi%h it %an t"(%h.
IV-iii-3&@ 0hat it d"es n"t kn"; in that state is .e%a(se> th"()h
kn";in) then> it d"es n"t kn";< ="r the kn";erEs =(n%ti"n "= kn";in)
%an ne$er .e l"st> .e%a(se it is iperisha.le. !(t there is n"t that
se%"nd thin) separate =r" it ;hi%h it %an kn";.
IV-iii-31@ Ghen there is s"ethin) else> as it ;ere> then "ne %an see
s"ethin)> "ne %an sell s"ethin)> "ne %an taste s"ethin)> "ne %an
1+#
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
speak s"ethin)> "ne %an hear s"ethin)> "ne %an think s"ethin)>
"ne %an t"(%h s"ethin)> "r "ne %an kn"; s"ethin).
IV-iii-32@ It .e%"es 6transparent7 like ;ater> "ne> the ;itness> and
;ith"(t a se%"nd. 0his is the sphere 76state7 "= !rahan> 9 Eper"r.
0h(s did 1a5na$alkya instr(%t 2anaka@ 0his is its s(pree attainent>
this is its s(pree )l"ry> this is its hi)hest ;"rld> this is its s(pree
.liss. 9n a parti%le "= this $ery .liss "ther .ein)s li$e.
IV-iii-33@ 3e ;h" is per=e%t "= physiH(e and pr"sper"(s a"n) en>
the r(ler "= "thers> and "st la$ishly s(pplied ;ith all h(an
en5"yents> represents )reatest 5"y a"n) en. 0his h(an 5"y
(ltiplied a h(ndred ties akes "ne (nit "= 5"y ="r the anes ;h"
ha$e ;"n that ;"rld "= theirs. 0he 5"y "= these anes ;h" ha$e ;"n
that ;"rld (ltiplied a h(ndred ties akes "ne (nit 5"y in the ;"rld
"= the %elestial instrels. 0his 5"y in the ;"rld "= the %elestial
instrels (ltiplied a h(ndred ties akes "ne (nit "= 5"y ="r the
)"ds .y a%ti"n ? th"se ;h" ha$e attained their )"dhead .y their
a%ti"ns. 0his 5"y "= the )"ds .y a%ti"n (ltiplied a h(ndred ties
akes "ne (nit "= 5"y ="r the )"ds .y .irth> as als" "= "ne ;h" is
$ersed in the Vedas> sinless and =ree =r" desire. 0his 5"y "= the )"ds
.y .irth (ltiplied a h(ndred ties akes "ne (nit "= 5"y in the ;"rld
"= 4ra5apati 6Vira57> as ;ell as "ne ;h" is $ersed in the Vedas> sinless
and =ree =r" desire. 0his 5"y in the ;"rld "= 4ra5apati (ltiplied a
h(ndred ties akes "ne (nit "= 5"y in the ;"rld "= !rahan
63iranya)ar.ha7> as ;ell as "= "ne ;h" is $ersed in the Vedas> sinless
and =ree =r" desire. 0his indeed is the s(pree .liss. 0his is the state
"= !rahan> 9 Eper"r> said 1a5na$alkya. `I )i$e y"( a th"(sand
6%";s7> sir. 4lease instr(%t e =(rther a."(t li.erati"n itsel=E. At this
1a5na$alkya ;as a=raid that the intelli)ent Eper"r ;as %"nstrainin)
hi t" =inish ;ith all his %"n%l(si"ns.
IV-iii-3#@ A=ter en5"yin) hisel= and r"ain) in the drea state> and
erely seein) the e==e%ts "= erits and deerits> he %"es .a%k> in the
1+5
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
in$erse "rder> t" his ="rer %"nditi"n> the ;akin) state.
IV-iii-35@ 2(st as a %art> hea$ily l"aded> )"es "n r(.lin)> s" d"es the
sel= that is in the ."dy> .ein) presided "$er .y the -(pree -el=> )"
akin) n"ises> ;hen .reathin) .e%"es di==i%(lt.
IV-iii-36@ Ghen this 6."dy7 .e%"es thin ? is ea%iated thr"()h "ld
a)e "r disease ? then> as a an)"> "r a =i)> "r a =r(it "= the 4eep(l tree
is deta%hed =r" its stalk> s" d"es this in=inite .ein)> %"pletely
deta%hin) hisel= =r" the parts "= the ."dy> a)ain )"> in the sae
;ay that he %ae> t" parti%(lar ."dies> ="r the (n="ldent "= his $ital
="r%e.
IV-iii-37@ 2(st as ;hen a kin) is %"in)> the U)ras set a)ainst
parti%(lar "==en%es> the -(tas and the leaders "= the $illa)e ;ait ="r
hi ;ith $arieties "= =""d and drink and ansi"ns ready> sayin)>
`3ere he %"es> here he %"esE> s" ="r the pers"n ;h" kn";s a."(t
the res(lts "= his ;"rk> all the eleents ;ait sayin)> `3ere %"es
!rahan> here he %"esE.
IV-iii-3+@ 2(st as ;hen the kin) ;ishes t" depart> the U)ras set a)ainst
parti%(lar "==en%es> the -(tas and the leaders "= the $illa)e appr"a%h
hi> s" d" all the "r)ans appr"a%h the departin) an at the tie "=
death> ;hen .reathin) .e%"es di==i%(lt.
IV-i$-1@ Ghen this sel= .e%"es ;eak and senseless> as it ;ere> the
"r)ans %"e t" it. 8"pletely ;ithdra;in) these parti%les "= li)ht> it
%"es t" the heart. Ghen the presidin) deity "= the eye t(rns .a%k
=r" all sides> the an =ails t" n"ti%e %"l"(r.
IV-i$-2@ 60he eye7 .e%"es (nited 6;ith the s(.tle ."dy7< then pe"ple
say> `3e d"es n"t seeE. 60he n"se7 .e%"es (nited< then they say> `3e
d"es n"t sellE. 60he t"n)(e7 .e%"es (nited< then they say> `3e d"es
n"t tasteE. 60he $"%al 9r)an7 .e%"es (nited< then they say> `3e d"es
1+6
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
n"t speakE. 60he ear7 .e%"es (nited< then they say> `3e d"es n"t
hearE. 60he Manas7 .e%"es (nited< then they say> `3e d"es n"t
thinkE. 60he skin7 .e%"es (nited< then they say> `3e d"es n"t t"(%hE.
60he intelle%t7 .e%"es (nited< then they say> `3e d"es n"t kn";E.
0he t"p "= the heart .ri)htens. 0hr"()h that .ri)htened t"p the sel=
departs> either thr"()h the eye> "r thr"()h the head> "r thr"()h any
"ther part "= the ."dy. Ghen it departs> the $ital ="r%e ="ll";s< ;hen
the $ital ="r%e departs> all the "r)ans ="ll";. 0hen the sel= has
parti%(lar %"ns%i"(sness> and )"es t" the ."dy ;hi%h is related t" that
%"ns%i"(sness. It is ="ll";ed .y kn";led)e> ;"rk and past eJperien%e.
IV-i$-3@ 2(st as a lee%h s(pp"rted "n a stra; )"es t" the end "= it>
takes h"ld "= an"ther s(pp"rt and %"ntra%ts itsel=> s" d"es the sel=
thr"; this ."dy aside ? ake it senseless ? take h"ld "= an"ther
s(pp"rt> and %"ntra%t itsel=.
IV-i$-#@ 2(st as a )"ldsith takes apart a little H(antity "= )"ld and
=ashi"ns an"ther ? a ne;er and .etter ? ="r> s" d"es the sel= thr";
this ."dy a;ay> "r ake it senseless> and ake an"ther ? a ne;er and
.etter ? ="r s(ited t" the anes "r the %elestial instrels> "r the
)"ds> "r Vira5> "r 3iranya)ar.ha> "r "ther .ein)s.
IV-i$-5@ 0hat sel= is indeed !rahan> as als" identi=ied ;ith the
intelle%t> the Manas and the $ital ="r%e> ;ith the eyes and ears> ;ith
earth> ;ater> air and the ether> ;ith =ire> and ;hat is "ther than =ire>
;ith desire and the a.sen%e "= desire> ;ith an)er and the a.sen%e "=
an)er> ;ith ri)hte"(sness and (nri)hte"(sness> ;ith e$erythin) -?
identi=ied> in =a%t> ;ith this 6;hat is per%ei$ed7 and ;ith that 6;hat is
in=erred7. As it d"es and a%ts> s" it .e%"es< .y d"in) )""d it .e%"es
)""d> and .y d"in) e$il it .e%"es e$il ? it .e%"es $irt("(s thr"()h
)""d a%ts and $i%i"(s thr"()h e$il a%ts. 9thers> h";e$er> say> `0he
sel= is identi=ied ;ith desire al"ne. Ghat it desires> it res"l$es< ;hat it
res"l$es> it ;"rks "(t< and ;hat it ;"rks "(t> it attains.E
1+7
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
IV-i$-6@ Re)ardin) this there is the ="ll";in) pithy $erse@ `!ein)
atta%hed he> t")ether ;ith the ;"rk> attains that res(lt t" ;hi%h his
s(.tle ."dy "r ind is atta%hed. EJha(stin) the res(lts "= ;hate$er
;"rk he did in this li=e> he ret(rns =r" that ;"rld t" this ="r 6=resh7
;"rkE. 0h(s d"es the an ;h" desires 6transi)rate7. !(t the an
;h" d"es n"t desire 6ne$er transi)rates7. 9= hi ;h" is ;ith"(t
desires> ;h" is =ree =r" desires> the ".5e%ts "= ;h"se desire ha$e
.een attained> and t" ;h" all ".5e%ts "= desire are .(t the -el= ? the
"r)ans d" n"t depart. !ein) .(t !rahan> he is er)ed in !rahan.
IV-i$-7@ Re)ardin) this there is this pithy $erse@ `Ghen all the desires
that d;ell in his heart 6ind7 are )"ne> then he> ha$in) .een "rtal>
.e%"es i"rtal> and attains !rahan in this $ery ."dyE. 2(st as the
li=eless -l"()h "= a snake is %ast "== and lies in the ant-hill> s" d"es
this ."dy lie. 0hen the sel= .e%"es dise."died and i"rtal>
6.e%"es7 the 4rana 6-(pree -el=7> !rahan> the /i)ht. `I )i$e y"(
a th"(sand 6%";s7> sirE> said 2anaka> Eper"r "= Videha.
IV-i$-+@ Re)ardin) this there are the ="ll";in) pithy $erses@ the s(.tle>
eJtensi$e> an%ient ;ay has t"(%hed 6.een rea%hed .y7 e. 6*ay7 I
ha$e realised it ysel=. 0hr"()h that sa)es ? the kn";ers "= !rahan
? 6als"7 )" t" the hea$enly sphere 6li.erati"n7 a=ter the =all "= this
."dy> .ein) =reed 6e$en ;hile li$in)7.
IV-i$-,@ -"e speak "= it as ;hite> "thers as .l(e> )rey> )reen> "r red.
0his path is realised .y a !rahana 6kn";er "= !rahan7. Any "ther
kn";er "= !rahan ;h" has d"ne )""d deeds and is identi=ied ;ith
the -(pree /i)ht> 6als"7 treads this path.
IV-i$-1&@ Int" .lindin) darkness 6i)n"ran%e7 enter th"se ;h" ;"rship
i)n"ran%e 6rites7. Int" )reater darkness> as it ;ere> than that enter
th"se ;h" are de$"ted t" kn";led)e 6the %ere"nial p"rti"n "= the
Vedas7.
1++
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
IV-i$-11@ Misera.le are th"se ;"rlds en$el"ped .y 6that7 .lindin)
darkness 6i)n"ran%e7. 0" the> a=ter death> )" th"se pe"ple ;h" are
i)n"rant and (n;ise.
IV-i$-12@ I= a an kn";s the -el= as `I a thisE> then desirin) ;hat
and ="r ;h"se sake ;ill he s(==er in the ;ake "= the ."dy I
IV-i$-13@ 3e ;h" has realised and intiately kn";n the -el= that has
entered this peril"(s and ina%%essi.le pla%e 6the ."dy7> is the aker "=
the (ni$erse> ="r he is the aker "= all> 6all is7 his -el=> and he a)ain is
indeed the -el= 6"= all7.
IV-i$-1#@ !ein) in this $ery ."dy ;e ha$e s"eh"; kn";n that
6!rahan7. I= n"t> 6I sh"(ld ha$e .een7 i)n"rant> 6and7 )reat
destr(%ti"n 6;"(ld ha$e taken pla%e7. 0h"se ;h" kn"; It .e%"e
i"rtal> ;hile "thers attain isery al"ne.
IV-i$-15@ Ghen a an a=ter 6re%ei$in) instr(%ti"ns =r" a tea%her7
dire%tly realises this e==(l)ent -el=> the /"rd "= all that has .een and
;ill .e> he n" l"n)er ;ishes t" hide hisel= =r" it.
IV-i$-16@ !el"; ;hi%h the year ;ith its days r"tates> (p"n that
i"rtal /i)ht "= all li)hts the )"ds editate as l"n)e$ity.
IV-i$-17@ 0hat in ;hi%h the =i$e )r"(ps "= =i$e and the 6s(.tle7 ether
are pla%ed> that $ery Atan I re)ard as the i"rtal !rahan.
'n";in) 6!rahan7 I a i"rtal.
IV-i$-1+@ 0h"se ;h" ha$e kn";n the Vital F"r%e "= the $ital ="r%e> the
Eye "= the eye> the Ear "= the ear> and the Mind "= the ind> ha$e
realised the an%ient> pri"rdial !rahan.
IV-i$-1,@ 0hr"()h the ind al"ne 6It7 is t" .e realised. 0here is n"
di==eren%e ;hats"e$er in It. 3e )"es =r" death t" death> ;h" sees
1+,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
di==eren%e> as it ;ere> in It.
IV-i$-2&@ It sh"(ld .e realised in "ne ="r "nly> 6="r7 It is (nkn";a.le
and eternal. 0he -el= is taintless> .ey"nd the 6s(.tle7 ether> .irthless>
in=inite and %"nstant.
IV-i$-21@ 0he intelli)ent aspirant a=ter !rahan> kn";in) a."(t this
al"ne> sh"(ld attain int(iti$e kn";led)e. 63e7 sh"(ld n"t think "= t""
any ;"rds> ="r it is parti%(larly =ati)(in) t" the "r)an "= spee%h.
IV-i$-22@ 0hat )reat> .irthless -el= ;hi%h is identi=ied ;ith the
intelle%t and is in the idst "= the "r)ans> lies in the ether that is
;ithin the heart. It is the %"ntr"ller "= all> the l"rd "= all> the r(ler "=
all. It d"es n"t )r"; .etter thr"()h )""d ;"rk n"r ;"rse thr"()h .ad
;"rk. It is the l"rd "= all> It is the r(ler "= all .ein)s> It is the pr"te%t"r
"= all .ein)s. It is the .ank that ser$es as the ."(ndary t" keep the
di==erent ;"rlds apart. 0he !rahanas seek t" kn"; It thr"()h the
st(dy "= the Vedas> sa%ri=i%es> %harity> and a(sterity %"nsistin) in a
dispassi"nate en5"yent "= sense-".5e%ts. 'n";in) It al"ne> "ne
.e%"es a sa)e. Desirin) this ;"rld 6the -el=7 al"ne> "nks ren"(n%e
their h"es. 0his is 6the reas"n ="r it7< 0he an%ient sa)es> it is said> did
n"t desire %hildren 6thinkin)7> `Ghat shall ;e a%hie$e thr"()h
%hildren> ;e ;h" ha$e attained this -el=> this ;"rld 6res(lt7.E 0hey> it
is said> ren"(n%ed their desire ="r s"ns> ="r ;ealth and ="r the ;"rlds>
and li$ed a endi%antEs li=e. 0hat ;hi%h is the desire ="r s"ns is the
desire ="r ;ealth> and that ;hi%h is the desire ="r ;ealth is the desire
="r ;"rlds> ="r ."th these are .(t desires. 0his sel= is 0hat ;hi%h has
.een des%ri.ed as `*"t this> *"t thisE. It is iper%epti.le> ="r It is
ne$er per%ei$ed< (nde%ayin)> ="r It ne$er de%ays< (natta%hed> ="r It is
ne$er atta%hed< (n=ettered ? It ne$er =eels pain> and ne$er s(==ers
in5(ry. 6it is .(t pr"per7 that the sa)e is ne$er "$ertaken .y these t;"
th"()hts> `I did an e$il a%t ="r thisE> `I did a )""d a%t ="r thisE. 3e
%"nH(ers ."th "= the. 0hin)s d"ne "r n"t d"ne d" n"t tr"(.le hi.
1,&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
IV-i$-23@ 0his has .een eJpressed .y the ="ll";in) hyn@ 0his is the
eternal )l"ry "= a kn";er "= !rahan@ it neither in%reases n"r
de%reases thr"()h ;"rk. 60here="re7 "ne sh"(ld kn"; the nat(re "=
that al"ne. 'n";in) it "ne is n"t t"(%hed .y e$il a%ti"n. 0here="re he
;h" kn";s it as s(%h .e%"es sel=-%"ntr"lled> %al> ;ithdra;n int"
hisel=> end(rin) and %"n%entrated> and sees the sel= in his ";n sel=
6."dy7< he sees all as the -el=. E$il d"es n"t "$ertake hi> .(t he
trans%ends all e$il. E$il d"es n"t tr"(.le hi> 6.(t7 he %"ns(es all
e$il. 3e .e%"es sinless> taintless> =ree =r" d"(.ts> and a !rahana
6kn";er "= !rahan7. 0his is the ;"rld "= !rahan> 9 Eper"r> and
y"( ha$e attained it ? said 1a5na$alkya. `I )i$e y"( sir> the epire "=
Videha> and ysel= t"" ;ith it> t" ;ait (p"n y"(E.
IV-i$-2#@ 0hat )reat> .irthless -el= is the eater "= =""d and the )i$er "=
;ealth 6the =r(its "= "neEs ;"rk7. 3e ;h" kn";s It as s(%h re%ei$es
;ealth 6th"se =r(its7.
IV-i$-25@ 0hat )reat> .irthless -el= is (nde%ayin)> i"rtal> (ndyin)>
=earless and !rahan 6in=inite7. !rahan is indeed =earless. 3e ;h"
kn";s It as s(%h %ertainly .e%"es the =earless !rahan.
IV-$-1@ *"; 1a5na$alkya had t;" ;i$es> Maitreyi and 'atyayani. 9=
these Maitreyi (sed t" dis%(ss !rahan> 6;hile7 'atyayani had then
"nly an essentially =einine "(tl""k. 9ne day 1a5na$alkya> ;ith a
$ie; t" e.ra%in) li=e ?
IV-$-2@ `9 Maitreyi> y dearE> said 1a5na$alkya> `I a )"in) t"
ren"(n%e this li=e ="r "nasti%is. All"; e t" =inish .et;een y"(
and 'atyayaniE.
IV-$-3@ 0here(p"n Maitreyi said> `-ir> i= indeed this ;h"le earth =(ll
"= ;ealth .e ine> shall I .e i"rtal thr"()h that> "r n"t IE `*"E>
replied 1a5na$alkya> `y"(r li=e ;ill .e 5(st like that "= pe"ple ;h"
p"ssess plenty "= thin)s> .(t there is n" h"pe "= i"rtality thr"()h
1,1
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
;ealth.E
IV-$-#@ 0hen Maitreyi said> `Ghat shall I d" ;ith that ;hi%h ;ill n"t
ake e i"rtal I 0ell e> sir> "= that al"ne ;hi%h y"( kn"; 6t" .e
the "nly eans "= i"rtality7.E
IV-$-5@ 1a5na$alkya said> `My dear> y"( ha$e .een y .el"$ed 6e$en
.e="re7> and y"( ha$e a)ni=ied ;hat is a=ter y heart. I= y"( ;ish>
y dear> I ;ill eJplain it t" y"(. As I eJplain it> editate 6(p"n its
eanin)7.
IV-$-6@ 3e said@ `It is n"t ="r the sake "= the h(s.and> y dear> that he
is l"$ed> .(t ="r "neEs ";n sake that he is l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake
"= the ;i=e> y dear> that she is l"$ed> .(t ="r "neEs ";n sake that she
is l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake "= the s"ns> y dear> that they are l"$ed>
.(t ="r "neEs ";n sake that they are l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake "=
;ealth> y dear> that it is l"$ed> .(t ="r "neEs ";n sake that it is l"$ed.
It is n"t ="r the sake "= the !rahana> y dear> that he is l"$ed> .(t
="r "neEs ";n sake that he is l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake "= the
'shatriya> y dear> that he is l"$ed> .(t ="r "neEs ";n sake that he is
l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake "= ;"rlds> y dear> that they are l"$ed> .(t
="r "neEs ";n sake that they are l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake "= the
)"ds> y dear> that they are l"$ed> .(t ="r "neEs ";n sake that they are
l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake "= .ein)s> y dear> that they are l"$ed> .(t
="r "neEs ";n sake that they are l"$ed. It is n"t ="r the sake "= all> y
dear> that all is l"$ed> .(t ="r "neEs ";n sake that it is l"$ed. 0he -el=>
y dear Maitreyi> sh"(ld .e realised ? sh"(ld .e heard "=> re=le%ted "n
and editated (p"n. Ghen the -el=> y dear> is realised .y .ein)
heard "=> re=le%ted "n and editated (p"n> all this is kn";n.
IV-$-7@ 0he !rahana "(sts 6sli)hts7 "ne ;h" kn";s hi as di==erent
=r" the -el=. 0he 'shatriya "(sts "ne ;h" kn";s hi as di==erent
=r" the -el=. G"rlds "(st "ne ;h" kn";s the as di==erent =r" the
-el=. 0he )"ds "(st "ne ;h" kn";s the as di==erent =r" the -el=.
1,2
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
0he Vedas "(st "ne ;h" kn";s the as di==erent =r" the -el=.
!ein)s "(st "ne ;h" kn";s the as di==erent =r" the -el=. All "(sts
"ne ;h" kn";s it as di==erent =r" the -el=. 0his !rahana> this
'shatriya> these ;"rlds> these )"ds> these Vedas> these .ein)s and
these all -- are this -el=.
IV-$-+@ As> ;hen a dr( is .eaten> "ne %ann"t distin)(ish its $ari"(s
parti%(lar n"tes> .(t they are in%l(ded in the )eneral n"te "= the dr(
"r in the )eneral s"(nd pr"d(%ed .y di==erent kinds "= str"kes.
IV-$-,@ As> ;hen a %"n%h is .l";n> "ne %ann"t distin)(ish its $ari"(s
parti%(lar n"tes> .(t they are in%l(ded in the )eneral n"te "= the %"n%h
"r in the )eneral s"(nd pr"d(%ed .y di==erent kinds "= playin).
IV-$-1&@ As> ;hen a Vina is played> "ne %ann"t distin)(ish its $ari"(s
parti%(lar n"tes> .(t they are in%l(ded in the )eneral n"te "= the Vina
"r in the )eneral s"(nd pr"d(%ed .y di==erent kinds "= playin).
IV-$-11@ As =r" a =ire kindled ;ith ;et =a))"t di$erse kinds "=
s"ke iss(e> e$en s"> y dear> the Ri)-Veda> 1a5(r-Veda> -aa-Veda>
Athar$an)irasa> hist"ry> yth"l")y> arts> Upanishads> pithy $erses>
aph"riss> el(%idati"ns> eJplanati"ns> sa%ri=i%es> ".lati"ns in the =ire>
=""d> drink> this ;"rld> the neJt ;"rld and all .ein)s are 6like7 the
.reath "= this in=inite Reality. 0hey are like the .reath "= this
6-(pree -el=7.
IV-$-12@ As the "%ean is the "ne )"al "= all s"rts "= ;ater> as the skin
is the "ne )"al "= all kinds "= t"(%h> as the n"strils are the "ne )"al "=
all "d"(rs> as the t"n)(e is the "ne )"al "= all sa$"(rs> as the eye is the
"ne )"al "= all %"l"(rs > as the ear is the "ne )"al "= all s"(nds> as the
Manas is the "ne )"al "= all deli.erati"ns> as the intelle%t is the "ne
)"al "= all kinds "= kn";led)e> as the hands are the "ne )"al "= all s"rt
"= ;"rk> as the "r)an "= )enerati"n is the "ne )"al "= all kinds "=
en5"yent> as the an(s is the "ne )"al "= all eJ%reti"ns> as the =eet are
1,3
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
the "ne )"al "= all kinds "= ;alkin)> as the "r)an "= spee%h is the "ne
)"al "= all Vedas.
IV-$-13@ As a l(p "= salt is ;ith"(t interi"r "r eJteri"r> entire> and
p(rely saline in taste> e$en s" is the -el= ;ith"(t interi"r "r eJteri"r>
entire> and 4(re Intelli)en%e al"ne. 60he -el=7 %"es "(t 6as a separate
entity7 =r" these eleents> and 6this separateness7 is destr"yed ;ith
the. A=ter attainin) 6this "neness7 it has n" "re %"ns%i"(sness. 0his
is ;hat I say> y dear. -" said 1a5na$alkya.
IV-$-1#@ Maitreyi said> `2(st here y"( ha$e led e int" the idst "=
%"n=(si"n> sir> I d" n"t at all %"prehend thisE. 3e said> `8ertainly> I
a n"t sayin) anythin) %"n=(sin). 0his sel= is indeed i(ta.le and
indestr(%ti.le> y dearE.
IV-$-15@ !e%a(se ;hen there is d(ality> as it ;ere> then "ne sees
s"ethin)> "ne sells s"ethin)> "ne tastes s"ethin)> "ne speaks
s"ethin)> "ne hears s"ethin)> "ne thinks s"ethin)> "ne t"(%hes
s"ethin)> "ne kn";s s"ethin). 6!(t7 ;hen t" the kn";er "=
!rahan e$erythin) has .e%"e the -el=> then ;hat sh"(ld "ne see
and thr"()h ;hat> ;hat sh"(ld "ne sell and thr"()h ;hat> ;hat
sh"(ld "ne taste and thr"()h ;hat> ;hat sh"(ld "ne speak and thr"()h
;hat> ;hat sh"(ld "ne hear and thr"()h ;hat> ;hat sh"(ld "ne think
and thr"()h ;hat> ;hat sh"(ld "ne t"(%h and thr"()h ;hat> ;hat
sh"(ld "ne kn"; and thr"()h ;hat I 0hr"()h ;hat sh"(ld "ne kn";
that ";in) t" ;hi%h all this is kn";n I 0his sel= is 0hat ;hi%h has
.een des%ri.ed as `*"t this> *"t thisE. It is iper%epti.le> ="r It is
ne$er per%ei$ed< (nde%ayin)> ="r It ne$er de%ays< (natta%hed> ="r It is
ne$er atta%hed< (n=ettered ? it ne$er =eels pain> and ne$er s(==ers
in5(ry. 0hr"()h ;hat> 9 Maitreyi> sh"(ld "ne kn"; the 'n";er I -"
y"( ha$e )"t the instr(%ti"n> Maitreyi. 0his (%h indeed is 6the eans
"=7 i"rtality> y dear. -ayin) this 1a5na$alkya le=t.
IV-$i-1@ *"; the line "= tea%hers@ 4a(tiasya 6re%ei$ed it7 =r"
1,#
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
Ga(pa$ana. Ga(pa$ana =r" an"ther 4a(tiasya. 0his 4a(tiasya
=r" an"ther Ga(pa$ana. 0his Ga(pa$ana =r" 'a(sika. 'a(sika
=r" 'a(ndinya. 'a(ndinya =r" -andilya. -andilya =r" 'a(sika
and Ga(taa. Ga(taa ?
IV-$i-2@ Fr" A)ni$esya. A)ni$esya =r" -andilya and Ana.hilata.
Ana.hinlata =r" an"ther "= that nae. 3e =r" a third Ana.hilata.
0his Ana.hilata =r" Ga(taa. Ga(taa =r" -aita$a and
4ra%inay")ya. 0hey =r" 4arasarya. 4arasarya =r" !harad$a5a. 3e
=r" !harad$a5a and Ga(taa. Ga(taa =r" an"ther !harat$a5a. 3e
=r" an"ther 4arasarya. 4arasarya =r" !ai5a$apayana. 3e =r"
'a(sikayani. 'a(sikayani ?
IV-$i-3@ Fr" Ghrtaka(sika. Ghrtaka(sika =r" 4arasaryayana. 3e
=r" 4arasarya. 4arasarya =r" 2at(karnya. 2at(karnya =r"
As(rayana and 1aska. As(rayana =r" 0rai$ani. 0rai$ani =r"
A(pa5andhani. 3e =r" As(ri. As(ri =r" !harad$a5a. !harad$a5a
=r" Atreya. Atreya =r" Manti. Manti =r" Ga(taa. Ga(taa =r"
an"ther Ga(taa. 3e =r" Vatsya. Vatsya =r" -andilya. -andilya
=r" 'ais"rya 'apya. 3e =r" '(araharita. '(araharita =r"
Gala$a. Gala$a =r" Vidar.hi-ka(ndinya. 3e =r" Vatsanapat
!a.hra$a. 3e =r" 4athin -a(.hara. 3e =r" Ayasya An)irasa. 3e
=r" A.h(ti 0$astra. 3e =r" Vis$ar(pa 0$astra. 3e =r" the As$ins.
0hey =r" Dadhya% Athar$ana. 3e =r" Athar$an Dai$a. 3e =r"
Mrty( 4radh$asana. 3e =r" 4radh$asana. 4radh$asana =r"
Ekarsi. Ekarsi =r" Vipra%hitti. Vipra%hitti =r" Vyasri. Vyasti =r"
-anar(. -anar( =r" -anatana. -anatana =r" -ana)a. -ana)a =r"
4araesthin 6Vira57. 3e =r" !rahan 63iranya.ar.ha7. !rahan is
sel= ."rn.
-al(tati"n t" !rahan.
V-i-1@ 9. 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite. 60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "=
1,5
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the in=inite 6(ni$erse7> it reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne. 9
is the ether-!rahan ? the eternal ether. `0he ether %"ntainin) air>E
says the s"n "= 'a(ra$yayani. It is the Veda> 6s"7 the !rahans
6kn";ers "= !rahan7 kn";< 6="r7 thr"()h it "ne kn";s ;hat is t" .e
kn";n.
V-ii-1@ 0hree %lasses "= 4ra5apatiEs s"ns li$ed a li=e "= %"ntinen%e ;ith
their =ather> 4ra5apati 6Vira57 ? the )"ds> en and As(ras. 0he )"ds> "n
the %"pleti"n "= their ter> said> `4lease instr(%t (sE. 3e t"ld the
the sylla.le `DaE 6and asked7> `ha$e y"( (nderst""d IE 60hey7 said>
`Ge ha$e. 1"( tell (s@ 8"ntr"l y"(rsel$esE. 63e7 said> `1es> y"( ha$e
(nderst""dE.
V-ii-2@ 0hen the en said t" hi> `4lease instr(%t (sE. 3e t"ld the
the sae sylla.le `DaE 6and asked7> `3a$e y"( (nderst""d IE 60hey7
said> `Ge ha$e. 1"( tell (s@ Gi$eE. 63e7 said> `1es> y"( ha$e
(nderst""dE.
V-ii-3@ 0hen the As(ras said t" hi> `4lease instr(%t (sE. 3e t"ld the
the sae sylla.le `DaE 6and asked7> `3a$e y"( (nderst""d IE 60hey7
said> `Ge ha$e. 1"( tell (s@ 3a$e %"passi"nE. 63e7 said> `1es> y"(
ha$e (nderst""dE. 0hat $ery thin) is repeated .y the hea$enly $"i%e>
the %l"(d> as `DaE> `DaE> `DaE@ `8"ntr"l y"(rsel$esE> `Gi$eE> and `ha$e
%"passi"nE. 0here="re "ne sh"(ld learn these three ? sel=-%"ntr"l>
%harity and %"passi"n.
V-iii-1@ 0his is 4ra5apati - this heart 6intelle%t7. It is !rahan> it is
e$erythin). `3ridayaE 6heart7 has three sylla.les. `3rE is "ne sylla.le.
0" hi ;h" kn";s as a."$e> his ";n pe"ple and "thers .rin)
6presents7. `DaE is an"ther sylla.le. 0" hi ;h" kn";s as a."$e> his
";n pe"ple and "thers )i$e 6their p";ers7. `1aE is an"ther sylla.le. 3e
1,6
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
;h" kn";s as a."$e )"es t" hea$en.
V-i$-1@ 0hat 6intelle%t-!rahan7 ;as .(t this ? -atya 6)r"ss and
s(.tle7 al"ne. 3e ;h" kn";s this )reat> ad"ra.le> =irst-."rn 6.ein)7 as
the -atya-!rahan> %"nH(ers these ;"rlds> and his 6eney7 is th(s
%"nH(ered and .e%"es n"n-eJistent ? he ;h" kn";s this )reat>
ad"ra.le> =irst-."rn 6.ein)7 th(s> as the -atya-!rahan> ="r -atya is
indeed !rahan.
V-$-1@ 0his 6(ni$erse7 ;as .(t ;ater 6liH(id ".lati"ns %"nne%ted ;ith
sa%ri=i%es7 in the .e)innin). 0hat ;ater pr"d(%ed -atya. -atya is
!rahan. !rahan 6pr"d(%ed7 4ra5apati> and 4ra5apati the )"ds.
0h"se )"ds editate (p"n -atya al"ne. 0his 6nae7 `-atyaE %"nsists "=
three sylla.les@ `-a%ri=i%eE is "ne sylla.le> `0iE is an"ther sylla.le> and
c1aE is the third sylla.le. 0he =irst and last sylla.les are tr(th. In the
iddle is (ntr(th. 0his (ntr(th is en%l"sed "n either side .y tr(th.
63en%e7 there is a prep"nderan%e "= tr(th. 9ne ;h" kn";s as a."$e is
ne$er h(rt .y (ntr(th.
V-$-2@ 0hat ;hi%h is -atya is that s(n ? the .ein) ;h" is in that "r.
and the .ein) ;h" is in the ri)ht eye. 0hese t;" rest "n ea%h "ther.
0he ="rer rests "n the latter thr"()h the rays> and the latter rests "n
the ="rer thr"()h the =(n%ti"n "= the eyes. Ghen a an is a."(t t"
lea$e the ."dy> he sees the s"lar "r. as %lear. 0he rays n" "re %"e
t" hi.
V-$-3@ 9= this .ein) ;h" is in the s"lar "r.> the sylla.le `!h(rE is the
head> ="r there is "ne head> and there is this "ne sylla.le< the ;"rd
`!h($arE is the ars> ="r there are t;" ars> and there are these t;"
sylla.les< the ;"rd `-$arE is the =eet> ="r there are t;" =eet> and there
are these t;" sylla.les. 3is se%ret nae is `AharE. 3e ;h" kn";s as
a."$e destr"ys and sh(ns e$il.
V-$-#@ 9= this .ein) ;h" is in the ri)ht eye> the sylla.le `!h(rE is the
1,7
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head> ="r there is "ne head> and there is this "ne sylla.le< the ;"rd
`!h($arE is the ars> ="r there are t;" ars> and there are these t;"
sylla.les< the ;"rd `-$arE is the =eet> ="r there are t;" =eet> and there
are these t;" sylla.les. 3is se%ret nae is `AhaE. 3e ;h" kn";s as
a."$e destr"ys and sh(ns e$il.
V-$i-1@ 0his .ein) identi=ied ;ith the ind and resplendent 6is
realised .y the 1")ins7 ;ithin the heart like a )rain "= ri%e "r .arley.
3e is the l"rd "= all> the r(ler "= all> and )"$erns ;hate$er there is.
V-$ii-1@ 0hey say li)htnin) is !rahan. It is %alled li)htnin) 6Vidy(t7
.e%a(se it s%atters 6darkness7. 3e ;h" kn";s it as s(%h ? that
li)htnin) is !rahan ? s%atters e$ils 6that are ran)ed a)ainst7 hi> ="r
li)htnin) is indeed !rahan.
V-$iii-1@ 9ne sh"(ld editate (p"n spee%h 6the Vedas7 as a %"; 6as it
;ere7. -he has ="(r teats ? the s"(nds c-$ahaE> `VasatE> `3antaE and
`-$adhaE. 0he )"ds li$e "n t;" "= her teats ? the s"(nds `-$ahaE and
`VasatE> en "n the s"(nd `3antaE> and the anes "n the s"(nd
`-$adhaE. 3er .(ll is the $ital ="r%e> and her %al= the ind.
V-iJ-1@ 0his =ire that is ;ithin a an and di)ests the =""d that is eaten>
is Vais$anara. It eits this s"(nd that "ne hears .y st"ppin) the ears
th(s. Ghen a an is a."(t t" lea$e the ."dy> he n" "re hears this
s"(nd.
V-J-1@ Ghen a an departs =r" this ;"rld> he rea%hes the air> ;hi%h
akes an "penin) there ="r hi like the h"le "= a %hari"t-;heel. 3e
)"es (p;ards thr"()h that and rea%hes the s(n> ;h" akes an "penin)
there ="r hi like the h"le "= a ta."r. 3e )"es (p;ards thr"()h that
and rea%hes the ""n> ;h" akes an "penin) there ="r hi like the
h"le "= a dr(. 3e )"es (p;ards thr"()h that and rea%hes a ;"rld
=ree =r" )rie= and =r" %"ld. 3e li$es there ="r eternal years.
1,+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
V-Ji-1@ 0his indeed is eJ%ellent a(sterity that a an s(==ers ;hen he is
ill. 3e ;h" kn";s as a."$e ;ins an eJ%ellent ;"rld. 0his indeed is
eJ%ellent a(sterity that a an a=ter death is %arried t" the ="rest. 3e
;h" kn";s as a."$e ;ins an eJ%ellent ;"rld. 0his indeed is eJ%ellent
a(sterity that a an a=ter death is pla%ed in the =ire. 3e ;h" kn";s as
a."$e ;ins an eJ%ellent ;"rld.
V-Jii-1@ -"e say that =""d is !rahan. It is n"t s"> ="r =""d r"ts
;ith"(t the $ital ="r%e. 9thers say that the $ital ="r%e is !rahan. It is
n"t s"> ="r the $ital ="r%e dries (p ;ith"(t =""d. !(t these t;" deities
.ein) (nited attain their hi)hest. -" 4ratrda said t" his =ather> `Ghat
)""d indeed %an I d" t" "ne ;h" kn";s like this> and ;hat e$il indeed
%an I d" t" hi eitherIE 0he =ather> ;ith a )est(re "= the hand> said>
`9=> n"> 4ratrda> ="r ;h" ;"(ld attain his hi)hest .y .ein) identi=ied
;ith the IE 0hen he said t" hi this@ `It is cVic. F""d is c$ic> ="r all
these %reat(res rest "n =""d. It is cRac. 0he $ital ="r%e is cRac> ="r
all these %reat(res deli)ht i= there is the $ital ="r%eE. 9n hi ;h"
kn";s as a."$e all %reat(res rest> and in hi all %reat(res deli)ht.
V-Jiii-1@ 69ne sh"(ld editate (p"n the $ital ="r%e as7 the Uktha 6a
hyn "= praise7. 0he $ital ="r%e is the Uktha> ="r it raises this
(ni$erse. Fr" hi ;h" kn";s as a."$e rises a s"n ;h" is a kn";er
"= the $ital ="r%e> and he a%hie$es (ni"n ;ith and a."de in the sae
;"rld as the Uktha.
V-Jiii-2@ 69ne sh"(ld editate (p"n the $ital ="r%e as7 the 1a5(s. 0he
$ital ="r%e is the 1a5(s> ="r all these .ein)s are 5"ined ;ith "ne an"ther
i= there is the $ital ="r%e. All .ein)s are 5"ined ="r the einen%e "= hi
;h" kn";s as a."$e> and he a%hie$es (ni"n ;ith and a."de in the
sae ;"rld as the 1a5(s 6$ital ="r%e7.
V-Jiii-3@ 69ne sh"(ld editate (p"n the $ital ="r%e as7 the -aan. 0he
$ital ="r%e is the -aan> ="r all these .ein)s are (nited i= there is the
$ital ="r%e. F"r hi ;h" kn";s as a."$e all .ein)s are (nited> and
1,,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
they s(%%eed in .rin)in) a."(t his einen%e> and he a%hie$es (ni"n
;ith a."de in the sae ;"rld as the -aan.
V-Jiii-#@ 69ne sh"(ld editate (p"n the $ital ="r%e as7 the 'satra. 0he
$ital ="r%e is the 'satra> ="r it is indeed the 'satra. 0he $ital ="r%e
pr"te%ts the ."dy =r" ;"(nds. 3e ;h" kn";s as a."$e attains this
'satra 6$ital ="r%e7 that has n" "ther pr"te%t"r> and a%hie$es (ni"n
;ith and a."de in the sae ;"rld as the 'satra.
V-Ji$-1@ `!h(iE 6the earth7> `AntariksaE 6sky7 and `Dya(sE 6hea$en7
ake ei)ht sylla.les> and the =irst =""t "= the Gayatri has ei)ht
sylla.les. -" the a."$e three ;"rlds %"nstit(te the =irst =""t "= the
Gayatri. 3e ;h" kn";s the =irst =""t "= the Gayatri t" .e s(%h ;ins as
(%h as there is in th"se three ;"rlds.
V-Ji$-2@ `ReahE> `1a5(siE and `-aaniE ake ei)ht sylla.les> and the
se%"nd =""t "= the Gayatri has ei)ht sylla.les. -" the a."$e three
Vedas %"nstit(te the se%"nd =""t "= the Gayatri. 3e ;h" kn";s the
se%"nd =""t "= the Gayatri t" .e s(%h ;ins as (%h as that treas(ry "=
kn";led)e> the three Vedas> has t" %"n=er.
V-Ji$-3@ `4ranaE> `ApanaE and `VyanaE ake ei)ht sylla.les> and the
third =""t "= the Gayatri has ei)ht sylla.les. -" the a."$e three ="rs
"= $ital ="r%e %"nstit(te the third =""t "= the Gayatri. 3e ;h" kn";s
the third =""t "= the Gayatri t" .e s(%h ;ins all the li$in) .ein)s that
are in the (ni$erse. *"; its 0(riya> apparently $isi.le> s(pra(ndane
=""t is indeed this ? the s(n that shines. `0(riyaE eans the ="(rth.
`Apparently $isi.le =""tE> .e%a(se he is seen> as it ;ere.
`-(pra(ndaneE> .e%a(se he shines "n the ;h"le (ni$erse as its
"$erl"rd. 3e ;h" kn";s the ="(rth =""t "= the Gayatri t" .e s(%h
shines in the sae ;ay ;ith splend"(r and =ae.
V-Ji$-#@ 0hat Gayatri rests "n this ="(rth> apparently $isi.le>
s(pra(ndane =""t. 0hat a)ain rests "n tr(th. 0he eye is tr(th> ="r the
2&&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
eye is indeed tr(th. 0here="re i= e$en t"day t;" pers"ns %"e
disp(tin)> "ne sayin)> `I sa; itE> and an"ther> `I heard "= itE> ;e
.elie$e hi "nly ;h" says> `I sa; itE. 0hat tr(th rests "n stren)th. 0he
$ital ="r%e is stren)th. 63en%e7 tr(th rests "n the $ital ="r%e. 0here="re
they say stren)th is "re p";er=(l than tr(th. 0h(s the Gayatri rests
"n the $ital ="r%e ;ithin the ."dy. 0hat Gayatri sa$ed the Gayas. 0he
"r)ans are the Gayas< s" it sa$ed the "r)ans. *";> .e%a(se it sa$ed the
"r)ans> there="re it is %alled the Gayatri. 0he -a$itri that the tea%her
%"(ni%ates t" the p(pil is n" "ther than this. It sa$es the "r)ans "=
hi t" ;h" it is %"(ni%ated.
V-Ji$-5@ -"e %"(ni%ate 6t" the p(pil7 the -a$itri that is An(st(.h
6sayin)7> `spee%h is An(st(.h< ;e shall ipart that t" hiE. 9ne
sh"(ld n"t d" like that. 9ne sh"(ld %"(ni%ate that -a$itri ;hi%h is
the Gayatri. E$en i= a an ;h" kn";s as a."$e a%%epts t"" (%h as
)i=t> as it ;ere> it is n"t 6en"()h7 ="r e$en "ne =""t "= the Gayatri.
V-Ji$-6@ 3e ;h" a%%epts these three ;"rlds replete 6;ith ;ealth7> ;ill
.e re%ei$in) 6the res(lts "= kn";in)7 "nly the =irst =""t "= the Gayatri.
3e ;h" a%%epts as (%h as this treas(ry "= kn";led)e> the Vedas 6has
t" %"n=er7> ;ill re%ei$e 6the res(lts "= kn";in)7 "nly its se%"nd =""t.
And he ;h" a%%epts as (%h as 6is %"$ered .y7 all li$in) .ein)s> ;ill
re%ei$e 6the res(lts "= kn";in)7 "nly its third =""t. Gith its ="(rth>
apparently $isi.le> s(pra(ndane =""t ? the s(n that shines ? is n"t t"
.e %"(nter .alan%ed .y any )i=t re%ei$ed. Indeed h"; %"(ld any "ne
a%%ept s" (%h as )i=t I
V-Ji$-7@ Its sal(tati"n@ `9 Gayatri> th"( art "ne-=""ted> t;"-=""ted>
there-=""ted and ="(r-=""ted> and th"( art ;ith"(t any =eet> ="r th"(
art (nattaina.le. -al(tati"n t" thee> the ="(rth> apparently $isi.le>
s(pra(ndane =""t : May the eney ne$er attain his ".5e%t :E 6-h"(ld
the kn";er "= the Gayatri7 .ear hatred t";ards any."dy> 6he sh"(ld7
either 6(se this Mantra7@ `-(%h and s(%h ? ;ay his desired ".5e%t
ne$er =l"(rish:E ? in ;hi%h %ase that ".5e%t "= the pers"n a)ainst
2&1
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
;h" he th(s sal(tes the Gayatri> ne$er =l"(rishes ? "r 6he ay say7>
`May I attain that 6%herished ".5e%t7 "= his:E
V-Ji$-+@ 9n this 2anaka> Eper"r "= Videha> is said t" ha$e t"ld
!(dila> the s"n "= As$ataras$a> `Gell> y"( )a$e y"(rsel= "(t as a
kn";er "= the Gayatri< then ;hy> alas> are y"( %arryin) 6e7 as an
elephant IE 3e replied> `!e%a(se I did n"t kn"; its "(th> 9
Eper"rE. `Fire is its "(th. E$en i= they p(t a lar)e H(antity "= =(el
int" the =ire> it is all .(rnt (p. -iilarly> e$en i= "ne ;h" kn";s as
a."$e %"its a )reat any sins> he %"ns(es the all and .e%"es
p(re> %leansed> (nde%ayin) and i"rtalE.
V-J$-1@ 0he =a%e 6nat(re7 "= -atya 6!rahan7 is hidden 6as it ;ere7
;ith a )"lden $essel. 9 4(san 6n"(risher "= the ;"rld ? the s(n7>
re"$e it> s" that I> ;h"se reality is -atya> ay see 6the =a%e7. 9
4(san> 9 s"litary Rishi 6seer "r tra$eller7> 9 1aa 6%"ntr"ller7> 9
-(rya 6s(n7> 9 s"n "= 4ra5apati 6G"d "r 3iranya)ar.ha7> take a;ay
thy rays> %(r. thy .ri)htness. I ;ish t" .eh"ld that "st .eni)nant
="r "= thine. I ysel= a that pers"n< and I a i"rtal. 6Ghen y
."dy =alls7 ay y $ital ="r%e ret(rn t" the air 6%"si% ="r%e7> and this
."dy t""> red(%ed t" ashes> 6)" t" the earth7: 9 =ire> ;h" art the
sylla.le `9E> 9 Deity "= deli.erati"ns> re%"lle%t> re%"lle%t all that I
ha$e d"ne> 9 Deity "= deli.erati"ns> re%"lle%t> re%"lle%t all that I ha$e
d"ne. 9 Fire> lead (s al"n) the )""d ;ay t";ards "(r ri%hes 6deserts7.
9 /"rd> th"( kn";est e$ery."dyEs ental states< re"$e the ;ily e$il
=r" (s.
Ge (tter repeated sal(tati"ns t" thee.
VI-i-1@ 9. 3e ;h" kn";s that ;hi%h is the "ldest and )reatest>
.e%"es the "ldest and )reatest a"n) his relati$es. 0he $ital ="r%e is
indeed the "ldest and )reatest. 3e ;h" kn";s it t" .e s(%h .e%"es
2&2
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
the "ldest and )reatest a"n) his relati$es as ;ell as a"n) th"se "=
;h" he ;ants t" .e s(%h.
VI-i-2@ 3e ;h" kn";s the Vasistha 6that ;hi%h .est helps t" d;ell "r
%"$er7 .e%"es the Vasistha a"n) his relati$es. 0he "r)an "= spee%h
is indeed the Vasistha. 3e ;h" kn";s it as s(%h .e%"es the Vasistha
a"n) his relati$es as ;ell as a"n) th"se "= ;h" he ;ants t" .e
s(%h.
VI-i-3@ 3e ;h" kn";s 4ratistha 6that ;hi%h has steadiness7 li$es
steadily in di==i%(lt as ;ell as s""th pla%es and ties. 0he eye
indeed is 4ratistha> ="r thr"()h the eye "ne li$es steadily in di==i%(lt as
;ell as s""th pla%es and ties. 3e ;h" kn";s it as s(%h li$es
steadily in di==i%(lt as ;ell as s""th pla%es and ties.
VI-i-#@ 3e ;h" kn";s -apad 6pr"sperity7 attains ;hate$er ".5e%t he
desires. 0he ear indeed is -apad> ="r all these Vedas are a%H(ired
;hen "ne has the ear 6inta%t7. 3e ;h" kn";s it t" .e s(%h attains
;hate$er ".5e%t he desires.
VI-i-5@ 3e ;h" kn";s the a."de .e%"es the a."de "= his relati$es as
;ell as "= 6"ther7 pe"ple. 0he Manas indeed is the a."de. 3e ;h"
kn";s it t" .e s(%h .e%"es the a."de "= his relati$es as ;ell as "=
6"ther7 pe"ple.
VI-i-6@ 3e ;h" kn";s 4ra5ati 6that ;hi%h has the attri.(te "=
)enerati"n7 is enri%hed ;ith %hildren and anials. 0he seed 6"r)an7
has this attri.(te. 3e ;h" kn";s it t" .e s(%h is enri%hed ;ith
%hildren and anials.
VI-i-7@ 0hese "r)ans> disp(tin) "$er their respe%ti$e )reatness> ;ent
t" !rahan and said t" hi> `Ghi%h "= (s is the Vasistha IE 3e said>
`0hat "ne "= y"( ;ill .e the Vasistha> ;h" departin) =r" a"n)
y"(rsel$es> pe"ple %"nsider this ."dy =ar "re ;ret%hedE.
2&3
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

VI-i-+@ 0he "r)an "= spee%h ;ent "(t. A=ter stayin) a ;h"le year "(t it
%ae .a%k and said> `3"; did y"( ana)e t" li$e ;ith"(t e IE 0hey
said> `Ge li$ed 5(st as d(. pe"ple d"> ;ith"(t speakin) thr"()h the
"r)an "= spee%h> .(t li$in) thr"()h the $ital ="r%e> seein) thr"()h the
eye> hearin) thr"()h the ear> kn";in) thr"()h the ind and ha$in)
%hildren thr"()h the "r)an "= )enerati"n.E -" the "r)an "= spee%h
entered.
VI-i-,@ 0he eye ;ent "(t. A=ter stayin) a ;h"le year "(t it %ae .a%k
and said> `3"; did y"( ana)e t" li$e ;ith"(t e IE 0hey said> `Ge
li$ed 5(st as .lind pe"ple d"> ;ith"(t seein) thr"()h the eye> .(t
li$in) thr"()h the $ital ="r%e> speakin) thr"()h the "r)an "= spee%h>
hearin) thr"()h the ear> kn";in) thr"()h the ind and ha$in)
%hildren thr"()h the "r)an "= )enerati"n.E -" the eye entered.
VI-i-1&@ 0he ear ;ent "(t. A=ter stayin) a ;h"le year "(t it %ae .a%k
and said> `3"; did y"( ana)e t" li$e ;ith"(t e IE 0hey said> `Ge
li$ed 5(st as dea= pe"ple d"> ;ith"(t hearin) thr"()h the ear> .(t li$in)
thr"()h the $ital ="r%e> speakin) thr"()h the "r)an "= spee%h> seein)
thr"()h the eye> kn";in) thr"()h the ind and ha$in) %hildren
thr"()h the "r)an "= )enerati"n.E -" the ear entered.
VI-i-11@ 0he ind ;ent "(t. A=ter stayin) a ;h"le year "(t it %ae
.a%k and said> `3"; did y"( ana)e t" li$e ;ith"(t e IE 0hey said>
`Ge li$ed 5(st as idi"ts d"> ;ith"(t kn";in) thr"()h the ind> .(t
li$in) thr"()h the $ital ="r%e> speakin) thr"()h the "r)an "= spee%h>
seein) thr"()h the eye> hearin) thr"()h the ear and ha$in) %hildren
thr"()h the "r)an "= )enerati"n.E -" the ind entered.
VI-i-12@ 0he "r)an "= )enerati"n ;ent "(t. A=ter stayin) a ;h"le year
"(t it %ae .a%k and said> `3"; did y"( ana)e t" li$e ;ith"(t e IE
0hey said> `Ge li$ed 5(st as e(n(%hs d"> ;ith"(t ha$in) %hildren
thr"()h the "r)an "= )enerati"n> .(t li$in) thr"()h the $ital ="r%e>
2&#
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
speakin) thr"()h the "r)an "= spee%h> seein) thr"()h the eye> hearin)
thr"()h the ear and kn";in) thr"()h the ind.E -" the "r)an "=
)enerati"n entered.
VI-i-13@ 0hen as the $ital ="r%e ;as a."(t t" )" "(t> it (pr""ted th"se
"r)ans 5(st as a )reat> =ine h"rse =r" -ind p(lls "(t the pe)s t" ;hi%h
his =eet are tied. 0hey said> `4lease d" n"t )" "(t> sir> ;e %ann"t li$e
;ith"(t y"(E. `0hen )i$e e tri.(te.E `All ri)htE.
VI-i-1#@ 0he "r)an "= spee%h said> `0hat attri.(te "= the Vasistha
;hi%h I ha$e is y"(rsE. 0he eye@ `0hat attri.(te "= steadiness ;hi%h I
ha$e is y"(rsE. 0he ear@ `0hat attri.(te "= pr"sperity ;hi%h I ha$e is
y"(rsE. 0he ind@ `0hat attri.(te "= a."de ;hi%h I ha$e is y"(rsE. 0he
"r)an "= )enerati"n@ `0hat attri.(te "= )enerati"n ;hi%h I ha$e is
y"(rsE. 60he $ital ="r%e said@7 `0hen ;hat ;ill .e y =""d and y
dress IE 60he "r)ans said@7 `Ghate$er is 6kn";n as7 =""d> in%l(din)
d")s> ;"rs> inse%ts and "ths> is y"(r =""d> and ;ater y"(r dressE.
3e ;h" kn";s the =""d "= the $ital ="r%e t" .e s(%h> ne$er happens t"
eat anythin) that is n"t =""d> "r t" a%%ept anythin) that is n"t =""d.
0here="re ;ise en ;h" are $ersed in the Vedas sip a little ;ater 5(st
.e="re and a=ter eatin). 0hey re)ard it as re"$in) the nakedness "=
the $ital ="r%e.
VI-ii-1@ -$etaket(> the )rands"n "= Ar(na> %ae t" the asse.ly "= the
4an%halas. 3e appr"a%hed 4ra$ahana> the s"n "= 2i$ala> ;h" ;as
.ein) ;aited "n 6.y his ser$ants7. -eein) hi the 'in) addressed hi>
`!"y :E 3e replied> `1es> sirE. `3a$e y"( .een ta()ht .y y"(r =ather IE
3e said> `1esE.
VI-ii-2@ `D" y"( kn"; h"; these pe"ple di$er)e a=ter death IE `*"E>
said he. `D" y"( kn"; h"; they ret(rn t" this ;"rld IE `*"E> said he.
`D" y"( kn"; h"; the "ther ;"rld is ne$er =illed .y s" any pe"ple
dyin) th(s a)ain and a)ain IE `*"E> said he. `D" y"( kn"; a=ter h";
any ".lati"ns are "==ered ;ater 6the liH(id "==erin)s7 rises (p
2&5
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
p"ssessed "= a h(an $"i%e 6"r (nder the nae "= an7 and speaks IE
`*"E> said he. `D" y"( kn"; the eans "= a%%ess t" the ;ay "= the
)"ds> "r that t" the ;ay "= the anes ? d"in) ;hi%h pe"ple attain
either the ;ay "= the )"ds "r the ;ay "= the anes I Ge ha$e heard
the ;"rds "= the Mantra@ `I ha$e heard "= t;" r"(tes ="r en> leadin)
t" the anes and the )"ds. G"in) al"n) the all this is (nited. 0hey
lie .et;een the =ather and the "ther 6earth and hea$en7.cE 3e said> `I
kn"; n"t "ne "= theE.
VI-ii-3@ 0hen the 'in) in$ited hi t" stay. 0he ."y> disre)ardin) the
in$itati"n t" stay> h(rried a;ay. 3e %ae t" his =ather and said t" hi>
`Gell> did y"( n"t tell e .e="re that y"( had 6=(lly7 instr(%ted e IE
`3"; 6did y"( )et h(rt7> y sa)a%i"(s %hild IE `0hat ;ret%h "= a
'shatriya asked e =i$e H(esti"ns> and I kne; n"t "ne "= the.E
`Ghi%h are they IE `0heseE> and he H("ted their =irst ;"rds.
VI-ii-#@ 0he =ather said> `My %hild> .elie$e e> ;hate$er I kne; I t"ld
y"( e$ery .it "= it. !(t %"e> let (s )" there and li$e as st(dentsE.
`1"( )" al"ne> pleaseE. At this Ga(taa %ae t" ;here 'in)
4ra$ahana> the s"n "= 2i$ala> ;as )i$in) a(dien%e. 0he 'in) )a$e hi
a seat> had ;ater .r"()ht ="r hi> and ade hi the re$erential
"==erin). 0hen he said> `Ge ;ill )i$e re$ered Ga(taa> a .""nE.
VI-ii-5@ Ar(ni said> `1"( ha$e pr"ised e this .""n. 4lease tell e
;hat y"( sp"ke t" y ."y a."(tE.
VI-ii-6@ 0he 'in) said> `0his %"es (nder hea$enly .""ns> Ga(taa.
4lease ask s"e h(an .""nE.
VI-ii-7@ Ar(ni said> `1"( kn"; that I already ha$e )"ld> %attle and
h"rses> aid-ser$ants> retin(e> and dress. !e n"t (n)ener"(s t";ards
e al"ne re)ardin) this plenti=(l> in=inite and ineJha(sti.le 6;ealth7.E
`0hen y"( (st seek it a%%"rdin) t" ="r> Ga(taaE. `I appr"a%h y"(
6as a st(dent7E. 0he an%ients (sed t" appr"a%h a tea%her siply
2&6
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
thr"()h de%larati"n. Ar(ni li$ed as a st(dent .y erely ann"(n%in)
that he ;as at his ser$i%e.
VI-ii-+@ 0he 'in) said@ 4lease d" n"t take "==en%e ;ith (s> Ga(taa>
as y"(r paternal )rand=athers did n"t 6;ith "(rs7. !e="re this> this
learnin) ne$er rested ;ith a !rahana. !(t I shall tea%h it t" y"(< ="r
;h" %an re=(se y"( ;hen y"( speak like this I
VI-ii-,@ 0hat ;"rd 6hea$en7> 9 Ga(taa> is =ire> the s(n is its =(el> the
rays its s"ke> the day its =lae> the ="(r H(arters its %inder> and the
interediate H(arters its sparks. In this =ire the )"ds "==er =aith 6liH(id
".lati"ns in s(.tle ="r7. 9(t "= that "==erin) 'in) M""n is ."rn 6a
."dy is ade in the ""n ="r the sa%ri=i%er7.
VI-ii-1&@ 4ar5anya 6the )"d "= the rain7> 9 Ga(taa> is =ire> the year is
its =(el> the %l"(ds its s"ke> li)htnin) its =lae> th(nder its %inder>
and the r(.lin)s its sparks. In this =ire the )"ds "==er 'in) M""n.
9(t "= that "==erin) rain is pr"d(%ed.
VI-ii-11@ 0his ;"rld> 9 Ga(taa> is =ire> the earth is its =(el> =ire its
s"ke> the ni)ht its =lae> the ""n its %inder> and stars its sparks. In
this =ire the )"ds "==er rain. 9(t "= that "==erin) =""d is pr"d(%ed.
VI-ii-12@ Man> 9 Ga(taa> is =ire> the "pen "(th is its =(el> the $ital
="r%e its s"ke> spee%h its =lae> the eye its %inder> and the ear its
sparks. In this =ire the )"ds "==er =""d. 9(t "= that "==erin) the seed is
pr"d(%ed.
VI-ii-13@ G"an> 9 Ga(taa> is =ire. In this =ire the )"ds "==er the
seed. 9(t "= that "==erin) a an is ."rn. 3e li$es as l"n) as he is
destined t" li$e. 0hen> ;hen he dies --
VI-ii-1#@ 0hey %arry hi t" .e "==ered in the =ire. 0he =ire .e%"es his
=ire> the =(el his =(el> the s"ke his s"ke> the =lae his =lae> the
2&7
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
%inder his %inder> and the sparks his sparks. In this =ire the )"ds "==er
the an. 9(t "= that "==erin) the an eer)es radiant.
VI-ii-15@ 0h"se ;h" kn"; this as s(%h> and th"se "thers ;h" editate
;ith =aith (p"n the -atya-!rahan in the ="rest> rea%h the deity
identi=ied ;ith the =lae> =r" hi the deity "= the day> =r" hi the
deity "= the ="rtni)ht in ;hi%h the ""n ;aJes> =r" hi the deities
"= the siJ "nths in ;hi%h the s(n tra$els n"rth;ard> =r" the the
deity identi=ied ;ith the ;"rld "= the )"ds> =r" hi the s(n> and
=r" the s(n the deity "= li)htnin). 60hen7 a .ein) %reated =r" the
ind 6"= 3iranya)ar.ha7 %"es and %"nd(%ts the t" the ;"rlds "=
3iranya)ar.ha. 0hey attain per=e%ti"n and li$e in th"se ;"rlds "=
3iranya)ar.ha ="r a )reat any s(per=ine years. 0hey n" "re ret(rn
t" this ;"rld.
VI-ii-16@ Ghile th"se ;h" %"nH(er the ;"rlds thr"()h sa%ri=i%es>
%harity and a(sterity> rea%h the deity "= s"ke> =r" hi the deity "=
the ni)ht> =r" hi the deity "= the ="rtni)ht in ;hi%h the ""n
;anes> =r" hi the deities "= the siJ "nths in ;hi%h the s(n tra$els
s"(th;ard> =r" the the deity "= the ;"rld "= the anes> and =r"
hi the ""n. Rea%hin) the ""n they .e%"e =""d. 0here the )"ds
en5"y the as the priests drink the shinin) -"a 5(i%e 6)rad(ally>
sayin)> as it ;ere7> `Fl"(rish> d;indleE. And ;hen their past ;"rk is
eJha(sted> they rea%h 6.e%"e like7 this ether> =r" the ether air> =r"
air rain> and =r" rain the earth. Rea%hin) the earth they .e%"e =""d.
0hen they are a)ain "==ered in the =ire "= an> then%e in the =ire "=
;"an> ;hen%e they are ."rn 6and per="r rites7 ;ith a $ie; t" )"in)
t" "ther ;"rlds. 0h(s d" they r"tate. Ghile th"se "thers ;h" d" n"t
kn"; these t;" ;ays .e%"e inse%ts and "ths> and these =reH(ently
.itin) thin)s 6)nats and "sH(it"es7.
VI-iii-1@ 3e ;h" ;ishes t" attain )reatness 6sh"(ld per="r7 "n an
a(spi%i"(s day in a ="rtni)ht in ;hi%h the ""n ;aJes> and (nder a
ale %"nstellati"n> d(rin) the n"rth;ard ar%h "= the s(n> 6a sa%ri=i%e
2&+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
in the ="ll";in) anner7@ 3e sh"(ld (ndertake ="r t;el$e days a $";
%"nne%ted ;ith the Upasads 6i.e. li$e "n ilk7> %"lle%t in a %(p "= .";l
ade "= =i) ;""d all her.s and their )rains> s;eep and plaster 6the
)r"(nd7> p(ri=y the "==erin)s in the pres%ri.ed anner> interp"se the
Mantha 6paste ade "= th"se thin)s7> and "==er ".lati"ns ;ith the
="ll";in) Mantras@ `9 Fire> t" all th"se )"ds (nder y"(> ;h"
spite=(lly =r(strate enEs desires> I "==er their share. May they> .ein)
satis=ied> satis=y e ;ith all ".5e%ts "= desire : -$aha. 0" that all-
pr"%(rin) deity ;h" t(rns "(t spite=(l (nder y"(r pr"te%ti"n> thinkin)
she is the s(pp"rt "= all> I "==er this strea "= %lari=ied .(tter. -$ahaE.
VI-iii-2@ 9==erin) ".lati"ns in the =ire sayin)> `-$aha t" the "ldest>
-$aha t" the )reatestE> he dips the renant adherin) t" the ladle int"
the paste. 9==erin) ".lati"ns in the =ire sayin)> `-$aha t" the $ital
="r%e> -$aha t" the VasisthaE> he drips the renant> et%. 9==erin)
".lati"ns sayin)> `-$aha t" the "r)an "= spee%h> -$aha t" that ;hi%h
has steadinessE> he drips> et%. 9==erin) ".lati"ns sayin)> -$aha t" the
eye> -$aha t" pr"sperityE> he drips et%. 9==erin) ".lati"ns sayin)>
`-$aha t" the ear> -$aha t" the a."deE> he drips> et%. 9==erin) ".lati"ns
sayin)> `-$aha t" the Manas> -$aha t" 4ra5atiE> he drips> et%. 9==erin)
".lati"ns sayin)> `-$aha t" the "r)an "= )enerati"nE> he drips> et%.
VI-iii-3@ 9==erin) an ".lati"n in the =ire sayin)> `-$aha t" =ireE> he
drips the renant adherin) t" the ladle int" the paste. 9==erin) and
".lati"n sayin)> `-$aha t" the ""n>E he drips> et%. 9==erin) an
".lati"n sayin)> `-$aha t" the earthE> he drips> et%. 9==erin) an
".lati"n sayin)> `-$aha t" the skyE> he drips> et%. 9==erin) an ".lati"n
sayin)> `-$aha t" hea$enE> he drips> et%. 9==erin) an ".lati"n sayin)>
`-$aha t" the earth> sky and hea$enE> he drips> et%. 9==erin) an
".lati"n sayin)> `-$aha t" the !rahanaE> he drips> et%. 9==erin) an
".lati"n sayin)> `-$aha t" the 'shatriyaE> he drips> et%. 9==erin) an
".lati"n sayin)> `-$aha t" the pastE> he drips> et%. 9==erin) an ".lati"n
sayin)> `-$aha t" the =(t(reE> he drips> et%. 9==erin) an ".lati"n
sayin)> `-$aha t" the ;h"leE> he drips> et%. 9==erin) an ".lati"n
2&,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
sayin)> `-$aha t" allE> he drips> et%. 9==erin) an ".lati"n sayin)>
`-$aha t" 4ra5apatiE> he drips> et%.
VI-iii-#@ 0hen he t"(%hes the paste sayin)> `1"( "$e 6as the $ital
="r%e7> y"( .(rn 6as =ire7> y"( are in=inite 6as !rahan7> y"( are still
6as the sky7. 1"( %".ine e$erythin) in y"(rsel=. 1"( are the s"(nd
`3iE> and are (ttered as `3iE 6in the sa%ri=i%e .y the 4rast"tr7. 1"(
are the Ud)itha and are %hanted 6.y the Ud)atr7. 1"( are re%ited 6.y
the Adh$ary(7 and re%ited .a%k 6.y the A)nidhra7. 1"( are =(lly
a.laCe in a h(id 6%l"(d7. 1"( are "nipresent> and aster. 1"( are
=""d 6as the ""n7> and li)ht 6as =ire7. 1"( are death> and y"( are that
in ;hi%h all thin)s er)eE.
VI-iii-5@ 0hen he takes it (p sayin)> `1"( kn"; all 6as the $ital ="r%e7<
;e t"" are a;are "= y"(r )reatness. 0he $ital ="r%e is the kin)> the
l"rd> the r(ler. May it ake e kin)> l"rd and r(ler :E
VI-iii-6@ 0hen he drinks it sayin)> `0he radiant s(n is ad"ra.le --< 0he
;inds are .l";in) s;eetly> the ri$ers are sheddin) h"ney> ay the
her.s .e s;eet (nt" (s : -$aha t" the earth. Gl"ry ;e editate (p"n<
May the ni)hts and days .e %harin)> and the d(st "= the earth .e
s;eet> ay hea$en> "(r =ather> .e )ra%i"(s : -$aha t" the sky. May he
dire%t "(r intelle%t< May the -"a %reeper .e s;eet (nt" (s> ay the
s(n .e kind> ay the H(arters .e help=(l t" (s : -$aha t" hea$enE.
0hen he repeats the ;h"le Gayatri and the ;h"le Madh(ati> and
says at the end> `May I .e all this : -$aha t" the earth> sky and
hea$en.E 0hen he drinks the ;h"le renant> ;ashes his hands> and lies
.ehind the =ire ;ith his head t" the east. In the "rnin) he sal(tes the
s(n sayin)> `0h"( art the "ne l"t(s "= the H(arters< ay I .e the "ne
l"t(s "= en :E 0hen he ret(rns the ;ay he ;ent> sits .ehind the =ire>
and repeats the line "= tea%hers.
VI-iii-7@ Uddalaka> the s"n "= Ar(ni> ta()ht this t" his p(pil
1a5na$alkya> the Va5asaneya> and said> `-h"(ld "ne sprinkle it e$en "n
21&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
a dry st(p> .ran%hes ;"(ld )r"; and lea$es spr"(tE.
VI-iii-+@ 0he 1a5na$alkya> the Va5asaneya> ta()ht this t" his p(pil
Madh(ka> the s"n "= 4ain)i and said> `-h"(ld "ne sprinkle it e$en "n a
dry st(p> .ran%hes ;"(ld )r"; and lea$es spr"(tE.
VI-iii-,@ Madh(ka> the s"n "= 4ain)i> a)ain ta()ht this t" his p(pil
8(la> the s"n "= !ha)a$itta> and said> `-h"(ld "ne sprinkle it e$en "n
a dry st(p> .ran%hes ;"(ld )r"; and lea$es spr"(tE.
VI-iii-1&@ 0hen 8(la> the s"n "= !ha)a$itta> ta()ht this t" his p(pil
2anaki> the s"n "= Ayasth(na> and said> `-h"(ld "ne sprinkle it e$en "n
a dry st(p> .ran%hes ;"(ld )r"; and lea$es spr"(tE.
VI-iii-11@ 2anaki> the s"n "= Ayasth(na> a)ain ta()ht this t"
-atyakaa> the s"n "= 2a.ala> and said> `-h"(ld "ne sprinkle it e$en
"n a dry st(p> .ran%hes ;"(ld )r"; and lea$es spr"(tE.
VI-iii-12@ And -atyakaa> the s"n "= 2a.ala> in his t(rn> ta()ht this t"
his p(pils and said> `-h"(ld "ne sprinkle it e$en "n a dry st(p>
.ran%hes ;"(ld )r"; and lea$es spr"(tE. 9ne (st n"t tea%h this t"
any"ne .(t a s"n "r a p(pil.
VI-iii-13@ F"(r thin)s are ade "= =i) ;""d@ the ladle> the .";l> the
=(el and the t;" iJin) r"ds. 0he %(lti$ated )rains are ten in n(.er@
Ri%e> .arley> sesae> .eans> An(> 4riyan)(> ;heat> lentils> p(lse and
$et%hes. 0hey sh"(ld .e %r(shed and s"aked in %(rds> h"ney and
%lari=ied .(tter> and "==ered as an ".lati"n.
VI-i$-1@ 0he earth is the essen%e "= all these .ein)s> ;ater the essen%e
"= the earth> her.s "= ;ater> =l";ers "= her.s> =r(its "= =l";ers> an "=
=r(its> and the seed "= an.
VI-i$-2@ 4ra5apati th"()ht> `Gell> let e ake an a."de ="r itE> and he
211
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%reated ;"an.
VI-i$-3@ WWWWWWW
VI-i$-#@ 'n";in) $erily this> Uddalaka> the s"n "= Ar(na> *aka> the
s"n "= M(d)ala> and '(araharita said> `Many en -!rahanas "nly
in nae ? ;h" ha$e (ni"n ;ith"(t kn";in) as a."$e> depart =r" this
;"rld ip"tent and .ere=t "= eritsE.
VI-i$-5@ WWWWWWW..
VI-i$-6@ I= an sees his re=le%ti"n in ;ater> he sh"(ld re%ite the
="ll";in) Mantra@ `6May the )"ds )rant7 e l(stre> anh""d>
rep(tati"n> ;ealth and eritsE. -he 6his ;i=e7 is indeed the )"ddess "=
.ea(ty a"n) ;"en. 0here="re he sh"(ld appr"a%h this hands"e
;"an and speak t" her.
VI-i$-7@ I= she is n"t ;illin)> he sh"(ld .(y her "$er< and i= she is still
(nyieldin)> he sh"(ld strike her ;ith a sti%k "r ;ith the hand and
pr"%eed> (tterin) the ="ll";in) Mantra> DI take a;ay y"(r rep(tati"nE>
et%. -he is then a%t(ally dis%arded.
VI-i$-+@ I= she is ;illin)> he sh"(ld pr"%eed> (tterin) the ="ll";in)
Mantra@ `I transit rep(tati"n int" y"(E> and they ."th .e%"e
rep(ted.
VI-i$-,@ WWWWWWW..
VI-i$-1&@ WWWWWWW..
VI-i$-11@ WWWWWWW..
VI-i$-12@ I= a anEs ;i=e has a l"$er ;h" he ;ishes t" in5(re> he
sh"(ld p(t the =ire in an (n.aked earthen $essel> spread stalks "= reed
212
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and '(sa )rass in an in$erse ;ay> and "==er the reed tips> s"aked in
%lari=ied .(tter> in the =ire in an in$erse ;ay> sayin)> `0h"( hast
sa%ri=i%ed in y kindled =ire> I take a;ay thy 4rana and Apana ? s(%h
and s(%h. 0h"( hast sa%ri=i%ed in y kindled =ire> I take a;ay thy s"ns
and anials ? s(%h and s(%h. 0h"( hast sa%ri=i%ed in y kindled =ire> I
take a;ay thy Vedi% rites and th"se d"ne a%%"rdin) t" the -riti ?
s(%h and s(%h. 0h"( hast sa%ri=i%ed in y kindled =ire> I take a;ay thy
h"pes and eJpe%tati"ns ? s(%h and s(%hE. 0he an ;h" a !rahana
;ith kn";led)e "= this %ere"ny %(rses> departs =r" this ;"rld
eas%(lated and sh"rn "= his erits. 0here="re "ne sh"(ld n"t ;ish
e$en t" %(t 5"kes ;ith the ;i=e "= a Vedi% s%h"lar ;h" kn";s this
%ere"ny> ="r he ;h" has s(%h kn";led)e .e%"es an eney.
VI-i$-13@ I= any."dyEs ;i=e has the "nthly si%kness> she sh"(ld
drink "= three days "(t "= a %(p 6'asa7. *" -(dra an "r ;"an
sh"(ld t"(%h her. A=ter three ni)hts she sh"(ld .athe> p(t "n a ne;
%l"th> and .e p(t t" thresh ri%e.
VI-i$-1#@ 3e ;h" ;ishes that his s"n sh"(ld .e ."rn =air> st(dy "ne
Veda and attain a =(ll ter "= li=e> sh"(ld ha$e ri%e %""ked in ilk>
and he and his ;i=e sh"(ld eat it ;ith %lari=ied .(tter. 0hen they ;"(ld
.e a.le t" pr"d(%e s(%h a s"n.
VI-i$-15@ 3e ;h" ;ishes that his s"n sh"(ld .e ."rn ta;ny "r .r";n>
st(dy t;" Vedas and attain a =(ll ter "= li=e> sh"(ld ha$e ri%e %""ked
in %(rd> and he and his ;i=e sh"(ld eat it ;ith %lari=ied .(tter. 0hen
they ;"(ld .e a.le t" pr"d(%e s(%h a s"n.
VI-i$-16@ 3e ;h" ;ishes that his s"n sh"(ld .e ."rn dark ;ith red
eyes> st(dy three Vedas and attain a =(ll ter "= li=e> sh"(ld ha$e ri%e
%""ked in ;ater and he and his ;i=e sh"(ld eat ;ith %lari=ied .(tter.
0hen they ;"(ld .e a.le t" pr"d(%e s(%h a s"n.
VI-i$-17@ 3e ;h" ;ishes that a da()hter sh"(ld .e ."rn t" hi ;h"
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;"(ld .e a s%h"lar and attain a =(ll ter "= li=e> sh"(ld ha$e ri%e
%""ked ;ith sesae> and he and his ;i=e sh"(ld eat it ;ith %lari=ied
.(tter. 0hen they ;"(ld .e a.le t" pr"d(%e s(%h a da()hter.
VI-i$-1+@ 3e ;h" ;ishes that a s"n sh"(ld .e ."rn t" hi ;h" ;"(ld
.e a rep(ted s%h"lar> =reH(entin) the asse.lies and speakin)
deli)ht=(l ;"rds> ;"(ld st(dy all the Vedas and attain a =(ll ter "=
li=e> sh"(ld ha$e ri%e %""ked ;ith the eat "= a $i)"r"(s .(ll "r "ne
"re ad$an%ed in years> and he and his ;i=e sh"(ld eat it ;ith
%lari=ied .(tter. 0hen they ;"(ld .e a.le t" pr"d(%e s(%h a s"n.
VI-i$-1,@ In the $ery "rnin) he p(ri=ies the %lari=ied .(tter a%%"rdin)
t" the "de "= -thalipaka> and "==ers -thalipaka ".lati"ns a)ain and
a)ain> sayin)> `-$aha t" =ire> -$aha t" An(ati> -$aha t" the radiant
s(n ;h" pr"d(%es in=alli.le res(ltsE. A=ter "==erin)> he takes (p 6the
renant "= the %""ked =""d7> eats part "= it and )i$es the rest t" his
;i=e. 0hen he ;ashes his hands> =ills the ;ater-$essel and sprinkles
her thri%e ;ith that ;ater> sayin). `Get (p =r" here> Vis$a$as(> and
=ind "(t an"ther y"(n) ;"an 6;h" is7 ;ith her h(s.and.E
VI-i$-2&@ 3e e.ra%es her sayin)> `I a the $ital ="r%e> and y"( are
spee%h< y"( are spee%h> and I a the $ital ="r%e< I a -aan> and y"(
are Rik< I a hea$en> and y"( are the earth< %"e> let (s stri$e
t")ether s" that ;e ay ha$e a ale %hild.E
VI-i$-21@ WWWWW.
VI-i$-22@ WWWWW..
VI-i$-23@ WWWW..
VI-i$-2#@ Ghen 6the s"n7 is ."rn> he sh"(ld .rin) in the =ire> take hi
in his lap> p(t a iJt(re "= %(rd and %lari=ied .(tter in a %(p> and "==er
".lati"ns a)ain and a)ain ;ith that> sayin)> `Gr";in) in this h"e "=
ine 6as the s"n7> ay I aintain a th"(sand pe"ple : May 6the
21#
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
)"ddess "= ="rt(ne7 ne$er depart ;ith %hildren and anials =r" his
line : -$aha. 0he $ital ="r%e that is in e> I entally trans=er t" y"(.
-$aha. I= I ha$e d"ne anythin) t"" (%h "r t" little in this %ere"ny>
ay the all-kn";in) .ene=i%ent =ire ake it 5(st ri)ht ="r e ? neither
t"" (%h n"r t"" little : -$aha.E
VI-i$-25@ 0hen p(ttin) 6his "(th7 t" the %hildEs ri)ht ear> he sh"(ld
thri%e repeat> `-pee%h> spee%hE. *eJt iJin) %(rd> h"ney and %lari=ied
.(tter> he =eeds hi ;ith 6a strip "=7 )"ld n"t ".str(%ted 6.y anythin)7>
sayin)> `I p(t the earth int" y"(> I p(t the sky int" y"(> I p(t hea$en
int" y"(> I p(t the ;h"le "= the earth> sky and hea$en int" y"(E.
VI-i$-26@ 0he he )i$es hi a nae> `1"( are Veda 6kn";led)e7E. 0hat
is his se%ret nae.
VI-i$-27@ 0hen he hands hi t" his "ther t" .e s(%kled> sayin)>
`9==erin) -aras$ati> that .reast "= thine ;hi%h is st"red ;ith res(lts> is
the s(stainer "= all> =(ll "= ilk> the ".tainer "= ;ealth 6"neEs deserts7
and )ener"(s> and thr"()h ;hi%h th"( n"(rishest all ;h" are ;"rthy
"= it 6the )"ds et%.7 ? trans=er that here 6t" y ;i=e> ="r y .a.e7 t"
s(%kE.
VI-i$-2+@ 0hen he addressed the "ther@ `1"( are the ad"ra.le
Ar(ndhati> the ;i=e "= Vasistha< y"( ha$e .r"()ht ="rth a ale %hild
;ith the help "= e> ;h" a a an. !e the "ther "= any s"ns> ="r
y"( ha$e )i$en (s a s"nE. 9= hi ;h" is ."rn as the %hild "= a
!rahana ;ith this parti%(lar kn";led)e> they say> `1"( ha$e
eJ%eeded y"(r =ather> and y"( ha$e eJ%eeded y"(r )rand=ather. 1"(
ha$e rea%hed the eJtree liit "= attainent thr"()h y"(r splend"(r>
=ae and !rahani%al p";er.E
VI-$-1@ *"; the line "= tea%hers@ 0he s"n "= 4a(tisa 6re%ei$ed it7
=r" the s"n "= 'atyayani. 3e =r" the s"n "= )a(tai. 0he s"n "=
Ga(tai =r" the s"n "= !harad$a5i. 3e =r" the s"n "= 4arasari. 0he
215
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s"n "= 4arasari =r" the s"n "= A(pas$asti. 3e =r" the s"n "= an"ther
4arasari. 3e =r" the s"n "= 'atyayani. 0he s"n "= katyayani =r" the
s"n "= 'a(siki. 0he s"n "= 'a(siki =r" the s"n "= Ala.i and the s"n
"= Vaiya)hrapadi. 0he s"n "= Vaiya)hrapadi =r" the s"n "= 'an$i
and the s"n "= 'api. 0he s"n "= 'api ?
VI-$-2@ Fr" the s"n "= Atreyi. 0he s"n "= Atreyi =r" the s"n "=
)a(tai. 0he s"n "= Ga(tai =r" the s"n "= !harad$a5i. 3e =r" the
s"n "= parasari. 0he s"n "= 4arasari =r" the s"n "= Vatsi. 0he s"n "=
Vatsi =r" the s"n "= an"ther 4arasari. 0he s"n "= 4arasari =r" the
s"n "= Varkar(ni. 3e =r" the s"n "= an"ther Varkar(ni. 0his "ne =r"
the s"n "= Arta.ha)i. 3e =r" the s"n "= -a(n)i. 0he s"n "= -a(n)i
=r" the s"n "= -akrti. 3e =r" the s"n "= Ala.ayani. 3e a)ain
=r" the s"n "= Ala.i. 0he s"n "= Ala.i =r" the s"n "= 5ayanti. 3e
=r" the s"n "= Mand(kayani. 3e in his t(rn =r" the s"n "=
Mand(ki. 0he s"n "= and(ki =r" the s"n "= -andili. 0he s"n "=
-andili =r" the s"n "= Rathitari. 3e =r" the s"n "= !hal(ki. 0he s"n
"= !hal(ki =r" the t;" s"ns "= 'ra(n%iki. 0hey =r" the s"n "=
Vaida.hrti. 3e =r" the s"n "= 'arsakeyi. 3e a)ain =r" the s"n "=
4ra%inay")i. 3e =r" the s"n "= -a5i$i. 0he s"n "= -a5i$i =r"
As(ri$asin> the s"n "= 4rasni. 0he s"n "= 4rasni =r" As(rayana. 3e
=r" As(ri. As(ri ?
VI-$-3@ Fr" 1a5na$alkya. 1a5na$alkya =r" Uddalaka. Uddalaka
=r" Ar(na. Ar(na =r" Upa$esi. Upa$esi =r" '(sri. '(sri =r"
Va5asra$as. 3e =r" 2ih$a$at> the s"n "= !adhy")a. 3e =r" Asita>
the s"n "= Varsa)ana. 3e =r" 3arita 'asyapa. 3e =r" -ilpa
'asyapa. 0his "ne =r" 'asyana> the s"n "= *idhr($a. 3e =r" Va%.
-he =r" A.hini. -he =r" the s(n. 0hese ;hite 1a5(ses re%ei$ed
=r" the s(n are eJplained .y 1a5na$alkya Va5asaneya.
VI-$-#@ 0he sae (p t" the s"n "= -a5i$i. 0he s"n "= -a5i$i =r"
Mand(kayani. Mand(kayani =r" anda$ya. Manda$ya =r" 'a(tsa.
'a(tsa =r" Mahitthi. 3e =r" Vaakaksayana. 3e =r" -andilya.
216
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-andilya =r" Vatsya. Vatsya =r" '(sri. '(sri =r" 1a5na$a%as> the
s"n "= ra5asta.a. 3e =r" 0(ra> the s"n "= 'a$asi. 3e =r" 4ra5apati
63iranya)ar.ha7. 4ra5apati thr"()h his relati"n t" !rahan 6the
Vedas7. !rahan is sel=-."rn.
-al(tati"n t" !rahan.
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : 4ea%e : 4ea%e : 4ea%e :
3ere ends the !rihadarany"panishad> as %"ntained in the -(kla-1a5(r-
Veda.
217
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15. +amsa Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. Ga(taa addressed -anatk(ara th(s@ A9 /"rd> th"( art the
kn";er "= all Dharas and art ;ell $ersed in all -hastras> pray tell e
the eans .y ;hi%h I ay ".tain a kn";led)e "= !raha-Vidya.
2. -anatk(ara replied th(s@ A3ear> 9 Ga(taa> that 0att$a as
eJp"(nded .y 4ar$ati a=ter inH(irin) int" all Dharas and
as%ertainin) -hi$aEs "pini"n.
3. 0his treatise "n the nat(re "= 3asa ;hi%h )i$es the =r(it "= .liss
and sal$ati"n and ;hi%h is like a treas(re t" the 1")in> is 6a7 $ery
ysti% 6s%ien%e7 and sh"(ld n"t .e re$ealed 6t" the p(.li%7.
#. *"; ;e shall eJplain the tr(e nat(re "= 3asa and 4araahasa
21+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
="r the .ene=it "= a !raha%harin 6a seeker a=ter !rahan "r %eli.ate7>
;h" has his desires (nder %"ntr"l> is de$"ted t" his )(r( and al;ays
%"nteplates 6as7 3asa and realise th(s@ It 63asa7 is pereatin) all
."dies like =ire 6"r heat7 in all kinds "= ;""d "r "il in all kinds "=
)in)elly seeds. 3a$in) kn";n 6It7 th(s> "ne d"es n"t eet ;ith death.
3a$in) %"ntra%ted the an(s 6;ith the heels pressed a)ainst it7> ha$in)
raised the Vay( 6.reath7 =r" 6M(la7 Adhara 68hakra7> ha$in) ade
%ir%(it thri%e r"(nd -$adhisthana> ha$in) )"ne t" Manip(raka> ha$in)
%r"ssed Anahata> ha$in) %"ntr"lled 4rana in Vis(ddhi and then ha$in)
rea%hed A5na> "ne %"nteplates in !raharandhra 6in the head7 and
ha$in) editated there al;ays `I a "= three MatrasE> %")nises 6his
-el=7 and .e%"es ="rless. 0he -isna 6penis7 has t;" sides 6le=t and
ri)ht =r" head t" =""t7. 0his is that 4araahasa 6-(pree 3asa
"r 3i)her -el=7 ha$in) the resplenden%e "= 8r"res "= s(ns and .y
;h" all this ;"rld is per$aded.
I= 6this 3asa ;hi%h has !(ddhi as $ehi%le7 has ei)ht-="ld Vritti.
6Ghen it is7 in the eastern petal> there is the in%linati"n 6in a pers"n7 t"
$irt("(s a%ti"ns< in the s"(th-eastern petal> there arise sleep> laCiness>
et%.> in the s"(thern> there is the in%linati"n t" %r(elty< in the s"(th-
;estern> there is the in%linati"n t" sins< in the ;estern> there is the
in%linati"n t" sens(al sp"rt< in the n"rth-;estern> there arise the desire
"= ;alkin) and "thers< in the n"rthern> there arises the desire "= l(st< in
the n"rth-eastern> there arises the desire "= aassin) "ney< in the
iddle 6"r the inter-spa%es .et;een the petals7> there is the
indi==eren%e t" aterial pleas(res. In the =ilaent 6"= the l"t(s7> there
arises the ;akin) state< in the peri%arp there arises the -$apna
6dreain) state7< in the !i5a 6seed "= peri%arp7> there arises the
-(sh(pti 6drealess sleepin) state7< ;hen lea$in) the l"t(s> there is
the 0(rya 6="(rth state7. Ghen 3asa is a.s"r.ed in *ada 6spirit(al
s"(nd7> the state .ey"nd the ="(rth is rea%hed. *ada 6;hi%h is at the
end "= s"(nd and .ey"nd spee%h and ind7 is like a p(re %rystal
eJtendin) =r" 6M(la7 Adhara t" !raharandhra. It is that ;hi%h is
21,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
sp"ken "= as !raha and 4araatan.
63ere is the per="ran%e "= A5apa Gayatri is )i$en7@ *"; 3asa is
the Rishi< the etre is A$yakta Gayatri< 4araahasa is the De$ata
6"r presidin) deity7 `3aE is the !i5a< `-aE is the -akti< -"Eha is the
'ilaka 6;ed)e7. 0h(s there are siJ. 0here are 21>6&& 3asas 6"r
.reaths7 in a day and ni)ht. 6-al(tati"n t"7 -(rya> -"a> *iran5ana
6the stainless7 and *ira.hasa 6the (ni$erseless7. A5apa antra. 6May7
the ."diless and s(.tle "ne )(ide 6"r ill(inate y (nderstandin)7.
Va(shat t" A)ni--"a. 0hen An)anyasas and 'aranyasas "%%(r 6"r
sh"(ld .e per="red a=ter the Mantras as they are per="red .e="re
the Mantras7 in the heart and "ther 6seats7. 3a$in) d"ne s"> "ne sh"(ld
%"nteplate (p"n 3asa as the Atan in his heart. A)ni and -"a
are its ;in)s 6ri)ht and le=t sides7< 9kara is its head< Ukara and
!ind( are the three eyes and =a%e respe%ti$ely< R(dra and R(drani 6"r
R(draEs ;i=e7 are the =eet 'anthata 6"r the realisati"n "= the "neness
"= 2i$ata "r 3asa> the l";er sel= ;ith 4araatan "r
4araahasa> the 3i)her -el=7 is d"ne in t;" ;ays 6-apra5nata and
Asapra5nata7.
A=ter that> Unani is the end "= the A5apa 6Mantra7. 3a$in) th(s
re=le%ted (p"n Manas .y eans "= 0his 63asa7> "ne hears *ada a=ter
the (tterin) "= this 2apa 6Mantra7 a %r"re "= ties. It 6*ada7 is 6.e)(n
t" .e heard as7 "= ten kinds. 0he =irst is 8hini 6like the s"(nd "= that
;"rd7< the se%"nd is 8hini-8hini< the third is the s"(nd "= .ell< the
="(rth is that "= %"n%h< the =i=th is that "= 0antiri 6l(te7< the siJth is that
s"(nd "= 0ala 6%y.als7< the se$enth is that "= =l(te< the ei)hth is that
"= !heri 6dr(7< the ninth is that "= Mridan)a 6d"(.le dr(7< and the
tenth is that "= %l"(ds 6$iC.> th(nder7. 3e ay eJperien%e the tenth
;ith"(t the =irst nine s"(nds 6thr"()h the initiati"n "= a G(r(7. In the
=irst sta)e> his ."dy .e%"es 8hini-8hini< in the se%"nd> there is the
6!han5ana7 .reakin) 6"r a==e%tin)7 in the ."dy< in the third> there is the
6!hedana7 pier%in)< in the ="(rth> the head shakes< in the =i=th> the
palate pr"d(%es sali$a< in the siJth> ne%tar is attained< in the se$enth>
22&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
the kn";led)e "= the hidden 6thin)s in the ;"rld7 arises< in the ei)hth>
4ara-Vak is heard< in the ninth> the ."dy .e%"es in$isi.le and the
p(re di$ine eye is de$el"ped< in the tenth> he attains 4ara-!rahan in
the presen%e "= 6"r ;ith7 Atan ;hi%h is !rahan. A=ter that> ;hen
Manas destr"yed> ;hen it ;hi%h is the s"(r%e "= -ankalpa and Vikalpa
disappears> ";in) t" the destr(%ti"n "= these t;"> and ;hen $irt(es
and sins are .(rnt a;ay> then he shines as -adashi$a "= the nat(re "=
-akti per$adin) e$ery;here> .ein) e==(l)en%e in its $ery essen%e> the
ia%(late> the eternal> the stainless and the "st H(ies%ent 9. 0h(s
is the tea%hin) "= the Vedas< and th(s is the Upanishad.B
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the 3asa Upanishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-1a5(r-Veda.
221
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
1. ,savasya Upanishad
9 : 0hat is =(ll< this is =(ll> 6="r7 =r" the =(ll the =(ll 6indeed7 arises.
Ghen the =(ll is taken =r" the =(ll> ;hat reains is =(ll indeed.
9: 4ea%e: 4ea%e: 4ea%e:
1. 9. All this sh"(ld .e %"$ered .y the /"rd> ;hats"e$er "$es "n
the earth. !y s(%h a ren(n%iati"n pr"te%t 6thysel=7. 8"$et n"t the
;ealth "= "thers.
2. !y per="rin) kara in this ;"rld 6as en5"ined .y the s%ript(res7
sh"(ld "ne yearn t" li$e a h(ndred years. 0h(s a%ti"n d"es n"t .ind
thee> the d"er. 0here is n" "ther ;ay than this.
3. 0h"se ;"rlds "= As(ras 6de"ns7 are enshr"(ded .y .lindin)
)l"". 0h"se ;h" are the slayers "= the -el= )" t" the a=ter death.
#. Un"$in)> It is "ne> =aster than the ind. 0he senses %ann"t rea%h
It> ="r It pr"%eeds ahead. Reainin) stati% It "$ertakes "thers that r(n.
9n a%%"(nt "= Its presen%e> Matarsi$a 6the ;ind7 %"nd(%ts the
a%ti$ities "= .ein)s.
5. It "$es< It "$es n"t. It is =ar< It is near. It is ;ithin all< It is
;ith"(t all.
6. 3e ;h" per%ei$es all .ein)s in the -el= al"ne> and the -el= in all
.ein)s> d"es n"t entertain any hatred "n a%%"(nt "= that per%epti"n.
7. Ghen a an realises that all .ein)s are .(t the -el=> ;hat del(si"n
222
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
is there> ;hat )rie=> t" that per%ei$er "= "nenessI
+. 0hat 6-el=7 is all-per$adin)> radiant> ."diless> s"reless> ;ith"(t
sine;s> p(re> (ntainted .y sin> the all-seer> the l"rd "= the ind>
trans%endent and sel=-eJistent. 0hat 6-el=7 did all"t in pr"per "rder t"
the eternal 4ra5apatis kn";n as sa$alsara 6year7 their d(ties.
,. 0h"se ;h" ;"rship a$idya 6kara ."rn "= i)n"ran%e7 )" t" pit%h
darkness> .(t t" a )reater darkness than this )" th"se ;h" are de$"ted
t" Vidya 6kn";led)e "= the De$atas7.
1&. Di==erent indeed> they say> is the res(lt 6attained7 .y $idya and
di==erent indeed> they say> is the res(lt 6attained7 .y a$idya. 0h(s ha$e
;e heard =r" the ;ise ;h" had eJplained it t" (s.
11. 3e ;h" kn";s ."th $idya and a$idya t")ether> trans%ends
"rtality thr"()h a$idya and rea%hes i"rtality thr"()h $idya.
12. 0" pit%h darkness they )" ;h" ;"rship the Unani=ested
64rakriti7. 0" a )reater darkness than this )" th"se ;h" are de$"ted t"
the Mani=ested 63iranya)ar.ha7.
13. Di==erent indeed> they say> is the res(lt 6attained7 .y the ;"rship "=
the Mani=ested and di==erent indeed> they say> is the res(lt 6attained7
.y the ;"rship "= the Unani=ested. 0h(s ha$e ;e heard =r" the
;ise ;h" had eJplained it t" (s.
1#. 3e ;h" kn";s ."th the Unani=ested and the destr(%ti.le
63iranya)ar.ha7 t")ether> trans%ends death .y the 6;"rship "=7 the
destr(%ti.le and attains i"rtality .y the 6;"rship "= 7 the
Unani=ested.
15. 0he =a%e "= the 0r(th 6ie.> 4(r(sha in the s"lar "r.7 is $eiled .y a
.ri)ht $essel. Mayst th"( (n$eil it> 9 -(n> s" as t" .e per%ei$ed .y e
223
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
;h"se dhara is tr(th.
16. 9 n"(risher> pil)ri "= the s"lit(de> %"ntr"ller> a.s"r.er 6"= all
rasas7> "==sprin) "= 4ra5apati> %ast a;ay thy rays> )ather the (p and
)i$e (p thy radiatin) .rillian%e. 0hat ="r "= thine> "st )ra%e=(l> I
ay .eh"ld. 3e> the 4(r(sha 6in the s"lar "r.7> I a.
17. /et 6y7 $ital air 6prana7 n"; attain the i"rtal Air 6all-
per$adin) -el=7< then let this ."dy .e red(%ed t" ashes. 9> 9 ind>
ree.er ? ree.er that ;hi%h has .een d"ne> 9 ind> ree.er ?
ree.er that ;hi%h has .een d"ne.
1+. 9 Fire> 9 De$a> kn";er "= all "(r a%ti"ns "r all "(r kn";led)e>
lead (s .y the )""d path ="r en5"yin) the =r(its "= a%ti"ns. /i.erate (s
=r" "(r de%eit=(l sins. Ge "==er thee e$er "re "(r ;"rds "=
ad"rati"n.
9: 0hat is =(ll< this is =(ll> 6="r7 =r" the =(ll the =(ll 6indeed7 arises.
Ghen the =(ll is taken =r" the =(ll> ;hat reains is =(ll indeed.
9 : 4ea%e : 4ea%e : 4ea%e :
3ere ends the Isa$asy"panishad> as %"ntained in the -(kla-1a5(r-
Veda.
22#
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
1". -a'ala Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
I-1. !rihaspati 6the pre%ept"r "= the )"ds7 asked 6the sa)e7
1a5na$alkya@ 6Ghi%h is7 the '(r(kshetra> 6the =a"(s h"ly pla%e that
destr"ys sins and pr"te%ts the )""d> 6the pla%e7 ;here the )"ds
per="r sa%ri=i%es and ;hi%h is the a."de "= !rahan in all .ein)s I
61a5na$alkya replied7@ A$i(kta is the '(r(kshetra> 6the pla%e7 ;here
the )"ds per="r sa%ri=i%es t" deities and ;hi%h is the a."de "=
!rahan in all .ein)s 6i.e. the iddle "= the eye-.r";s7. 3en%e
;here$er "ne )"es "ne shall think th(s@ 0his is the '(r(kshetra> the
pla%e ;here the )"ds per="r sa%ri=i%es t" the deities and ;hi%h is the
a."de "= !rahan in all .ein)s. 0his is the sp"t ;here> ;hen the $ital
airs depart =r" the li$in) pers"n> R(dra iparts the antra 60araka
!rahan7 t" hi .y ;hi%h> .e%"in) i"rtal> he attains li.erati"n
6=inal .eatit(de7. 3en%e "ne shall res"rt t" the A$i(kta< shall n"t
desert the A$i(kta. 6!rihaspati appr"$ed "= the stateent sayin)7@
`-" it is> 1a5na$alkyaE> $erily it is s"> 9> re$ered "ne : `It is s"
225
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
1a5na$alkyaE.
II-1. 0herea=ter the sa)e Atri 6s"n "= the %reat"r !raha7 asked "=
1a5na$alkya@ `3"; a I t" realiCe the -el= ;hi%h is in=inite and
(nani=est IE 60" this7 1a5na$alkya replied@ 0hat A$i(kta 6/"rd -i$a
as the redeeer7 is t" .e ;"rshipped< the -el= ;hi%h is in=inite and
(nani=est> is esta.lished in 6i.e.> is n"n-di==erent =r"7 the A$i(kta
6in Ish$ara> p"ssessed "= attri.(tes7E.
II-2. `Ghi%h is that 6pla%e7 ;here A$i(kta is esta.lished IE `3e is
esta.lished in .et;een $arana and nasiE. `Ghat is 6eant .y7 $arana
and ;hat 6.y7 nasi IE `0he $arana is s" %alled as it ;ards "== all the
=a(lts %"itted .y the 6ten7 "r)ans 6"= per%epti"n and a%ti"n7. 0he
nasi is s" naed as it destr"ys all sins %"itted .y the 6ten7 "r)ans.
60he pla%e .et;een the $arana and the nasi is the eetin) pla%e "= the
(pper part "= the n"se and the %entre "= the eye .r";s7. `Ghi%h is the
seat "= that 6A$i(kta7 IE `0hat> ;hi%h is the 6;ell kn";n7 5(n%t(re "=
the eye .r";s and the n"se> is the 5(n%t(re "= hea$en 6in the ="r "=
the %r";n "= the head7 and this ;"rld 6in the ="r at the end "= the
%hin7. 0he kn";ers "= the Veda ;"rship indeed this 5(n%t(re
6-aadhi7 as -andhya 6in their daily ;"rship7. 0hat A$i(kta is t" .e
;"rshipped. 3e ;h" kn";s this th(s 6the tr(e nat(re "= the
A$i(kta7> iparts the ;isd" "= the A$i(kta 6that the indi$id(al
-el= is n" "ther than the attri.(teless !rahan> t" his dis%iples7.
III-1. 0hen the dis%ipline st(dents 6!raha%harins "= 1a5na$alkya7
asked hi@ `4ray> tell (s> ;hat is that antra .y re%itin) ;hi%h "ne
attains i"rtality IE 3e replied@ `!y 6re%itin)7 -atar(driyaE. 0hese
antras are indeed the naes "= 6R(dra t" a%hie$e7 i"rtality. !y
6re%itin)7 these 6antras7 "ne .e%"es i"rtal.
226
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
IV-1. 0hen 2anaka> the kin) "= the Videhas 6respe%t=(lly7 appr"a%hed
1a5na$alkya and reH(ested hi@ `Re$ered -ir> eJp"(nd 6t" e7 the
6tenets "=7 ren(n%iati"n 6-annyasa7E. 3e 61a5na$alkya7 then replied@
`A=ter %"pletin) the peri"d "= dis%iplined st(dentship
6.raha%harya7 "ne ay .e%"e a h"(seh"lder. A=ter .ein) a
h"(seh"lder he ay .e%"e a ="rest-d;eller 6i.e.> .e%"e a
Vanaprastha7. 3a$in) .e%"e a Vanaprastha he ay ren"(n%e the
;"rld 6and th(s .e%"e a endi%ant "nk7. 9r> alternately> he ay
e.ra%e ren(n%iati"n =r" .raha%harya itsel=> "r =r" the 6sta)e "=
a7 h"(seh"lder> "r =r" the ="rest6-li=e "= a Vanaprastha7. 6It %an als"
.e that7 a pers"n ay ren"(n%e ;"rldly li=e that $ery day "n ;hi%h
distaste ="r it da;ns "n hi> ;hether he is "ne n"t ".ser$in) the $";s
6.e="re the sta)e "= ren(n%iati"n7 "r ".ser$e the> ;hether he has
(nder)"ne the pres%ri.ed a.l(ti"n "n %"pletin) the dis%iplined
st(dentship "r n"t> ;hether he is "ne ;h" has dis%"ntin(ed
aintainin) the sa%red =ire at the death "= his ;i=e 6(tsanna)ni7 "r is
"ne ;h" d"es n"t aintain 6="r "ther %a(ses7 the sa%red =ire
6ana)nika7.
I$-2. -"e 6la; )i$ers7 pres%ri.e the sa%ri=i%e %alled pra5apatya 6"=
;hi%h the )"d !raha is the presidin) deity> t" a t;i%e-."rn .e="re he
e.ra%es ren(n%iati"n7. !(t 6th"()h th(s laid d";n7 he ay n"t d"
s". 3e shall "nly per="r the sa%ri=i%e in ;hi%h A)ni is the deity. F"r
A)ni is the $ital .reath 64rana7. 0here.y he d"es 6stren)then7 the $ital
.reath. 3e shall then per="r the traidhata$iya sa%ri=i%e. F"r the three
="rs "= A)ni in hi> naely> -att$a> Ra5as and 0aas are
6stren)thened7 .y this sa%ri=i%e. 63a$in) per="red the sa%ri=i%e7 he
shall sell 6the s"ke "=7 the h"ly =ire> re%itin) the ="ll";in) antra@
IV-3. `9 Fire> this 6$ital .reath7 is y"(r s"(r%e< as y"( are ."rn =r"
-(tratan 6at the pr"per tie7 y"( shine ="rth. 'n";in) hi 6the
Atan> y"(r (ltiate s"(r%e7 ay y"( er)e 6in hi7. May y"(
in%rease "(r ;ealthE 6here the trans%endent kn";led)e7. Verily> this is
the s"(r%e "= =ire> naely the $ital air. -" ;hat is said .y this antra
227
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is@ `May y"( )" (nt" y"(r s"(r%eE. -$aha.
IV-#. 3a$in) pr"%(red the h"ly =ire =r" 6the h"(se "= a ;ell-$ersed
Vedi% s%h"lar in7 the $illa)e he shall sell the h"ly dire as des%ri.ed
pre$i"(sly. I= he is (na.le t" pr"%(re the h"ly =ire he shall "==er the
".lati"ns in ;ater. F"r ;ater is> $erily> all the )"ds. Re%itin) `I "==er
the ".lati"n t" all the )"ds> -$ahaE he shall tender the ".lati"n and
pi%kin) (p 6a sall p"rti"n "=7 the "==ered ".lati"n ;hi%h is iJed
;ith )hee> he shall eat it> as this is .ene=i%ial. 0he antra "= li.erati"n
6naely `9E7 is 6the essen%e "=7 the three Vedas< this he shall realiCe.
It is !rahan and It is t" .e ;"rshipped. Indeed> s" it is> 9 re$ered
1a5na$alkya 6said 2anaka7.
V-1. 0hen the 6sa)e7 Atri asked 1a5na$alkya@ `May I ask y"(
1a5na$alkya> h"; is "ne ;ith"(t the sa%red thread a !rahana IE
1a5na$alkya replied@ 6`0he %"n$i%ti"n I a the7 -el= al"ne is his
sa%red thread. 3e shall then sip ;ater 6%ere"ni"(sly thri%e7. 0his is
the eth"d en5"ined "n th"se ;h" ren"(n%e ;"rldly li=eE.
V-2. 6In the %ase "= 'shatriyas and "thers n"t entitled t" ren(n%iati"n>
they ay seek li.erati"n7 in the path "= the .ra$e 6;h" %"(rt death in
the .attle =ield7 "r =ast 6(nt" death as a dis%ipline7> "r enter int" ;ater
6t" rise n" "re7 "r enter =ire 6t" .e .(rnt t" ashes7 "r (ndertake the
)reat 5"(rney 6in ;hi%h they %"llapse .y eJha(sti"n7.
V-3. 0hen 6in the %ase "= th"se entitled t" ren(n%iati"n7 the endi%ant
"nk ;earin) 6"%hre7 %"l"(red )arent> ;ith sha$en head> a%%eptin)
n"thin) 6eJ%eptin) =""d ="r .are s(stenan%e7> .ein) p(re> in5(rin)
n"ne 6in th"()ht> ;"rd and deed7> 6a(sterity7 li$in) "n als> .e%"es
=it ="r realiCin) !rahan. I= s"rely a==li%ted 6.y disease> et%.>7 he ay
ren"(n%e the ;"rld .y ental res"l$e> "r .y sp"ken ;"rds (tterin)
antras. 0his ;ay 6"= ren(n%iati"n7 has .een pres%ri.ed .y !raha
6the %reat"r> in the Vedanta7< the as%eti% 6the -annyasin ;h" has
22+
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ren"(n%ed the ;"rld7 ="ll";in) this path realiCes !rahan. `0h(s
indeed it is> 9> re$ered 1a5na$alkyaE 6appre%iated 2anaka7.
VI-1. 0here are sa)es %alled 4araahasas 6as in the days "= y"re> the
sa)es7 -a$artaka> Ar(ni> -$etaket(> D(r$asas> Ri.h(> *ida)ha>
2ada.harata> Dattatreya> Rai$ataka and "thers> ;earin) n"
distin)(ishin) arks> ;ith %"nd(%t .ey"nd the ken 6"= ;"rldly
pe"ple7 and ;h" .eha$ed as th"()h .ere=t "= their senses th"()h
6per=e%tly7 sane.
VI-2. Dis%ardin) all these> naely the three="ld sta== 6"= .a.""7> the
;ater p"t> the slin) 6t" %arry pers"nal e==e%ts7> the 6als-7.";l> the
%l"th ="r p(ri=yin) ;ater 6tied t" the sta==7> t(=t "= hair and sa%red
thread in ;ater 6i.e. a reser$"ir7 .y re%itin) `!h(h -$ahaE> the
4araahasa shall seek the Atan.
VI-3. 4"ssessin) a ="r as "ne 5(st ."rn 6i.e. (n%lad7> (na==e%ted .y
the pairs 6"= "pp"sites> s(%h as heat and %"ld> pleas(re and pain7>
a%%eptin) n"thin) 6eJ%ept .are s(stenan%e7> ;ell esta.lished in the
path "= the tr(th "= !rahan> "= p(re ind> re%ei$in) als int" the
"(th 6literally int" the $essel "= the .elly7 at the pres%ri.ed h"(r in
"rder t" s(stain li=e> .e%"in) eH(ani"(s at )ain "r l"ss 6"= als7>
shelterin) hisel=> ;ith"(t an a."de 6"= his ";n7> in an (n"%%(pied
h"(se> a teple> a %l(p "= 6tall7 )rass 6"r a heap "= stra;7> an anthill>
the shade "= a tree> a p"tterEs h(t> a %"tta)e ;here sa%red =ire is kept>
sandy .ank "= a ri$er> a "(ntain thi%ket "r %a$ity> a h"ll"; in a tree>
the $i%inity "= a ;ater =all "r a pie%e "= %lean )r"(nd< akin) n"
e=="rts 6in any kind "= )ain=(l a%ti$ity7> =ree =r" `inenessE 6i.e. a
sense "= p"ssessi$eness7> e$er editatin) "n !rahan> de$"ted t" the
-el=> e$er intent "n eradi%ati"n "= the )""d and .ad karan> 6the sa)e7
=inally )i$es (p his ."dy in the state "= ren(n%iati"n ? 6s(%h a sa)e7 is
indeed a 4araahasa. 0h(s 6ends7 the Upanishad.
22,
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9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the 2a.al"panishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-1a5(r-Veda.
23&
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1$. Mandala Brahmana
Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
!RA3MA*A - I
1. 9M. 0he )reat M(ni 1a5na$alkya ;ent t" Aditya-/"ka 6the s(nEs
;"rld7 and sal(tin) hi 6the 4(r(sha "= the -(n7 said@ A9 Re$ered -ir>
des%ri.e t" e the Atan-0att$a 6the 0att$a "r 0r(th "= Atan7.B 60"
;hi%h7 *arayana 6$iC.> the 4(r(sha "= the s(n7 replied@ AI shall
des%ri.e the ei)ht-="ld 1")a t")ether ;ith 2nana. 0he %"nH(erin) "=
%"ld and heat as ;ell as h(n)er and sleep> the preser$in) "= 6s;eet7
patien%e and (nr(==ledness e$er and the restrainin) "= the "r)ans 6=r"
sens(al ".5e%ts7 ? all these %"e (nder 6"r are7 1aa. De$"ti"n t"
"neEs G(r(> l"$e "= the tr(e path> en5"yent "= ".5e%ts pr"d(%in)
happiness> internal satis=a%ti"n> =reed" =r" ass"%iati"n> li$in) in a
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retired pla%e> the %"ntr"llin) "= the Manas and the n"t l"n)in) a=ter
the =r(its "= a%ti"ns and a state "= Vaira)ya ? all these %"nstit(te
*iyaa. 0he sittin) in any p"st(re pleasant t" "ne and %l"thed in
tatters 6"r .ark7 is pres%ri.ed ="r Asana 6p"st(re7. Inspirati"n> restraint
"= .reath and eJpirati"n> ;hi%h ha$e respe%ti$ely 16> 6# and 32
6Matras7 %"nstit(te 4ranayaa 6restraint "= .reath7. 0he restrainin) "=
the ind =r" the ".5e%ts "= senses is 4ratyahara 6s(.5()ati"n "= the
senses7. 0he %"nteplati"n "= the "neness "= %"ns%i"(sness in all
".5e%ts is Dhyana. 0he ind ha$in) .een dra;n a;ay =r" the
".5e%ts "= the senses> the =iJin) "= the 8haitanya 6%"ns%i"(sness7 6"n
"ne al"ne7 is Dharana. 0he ="r)ettin) "= "nesel= in Dhyana is
-aadhi. 3e ;h" th(s kn";s the ei)ht s(.tle parts "= 1")a attains
sal$ati"n.
2. 0he ."dy has =i$e stains 6$iC.>7 passi"n> an)er> "(t-.reathin)> =ear
and sleep. 0he re"$al "= these %an .e a==e%ted respe%ti$ely .y
a.sen%e "= -ankalpa> ="r)i$eness> "derate =""d> %are=(lness and a
spirit(al si)ht "= 0att$as. In "rder t" %r"ss the "%ean "= -asara ;here
sleep and =ear are the serpents> in5(ry> et%.> are the ;a$es> 0rishna
6thirst7 is the ;hirlp""l and ;i=e is the ire> "ne sh"(ld adhere t" the
s(.tle path and "$ersteppin) 0att$a and "ther G(nas sh"(ld l""k "(t
="r 0araka. 0araka is !rahan ;hi%h .ein) in the iddle "= the t;"
eye.r";s> is "= the nat(re "= the spirit(al e==(l)en%e "=
-a%h%hidananda. 0he 6spirit(al7 seein) thr"()h the three /akshyas 6"r
the three kinds "= intr"$isi"n7 is the eans t" It 6!rahan7. -(s(na
;hi%h is =r" the M(ladhara t" !raharandhra has the radian%e "=
the s(n. In the %entre "= it> is '(ndalini shinin) like 8r"res "=
li)htnin) and s(.tle as the thread in the l"t(s-stalk. 0aas is destr"yed
there. 0hr"()h seein) it> all sins are destr"yed. Ghen the t;" ears are
%l"sed .y the tips "= the ="re=in)ers> a 4h(tkara 6"r .""in)7 s"(nd is
heard. Ghen the ind is =iJed "n it> it sees a .l(e li)ht .et;een the
eyes as als" in the heart. 60his is Antar-/akshya "r internal
intr"$isi"n7. In the !ahir-/akshya 6"r eJternal intr"$isi"n7 "ne sees in
"rder .e="re his n"se at distan%e "= #> 6> +> 1& and 12 di)its> the spa%e
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"= .l(e %"l"(r> then a %"l"(r rese.lin) -hyaa 6indi)"-.la%k7 and
then shinin) as Rakta 6red7 ;a$e and then ;ith the t;" 4ita 6yell";
and "ran)e red7 %"l"(rs. 0hen he is a 1")in. Ghen "ne l""ks at the
eJternal spa%e> "$in) the eyes and sees streaks "= li)ht at the %"rners
"= his eyes> then his $isi"n %an .e ade steady. Ghen "ne sees 2y"tis
6spirit(al li)ht7 a."$e his head 12 di)its in len)th> then he attains the
state "= ne%tar. In the Madhya-/akshya 6"r the iddle "ne7> "ne sees
the $arie)ated %"l"(rs "= the "rnin) as i= the s(n> the ""n and the
=ire had 5"ined t")ether in the Akasa that is ;ith"(t the. 0hen he
%"es t" ha$e their nat(re 6"= li)ht7. 0hr"()h pra%ti%e> he .e%"es
"ne ;ith Akasa> de$"id "= all G(nas and pe%(liarities. At =irst Akasa
;ith its shinin) stars .e%"es t" hi 4ara-Akasa as dark as 0aas
itsel= and he .e%"es "ne ;ith 4ara-Akasa shinin) ;ith stars and
deep as 0aas. 60hen7 he .e%"es "ne ;ith Maha-Akasa resplendent
6as7 ;ith the =ire "= the del()e. 0hen he .e%"es "ne ;ith 0att$a-
Akasa> li)hted ;ith the .ri)htness ;hi%h is the hi)hest and the .est "=
all. 0hen he .e%"es "ne ;ith -(rya-Akasa 6-(n-Akasa7 .ri)htened
.y a 8r"re "= s(ns. !y pra%tisin) th(s> he .e%"es "ne ;ith the. 3e
;h" kn";s the .e%"es th(s.
3. 'n"; that 1")a is t;"="ld thr"()h its di$isi"n int" the 4(r$a
6earlier7 and the Uttara 6later7. 0he earlier is 0araka and the later is
Aanaska 6the indless7. 0araka is di$ided int" M(rti 6;ith
liitati"n7 and A(rti 6;ith"(t liitati"n7. 0hat is M(rti 0araka
;hi%h )"es t" the end "= the senses 6"r eJist till the senses are
%"nH(ered7. 0hat is A(rti 0araka ;hi%h )"es .ey"nd the t;"
eye.r";s 6a."$e the senses7. !"th these sh"(ld .e per="red thr"()h
Manas. Antar-Drishti 6internal $isi"n7 ass"%iated ;ith anas %"es t"
aid 0araka. 0e5as 6spirit(al li)ht7 appears in the h"le .et;een the t;"
eye.r";s. 0his 0araka is the earlier "ne. 0he later is Aanaska. 0he
)reat 2y"tis 6li)ht7 is a."$e the r""t "= the palate. !y seein) it> "ne
)ets the -iddhis Ania> et%. -a.ha$i-M(dra "%%(rs ;hen the
/akshya 6spirit(al $isi"n7 is internal ;hile the 6physi%al7 eyes are
seein) eJternally ;ith"(t ;inkin). 0his is the )reat s%ien%e ;hi%h is
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%"n%ealed in all the 0antras. Ghen this is kn";n> "ne d"es n"t stay in
-asara. Its ;"rship 6"r pra%ti%e7 )i$es sal$ati"n. Antar-/akshya is "=
the nat(re "= 2ala-2y"tis 6"r ;ater-2y"tis7. It is kn";n .y the )reat
Rishis and is in$isi.le ."th t" the internal and eJternal senses.
#. -ahasrara 6$iC.> the th"(sand-petalled l"t(s "= the pineal )land7
2ala-2y"tis is the Antar-/akshya. -"e say the ="r "= 4(r(sha in the
%a$e "= !(ddhi .ea(ti=(l in all its parts is Antar-/akshya. -"e a)ain
say that the all-H(ies%ent *ilakantha a%%"panied .y Ua 6his ;i=e7
and ha$in) =i$e "nths and latent in the idst "= the sphere in the
.rain is Antar-/akshya. Ghilst "thers say that the 4(r(sha "= the
diensi"n "= a th(. is Antar-/akshya. A =e; a)ain say Antar-
/akshya is the 9ne -el= ade s(pree thr"()h intr"$isi"n in the state
"= a 2i$an(kta. All the di==erent stateents a."$e ade pertain t"
Atan al"ne. 3e al"ne is a !raha-*ishtha ;h" sees that the a."$e
/akshya is the p(re Atan. 0he 2i$a ;hi%h is the t;enty-=i=th 0att$a>
ha$in) a.and"ned the t;enty-="(r 0att$as> .e%"es a 2i$an(kta
thr"()h the %"n$i%ti"n that the t;enty-siJth 0att$a 6$iC.>7 4araatan
is `IE al"ne. !e%"in) "ne ;ith Antar-/akshya 6!rahan7 in the
ean%ipated state .y eans "= Antar-/akshya 6intr"$isi"n7> 2i$a
.e%"es "ne ;ith the partless sphere "= 4ara-Akasa.
0h(s ends the =irst !rahana.
!RA3MA*A ? II
1. 0hen 1a5na$alkya asked the 4(r(sha in the sphere "= the s(n@ A9
/"rd> Antar-/akshya has .een des%ri.ed any ties> .(t it has ne$er
.een (nderst""d .y e 6%learly7. 4ray des%ri.e it t" eB. 3e replied@
AIt is the s"(r%e "= the =i$e eleents> has the l(stre "= any 6streaks
"=7 li)htnin) and has ="(r seats ha$in) 6"r risin) =r"7 `0hatE
6!rahan7. In its idst> there arises the ani=estati"n "= 0att$a. It is
$ery hidden and Unani=ested. It %an .e kn";n 6"nly7 .y "ne ;h"
23#
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has )"t int" the ."at "= 2nana. It is the ".5e%t "= ."th !ahir and Antar
6eJternal and internal7 /akshyas. In its idst is a.s"r.ed the ;h"le
;"rld. It is the $ast partless (ni$erse .ey"nd *ada> !ind( and 'ala.
A."$e it 6$iC.> the sphere "= A)ni7 is the sphere "= the s(n< in its idst
is the sphere "= the ne%tary ""n< in its idst is the sphere "= the
partless !raha-0e5as 6"r the spirit(al e==(l)en%e "= !rahan7. It has
the .ri)htness "= -(kla 6;hite li)ht7 like the ray "= li)htnin). It al"ne
has the %hara%teristi% "= -a.ha$i. In seein) this there are three kinds
"= Drishti 6si)ht7> $iC.> Aa 6the ne; ""n7> 4ratipat 6the =irst day "=
l(nar ="rtni)ht7 and 4(rnia 6the =(ll ""n7. 0he si)ht "= Aa is the
"ne 6seen7 ;ith %l"sed eyes. 0hat ;ith hal= "pened eyes is 4ratipat<
;hile that ;ith =(lly "pened eyes is 4(rnia. 9= these> the pra%ti%e "=
4(rnia sh"(ld .e res"rted t". Its /akshya 6"r ai7 is the tip "= the
n"se. 0hen is seen a deep darkness at the r""t "= the palate. !y
pra%tisin) th(s> a 2y"tis 6li)ht7 "= the ="r "= an endless sphere is
seen. 0his al"ne is !rahan> the -a%h%hidananda. Ghen the ind is
a.s"r.ed in .liss th(s nat(rally pr"d(%ed> then d"es -a.ha$i takes
pla%e. -he 6-a.ha$i7 al"ne is %alled 'he%hari. !y pra%tisin) it 6$iC.>
the M(dra7> a an ".tains =irness "= ind. 0hr"()h it> he ".tains
=irness "= Vay(. 0he ="ll";in) are the si)ns@ =irst it is seen like a
star< then a re=le%tin) 6"r daCClin)7 dia"nd< then the sphere "= =(ll
""n< then the sphere "= the .ri)htness "= nine )es< then the sphere
"= the idday s(n< then the sphere "= the =lae "= A)ni 6=ire7< all these
are seen in "rder.
2. 60h(s (%h ="r the li)ht in 4(r$a "r =irst sta)e.7 0hen there is the
li)ht in the ;estern dire%ti"n 6in the Uttara "r se%"nd sta)e7. 0hen the
l(stres "= %rystal> s"ke> !ind(> *ada> 'ala> star> =ire=ly> lap> eye>
)"ld and nine )es> et%.> are seen. 0his al"ne is the ="r "= 4rana$a.
3a$in) (nited 4rana and Apana and h"ldin) the .reath in '(.haka>
"ne sh"(ld =iJ his %"n%entrati"n at the tip "= his n"se and akin)
-han(khi ;ith the =in)ers "= ."th his hands> "ne hears the s"(nd "=
4rana$a 697 in ;hi%h Manas .e%"es a.s"r.ed. -(%h a an has n"t
e$en the t"(%h "= 'ara. 0he kara "= 6-andhya-Vandana "r the
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daily prayers7 is $erily per="red at the risin) "r settin) "= the s(n. As
there is n" risin) "r settin) 6.(t "nly the e$er shinin)7 "= the s(n "=
8hit 6the hi)her %"ns%i"(sness7 in the heart "= a an ;h" kn";s th(s>
he has n" 'ara t" per="r. Risin) a."$e 6the %"n%epti"n "=7 day and
ni)ht thr"()h the annihilati"n "= s"(nd and tie> he .e%"es "ne ;ith
!rahan thr"()h the all-=(ll 2nana and the attainin) "= the state "=
Unani 6the state a."$e Manas7. 0hr"()h the state "= Unani> he
.e%"es Aanaska 6"r ;ith"(t Manas7.
*"t .ein) tr"(.led .y any th"()hts 6"= the ;"rld7 then %"nstit(tes the
Dhyana. 0he a.and"nin) "= all 'aras %"nstit(tes A$ahana
6in$"%ati"n "= )"d7. !ein) =ir in the (nshaken 6spirit(al7 ;isd"
%"nstit(tes Asana 6p"st(re7. !ein) in the state "= Unani %"nstit(tes
the 4adya 6"==erin) "= ;ater ="r ;ashin) the =eet "= )"d7. 4reser$in)
the state "= Aanaska 6;hen Manas is "==ered as sa%ri=i%e7 %"nstit(tes
the Ar)hya 6"==erin) "= ;ater as ".lati"n )enerally7. !ein) in state "=
eternal .ri)htness and sh"reless ne%tar %"nstit(tes -nana 6.athin)7.
0he %"nteplati"n "= Atan as present in all %"nstit(tes 6the
appli%ati"n t" the id"l "=7 -andal. 0he reainin) in the real state "=
the Drik 6spirit(al eye7 is 6the ;"rshippin) ;ith7 Akshata 6n"n-.r"ken
ri%e7. 0he attainin) "= 8hit 6%"ns%i"(sness7 is 6the ;"rshippin) ;ith7
=l";er. 0he real state "= A)ni 6=ire7 "= 8hit is the Dh(pa 6.(rnin) "=
in%ense7. 0he state "= the s(n "= 8hit is the Dipa 6li)ht ;a$ed .e="re
the ia)e7. 0he (ni"n "= "ne-sel= ;ith the ne%tar "= =(ll ""n is the
*ai$edya 6"==erin) "= =""d> et%.>7. 0he i".ility in that state 6"= the
e)" .ein) "ne ;ith all7 is 4radakshina 6)"in) r"(nd the ia)e7. 0he
%"n%epti"n "= `I a 3eE is *aaskara 6pr"strati"n7. 0he silen%e 6then7
is the -r(ti 6praise7. 0he all-%"ntentent 6"r serenity then7 is the
Visat5ana 6)i$in) lea$e t" )"d "r =inishin) ;"rship7. 60his is the
;"rship "= Atan .y all ra5a-1")ins7. 3e ;h" kn";s this kn";s all.
3. Ghen the 0rip(ti are th(s dispelled> he .e%"es the 'ai$alya 2y"tis
;ith"(t !ha$a 6eJisten%e7 "r A.ha$a 6n"n-eJisten%e7> =(ll and
"ti"nless> like the "%ean ;ith"(t the tides "r like the lap ;ith"(t
236
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
the ;ind. 3e .e%"es a !raha$it 6kn";er "= !rahan7 .y
%")nisin) the end "= the sleepin) state e$en ;hile in the ;akin) state.
0h"()h the 6sae7 ind is a.s"r.ed in -(sh(pti as als" in -aadhi>
there is (%h di==eren%e .et;een the. 6in the ="rer %ase7 as the
ind is a.s"r.ed in 0aas> it d"es n"t .e%"e the eans "= sal$ati"n>
6.(t7 in -aadhi as the "di=i%ati"ns "= 0aas in hi are r""ted
a;ay> the ind raises itsel= t" the nat(re "= the 4artless. All that is n"
"ther than -akshi-8haitanya 6;isd"-%"ns%i"(sness "r the 3i)her
-el=7 int" ;hi%h the a.s"rpti"n "= the ;h"le (ni$erse takes pla%e> in as
(%h as the (ni$erse is .(t a del(si"n 6"r %reati"n7 "= the ind and is
there="re n"t di==erent =r" it. 0h"()h the (ni$erse appears perhaps as
"(tside "= the ind> still it is (nreal. 3e ;h" kn";s !rahan and ;h"
is the s"le en5"yer "= !rahi% .liss ;hi%h is eternal and has da;ned
"n%e 6="r all in hi7 ? that an .e%"es "ne ;ith !rahan. 3e in
;h" -ankalpa perishes has )"t M(kti in his hand. 0here="re "ne
.e%"es an ean%ipated pers"n thr"()h the %"nteplati"n "=
4araatan. 3a$in) )i$en (p ."th !ha$a and A.ha$a> "ne .e%"es
a 2i$an(kta .y lea$in) "== a)ain and a)ain in all states 2nana
6;isd"7 and 2neya 6".5e%t "= ;isd"7> Dhyana 6editati"n7 and
Dhyeya 6".5e%t "= editati"n7> /akshya 6the ai7 and Alakshya 6n"n-
ai7> Drishya 6the $isi.le7 and Adrishya 6the n"n-$isi.le7 and Uha
6reas"nin)7 and Ap"ha 6ne)ati$e reas"nin)7. 3e ;h" kn";s this
kn";s all.
#. 0here are =i$e A$asthas 6states7@ 2a)rat 6;akin)7> -;apna
6dreain)7> -(sh(pti 6drealess sleepin)7> the 0(rya 6="(rth7 and
0(ryatita 6that .ey"nd the ="(rth7. 0he 2i$a 6e)"7 that is en)a)ed in
the ;akin) state .e%"es atta%hed t" the 4ra$ritti 6;"rldly7 path and
is the parti%(lar "= *araka 6hell7 as the =r(it "= sins. 3e desires -$ar)a
6hea$en7 as the =r(it "= his $irt("(s a%ti"ns. 0his $ery sae pers"n
.e%"es 6a=ter;ards7 indi==erent t" all these sayin)> `En"()h "= the
.irths tendin) t" a%ti"ns> the =r(its "= ;hi%h tend t" ."nda)e till the
end "= this (ndane eJisten%eE. 0hen he p(rs(es the *i$ritti 6ret(rn7
path ;ith a $ie; t" attain ean%ipati"n. And this pers"n then takes
237
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
re=()e in a spirit(al instr(%t"r in "rder t" %r"ss this (ndane
eJisten%e. Gi$in) (p passi"n and "thers> he d"es "nly th"se he is
asked t" d". 0hen ha$in) a%H(ired the ="(r -adhanas 6eans t"
sal$ati"n7 he attains> in the iddle "= the l"t(s "= his heart> the Reality
"= Antar-/akshya that is .(t the -at "= /"rd and .e)ins t" re%")nise
6"r re%"lle%t7 the .liss "= !rahan ;hi%h he had le=t 6"r en5"yed7 in
his -(sh(pti state. At last he attains this state "= dis%riinati"n 6th(s7@
`I think I a the n"n-d(al 9ne "nly. I ;as in A5nana ="r s"e tie 6in
the ;akin) state and %alled there="re Vish$a7. I .e%ae s"eh"; 6"r
in$"l(ntarily7 a 0ai5asa 6in the dreain) state7 thr"()h the re=le%ti"n
6in that state7 "= the a==inities "= the ="r)"tten ;akin) state< and n"; I
a a 4ra5na thr"()h the disappearan%e "= th"se t;" states. 0here="re I
a "ne "nly. I 6appear7 as "re than "ne thr"()h the di==eren%es "=
state and pla%e. And there is n"thin) "= di==erentiati"n "= %lass .esides
eE. 3a$in) eJpelled e$en the sa%k "= the di==eren%e 6"= %"n%epti"n7
.et;een `IE and `0hatE thr"()h the th"()ht `I a the p(re and the
se%"ndless !rahanE and ha$in) attained the path "= sal$ati"n ;hi%h
is "= the nat(re "= 4ara-!rahan> a=ter ha$in) .e%"e "ne ;ith It
thr"()h the Dhyana "= the s(nEs sphere as shinin) ;ith hisel=> he
.e%"es =(lly ripened ="r )ettin) sal$ati"n. -ankalpa and "thers are
the %a(ses "= the ."nda)e "= the ind< and the ind de$"id "= these
.e%"es =it ="r sal$ati"n. 4"ssessin) s(%h a ind =ree =r" all
6-ankalpa> et%.>7 and ;ithdra;in) hisel= =r" the "(ter ;"rld "=
si)ht and "thers and s" keepin) hisel= "(t "= the "d"(r "= the
(ni$erse> he l""ks (p"n all the ;"rld as Atan> a.and"ns the
%"n%epti"n "= `IE> thinks `I a !rahanE and %"nsiders all these as
Atan. 0hr"()h these> he .e%"es "ne ;h" has d"ne his d(ty.
5. 0he 1")in is "ne that has realised !rahan that is all-=(ll .ey"nd
0(rya. 0hey 6the pe"ple7 eJt"l hi as !rahan< and .e%"in) the
".5e%t "= the praise "= the ;h"le ;"rld> he ;anders "$er di==erent
%"(ntries. 4la%in) the !ind( in the Akasa "= 4araatan and p(rs(in)
the path "= the partless .liss pr"d(%ed .y the p(re> se%"ndless>
stainless and innate 1")a sleep "= Aanaska> he .e%"es an
23+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
ean%ipated pers"n. 0hen the 1")in .e%"es iersed in the "%ean
"= .liss. Ghen %"pared t" it> the .liss "= Indra and "thers is $ery
little. 3e ;h" )ets this .liss is the s(pree 1")in.
0h(s ends the se%"nd !rahana.
!RA3MA*A ? III
1. 0he )reat sa)e 1a5na$alkya then asked the 4(r(sha in the sphere 6"=
the s(n7@ A9 /"rd> th"()h the nat(re "= Aanaska has .een de=ined
6.y y"(7> yet I ="r)et it 6"r d" n"t (nderstand it %learly7. 0here="re
pray eJplain it a)ain t" e.B A%%"rdin)ly the 4(r(sha said@ A0his
Aanaska is a )reat se%ret. !y kn";in) this> "ne .e%"es a pers"n
;h" had d"ne his d(ty. 9ne sh"(ld l""k (p"n it as 4araatan>
ass"%iated ;ith -a.ha$i-M(dra and sh"(ld kn"; als" all th"se that
%an .e kn";n thr"()h a 6th"r"()h7 %")niti"n "= the. 0hen seein)
4ara-!rahan in his ";n Atan as the /"rd "= all> the ieas(ra.le>
the .irthless> the a(spi%i"(s> the s(pree Akasa> the s(pp"rtless> the
se%"ndless the "nly )"al "= !raha> Vishn( and R(dra and the %a(se
"= all and ass(rin) hisel= that he ;h" plays in the %a$e 6"= the heart7
is s(%h a "ne> he sh"(ld raise hisel= a."$e the d(alities "= eJisten%e
and n"n-eJisten%e< and kn";in) the eJperien%e "= the Unani "= his
Mans> he then attains the state "= 4ara-!rahan ;hi%h is "ti"nless
as a lap in a ;indless pla%e> ha$in) rea%hed the "%ean "= !rahi%
.liss .y eans "= the ri$er "= Aanaska-1")a thr"()h the destr(%ti"n
"= all his senses. 0hen he rese.les a dry tree. 3a$in) l"st all 6idea
"=7 the (ni$erse thr"()h the disappearan%e "= )r";th> sleep> disease>
eJpirati"n and inspirati"n> his ."dy .ein) al;ays steady> he %"es t"
ha$e a s(pree H(ies%en%e> .ein) de$"id "= the "$eents "= his
Manas and .e%"es a.s"r.ed in 4araatan. 0he destr(%ti"n "=
ans takes pla%e a=ter the destr(%ti"n "= the %"lle%ti$e senses> like the
%";Es (dder 6that shri$els (p7 a=ter the ilk has .een dra;n. It is this
that is Aanaska. !y ="ll";in) this> "ne .e%"es al;ays p(re and
23,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
.e%"es "ne that has d"ne his d(ty> ha$in) .een =illed ;ith the
partless .liss .y eans "= the path "= 0araka-1")a thr"()h the
initiati"n int" the sa%red senten%es `I a paE> D0hat 0h"( ArtD> `I a
th"( al"neE> `0h"( art I al"neE> et%.
2. Ghen his Mans is iersed in the Akasa and he .e%"es all-=(ll
and ;hen he attains the Unani state> ha$in) a.and"ned all his
%"lle%ti$e senses> he %"nH(ers all s"rr";s and ip(rities thr"()h the
partless .liss> ha$in) attained the =r(its "= 'ai$alya> ripened thr"()h
the %"lle%ti$e erits )athered in all his pre$i"(s li$es and thinkin)
al;ays `I a !rahanE> .e%"es "ne that has d"ne his d(ty. `I a
0h"( al"ne. 0here is n" di==eren%e .et;een thee and e ";in) t" the
=(llness "= 4araatanE.B -ayin) th(s> he 6the 4(r(sha "= the s(n7
e.ra%ed his p(pil and ade hi (nderstand it.
0h(s ends the third !rahana.
!RA3MA*A ? IV
0hen 1a5na$alkya addressed the 4(r(sha in the sphere 6"= the s(n7
th(s@ A4ray eJplain t" e in detail the nat(re "= the =i$e-="ld di$isi"n
"= AkasaB. 3e replied@ A0here are =i$e@ Akasa> 4arakasa> Mahakasa>
-(ryakasa and 4araakasa. 0hat ;hi%h is "= the nat(re "= darkness>
."th in and "(t is the =irst Akasa. 0hat ;hi%h has the =ire "= del()e>
."th in and "(t is tr(ly Mahakasa. 0hat ;hi%h has the .ri)htness "=
the s(n> ."th in and "(t is -(ryakasa. 0hat .ri)htness ;hi%h is
indestr(%ti.le> all-per$adin) and "= the nat(re "= (nri$alled .liss is
4araakasa. !y %")nisin) these a%%"rdin) t" this des%ripti"n> "ne
.e%"es "= their nat(re.
3e is a 1")in "nly in nae> ;h" d"es n"t %")nise ;ell the nine
8hakras> the siJ Adharas> the three /akshyas and the =i$e Akasa.
2#&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
0h(s ends the ="(rth !rahana.

!RA3MA*A ? V
A0he Manas in=l(en%ed .y ;"rldly ".5e%ts is lia.le t" ."nda)e< and
that 6Mans7 ;hi%h is n"t s" in=l(en%ed .y these is =it ="r sal$ati"n.
3en%e all the ;"rld .e%"es an ".5e%t "= 8hitta< ;hereas the sae
8hitta ;hen it is s(pp"rtless and ;ell-ripe in the state "= Unani>
.e%"es ;"rthy "= /aya 6a.s"rpti"n in !rahan7. 0his a.s"rpti"n
y"( sh"(ld learn =r" e ;h" a the all-=(ll. I al"ne a the %a(se "=
the a.s"rpti"n "= Manas.
0he Mans is ;ithin the 2y"tis 6spirit(al li)ht7 ;hi%h a)ain is latent in
the spirit(al s"(nd ;hi%h pertains t" the Anahata 6heart7 s"(nd.
0hat Manas ;hi%h is the a)ent "= %reati"n> preser$ati"n and
destr(%ti"n "= the three ;"rlds ? that sae Manas .e%"es a.s"r.ed
in that ;hi%h is the hi)hest seat "= Vishn(<
0hr"()h s(%h an a.s"rpti"n> "ne )ets the p(re and se%"ndless state>
";in) t" the a.sen%e "= di==eren%e then. 0his al"ne is the hi)hest tr(th.
3e ;h" kn";s this> ;ill ;ander in the ;"rld like a lad "r an idi"t "r a
de"n "r siplet"n. !y pra%tisin) this Aanaska> "ne is e$er
%"ntented> his (rine and =ae%es .e%"e diinished> his =""d .e%"es
lessened< he .e%"es str"n) in ."dy and his li.s are =ree =r"
disease and sleep. 0hen his .reath and eyes .ein) "ti"nless> he
realises !rahan and attains the nat(re "= .liss. 0hat as%eti% ;h" is
intent "n drinkin) the ne%tar "= !rahan pr"d(%ed .y the l"n)
pra%ti%e "= this kind "= -aadhi> .e%"es a 4araahasa 6as%eti%7 "r
an A$adh(ta 6naked as%eti%7. !y seein) hi> all the ;"rld .e%"es
p(re and e$en an illiterate pers"n ;h" ser$es hi is =reed =r"
."nda)e. 3e 6the as%eti%7 ena.les the e.ers "= his =aily ="r "ne
h(ndred and "ne )enerati"ns t" %r"ss the "%ean "= -asara< and his
2#1
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
"ther> =ather> ;i=e and %hildren ? all these are siilarly =reed. 0h(s
is the Upanishad.B

0h(s ends the =i=th !rahana.
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the Mandala.rahana Upanishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-
1a5(r-Veda.
2#2
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
1%. Mantrika Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. 0he ei)ht-=""ted ia%(late -;an> ."(nd ;ith three %"rds> s(.tle
and iperisha.le> t" ;h" three ;ays lead> I see n"t th"()h I see it
e$ery;here.
2. At the tie all li$in) .ein)s are %"n="(nded 6in the darkness "=
nes%ien%e7 ;hen 6h";e$er7 the pileless darkness is shattered 6.y the
s(n "= sa$in) kn";led)e7. 0he sa)es esta.lished in -att$a .eh"ld the
A.s"l(te .ey"nd G(naa 6ri)ht7 in the sphere "= )(nas.
3 6a7. 8"nteplated .y sa)es like '(ara> et%.< the A.s"l(te is n"t
"ther;ise %apa.le "= .ein) per%ei$ed 6at all7.
2#3
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

36.7-#. 0he a)ent "= s(perip"siti"n the Un."rn 6Maya7> the nes%ient
ei)ht-="ld in$eterate "ther "= "di=i%ati"ns< th(s it is eJtended and
a)ain pr"dded. 0he ;"rld (nder s(%h p";er and )(idan%e )i$es rise t"
the $al(es "= an.
5. 0he /"rdEs i)hty Maya> ha$in) ."th a .e)innin) and end> the
%reatriJ> .rin)s .ein)s int" eJisten%e< ;hite> .la%k and red 6-he7
=(l=ils all desires.
6. 60he i)n"rant7 eJperien%es this n"n-".5e%ti$e Maya 6;h"se real
nat(re is7 (nkn";n 6e$en7 t" sa)es like '(ara. 0he /"rd al"ne
=reely ="ll";in) 63er7 en5"ys Maya 6as 3er /"rd and 8"pani"n7.
7. 3e en5"ys 63er7 thr"()h ."th %"nteplati"n and a%ti"n. 3e> the
"nipresent "ne> s(stains 63er7 ;h" is %""n t" "ne and all> the
yielder 6"= desired ".5e%ts7 and is en5"yed .y the sa%ri=i%ers.
+. 0he a)nani"(s 6sa)es7 .eh"ld in 6the sphere "=7 Maya the .ird
eatin) the =r(its 6"= 'aras7. 0he priests ;h" ha$e %"pleted their
Vedi% trainin) ha$e de%lared the 9ther t" .e deta%hed.
,. 0he asters "= the Ri)-Veda> ;ell-$ersed in the -hastras repeat
;hat the 1a5(r-Vedins ha$e de%lared. 0he adepts in -aa-Veda
sin)in) !rhatsaa and Rathantara als" 6rea==ir this tr(th7.
1&. 6Vedi%7 sa)es like !hri)( and the !har)a$as ? these ="ll";ers "=
the Athar$a-Veda> pra%tisin) the Veda> the antras and the se%ret
d"%trines> in the seH(en%e "n G"rds> 6all set ="rth the sae d"%trine7.
11-13. 0he =aith=(l %"-dis%iple> =ir and a%%"plished> the red !(ll>
the sa%ri=i%ial Reainder ? as all these> in re)ard t" Its iensity< and
as 0ie> /i=e> the di$ine ;rath> the Destr"yer> the )reat /"rd> the
!e%"in)> R(dra> the 4r"te%t"r "= 2i$as> the Re;arder "= the $irt("(s>
2##
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
the /"rd "= li$in) .ein)s> the Virat> the s(stainer and the Gaters 6"=
li=e7> is the all-4er$ader la(ded .y .ein)s a)ni=ied in the antras
and ;ell-kn";n t" the Athar$a-Veda.
1#. -"e a$er 3i 6the )reat /"rd7 as the t;enty siJth 64rin%iple7<
"thers as the t;enty se$enth< the asters "= the Athar$a-Veda and the
Athar$a Upanishads kn"; the -pirits .ey"nd H(alities> as set ="rth in
the -ankhya.
15. 0he ani=est and the (nani=est ha$e .een %"(nted 6t")ether7 as
t;enty ="(r. 6-"e7 de%lare 3i n"n-d(al< as d(al< as three-="ld< and
siilarly as =i$e-="ld.
16. 0h"se ;h" see ;ith the eye "= ;isd"> the t;i%e-."rn> per%ei$e
3i as %"prisin) e$erythin) =r" !raha t" sti%ks> as "ne "nly>
p(re thr"()h and thr"()h> all per$adin).
17. 0hat in ;hi%h this i)ht ani="ld> "$in) and (n"$in)> is
;"$en ? in that $ery thin) it als" er)es as the ri$ers d" in the sea.
1+. In 0hat in ;hi%h the ".5e%ts are diss"l$ed> and> ha$in) .een
diss"l$ed> .e%"e (nani=est> "n%e "re they attain ani=estati"n<
they are a)ain ."rn like .(..les.
1,. 0hey %"e int" .ein) .y $irt(e "= %a(ses s(per$ised .y indi$id(al
sel$es that kn"; `the =ieldE. -(%h is the .lessed /"rd> s" "thers
repeatedly> de%lare.
2&. 0h"se !rahanas ;h" 65(st7 kn"; !rahan ? here "nly they are
diss"l$ed< and .ein) diss"l$ed they eJist in the A$yakta. 3a$in) .een
diss"l$ed they eJist in the A$yakta ? this is the se%ret d"%trine.
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
2#5
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9: /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the Mantrik"panishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-1a5(r-Veda.
2#6
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
2). Muktika Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
I-i-1-6. In the .ea(ti=(l %ity "= Ay"dhya> in the %entre "= a pa$ili"n set
;ith )es> t")ether ;ith -ita> !harata> /akshana and -atr()hna>
;as Raa seated> )l"ri=ied day and ni)ht .y sa)es like -anaka>
Vasistha and -(ka as ;ell as "ther de$"tees> (n%han)in) ;itness "=
th"(sands "= "di=i%ati"ns "= the intelle%t> deli)hted in %"nteplatin)
his ";n ="r. At the end "= this -aadhi> 3an(an asked ;ith
de$"ti"n> `9 Raa> y"( are the s(pree .ein)> "= the nat(re "= -at>
8hid and Ananda. I desire t" kn"; y"(r nat(re tr(ly ="r li.erati"n.
4lease tell e h"; I %an .e released =r" ."nda)e ;ith"(t strain.
I-i-7-1#. Raa@ Gell asked. I shall tell y"(. I a ;ell esta.lished in
Vedanta.
3an(an@ Ghat is Vedanta and ;here is it I
2#7
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
Raa@ 0he Vedas in all their )reat eJtent are y .reath> Vedanta is
;ell )r"(nded in the> like "il in sesa(.
3an(an@ 3"; any are the Vedas and h"; any .ran%hes d" they
ha$e I 9= these ;hat are the Upanishads I
Raa@ Vedas are ="(r> Ri)-Veda et%.> any .ran%hes and Upanishads
eJist in the. Ri)-Veda has 21 .ran%hes and 1a5(s has 1&,. -aa has
1&&& and Athar$a has 5&. Ea%h .ran%h has "ne Upanishad. E$en .y
readin) "ne $erse "= the ;ith de$"ti"n> "ne )ets the stat(s "= (ni"n
;ith e> hard t" )et e$en .y sa)es.
I-i-15-17. 3an(an@ Raa> sa)es speak di==erently@ s"e say there is
"nly "ne kind "= li.erati"n. 9thers say it %an .e )"t .y ;"rshippin)
y"(r nae and .y the 0araka antra at 'ashi. 9thers speak "=
-ankhya-1")a and !hakti-1")a> the enH(iry int" Vedanta-Vakyas et%.
I-i-1+-23. Raa@ /i.erati"n is "= ="(r kinds@ -al"kya et%. !(t the "nly
real type is 'ai$alya. Any."dy e$en th"()h leadin) a ;i%ked li=e>
attains -al"kya> n"t "ther ;"rlds> .y ;"rshippin) y nae. Dyin) in
the sa%red !rahanala in 'ashi> he ;ill )et the 0araka-antra and
als" li.erati"n> ;ith"(t re.irth. 9n dyin) any;here 6else7 in 'ashi>
Mahesh$ara ;ill (tter the 0araka-antra in his ri)ht ear. 3e )ets
-ar(pya ;ith e as his sins are ;ashed a;ay.
0he sae is %alled -al"kya and -ar(pya. 4erse$erin) in )""d %"nd(%t>
;ith ind =iJed (p"n e> l"$in) e as the -el= "= all> the t;i%e-."rn
)ets nearer t" e ? 0his is %alled the three ="rs "= li.erati"n.
-al"kya> -ar(pya and -aipya.
2#+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

I-i-2#-25. Meditatin) "n y eternal ="r as pres%ri.ed .y the 0ea%her>
"ne ;ill s(rely a%hie$e identity ;ith e like the inse%ts %han)in) int"
the .ee. 0his al"ne is the li.erati"n "= identity 6-ay(5ya7 yieldin) the
.liss "= !rahan.
All these ="(r kinds "= M(kti ;ill .e )"t .y ;"rshippin) Me.
I-i-26-2,. !(t .y ;hat eans is the 'ai$alya kind "= M"ksha )"t I
0he Mand(kya is en"()h< i= kn";led)e is n"t )"t =r" it> then st(dy
the 0en Upanishads. Gettin) kn";led)e $ery s""n> y"( ;ill rea%h y
a."de. I= %ertainty is n"t )"t e$en then> st(dy the 32 Upanishads and
st"p. I= desirin) M"ksha ;ith"(t the ."dy> read the 1&+ Upanishads.
3ear their "rder.
I-i-3&-3,.
1. Isa
2. 'ena
3. 'atha
#. 4rasna
5. M(nda
6. Mand(kya
7. 0aittiri
+. Aitareya
2#,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

,. 8hand")ya
1&. !rihadaranyaka
11. !raha
12. 'ai$alya
13. 2a.ala
1#. -$etas$a
15. 3asa
16. Ar(ni
17. Gar.ha
1+. *arayana
1,. 4araahasa
2&. Arita.ind(
21. Aritanada
22. Atahr$asirah
23. Athar$asikha
2#. Maitrayini
25. 'a(shitaki.rahana
25&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

26. !riha55a.ala
27. *risihatapini
2+. 'ala)nir(dra
2,. Maitreya
3&. -(.ala
31. 'sh(rika
32. Mantrika
33. -ar$asara
3#. *irala.a
35. -(karahasya
36. Va5ras(%hika
37. 0e5".ind(
3+. *ada.ind(
3,. Dhyana.ind(
#&. !raha$idya
#1. 1")atatt$a
#2. Ata."dha
251
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

#3. *aradapari$ra5aka
##. 0risikhi
#5. -ita
#6. 1")a%h(daani
#7. *ir$ana
#+. Mandala.rahana
#,. Dakshina(rti
5&. -ara.ha
51. -kanda
52. 0ripad$i.h(ti-Mahanarayana
53. Ad$ayataraka
5#. Raarahasya
55. Raatapani
56. Vas(de$a
57. M(d)ala
5+. -andilya
5,. 4ain)ala
252
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

6&. !hiks(
61. Mahat
62. -ariraka
63. 1")asikha
6#. 0(riyatita
65. -annyasa
66. 4araahasapari$ra5aka
67. Akshaalika
6+. A$yakta
6,. Ekakshara
7&. Annap(rna
71. -(rya
72. Akshi
73. Adhyata
7#. '(ndika
75. -a$itri
76. Ata
253
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

77. 4as(pata
7+. 4ara.raha
7,. A$adh(taka
+&. 0rip(ratapini
+1. De$i
+2. 0rip(ra
+3. 'athar(dra
+#. !ha$ana
+5. R(drahridaya
+6. 1")a-k(ndali
+7. !hasa
++. R(draksha
+,. Ganapati
,&. Darsana
,1. 0arasara
,2. Maha$akya
,3. 4an%ha.raha
25#
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

,#. 4rana)nih"tra
,5. G"palatapini
,6. 'rishna
,7. 1a5na$alkya
,+. Varaha
,,. -atyayani
1&&. 3aya)ri$a
1&1. Dattatreya
1&2. Gar(da
1&3. 'alisatarana
1&#. 2a.ali
1&5. -a(.ha)yalakshi
1&6. -aras$atirahasya
1&7. !ah$ri%ha
1&+. M(ktika
I-i-#&-#3. 0hese destr"y three kinds "= !ha$ana 6re)ardin)7 ."dy>
senses and ind respe%ti$ely as identi=ied ;ith Atan. 0he .est "=
255
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
!rahanas ;ill .e%"e 2i$an(ktas i= they st(dy (pt" the
destr(%ti"n "= 4rara.dha> these 1&+ Upanishads =r" a G(r( al"n)
;ith the -hanti-pada. 0hen> in %"(rse "= tie they ;ill )et Vedeha-
(kti> s(rely.
I-i-##-52. 0hese 1&+ are the essen%e "= all Upanishads and %an %(t
a;ay all sins .y erely hearin) "n%e. 0hese %a(se release ;hether
read ;ith "r ;ith"(t kn";led)e. 9ne ay )i$e a;ay a kin)d">
;ealth et%.> t" "ne ;h" asks> .(t n"t these 1&+ t" 5(st any"ne ? t" an
(n.elie$er 6nastika7> (n)rate=(l> "= .ad %"nd(%t> "ne a)ainst de$"ti"n
t" e> del(ded .y ;r"n) s%ript(re "r la%kin) de$"ti"n t" the G(r(.
!(t they shall .e ta()ht t" "ne de$"ted t" ser$i%e> de$"tee> "= )""d
%"nd(%t> .irth and ;isd". 3e sh"(ld .e ;ell tested. A Rik $erse "n
this@ the )"ddess "= kn";led)e %ae t" a !rahana and said `4r"te%t
e> I a y"(r treas(re> d" n"t tea%h e t" "ne ;h" is 5eal"(s>
dish"nest and de%eit=(l ? then I shall p";er=(l> .(t )i$e it t" "ne ;h"
is learned> %are=(l> ;ise and %eli.ate> a=ter eJainin) hiE.
I-ii-1. 0hen Mar(ti asked -ri Raa%handra th(s@ 4lease relate t" e
separately the -hanti-antras "= the di==erent Vedas> Ri) et%.
-ri Raa then said@ cMy spee%h rests "n y ind W c KVane-
ManasiW.L. 0his is the -hanti-antra "= the ="ll";in) ten Upanishads
="rin) part "= the Ri)-Veda@
1. Aitareya
256
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
2. 'a(shitaki.rahana
3. *ada.ind(
#. Ata."dha
5. *ir$ana
6. M(d)ala
7. Akshaalika
+. 0rip(ra
,. -a(.ha)yalakshi
1&. !ah$ri%ha
I-ii-2. c0hat 6;hi%h lies .ey"nd7 is =(llc K4(rnaada W.L ? and s" "n@
0his is the -hanti-antra "= the ="ll";in) *ineteen Upanishads>
="rin) part "= the -(kla-1a5(r-Veda@
1. Isa$asya
2. !rihadaranyaka
3. 2a.ala
#. 3asa
5. 4araahasa
257
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
6. -(.ala
7. Mantrika
+. *irala.a
,. 0risikhi.rahana
1&. Mandala.rahana
11. Ad$ayataraka
12. 4ain)ala
13. !hiks(
1#. 0(riyatita
15. Adhyata
16. 0arasara
17. 1a5na$alkya
1+. -atyayani
1,. M(ktika
I-ii-3. cMay 6the !rahan "= the Upanishads7 pr"te%t (s ."thc
K-ahana$a$at( WL ? and s" "n@ 0his is the -hanti-antra "= the
="ll";in) 0hirty-0;" Upanishads> ="rin) part "= the 'rishna-1a5(r-
Veda@
25+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

1. 'atha$alli
2. 0aittiriyaka
3. !raha
#. 'ai$alya
5. -$etas$atara
5. Gar.ha
6. *arayana
7. Arita.ind(
+. Aritanada
,. 'ala)nir(dra
1&. 'sh(rika
11. -ar$asara
12. -(karahasya
13. 0e5".ind(
1#. Dhyana.ind(
15. !raha$idya
16. 1")atatt$a
25,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

17. Dakshina(rti
1+. -kanda
1,. -ariraka
2&. 1")asikha
21. Ekakshara
22. Akshi
23. A$adh(ta
2#. 'athar(dra
25. R(drahridaya
26. 1")a-k(ndalini
27. 4an%ha.raha
2+. 4rana)nih"tra
2,. Varaha
3&. 'alisatarana
31. -aras$atirahasya
I-ii-#. cMay the (nseen p";ers n"(rishc KApyayant( W.L ? and s" "n@
0his is the -hanti-antra "= the ="ll";in) -iJteen Upanishads
26&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
="rin) part "= the -aa-Veda@
1. 'ena
2. 8hand")ya
3. Ar(ni
#. Maitrayani
5. Maitreya
6. Va5ras(%hika
7. 1")a%h(daani
+. Vas(de$a
,. Mahat
1&. -annyasa
11. A$yakta
12. '(ndika
13. -a$itri
1#. R(draksha5a.ala
15. Darsana
16. 2a.ali
261
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

I-ii-5. cMay ;e hear ;ith "(r ears the a(spi%i"(s tr(ths "= the
Vedantac K!hadra-'arne.hihWL ? and s" "n@ 0his is the -hanti-
antra "= the ="ll";in) 0hirty-9ne Upanishads "= the Athar$a-Veda@
1. 4rasna
2. M(ndaka
3. Mand(kya
#. Atahr$asiras
5. Athar$asikha
6. !riha55a.ala
7. *risihatapini 64(r$"ttara7
+. *aradapari$ra5aka
,. -ita
1&. -ara.ha
11. 0ripad$i.h(ti-Mahanarayana
12. Raarahasya
13. Raatapini 64(r$"ttara7
1#. -andilya
262
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

15. 4araahasapari$ra5aka
16. Annap(rna
17. -(rya
1+. Ata
1,. 4as(pata.rahana
2&. 4ara.raha
21. 0rip(ratapini
22. De$i
23. !ha$ana
2#. !hasa5a.ala
25. Ganapati
26. Maha$akya
27. G"palatapini 64(r$"ttara7
2+. 'rishna
2,. 3aya)ri$a
3&. Dattatreya
31. Gar(da
263
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

I-ii-6. Men ;h" are seekers a=ter /i.erati"n and ;ell-eH(ipped ;ith
the ="(r reH(isite eans : Appr"a%h pr"perly> ;ith )i=ts in the hands> a
)""d tea%her ;h" is dedi%ated> .el"n)in) t" a )""d =aily> ;ell-
$ersed in the Vedas> interested in the s%ript(res> "= )""d H(ality>
strai)ht="r;ard> interested in the ;el=are "= all %reat(res>
%"passi"nate and learn in the pres%ri.ed anner the "ne h(ndred
and ei)ht Upanishads< st(dy the thr"()h listenin)> re=le%ti"n and
deep a.s"rpti"n %"ntin("(sly< the a%%((lated 'aras ;ill .e
diss"l$ed> the three kinds "= ."dies 6)r"ss> s(.tle and %a(sal7 are
a.and"ned and like the ether "= the p"t ;hen released =r" its
Upadhi> rise t" the le$el "= =(llness %alled Videha-(kti. 0his indeed
is the A.s"l(te /i.erati"n 6'ai$alya-(kti7. 0hat is ;hy e$en th"se in
the !raha-l"ka> )et identity ;ith !rahan a=ter listenin) t" the
Upanishads =r" his "(th. And ="r e$ery"ne A.s"l(te /i.erati"n is
stated t" .e 6attaina.le7 "nly thr"()h kn";led)e< n"t thr"()h 'ara
rit(als> n"t thr"()h -ankhya-1")a "r ;"rship. 0h(s the Upanishad.
II-i-1. 0hen 3an(an asked Raa%handra@ Ghat is this 2i$an(kti>
Videha-(kti I Ghat is the a(th"rity> eans "= s(%%ess and p(rp"se I
Raa said@ F"r a pers"n there is ."nda)e =r" d"er-ship> en5"yer-
ship> pleas(re> pain et%.> -- their pre$enti"n is li.erati"n in the ."dy.
Videha-(kti 6li.erati"n ;ith"(t the ."dy7 is =r" the destr(%ti"n "=
4rara.dha 6"perati$e7 kara> like the spa%e in a p"t released =r" the
%"nditi"nin) 6en%l"sin)7 p"t. F"r ."th the a(th"rity is the 1&+
Upanishads. 0he p(rp"se is eternal happiness thr"()h the st"ppin) "=
the isery "= d"er-ship et%. 0his %an .e a%hie$ed .y h(an e=="rt 5(st
as a s"n is )"t .y p(tra-kaa sa%ri=i%e> ;ealth .y trade et%.> and
hea$en .y 5y"tist"a.
26#
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
II-ii-1-,. 0here are these $erses@ 3(an e=="rt is said t" .e "= the t;"
kinds@ F"r and a)ainst the -hastras ? the ="rer )i$es disaster> the
latter the (ltiate reality. 0r(e kn";led)e d"es n"t %"e t" "ne =r"
latent ipressi"ns thr"()h the ;"rld> -hastras and the ."dy. -(%h
ipressi"ns are t;"-="ld@ )""d and .ad< i= y"( are ind(%ed .y the
)""d> y"( shall rea%h e )rad(ally .(t H(i%kly< the .ad "nes in$"l$ed
lead t" tr"(.le and sh"(ld .e "$er%"e ;ith e=="rt. 0he ri$er "=
ipressi"n =l";in) thr"()h )""d and .ad paths> (st .e t(rned int"
the )""d path ;ith h(an e=="rt ? 9ne sh"(ld ="ndle the ind-%hild
;ith h(an e=="rt. Ghen .y eans "= pra%ti%e> )""d ipressi"ns
arise> then the pra%ti%e has .een =r(it=(l. E$en ;hen this is in d"(.t>
pra%ti%e "nly the )""d tenden%ies ? there shall .e n" =a(lt.
II-ii-1&-15. 0he destr(%ti"n "= ipressi"ns> %(lti$ati"n "= kn";led)e
and destr(%ti"n "= the ind> ;hen pra%tised t")ether ="r l"n) ;ill
yield =r(it. I= n"t pra%tised t")ether> there ;ill .e n" s(%%ess e$en a=ter
h(ndreds "= years> like antras ;hi%h are s%attered. Ghen these three
are pra%tised l"n)> the kn"ts "= the heart s(rely are .r"ken> like l"t(s
=i.re and the stalk. 0he =alse ipressi"n "= ;"rldly li=e is )"t in a
h(ndred li$es and %ann"t .e destr"yed ;ith"(t l"n) pra%ti%e. -" a$"id
desire "= en5"yent as a distan%e ;ith e=="rt and pra%tise the three.
II-ii-16. 0he ;ise kn"; that the ind is ."(nd .y the ipressi"ns> it
is li.erated ;hen released ;ell =r" the. -"> 9 3an(an> pra%ti%e
the destr(%ti"n "= ental ipressi"n> H(i%kly.
II-ii-17-1+. Ghen ipressi"ns die "(t> the ind .e%"es p(t "(t like
a lap. Gh"e$er )i$es (p ipressi"ns and %"n%entrates "n Me
;ith"(t strain> he .e%"es !liss.
265
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
II-ii-1,-23. Ghether he %"n%entrates "n a%ti"ns "r n"t> ;hen he a$"ids
all the desires "= the heart> he is d"(.tlessly li.erated. 3e has n"thin)
t" )ain =r" a%ti"n "r ina%ti"n. I= his ind is n"t =reed =r"
ipressi"ns e$en -aadhi and 2apa %ann"t )i$e =r(it. 0he hi)hest
pla%e %ann"t .e )"t ;ith"(t silen%e =ree =r" ipressi"ns. -ense
"r)ans like the eye )" t";ards eJternal ".5e%ts ;ith"(t $"l(ntary
ipressi"n .(t .e%a(se "= the latent ipressi"n 5(st as the eye =alls
$"l(ntarily ;ith"(t atta%hent "n eJternal ".5e%ts> s" the an "=
;isd" "perates in ;"rk.
II-ii-2#-31. 0he sa)es kn"; that Vasana %"prises all ".5e%ts
)enerated .y %reati$e =a%(lty "= the ind in attainin) "r a$"idin)
the. 0he $ery (nsteady ind ;hi%h is the %a(se "= .irth> "ld a)e and
death is )enerated .y desire ="r ".5e%ts in eJ%ess. !y the in=l(en%e "=
Vasana there is the p(lsati"n "= 4rana> =r" it %"es Vasana 6a)ain7
like seed and spr"(t. F"r the tree "= the h(an ind> the p(lsati"n and
Vasana are t;" seeds ? ;hen "ne dies ."th die. /atent ipressi"ns
st"p "peratin) thr"()h deta%hed .eha$i"(r> a$"idan%e "= ;"rldly
th"()ht and realiCati"n that the ."dy is "rtal.
0he ind .e%"es n"n-ind .y )i$in) (p Vasanas. Ghen the ind
d"es n"t think> then arises indlessness )i$in) )reat pea%e< s" l"n) as
y"(r ind has n"t =(lly e$"l$ed> .ein) i)n"rant "= the s(pree reality>
per="r ;hat has .een laid d";n .y the tea%her> -hastra and "ther
s"(r%es. 0hen ;ith ip(rity ripened 6and destr"yed7 and 0r(th
(nderst""d> y"( sh"(ld )i$e (p e$en the )""d ipressi"ns.
II-ii-32-37. In a 2i$an(kta the destr(%ti"n "= the ind is ;ith ="r ?
in a Videha(kta it is ="rless ? ;hen y"( a%hie$e it> the ind ;ith
H(alities like =riendliness ;ill s(rely attain pea%e. 0he ind "= the
2i$an(kta has n" re.irth.
266
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

0he ind is the r""t "= the tree "= -asara ;hi%h has th"(sands "=
spr"(ts> .ran%hes> =r(its et%. I take the ind t" .e n"thin) .(t
%"nstr(%ti"n< ake it dry in s(%h a ;ay that the tree als" is dried (p.
II-ii-3+-#7. 0here is "nly "ne eans ="r "$erp";erin) ind. -h""tin)
(p "= "neEs ind is "neEs (nd"in)> its destr(%ti"n is )""d ="rt(ne. 0he
ind "= the kn";er is destr"yed> it is a %hain ="r the i)n"rant. As l"n)
as the ind is n"t de=eated .y eans "= =ir pra%ti%e> the ipressi"ns
5(p in the heart like )h"sts at ni)ht.
0he ipressi"ns "= en5"yent die> like l"t(s in ;inter> ="r "ne ;h"se
ental pride is red(%ed and the senses ? the eneies ? are de=eated.
9ne sh"(ld at =irst %"nH(er the ind> hands l"%ked in hands> teeth set
"n teeth and li.s s(.d(ed. 0he ind %ann"t .e %"nH(ered ;ith"(t
de=e%tless reas"nin) 6eth"ds7 .y erely sittin)> 5(st as an elephant in
r(t ;ith"(t a )"ad. 0he reas"ns 6eth"ds7 ;ell-n"(rished in ind-
%"nH(est are kn";led)e "= Vedanta> %"nta%t ;ith )""d pe"ple> )i$in)
(p ipressi"ns and st"ppin) "= the p(lsati"n "= 4rana. 0h"se ;h"
i)n"re these and %"ntr"l the ind .y ="r%e> thr"; a;ay the lap and
sear%h in darkness .y eans "= s""t> als" 6try t"7 .ind an elephant in
r(t .y l"t(s =i.re.
II-ii-#+-5&. 0he tree "= ind> .earin) the ;ei)ht "= the %reepers "=
th"()ht> has t;" seeds@ the p(lsati"n "= 4rana and str"n) ipressi"ns.
All per$asi$e %"ns%i"(sness is shaken .y the p(lsati"n "= 4rana ? In
%"ntrast> .y eans "= %"n%entrati"n the kn";led)e arises. 0he
Dhyana> its eans> is n"; iparted. Diss"l$in) th"()ht t"tally in the
re$erse "rder> think "nly "= the reainin) p(re %"ns%i"(sness.
267
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II-ii-51-56. A=ter the Apana sets and .e="re 4rana arises in the heart>
there eJists the state "= '(.haka 6i".ility7 eJperien%ed .y
1")ins. '(.haka in the eJternal ="r is the =(llness "= 4rana a=ter
in-.reath disappears and "(t-.reath arises. !y repeatedly pra%tisin)
editati"n "= !rahan ;ith"(t e)"> -apra5nata -aadhi ;ill .e )"t.
0he Asapra5nata -aadhi> l"$ed .y 1")ins> is 6=r"7 the ind
)i$in) )reat .liss a=ter 6all7 the ental "di=i%ati"ns 6th"()hts7 die
a;ay. It is $al(ed .y sa)es> .ein) the spirit de$"id "= the li)ht 6"=
e)"7> "= the ind 6"= drea7 and "= the intelle%t 6in deep sleep7. 0his
%"n%entrati"n is "ther than ;hat is n"t !rahan. F(ll a."$e> .el";
and in the iddle the essen%e "= )""dness ? this state> pres%ri.ed .y
the Upanishads> is the (ltiate reality.
II-ii-57-6&. /atent ipressi"n is that (neJained )raspin) "= ".5e%ts
.y persistent ia)inati"n. Ghat "ne .rin)s int" .ein)> thr"()h intense
dispassi"n .y "neEs sel=> is realiCed H(i%kly> de$"id "= "pp"site
ipressi"ns. In=l(en%ed .y ipressi"ns> a pers"n l""ks (p"n th"se
thin)s as reality .y the pe%(liarity "= the ipressi"ns> the i)n"rant
pers"n sees the spirit ;r"n)ly th"()h it d"es n"t l"se its ";n nat(re.
II-ii-61-6+. 0he ip(re ipressi"n .inds> the p(re destr"ys .irth. 0he
ip(re "ne is s"lid i)n"ran%e and e)"> %a(ses re.irth. 0he rest=(l state
is like the r"asted seed> )i$in) (p the 6spr"(t "=7 re.irth. 8an the inner
li)ht .e s"()ht ;ith %he;in) the %(d "= any -hastras> (selessly I
9ne ;h" reains al"ne )i$in) (p per%epti"n as ;ell as n"n-
per%epti"n is hisel= the !rahan ? A pers"n %ann"t kn"; !rahan
.y erely learnin) the ="(r Vedas and -hastras> as the ladle %ann"t
taste the =""d.
I= a pers"n d"es n"t )et deta%hent .y the .ad sell "= his ";n ."dy>
26+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
;hat "ther %a(se "= deta%hent %an .e ta()ht I 0he ."dy is $ery
ip(re ? the s"(l is p(re. Ghen "ne kn";s the di==eren%e> ;hat
p(ri=i%ati"n need .e pres%ri.ed I !"nda)e is .y ipressi"ns> M"ksha
is their destr(%ti"n ? y"( )i$e the (p as ;ell as the desire ="r
M"ksha.
II-ii-6,-71. Gi$e (p ental ipressi"ns "= ".5e%ts and %(lti$ate p(re
ipressi"ns like =riendship< then> dis%ardin) e$en these ;hile a%tin)
a%%"rdin) t" the> p(ttin) d";n all desires> ha$e "nly the ipressi"n
"= %"ns%i"(sness. Gi$e (p these t"" al"n) ;ith ind and intelle%t<
%"n%entrate "nly "n e.
II-ii-72-77. 8"nteplate e as de$"id "= s"(nd> t"(%h> ="r> taste and
sell> eternal> indestr(%ti.le> ;ith"(t nae and =aily> destr"yin) all
s(==erin)> the nat(re "= $isi"n like the sky> the "ne sylla.le 9>
(nsearin) th"()h "nipresent> (niH(e> ;ith"(t ."nda)e> ="r;ard>
a%r"ss> a."$e> .el";> I =ill e$er pla%e.
Un."rn> a)eless> shinin) .y ysel=> n"t the %a(se n"r e==e%t> e$er
%"ntented ;hen the ."dy dies a;ay> )i$in) (p the state "= 2i$an(kta>
"ne enter the Videha(kti sta)e.
-" says the Rik@ 0hat s(pree pla%e "= Vishn( the sa)es see e$er ?
like an eye eJtended in hea$en. 0he ;ise and a;akened pers"ns> =ree
=r" e"ti"ns> keep it ali)ht.
9 ? 0his is the Upanishad.
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
26,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the M(ktik"panishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-1a5(r-Veda.
27&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
21. #iralam'a Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9: /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. I shall raise and ans;er 6H(esti"ns %"$erin)7 all that (st .e kn";n
="r liH(idatin) the is="rt(nes "= li$in) .ein)s pl(n)ed in i)n"ran%e.
2. 617 Ghat is !rahanI
627 Gh" is G"dI
637 Gh" is li$in) .ein)I
6#7 Ghat is 4rakritiI
657 Gh" is the -(pree -el=I
271
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667 Gh" is !raha I
677 Gh" is Vishn( I
6+7 Gh" is R(dra I
6,7 Gh" is Indra I
61&7 Gh" is 6the )"d "=7 Death I
6117 Gh" is the -(n I
6127 Gh" is the M""n I
6137 Gh" are the G"ds I
61#7 Gh" are the de"ns I
6157 Gh" are the e$il spirits I
6167 Gh" are en I
6177 Gh" are ;"en I
61+7 Gh" are anials and s" ="rth I
61,7 Ghat is the i".ile I
62&7 Gh" are the !rahanas> et%.> I
6217 Ghat is a %aste I
6227 Ghat is deed I
272
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6237 Ghat is a n"n-deed I
62#7 Ghat is kn";led)e I
6257 Ghat is i)n"ran%e I
6267 Ghat is pleas(re I
6277 Ghat is pain I
62+7 Ghat is hea$en I
62,7 Ghat is hell I
63&7 Ghat is ."nda)e I
6317 Ghat is li.erati"n I
6327 Ghat is t" .e ad"red I
6337 Gh" is the dis%iple I
63#7 Gh" is the sa)e I
6357 Gh" is the del(ded I
6367 Ghat is the de"nia% I
6377 Ghat is a(sterity I
63+7 Ghi%h is the s(pree a."de I
63,7 Ghat is t" .e s"()ht a=ter I
273
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6#&7 Ghat is t" .e re5e%ted I
6#17 Gh" is the ren"(n%er 6-annyasin7 I
3. 617 !rahan is the ine==a.le -pirit. It appears as the Mahat 6the
-ankhyan Great7> the e)"> 6the eleents7 earth> ;ater> =ire> air and
ether ? the a%r"%"s and as a%ti"ns> kn";led)e and ends. It is n"n-
d(al and =ree =r" all ad5(n%ts. It is .i) ;ith all p";ers and is ;ith"(t
.e)innin) and end. It ay .e sp"ken "= as p(re> )""d> H(ies%ent>
(nH(ali=ied.
#. 627 G"d is the $erita.le !rahan that> dependin) "n Its p";er
%alled 4rakriti %reates the ;"rlds and enters 6int" the7 as the inner
8"ntr"ller "= !raha> et%.> 63e7 is Ish$ara> as 3e %"ntr"ls the intelle%t
and the sense-"r)ans.
5. 637 0he li$in) .ein) 62i$a7 is he ;h"> thr"()h =alse s(perip"siti"n>
a==irs `I a )r"ssE d(e t" `the nae and ="rE "= !raha> Vishn(>
Isana> Indra> et%. 62i$a thinks7@ 0h"()h I a "ne> d(e t" the di==eren%es
"= the %a(ses that "ri)inate the ."dy> the 2i$as are any.
6. 6#7 4rakriti is .(t the p";er "= !rahan< it is intelle%t(al in nat(re
and %"petent t" %reate the $arie)ated and ar$ell"(s ;"rld =r"
6the atriJ7 "= !rahan.
7. 657 0he s(pree -el= is !rahan al"ne .ein) alt")ether di==erent
=r" ."dy> et%.
27#
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
+-,. 66-2&7 !raha> Vishn(> Indra> 6the )"d "=7 Death> the -(n> the
M""n> the )"ds> the de"ns> en> ;"en> anials> et%.< the
i".ile the !rahanas> et%.< are that $ery -pirit.
1&. 6217 *either skin n"r .l""d n"r =lesh n"r ."ne has %aste< 0" sel= is
%aste as%ri.ed thr"()h ere (sa)e.
11. 6227 `I d" the deeds that are d"ne thr"()h sense-"r)ansE ? the deed
th(s d"ne as %entred in the -el= al"ne is the deed 6in H(esti"n7.
12. 6237 0he deed d"ne ;ith %"n%eit as a)ent and en5"yer> %a(sin)
.irth> et%.> .inds< 0he n"n-deed is the ".li)at"ry and "%%asi"nal a%ti"n
? sa%ri=i%e> h"ly $";> a(sterity> )i=ts> et%.> d"ne ;ith"(t desire ="r their
=r(it.
13. 62#7 'n";led)e is the iediate realiCati"n> d(e t" the
dis%iplinin) "= ."dy and sense-"r)ans> ser$i%e rendered t" the 0ea%her>
hearin)> thinkin) and editati"n> that there is n"thin) .(t -pirit> the
essen%e "= ."th s(.5e%ts and ".5e%ts> ;hi%h is i(ta.le a"n) the
(ta.les like p"ts and %l"thes> the sae in all> their inner"st
6essen%e7.
1#. 6257 I)n"ran%e is the ill(s"ry kn";led)e ? like that "= the snake in
the r"pe ? "= !rahan that is All in all> all-per$asi$e and n"n-d(al.
60his ill(s"ry kn";led)e7 is ass"%iated ;ith a pl(rality "= sel$es .ased
"n the pl(rality "= the ad5(n%ts "= ."nda)e and li.erati"n> $iC.< stati"ns
in li=e> %astes> en> ;"en> the i".iles> ankind> 6l";er7 anials
and )"ds.
275
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15. 6267 4leas(re is the .liss=(l state that s(%%eeds the kn";led)e "=
the essen%e "= !ein)> Intelli)en%e and !liss. 6277 It 6D(kha - pain7 is
the ere -ankalpa 6"r the thinkin)7 "= the ".5e%ts "= (ndane
eJisten%e 6"r "= n"t--el=7.
16. 62+7 3ea$en is the ass"%iati"n ;ith the h"ly.
17. 62,7 Ass"%iati"n ;ith the ;"rldly ="lk ;h" are (nh"ly al"ne is
hell.
1+. 63&7 !"nda)e %"nsists in ia)inin) d(e t" the .e)innin)less latent
ipressi"ns "= nes%ien%e> `I a ."rn> et%.E
1,. !"nda)e %"nsists in ia)inin) a pl(n)e int" the =l(J "= eJisten%e
;ith its p"ssessi$e %lais "n =ields> )ardens> h"(ses> %hildren> ;i$es>
.r"thers> "thers and =athers.
2&. !"nda)e is the %"n%eit "= e)"isti% a)en%y in re)ard t" a%ti"ns> et%.
21. !"nda)e is the ia)inati"n pr"pted .y the desire ="r the ei)ht
p";ers> ania> et%.
22. !"nda)e is the ia)inati"n pr"pted .y the yearnin) ="r ad"rin)
)"ds> en> et%.
276
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23. !"nda)e is the ia)inati"n 6leadin) t"7 the pra%ti%e "= 1")a ;ith
its ei)ht li.s> 1aa> et%.
2#. !"nda)e is the plannin) "= a%ti"n and d(ties ."(nd (p ;ith %astes
and stati"ns "= li=e.
25. !"nda)e is t" ia)ine that Atan has H(alities like d"(.ts> =ear>
et%.
26. !"nda)e is t" plan 6t" a%H(ire7 kn";led)e> t" per="r sa%ri=i%es>
$";s> a(sterity and 6ake7
)i=ts.
27. !"nda)e is t" plan t" de$"te "nesel= eJ%l(si$ely t" "ksha.
2+. !"nda)e is ;hat sprin)s eJ%l(si$ely =r" ia)inati"n.
2,. 6317 /i.erati"n is the atten(ati"n> thr"()h dis%riinati"n .et;een
the eternal and the epheeral> "= the sense "= ";nership in re)ard t"
".5e%ts that )enerate =leetin) pleas(res and pains in the transi)rat"ry
li=e.
3&. 6327 Ad"ra.le is the tea%her ;h" leads "ne t" !rahan> the -pirit
d;ellin) in all ."dies.
277
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
31. 6337 0he dis%iple is !rahan indeed that reains alt")ether
iersed in the kn";led)e "= the ;"rld as ".literated .y the
a;areness 6"= its )r"(nd> $iC.> !rahan7.
32. 63#7 0he sa)e is the kn";er "= the essen%e "= -el=-a;areness
present in all as their inner"st 6part7.
33. 6357 0he del(ded is he ;h" is s(stained .y the %"n%eit "= e)"is
as re)ards a)en%y> et%.
3#. 6367 De"nia% is the a(sterity> r""ted in entren%hed atta%hent>
a$ersi"n> destr(%ti$e $i"len%e> hyp"%risy> et%.< that t"rents "nesel=
.y per="rin) `repetiti"n "= h"ly naesE and A)nih"tra ;hile =astin)
and that is pr"pted .y the desire t" se%(re the p";er "= )"ds like
!raha> Vishn(> Indra and Isana.
35. 6377 A(sterity is the .(rnin)> in the =ire "= iediate realiCati"n "=
the ;"rldEs =alsity> "= the seed "= ia)inati"n =ashi"ned .y the desire
t" se%(re the p";er "= !raha> et%.
36. 63+7 0he s(pree a."de is !rahanEs stat(s> "ne "= eternal
=reed"> %"prisin) !ein)> Intelli)en%e> and !liss> .ey"nd the
H(alities "= the inner "r)an and the sense-"r)ans and the $ital .reaths.
37. 63,7 0" .e s"()ht a=ter is the essen%e "= the p(re -pirit
(ndeterined .y spa%e> tie and ".5e%ts.
27+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
3+. 6#&7 0" .e re5e%ted is the th"()ht that tr(e is the ;"rld "ther than
"neEs ";n -el= that is per%ei$ed .y the =alse sense "r)ans and the
intelle%t.
3,. 6#17 0he -annyasin 6endi%ant "nk7 is the ;anderin)
independent as%eti% ;h" has kn";n ="r %ertain> in the indeterinate
%"n%entrati"n 6*ir$ikalpa--aadhi7> `I a !rahanE. 3e is led (pt" it
thr"()h the eJperiential kn";led)e "= the %"ntents "= Ma5"r teJts like@
`0here is n" pl(rality hereE< `All this is !rahanE< D0hat 0h"( ArtD>
et%.< a=ter ren"(n%in) all d(ties> sense "= p"ssessi"n and the e)"> and
takin) re=()e in the .el"$ed !rahan. 0hat as%eti% is li.erated< he is
ad"ra.le< he is the 1")in< he is the Iense< he is the !rahana.
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the *irala."panishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-1a5(r-Veda.
27,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
22. .ain!ala Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
I-1. 0hen indeed 4ain)ala appr"a%hed 1a5na$alkya as a dis%iple> and>
ha$in) ser$ed hi ="r t;el$e years> said@ Instr(%t e in re)ard t" the
s(pree ystery "= Al"neness.
I-2. 0he einent 1a5na$alkya replied@ Dear "ne> in the .e)innin) this
indeed eJisted. It ;as the eternally =ree> i(ta.le> e$erlastin)ly "ne>
se%"ndless !rahan> =(ll "= 0r(th> 'n";led)e and !liss.
I-3. In it eJisted the pri"rdial and inde=ina.le 4rakriti> %"nsistin) "=
G(nas in a state "= eH(ip"ise> red> ;hite and dark> rese.lin) 6the
eJisten%e "=7 ;ater> sil$er> a an and "(tlines 6respe%ti$ely7 in the
2+&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
ira)e "yster-shell> a st(p and a irr"r< ;hat ;as re=le%ted in it ;as
the Gitness 8"ns%i"(sness.
I-#. 3a$in) .een "di=ied> ;ith the prep"nderan%e "= -att$a> and
naed A$yakta 6the Unani=est7> it 64rakriti7 .e%ae the p";er "=
%"n%ealent. Ghat ;as re=le%ted in it .e%ae G"d 8"ns%i"(sness. 3e
has Maya (nder 3is %"ntr"l> is "nis%ient> is the initial %a(se "=
%reati"n> s(stenan%e and diss"l(ti"n 6"= the ;"rld7 and has the ="r "=
the spr"(tin) ;"rld. 3e ani=ests the entire ;"rld diss"l$ed in 3i.
D(e t" the p";er "= the 'aras "= li$in) .ein)s is the 6;"rld7 spread
"(t like this %l"th and d(e t" their eJha(sti"n a)ain is 6the ;"rld7
%"n%ealed. In 3i al"ne d"es the entire ;"rld eJist as a ="lded %l"th.
I-5.Fr" the p";er "= %"n%ealent %"ntr"lled .y G"d ar"se the
4";er "= 4r"5e%ti"n %alled Mahat. Ghat is re=le%ted in it is the
%"ns%i"(sness "= 3iranya)ar.ha. 3e has the %"n%eit "= ";nership as
re)ards Mahat and has a ."dy partly ani=est and partly (nani=est.
I-6. Fr" the pr"5e%ti$e p";er %"ntr"lled .y 3iranya)ar.ha ar"se the
)r"ss p";er %alled the e)"> ;ith the prep"nderan%e "= 0aas. Ghat
;as re=le%ted in it ;as the %"ns%i"(sness "= Virat. 0hat Virat ;h" has
%"n%eit in the E)"> a ani=est ."dy> and is the 8hie= 4ers"n> Vishn( is
the pr"te%t"r "= all )r"ss thin)s. Fr" that -el= 6Virat7 ar"se ether<
=r" the ether> air< =r" air> =ire< =r" =ire> ;ater< =r" ;ater> earth.
0hese =i$e r""t-eleents are %"p"sed "= the three G(nas.
I-7. Desirin) t" %reate> that ;"rld-8a(se 6G"d7> %"ntr"llin) the H(ality
"= 0aas> s"()ht t" render the s(.tle r""t-eleents )r"ss. 3e
.i=(r%ated ea%h "= the eJtreely liited eleents and a)ain ade 6the
hal$es7 ="(r-="ld and added ea%h "= the =i$e hal$es t" "ne-ei)hths "=
2+1
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
the "ther ="(r. Gith th"se H(int(pli%ated eleents he %reated endless
8r"res "= a%r"%"ss and ="r ea%h "= these ="(rteen appr"priate
;"rlds and )l".(lar )r"ss ."dies =it ="r ea%h planes "= the all.
I-+. 3a$in) di$ided int" ="(r the Ra5as part "= the =i$e eleents he
ade 4rana ;ith its =i$e ="ld a%ti$ity =r" three parts "= it. Fr" the
="(rth part 6"= ra5as7 he =ashi"ned the "r)an "= a%ti"n.
I-,. 3a$in) di$ided int" ="(r their -att$a part> "(t "= the %".inati"n
"= three "= the> he ade the inner "r)an ;ith its =i$e-="ld a%ti$ity.
Fr" the ="(rth> he ade the "r)ans "= 8")niti"n.
I-1&. Fr" the %".inati"n "= -att$a he ade the )(ardians "= sense-
"r)ans. 3e %ast the> ha$in) %reated the int" the a%r"%"s. D(e t"
his %"and> %"n5(red ;ith the e)"> the Virat pr"te%ted the )r"ss
eleents 6"= the %"s"s7. 8"anded .y hi> 3iranya)ar.ha
pr"te%ted the s(.tle "nes.
I-11. In the %"s"s they %"(ld n"t> ;ith"(t G"d> p(lsate "r a%t. 3e
desired t" $i$i=y the. -plittin) "pen the a%r"%"s> the %hannels "=
!rahan> and the %r";ns "= indi$id(als> he entered int" the. 0h"()h
they ;ere inert> like sentient 6.ein)s7 they per="red ea%h its ";n
=(n%ti"ns.
I-12. 0he "nis%ient /"rd> %"n5"ined ;ith a streak "= Maya> "n
enterin) the indi$id(al ."dies> and del(ded .y it> .e%ae the 2i$a< d(e
t" sel=-identi=i%ati"n ;ith the three ."dies 6he7 .e%ae ."th a)ent and
reaper 6"= a%ti"nEs =r(its7. 4"ssessin) the attri.(tes "= ;ake=(lness>
drea> deep sleep> s;""n and death> like a %hain "= .(%kets 6atta%hed
2+2
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
t" a ;ater ;heel7 he .e%"es tr"(.led and as it ;ere is ."rn and dies>
re$"l$in) like a p"tterEs ;heel.
II-1. *"; 4ain)ala asked 1a5na$alkya@ 3"; did the "nip"tent /"rd
"= all ;"rlds> the a(th"r "= their ani=estati"n> s(stenan%e and
diss"l(ti"n .e%"e 2i$a I
II-2. 1a5na$alkya replied@ I shall speak distin)(ishin) .et;een the
="rs "= the 2i$a and "= G"d> ="ll";in) the )enerati"n "= the )r"ss>
s(.tle and %a(sal ."dies. /isten ;ith eJ%l(si$e attenti"n. Epl"yin)
parts "= H(int(pli%ated )r"ss eleents> the /"rd ade indi$id(al and
%"lle%ti$e )r"ss> ."dies> respe%ti$ely. Earthy are the sk(ll> skin>
intestines> ."nes> =lesh and nails. Gatery are the .l""d> (rine> sali$a>
perspirati"n and s" ="rth. Fiery are h(n)er> thirst> heat> lassit(de>
seJ(al (ni"n> et%. Airy are the "$eents> the transp"rtin)> .reathin)>
et%. Ethereal are l(st> an)er> et%. 0he )r"ss ."dy ;ith skin> et%.< is a
%".inati"n "= all this> =ashi"ned thr"()h deeds< 6it is7 the .asis "=
states like %hildh""d> et%.> %"n%eit and n(er"(s =ailin)s.
II-3. 0hen he 6G"d7 ani=ested 4rana 6the 4rin%iple "= li=e7 =r" the
n"n-H(int(pli%ated a))re)ate "= the three Ra5as parts "= the )r"ss
eleents. 0he "di=i%ati"n "= the li=e prin%iple are the 4rana> Apana>
Vyana> Udana and -aana. 0he s(."rdinate =(n%ti"ns "= 4rana are
naed *a)a> '(ra> 'rikara> De$adatta and Dhanan5aya. 0heir .ases
are the heart> the an(s> na$el> thr"at and all the li.s. Gith the ="(rth
part "= the Ra5as "= Akasa> he ani=ested the "r)an "= a%ti"n. Its
=(n%ti"ns are 6per="red .y7 the t"n)(e> the hands> the =eet> the an(s
and the )enerati$e "r)an. 0he ".5e%ts "= these are spee%h> )raspin)>
"$eent> eJ%reti"n and 6seJ7 en5"yent. -iilarly =r" the
a))re)ate "= the three -att$a parts "= the eleents> he ani=ested the
2+3
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
inner "r)an. Its =(n%ti"ns are the ind> the intelle%t> th"()ht and the
e)". 0he ".5e%ts "= these are ia)inati"n> deterinati"n> e"ry>
%"n%eit and in$esti)ati"n. 0heir .ases are the thr"at> the "(th> the
na$el> the heart and the 5(n%ti"n "= the eye-.r";s. Gith the ="(rth part
"= the -att$a "= the eleents> he ani=ested the sense "= 8")niti"n. Its
=(n%ti"ns are the ears> the skin> the eyes> the t"n)(e and the n"se.
0heir ".5e%ts are s"(nd> t"(%h> ="r> taste and sell.
0he "$erl"rds "= the "r)ans 6"= per%epti"n and a%ti"n7 are the
dire%ti"ns> the ;ind> the s(n> 4ra%hetas> As$ins> Fire> Indra> Upendra>
Death> the ""n> Vishn(> !raha and -a.h(.
II-#. *";> there are =i$e sheaths> that "= =""d> "= $ital .reaths> "=
ind> "= kn";led)e and "= .liss. 0he sheath "= =""d %"es int" .ein)
=r" the essen%e "= =""d al"ne> de$el"ps .y it> and is diss"l$ed in the
earth that is pred"inantly "= the nat(re "= =""d. 0hat al"ne is the
)r"ss ."dy. 0he =i$e .reaths> 4rana> et%.< t")ether ;ith the =i$e "r)ans
"= a%ti"ns %"nstit(te the sheath "= $ital .reaths. 0he sheath "= ind is
the ind t")ether ;ith the "r)ans "= %")niti"n. 0he sheath "=
kn";led)e is the intelle%t t")ether ;ith the "r)ans "= %")niti"n. 0hese
three sheaths %"nstit(te the s(.tle ."dy. 0he sheath "= .liss is the
kn";led)e "= "neEs essen%e. 0his is the %a(sal ."dy.
II-5. 0he ei)ht-="ld %ity 6the t"tal s(.tle ."dy7 %"nsists "= the =i$e
"r)ans "= %")niti"n> the =i$e "r)ans "= a%ti"n> the =i$e .reaths> the =i$e
eleents like ether> et%.> the =i$e-="ld inner "r)an> desire> a%ti"n and
0aas.
II-6. Vish$a 6is7 the sel= "= kn";led)e> a re=le%ti"n "= sat> the
epiri%al 6.ein)7> ha$in) %"n%eit in the )r"ss ."dy "= the ;akin)
state. 0he =ield "= a%ti"ns 6"r ."rn "= a%ti"ns7 is als" a nae "= Vish$a.
2+#
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

II-7. !y G"dEs %"and> the -(tratan 63iranya)ar.ha7 entered the
s(.tle ."dy "= the indi$id(al and s(per$isin) the ind .e%ae the
0ai5asa. 0ai5asa is the appearan%e. Drea =ashi"ned is a nae "=
0ai5asa.
II-+. !y G"dEs %"and 6the -el=7 ;ith the ad5(n%t "= Maya t")ether
;ith the Unani=est> enterin) the indi$id(al %a(sal ."dy .e%ae
4ra5na. 0he 4ra5na is (ndi==erentiated> real> `3a$in) %"n%eit-in-deep-
sleepE is the nae "= 4ra5na.
II-,. 0eJts like 0att$aasi de%lare the identity ;ith !rahan "= the
real 2i$a %"n%ealed .y i)n"ran%e and part "= the (nani=est< n"t "= the
"ther t;"> the epiri%al and the ill(s"ry 2i$as 6in the ;akin) and
drea-state7.
II-1&. 0he 8"ns%i"(sness re=le%ted in the inner "r)an parti%ipated in
the three states. Mer)ed in the states "= ;ake=(lness> drea and deep
sleep> like a %hain "= .(%kets atta%hed t" the ;ater ;heel> and
a==li%ted> he 6the 2i$a7 is as it ;ere ."rn and dead.
II-11. *"; there are =i$e states ? Gake=(lness> drea> deep sleep>
s;""n and death. 0he ;ake=(l state %"nsists in the %")niti"n "=
".5e%ts like s"(nd> et%.< .y eans "= the "r)ans "= %")niti"n like ears>
et%.< ;hen aided .y the respe%ti$e 6)(ardian7 deities. 0he 2i$a
stati"ned at the 5(n%ti"n "= the eye-.r";s and per$adin) the ;h"le
6."dy7 =r" the =""t t" the head .e%"es the a)ent "= all kinds "=
a%ti$ities like tillin) and hea$in). Als" the reaper "= their respe%ti$e
=r(its. Mi)ratin) t" the "ther ;"rld6s7 al"ne he reaps the =r(it "= 6his7
2+5
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
a%ti$ities. 0ired d(e t" a%ti$ities> like an eper"r> he takes t" the ;ay
leadin) t" the inner %ha.er 6a ne; ."dy7.
II-12. Ghen the instr(ents "= 6%")niti"n and a%ti"n7 %ease t" "perate>
the drea state %"es int" .ein) in ;hi%h there is kn";led)e "=
".5e%ts and their %")niti"n d(e t" the hal=-a;akened ipressi"ns "=
the ;akin) state. 0here> Vish$a hisel=> d(e t" the %essati"n "=
epiri%al a%ti$ities> "$in) in the syste "= ner$es and .e%"in)
0ai5asa> en5"ys =reely the rarity "= the ;"rld %"nsistin) "= latent
ipressi"ns ;hi%h he ill(ines ;ith his li)ht.
II-13. 0he instr(ent "= deep sleep is ind al"ne. 2(st as a .ird>
eJha(sted .y rand" =li)hts> ="lds its ;in)s and "$es t";ards its
nest> s" the 2i$a> t""> sp"rtin) in the spheres "= ;ake=(lness and
drea and eJha(sted> pl(n)es int" i)n"ran%e and en5"ys its ";n .liss.
II-1#. 0he 6state "=7 s;""n is like that "= death ;ith the sense "r)ans
stirrin) d(e t" =ear and (n%"ns%i"(sness ;hen str(%k ;ith a %l(.>
sti%k> et%.> a%%identally.
II-15. Di==erent =r" the states "= ;ake=(lness> drea> deep sleep and
s;""n and "%%asi"nin) =ear t" all 2i$as =r" !raha d";n t" a %l(p
6"= )rass> et%.>7 and res(ltin) in the =all "= the ."dy is the state "=
death.
II-16. Githdra;in) the "r)ans "= a%ti"n and %")niti"n and the $ital
.reaths %"rresp"ndin) t" $aried ".5e%ts> and attended .y desires and
a%ti"ns> and en$el"ped in i)n"ran%e and 6the s(.tle7 eleents> the 2i$a
)"es t" an"ther ;"rld. D(e t" the ripenin) "= the =r(its "= pri"r
2+6
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
a%ti"ns> like a ;"r %a()ht (p in a ;hirl p""l 6the 2i$a7 n"; ;ins
rest.
II-17. As a res(lt "= past )""d deeds> at the end "= any li$es> en
seek li.erati"n. 0hen res"rtin) t" a tea%her "= -el=-realiCati"n and
6=aith=(lly7 ser$in) hi l"n) "ne inH(iries int" ."nda)e and li.erati"n.
II-1+. !"nda)e res(lts =r" la%k "= inH(iry< li.erati"n res(lts =r"
inH(iry. 0here="re in$esti)ate at all ties. 9neEs ";n nat(re ay .e
deterined thr"()h s(perip"siti"n and its rep(diati"n. 0here="re
al;ays inH(ire 6int" the nat(re "=7 the indi$id(al -el= and the s(pree
-el=. Ghen the state "= 2i$a and that "= the ;"rld are s(.lated>
!rahan al"ne> n"n-di==erent =r" the inner -el=> reains.
III-1-2. 0hen 4ain)ala said t" 1a5na$alkya@ -et ="rth the eJplanati"n
"= the a5"r teJt6s7 KMaha-$akyasL. 1a5na$alkya replied@ 0h"( art
0hat< 0h"( 0hat art< 0h"( !rahan art< I a !rahan ? 9ne sh"(ld
editate th(s.
III-3. 0he eJpressed sense "= the ;"rd `tatE is the ;"rld-%a(se> arked
.y `"ther-nessE 6edia%y7> ha$in) !ein)> 8"ns%i"(sness and !liss as
his %hara%teristi%s> Maya as his ad5(n%t and "nis%ien%e> et%.> as his
=eat(res. 0he $ery sae ;ith a;areness iJed (p ;ith the inner
sense> the ".5e%t "= the I-n"ti"n> is the eJpressed eanin) "= `t$aE.
Re5e%tin) the ad5(n%ts "= the s(pree 6G"d7 and the 2i$a> $iC.@ Maya
and a$idya> the indi%ated sense "= tat and t$a is !rahan> n"n-
di==erent =r" the inner -el=.
2+7
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
III-#. `3earin)E is in$esti)ati"n int" the ip"rt "= pr"p"siti"ns like
`0hat 0h"( artE and `I a !rahanE. Re=le%ti"n is the eJ%l(si$e
d;ellin) "n the %"ntent "= ;hat has .een heard. Meditati"n is the
=iJin) "= the ind "ne-p"intedly "n the reality> ade d"(.tless
thr"()h in$esti)ati"n and re=le%ti"n. 8"n%entrati"n> rese.lin) a
=lae in a ;indless sp"t> is the th"()ht 6%hitta7 ;h"se %"ntent is s"lely
the ".5e%t editated> eJ%l(si$e "= the a)ent> and the a%t> "= editati"n.
III-5. 0hen 6indEs7 "di=i%ati"ns re=errin) t" the -el=> th"()h
sh""tin) (p> reain (n%")nised< they are "nly in=erred =r" e"ry.
!y this 6-aadhi7 al"ne are diss"l$ed 8r"res "= deeds a%%((lated in
the %"(rse "= .e)innin)less transi)rat"ry eJisten%e. 0hr"()h skil=(l
pra%ti%e> then%e> then> =l";> in a th"(sand ;ays> streas "= ne%tar.
0here="re> the .est kn";ers "= 1")a %all 6this7 8"n%entrati"n
dharae)ha> %l"(d "= $irt(es. Ghen the eshes "= latent
ipressi"ns are entirely ".literated .y $irt(e "= it and the
a%%((lati"n "= deeds> )""d and e$il> p(lled (p .y their r""ts> the
pr"p"siti"n 6;h"se %"ntent ;as7 earlier ediated "n )enerates
(nipeded and iediate realiCati"n 6rese.lin)> in its %ertit(de7 the
)""se.erry in the pal 6"= "neEs hand7. 0hen "ne .e%"es li.erated in
li=e.
III-6. G"d desired the n"n-H(int(pli%ati"n "= the H(int(pli%ated
eleents. /eadin) the e==e%ted a%r"%"s and the ;"rlds in%l(ded in
it t" their %a(sal state> (ni=yin) the s(.tle "r)ans "= a%ti"n> $ital
.reaths> "r)ans "= %")niti"n and the ="(r-="ld inner sense> red(%in) all
eleental 6e==e%ts7 t" the =i$e-="ld %a(se> 6he7 diss"l$es in 6d(e7 "rder
the earth in ;ater> ;ater in =ire> =ire in air> air in ether> ether in the e)">
the e)" in the Mahat> the Mahat in the (nani=est and the (nani=est
in the -pirit 64(r(sha7. D(e t" the diss"l(ti"n "= the ad5(n%ts> Virat>
3iranya)ar.ha and G"d are diss"l$ed in the s(pree -el=.
2++
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

III-7. 3a$in) .e%"e n"n-H(int(pli%ated thr"()h the atten(ati"n "=
6the a%%((lated7 deeds and the ripenin) "= )""d deeds> and "ne ;ith
the s(.tle 6."dy7> ret(rnin) t" the %a(se and its %a(se> the )r"ss ."dy
)enerated .y deeds d"ne thr"()h the H(int(pli%ated )r"ss eleents
.e%"es n"n-H(int(pli%ated and )ets diss"l$ed in the i(ta.le inner
-el=. Vish$a> tai5asa and 4ra5na diss"l$e in the sae d(e t" the
diss"l(ti"n "= their ad5(n%ts.
III-+. 0he i%r"%"s %"ns(ed in the =ire "= kn";led)e t")ether ;ith
6its7 %a(ses is diss"l$ed in the s(pree -el=. 0here="re the !rahana
sh"(ld %"n%entratedly d;ell "n the identity 6"= the %"ntents7 "= the
ters tat and t$a. 0hen%e> ;hen the %l"(ds are dispelled as the s(n
6shines ="rth7> the -el= is ani=ested.
III-,-1&. Meditatin) "n the -el=> "= the siCe "= a th(.> in the %entre
6"= the heart I7 like a s"keless =lae> editate "n the ill(inin) -el=
in the %entre> i(ta.le and i"rtal. 0he silent sa)e /i.erated-in-
li=e> sits editatin) till sleep> till death< he is the .lessed "ne ;h" has
per="red his d(ty.
III-11. Gi$in) (p the stat(s "= /i.erati"n-in-li=e> ;hen "neEs ."dy is
%"ns(ed .y tie> he rea%hes the stat(s "= dise."died li.erati"n like
the ;ind .e%"in) stirless.
III-12. 0hat i"rtal and %ertain 6"ne7> de$"id "= s"(nd> t"(%h> ="r>
taste "r sell> ;ith"(t .e)innin) and end> .ey"nd the Mahat> al"ne
reains ;ith"(t ip(rity and s(==erin).
2+,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

IV-1. 0hen 4ain)ala asked 1a5na$alkya@ 3"; d"es a kn";er 62nanin7
a%t I 3"; d"es he stay in rep"se I
IV-2. 1a5na$alkya replied@ 9ne seekin) li.erati"n> ha$in) a%H(ired
=reed" =r" e)"tis> et%.< takes 21 )enerati"ns 6"= his an%est"rs and
des%endants7 a%r"ss the 6sea "= sasara7. 0he kn";er "= !rahan .y
hisel= al"ne d"es s" 1&1 )enerati"ns.
IV-3. 'n"; the -el= t" .e the rider in the %hari"t< the ."dy $erily t" .e
the %hari"t< the intelle%t t" .e the %hari"teer and the ind t" .e the
reins.
IV-#. 0he senses> the ;ise say> are the h"rses< the ".5e%ts are ;hat
they ran)e "$er< the hearts are the "$in) any-st"reyed ansi"ns.
IV-5. 0he )reat sa)es a$er that the -el= %".ined ;ith sense-"r)ans
and ind is the eJperien%er. 0here="re in the heart> iediately> is
*arayana ;ell-esta.lished.
IV-6. Upt" 6the eJha(sti"n "=7 the "perati$e deeds> the h"eless
li.erated -el=> .eha$es like the -l"()h "= a snake> like the ""n 6in
the sky7.
IV-7. -heddin) the ."dy in a h"ly sp"t "r 6ay .e7 in the h"e "= an
eater "= d")Es =lesh> 6the li.erated "ne7 attains Is"lati"n.
2,&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
IV-+. A=ter;ards> ake an "==erin) "= his ."dy t" the %ardinal p"ints
"r .(ry 6his ."dy7. Mendi%an%y is pres%ri.ed ="r the ale> ne$er ="r
the "ther.
IV-,. *" ".ser$an%e "= 6the peri"d "=7 p"ll(ti"n> n" .(rnin) 6"= the
%"rpse7> n" "==erin) "= ri%e .alls "r "= ;ater> n" ="rtni)htly rites 6are
laid d";n7 ="r a endi%ant ;h" has .e%"e !rahan.
IV-1&. 0here is n" .(rnin) "= ;hat is 6already7 %"ns(ed> 5(st as there
is n" %""kin) "= ;hat is 6already7 %""ked. F"r "ne ;h"se ."dy is
%"ns(ed in the =ire "= kn";led)e there is neither %ere"nial ri%e
"==erin) n"r any 6"ther7 rite 6"= ".seH(ies7.
IV-11. As l"n) as the ad5(n%ts 6."dy> et%.>7 persist> let "ne ;ait (p"n
the tea%her. /et hi treat the ;i=e "= the tea%her and his %hildren as he
d"es the tea%her hisel=.
IV-12. Ghen ;ith the kn";led)e> `I a 0hat :E `I a 0hatE -- I> ;h"se
ind is p(re essen%e> is p(re -pirit> is l"n)-s(==erin) ? ;isd" is
;"n> ;hen the ".5e%t "= kn";led)e> the s(pree -el=> is esta.lished
in the heart< ;hen the ."dy is diss"l$ed in the state "= a%hie$ed 4ea%e>
then "ne .e%"es destit(te "= the l(in"(s ind and intelle%t.
IV-13. 9= ;hat (se is ;ater t" "ne ;h" has had his =ill "= a.r"sia I
-iilarly> 6="r "ne7 ;h" has kn";n his -el=> "= ;hat (se are the Vedas
I *" d(ty reains ="r the 1")in ;h" has had his =ill "= the a.r"sia
"= kn";led)e. I= d(ty .e there> he is n" kn";er "= 0r(th. 0h"()h
stati"ned at a distan%e> he is n"t distant< th"()h e."died> he is
dise."died< he is the "nipresent inner sel=.
2,1
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

IV-1#. Makin) the heart p(re> %"nteplatin) the ;ell-.ein) 6"= all7>
"ne (st eJperien%e s(pree 5"y in the th"()ht> `I a the s(pree>
the AllE.
IV-15. As there is n"n-di==eren%e ;hen ;ater is p"(red in ;ater> ilk
in ilk and )hee in )hee> s" is the %ase ;ith the indi$id(al -el= and
the s(pree -el=.
IV-16. Ghen the ."dy is .(rned .y kn";led)e and kn";led)e
.e%"es in=inite in ="r> then the kn";er %"ns(es the ."nda)e "=
'ara in the =ire "= !rahan-'n";led)e.
IV-17. 0hen%e 6="ll";s the state "=7 the h"ly n"n-d(al6Reality7> naed
the -(pree /"rd> like (nt" the stainless sky. -el=Es nat(re> a.idin)
;ith"(t ad5(n%ts> is as 6that "=7 ;ater iJed ;ith ;ater.
IV-1+. /ike the ether the -el= in the s(.tle ."dy. 0he inner -el= like air
is n"t per%ei$ed. 0hat stirless inner -el= per%ei$es the eJternal
6ani="ld7 ;ith the t"r%h "= 6".5e%ti$e7 kn";led)e.
IV-1,. 0he kn";er> dead> n" atter d(e t" ;hate$er 6="r "=7 death>
is diss"l$ed 6in !rahan that is7 like the all-per$asi$e sky.
IV-2&. 0his diss"l(ti"n he kn";s in tr(th as "= the p"t-spa%e 6in the
in=inite spa%e7. 3e attains 6the stat(s "=7 the sel=-s(stained li)ht "= all-
per$asi$e kn";led)e.
2,2
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

IV-21. -tandin) "n "ne =""t> let an d" a(sterities ="r a 1&&& years<
.(t 6that a(sterity7 is less than "ne siJteenth "= this 1")a "=
editati"n.
IV-22. 0his is kn";led)e< this is t" .e kn";n< "ne ;ishes t" kn"; all
that. Gere he t" li$e 6e$en7 ="r a 1&&& years> he ;"(ld n"t rea%h the
end "= the -hastras.
IV-23. Ghat sh"(ld .e kn";n is 5(st the Iperisha.le< 6.(t7 li=e is
=leetin). A$"idin) the la.yrinths "= -hastras> editate "n the 0r(th
6al"ne7.
IV-2#. A%ti"n are endless ? p(ri=i%ati"n> (tterin)s> 6"= h"ly naes7>
sa%ri=i%es> pil)ria)e t" h"ly pla%es. 0hese 6are $alid7 "nly till 0r(th
is ;"n.
IV-25. As re)ards the )reat-s"(led "nes> the s(re %a(se "= li.erati"n is
6the kn";led)e7 `I a !rahanE. 0he t;" ;"rds deterinin)
."nda)e and li.erati"n are `ineE and `n"t ineE.
IV-26. 0he ip"rt "= `ineE .inds the li$in) .ein)< he is li.erated .y
that "= `n"t ineE. Ghen the ind is deentalised> n" l"n)er is
d(ality %")nised.
IV-27. Ghen deentalisati"n is a%hie$ed> 0hat .e%"es the s(pree
stat(s. Ghere$er> then> the ind )"es> there> $erily> is the s(pree
2,3
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
stat(s.
IV-2+. 0h(s> there> e$ery;here> is !rahan ;ell-esta.lished. F"r "ne
;h" h"lds `I a n"t !rahanE n" li.erati"n is p"ssi.le< 6it is as =(tile7
as strikin) the sky ;ith %len%hed =ists "r a
h(n)ry anEs %he;in) the %ha==.
IV-2,. Gh"s" st(dies the Upanishad as a r(le 6e$ery day7 is p(ri=ied
.y =ire 6as it ;ere7< .y air< .y the s(n< .y Vishn(< .y R(dra. 3e has
.athed in all sa%red ;aters. 3e is $ersed in all the Vedas< has
per="red all the sa%red rites ta()ht .y all the Vedas. 3e has rit(ally
(ttered /a%s "= Itihasas and 4(ranas and "ne /a% ties R(draEs
6tantras7. 3e has (ttered a illi"n ties the sa%red sylla.le> 9M. 3e
redees ten )enerati"ns "= his line> past and =(t(re. 3e p(ri=ies the
r";s "= diners "= ;hi%h he is a n(.er. 3e .e%"es )reat. 3e is
p(r)ed "= the sins "= !rahin-sla()hter> drink> stealth> ad(ltery ;ith
6e$en a7 tea%herEs sp"(se and "= ass"%iati"n ;ith th"se ;h" are )(ilty
"= these.
IV-3&. 0hat s(pree -tat(s "= Vishn( spread "(t> like an eye> in the
sky> the enli)htened "nes al;ays .eh"ld.
IV-31. 0he ;ise> e$er $i)ilant and dili)ent in praise ri%hly )l"ri=y 0hat
s(pree -tat(s "= Vishn(.
IV-32. 9M-0r(th ? 0his is the se%ret tea%hin).
2,#
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the 4ain)al"panishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-1a5(r-Veda.
2,5
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23. .aramahamsa Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : 4ea%e : 4ea%e : 4ea%e :
1. AGhat is the path "= the 4araahasa 1")is> and ;hat are their
d(ties IB ? ;as the H(esti"n *arada asked "n appr"a%hin) the /"rd
!raha 6the 8reat"r7. 0" hi the /"rd replied@ 0he path "= the
4araahasas that y"( ask "= is a%%essi.le ;ith the )reatest di==i%(lty
.y pe"ple< they ha$e n"t any eJp"nents> and it is en"()h i= there .e
"ne s(%h. Verily> s(%h a "ne rests in the e$er-p(re !rahan< he is
$erily the !rahan in%(l%ated in the Vedas ? this is ;hat the kn";ers
"= 0r(th h"ld< he is the )reat "ne> ="r he rests his ;h"le ind al;ays
in Me< and I> t""> ="r that reas"n> reside in hi. 3a$in) ren"(n%ed his
s"ns> =riends> ;i=e> and relati"ns> et%.> and ha$in) d"ne a;ay ;ith the
-hikha> the h"ly thread> the st(dy "= the Vedas> and all ;"rks> as ;ell
as this (ni$erse> he sh"(ld (se the 'a(pina> the sta==> and 5(st en"()h
%l"thes> et%.> ="r the .are aintenan%e "= his ."dy> and ="r the )""d "=
all. And that is n"t =inal. I= it is asked ;hat this =inal is> it is as ="ll";s@
2. 0he 4araahasa %arries neither the sta==> n"r the hair-t(=t> n"r the
h"ly thread n"r any %"$erin). 3e =eels neither %"ld> n"r heat> neither
2,6
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
happiness n"r isery> neither h"n"(r> n"r %"ntept et%. It is eet that
he sh"(ld .e .ey"nd the rea%h "= the siJ .ill";s "= this ;"rld-"%ean.
3a$in) )i$en (p all th"()ht "= %al(ny> %"n%eit> 5eal"(sy> "stentati"n>
arr")an%e> atta%hent "r antipathy t" ".5e%ts> 5"y and s"rr";> l(st>
an)er> %"$et"(sness> sel=-del(si"n> elati"n> en$y> e)"is> and the like>
he re)ards his ."dy as a %"rpse> as he has th"r"()hly destr"yed the
."dy-idea. !ein) eternally =ree =r" the %a(se "= d"(.t> and "=
is%"n%ei$ed and =alse kn";led)e> realisin) the Eternal !rahan> he
li$es in that hisel=> ;ith the %"ns%i"(sness AI ysel= a 3e> I a
0hat ;hi%h is e$er %al> i(ta.le> (ndi$ided> "= the essen%e "=
kn";led)e-.liss> 0hat al"ne is y real nat(re.B 0hat 62nana7 al"ne is
his -hikha. 0hat 62nana7 al"ne is his h"ly thread. 0hr"()h the
kn";led)e "= the (nity "= the 2i$atan ;ith the 4araatan> the
distin%ti"n .et;een the is ;h"lly )"ne t"". 0his 6(ni=i%ati"n7 is his
-andhya %ere"ny.
3. 3e ;h" relinH(ishin) all desires has his s(pree rest in the 9ne
;ith"(t a se%"nd> and ;h" h"lds the sta== "= kn";led)e> is the tr(e
Ekadandi. 3e ;h" %arries a ere ;""den sta==> ;h" takes t" all s"rts
"= sense-".5e%ts> and is de$"id "= 2nana> )"es t" h"rri.le hells kn";n
as the Mahara(ra$as. 'n";in) the distin%ti"n .et;een these t;"> he
.e%"es a 4araahasa.
#. 0he H(arters are his %l"thin)> he pr"strates hisel= .e="re n"ne> he
"==ers n" ".lati"n t" the 4itris 6anes7> .laes n"ne> praises n"ne ?
the -annyasin is e$er "= independent ;ill. F"r hi there is n"
in$"%ati"n t" G"d> n" $aledi%t"ry %ere"ny t" hi< n" Mantra> n"
editati"n> n" ;"rship< t" hi is neither the phen"enal ;"rld n"r
0hat ;hi%h is (nkn";a.le< he sees neither d(ality n"r d"es he
per%ei$e (nity. 3e sees neither AIB n"r `th"(B> n"r all this. 0he
-annyasin has n" h"e. 3e sh"(ld n"t a%%ept anythin) ade "= )"ld
"r the like> he sh"(ld n"t ha$e a ."dy "= dis%iples> "r a%%ept ;ealth. I=
2,7
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
it .e asked ;hat har there is in a%%eptin) the> 6the reply is7 yes>
there is har in d"in) s". !e%a(se i= the -annyasin l""ks at )"ld ;ith
l"n)in)> he akes hisel= a killer "= !rahan< .e%a(se i= the
-annyasin t"(%hes )"ld ;ith l"n)in)> he .e%"es de)raded int" a
8handala< .e%a(se i= he takes )"ld ;ith l"n)in)> he akes hisel= a
killer "= the Atan. 0here="re> the -annyasin (st neither l""k at> n"r
t"(%h n"r take )"ld> ;ith l"n)in). All desires "= the ind %ease t"
eJist> 6and %"nseH(ently7 he is n"t a)itated .y )rie=> and has n"
l"n)in) ="r happiness< ren(n%iati"n "= atta%hent t" sense-pleas(res
%"es> and he is e$ery;here (natta%hed in )""d "r e$il>
6%"nseH(ently7 he neither hates n"r is elated. 0he "(t)"in) tenden%y
"= all the sense-"r)ans s(.sides in hi ;h" rests in the Atan al"ne.
Realisin) AI a that !rahan ;h" is the 9ne In=inite 'n";led)e-
!lissB he rea%hes the end "= his desires> $erily he rea%hes the end "=
his desires.
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : 4ea%e : 4ea%e : 4ea%e :
3ere ends the 4araahas"panishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-1a5(r-
Veda.
2,+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
24. &atyayaniya Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. 0he ind al"ne is the %a(se "= ."nda)e and li.erati"n "= the
pe"ple< 6the ind7 atta%hed t" the ".5e%ts "= the senses leads the t"
."nda)e< =reed =r" the ".5e%ts it leads the t" li.erati"n. 60h(s7 it
has .een de%lared.
2. I= that atta%hent "= the ind "= a pers"n t" the ".5e%ts "= the
senses is dire%ted t";ards !rahan> ;h" shall n"t .e li.erated =r"
."nda)e I
3. 0he ind 6%hitta7 al"ne is ;"rldly li=e< hen%e it sh"(ld .e p(ri=ied
;ith e=="rt. As the ind is> s" he .e%"es. 0his is the eternal se%ret.
2,,
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#. 9ne ;h" kn";s n"t the Veda realiCes n"t that "nipresent 9ne
6!rahan7< "ne ;h" kn";s n"t !rahan rea%hes n"t that s(pree
a."de. 3e ;h" realiCes that the "nipresent )"d 6Vishn(7> the
"nis%ient "ne> the pr"p "= all 6Vas(de$a7 6is hisel=7> that sa)e> seer
"= reality> attains the state "= ;isd" ;hile li$in) 6$iprat$a7.
5. 0hen 6".ser$in) in the ="(r dis%iplines7 th"se !rahanas ;ell-
$ersed in the Veda and (nt"(%hed .y desires> ;h" p"nder "$er the
eternal s(pree !rahan 6realiCe !rahan7. 6A pers"n desirin)
li.erati"n7 ;h" is H(ies%ent> sel=-s(.d(ed> has ren"(n%ed all sens"ry
pleas(res> is ="r.earin)> ;ell $ersed in the s%ript(re> is kn";n as
eH(ani"(s> has dis%arded the priary desires 6="r ;ealth> ;i=e and
pr")eny7 and is =ree =r" the de.ts 6t" the anes> et%.>7> %"in) t"
realiCe the Atan> shall li$e> ".ser$in) silen%e> in s"e sta)e "= li=e
"r "ther as the '(ti%haka 6"r 4araahasa7.
6. 0hen enterin) int" the =inal sta)e "= li=e 6i.e. -annyasa7 he ay
p"ssess =i$e 6sall7 thin)s 6atras7 as is pr"per.
7. 3e sh"(ld p"ssess as l"n) as he li$es 6the =i$e thin)s> naely7 a
three-="ld sta== 6"= .a.""7> sa%red thread> )arent %"nsistin) "= a
l"in-%l"th> slin) and h"ly rin) "= sa%red )rass.
+. 0hese =ire are the thin)s pertainin) t" an as%eti% 6"= the '(ti%haka
"rder7< 6t" all as%eti%s the in;ard p"ssessi"ns are =i$e> naely> the `aE>
`(E> `E> the .ind( and the nada %"nstit(tin) 9.7 0his atra 6naely
the =i$e %"nstit(ents7 is heard in the 4rana$a 6!rahan7. 0ill the =inal
eJit 6"= the $ital .reath7 the as%eti% shall n"t a.and"n 6the t;"="ld =i$e
3&&
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atras7< e$en at death 6the =i$e eJternal atras7 shall .e .(ried ;ith
hi.
,. 0he si)n "= Vishn( 6i.e. eans leadin) t" li.erati"n7 is said t" .e
t;"="ld> the eJternal and the internal. I= "ne "= the is dis%arded 6the
as%eti%7 is ;ith"(t d"(.t =allen.
1&. 0he three="ld sta== is an e.le 6leadin) t"7 Vishn(< it is a eans
"= attainin) li.erati"n .y learned !rahanas as as%eti%s. It is the
eJtin%ti"n "= all ;"rldly %hara%teristi%s ? th(s r(ns the Vedi% tea%hin).
11-12. 0hen indeed> 9h !rahana> there are ="(r kinds "= as%eti%s>
naely '(ti%haka> !ah(daka> 3asa and 4araahasa. All these
.ear the si)ns "= Vishn( 6i.e. they stri$e ="r li.erati"n7> ;ear t(=t and
sa%red thread> are p(re in ind> %"nsider their ";n -el= as !rahan>
are intent "n ;"rship 6"= G"d7 in the ="r "= p(re %"ns%i"(sness>
pra%tise (tterin) "= prayers and the prin%ipal and se%"ndary
dis%iplines 61aa and *iyaa7> are "= )""d %"nd(%t and 6th(s7
.e%"e eJalted. 0his is de%lared in a Vedi% $erse@ 0he '(ti%haka>
!ah(daka> 3asa and 4araahasa as%eti%s are di==erent in their ;ay
"= li=e< all these p"ssess the si)ns "= Vishn(> the eJternal and internal>
;hi%h are al;ays $isi.le and in$isi.le 6respe%ti$ely7. 4ra%tisin) the
=i$e de$"ti"nal a%ts 6ya5nas7> ha$in) penetrati"n int" the Vedanta>
".ser$in) the rites 6appr"priate t" the stati"n in li=e7> res"rtin) t" the
spirit(al l"re> a.and"nin) the tree 6"= ;"rldly li=e7 .(t ha$in) re%"(rse
t" its r""t-%a(se 6naely !rahan7> ren"(n%in) its =l";ers 6"= rit(als7
.(t en5"yin) its 6tr(e7 essen%e> sp"rtin) in Vishn( 6i.e. leadin) the li=e
spirit(al7> deli)htin) in Vishn(> =reed 6=r" eJternal ;"rship7>
identi=yin) thesel$es ;ith Vishn(> they realiCe the "nipresent
Vishn(.
3&1
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13. G"rship d(rin) the three 5(n%t(res "= the day 6-andhyas7 .athin)
a%%"rdin) t" %apa%ity> presentin) li.ati"ns "= ;ater t" the anes>
%leansin) 6i.e. p(ri=yin) "nesel= ;ith ;ater7> ;aitin) (p"n 6the deities
;ith prayers7 ? these =i$e de$"ti"nal a%ts 6the '(ti%haka7 shall
per="r till death.
1#. Gith ten 4rana$as and se$en ysti% ;"rds 6$yahritis7 the ="(r-
=""ted Gayatri al"n) ;ith its `headE is the prayer t" .e re%ited d(rin)
the three -andhyas.
15. 0he pra%ti%e "= y")a %"nsists "= the %"nstant sin)le-inded
de$"ted ser$i%e "= Vishn(> the G(r(< n"n-in5(rin) .y ;"rd> th"()ht
and deed is the de$"ti"nal a%t "= penan%e 6tap"ya5na7.
16. It is de%lared that the de$"ti"nal a%t "= st(dyin) the s%ript(re
6-$adhyaya-ya5na7 %"nsists "= re%itin) the $ari"(s Upanishads. 0he
attenti$e re%itin) "= 9 "==ers the 6%"n%ept "= the indi$id(al7 -el= in
the =ire "= the 6n"n-d(al7 !rahan.
17. 0he de$"ti"nal a%t "= p"ssessin) spirit(al ;isd" 62nana-ya5na7 is
t" .e kn";n as the $ery .est "= all ya5nas. 60he 4araahasas7 ha$e
2nana 6tr(e kn";led)e7 ="r the 6e.leati%7 sta==> 2nana ="r the t(=t
and 2nana ="r the sa%red thread.
1+. 3e ;h"se t(=t %"nsists "= 2nana and the sa%red thread t"" "= that
62nana7 has all the %hara%teristi%s "= a !rahana ? th(s is the
in5(n%ti"n "= the Veda.
3&2
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1,. 0hen indeed> 9h !rahana> these endi%ant "nks are as they
appear 6i.e. (n%lad> as ;hen they ;ere ."rn7. 0hey sh"(ld desire t"
reain as a tree> ha$in) )"ne .ey"nd passi"n> an)er> )reed> del(si"n>
=alse pride> pride> en$y> `ine-nessE and e)"tis< and ha$in)
dis%arded h"n"(r and dish"n"(r> .lae and praise< and ;hen %(t
d";n 6like a tree7 they shall n"t %"plain. 0h(s these ;ise en
.e%"e i"rtal here 6in this ;"rld7 itsel=. 0his has .een said in the
Vedi% $erse@ 3a$in) taken lea$e "= his kinsen and s"n ;ith )""d
;ill and n"t seein) the a)ain> end(rin) the pairs 6"= "pp"sites> heat
and %"ld> et%.>7 and H(ies%ent he shall t(rn east;ard "r n"rth;ard and
pr"%eed "n =""t.
2&-22. 6EH(ipped ;ith7 a 6;ater7 $essel and sta==> seein) ="(r %(.its "=
)r"(nd al"ne .e="re hi> ;earin) sa%red thread and t(=t "r reainin)
sha$en-headed> ha$in) a =aily 6"= his ."dy al"ne7> and re%ei$in)
=r" pe"ple als (n.e))ed "r .e))ed ="r .are s(stenan%eE ha$in) a
$essel ade "= %lay> ;""d> )"(rd "r str(n) lea$es as "ri)inally
pr"$ided> and %l"thed ;ith a )arent "= hep> silk> )rass> a pat%hed
"ne> 6deer-7skin "r a lea=y "ne str(n) "r (nstr(n)< sha$in) his head
al"ne at the 5(n%ti"n "= the seas"ns ;ith"(t re"$in) hair .el"; and
in the ar pits and ne$er the t(=t< he shall reside in a =iJed pla%e ="r
="(r "nths 6"= the rainy seas"n7 d(rin) ;hi%h the in;ard s"(l> the
"nipresent 4(r(sha 6Vishn(7 is asleep 6in the ilky "%ean7.
23. Ghen 6G"d> Vishn(7 has risen 6=r" sleep7> the as%eti% ay reside
in "ne pla%e t" %arry "(t his ;"rk 6s(%h as st(dy> editati"n "r
-aadhi7 ="r the "ther ei)ht "nths "r he ay )" a."(t 6as a
endi%ant "nk7. 6D(rin) the 5"(rney7 he ay stay 6="r sh"rt
peri"ds7 in a teple> a h(t ;here the rit(al =ire is kept> the shade "= a
tree> "r a %a$e> ;ith"(t atta%hent and (nn"ti%ed .y the pe"ple. 3e
shall .e H(ies%ent like =ire ;hen =(el is eJha(sted and he shall n"t
3&3
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
)i$e "r %a(se tr"(.le t" any "ne any;here. 69n seein) "ne eH(al t" "r
in=eri"r t" hi he shall n"t shrink n"r %"nsider any "ne eJistin) as
di==erent =r" hisel=7.
2#. I= a pers"n has realiCed that he is the Atan n"n-di==erent =r" the
(ni$ersal -el=> ;hat %an he ;ish ="r> and t" =(l=il ;hi%h desire need he
t"rt(re his ."dy 6.y $ari"(s kinds "= a(sterities7 I
25. A ;ise-an kn";in) this 6tr(th7 and th(s a kn";er "= !rahan
shall ha$e this %"ns%i"(sness. 3e shall n"t ;"rry hisel= ;ith any
;"rds< ="r it is "nly t"rt(rin) lan)(a)e.
26. 3a$in) dis%erned the kn";led)e "= !rahan he sh"(ld ;ish t"
reain ;ith dispassi"n 6lit. ;ith the inn"%en%e "= the %hild7< a sa)e
has realiCed the Atan ;hen he has the l"re "= !rahan and
dispassi"n.
27. Ghen all desires ;hi%h %lin) t" the heart ha$e .een shed> then the
an .e%"es i"rtal and he en5"ys the 6.liss "=7 !rahan here
6itsel=7.
2+. 0hen indeed> 9h !rahan> he ;h" a.and"ns this as%eti%is ;hi%h
is the hi)hest spirit(al li=e> .e%"es a %hild-(rderer> a (rderer "= a
!rahana> a killer "= an e.ry"> a )reat sinner. 3e> ;h" a.and"ns
this steady li=e pertainin) t" Vishn( 6i.e. the eJternal and internal
dis%ipline in spirit(al li=e7> .e%"es a thie=> a sed(%er "= his
pre%ept"rEs ;i=e> trea%her"(s t" a =riend> (n)rate=(l< he is denied all
6a(spi%i"(s7 ;"rlds. 0his has .een de%lared in the Vedi% $erse ? A
thie=> a drinker "= spirit("(s liH("r> a sed(%er "= his pre%ept"rEs ;i=e
3&#
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
and "ne trea%her"(s t" his =riend )et p(ri=ied .y eJpiati"n< 6.(t7 "ne
;h" a.and"ns the si)n "= Vishn(> eJternal "r internal> ;hi%h he ;as
p"ssessin)> ;ill ne$er .e p(ri=ied in spite "= all his sel=-eJerti"ns.
2,. A.and"nin) the si)n "= Vishn(-;"rship> eJternal "r internal> he
;h" res"rts t" his sta)e "= li=e "r n" 6pres%ri.ed7 sta)e at all> "r
ret(rns 6t" his ="rer ;ay "= li$in) pri"r t" ren(n%iati"n7 ? t" that
)reat =""l 6and t" pe"ple "= his kind7 there is n" li.erati"n seen e$en
in tens "= illi"ns "= e"ns.
3&. A.and"nin) all "ther sta)es "= li=e a ;ise an sh"(ld li$e ="r l"n)
in the sta)e "= li=e leadin) t" li.erati"n. 0here is n" li.erati"n p"ssi.le
t" "ne ;h" has =allen =r" the sta)e leadin) t" =inal .eatit(de.
31. 3a$in) e.ra%ed as%eti%is> i= "ne d"es n"t reain ".ser$in) its
la;s> he is t" .e kn";n as `=allen =r" )ra%eE 6ar(dha%hy(ta7 ? s(%h is
the Vedi% in5(n%ti"n.
32. 0hen indeed> 9h !rahana> ;hen 6a ;ise an7 has e.ra%ed this
a)e "ld spirit(al li=e pertainin) t" Vishn( and reains ;ith"(t
trans)ressin) it> he .e%"es sel=-%"ntr"lled> ;"rthy "= .ein)
ree.ered as a(spi%i"(s> a 6tr(e7 kn";er "= the ;"rld> a kn";er "=
the Vedanta> a kn";er "= !rahan> "nis%ient> sel=-l(in"(s< he
.e%"es the s(pree G"d !rahan> he redees =r" 6the isery "=7
;"rldly li=e his an%est"rs> relati"ns .y arria)e> 6"ther7 kinsen>
ass"%iates and =riends.
33. Ghen a ;ise an ren"(n%es the ;"rld> th"se .el"n)in) t" his
=aily .e%"e .lessed in this ;"rld> a h(ndred )enerati"ns .e="re
3&5
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
hi and three h(ndred )enerati"ns a=ter hi.
3#. 0he s%ript(re says that a $ery pi"(s endi%ant "nk redees
thirty )enerati"ns "= his =aily a=ter hi> thirty )enerati"ns .e="re
hi and thirty )enerati"ns a=ter th"se that ="ll"; 6the =irst thirty7.
35. 0he Vedi% tea%hin) is that the an%est"rs "= 6a ;ise an7 are
redeeed i= he ;ere t" say that he has ren"(n%ed e$en ;hile his =inal
.reath reains in his thr"at 6i.e. 5(st .e="re death7.
36. 3en%e> 9h !rahana> ;ise en ha$e said that this a)e "ld l"re "=
the -el=> the dis%ipline pertainin) t" Vishn(> shall n"t .e eJp"(nded
till "ne has "nesel= realiCed 6the )"al7 and 6that7 n"t t" "ne ;h" has
n"t st(died the Veda> has n"t the %"n$i%ti"n "= the -el=> has n"t =reed
hisel= =r" atta%hent> has n"t .e%"e p(re> has n"t appr"a%hed 6t"
re%ei$e this "= his ";n a%%"rd7> and ;h" has n"t ade earnest e=="rts
6t" kn"; the7. 0his has .een said in a Vedi% $erse 6as ;ell7@
9n%e 6!raha-7Vidya appr"a%hed 6the )"d7 !raha and said@ `G(ard
e> I a y"(r treas(re. D" n"t re$eal e t" "ne ;h" is en$i"(s>
%r""ked "r %ra=ty. 0h(s shall I .e "= p"tent stren)thE.
37. 0his dis%ipline "= the Atan pertainin) t" Vishn( 6i.e. this l"re t"
realiCe !rahan7 shall .e re$ealed t" a pers"n a=ter a %are=(l test as t"
;hether he is "= p(re %"nd(%t> attenti$e> intelli)ent> ".ser$es %eli.a%y
and has appr"a%hed 6the G(r( "= his ";n a%%"rd ="r re%ei$in)
instr(%ti"n7.
3&6
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
3+. Gith th"se as%eti%s ;h" ha$e .een ta()ht 6the s%ript(re7 .y a G(r(
and ;h" d" n"t h"n"(r hi in ;"rd> th"()ht and deed> the G(r( d"es
n"t dine< siilarly 6)""d as%eti%s7 d" n"t eat the =""d 6=r" h"(ses
;here the ill-annered re%ei$e als7. -(%h is the 6in5(n%ti"n "= the7
s%ript(re.
3,. 0he G(r( is the s(pree ri)hte"(sness 6Dhara7< the G(r( al"ne
is the s"le eans 6"= li.erati"n7. 3e ;h" h"n"(rs n"t his G(r( ;h"
)i$es 6initiati"n int"7 the sin)le sylla.le 69 ;hi%h is !rahan7 has
all his s%ript(ral learnin)> penan%e and spirit(al ;isd" ""Ced "(t as
;ater =r" an (n.aked %lay $essel.
#&. 3e ;h" has s(pree =aith in G"d and the sae =aith in his G(r( is
a kn";er "= !rahan> ;h" rea%hes s(pree .eatit(de. -(%h is the
tea%hin) "= the Veda. 0h(s 6ends7 the Upanishad.
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3&7
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

3ere ends the -atyayaniy"panishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-1a5(r-
Veda.
3&+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
25. &u'ala Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
/E--9* 9*E@ 03E -U!-I-0E*8E A*D DI--9/U0I9* 9F 03E
U*IVER-E
1-3. 0he UnH(ali=ied !rahan@ 0hey say ? `Ghat eJisted IE 3e
replied `*either the eJistent n"r the n"n-eJistent. Fr" that 0aas
;as ."rn< =r" 0aas ;as ."rn !hitadi 64rakriti ? Matter7> =r" it
spa%e> =r" spa%e air> =r" air =ire> =r" =ire ;ater and =r" ;ater
earth.
0his .e%ae the E))< ;hi%h eJistin) ="r 5(st a year .e%ae t;"-="ld ?
earth .el"; and sky a."$e. !et;een ;as Di$ine Man ;ith a th"(sand
heads> eyes> =eet and ars 6Virat-p(r(sha7.
3&,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

#-6. 3e at =irst %reated the death "= all %reat(res> ha$in) three eyes>
heads and =eet> ared ;ith an aJe. !raha ;as a=raid ? he entered
!raha hisel=> he %reated se$en ental s"ns ? they %reated se$en
Virats> the pr"-%reat"rs.
3is =a%e ;as !rahana> ars ;ere ade int" 'shatriya> thi)hs
.e%ae the Vaishya> -(dra ;as ."rn =r" the =eet> air and $ital air
64rana7 =r" his ear> all this is =r" his heart.
0h(s the First -e%ti"n
1. Fr" the Apana ;ere %reated *isadas> 1akshas et%.> =r" the ."nes
"(ntains> =r" the hair plants and trees> =r" the ="rehead R(dra 6"=
an)er7.
2. 0he .reath "= this )reat .ein) .e%ae Rik and "ther Vedas>
ph"neti%s> kalpa 6the an(al "= rit(al7> )raar> ety"l")y> etre>
l")i%> astr"n"y> eJe)eti%> la;> %"ents> )l"sses et%.
3. 0he )"lden li)ht in ;hi%h d;ell the sel=> all ;"rlds ade itsel= int"
t;" ? ;"an and an. !e%"in) De$a %reated De$as> .e%"in)
Rishi %reated Rishis> als" 1akshas et%.> as ;ell as ;ild as ;ild and
d"esti% anials> .(ll and %";> h"rse and are> ale and =eale
d"nkey> earth and the ."ar.
#. At the end> .e%"in) Vais$anara 6=ire7> he .(rned 6destr"yed7 all
%reat(res ? earth ;as a.s"r.ed in ;ater> ;ater in =ire> =ire in air> air in
31&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
ether> ether in sense "r)ans> they in s(.tle eleents> they in 4rakriti>
4rakriti in Mahat> Mahat in A$yakta> A$yakta in Akshara> Akshara in
0aas> it in G"d. 0hen there is neither eJistent n"r n"n-eJistent. 0his
is the d"%trine "= diss"l(ti"n 6as )i$en in7 Vedas.
0h(s the -e%"nd -e%ti"n
/E--9* 0G9@ 03E F9UR03 4RI*8I4/E
1. In the .e)innin)> this ;as n"n-eJistent. 0he an "= ;isd" d"es
)r";> editatin) (p"n the Atan ;hi%h has n" .irth> n" risin)> n"r
settin)> (nesta.lished> ha$in) n" s"(nd> t"(%h> ="r> taste> sell>
de%ay n"r any thin) .i))er.
2. Gith"(t $ital .reath> =a%e> ears> spee%h> ind> radian%e> eyes> nae>
linea)e> head> hands "r =eet> s""thness> .l""d> eas(ra.ility> neither
l"n)> sh"rt n"r )r"ss> n"r at"i%> sh"reless> .ey"nd des%ripti"n> n"t
"pen> n"r ill(ina.le> n"r %l"sed> ;ith"(t inside "r "(tside< it neither
eats n"r is eaten.
3. 9ne %an a%hie$e 6realiCe7 this "nly .y eans "= tr(th> %harity>
(ndyin) a(sterity> %eli.a%y> deta%hent ;ith siJ parts. 3e shall
".ser$e the three> sel= %"ntr"l> (ni=i%en%e and %"passi"n. 3is $ital
airs d" n"t depart .(t er)e here in !rahan.
0h(s the 0hird -e%ti"n
311
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

1. In the idst "= the heart> is a ass "= red =lesh in ;hi%h is the
Dahara "= /"t(s 6in shape7> .l"ss"in) in any ;ays like lily ? there
are ten h"les in the heart ;here the $ital airs are esta.lished.
2. Ghen the 62i$a7 is %"nne%ted ;ith 4rana> then he sees ri$ers and
%ities "= any kinds< ;hen ;ith Vyana> he sees De$as and Rishis<
;ith Apana> 1akshas et%.< ;ith Udana> the %elestial ;"rlds> )"ds>
-kanda and 2ayanta< ;ith -aana> ;ealth als"< ;ith Vaira.ha
64rana7 sees ;hat is seen> heard> eaten and n"t eaten> $isi.le and
in$isi.le.
3. 0hen these *adis .e%"e h(ndred< =r" these> .ran%h "(t se$enty
t;" th"(sand *adis> in ;hi%h the sel= sleeps and akes n"ises> in the
se%"nd sheath he sleeps and sees this ;"rld and the "ther> hears all
s"(nds ? this they %all %larity. 4rana de=ends the ."dy. 0he *adis are
=illed ;ith )reen> .l(e> yell";> red and ;hite .l""d.
#. 0his Dahara l"t(s is .l""in) in any ;ays like a lily and like
hair> s" als" the *adis are pla%ed in the heart. 0he di$ine sel= sleeps in
the )reat sheath ;hen there are n" desires> n" sleep e$en> there are n"
De$as "r their ;"rlds> 1a)as> M"ther> Father> kinsen> n" thie$es "r
!rahana-killer. All this is ;ater ? A)ain .y the sae path> he ret(rns
t" ;ake=(lness> this -ara5.
0h(s the F"(rth -e%ti"n
1. 0he s(pree .ein) assi)ns pla%es t" their ";ners ? the *adi is their
312
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
link. 0he eye is the ";ner in the ."dy aidst the eleents ? ;hat is
seen in the di$inity ? the artery is the link. 3e that is in the eye> in the
s(n> artery> $ital air> kn";led)e> .liss> heartEs sky ? he that "$es
inside all these is the sel=. Meditate "n that sel= that is a)eless>
deathless> =earless> endless.
2. 0he ear is the ";ner in the ."dy aidst the eleents> 6the )(ardians
"=7 the H(arters the deity> the artery is the link. 3e that is in the ear>
a(di.le ".5e%ts> in the H(arters et%.> -- he that "$es inside all this is
the sel=. Meditate "n that sel= ;h" is a)eless> deathless> =earless>
painless> endless.
3. 0he n"se is the ";ner in the ."dy> the sella.le is the eleental.
0he earth is the deity> the artery is the link. 3e that is in the n"se et%.>
-- editate "n hi.
#. 0he t"n)(e is the ";ner "= the ."dy> the sa$"(ra.le is the
eleental. Var(na is the deity< the artery is the link. 3e that is in the
t"n)(e et%.> -- editate "n hi.
5. 0he skin is the ";ner "= the ."dy> the t"(%ha.le is the eleental>
Vay( is the deity> the artery is the link. 3e that is in the skin et%.> --
editate "n hi.
6. 0he ind is the ";ner> the thinka.le thin)s are the eleental> the
""n is the deity> the artery is the link. 3e that is in the ind et%.> --
editate "n hi.
313
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
7. Intelle%t is the ";ner> the %")niCa.le is the eleental. !raha the
deity et%. 3e that is in the intelle%t et%.> -- editate "n hi.
+. E)" is the ";ner ? ".5e%t "= the `IE %"n%ept is the eleental> R(dra
the deity ? 3e that is the e)" ? editate "n hi.
,. -pee%h the ";ner> (ttera.le the eleental> =ire the deity ? 3e that is
? editate "n hi.
1&. 0he ind st(== is the ";ner> the apprehensi.le is the eleental> the
2i$a is the deity ? editate "n hi.
11. 0he hands are the ";ners> ;hat is )rasped is the eleental> Indra
the deity ? 3e that is in the hands et%.> -- editate "n hi.
12. 0he =eet are the ";ners> the destinati"n is the eleental> Vishn(
the deity ? 3e that is in the =eet et%.> -- editate "n hi.
13. 0he ale "r)an is the ";ner> the dele%ta.le is the eleental>
4ra5apati is the deity ? 3e that is in the ale "r)an et%.> -- editate "n
hi.
1#. 3e is the "nis%ient> ali)hty> inner r(ler> s"(r%e "= all> ;aited "n
.y all .liss .(t d"es n"t ;ait "n .liss< ;aited "n .y Vedas and
-hastras> .(t n"t ;aitin) "n the< ;h"se =""d all this is .(t ;h" is
ne$er =""d< a)ent and )"$ern"r "= all leadin)s> ade "= =""d-s"(l "=
eleents> ade "= 4rana ? s"(l "= sense-"r)ans> ade "= ind< s"(l "=
31#
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
th"()ht> ade "= kn";led)e ? s"(l "= tie> ade "= .liss ? s"(l "=
diss"l(ti"n.
15. 0here is "neness ? h"; %an there .e d(ality ? *" "rtality ? h";
i"rtality I *"t %")nisant in;ardly "r "(t;ardly> "r ."th ;ays ? n"t
a ass "= kn";led)e> neither kn";in) n"r n"t kn";in).
0h(s the Fi=th -e%ti"n
/E--9* 03REE
1. In 0he .e)innin) there ;as n"thin) here ? 0hese %reat(res are ."rn
sans r""t and s(pp"rt.
2-3. *arayana is the eye as ;ell as the $isi.le> ear as ;ell as the
a(di.le> n"se and the s%enta.le> t"n)(e and the tasta.le> skin and the
ta%tile> ind and the thinka.le> intelle%t and its %"ntents> e)" and its
=ield> spee%h and its %"ntents> hands> =eet> their =ields> an(s and )enital
? all are *arayana. -(pp"rter> "rdainer> trans="rer ? all is 3e.
#. Adityas> R(dras> Mar(ts> Vas(s> As$ins> Rik> 1a5(s> -aa> Mantras>
A)ni> ".lati"n ? all are *arayana> s" als" "thers> =athers et%.
5. Vira5a> -(darsana> 2ita> -a(ya> A")ha> '(ara> Arita> -atya>
Madhyaa> *asira> -is(ra> As(ra> -(rya> !has$ati are the naes.
315
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

6. R"ars> sin)s> .l";s> rains ? Var(na> Aryaa> 8handra> kala> ka$i>
Dhata> !raha> Indra> Days and 3al=-days> "ents as ;ell as a)es ?
all are 3e.
7. All this is 4(r(sha "nly ? the past and the =(t(re ? that hi)h pla%e "=
Vishn( ? the -(ris 6sa)es7 l""k (p"n this al;ays like the eye spread in
the sky. 0he sa)es ;ith"(t ental %"n=li%t enhan%e its )l"ry.
0his is the d"%trine "= li.erati"n a%%"rdin) t" the Vedas.
0h(s the -iJth -e%ti"n
/E--9* F9UR@ 03E *A0URE 9F 03E I**ER 89*0R9//ER
1. 0he (n."rn> s"le> i"rtal .ein) inside the ."dy> ;h"se ."dy is
the Earth and ;h" "$es inside the ."dy (nkn";n t" the Earth> ;h"
"$es inside ;ater> as the ."dy (nkn";n t" it> ;h" "$es inside =ire
(nkn";n t" it> ;h" "$es inside air (nkn";n t" it> s" als" inside
Mind> Intelle%t> E)"> 8hitta 6ind-st(==7> A$yakta 6(nani=est7>
Akshara 6iperisha.le7> Death ? 3e is the inner> sinless> sel=> di$ine
*arayana.
2. 0his he 6Adi.raha7 ip"rted t" Apantarataas 6Vishn(7> Vishn(
t" !raha> he t" Gh"ran)iras ;h" )a$e it t" Raik$a ;h" )a$e it t"
Raa. 3e )a$e it t" all li$in) .ein)s. -(%h is the d"%trine "= *ir$ana
a%%"rdin) t" Vedas.
316
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

0h(s the -e$enth -e%ti"n
/E--9* FIVE@ 03E -E/F I* 03E !9D1
In this ."dy "= =at> =lesh> "ist(re is pla%ed this p(re sel= "= all> ;ithin
the %a$e. 0he ;ise .eh"ld the i"rtal> l(in"(s .liss> ."diless and
ip"ndera.le> enshrined in this %a$e> the aster "= all> ="rless>
assed splend"(r> p(re> deta%hed> di$inely shinin)> the sel= that
eJ%eeds and ;h"se ="r is ip"ndera.le. 0hey .eh"ld it .y s(.lati"n
in this ."dy that is as =i%kle as .(..les in ;ater> epty like the
plantain pith> a %ity in the sky> a painted ;all> $ery (%h %"nditi"ned.
0h(s the Ei)hth -e%ti"n
1-1#. 0hen Raik$a asked> `-ir> int" ;hat d" all thin)s set IE 3e
ans;ered `0he $isi.le disappears in the eye> it is res"l$ed 6in the sel=7
in the eye. 0he $isi.le disappears in the s(n> it is res"l$ed in the s(n.
Ghat disappears in the Virat 6%"si% Man7 is res"l$ed in the sel= in
the Virat. Ghat disappears in the 4rana is res"l$ed in the 4rana. Ghat
disappears in Vi5nana 6%")niti"n7 is res"l$ed 6in the sel=7 in the
Vi5nana. Ghat disappears in Ananda is res"l$ed in Ananda 6!liss7.
Ghat disappears in the 0(riya is res"l$ed in 0(riya. 0hat sel= is
i"rtal> =earless> painless> in=inite seedless. 6All thin)s are7 res"l$ed
in that sel=E ? s" said he.
15. 3e ;h" kn";s this seedless 6!rahan7 hisel= .e%"es seedless.
3e d"es n"t )et .irth and death> is n"t del(ded> n"r pier%ed "r .(rned<
317
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
d"es n"t tre.le "r )et an)ry ? they say he is the sel= ? the .(rner "=
all.
16. 0his sel= is n"t )"t .y h(ndreds "= eJp"siti"ns> n"t .y )reat
learnin)> n"r .y relian%e "n intelle%t(al kn";led)e> n"r thr"()h p";er
"= e"ry> Vedas> sa%ri=i%es> a(sterities> -ankhya "r 1")a> Ashraas>
el(%idati"n> la(dati"n and eJer%ises. 0he Vedi% s%h"lars a%hie$e it>
ha$in) .e%"e %al> restrained> ;ithdra;n> t"lerant and
%"n%entratin).
0h(s the *ineth -e%ti"n
0hen Raik$a asked> `-ir> in ;hat are all these esta.lished> 3e replied
`In the RasatalasE. 3e asked `In ;hat are the Rasatalas ;"$en> ;arp
and ;""= IE `In the !h( re)i"nsE.
`In ;hat are !h( ;"$en IE `In -($arE.
`In ;hat are -($ar ;"$en IE `In MaharE.
`In ;hat are Mahar ;"$en IE `In 2anasE.
`In ;hat are 2anas ;"$en IE `In 0apasE.
`In ;hat are 0apas ;"$en IE `In 4ra5apatiEs re)i"nE.
`In ;hat are these ;"$en IE `In !rahaEs re)i"nE.
31+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
All the ;"rlds are eJtended> ;arp and ;""=> in the !rahan> like
)es in a strin) ? 0h(s he
sp"ke.
Gh"e$er kn";s these ;"rlds as eJtended in the sel=> indeed> .e%"es
the sel=. 0his is the d"%trine "= *ir$ana "= the Vedas.
0h(s the 0enth -e%ti"n
/E--9* -Id@ 03E U4GARD 4A03
0hen Raik$a asked hi> `-ir> this ass "= kn";led)e "$in)
(p;ards> ;hat pla%e d"es he lea$e ;hen departin) (p;ards IE 3e
replied `In the %entre "= the heart is a red ass "= =lesh ? in it a sall
;hite l"t(s> .l""in) like a lily in any ;ays. In its %entre is a sea
;ith a shinin) spa%e in the iddle. F"(r arteries are these ? Raa>
Araa> I%%ha> Ap(nar.ha$a 6pleasin)> n"t pleasin)> desire and n"t
."rn a)ain7. 9= these Raa leads t" the ;"rld "= erit thr"()h erit>
Araa t" the ;"rld "= deerit thr"()h deerit. !y I%%ha> "ne rea%hes
;hat "ne thinks "=. !y Ap(nar.ha$a he .reaks thr"()h the sheath
6'"sa7 then the %rani(> earth> ;ater> =ire> air> ether> ind> eleents>
Mahat> A$yakta> akshara> Mrity(. 0his Mrity( .e%"es "ne ;ith the
s(pree deity. !ey"nd that there is neither .ein) n"r n"n-.ein)> n"r
their %".inati"n. 0his is the d"%trine "= *ir$ana "= the Vedas.
0h(s the Ele$enth -e%ti"n
31,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

/E--9* -EVE*@ -AMAD3I
Fr" *arayana> ar"se ra; =""d 6I)n"ran%e "= Atan7 6at the
.e)innin) "= !rahaEs day7< at the end "= the day 6the del()es7 is
%""ked in Aditya. Flesh et%.> are a)ain %""ked in the )astri% =ire. Eat
"nly ;hat is =resh> n"t eant ="r an"ther ? d" n"t .e) ="r it.
0h(s the 0;el=th -e%ti"n
1. 0he sa)e sh"(ld desire t" .e ;ith %hild-like nat(re> ;hi%h is
(natta%hed> =a(ltless. 0hr"()h silen%e> learnin)> =ree =r" ".li)ati"n
is )"t al"neness. 4ra5apati said> `'n";in) the )reat pla%e> "ne sh"(ld
li$e at the .ase "= a tree> ill-%lad> =riendless> al"ne in -aadhi desirin)
the sel= al"ne> ha$in) ;"n all desired ".5e%ts> desireless> desires
er"ded. 3e is n"t a=raid "= elephants> li"ns> =lies> "n)""se> snakes
et%.> kn";in) as ="rs "= death. 9ne sh"(ld reain like a tree< he
shall n"t .e%"e an)ry e$en ;hen %(t d";n> "r tre.le> like st"ne>
like sky> he shall reain ;ith tr(th.
2. 0he heart "= all sells is Earth> "= tastes ;ater> "= ="rs =ire> "=
t"(%hless air> "= s"(nds ether. A$yakta is the heart "= all "$eents>
Mrity( "= all -att$as 6li$in) .ein)s7. Death indeed .e%"es "ne ;ith
the s(pree Deity. !ey"nd it there is neither .ein) n"r n"n-.ein) n"r
their %".inati"n ? this is the d"%trine "= *ir$ana "= the Vedas.
0h(s the 0hirteenth -e%ti"n
32&
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/E--9* EIG30
0he earth is indeed the =""d> ;ater is the eater< ;ater is the =""d> =ire
the eater< =ire is the =""d> air is the eater< air is the =""d> ether the
eater< ind the =""d> intelle%t the eater< intelle%t the =""d> A$yakta the
eater< A$yakta the =""d> Akshara 6iperisha.le7 is the eater> Akshara
the =""d> Death is the eater ? it .e%"es "ne in the s(pree deity
.ey"nd ;hi%h there is neither eJisten%e n"r n"n-eJisten%e ? this is the
Vedi% d"%trines "= li.erati"n.
0h(s the F"(rteenth -e%ti"n
/E--9* *I*E@ !UR*I*G 03E 4RI*8I4/E- 6!A-E-7
0he Raik$a asked> `-ir> this ass "= kn";led)e> the spirit ? ;hen he
departs> ;hi%h d"es he .(rn IE 0he reply> `3e .(rns 4rana> Apana>
Vyana> Udana> -aana> Vaira.ha> M(khya> Antaryaa> 4ra.han5a>
'(ara> -yena> -$eta> 'rishna> *a)a> als" 4rith$i et%.> =r" 2a)arita
(pt" 0(riya< /"kal"ka> dhara and adhara< re)i"ns ;ith"(t the s(n>
;ith"(t liits and li)ht ? Mrity( .e%"es "ne ;ith the s(pree deity
? this is the Vedi% le%t(re "= li.erati"nE.
0h(s the Fi=teenth -e%ti"n
321
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
/E--9* 0E*@ IM4AR0I*G !RA3MAVID1A
0he se%ret d"%trine "= -(.ala> sh"(ld n"t .e ta()ht t" "ne ;h" is n"t
tranH(il> "ne ;h" is n"t s"n "r dis%iple> "ne ;h" stays ="r less than a
year> ;h"se =aily and %hara%ter are (nkn";n.
0" "ne s(preely de$"ted t" )"d and s" t" the pre%ept"r> these ideas
re$eal thesel$es> t" the )reat s"(l :
0his is the d"%trine "= li.erati"n a%%"rdin) t" Vedas.
0h(s the -iJteenth -e%ti"n
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
322
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

3ere ends the -(.al"panishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-1a5(r-Veda.
323
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
2. *ara &ara Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
83A40ER ? I
1. 3ari 9. !rihaspati asked 1a5na$alkya@ A0hat ;hi%h is %alled
'(r(kshetra is the pla%e "= the sa%ri=i%e "= the De$as and the spirit(al
seat "= all .ein)s. 0here="re ;here sh"(ld "ne )" in "rder that he ay
%")nise '(r(kshetra> the pla%e "= the sa%ri=i%e "= the De$as and the
spirit(al seat "= all .ein)s IB 60" ;hi%h 1a5na$alkya replied7@
AA$i(kta is '(r(kshetra> the pla%e "= the sa%ri=i%e "= the De$as and
"= the st(dy "= !rahan> .e%a(se it is there that R(dra initiates "ne
int" the 0araka !rahan ;hen 4rana 6li=e7 )"es "(t. 0hr"()h this> "ne
.e%"es i"rtal and the en5"yer "= M"ksha. 0here="re "ne sh"(ld
al;ays .e in the idst "= that pla%e A$i(kta and sh"(ld ne$er lea$e>
9 Re$erend -ir> A$i(kta.B 0h(s said 1a5na$alkya.
32#
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2. 0hen !harad$a5a asked 1a5na$alkya@ AGhat is 0araka I Ghat is that
;hi%h %a(ses "ne t" %r"ss 6this (ndane eJisten%e7B. 0" ;hi%h
1a5na$alkya replied@ A9 *a" *arayanaya is the 0araka. It sh"(ld
.e ;"rshipped as 8hidata. 9 is a sin)le sylla.le and "= the nat(re
"= Atan. *aah is "= t;" sylla.les and is "= the nat(re "= 4rakriti
6atter7. *arayanaya is "= =i$e sylla.les and is "= the nat(re "=
4ara.rahan. 3e ;h" kn";s this .e%"es i"rtal. 0hr"()h `9E>
is !raha pr"d(%ed< thr"()h `*aE is Vishn( pr"d(%ed< thr"()h `MaE
is R(dra pr"d(%ed< thr"()h `*aE is Ish$ara pr"d(%ed< thr"()h `RaE is
the Anda-Virat 6"r Virat "= the (ni$erse7 pr"d(%ed< thr"()h `1aE is
4(r(sha pr"d(%ed< thr"()h `*aE is !ha)a$an 6/"rd7 pr"d(%ed< and
thr"()h `1aE is 4araatan pr"d(%ed. 0his Ashtakshara 6ei)ht
sylla.les7 "= *arayana is the s(pree and the hi)hest 4(r(sha. 0h(s is
the Ri)-Veda ;ith the =irst =""t 6"r hal=7.
83A40ER ? II
0hat ;hi%h is 9 is the indestr(%ti.le> the s(pree and !rahan.
0hat al"ne sh"(ld .e ;"rshipped. It is this that is "= the ei)ht s(.tle
sylla.les. And this .e%"es ei)ht> .ein) "= ei)ht ="rs. `AE is the =irst
letter< `UE is the se%"nd< `ME is the third< !ind( is the ="(rth< *ada is
the =i=th< 'ala is the siJth< 'alatita 6that .ey"nd 'ala7 is the se$enth<
and that ;hi%h is .ey"nd these is the ei)hth. It is %alled 0araka>
.e%a(se it ena.les "ne t" %r"ss this (ndane eJisten%e. 'n"; that
0araka al"ne is !rahan and it al"ne sh"(ld .e ;"rshippedB. 0he
6="ll";in)7 $erses ay .e H("ted here@
1. AFr" the letter `AE %ae !raha naed 2a.a$an 6the .ear7.
325
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
Fr" the letter `UE %ae Upendra> naed 3ari.
2. Fr" the letter `ME %ae -hi$a> kn";n as 3an(an. !ind( is
naed Ish$ara and is -atr()hna> the /"rd "= the dis%(ss itsel=.
3. *ada sh"(ld .e kn";n as the )reat /"rd naed !harata and the
s"(nd "= the %"n%h itsel=. Fr" 'ala %ae the 4(r(sha hisel= as
/akshana and the .earer "= the earth.
#. 'alatita is kn";n as the )"ddess -ita 3ersel=. 0hat ;hi%h is .ey"nd
is the 4araatan naed -ri Raa and is the hi)hest 4(r(sha.
All this is the eJplanati"n "= the letter 9> ;hi%h is the past> the
present and =(t(re and ;hi%h is "ther than these 6$iC.>7 0att$a> Mantra>
Varna 6%"l"(r7> De$ata 6deity7> 8hhandas 6etre7> Rik> 'ala> -akti and
-rishti 6%reati"n7. 3e ;h" kn";s this .e%"es i"rtal. 60h(s is7
1a5(r-Veda ;ith the se%"nd =""tB.
83A40ER ? III
0hen !harad$a5a asked 1a5na$alkya@ A0hr"()h ;hat Mantra is
4araatan pleased and sh";s his ";n Atan 6t" pers"ns7 I 4lease
tell thisB. 1a5na$alkya replied@
1. 9. 3e ;h" is -ri-4araatan> *arayana and the /"rd des%ri.ed
.y 6the letter7 `AE and is 2a.a$an 6the .ear7 and !h(h> !h($ah and
326
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
-($ah< -al(tati"n t" 3i :
2. 9. 3e ;h" is -ri-4araatan> *arayana and the /"rd des%ri.ed
.y 6the letter7 `UE and is Upendra 6"r7 3ari and !h(h> !h($ah and
-($ah< -al(tati"n t" 3i :
3. 9. 3e ;h" is -ri-4araatan> *arayana and the /"rd des%ri.ed
.y 6the letter7 `ME and is "= the ="r "= -hi$a 6"r7 3an(an and
!h(h> !h($ah and -($ah< -al(tati"n t" 3i :
#. 9. 3e ;h" is -ri-4araatan> *arayana> the /"rd "= -atr()hna
"= the ="r "= !ind( and the !h(h> !h($ah and -($ah< -al(tati"n t"
3i :
5. 9. 3e ;h" is -ri-4araatan> *arayana and the /"rd> and is
!harata "= the ="r "= *ada and the !h(h> !h($ah and -($ah<
-al(tati"n t" 3i :
6. 9. 3e ;h" is -ri-4araatan> *arayana and the /"rd> and is
/akshana "= the ="r "= 'ala and the !h(h> !h($ah and -($ah<
-al(tati"n t" 3i :
7. 9. 3e ;h" is -ri-4araatan> *arayana and the /"rd> and is
'alatita> the G"ddess -ita> "= the ="r "= 8hit and the !h(h> !h($ah
and -($ah< -al(tati"n t" 3i :
+. 9. 3e ;h" is -ri-4araatan> *arayana and the /"rd that is
327
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
.ey"nd that 6'alatita7> is the s(pree 4(r(sha and is the an%ient
4(r(sh"ttaa> the eternal> the ia%(late> the enli)htened> the
ean%ipated> the tr(e> the hi)hest .liss> the endless> the se%"ndless
and the all-=(ll ? that
!rahan is ysel=. I a Raa and the !h(h> !h($ah and -($ah<
-al(tati"n t" 3i :
3e ;h" has astered this ei)ht="ld Mantra is p(ri=ied .y A)ni< he is
p(ri=ied .y Vay(< he is p(ri=ied .y the s(n< he is p(ri=ied .y -hi$a< he
is kn";n .y all the De$as. 3e attains the =r(it "= re%itin) Itihasas>
4(ranas> R(dra 6Mantras7> a h(ndred th"(sand ties. 3e ;h"
repeatedly ree.ers 6"r re%ites7 the Ashtakshara 6the ei)ht-sylla.led
Mantra7 "= *arayana )ains the =r(it "= the re%itati"n "= Gayatri a
h(ndred th"(sand ties "r "= 4rana$a 697 a yriad "= ties. 3e
p(ri=ies 6his an%est"rs7 ten 6de)rees7 a."$e and 6his des%endants7 ten
6de)rees7 .el";. 3e attains the state "= *arayana. 3e ;h" kn";s this
6attains7 the state "= *arayana7.
/ike the eye 6;hi%h sees ;ith"(t any ".sta%le7 the thin)s spread 6in
the sky7> the ;ise e$er see this s(pree seat "= Vishn(. !rahanas
;h" are spirit(ally a;ake praise in di$erse ;ays and ill(inate the
s(pree a."de "= Vishn(. 0h(s is the Upanishad. 60h(s is7 the -aa-
Veda ;ith the third =""t. 3ari 9 0at -at :
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
32+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the 0arasara Upanishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-1a5(r-Veda.
32,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
2". *risikhi Brahmana Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
A !rahin %alled `0rishiki !rahanaE ;ent t" the land "= -(n G"d
and asked hi> A9h G"d> Ghat is ."dyI Ghat is s"(lI Ghat is the
%a(se and ;hat is AthaIB 1
0he -(n G"d replied@
1"( ha$e t" realiCe that all this is -hi$a. !e%a(se "nly -hi$a is e$er
%lean> ;h" is de$"id "= any .leishes> and ;h" is e$ery;here and ="r
33&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
;h" there is n" se%"nd. 3e is the "nly "ne ;h" %reates e$erythin)
.y his li)ht and siilar t" the =ire appearin) in di==erent ="rs "n
di==erent pie%es "= steel> he appears in di==erent ="rs. I= y"( ask> t"
;hat he )i$es li)ht> the ans;er ;"(ld .e> !raha ;hi%h is den"ted
.y the ;"rd> A-athB> and ;hi%h is er)ed ;ith i)n"ran%e and ill(si"n.
0hat !rhaa )a$e rise t"> Athat ;hi%h is n"t %learB. A0hat ;hi%h is
n"t %learB )a$e rise t"> AMahat 6)reat7B. AMahatB )a$e rise t" e)"is.
E)"is )a$e rise t" AFi$e 0hanathrasB. 0hat AFi$e 0hanathrasB
)a$e rise t" AFi$e !h""thasB $iC earth> ;ater> =ire air and ether.
1. Ether is %"ns%i"(sness $iC ind> ;isd"> sel= ;ill> and e)"is
2. Air is -aana> Udhana> Vyana> Apana and 4rana ;hi%h are the airs
in the ."dy.
3. Fire is ears> skin> eyes> t"n)(e and n"se.
#. 0he %"n%ept "= ;ater is =eelin)s "= s"(nd> t"(%h> $ie;> taste and
sell.
5. Earth is ;"rds> hands> le)s and "ther physi%al "r)ans.
6. Ether ;hi%h is the %"n%ept "= ;isd" is de%isi"n> .eha$i"r and sel=
estee.
7. 0he a%ti"ns related t" air are (nitin)> %han)in) "= pla%es> takin)>
331
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
hearin) and .reathin).
+. 0he a%ti"ns related t" =ire are the =eelin) "= t"(%h> si)ht> taste> $ie;
and s"(nd. 0hese als" depend "n ;ater.
,. 0he a%ti"ns related t" earth are talkin)> )i$in)> takin)> )"in) and
%"in).
1&. 0he a%ti"ns "= the 4rana 0hanathra 6-y."li% s"(l7 are the
"r)ans ="r d"in) ;"rk and "r)ans ="r earnin) ;isd".
11. E)"is is liited t" ind> .rain and the ;ill t" d".
12. 0he i%r" aspe%ts "= the sy."li% s"(l 64rana 0hanathra7 are
)i$in) pla%e> s%atterin)> seein)> (nitin) and .ein) =ir.
0hese t;el$e are the aspe%ts "= phil"s"phy> early %"n%ept "= )"dliness
and early %"n%ept "= physi%al eJisten%e. 8handra> !raha> dire%ti"ns>
air> s(n> Var(na> As;ini de$as 6di$ine d"%t"rs7> Fire> Indra 6kin) "=
de$as7> Upendra> 4ra5apathi and 1aa 6G"d "= death7 are the G"ds "=
the "r)ans and senses ;h" tra$el like s"(l in these t;el$e aspe%ts. 1
K-l"kas 2 e 3 are n"t a$aila.le.L
332
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
Fr" there> Earth %ae in t" eJisten%e> e.ra%in) "ne thin) ;ith the
"ther> per$adin) .y %riss-%r"ss %"nne%ti"ns> step .y step as the res(lt
"= 4an%ha !""thas 6Fi$e aspe%ts "= earth> air> ;ater> =ire and ether7
)ained li=e. #
In that earth> plants> %li.ers> =""d and ="(r types "= pindas 6."dy
%enters7 ar"se. 0he r""t se%ti"ns "= the ."dy are taste> .l""d> =lesh> =at>
."nes> ner$es and seen. 5
-"e 4indas ar"se .e%a(se "= their ";n intera%ti"n and s"e 4indas
ar"se .e%a(se "= the intera%ti"n "= 4an%ha !""thas. In this that 4inda
%alled AAnna Maya 6area "= =""d7B is in the area "= the .elly. 6
In the iddle "= this ."dy is the heart ;hi%h is like the l"t(s =l";er
;ith its stalk. 0he G"ds ="r ana)eent> e)"is and a%ti"n are in
there. 7
0he seed ="r this is the tha" )(na 6.aser H(alities7 pinda ;hi%h is
passi"n "riented and s"lidi=ied 6d"es n"t "$e "r %han)e7. 0his is the
;"rld ;ith its $aried nat(re and is sit(ated in the ne%k. +
0he inside l""kin) happy Atha 6s"(l7 is "n the s(it "= the head
and is sit(ated in the 4araa 4atha pla%e. 0his is in its earth like ="r
and shines ;ith )reat stren)th. ,
333
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

0he state "= a;akenin) is e$ery ;here. 0he state "= drea is als" is
there in the state "= ;ake=(lness. 0he state "= sleep and the state "=
hi)her kn";led)e 60h(riya7 is n"t there in "ther states. 1&
-iilar t" the tastes per$adin) in all parts "= a )""d =r(it> -hi$a
-hakthi per$ades e$ery ;here. 11
-iilarly all k"sas 6area "= the ."dy7 are ;ithin Annaaya '"sa.
-iilar t" the k"sa is the s"(l. -iilar t" the s"(l is -hi$a. 12
0he li$in) .ein) is "ne ;ith =eelin)s. -hi$a is "ne ;ith"(t =eelin)s.
0he k"sas are the pla%es "= =eelin)s "= li$in) .ein). And they )i$e rise
t" states "= eJisten%e. 13
-iilar t" the =a%t that %h(rnin) "= ;ater pr"d(%es ripples and ="a>
.y %h(rnin) "= ind se$eral pain=(l th"()hts are pr"d(%ed. 1#
!y per="rin) d(ties> the li$in) .ein)> .e%"es the sla$e t" th"se
d(ties. !y ="rsakin) the> he attains pea%e. 3e .e%"es "ne> ;h"
sees the ;"rld in s"(thern path. 15
33#
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

0he li$in) .ein) ;ith e)"is and sel= estee is indeed -adashi$a.
0he li$in) .ein) attains that type "= ill(si"n .e%a(se "= his %"pany
;ith the i)n"rant s"(l. 16
3e attains h(ndreds "= y"nis 6=eale repr"d(%ti$e "r)an7 and stays
there .e%a(se "= =ailiarity. /ike a =ish tra$elin) in .et;een the .anks
"= a ri$er> he keeps "n tra$elin) till he attains sal$ati"n. 17
9$er passa)e "= tie d(e t" the ;isd" "= the kn";led)e "= the s"(l>
he t(rns "n the n"rthern path and step .y step )"es (p. 1+
Ghen he is a.le t" send his s"(l p";er t" his head and d"es
peranent pra%ti%e "= 1")a> he )ets ;isd". !e%a(se "= ;isd"> his
y")a a%ts. 1,
9n%e 1")a and ;isd" .e%"e sta.le in hi> he .e%"es a y")i. 3e
;ill ne$er .e destr"yed. 3e ;"(ld see /"rd -hi$a in his de=i%ien%ies
and ;ill n"t see de=i%ien%ies in /"rd -hi$a. 2&
0" )et res(lts "= y")a> it has t" .e d"ne ;ith"(t any "ther th"()ht.
Gith"(t pra%ti%e y"( ;ill n"t s(%%eed in 1")a "r ;isd". 0he y")i
;ill n"t )et the res(lts "(t "= these als". 21
335
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

-" .y pra%ti%e "= y")a> ind and s"(l sh"(ld .e %"ntr"lled. 0he 1")i
sh"(ld %(t "== the pr".les in y")a siilar t" the %(ttin) "= aterial
;ith a sharp kni=e. 22
K-l"kas 23 t" 1#5 are n"t a$aila.le.L
Gith p(re kn";led)e "= Atha 6s"(l7 the sens"ry "r)ans sh"(ld .e
%"ntr"lled. Ge sh"(ld al;ays editate "n 4ara Vas(de$a ;h" is the
)reatest s"(l. 1#6
'ai$alya 6sal$ati"n7 is attained .y the sele%ted and s"rted ="r "=
editati"n "n shape and ="r. I= a y")i is a.le t" editate at least ="r
a sall tie "n Vas(de$a ;hile he is in the '(.haka sta)e "=
4ranayaa> the sins that he has d"ne in se$en .irths ;ill .e destr"yed.
1"( ha$e t" (nderstand that the p"rti"n =r" .elly t" the heart is the
;ake=(l a%ti"n. In the ne%k> there eJists the a%ti"n "= the drea. In
.et;een the 2a;s eJists the sleep. 0h(riya eJists in .et;een the
eyelids. 0hat a%ti"n "= synthesis ;ith 4ara.raha ;hi%h is (%h
a."$e th(riya eJists in the sk(ll t"p iddle %alled !raharandra.
0here in the ="re"st th(riya %"rner "= th(riya > the s"(l is %alled
Vishn(. Ghen "ne editates in the $ery p(re 4araakasa 6)reat
ether7> he sh"(ld editate "n that Adh"ksha5a ;h" shines ="r e$er
;ith the li)ht "= %r"res "= -(ns> as sittin) in the l"t(s "= his ";n heart.
9ther;ise he has t" editate "n that Vis;a R""pi69ne ;h" is "= the
="r "= (ni$erse7> ;h" has se$eral ="rs> se$eral =a%es> se$eral planks
336
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;ith se$eral araents> se$eral eyes ;hi%h shine like %r"res "= s(ns>
se$eral %"l"(rs and ;h" is pea%e=(l and als" $ery an)ry. All the
ental pre"%%(pati"ns "= a 1")i ;h" editates in s(%h a anner ;ill
.e %"pletely %aled d";n. 0hat 1")i ;h" editates "n that
indestr(%ti.le atter ;hi%h shines like G"dEs )ra%e in the %enter "= the
heart> "n that (ltiate tr(th ;hi%h is .ey"nd 0h(riya> "n that -(n ;h"
is the ="r "= ;isd" ;hi%h is ieas(ra.le and (nendin)> "n that
.ein) ;h" is like a shinin) lap in a ;indless pla%e and "n that .ein)
;h" is like the shine "= (npr"%essed )es> ;"(ld ha$e sal$ati"n in his
)rip. 1#7-157
0" that 1")i ;h" is a.le t" see and eJperien%e the shine "= that de$a
;ith the (ni$ersal a%r" "r i%r" ="r "r atleast a sall p"rti"n "=
hi in his l"t(s like heart> all the "%%(lt p";ers like Ania ;"(ld .e
$ery (%h ;ithin his rea%h. 15+-15,
9ne has t" (nderstand that the realiCati"n "= the (ni$ersal tr(th "= the
(nity "= 2ee$atha 6-"(l7 and 4araatha 6G"d7 ;hi%h is that AI a
!rhaa and !raha is ec is he real state "= -aadhi 6an
enli)htened state "= editati"n ;here all the th"()ht pr"%ess are
(ni=ied ;ith G"d7. 0hat an .e%"es !raha and he d"es n"t take
an"ther .irth. 16&-161
0he "ne ;h" eJaines s(%h prin%iples ;ith deta%hent .e%"es like
a =ire ;ith"(t ;""d and .e%"es "ne ;ith hisel=. 162
337
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
-in%e his ind and s"(l d"es n"t ha$e anythin) t" %at%h h"ld "= 6)et
atta%hed7> he .e%"es sta.le in the ="r "= ;isd"> and his s"(l elts
like a pie%e "= salt and he er)es in t" the sea "= p(re %"ns%i"(sness.
163
3e sees the ;"rd ;hi%h is a thin) "= passi"n and a)i% like a drea.
In the nat(ral state that 1")i stands ;ith"(t %han)in) as hi t"
hisel= and attains the n(de ="r in his sleep and attains sal$ati"n.
16#
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the 0risikhi-!rahan"panishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-
1a5(r-Veda.
33+
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
2$. *uriyatita Avadhuta
Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. *"; the )rand=ather "= all pe"ple 6the )"d !raha7 respe%t=(lly
appr"a%hin) his =ather> Adinarayana 6/"rd Vishn(7 said> `Ghat is the
path "= the A$adh(tas a=ter the 0(riyatita sta)e> and ;hat is their
standin) IE 0" hi replied the /"rd *arayana@ Gise sa)es %"nsider
that "ne ;h" reains in the path "= the A$adh(ta is $ery rare in the
;"rld and 6s(%h sa)es7 are n"t any< i= "ne .e%"es 6an A$adh(ta7 he
is e$er p(re> he is indeed the e."dient "= dispassi"n< he is indeed
the $isi.le ="r "= ;isd" and he is indeed the pers"ni=i%ati"n "= the
Veda 6Vedap(r(sha7. 3e is a 6tr(ly7 )reat an> as his ind a.ides in
e al"ne. Indeed I t"" a.ide in hi. In d(e "rder> ha$in) .een =irst a
h(t-d;ellin) as%eti% 6'(ti%haka7> he rea%hes the sta)e "= a endi%ant
33,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
"nk 6!ah(daka7< the endi%ant "nk attains t" the sta)e "= a
3asa as%eti%< the 3asa as%eti% 6then7 .e%"es the hi)hest kind "=
as%eti% 64araahasa7. 6In this sta)e7 .y intr"spe%ti"n he realiCes the
entire ;"rld 6as n"n-di==erent =r" his -el=7< ren"(n%in) all pers"nal
p"ssessi"ns in 6a reser$"ir "=7 ;aters> 6s(%h thin)s as7 his e.leati%
sta==> ;ater p"t> ;aist .and> l"in%l"th that %"$ers 6his pri$ities7 and all
rit(alisti% d(ties en5"ined "n hi 6in a pre$i"(s sta)e7< .e%"in)
(n%lad 6lit. %l"thed .y the p"ints "= the %"pass7< a.and"nin) e$en the
a%%eptan%e "= a dis%"l"(red> ;"rn "(t .ark )arent "r 6deer7 skin<
.eha$in) therea=ter 6a=ter the sta)e "= the 4araahasa7 as "ne
s(.5e%t t" n" antras 6i.e. per="rin) n" rit(als7 and )i$es (p sha$in)>
"il .ath> the perpendi%(lar ark "= sandal paste "n the ="rehead> et%.
2. 3e is "ne terinatin) all reli)i"(s and se%(lar d(ties< =ree "=
reli)i"(s erit "r "ther;ise in all sit(ati"ns< )i$in) (p ."th
kn";led)e and i)n"ran%e< %"nH(erin) 6the in=l(en%e "=7 %"ld and heat>
happiness and isery> h"n"(r and dish"n"(r< ha$in) .(rnt (p in
ad$an%e> ;ith the latent in=l(en%e 6$asana7 "= the ."dy> et%.> %ens(re>
praise> pride> ri$alry> "stentati"n> ha()htiness> desire> hatred> l"$e>
an)er> %"$et"(sness> del(si"n> 6)l"atin)7 5"y> int"leran%e> en$y>
%lin)in) t" li=e> et%.< $ie;in) his ."dy as a %"rpse> as it ;ere<
.e%"in) eH(ani"(s e=="rtlessly and (nrestrainedly in )ain "r l"ss<
s(stainin) his li=e 6;ith =""d pla%ed in the "(th7 like a %";<
6satis=ied7 ;ith 6=""d7 as it %"es ;ith"(t ardently l"n)in) ="r it<
red(%in) t" ashes the h"st "= learnin) and s%h"larship< )(ardin) his
%"nd(%t 6;ith"(t $a(ntin) his n".le ;ay "= li=e7< dis";nin) the
s(peri"rity "r in=eri"rity 6"= any "ne7< 6=irly7 esta.lished in n"n-
d(ality 6"= the -el=7 ;hi%h is the hi)hest 6prin%iple7 "= all and ;hi%h
%"prises all ;ithin itsel=< %herishin) the %"n$i%ti"n> `0here is n"()ht
else distin%t =r" eE< a.s"r.in) in the -el= the =(el 6"= %"n%ept7 "ther
than the se%ret kn";n "nly .y the )"ds< (nt"(%hed .y s"rr";<
(nresp"nsi$e t" 6;"rldly7 happiness< =ree "= desire ="r a==e%ti"n<
(natta%hed e$ery;here t" the a(spi%i"(s "r the ina(spi%i"(s< ;ith 6the
3#&
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
=(n%ti"nin) "=7 all senses at standstill< (nind=(l "= the s(peri"rity "=
his %"nd(%t> learnin) and "ral erit 6dhara7 a%H(ired in the
pre$i"(s sta)es "= his li=e< )i$in) (p the %"nd(%t .e=ittin) %aste and
sta)e "= li=e 6Vanaprastha7< drealess> as ni)ht and day are the sae
t" hi< e$er "n the "$e e$ery;here< reainin) ;ith the ."dy al"ne
le=t t" hi< his ;ater-p"t .ein) the ;aterin)-pla%e 6"nly7< e$er
sensi.le 6.(t7 ;anderin) al"ne as th"()h he ;ere a %hild> adan "r
)h"st< al;ays ".ser$in) silen%e and deeply editatin) "n his -el=> he
has ="r his s(pp"rt the pr"pless 6!rahan7< ="r)ettin) e$erythin)
6else7 in %"ns"nan%e ;ith the a.s"rpti"n in his -el=< this 0(riyatita
sa)e rea%hin) the state "= the A$adh(ta as%eti% and %"pletely
a.s"r.ed in n"n-d(ality 6"= the Atan7 6=inally7 )i$es (p his ."dy as
he has .e%"e "ne ;ith 9 6the 4rana$a7@ s(%h an as%eti% is an
A$adh(ta< he has a%%"plished his li=eEs p(rp"se. 0h(s 6ends7 the
Upanishad.
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3#1
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

3ere ends the 0(riyatita$adh(t"panishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-
1a5(r-Veda.
3#2
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
2%. /a0navalkya Upanishad
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. *"; 'in) 2anaka "= the Videhas respe%t=(lly appr"a%hed the sa)e
1a5na$alkya and said@ `Re$ered -ir> eJp"(nd t" e ren(n%iati"nE.
1a5na$alkya said@ 3a$in) %"pleted the sta)e "= a %eli.ate st(dent
"ne ay .e%"e a h"(se-h"lder. Fr" the sta)e "= the h"(se-h"lder
he ay .e%"e a ="rest-d;eller 6Vanaprastha7 and then ren"(n%e. 9r
else he ay .e%"e a endi%ant "nk =r" the sta)e "= a %eli.ate
st(dent "r a h"(se-h"lder "r a ="rest-d;eller. 60here is als" the
pr"$isi"n that7 a pers"n ay ren"(n%e ;"rldly li=e that $ery day "n
;hi%h distaste ="r it da;ns "n hi> ;hether he is n"t ".ser$in) $";s
6.e="re the sta)e "= ren(n%iati"n7 "r ".ser$es the> ;hether he has
(nder)"ne the pres%ri.ed a.l(ti"n "n %"pletin) the dis%iplined
st(dentship "r n"t> ;hether he is "ne ;h" has dis%"ntin(ed
aintainin) rit(al =ire at the death "= his ;i=e 6Utsanna)ni7 "r "ne
;h" d"es n"t aintain the rit(al =ire 6ana)nika7.
3#3
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

2. -"e 6la; )i$ers7 pres%ri.e the sa%ri=i%e %alled 4ra5apatya 6"=
;hi%h )"d !raha is the presidin) deity> pri"r t" a t;i%e-."rn
e.ra%in) ren(n%iati"n7. !(t 6th"()h th(s pres%ri.ed7 he ay n"t d"
s". 3e shall "nly per="r the sa%ri=i%e A)neyi 6;h"se presidin) deity
is A)ni> the )"d "= =ire7. F"r A)ni is the $ital .reath 64rana7. 0here.y
he helps 6stren)thens7 the $ital .reath. 60hen7 he shall per="r the
0raidhata$iya sa%ri=i%e 6;h"se presidin) deity is the )"d Indra7. !y
this sa%ri=i%e the three $ital =l(ids 6.e%"e str"n) like =ire7> naely
the -att$a 6seen7> Ra5as 6.l""d7 and 0aas 6the dark "ne7.
63a$in) per="red the sa%ri=i%e in the pres%ri.ed anner he shall
sell the h"ly =ire> re%itin) the ="ll";in) antra7@ `9h Fire> this 6$ital
.reath7 is y"(r s"(r%e< as y"( are ."rn at the pr"per tie 6"= the year7
y"( p(t "n e==(l)en%e. 'n";in) hi 6the Atan> y"(r (ltiate
s"(r%e7 ay y"( er)e 6;ith the 4rana> y"(r s"(r%e7. May y"(
in%rease "(r ;ealth 6"= trans%endent kn";led)e7E. -" re%itin) the
antra he shall sell the =ire. 0his is the s"(r%e "= =ire> this $ital air.
`6May y"(7 )" (nt" =ire 6y"(r s"(r%e7. -$ahaE. 0h(s al"ne the antra
says.
3. 3a$in) pr"%(red the h"ly =ire 6=r" the h"(se "= a ;ell-$ersed
Vedi% s%h"lar7 in the $illa)e he shall .e dire%ted t" sell the =ire as
des%ri.ed pre$i"(sly. I= he d"es n"t )et the rit(al =ire he ay "==er
".lati"ns in the ;aters. F"r ;ater is 6presided "$er .y7 all the )"ds.
Re%itin) `I "==er the ".lati"n t" all the )"ds> -$ahaE> he sh"(ld tender
the ".lati"ns and pi%kin) (p 6a sall p"rti"n "=7 the "==ered ".lati"n
;hi%h is iJed ;ith )hee> he shall eat it> as this is .ene=i%ial. 6!e="re
eatin) the "==ered ".lati"n he shall re%ite7 the antra "= li.erati"n
6naely 97 ;hi%h he shall realiCe as 6the essen%e "=7 the three
Vedas. 3e shall ad"re !rahan 6EJisten%e> 'n";led)e and !liss7 as
3##
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
that 6%"nn"ted .y 97. 8(ttin) "== the t(=t "= hair and sa%red thread
he shall re%ite thri%e `I ha$e ren"(n%edE. 60he r"yal sa)e 2anaka
a%%epted this el(%idati"n .y sayin)7 `Indeed> s" it is> re$ered
1a5na$alkyaE.
#. 60hen pr"pted .y 'in) 2anaka7 the sa)e Atri asked 1a5na$alkya@
3"; is "ne ;ith"(t the sa%red thread 6.y ;earin) ;hi%h al"ne he %an
per="r rit(als7 a !rahana I 1a5na$alkya replied@ 0his al"ne is his
sa%red thread 6the %"n$i%ti"n7> `0hat 6-el=-e==(l)ent7 Atan 6I a7E.
3e shall then %ere"ni"(sly sip ;ater 6thri%e ;ith the antra> `Rea%h
the sea> -$ahaE> ha$in) pre$i"(sly dis%arded his t(=t and sa%red
thread7. 0his is the eth"d 6t" .e ad"pted .y th"se ;h" ren"(n%e the
;"rld7.
5. 0hen 6in the %ase "= th"se entitled t" ren(n%iati"n7 the endi%ant
"nk ;earin) 6"%hre7 %"l"(red )arent> ;ith sha$en head> a%%eptin)
n"thin) 6eJ%ept =""d ="r .are s(stenan%e7> p(re> in5(rin) n"ne 6in
th"()ht> ;"rd and deed7> 6a(sterely7 li$in) "n als> .e%"es =it ="r
realiCin) !rahan. 0his is the path "= the endi%ant "nks. 6In the
%ase "= the 'shatriyas and "thers n"t entitled t" ren(n%iati"n> they
ay seek li.erati"n7 .y the path "= the .ra$e 6.y %"(rtin) death in the
.attle-=ield7> "r =ast 6(nt" death as a dis%ipline7> "r enter int" ;ater 6t"
rise n" "re7> "r enter =ire "r (ndertake the )reat 5"(rney 6in ;hi%h
they %"llapse .y eJha(sti"n7. 6F"r th"se entitled t" ren(n%iati"n7 this
;ay has .een pres%ri.ed .y the )"d !raha< the as%eti% ;h" has
ren"(n%ed the ;"rld 6-annyasin7 ="ll";in) this path realiCes
!rahan. 0h(s 6it is stated in the Vedanta7. `0h(s indeed it is> re$ered
-ir> 1a5na$alkyaE> 6appre%iated the r"yal sa)e 2anaka7.
6. 0here are the ;ell kn";n sa)es %alled 4araahasas 6as in the
days "= y"re> the sa)es7 -a$artaka> Ar(ni> -$etaket(> D(r$asas>
3#5
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
Ri.h(> *ida)ha> Dattatreya> -(ka> Vaade$a> 3arita and "thers>
;earin) n" distin)(ishin) arks> ;ith %"nd(%t .ey"nd the ken 6"=
;"rldly pe"ple7 and ;h" .eha$ed as th"()h .ere=t "= their senses
th"()h 6per=e%tly7 sane.
7. A$erse t" "thersE ;i$es and 6desire t" stay in7 t";ns and dis%ardin)
all these> naely> the three="ld sta== 6.a.""7> the ;ater $essel> 6the
earthen plate7 (sed ="r a eal> the %ere"nial p(ri=i%ati"n ;ith ;ater>
the t(=t and the sa%red thread> internally as ;ell as eJternally> in the
;aters re%itin) `!h(h> -$ahaE> 6the 4araahasa7 shall seek the
Atan.
+. 4"ssessin) a ="r as "ne ne;-."rn 6i.e. (n%lad7 (na==e%ted .y pairs
6"= "pp"sites> s(%h as heat and %"ld> pleas(re and pain7< a%%eptin)
n"thin) 6eJ%ept als> ="r .are s(stenan%e7< ;ell esta.lished in the
path "= the tr(th "= !rahan< "= p(re ind< re%ei$in) als int" the
"(th 6lit. int" the $essel "= the .elly7 at the pres%ri.ed tie in "rder
t" s(stain li=e> .e%"in) eH(ani"(s at )ain and l"ss 6"= als7>
drinkin) ;ater =r" the $essel "= hand "r =r" a ;ater $essel>
.e))in) als .(t t" st"re in the .elly< de$"id "= any "ther $essel< the
;aterin) pla%e ser$in) as ;ater $essel< shelterin)> eH(ani"(s at )ain
and l"ss "= it> in an a."de ;hi%h is =ree =r" dist(r.an%e and is
s"litary 6s(%h as7 an (n"%%(pied h"(se> a teple> a %l(p "= 6tall7
)rass 6"r hay sta%k7> an ant-hill> the shade "= a tree a p"tterEs h(t> a h(t
;here rit(al =ire is kept> the sandy .ank "= a ri$er> a "(ntain thi%ket>
a %a$e> a h"ll"; in a tree> the $i%inity "= a ;ater =all "r a pie%e "=
%lean )r"(nd> ;ith"(t residin) in a =iJed a."de< akin) n" e=="rts 6="r
)ain=(l a%ti$ity7 and deeply intent "n the (pr""tin) "= )""d and .ad
a%ti"ns ? s(%h a sa)e ;h" =inally )i$es (p his ."dy in the state "=
ren(n%iati"n is indeed a 4araahasa. 0h(s 6it has .een de%lared7.
3#6
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
,. 0he endi%ant "nk ;h" is (n%lad 6lit. %l"thed .y the p"ints "= the
%"pass7> sal(tes n"ne> has n" desire ="r ;i=e "r s"n and is a."$e ai
and n"n-ai .e%"es the s(pree G"d. 3ere there are the $erses@
1&. 0" "ne ;h" has .e%"e an as%eti% earlier and ;h" is eH(al t" hi
in %hara%teristi%s> ".eisan%e "()ht t" .e paid 6.y an as%eti%7 and ne$er
t" any "ne else.
11. E$en as%eti%s are seen ;h" are %areless> ;h"se inds are in
"(t;ard phen"enal thin)s> are tale-.earers> ea)er t" H(arrel and
;h"se $ie;s are %"ndened .y the Veda.
12. I= an as%eti% reains in identity ;ith the hi)hest sel=-e==(l)ent
!rahan ;hi%h is .ey"nd nae> et%.> then t" ;h" shall he> the
kn";er "= the Atan> pay ".eisan%e I 0hen the a%ti$ity 6"= .";in)7
"()ht n"t t" .e d"ne.
13. 6I= an as%eti% is %"n$in%ed that7 the s(pree G"d has entered int"
.ein)s as the indi$id(al -el=> then he ay =(lly pr"strate "n the
)r"(nd .e="re d")> "(t%aste> %"; "r d"nkey.
1#. Ghat p"ssi.ly is %harin) in a ;"an ;h" is a d"ll ade "=
=lesh> in a %a)e "= li.s ;hi%h is "$ed .y a%hinery and ;h" is a
%"n)l"erate "= tend"ns ."nes and 5"ints I
15. Are the eyes 6"= a ;"an7 %harin) ;hen ;e l""k at the a=ter
disse%ti"n int" skin> =lesh> .l""d and tears I Ghy then d" y"( )et
in=at(ated in $ain I
3#7
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA

16. -iilarly> 9h sa)e> is seen "= the pearl ne%kla%e ;hi%h shines
.ri)ht 6ad"rin) ;"en7 in the "nr(sh "= the Gan)a ;ater d";n the
shinin) sl"pes "= the Mer( "(ntain.
17. In %eeteries 6sit(ated7 in re"te pla%es the sae .reast "= a
;"an is eaten in d(e %"(rse .y d")s as i= it ;ere a sall "rsel "=
=""d.
1+. 3a$in) 6attra%ti$e7 tresses and p(ttin) "n %"llyri(> ;"en>
di==i%(lt t" t"(%h .(t pleasin) t" the eyes are 6$erily7 the =laes "= the
=ire "= sin and they .(rn en as th"()h they ;ere stra;.
1,. G"en pleasin) and %r(el> are the =(el ="r the hell-=ires> that
in=lae e$en at a distan%e and th"()h 5(i%y 6l"$ea.le7 are de$"id "=
"ist(re 6=la$"(r7.
2&. -illy ;"en are the nets spread .y the h(nter %alled 8(pid t"
entan)le the ."dies "= en in the ="r "= .irds.
21. G"an is the .ait st(%k in the =ish-h""k at the strin) "= e$il
pr"pensity t" %at%h en in the ="r "= =ish that are in the p"nd "=
;"rldly li=e and that are a%ti$e in the (d "= the ind.
22. En"()h "= ;"en t" e> ="re$er> ;h" are the str"n) %askets 6t"
preser$e7 all )es "= e$il and are the %hains "= isery.
3#+
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23. 3e ;h" has a ;"an ;ith hi has desire ="r en5"yent< ;here is
the s%"pe ="r en5"yent t" "ne ;h" is ;ith"(t ;"an I Dis%ardin)
;"an is dis%ardin) ;"rldly li=e< "ne shall .e happy a=ter a.and"nin)
;"rldly li=e.
2#. A s"n (n."rn ;"rries the 6;"(ld .e7 parents ="r l"n)< ;hen
".tained 6in the ;".7 he )i$es tr"(.le d(e t" is%arria)e "r the
pan)s "= %hild-.irth.
25. Ghen the ."y is ."rn there is the ;"rry "= e$il planes> illness> et%.>
and then his pr"pensity t" e$il ;ays. Ghen in$ested ;ith the sa%red
thread he d"es n"t .e%"e learned and i= he .e%"es ;ise he re=(ses
arria)e.
26. In y"(th he takes t" ad(ltery> et%.> and has 6the %(rse "=7 p"$erty
;hen he has a =aily. 0here is n" end "= ;"rry d(e t" a s"n and i= he
is ri%h he 6s(ddenly7 ay die.
27. 0he 6)""d7 as%eti% has n" =i%kleness "= hands and =eet< he is n"t
(nsteady in his eyes and he is n"t l""se ;ith his spee%h< %"nH(erin)
his senses he .e%"es "ne ;ith !rahan.
2+. Ghen a pers"n "= dis%riinati"n sees eH(ality and "neness
.et;een an eney> a pris"ner and his ";n ."dy> ;here is 6the s%"pe
="r7 an)er> as t";ards the li.s "= "neEs ";n ."dy I
2,. I= y"( ha$e any an)er a)ainst a ;r"n) d"er> h"; is it y"( d" n"t
3#,
-U'/A-1A2UR-VEDA
ha$e an)er a)ainst an)er> as it ="r%i.ly .l"%ks 6the path t"7 d(ty>
;ealth> l"$e and li.erati"n I
3&. My sal(tati"n t" the an)er a)ainst an)er> ;hi%h ;ell sets a.laCe its
s(.strat( and ;hi%h )i$es "ne dispassi"n and a;akens "ne t" "neEs
=a(lts.
31. Ghere the pe"ple are al;ays asleep the an "= sel=-%"ntr"l is ;ide
a;ake< ;here they are $i)ilant> 9h ;ise "ne> the prin%e a"n) the
1")ins> is in deep sleep. !e %"n$in%ed that there is %"ns%i"(sness
here> that 6all7 this is %"ns%i"(sness al"ne and is per$aded .y
%"ns%i"(sness> that y"( are %"ns%i"(sness and I a %"ns%i"(sness>
and all these ;"rlds are "= %"ns%i"(sness.
32. As%eti%s sh"(ld a%%ept this> the hi)hest p"siti"n "= .ein) a
4araahasa. 9h .est "= sa)es> there is n"thin) hi)her than this. 0h(s
6ends7 the Upanishad.
9 : 0hat 6!rahan7 is in=inite> and this 6(ni$erse7 is in=inite.
0he in=inite pr"%eeds =r" the in=inite.
60hen7 takin) the in=init(de "= the in=inite 6(ni$erse7>
It reains as the in=inite 6!rahan7 al"ne.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
35&
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/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the 1a5na$alky"panishad .el"n)in) t" the -(kla-1a5(r-
Veda.
351
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KRISHNA-YAJUR-VEDA
352
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
3). Akshi Upanishad
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
4AR0-I
0hen the .lessed -akriti repaired t" the s"lar ;"rld. !";in) d";n
t" the s(n> he )l"ri=ied the -(n .y eans "= the s%ien%e "= the Gise@
9> -al(tati"n t" the .lessed /"rd> the )l"ri"(s -(n> t" the 4";er "=
the eye.
9> -al(tati"n t" the -ky-Ganderer.
9> -al(tati"n t" the 8"ander "= the Ary 6"= li)ht7.
9> -al(tati"n t" darkness 6eJ%ess "= li)ht7.
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9> -al(tati"n t" Ener)y.
9> -al(tati"n t" /i)ht.
/ead e =r" the (nreal t" the Real< lead e =r" darkness t" /i)ht<
lead e =r" death t" I"rtality.
9= the essen%e "= 4(rity> the .lessed 9ne s%"r%hes 6the sins "= the
sin=(l7. 0he .lessed -;an> "= the essen%e "= 4(rity> is the 4r"t"type 6"=
the ."(nd s"(l> the 2i$a7.
3ere rises the -(n> th"(sand-rayed> eJistent in yriad ;ays> the li=e
"= all aniate .ein)s. 6I editate "n 3i ;h" is7 "ni="r>
%"passi"nate> "nis%ient> a.r"sial> "= the essen%e "= li)ht> the
-%"r%her.
9> -al(tati"n t" the .lessed /"rd> the -(n> the 9==sprin) "= the
In=inite> the 4";er "= the eye. 0he =l""d "= days : 0he =l""d :: All 3ail
:
0h(s )l"ri=ied .y eans "= the s%ien%e "= the Gise the-/"rd-in-the-
="r-"=-the--(n ;as hi)hly )rati=ied. 3e said@ Ghi%he$er !rahana
st(dies ;ith"(t .reak this s%ien%e "= the Gise ne$er %"ntra%ts any eye-
disease. *"ne is ."rn .lind in his =aily. 0ea%hin) this t" ei)ht
!rahanas "ne .e%"es per=e%t in this s%ien%e. Gh"s"e$er kn";s
this is a)ni=ied.
4AR0-II
1. 0hen $erily -akriti said t" the -(n@ !lessed 9ne> tea%h e
!raha-$idya. 0he -(n t"ld hi@ -akriti> listen. I shall set ="rth the
kn";led)e "= Reality> s" hard t" %"e .y< .y ;hi%h kn";led)e al"ne
;ill y"( .e%"e li.erated ;hile li$in) in the ."dy.
35#
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA

2. All is "ne> (n."rn> tranH(il> endless> %ertain> i(ta.le. -ee Reality
as -pirit< .e tranH(il and at ease.
3. 60he adepts7 kn"; 1")a t" .e the n"n-kn";in) 6"= pl(rality7> the
sp"ntane"(s attriti"n "= the 6".5e%t-seekin)7 ind. R""ted in 1")a>
per="r a%ti"ns> "r> a$erse 6t" all a%ti"ns7> per="r 6the7 n"t at all.
#. A$ersi"n is =elt e$eryday t" in."rn tenden%ies 6t" a%t7< ne$ertheless>
"ne tends t" pl(n)e int" n".le a%ti"ns ;ith )(st".
5-6. Al;ays "ne hesitates as re)ards the instin%ti$e a%ti"ns "= the
(nre)enerate< "ne ne$er re=ers t" ;hat ay %"pr"ise "thers> .(t
attends t" their ri)hte"(s deeds. 9ne d"es )entle deeds that pain n"ne<
al;ays dreads sin and a$"ids all ="rs "= sense-)rati=i%ati"n.
7. -(%h a "neEs spee%h is in="red .y a==e%ti"n and l"$e< it is l"$ely
and =it> ;ith d(e re)ard t" tie and pla%e.
+. Gith pr"per th"()ht> a%t and spee%h> "ne ;aits (p"n the $irt("(s.
Gettin) the =r" all %"n%ei$a.le s"(r%es> "ne st(dies the -hastras.
,-1&6a7. 0hen "ne attains the =irst sta)e "= 1")a. Gh"e$er entertains
s(%h th"()hts as re)ards the %r"ssin) "= transi)rat"ry li=e is said t"
ha$e attained a state "= 1")a. 0he rest are said t" .e 5(st `n".leE
6arya7.
1&6.7-11. 8"in) t" the neJt sta)e "= 1")a> %alled `AnalysisE
6$i%hara7> the sadhaka res"rts t" the ="re"st s%h"lars> ;ell-kn";n ="r
their seri"(s interpretati"ns "= -r(ti and -riti> )""d %"nd(%t> =iJed
attenti"n> %"nteplati"n and a%ti$ities.
12. As a h"(se-h"lder 6kn";s7 his h"estead> 6s"7> ha$in) astered
all that has t" .e learned> the sadhaka %"es t" kn"; the %ate)"ries>
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'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
and the d"%trines> $is-M-$is ;hat has t" .e d"ne and a$"ided.
13. As a snake sheds its -l"()h> s" sheds he e$en a sli)ht atta%hent
t" eJternal ".5e%ts ;hen intensi=ied .y pride> %"n%eit> int"leran%e>
)reed and del(si"n.
1#. Gith a ind dis%iplined thr"()h de$"ti"n t" the -hastras> tea%her>
and the %"pany "= the $irt("(s> he tr(th=(lly asters the entire ."dy
"= kn";led)e in%l(din) the se%ret d"%trines.
15. 2(st as a l"$er repairs t" a sp"tless .ed "= =l";ers> =r" the
se%"nd> he 6the sadhaka7 pr"%eeds t" the third state styled *"n-
atta%hent.
16-17. FiJin) his steady ind "n the tr(th=(l ip"rt "= the -hastras
and .(sy ;ith the re%itati"n "= spirit(al teJts pr"per t" the herita)es
"= the as%eti%s> he eJpends his l"n) li=e> seated "n a .ed "= st"ne "r a
sla.> di$ertin) hisel= ;ith ra.lin)s in the ="rest> ade .ea(ti=(l .y
his pla%id ind.
1+. As a res(lt "= his erit"ri"(s a%ti"ns> the ri)hte"(s 6sadhaka7
passes his tie in the deli)hts "= deta%hent> repeatedly st(dyin) the
p"siti$e -hastras.
1,. 9neEs per%epti"n "= reality .e%"es %lear "nly in d(e %"(rse. 0he
enli)htened "ne> rea%hin) the third sta)e> eJperien%es this ="r hisel=.
2&. *"n-atta%hent is "= t;" kinds@ listen t" the distin%ti"n as it is
.ein) dra;n. 0his n"n-atta%hent is "= t;"-kinds< "ne )eneral and the
"ther> s(peri"r.
21. 0he )eneral n"n-atta%hent is n"n-in$"l$eent in ".5e%ts> 6.ased
"n the per%epti"n7 `I a neither a)ent n"r en5"yer> neither the s(.later
n"r the s(.latedE.
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22. `E$erythin)> .e it pleas(re "r pain> is =ashi"ned .y pri"r deeds< "r>
e$erythin) is (nder the s;ay "= the /"rd. I d" n"thin) in re)ard t" itE.
23. `En5"yents and n"n-en5"yents are dread diseases< p"ssessi"ns
are )reat disasters. All %"nta%ts 5(st pr""te separati"n. -(==erin)s are
diseases "= th"()htsE.
2#. `0ie is %easelessly =ashi"nin) all thin)sE ? s" the )eneral n"n-
atta%hent "= 6the sadhaka7 ;h" has )rasped the ip"rt "= 6the a5"r
teJts7 %"nsists in .ein) a$erse t" all thin)s and in n"t d;ellin) "n
the entally.
25-26. !y %(lti$atin) this seH(en%e 6"= sta)es7> the s(peri"r n"n-
atta%hent in the %ase "= the a)nani"(s 6sadhakas7 s(per$enes. It
is said t" .e silen%e> rep"se and H(ies%en%e. F"r spee%h and ip"rt
ha$e .een =l(n) =ar a;ay in the li)ht "= the tr(th> `I a n" a)ent< the
a)ent is G"d "r y ";n pri"r a%ti"nsE.
27. 0he =irst sta)e that "%%(rs is s;eet "n a%%"(nt "= the satis=a%ti"n
and 5"y 6that attend it7. 0he sadhaka 6p(an7 has 5(st stepped int" the
seH(en%e "= states. 0he =irst is an a.r"sial spr"(t.
2+. 0he =irst sta)e is the internal> %leansed> .irth-pla%e "= the "ther
sta)es. 0hen%e "ne attains the se%"nd and third sta)es.
2,. A"n) these> the all-per$adin) third 6sta)e7 is s(peri"r. 3ere the
sadhaka has "(t)r";n all pr"neness t" ia)ine 6and )et ensnared7.
3&. 0h"se ;h" rea%h the ="(rth 6sta)e7 a=ter the d;indlin) "=
nes%ien%e thr"()h the eJer%ises "= the three sta)es l""k "n all thin)s
;ith the sae eye.
31. Ghen n"n-d(ality is esta.lished and d(ality diss"l$ed> th"se ;h"
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'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
ha$e rea%hed the ="(rth sta)e l""k (p"n the phen"enal ;"rld as a
drea.
32. 0he =irst three states are said t" .e the ;akin) state< the ="(rth is
%alled the drea state. And the ind diss"l$es like the =ra)ents "= an
a(t(nal %l"(d.
33. 3e ;h" rea%hes the =i=th sta)e s(r$i$es .(t as .are .ein). D(e t"
the diss"l(ti"n "= the ind in this sta)e the ;"rld-ani="ld d"es n"t
present itsel= at all.
3#. Rea%hin) the =i=th sta)e %alled `deep sleepE> the sadhaka reains
as p(re n"n-d(al .ein)> all parti%(lars ha$in) %"pletely $anished.
35. 3a$in) rea%hed the =i=th sta)e> "ne stays %"ns"lidated in deep
sleep> 5"y=(l> in;ardly a;ake> all d(al appearan%es )"ne.
36. /""kin) in;ards> e$en ;hen attendin) t" "(ter thin)s> he appears
al;ays indra;n> .ein) eJtreely eJha(sted.
37. 4ra%tisin) in this =i=th sta)e> =ree =r" all innate ip(lses> "ne
rea%hes> as a atter "= %"(rse> the siJth sta)e naed `the F"(rthE.
3+. Ghere there is neither the n"n-eJistent n"r the eJistent> neither the
`IE n"r the n"n-`IE> ;ith all analyti% thinkin) )"ne> "ne stays al"ne>
t"tally =earless> in n"n-d(ality.
3,. !ey"nd kn"ts> ;ith all d"(.t $anH(ished> li.erated in li=e> de$"id
"= ia)inati"ns> th"()h (neJtin)(ished yet eJtin)(ished> he is like a
painted =lae.
#&. 3a$in) d;elt in the siJth sta)e> he shall rea%h the se$enth. 0he
state "= dise."died li.erati"n is %alled the se$enth sta)e "= 1")a.
35+
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
#1-#26a7. 0his is the a%e "= all sta)es> .ey"nd ;"rds> H(ies%ent.
A$"idin) %"n="rity ;ith the ;ays "= the ;"rld> and the ;ays "= the
."dy> a$"idin) %"n="rity ;ith -hastras> )et rid "= all
s(perip"siti"ns "n the -el=.
#26.7. All that is 6here7> the $ish$a> the pra5na> et%.> is n"thin) .(t 9.
#3. !e%a(se there is n"n-di==eren%e .et;een ip"rt and eJpressi"n>
and .e%a(se> as distin%t =r" ea%h "ther> neither "= these t;" is
kn";n> the Vish$a is 5(st the letter `aE and `(E is said t" .e the 0ai5asa.
##. 0he 4ra5na is the letter `E. 0h(s kn"; in "rder> dis%riinatin)
;ith )reat e=="rt> .e="re 8"n%entrati"n 6-aadhi7 sets in.
#5-#6. In this d(e "rder the %"n%rete and the s(.tle sh"(ld all .e
diss"l$ed in the spirit(al -el= and the spirit(al -el= 6sh"(ld .e
diss"l$ed7 per%ei$in) `I a the 9 Vas(de$a> e$er p(re> a;ake> =ree>
eJistent> n"n-d(al assed and s(pree .lissE< .e%a(se all this
6".5e%ti$e ;"rld7 is pain in the .e)innin)> iddle and end.
#7-#+. 0here="re> th"( sinless "ne> ren"(n%in) e$erythin)> .e de$"ted
t" 0r(th. 0hink@ I a !rahan> s"lid Intelli)en%e and !liss> =ree =r"
ip(rity> h"ly> li=ted a."$e ind and ;"rds> .ey"nd the darkness "=
i)n"ran%e> .ey"nd all appearan%es. 0his is the se%ret d"%trine.
9: May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
35,
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA

9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the Akshy(panishad .el"n)in) t" the 'rishna-1a5(r-Veda.
36&
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
31. Amrita Bindu Upanishad
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. 0he ind is %hie=ly sp"ken "= as "= t;" kinds> p(re and ip(re.
0he ip(re ind is that ;hi%h is p"ssessed "= desire> and the p(re is
that ;hi%h is de$"id "= desire.
2. It is indeed the ind that is the %a(se "= enEs ."nda)e and
li.erati"n. 0he ind that is atta%hed t" sense-".5e%ts leads t" ."nda)e>
;hile diss"%iated =r" sense-".5e%ts it tends t" lead t" li.erati"n. -"
they think.
3. -in%e li.erati"n is predi%ated "= the ind de$"id "= desire ="r
sense-".5e%ts> there="re> the ind sh"(ld al;ays .e ade =ree "= s(%h
desire> .y the seeker a=ter li.erati"n.
#. Ghen the ind> ;ith its atta%hent ="r sense-".5e%ts annihilated> is
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'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
=(lly %"ntr"lled ;ithin the heart and th(s realises its ";n essen%e> then
that -(pree -tate 6is )ained7.
5. 0he ind sh"(ld .e %"ntr"lled t" that eJtent in ;hi%h it )ets er)ed
in the heart. 0his is 2nana 6realisati"n7 and this is Dhyana 6editati"n7
als"> all else is ar)(entati"n and $er.ia)e.
6. 60he -(pree -tate7 is neither t" .e th"()ht "= 6as .ein) s"ethin)
eJternal and pleasin) t" the ind7> n"r (n;"rthy t" .e th"()ht "= 6as
s"ethin) (npleasant t" the ind7< n"r is It t" .e th"()ht "= 6as .ein)
"= the ="r "= sense-pleas(re7> .(t t" .e th"()ht "= 6as the essen%e "=
the e$er-ani=est> eternal> s(pree !liss Itsel=7< that !rahan ;hi%h
is =ree =r" all partiality is attained in that state.
7. 9ne sh"(ld d(ly pra%tise %"n%entrati"n "n 9 6=irst7 thr"()h the
eans "= its letters> then editate "n 9 ;ith"(t re)ard t" its letters.
Finally "n the realisati"n ;ith this latter ="r "= editati"n "n 9>
the idea "= the n"n-entity is attained as entity.
+. 0hat al"ne is !rahan> ;ith"(t %"p"nent parts> ;ith"(t d"(.t and
;ith"(t taint. Realisin) AI a that !rahanB "ne .e%"es the
i(ta.le !rahan.
,. 6!rahan is7 ;ith"(t d"(.t> endless> .ey"nd reas"n and anal")y>
.ey"nd all pr""=s and %a(seless kn";in) ;hi%h the ;ise "ne .e%"es
=ree.
1&. 0he hi)hest 0r(th is that 6p(re %"ns%i"(sness7 ;hi%h realises>
A0here is neither %"ntr"l "= the ind> n"r its %"in) int" playB>
A*either a I ."(nd> n"r a I a ;"rshipper> neither a I a seeker
a=ter li.erati"n> n"r "ne-;h" has attained li.erati"nB.
11. Verily the Atan sh"(ld .e kn";n as .ein) the sae in Its states
"= ;ake=(lness> dreain)> and drealess sleep. F"r hi ;h" has
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'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
trans%ended the three states there is n" "re re.irth.
12. !ein) the "ne> the (ni$ersal -"(l is present in all .ein)s. 0h"()h
"ne> It is seen as any> like the ""n in the ;ater.
13. 2(st as it is the 5ar ;hi%h .ein) re"$ed 6=r" "ne pla%e t"
an"ther7 %han)es pla%es and n"t the Akasa en%l"sed in the 5ar ? s" is
the 2i$a ;hi%h rese.les the Akasa.
1#. Ghen $ari"(s ="rs like the 5ar are .r"ken a)ain and a)ain the
Akasa d"es n"t kn"; the t" .e .r"ken> .(t 3e kn";s per=e%tly.
15. !ein) %"$ered .y Maya> ;hi%h is a ere s"(nd> It d"es n"t>
thr"()h darkness> kn"; the Akasa 6the !liss=(l "ne7. Ghen i)n"ran%e
is rent as(nder> It .ein) then Itsel= "nly sees the (nity.
16. 0he 9 as G"rd is 6=irst l""ked (p"n as7 the -(pree !rahan.
A=ter that 6;"rd-idea7 has $anished> that iperisha.le !rahan
6reains7. 0he ;ise "ne sh"(ld editate "n that iperisha.le
!rahan> i= he desires the pea%e "= his s"(l.
17. 0;" kinds "= Vidya "()ht t" .e kn";n ? the G"rd-!rahan and
the -(pree !rahan. 9ne ha$in) astered the G"rd-!rahan
attains t" the 3i)hest !rahan.
1+. A=ter st(dyin) the Vedas the intelli)ent "ne ;h" is s"lely intent "n
a%H(irin) kn";led)e and realisati"n> sh"(ld dis%ard the Vedas
alt")ether> as the an ;h" seeks t" ".tain ri%e dis%ards the h(sk.
1,. 9= %";s ;hi%h are "= di$erse %"l"(rs the ilk is "= the sae
%"l"(r. 6the intelli)ent "ne7 re)ards 2nana as the ilk> and the any-
.ran%hed Vedas as the %";s.
2&. /ike the .(tter hidden in ilk> the 4(re 8"ns%i"(sness resides in
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'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
e$ery .ein). 0hat "()ht t" .e %"nstantly %h(rned "(t .y the %h(rnin)
r"d "= the ind.
21. 0akin) h"ld "= the r"pe "= kn";led)e> "ne sh"(ld .rin) "(t> like
=ire> the -(pree !rahan. I a that !rahan indi$isi.le> i(ta.le>
and %al> th(s it is th"()ht "=.
22. In Gh" reside all .ein)s> and Gh" resides in all .ein)s .y $irt(e
"= 3is .ein) the )i$er "= )ra%e t" all ? I a that -"(l "= the Uni$erse>
the -(pree !ein)> I a that -"(l "= the Uni$erse> the -(pree
!ein).
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the Arita.ind(panishad> as %"ntained in the 'rishna-
1a5(r-Veda.
36#
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32. Amrita-#ada Upanishad
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. 0he ;ise> ha$in) st(died the -hastras and re=le%ted "n the a)ain
and a)ain and ha$in) %"e t" kn"; !rahan> sh"(ld a.and"n the
all like a =ire-.rand.
2-3. 3a$in) as%ended the %ar "= 9 ;ith Vishn( 6the 3i)her -el=7 as
the %hari"teer> "ne ;ishin) t" )" t" the seat "= !rahal"ka intent "n
the ;"rship "= R(dra> sh"(ld )" in the %hari"t s" l"n) as he %an )".
0hen a.and"nin) the %ar> he rea%hes the pla%e "= the /"rd "= the %ar.
#. 3a$in) )i$en (p Matra> /in)a and 4ada> he attains the s(.tle 4ada
6seat "r ;"rd7 ;ith"(t $";els "r %"ns"nants .y eans "= the letter
`ME ;ith"(t the -$ara 6a%%ent7.
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5. 0hat is %alled 4ratyahara ;hen "ne erely thinks "= the =i$e ".5e%ts
"= sense> s(%h as s"(nd> et%.> as als" the $ery (nsteady ind as the
reins "= Atan.
6. 4ratyahara 6s(.5()ati"n "= the senses7> Dhyana 6%"nteplati"n7>
4ranayaa 6%"ntr"l "= .reath7> Dharana 6%"n%entrati"n7> 0arka and
-aadhi are said t" .e the siJ parts "= 1")a.
7. 2(st as the ip(rities "= "(ntain-inerals are .(rnt .y the .l";er>
s" the stains %"itted .y the "r)ans are .(rned .y %he%kin) 4rana.
+. 0hr"()h 4ranayaas sh"(ld .e .(rnt the stains< thr"()h Dharana>
the sins< thr"()h 4ratyahara> the 6.ad7 ass"%iati"ns< and thr"()h
Dhyana> the )"dless H(alities.
,. 3a$in) destr"yed the sins> "ne sh"(ld think "= R(%hira 6the
shinin)7.
1&. R(%hira 6%essati"n7> eJpirati"n and inspirati"n ? these three are
4ranayaa "= 6Re%haka> 4(raka and '(.haka7 eJpirati"n>
inspirati"n and %essati"n "= .reath.
11. 0hat is %alled 6"ne7 4ranayaa ;hen "ne repeats ;ith a pr"l"n)ed
6"r el"n)ated7 .reath three ties the Gayatri ;ith its Vyahritis and
4rana$a 6.e="re it7 al"n) ;ith the -iras 6the head7 5"inin) a=ter it.
12. Raisin) (p the Vay( =r" the Akasa 6re)i"n> $iC.> the heart7 and
akin) the ."dy $"id 6"= Vay(7 and epty and (nitin) 6the s"(l7 t"
the state "= $"id> is %alled Re%haka 6eJpirati"n7.
13. 0hat is %alled 4(raka 6inspirati"n7 ;hen "ne takes in Vay(> as a
an ;"(ld take ;ater int" his "(th thr"()h the l"t(s-stalk.
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1#. 0hat is %alled '(.haka 6%essati"n "= .reath7 ;hen there is n"
eJpirati"n "r inspirati"n and the ."dy is "ti"nless> reainin) still in
"ne state.
15. 0hen he sees ="rs like the .lind> hears s"(nds like the dea= and
sees the ."dy like ;""d. 0his is the %hara%teristi% "= "ne that has
attained (%h H(ies%en%e.
16. 0hat is %alled Dharana ;hen the ;ise an re)ards the ind as
-ankalpa and er)in) -ankalpa int" Atan> %"nteplates (p"n his
Atan 6al"ne7.
17. 0hat is %alled 0arka ;hen "ne akes in=eren%e ;hi%h d"es n"t
%"n=li%t ;ith the Vedas. 0hat is %alled -aadhi in ;hi%h "ne> "n
attainin) it> thinks 6all7 eH(al.
1+-2&. -eatin) hisel= "n the )r"(nd "n a seat "= '(sa )rass ;hi%h is
pleasant and de$"id "= all e$ils> ha$in) pr"te%ted hisel= entally
6=r" all e$il in=l(en%es7> (tterin) Ratha-Mandala> ass(in) either
4ada> -$astika> "r !hadra p"st(re "r any "ther ;hi%h %an .e
pra%tised easily> =a%in) the n"rth and %l"sin) the n"stril ;ith the
th(.> "ne sh"(ld inspire thr"()h the "ther n"stril and retain .reath
inside and preser$e the A)ni 6=ire7. 0hen he sh"(ld think "= the s"(nd
697 al"ne.
21. 9> the "ne letter is !rahan< 9 sh"(ld n"t .e .reathed "(t.
0hr"()h this di$ine antra 697> it sh"(ld .e d"ne any ties t" rid
hisel= "= ip(rity.
22. 0hen as said .e="re> the Mantra-kn";in) ;ise sh"(ld re)(larly
editate> .e)innin) ;ith the na$el (p;ards in the )r"ss> the priary
6"r less7 )r"ss and s(.tle 6states7.
23. 0he )reatly ;ise sh"(ld )i$e (p all 6si)ht7 seein) a%r"ss> (p "r
d";n and sh"(ld pra%tise 1")a al;ays .ein) "ti"nless and ;ith"(t
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'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
tre"r.
2#. 0he (ni"n as stated 6d"ne7 .y reainin) ;ith"(t tre"r in the
hall"; stalk 6$iC.> -(s(na7 al"ne is Dharana. 0he 1")a ;ith the
"rdained d(rati"n "= t;el$e Matras is %alled 6Dharana7.
25. 0hat ;hi%h ne$er de%ays is Akshara 697 ;hi%h is ;ith"(t
Gh"sha 6third> ="(rth and =i=th letters =r" D'E7> %"ns"nant> $";el>
palatal> )(tt(ral> nasal> letter `RE and si.ilants.
26. 4rana tra$els thr"()h 6"r )"es .y7 that path thr"()h ;hi%h this
Akshara 697 )"es. 0here="re it sh"(ld .e pra%tised daily> in "rder t"
pass al"n) that 6%"(rse7.
27. It is thr"()h the "penin) 6"r h"le7 "= the heart> thr"()h the
"penin) "= Vay( 6pr".a.ly na$el7> thr"()h the "penin) "= the head
and thr"()h the "penin) "= M"ksha. 0hey %all it !ila 6%a$e7> -(shira
6h"le7> "r Mandala 6;heel7.
2+. 60hen a."(t the ".sta%les "= 1")a7@ A 1")in sh"(ld al;ays a$"id
=ear> an)er> laCiness> t"" (%h sleep "r ;akin) and t"" (%h =""d "r
=astin).
2,. I= the a."$e r(le .e ;ell and stri%tly pra%tised ea%h day> spirit(al
;isd" ;ill arise "= itsel= in three "nths ;ith"(t d"(.t.
3&. In ="(r "nths> he sees the De$as< in =i$e "nths> he kn";s 6"r
.e%"es7 !raha-*ishtha< and tr(ly in siJ "nths he attains
'ai$alya at ;ill. 0here is n" d"(.t.
31. 0hat ;hi%h is "= the earth is "= =i$e Matras 6"r it takes =i$e Matras
t" pr"n"(n%e 4arthi$a-4rana$a7. 0hat ;hi%h is "= ;ater is "= ="(r
Matras< "= A)ni> three Matras< "= Vay(> t;"<
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'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
32. And "= Akasa> "ne. !(t he sh"(ld think "= that ;hi%h is ;ith n"
Matras. 3a$in) (nited Atan ;ith Manas> "ne sh"(ld %"nteplate
(p"n Atan .y eans "= Atan.
33. 4rana is thirty di)its l"n). -(%h is the p"siti"n 6"= ran)e7 "=
4ranas. 0hat is %alled 4rana ;hi%h is the seat "= the eJternal 4ranas.
3#. 0he .reaths .y day and ni)ht are n(.ered as 1>13>1+& K"r 21>6&&
- IL.
35. 69= the 4ranas7 the =irst $iC.> 4rana is per$adin) the heart< Apana>
the an(s< -aana> the na$el< Udana> the thr"at<
36. And Vyana> all parts "= the ."dy. 0hen %"e the %"l"(rs "= the =i$e
4ranas in "rder.
37. 4rana is said t" .e "= the %"l"(r "= a .l""d-red )e 6"r %"ral7<
Apana ;hi%h is in the iddle is "= the %"l"(r "= Indra)"pa 6an inse%t
"= ;hite "r red %"l"(r7<
3+. -aana is .et;een the %"l"(r "= p(re ilk and %rystal 6"r "ily and
shinin)7> .et;een ."th 64rana and Apana7< Udana is Apandara 6pale
;hite7< and Vyana rese.les the %"l"(r "= ar%his 6"r ray "= li)ht7.
3,. 0hat an is ne$er re."rn ;here$er he ay die> ;h"se .reath )"es
"(t "= the head a=ter pier%in) thr"()h this Mandala 6"= the pineal
)land7. 0hat an is ne$er re."rn.
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
36,
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the Aritanada Upanishad .el"n)in) t" the 'rishna-1a5(r-
Veda.
37&
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
33. Avadhuta Upanishad
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. 0hen> it is said> -akriti appr"a%hed the $enera.le A$adh(ta>
Dattatreya> and H(esti"ned@ Venera.le -ir> Gh" is an A$adh(ta I Ghat
is his %"nditi"n I Ghat his %hara%teristi% I And ;hat his ;"rldly
eJisten%e I 0" hi replied the $enera.le Dattatreya> the "st
%"passi"nate@
2. 0he A$adh(ta is s" %alled .e%a(se he is i"rtal KaksharaL< he is
the )reatest K$arenyaL< he has dis%arded ;"rldly ties
Kdh(tasasara.andhanaL< and he is the indi%ated eanin) "= the
senten%e D0h"( art 0hatD> et%.> Ktatt$aasyadi-lakshyaL.
3. 3e ;h" rests %"nstantly in hisel=> a=ter %r"ssin) 6the .arrier "=7
%astes and sta)es 6"= s"%ial p"siti"n7 and th(s rises a."$e $arnas and
asraas and is in (ni"n 6;ith G"d7 is said t" .e an A$adh(ta.
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#. 3is 5"y KpriyaL is 6t" .e en$isa)ed as7 the head< deli)ht K"daL is
his ri)ht ;in)< )reat deli)ht Kpra"daL his le=t ;in)< and .liss 6his
$ery sel=7. 0h(s he ass(es a ="(r="ld %"nditi"n.
5. 9ne sh"(ld identi=y !rahan neither ;ith the head n"r ;ith the
iddle part n"r ;ith the ."tt" .(t ;ith 6;hat reains in the shape
"=7 the tail> sin%e it is said that !rahan is `the 0ailE and s(.strat(.
0h(s> th"se ;h" %"nteplate this ="(r="ld di$isi"n attain the s(pree
G"al.
6. *"t .y rit(als> n"t .y .e)ettin) %hildren> n"t .y ;ealth> .(t .y
ren(n%iati"n Ktya)aL al"ne a =e; attained i"rtality.
7. 3is 6the A$adh(taEs7 ;"rldly eJisten%e %"nsists in "$in) a."(t
=reely> ;ith "r ;ith"(t %l"thes. F"r the there is n"thin) ri)hte"(s "r
(nri)hte"(s< n"thin) h"ly "r (nh"ly. 0hr"()h all-%"ns(in)> %"rre%t
kn";led)e Ksa)rahaneshtiL 6the A$adh(ta7 per="rs Ash$aedha
sa%ri=i%e ;ithin 6hisel=7. 0hat is the )reatest sa%ri=i%e and the )reat
1")a.
+. *"()ht "= this eJtra"rdinary> =ree a%ti"n 6"= his7 sh"(ld .e
dis%l"sed. 0his is the )reat $"; Kaha$rataL. 3e is n"t tainted like the
i)n"rant.
,. As the s(n a.s"r.s all ;aters> and the =ire %"ns(es all thin)s
6reainin) (na==e%ted .y the7> e$en s"> the p(re 1")in en5"ys all
".5e%ts> (nstained .y $irt(es "r sins.
1&. As the "%ean int" ;hi%h all ;aters =l"; aintains its ";n nat(re
despite the ;ater p"(rin) in 6=r" all sides7> s"> he al"ne attains pea%e
int" ;h" all desires =l"; in like anner< n"t he ;h" seeks the
".5e%ts "= pleas(re.
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'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
11. 0here is neither death n"r .irth< n"ne is ."(nd> n"ne aspires. 0here
is neither seeker a=ter li.erati"n n"r any li.erated< this indeed is the
(ltiate 0r(th.
12. Many ;ere y a%ti$ities per%han%e in the past ="r )ainin) thin)s
here and herea=ter> "r ="r ".tainin) li.erati"n. All that is n"; "= the
past.
13. 0hat itsel= is the state "= %"ntentent. Verily ree.erin) the
sae 6i.e. the past7 a%hie$eents in$"l$in) ".5e%ts> he n"; reains
th(s e$er %"ntent. 0he isera.le i)n"rant> desir"(s "= %hildren> et%.>
needs (st s(==er.
1#. Ghere="re shall I s(==er> ;h" a =illed ;ith s(pree .liss I /et
th"se ;h" yearn t" )" t" the "ther ;"rlds per="r rit(als.
15. Ghat shall I> ;h" a "= the nat(re "= all the ;"rlds> per="r I F"r
;hat and h"; I /et th"se ;h" are ;"rlds> per="r I F"r ;hat and
h"; I /et th"se ;h" are H(ali=ied interpret the -hastras "r tea%h the
Vedas.
16. I ha$e n" s(%h H(ali=i%ati"n> sin%e I a =ree "= a%ti"n. I ha$e n"
desire ="r sleepin) "r .e))in)> .athin) "r %leanin). *"r d" I d" the.
17. I= "nl""kers th(s s(perip"se> let the d" s". Ghat atters t" e
the s(perip"siti"n "= "thers I A heap "= the red-.la%k .erries 6"= the
A.r(s pre%at"ri(s7 ;"(ld n"t .(rn> e$en i= "thers s(perip"sed =ire
"n it. /ike;ise> I partake n"t "= ;"rldly d(ties s(perip"sed 6"n e7
.y "thers.
1+. /et the> ;h" are i)n"rant "= the reality> st(dy the s%ript(res<
kn";in) 6the reality7 ;hy sh"(ld I st(dy I /et the ;h" ha$e d"(.ts
re=le%t 6(p"n ;hat ;as st(died7. 3a$in) n" d"(.ts> I d" n"t re=le%t.
373
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
1,. Gere I (nder ill(si"n> I ay editate< ha$in) n" ill(si"n> ;hat
editati"n %an there .e 6="r e7 I 8"n=(si"n "= ."dy ="r the sel=> I
ne$er eJperien%e.
2&. 0he ha.it(al (sa)e `I a a anE is p"ssi.le e$en ;ith"(t this
%"n=(si"n> ="r it is d(e t" ipressi"ns a%%((lated d(rin) a l"n) tie.
21. Ghen the res(lts "= a%ti"ns set in "ti"n Kprara.dha-karanL are
eJha(sted> the ha.it(al (sa)e als" ends. 0his 6;"rldly (sa)e7 ;ill n"t
%ease e$en ;ith repeated editati"n (nless s(%h a%ti"ns are
eJha(sted.
22. I= in=reH(en%y "= ;"rldly dealin)s is s"()ht> let there .e
%"nteplati"n ="r y"(. Ghere="re sh"(ld I> t" ;h" ;"rldly dealin)s
"==er n" hindran%e> %"nteplate I
23. !e%a(se I d" n"t ha$e distra%ti"ns> I d" n"t need %"n%entrati"n>
distra%ti"n "r %"n%entrati"n .ein) "= the ind that "di=ies.
2#. Ghat separate eJperien%e %an there .e ="r e> ;h" a "= the
nat(re "= eternal eJperien%e I Ghat has t" .e d"ne is d"ne> ;hat has
t" .e )ained is )ained ="r e$er.
25. /et y dealin)s> ;"rldly> s%ript(ral "r "= "ther kinds pr"%eed as
they ha$e started> I .ein) neither an a)ent 6"= a%ti"n7 n"r "ne a==e%ted
6.y it7.
26. 9r> e$en th"()h I ha$e a%hie$ed ;hat has t" .e a%hie$ed> let e
reain "n the s%ript(ral path ="r the sake "= the ;ell-.ein) "= the
;"rld. Ghat har ="r e there.yI
27. /et the ."dy .e en)a)ed in the ;"rship "= )"ds> .athin)> %leanin)>
.e))in) and s" ="rth. /et spee%h repeatedly (tter the tara-antra "r
re%ite the Upanishadi% passa)es.
37#
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2+. /et th"()ht %"nteplate Vishn( "r let it .e diss"l$ed in the .liss
"= !rahan. I a the ;itness. I neither d" n"r %a(se any d"in).
2,. !ein) %"ntented ;ith d(ties =(l=illed and a%hie$eents
a%%"plished> he %easelessly re=le%ts as ="ll";s ;ith a %"ntented
ind@
3&. !lessed a I> .lessed a I. Dire%tly and al;ays> I eJperien%e y
";n sel=. !lessed a I> .lessed a I> the .liss "= !rahan shines
.ri)htly in e.
31. !lessed a I> .lessed a I. I d" n"t see the isery "= eJisten%e.
!lessed a I> .lessed a I< y i)n"ran%e has =led a;ay.
32. !lessed a I> .lessed a I< n" d(ty eJists ="r e. !lessed a I>
.lessed a I< e$erythin) t" .e ".tained is n"; ".tained.
33. !lessed a I> .lessed a I. Ghat %"paris"n is there in the ;"rld
="r y %"ntentent : !lessed a I> .lessed a I< .lessed> .lessed>
a)ain and a)ain .lessed.
3#. /")i%al : 0he $irt(es a%%r(ed ha$e yielded =r(it : Indeed they ha$e
: !y the ri%hness "= $irt(e ;e are as ;e are.
35. G"ndr"(s kn";led)e> ;"ndr"(s kn";led)e : G"ndr"(s
happiness> ;"ndr"(s happiness : G"ndr"(s s%ript(res> ;"ndr"(s
s%ript(res : G"ndr"(s tea%hers> ;"ndr"(s tea%hers :
36. 3e ;h" st(dies this als" a%hie$es e$erythin) t" .e a%hie$ed. 3e
.e%"es =ree "= the sins "= drinkin) liH("r. 3e .e%"es =ree "= the
sins "= stealin) )"ld. 3e .e%"es =ree "= the sins "= killin) a !rahin.
3e .e%"es =ree "= a%ti"ns> "rdained "r pr"hi.ited. 'n";in) this> let
hi ;ander a%%"rdin) t" his =ree ;ill. 9> 0r(th. 0h(s 6ends7 the
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'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
Upanishad.
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the A$adh(ta Upanishad .el"n)in) t" the 'rishna-1a5(r-
Veda.
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'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
34. Brahma 1idya Upanishad
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
I pr"%lai the !rahan-l"re> ;hi%h is "nis%ien%e> ;hi%h is the
hi)hest. It sh";s as "ri)inati"n and end - !rahan> Vishn(>
Mahes$ara.
Vishn(> ;"rkin) ;ith his ira%(l"(s p";er .e%"es> at inter$als> a
h(an .ein) thr"()h %"passi"n. 3is se%ret> as the 9M =ire> lies in
the !rahan l"re.
0he sylla.le 9M is the !rahan. 0h(s> $erily> tea%h the !rahan?
kn";ers< !"dy> l"%ati"n> tie and dyin) a;ay "= this sylla.le> I ;ill
pr"%lai.
I ? 0he ."dy "r sarira "= the s"(nd 9M@
377
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
0here are three )"ds and three ;"rlds> three Vedas and three =ires.
0hree "ras and the hal= "ra. In that trisylla.i%> .liss=(l "ne.
0he Ri) Veda> Grahapatya. 0he earth and !rahan as G"d> that is the
."dy "= the AaB s"(nd> as eJp"(nded .y the !rahan-kn";ers.
0he 1a5(r Veda and the id-re)i"n> and the =ire Dakshina> and the
h"ly )"d Vishn(> this is the A(B s"(nd pr"%laied t" (s.
0he -aa Veda and hea$en> the Aha$aniya =ire als"> and Ish$ara> the
hi)hest 6"r s(pree7 )"d.
0h(s is the AB s"(nd pr"%laied t" (s.
II ? 0he l"%ati"n "r sthana "= the s"(nd 9M@
In the idst "= the .rain-%"n%h> like the s(n-shine )litters the AaB.
Githin it is sit(ated> the A(B s"(nd "= ""n-like splend"r.
0he AB s"(nd t""> like the =ire> s"keless> rese.lin) a li)htnin)
=lash. 0h(s shine the three "ras> like the M""n> the -(n and the =ire.
0here (p"n a p"inted =lae> like a t"r%h li)ht eJists. 'n"; it as the
hal= "ra> ;hi%h "ne ;rites a."$e the sylla.le.
III ? 0he terin(s "r kala "= the s"(nd 9M@
1et "ne> like a p"inted =lae s(.tle> like l"t(s-=i.er> shines the -(n-
like %ere.ral artery ? 6passin) thr"()h it7 penetrates 6the 9M7.
0hr"()h the -(n and se$enty t;" th"(sand arteries> .reaks thr"()h
the head and reains as .rin)er "= .lessin)s t" all ? per$adin) the
;h"le Uni$erse.
IV ? 0he $anishin)> =adin) a;ay "r laya "= the s"(nd 9M@
37+
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA

And 5(st as the s"(nd "= a etal (tensil ? "r "= a )"n) dies in silen%e ?
s" he> ;h" seeks the All lets the 9M s"(nd =ade a;ay in silen%e.
F"r that ;herein the s"(nd =ades a;ay is the !rahan> the hi)her.
1ea> the ;h"le s"(nd is !rahan and %"nd(%es t" i"rtality.
9 -hanti: -hanti: -hanti:
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the !raha-Vidy"panishad .el"n)in) t" the 'rishna-1a5(r-
Veda.
37,
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
35. Brahma Upanishad
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. 9 : -ha(naka> h"(seh"lder "= =ae> "n%e asked !ha)a$an
4ippalada "= An)iraEs =aily@ In this ."dy> the di$ine %ity "= !rahan>
installed> h"; d" they %reate I Gh"se )l"ry d"es this %"nstit(te I Gh"
is he ;h" .e%ae all this )l"ry I
2. Unt" hi 6-ha(naka7 he 64ippalada7 iparted the s(pree Gisd"
"= !rahan@ 0hat is 4rana> the Atan. 3e %"nstit(tes the )l"ry "= the
Atan> the li=e "= the De$as. 3e represents ."th the li=e and the death
"= the De$as. 0hat !rahan ;h" shines ;ithin the di$ine !rahap(ra
6"r ."dy7 as the =a(ltless 9ne> de$"id "= ani=ested e==e%ts> sel=-
e==(l)ent> all-per$adin)> 3e 6it is ;h"7 %"ntr"ls 6the 2i$a7> like a spider
%"ntr"llin) the kin) "= .ees. 2(st as spiders .y eans "= "ne thread
3+&
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
pr"5e%t and ;ithdra; the ;e.> s" als" the 4rana> 6;h"7 retires dra;in)
.a%k his %reati"n. 4rana .el"n)s t" the *adis "r s(.tle ner$e-%h"rds as
their De$ata "r ind;ellin) deity. 9ne in drealess sleep )"es thr"()h
that state t" "neEs ";n A."de> like a =al%"n and the sky ? 5(st as a
=al%"n )"es 6t" its nest7 ."rne "n the sky. 3e states@ -- 2(st as this
De$adatta 6in drealess sleep7 r(ns n"t a;ay e$en ;hen str(%k ;ith a
sti%k> e$en s" he d"es n"t als" atta%h hisel= t" )""d "r e$il
%"nseH(en%es "= the li=eEs "rdained a%ti$ities< 5(st as a %hild en5"ys
itsel= 6sp"ntane"(sly7 ;ith"(t "ti$e "r desirin) =r(it> e$en s" this
De$adatta 6the s(.5e%t "= drealess sleep7 en5"ys happiness in that
state. 3e kn";s .ein) the /i)ht -(pree. Desirin) /i)ht he en5"ys
the /i)ht. -" als" he ret(rns .y the sae ;ay t" the drea-state> like a
lee%h@ 5(st as a lee%h %arries itsel= "n t" the "ther p"ints in =r"nt ?
6=irst7 =iJin) (p"n the neJt p"int. And that state ;hi%h he d"es n"t
)i$e (p ="r a neJt "ne is %alled the ;akin) state. 63e %arries all these
states ;ithin hisel=7 5(st as a 6Vedi%7 deity .ears the ei)ht sa%ri=i%ial
%(ps si(ltane"(sly. It is =r" 3i that the s"(r%e "= the Vedas and
the De$as han) like .reasts. In this ;akin) state parti%(larly )""d and
e$il ".tain ="r the shinin) .ein) 6i.e. anEs -el=7 as "rdained. 0his
.ein) "r -el= is =(lly sel=-eJtended 6int" ;"rld-="rs7> he is the
ind;ellin) %"ntr"ller "= thin)s and .ein)s> he is the !ird> the 8ra.> the
/"t(s> he is the 4(r(sha> the 4rana> the destr"yer> the %a(se and the
e==e%t> the !rahan and the Atan> he is the De$ata akin)
e$erythin) kn";n. Gh"e$er kn";s all this attains t" the trans%endent
!rahan> the (nderlyin) s(pp"rt> the s(.5e%ti$e prin%iple.
3. *"; this 4(r(sha has ="(r seats> the na$el> the heart> the thr"at> and
the head. In these shines ="rth the !rahan ;ith ="(r aspe%ts@ the state
"= ;ake=(lness> "= drea> "= drealess sleep> and the ="(rth "r
trans%endental state. In the ;ake=(l state> 3e is !raha< in the
dreain) state> 3e is Vishn(< in drealess sleep 3e is R(dra< and the
="(rth state is the -(pree Indestr(%ti.le 9ne< and 3e a)ain is the
-(n> the Vishn(> the Ish;ara> 3e is the 4(r(sha> 3e the 4rana> 3e the
3+1
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
2i$e "r the aniate .ein)> 3e the Fire> 0he Ish;ara> and the
Resplendent< 6yea7 that !rahan ;hi%h is trans%endent shines ;ithin
all these : In Itsel=> It is de$"id "= ind> "= ears> "= hands and =eet> "=
li)ht. 0here neither are the ;"rlds eJistin) n"r n"n-eJistin)> neither
are the Vedas "r the De$as "r the sa%ri=i%es eJistin) n"r n"n-eJistin)>
neither is the "ther "r =ather "r da()hter-in-la; eJistin) n"r n"n-
eJistin)> neither is 8handalaEs s"n "r 4(lkasaEs s"n eJistin) n"r n"n-
eJistin)> neither is the endi%ant eJistin) n"r n"n-eJistin)> s" neither
all the %reat(res "r the as%eti%s< and th(s "nly the 9ne 3i)hest
!rahan shines there. Githin the re%ess "= the heart is that Akasa "=
%"ns%i"(sness ? that ;ith any "penin)s> the ai "= kn";led)e>
;ithin the spa%e "= the heart ? in ;hi%h all this 6(ni$erse "(tside7
e$"l$es and "$es a."(t> in ;hi%h all this is ;arped and ;""=ed 6as it
;ere7. 6Gh" kn";s this7> kn";s =(lly all %reati"n. 0here the De$as>
the Rishis> the 4itris ha$e n" %"ntr"l> ="r .ein) =(lly a;akened> "ne
.e%"es the kn";er "= all tr(th.
#. In the heart the De$as li$e> in the heart the 4ranas are installed> in
the heart eJist the s(pree 4rana and /i)ht as als" the ianent
8a(se ;ith three="ld %"nstit(ents and the Mahat prin%iple.
5. It eJists ;ithin this heart> that is> in the %"ns%i"(sness. A4(t "n the
sa%ri=i%ial thread ;hi%h is s(preely sa%red> ;hi%h .e%ae ani=est
"= y"re ;ith 4ra5apati 6the =irst %reated !ein)7 3isel=> ;hi%h
e."dies l"n)e$ity> einen%e and p(rity> and ay it .e stren)th and
p(issan%e t" y"( :B
6. 0he enli)htened "ne sh"(ld dis%ard the eJternal thread p(ttin) it "==
;ith the sa%red t(=t "= hair "n the head< the -(pree !rahan as the
all-per$adin) "ne is the thread> and he sh"(ld p(t this "n.
3+2
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA

7. 0he -(tra 6"r thread7 is s" %alled .e%a(se "= its ha$in) pier%ed
thr"()h and started 6the pr"%ess "= .e%"in)7. 0his -(tra $erily
%"nstit(tes the -(pree -tate. !y ;h" this -(tra is kn";n> he is the
Vipra 6sa)e7> he has rea%hed .ey"nd the Vedas.
+. !y It all this 6(ni$erse7 is trans=iJed> as a %"lle%ti"n "= )es is
strin)ed t")ether "n a thread. 0he 1")i ;h" is the kn";er "= all 1")as
and the seer "= tr(th sh"(ld p(t "n this thread.
,. Esta.lished in the state "= hi)hest 1")a> the ;ise "ne sh"(ld p(t "==
the eJternal thread. 9ne ;h" is really sel=-%"ns%i"(s (st p(t "n the
thread %"nstit(ted .y a;areness "= !rahan.
1&. 9n a%%"(nt "= ;earin) this -(tra "r thread> they %an neither
.e%"e %"ntainated n"r (n%lean> th"se 6naely7 ;h" ha$e this
thread eJistin) ;ithin the ? th"se> ;ith this sa%ri=i%ial thread "=
kn";led)e.
11. 0hey> a"n) en> 6really7 kn"; the -(tra> they 6really7 ;ear the
sa%ri=i%ial thread 6"n thesel$es7> ;h" are de$"ted t" 2nana 6the
hi)hest kn";led)e7> ;h" ha$e this 2nana ="r their sa%red hair-t(=t> this
2nana ="r their sa%red thread.
12. F"r the 2nana is the )reatest p(ri=ier ? 2nana> that is the .est as
s(%h. 0h"se ;h" ha$e this 2nana ="r their t(=ted hair are as n"n-
di==erent =r" it as is =ire =r" its =lae. 0his ;ise "ne is 6really7 said
t" .e a -hikhi 6"r ;earer "= the t(=ted hair7> ;hile "thers are ere
)r";ers "= hair 6"n the head7.
3+3
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA

13. !(t th"se .el"n)in) t" the three %astes 6!rahanas> 'shatriyas
and Vaisyas7 ;h" ha$e the ri)ht "= per="rin) Vedi% ;"rks ha$e t"
p(t "n this 6i.e. the %""n7 sa%red thread> as s(rely this thread is
"rdained t" .e part "= s(%h ;"rks.
1#. 9ne ;h" has the 2nana ="r his t(=ted hair> and the sae ="r his
sa%red thread> has e$erythin) a."(t hi %hara%terised .y
!rahanah""d ? s" kn"; the kn";ers "= the Vedas :
15. 0his sa%red thread 6"= 1a5na> i.e. "= the all-per$adin) Reality7 is>
a)ain> the p(ri=i%ati"n 6itsel=7 and that ;hi%h is the end-all 6"= Vedi%
;"rks7< and the ;earer "= this thread is the ;ise "ne ? is 1a5na hisel=
as ;ell as the kn";er "= 1a5na.
16. 0he 9ne /"rd 6sel=-e==(l)ent7 in all .ein)s reainin) hidden> all-
per$adin) and the -el= "= all .ein)s> %"ntr"llin) and ;at%hin) "$er all
;"rks 6)""d "r .ad7> li$in) in all %reat(res and the Gitness 6i.e.
neither the d"er "= any a%ts n"r the en5"yer7> the -(pree Intelli)en%e>
the 9ne ;ith"(t a se%"nd> ha$in) n" attri.(tes.
17. 0he "ne Intelli)ent 6a%ti$e7 !ein) a"n) the any ina%ti$e> 3e
;h" akes the any =r" ;hat is "ne ? the ;ise en ;h" =ind "(t
this -el=> theirs is the eternal pea%e> n"t "= "thers.
1+. 3a$in) ade "nesel= the Arani> and the 4rana$a the (pper Arani
and r(..in) the t")ether thr"()h the pra%ti%e "= editati"n> see the
/"rd in 3is hidden reality.
3+#
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA

1,. As in the "il in the sesa( seed> the .(tter in the %(rd> ;ater in
the =l";in) ;a$es> and =ire in the -hai ;""d> s" is the Atan in
"neEs sel= t" .e dis%"$ered .y "ne ;h" sear%hes ="r It thr"()h tr(th
and a(stere pra%ti%e.
2&. As the spider ;ea$es "(t the ;e. and a)ain ;ithdra;s it> s" the
2i$a %"es "(t t" and )"es .a%k a)ain t" the ;ake=(l and dreain)
states respe%ti$ely.
21. 0he heart 6i.e. the inner %ha.er "= heart7 rese.les the %alyJ "= a
l"t(s> =(ll "= %a$ities and als" ;ith its =a%e t(rned d";n;ards. 'n";
that t" .e the )reat ha.itat "= the ;h"le (ni$erse.
22. 'n"; the ;ake=(l state t" ha$e ="r its %entre the eyes< the
dreain) state sh"(ld .e assi)ned t" the thr"at< the state "= drealess
sleep is in the heart< and the trans%endental state is in the %r";n "= the
head.
23. Fr" the =a%t "= an indi$id(al h"ldin) his sel= .y eans "= 4ra5na
"r spirit(al (nderstandin) in the -(pree -el=> ;e ha$e ;hat is %alled
-andhya and Dhyana> as als" the ;"rshippin) ass"%iated ;ith
-andhya.
2#. 0he -andhya .y editati"n is de$"id "= any "==erin) "= liH(ids
and s" als" "= any eJerti"n "= ."dy and spee%h< it is the (ni=yin)
prin%iple ="r all %reat(res> and this is really the -andhya ="r
Ekadandis.
3+5
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA

26. Fr" ;hi%h ;ith"(t rea%hin) It> the spee%h =alls .a%k ;ith the
ind> that is the trans%endental !liss "= this e."died .ein)> kn";in)
;hi%h the ;ise "ne is released 6=r" all ."nda)e7.
26. 6And this !liss is $erily7 the -el= ;hi%h per$ades the ;h"le
(ni$erse> as the .(tter di==(sed ;ithin the ilk.
0his is the !rah"panishad> "r the s(pree ;isd" "= !rahan> in
the ="r "= a (nity "= the Atan "= all> ="(nded "n the spirit(al
dis%ipline 60apas7 ;hi%h is 6n"thin) .(t7 the Vidya "r s%ien%e "= the
Atan.
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3+6
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA

3ere ends the !rah"panishad .el"n)in) t" the 'rishna-1a5(r-Veda.
3+7
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
3. 2akshinamurti Upanishad
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
9. In !raha Vartha 6/and "= !raha7> (nder a .anyan tree %alled
Maha !andira> any sa)es in%l(din) -"(naka had asse.led t"
per="r a -athra =ire sa%ri=i%e. 0hey appr"a%hed sa)e Markandeya
;earin) saiths 6dried t;i)s "= .anyan tree7 as )l"$es and asked hi>
A3"; d" y"( ana)e t" .e a 8hira 2ee$i 69ne ;h" d"es n"t ha$e
death7 and h"; are y"( al;ays in the happy stateIc 1
3e replied> A0his is .e%a(se "= the kn";led)e "= the "st se%ret
phil"s"phy "= -hi$a. 0his $ery se%ret -hi$a phil"s"phy .y ;hi%h
-hi$a ;h" is the Dakshina(rthy> .e%"es s"e thin) ;hi%h is n"t
$isi.le t" "thers. 3e is that G"d ;h" at the tie "= =inal del()e> ;h"
keeps e$ery thin) else ;ithin hisel= and shines .e%a(se "= the
pleas(re "= his ";n spirit. 0he se%ret antras a."(t hi are as
3++
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
="ll";s@ !raha is the sa)e> the eter is Gayathri and the )"d is
Dakshina(rhy ="r this antra.
First Mantra "= 2# letters@ A=ter tellin) A"B> tell A*a"B and then
A!ha)a$athe Dakshina(rthayeB> then the ="(rth ="r "= AasadB $iC
AMahyaB> then Aedha 4ra)naB> then the r""t "= ;ind AyaB>
added ;ith A%h%haB> ="ll";ed .y the nae "= ;i=e "= =ire G"d
As;ahaB. 0his is the antra ;ith 2# letters. 0hat is A9 *a"
!ha);athe Dakshina(rthaye Mahya> Medha 4ra)na 4raya%ha
-;aha:B 2
0hen Dhyana 6thinkin) a.(t the ="r in the ind> ;hen antra is
%hanted7. I sal(te hi ;h" is ;hite like a %rystal> ;h" h"lds in his
hands> a %hain "= pearl .eads> the p"t "= ne%tar ;hi%h is the ="r "=
kn";led)e> and the (dhra 6sy."l7 "= ;isd"> ;h" ties hisel=
;ith a snake> ;h" ;ears the ""n "n his head and ;h" ;ears
di==erent type "= "rnaents. 3
-e%"nd Mantra "= nine letters@ First -ay A9B> then the =irst $";el
;ith the $isar)a and in the end ell 4an%hakshari ;ith $isar)a in the
end> and this )i$es the *a$akshari antra 6nine letters antra7. 0hat is
A9 Aa Aa -i$aya *aa 9:B #
0hen Dhyana. /et the three eyed )"d ;h" d"es "nly )""d> ;h" has
in his three hands> the si)n "= pr"te%ti"n> deer and aJe in three hands
and ="(rth hand kept "n his knee> ;h" has tied a snake "n his ."dy>
;h" shines ;hite like ilk> ;h" sits .el"; a .anyan tree and ;h" is
s(rr"(nded .y sa)es like -h(ka> )i$es (s p(re th"()hts. 5
3+,
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
K-l"kas 6 is n"t a$aila.le.L
0hird Mantra@ Add !r"" *aa> Maya !hee5a> Va).ha$a !hee5a>
Dakshina(rthaye and 2nana dehi -;aha t" 9. 0he antra ;"(ld
.e A9 !r""> *a" 3ree I Dakshina(rthaye 2nana Dehi
-;aha:B 7
0hen Dhyana@ /et the G"d Dakshina(rthy> ;h" has a ;hite ."dy
d(e t" appli%ati"n "= h"ly ash> ;h" ;ears the %res%ent ""n "n his
head> ;h" h"lds in his hands> 2nana (dra 6sy."l "= ;isd"7>
.eaded %hain> Veena and .""ks> ;h" ;ears all "rnaents> ;h" ;ears
the elephant hide> ;h" rese.les the editatin) Raa> ;h" sits "n
the thr"ne "= eJplanati"n and ;h" is .ein) ser$ed .y )reat sa)es
pr"te%t (s al;ays. +
Ge ha$e t" see that lap "= ;isd"> ;hi%h .(rns ;ith ren(n%iati"n as
"il> de$"ti"n as ;i%k and ;hi%h shines in the =(ll $essel "= ;ake (p
state. ,
In the .e)innin) "= %reati"n> /"rd !raha prayed this
Dakshina(rthy> and ".tained the %apa%ity "= %reatin) .ein)s and
.e%ae $ery happy. 3e .e%ae .lessed a=ter )ettin) ;hat he desired.
0hat !raha there="re has .e%"e a de$"tee as ;ell as s"e."dy
;h" deser$es "(r de$"ti"n. 1&
0he "ne ;h" reads this phil"s"phy "= -hi$a ;ith (nderstandin)>
;"(ld )et rid "= all his sins. 0he "nes ;h" kn"; this tr(ly ;ill attain
sal$ati"n. 11
3,&
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA

9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the Dakshina(rti Upanishad .el"n)in) t" the 'rishna-
1a5(r-Veda.
3,1
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
3". 2hyana-Bindu Upanishad
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. E$en i= sin sh"(ld a%%((late t" a "(ntain eJtendin) "$er any
1"5anas 6distan%e7> it is destr"yed .y Dhyana-1")a. At n" tie has
.een ="(nd a destr"yer "= sins like this.
2. !i5akshara 6seed-letter7 is the s(pree !ind(. *ada 6spirit(al
s"(nd7 is a."$e it. Ghen that *ada %eases al"n) ;ith letter> then the
*ada-less is s(pree state.
3. 0he 1")in ;h" %"nsiders as the hi)hest that ;hi%h is a."$e *ada>
;hi%h is Anahata> has all his d"(.ts destr"yed.
#. I= the p"int "= a hair .e di$ided int" "ne h(ndred th"(sand parts>
this 6*ada7 is "ne-hal= "= that still =(rther di$ided< and ;hen 6e$en7
this is a.s"r.ed> the 1")in attains t" the stainless !rahan.
3,2
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA

5-6. 9ne ;h" is "= a =ir ind and ;ith"(t the del(si"n 6"= sens(al
pleas(res7 and e$er restin) in !rahan> sh"(ld see like the strin) 6in a
r"sary "= .eads7 all %reat(res 6as eJistin)7 in Atan like "d"(r in
=l";ers> )hee in ilk> "il in )in)elly seeds and )"ld in H(artC.
7. A)ain 5(st as the "il depends ="r its ani=estati"n (p"n )in)elly
seeds and "d"(r (p"n =l";ers> s" d"es the 4(r(sha depend ="r its
eJisten%e (p"n the ."dy> ."th eJternal and internal.
+. 0he tree is ;ith parts and its shad"; is ;ith"(t parts .(t ;ith and
;ith"(t parts> Atan eJists e$ery;here.
,6a7. 0he "ne Akshara 6letter 9M7 sh"(ld .e %"nteplated (p"n as
!rahan .y all ;h" aspire ="r ean%ipati"n.
,6.7-1&6a7. 4rith$i> A)ni> Ri)-Veda> !h(h and !raha -- all these 6are
a.s"r.ed7 ;hen Akara 6A7> the =irst Asa 6part7 "= 4rana$a 69M7
.e%"es a.s"r.ed.
1&6.7-116a7. Antariksha> 1a5(r-Veda> Vay(> !h($ah and Vishn(> the
2anardana ? all these 6are a.s"r.ed7 ;hen Ukara 6U7> the se%"nd Asa
"= 4rana$a .e%"es a.s"r.ed.
116.7-126a7. Dy(r> s(n> -aa-Veda> -($ah and Mahesh$ara ? all these
6are a.s"r.ed7 ;hen Makara 6M7> the third Asa "= 4rana$a .e%"es
a.s"r.ed.
126.7-136a7. Akara is "= 64ita7 yell"; %"l"(r and is said t" .e "= Ra5"-
G(na< Ukara is "= ;hite %"l"(r and "= -att$a-G(na< Makara is "= dark
%"l"(r and "= 0a"-G(na.
136.7-1#6a7. 3e ;h" d"es n"t kn"; 9kara as ha$in) ei)ht An)as
6parts7> ="(r 4adas 6=eet7> three -thanas 6seats7 and =i$e De$atas
3,3
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
6presidin) deities7 is n"t a !rahana.
1#6.7-15. 4rana$a is the .";. Atan is the arr"; and !rahan is said
t" .e the ai. 9ne sh"(ld ai at it ;ith )reat %are and then he> like the
arr";> .e%"es "ne ;ith It. Ghen that 3i)hest is %")nised> all
'aras ret(rn 6=r" hi> $iC.> d" n"t a==e%t hi7.
16. 0he Vedas ha$e 9kara as their %a(se. 0he -;aras 6s"(nds7 ha$e
9kara as their %a(se. 0he three ;"rlds ;ith 6all7 the l"%""ti$e and
the =iJed 6"nes in the7 ha$e 9kara as their %a(se.
17. 0he sh"rt 6a%%ent "= 9M7 .(rns all sins> the l"n) "ne is de%ayless
and the .est";er "= pr"sperity. United ;ith Ardha-Matra 6hal=-etre
"= 9M7> the 4rana$a .e%"es the .est";er "= sal$ati"n.
1+. 0hat an is the kn";er "= the Vedas ;h" kn";s that the end 6$iC.>
Ardha-Matra7 "= 4rana$a sh"(ld .e ;"rshipped 6"r re%ited7 as
(ninterr(pted as the =l"; "= "il and 6res"(ndin)7 as l"n) as the s"(nd
"= a .ell.
1,. 9ne sh"(ld %"nteplate (p"n 9kara as Ish$ara rese.lin) an
(nshaken li)ht> as "= the siCe "= a th(. and as "ti"nless in the
iddle "= the peri%arp "= the l"t(s "= the heart.
2&. 0akin) in Vay( thr"()h the le=t n"stril and =illin) the st"a%h ;ith
it> "ne sh"(ld %"nteplate (p"n 9kara as .ein) in the iddle "= the
."dy and as s(rr"(nded .y %ir%lin) =laes.
21. !raha is said t" .e inspirati"n> Vishn( is said t" .e %essati"n 6"=
.reath7 and R(dra is said t" .e eJpirati"n. 0hese are the De$atas "=
4ranayaa.
22. 3a$in) ade Atan as the 6l";er7 Arani 6sa%ri=i%ial ;""d7 and
4rana$a as the (pper Arani> "ne sh"(ld see the G"d in se%ret thr"()h
3,#
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
the pra%ti%e "= %h(rnin) ;hi%h is Dhyana.
23. 9ne sh"(ld pra%tise restraint "= .reath as (%h as it lies in his
p";er al"n) ;ith 6the (tterin) "=7 9kara s"(nd> (ntil it %eases
%"pletely.
2#. 0h"se ;h" l""k (p"n 9M as "= the ="r "= 3asa stayin) in all>
shinin) like 8r"res "= s(ns> .ein) al"ne> stayin) in Gaa)aa 6e$er
)"in) and %"in)7 and .ein) de$"id "= "ti"n ? at last s(%h pers"ns
are =reed =r" sin.
25. 0hat Manas ;hi%h is the a(th"r "= the a%ti"ns 6$iC.>7 %reati"n>
preser$ati"n and destr(%ti"n "= the three ;"rlds> is 6then7 a.s"r.ed 6in
the s(pree 9ne7. 0hat is the hi)hest state "= Vishn(.
26. 0he l"t(s "= the heart has ei)ht petals and thirty-t;" =ilaents.
0he s(n is in its idst< the ""n is in the iddle "= the s(n.
27. A)ni is in the iddle "= the ""n< the 4ra.ha 6spirit(al li)ht7 is in
the iddle "= A)ni. 4itha 6seat "r %entre7 is in the idst "= 4ra.ha>
.ein) set in di$erse )es.
2+-2,. 9ne sh"(ld editate (p"n the stainless /"rd Vas(de$a as .ein)
6seated7 (p"n the %entre "= 4itha> as ha$in) -ri$atsa 6.la%k ark7 and
'a(st(.ha 6)arland "= )es7 "n his %hest and as ad"rned ;ith )es
and pearls rese.lin) p(re %rystal in l(stre and as rese.lin) 8r"res
"= ""ns in .ri)htness. 3e sh"(ld editate (p"n Maha-Vishn( as
a."$e "r in the ="ll";in) anner.
3&-31. 60hat is7 he sh"(ld editate ;ith inspirati"n 6"= .reath7 (p"n
Maha-Vishn( as rese.lin) the Atasi =l";er and as stayin) in the seat
"= na$el ;ith ="(r hands< then ;ith restraint "= .reath> he sh"(ld
editate in the heart (p"n !raha> the Grand=ather as .ein) "n the
l"t(s ;ith the Ga(ra 6pale-red7 %"l"(r "= )es and ha$in) ="(r =a%es<
3,5
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA

32-3#6a7. 0hen thr"()h eJpirati"n> he sh"(ld editate (p"n the three-
eyed -hi$a .et;een the t;" eye.r";s shinin) like the p(re %rystal>
.ein) stainless> destr"yin) all sins> .ein) in that ;hi%h is like the l"t(s
=a%in) d";n ;ith its =l";er 6"r =a%e7 .el"; and the stalk a."$e "r like
the =l";er "= a plantain tree> .ein) "= the ="r "= all Vedas> %"ntainin)
"ne h(ndred petals and "ne h(ndred lea$es and ha$in) the peri%arp
=(ll-eJpanded.
3#6.7-35. 0here he sh"(ld editate (p"n the s(n> the ""n and the
A)ni> "ne a."$e an"ther. 4assin) a."$e thr"()h the l"t(s ;hi%h has
the .ri)htness "= the s(n> ""n and A)ni and takin) its 3ri !i5a
6letter7> "ne leads his Atan =irly.
36. 3e is the kn";er "= Vedas ;h" kn";s the three seats> the three
Matras> the three !rahas> the three Aksharas 6letters7 and the three
Matras ass"%iated ;ith the Ardha-Matra.
37. 3e ;h" kn";s that ;hi%h is a."$e !ind(> *ada and 'ala as
(ninterr(pted as the =l"; "= "il and 6res"(ndin)7 as l"n) as the s"(nd
"= a .ell ? that an is a kn";er "= the Vedas.
3+. 2(st as a an ;"(ld dra; (p 6;ith his "(th7 the ;ater thr"()h
the 6p"res "= the7 l"t(s-stalk> s" the 1")in treadin) the path "= 1")a
sh"(ld dra; (p the .reath.
3,. 3a$in) ade the l"t(s-sheath "= the ="r "= Ardha-Matra> "ne
sh"(ld dra; (p the .reath thr"()h the stalk 6"= the *adis -(s(na>
Ida and 4in)ala7 and a.s"r. it in the iddle "= the eye.r";s.
#&. 3e sh"(ld kn"; that the iddle "= the eye.r";s in the ="rehead
;hi%h is als" the r""t "= the n"se is the seat "= ne%tar. 0hat is the )reat
pla%e "= !rahan.
3,6
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
#1. 4"st(res> restraint "= .reath> s(.5()ati"n "= the senses> Dharana>
Dhyana and -aadhi are the siJ parts "= 1")a.
#2. 0here are as any p"st(res as there are li$in) %reat(res< and
Mahesh$ara 6the )reat /"rd7 kn";s their distin)(ishin) =eat(res.
#3. -iddha> !hadra> -iha and 4ada are the ="(r 6%hie=7 p"st(res.
M(ladhara is the =irst 8hakra. -$adhisthana is the se%"nd.
##. !et;een these t;" is said t" .e the seat "= 1"ni 6perine(7>
ha$in) the ="r "= 'aa 6G"d "= l"$e7. In the Adhara "= the an(s>
there is the l"t(s "= ="(r petals.
#5-#6. In its idst is said t" .e the 1"ni %alled 'aa and ;"rshipped
.y the -iddhas. In the idst "= the 1"ni is the /in)a =a%in) the ;est
and split at its head like the )e. 3e ;h" kn";s this> is a kn";er "=
the Vedas.
#7. A ="(r-sided =i)(re is sit(ated a."$e A)ni and .el"; the )enital
"r)an> "= the ="r "= "lten )"ld and shinin) like streaks "= li)htnin).
4rana is ;ith its -$a 6";n7 s"(nd> ha$in) -$adhisthana as its
Adhisthana 6seat7> 6"r sin%e -$a "r 4rana arises =r" it7.
#+. 0he 8hakra -$adhisthana is sp"ken "= as the )enital "r)an itsel=.
0he 8hakra in the sphere "= the na$el is %alled Manip(raka> sin%e the
."dy is pier%ed thr"()h .y Vay( like Manis 6)es7 .y strin).
#,-5&6a7. 0he 2i$a 6e)"7 (r)ed t" a%ti"ns .y its past $irt("(s and
sin=(l 'aras ;hirls a."(t in this )reat 8hakra "= t;el$e sp"kes> s"
l"n) as it d"es n"t )rasp the tr(th.
5&6.7. A."$e the )enital "r)an and .el"; the na$el is 'anda "= the
shape "= a .irdEs e)).
3,7
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
51. 0here arise 6=r" it7 *adis se$enty-t;" th"(sand in n(.er. 9=
these se$enty-t;" are )enerally kn";n.
52-53. 9= these> the %hie= "nes are ten and %arry the 4ranas. Ida>
4in)ala> -(s(na> Gandhari> 3asti5ih$a> 4(sha> 1asas$ini> Ala.(sa>
'(h(h and -ankhini are said t" .e the ten.
5#-556a7. 0his 8hakra "= the *adis sh"(ld e$er .e kn";n .y the
1")ins. 0he three *adis Ida> 4in)ala and -(s(na are said t" %arry
4rana al;ays and ha$e as their De$atas> ""n> s(n and A)ni.
556.7-566a7. Ida is "n the le=t side and 4in)ala "n the ri)ht side> ;hile
the -(s(na is in the iddle. 0hese three are kn";n t" .e the paths "=
4rana.
566.7-57. 4rana> Apana> -aana> Udana and Vyana< *a)a> '(ra>
'rikara> De$adatta and Dhanan5aya< "= these> the =irst =i$e are %alled
4ranas> et%.> and last =i$e *a)a> et%.> are %alled Vay(s 6"r s(.-4ranas7.
5+. All these are sit(ated 6"r r(n al"n)7 the "ne th"(sand *adis>
6.ein)7 in the ="r "= 6"r pr"d(%in)7 li=e. 2i$a ;hi%h is (nder the
in=l(en%e "= 4rana and Apana )"es (p and d";n.
5,-6&6a7. 2i$a "n a%%"(nt "= its e$er "$in) .y the le=t and ri)ht paths
is n"t $isi.le. 2(st as a .all str(%k d";n 6"n the earth7 ;ith the .at "=
the hand sprin)s (p> s" 2i$a e$er t"ssed .y 4rana and Apana is ne$er
at rest.
6&6.7-616a7. 3e is kn";er "= 1")a ;h" kn";s that 4rana al;ays
dra;s itsel= =r" Apana and Apana dra;s itsel= =r" 4rana> like a .ird
6dra;in) itsel= =r" and yet n"t =reein) itsel=7 =r" the strin) 6t"
;hi%h it is tied7.
616.7-63. 0he 2i$a %"es "(t ;ith the letter `3aE and )ets in a)ain
3,+
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
;ith the letter `-aE. 0h(s 2i$a al;ays (tters the Mantra `3asaE>
`3asaE. 0he 2i$a al;ays (tters the Mantra t;enty-"ne th"(sand and
siJ h(ndred ties in "ne day and ni)ht. 0his is %alled A5apa Gayatri
and is e$er the .est";er "= *ir$ana t" the 1")ins.
6#-666a7. 0hr"()h its $ery th"()ht> an is =reed =r" sins. *either in
the past n"r in the =(t(re is there a s%ien%e eH(al t" this> a 2apa eH(al
t" this "r a erit"ri"(s a%ti"n eH(al t" this. 4araesh$ari 6$iC.>
'(ndalini -akti7 sleeps sh(ttin) ;ith her "(th that d""r ;hi%h leads
t" the de%ayless !raha-h"le.
666.7-6+. !ein) ar"(sed .y the %"nta%t "= A)ni ;ith Manas and 4rana>
she takes the ="r "= a needle and pier%es (p thr"()h -(s(na. 0he
1")in sh"(ld "pen ;ith )reat e=="rt this d""r ;hi%h is sh(t. 0hen he
;ill pier%e the d""r t" sal$ati"n .y eans "= '(ndalini.
6,. F"ldin) =irly the =in)ers "= the hands> ass(in) =irly the
4ada p"st(re> pla%in) the %hin =irly "n the .reast and =iJin) the
ind in Dhyana> "ne sh"(ld =reH(ently raise (p the Apana> =ill (p ;ith
air and then lea$e the 4rana. 0hen the ;ise an )ets at%hless
;isd" thr"()h 6this7 -akti.
7&. 0hat 1")in ;h" ass(in) 4ada p"st(re ;"rships 6i.e.> %"ntr"ls7
Vay( at the d""r "= the *adis and then per="rs restraint "= .reath is
released ;ith"(t d"(.t.
71-72. R(..in) "== the li.s the s;eat arisin) =r" =ati)(e>
a.and"nin) all a%id> .itter and saltish 6=""d7> takin) deli)ht in the
drinkin) "= ilk and Rasa> pra%tisin) %eli.a%y> .ein) "derate in
eatin) and e$er .ent "n 1")a> the 1")in .e%"es a -iddha in little
"re than a year. *" inH(iry need .e ade %"n%ernin) the res(lt.
73. '(ndalini -akti> ;hen it is (p in the thr"at> akes the 1")i )et
-iddhi. 0he (ni"n "= 4rana and Apana has the eJtin%ti"n "= (rine and
3,,
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
=ae%es.
7#-756a7. 9ne .e%"es y"(n) e$en ;hen "ld thr"()h per="rin)
M(la-!andha al;ays. 4ressin) the 1"ni .y eans "= the heels and
%"ntra%tin) the an(s and dra;in) (p the Apana ? this is %alled M(la-
!andha.
756.7-76. Uddiyana !andha is s" %alled .e%a(se it is 6like7 a )reat .ird
that =lies (p al;ays ;ith"(t rest. 9ne sh"(ld .rin) the ;estern part "=
the st"a%h a."$e the na$el.
77. 0his Uddiyana !andha is a li"n t" the elephant "= death> sin%e it
.inds the ;ater 6"r ne%tar7 "= the Akasa ;hi%h arises in the head and
=l";s d";n.
7+-7,6a7. 0he 2alandhara !andha is the destr"yer "= all the pains "=
the thr"at. Ghen this 2alandhara !andha ;hi%h is destr"yer "= the
pains "= the thr"at is per="red> then ne%tar d"es n"t =all "n A)ni n"r
d"es the Vay( "$e.
7,6.7-+&6a7. Ghen the t"n)(e enters .a%k;ards int" the h"le "= the
sk(ll> then there is the M(dra "= $isi"n latent in the eye.r"; %alled
'he%hari.
+&6.7-+16a7. 3e ;h" kn";s the M(dra 'he%hari has n"t disease>
death> sleep> h(n)er> thirst> "r s;""n.
+16.7-+36a7. 3e ;h" pra%tises this M(dra is n"t a==e%ted .y illness "r
'ara< n"r is he ."(nd .y the liitati"ns "= tie. -in%e 8hitta "$es
in the 'ha 6Akasa7 and sin%e the t"n)(e has entered 6in the M(dra7
'ha 6$iC.> the h"le in the "(th7. 0here="re the M(dra is %alled
'he%hari and ;"rshipped .y the -iddhas.
+36.7-+#. 3e ;h"se h"le 6"r passa)e7 a."$e the U$(la is %l"sed 6;ith
#&&
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
the t"n)(e .a%k;ards7 .y eans "= 'he%hari-M(dra ne$er l"ses his
$irility> e$en ;hen e.ra%ed .y a l"$ely ;"an. Ghere is the =ear "=
death> s" l"n) as the !ind( 6$irility7 stays in the ."dy.
+5-+66a7. !ind( d"es n"t )" "(t "= the ."dy> s" l"n) as the 'he%hari-
M(dra is pra%tised. 6E$en7 ;hen !ind( %"es d";n t" the sphere "=
the perine(> it )"es (p> .ein) pre$ented and ="r%ed (p .y $i"lent
e=="rt thr"()h 1"ni-M(dra.
+66.7-+7. 0his !ind( is t;"="ld> ;hite and red. 0he ;hite "ne is
%alled -(kla and the red "ne is said t" %"ntain (%h Ra5as. 0he Ra5as
;hi%h stays in 1"ni is like the %"l"(r "= a %"ral.
++. 0he !ind( stays in the seat "= the )enital "r)ans. 0he (ni"n "=
these t;" is $ery rare. !ind( is -hi$a and Ra5as is -akti. !ind( is the
""n and Ra5as is the s(n.
+,-,&6a7. 0hr"()h the (ni"n "= these t;" is attained the hi)hest ."dy<
;hen Ra5as is r"(sed (p .y a)itatin) the -akti thr"()h Vay( ;hi%h
(nites ;ith the s(n> then%e is pr"d(%ed the di$ine ="r.
,&6.7-,2. -(kla .ein) (nited ;ith the ""n and Ra5as ;ith the s(n> he
is a kn";er "= 1")a ;h" kn";s the pr"per iJt(re "= these t;". 0he
%leansin) "= the a%%((lated re=(se> the (ni=i%ati"n "= the s(n and the
""n and the %"plete dryin) "= the Rasas 6essen%es7> this is %alled
Maha-M(dra.
,3. 4la%in) the %hin "n the .reast> pressin) the an(s .y eans "= the
le=t heel and seiCin) 6the t"e "=7 the eJtended ri)ht le) .y the t;"
hands> "ne sh"(ld =ill his .elly 6;ith air7 and sh"(ld sl";ly eJhale.
0his is %alled Maha-M(dra> the destr"yer "= the sins "= en.
,#. *"; I shall )i$e a des%ripti"n "= Atan. In the seat "= the heart is
a l"t(s "= ei)ht petals. In its %entre is 2i$ata "= the ="r "= 2y"tis and
#&1
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
at"i% in siCe> "$in) in a %ir%(lar line. In it is l"%ated e$erythin). In
kn";s e$erythin). It d"es e$erythin). It d"es all these a%ti"ns
attri.(tin) e$erythin) t" its ";n p";er> 6thinkin)7 I d"> I en5"y> I a
happy> I a isera.le> I a .lind> I a lae> I a dea=> I a (te> I
a lean> I a st"(t> et%. Ghen it rests "n the eastern petal ;hi%h is "=
-$eta 6;hite7 %"l"(r> then it has a ind 6"r is in%lined7 t" Dhara
;ith !hakti 6de$"ti"n7. Ghen it rests "n the s"(th-eastern petal> ;hi%h
is "= Rakta 6.l""d %"l"(r7> then it is in%lined t" sleep and laCiness.
Ghen it rests "n the s"(thern petal> ;hi%h is "= 'rishna 6.la%k7 %"l"(r>
then it is in%lined t" hate and an)er. Ghen it rests "n the s"(th-;estern
petal ;hi%h is "= *ila 6.l(e7 %"l"(r> then it )ets desire ="r sin=(l "r
har=(l a%ti"ns. Ghen it rests "n the ;estern petal ;hi%h is "= %rystal
%"l"(r> then it is in%lined t" =lirt and a(se. Ghen it rests "n the
n"rth-;estern petal ;hi%h is "= r(.y %"l"(r> then it has a ind t"
;alk> r"$e and ha$e Vaira)ya 6"r .e indi==erent7. Ghen it rests "n the
n"rthern petal ;hi%h is 4ita 6yell";7 %"l"(r> then it is in%lined t" .e
happy and t" .e l"$in). Ghen it rests "n the n"rth-eastern petal ;hi%h
is "= Vaid(rya 6/apis /aC(li7 %"l"(r> then it is in%lined t" aassin)
"ney> %harity and passi"n. Ghen it stays in the inter-spa%e .et;een
any t;" petals> then it )ets the ;rath arisin) =r" diseases )enerated
thr"()h 6the dist(r.an%e "= the eH(ili.ri( "=7 Vay(> .ile and phle)
6in the ."dy7. Ghen it stays in the iddle> then it kn";s e$erythin)>
sin)s> dan%es> speaks and is .liss=(l. Ghen the eye is pained 6a=ter a
dayEs ;"rk7> then in "rder t" re"$e 6its7 pain> it akes =irst a %ir%(lar
line and sinks in the iddle. 0he =irst line is "= the %"l"(r "= !andh(ka
=l";er 6!assia7. 0hen is the state "= sleep. In the iddle "= the state "=
sleep is the state "= drea. In the iddle "= the state "= drea> it
eJperien%es the ideas "= per%epti"n> Vedas> in=eren%e> p"ssi.ility>
6sa%red7 ;"rds> et%. 0hen there arises (%h =ati)(e. In "rder t"
re"$e this =ati)(e> it %ir%les the se%"nd line and sinks in the iddle.
0he se%"nd is "= the %"l"(r "= 6the inse%t7 Indra)"pa 6"= red "r ;hite
%"l"(r7. 0hen %"es the state "= drealess sleep.
D(rin) the drealess sleep> it has "nly the th"()ht %"nne%ted ;ith
#&2
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
4araesh$ara 6the hi)hest /"rd7 al"ne. 0his state is "= the nat(re "=
eternal ;isd". A=ter;ards it attains the nat(re "= the hi)hest /"rd
64araesh$ara7. 0hen it akes a r"(nd "= the third %ir%le and sinks in
the iddle. 0he third %ir%le is "= the %"l"(r "= 4adara)a 6r(.y7. 0hen
%"es the state "= 0(rya 6the ="(rth7. In 0(rya> there is "nly the
%"nne%ti"n "= 4araatan. It attains the nat(re "= eternal ;isd".
0hen "ne sh"(ld )rad(ally attain the H(ies%en%e "= !(ddhi ;ith sel=-
%"ntr"l. 4la%in) the Manas in Atan> "ne sh"(ld think "= n"thin) else.
0hen %a(sin) the (ni"n "= 4rana and Apana> he %"n%entrates his ai
(p"n the ;h"le (ni$erse .ein) "= the nat(re "= Atan. 0hen %"es
the state "= 0(riyatita 6$iC.> that state .ey"nd the ="(rth7. 0hen
e$erythin) appears as .liss. 3e is .ey"nd the pairs 6"= happiness and
pains> et%.>7. 3e stays here as l"n) as he sh"(ld ;ear his ."dy. 0hen he
attains the nat(re "= 4araatan and attains ean%ipati"n thr"()h
this eans. 0his al"ne is the eans "= kn";in) Atan.
Ghen Vay( 6.reath7 ;hi%h enters the )reat h"le ass"%iated ;ith a hall
;here ="(r r"ads eet )ets int" the hal= "= the ;ell-pla%ed trian)le>
then is A%hy(ta 6the indestr(%ti.le7 seen.
,5. A."$e the a="resaid trian)le> "ne sh"(ld editate "n the =i$e !i5a
6seed7 letters "= 6the eleents7 4rith$i> et%.> as als" "n the =i$e 4ranas>
the %"l"(r "= the !i5as and their p"siti"n. 0he letter `1aE is the !i5a "=
4rana and rese.les the .l(e %l"(d. 0he letter `RaE is the !i5a "= A)ni>
is "= Apana and rese.les the s(n.
,6. 0he letter `/aE is the !i5a "= 4rith$i> is "= Vyana and rese.les
!andh(ka =l";er. 0he letter `VaE is the !i5a "= 2i$a 6"r Vay(7> is "=
Udana and is "= the %"l"(r "= the %"n%h.
,7-,,6a7. 0he letter `3aE is the !i5a "= Akasa> is "= -aana and is "=
the %"l"(r "= %rystal. 4rana stays in the heart> na$el> n"se> ear> =""t>
=in)er and "ther pla%es> tra$els thr"()h the se$enty-t;" th"(sand
*adis> stays in the t;enty-ei)ht 8r"res "= hair-p"res and is yet the
#&3
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
sae e$ery;here. It is that ;hi%h is %alled 2i$a.
,,6.7-1&16a7. 9ne sh"(ld per="r the three> eJpirati"n> et%.> ;ith a
=ir ;ill and )reat %"ntr"l< and dra;in) in e$erythin) 6;ith the
.reath7 in sl"; de)rees> he sh"(ld .ind 4rana and Apana in the %a$e
"= the l"t(s "= the heart and (tter 4rana$a> ha$in) %"ntra%ted his thr"at
and the )enital "r)an.
1&16.7-1&2. Fr" the M(ladhara 6t" the head7 is the -(s(na
rese.lin) the shinin) thread "= the l"t(s. 0he *ada is l"%ated in the
Vinadanda 6spinal %"l(n7< that s"(nd =r" its iddle rese.les 6that
"=7 the %"n%h> et%.
1&3-1&#6a7. Ghen it )"es t" the h"le "= Akasa> it rese.les that "= the
pea%"%k. In the iddle "= the %a$e "= the sk(ll .et;een the ="(r d""rs
shines Atan> like the s(n in the sky.
1&#6.7-1&5. !et;een the t;" .";s in the !raha-h"le> "ne sh"(ld
see 4(r(sha ;ith -akti as his ";n Atan. 0hen his Manas is a.s"r.ed
there. 0hat an attains 'ai$alya ;h" (nderstands the )es>
""nli)ht> *ada> !ind( and the seat "= Mahesh$ara 6the )reat /"rd7.
0h(s is the Upanishad.
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
#&#
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the Dhyana.ind( Upanishad .el"n)in) t" the 'rishna-
1a5(r-Veda.
#&5
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
3$. 3kakshara Upanishad
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. 0h"( art the "ne Iperisha.le in the Iperisha.le> %"n5"int ;ith
Ua. As kn";n .y eans "= -(s(na> here 6"n the epiri%al plane7>
the "ne =ir 64rin%iple art 0h"(7. 0h"( art the an%ient s"(r%e "= the
;"rld> the /"rd "= .ein)s< 0h"( the 4ar5anya 6the 4rin%iple "= li=e-
)i$in) ;ater7> the 4r"te%t"r "= the ;"rld.
2. 0h"( art ianent in all< =r" 6the $ie;-p"int7 "= the ;ise> 0h"(>
the /"rd "= the ;"rld art the all-kn";in) 6Fire7. In the .e)innin) 0h"(
art (n."rn> the =irst ."rn> the sa%ri=i%e> t""> art 0h"(. 0h"( al"ne the
"ne "nipresent and an%ient.
3. 0h"( art the 4rin%iple "= li=e< 0h"( the ani=estati"n 6the
ani=ested ;"rld7< 0h"( the s"(r%e "= the ;"rld< .y a H(arter hast
0h"( per$aded this ;"rld. 0h"( art the ;"rldEs .irth> the %a(se> the
#&6
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
li=e s(pree> and the %hild in the ;". ared ;ith the eJ%ellent .";
and arr";.
#. 3a$in) ;idely spread "(t the arr";> shinin) like the y"(th=(l s(n in
the sky> 0h"( shinest as 3iranya)ar.ha. !y eans "= li)ht hast 0h"(
%reated the resplendent ea)le 6the s(n7> in the sky. 0h"( art
-(.rahanya> 0h"( Arishtanei 6a .r"ther "= Gar(da7.
5. 0h"( art the .earer "= the 0h(nder."lt 6Indra7> the /"rd "= .ein)s<
0h"( al"ne art l"$e in all li$in) .ein)s and in -"a 6-hi$a ;ith
Ua7. 0h"( art the sa%red sylla.les -$aha> -$adha and Vasat< 0h"(
the R(dra ianent (nh(rt in the hearts "= .easts.
6. 60h"( art7 the s(pp"rter> the "rdainer> the p(ri=ier 6air7> the all
per$adin) plen(> the di$ine Varaha> ni)ht and al"neness< the past>
the =(t(re and the present< 0h"( art all a%ti$ities> tie> seH(en%e and
the s(pree Iperisha.le.
7. 0he Vedi% $erses> pr"se ="r(las and s"n)s pr"%eed =r" 0hy
"(th. 0h"( shinest .est 6as7 the Vas(s and the sky. 0h"( art the
leader "= the sa%ri=i%e> the all-per$adin) =ire and the R(dras. -" als"
6art 0h"(7 the h"sts "= de"ns and Vas(s.
+. 0his G"d here d;ells in the s(n 6the ;heel "= the %elestial %hari"t7
and else;here dispellin) darkness. All that pertains t" 3i shines in
l"$ely 6=ashi"n7 like )"ld in s"e "ther sky. 60his ;"rld "= relati$ities
shines s"7.
,. 3e is the all-kn";er< the 4r"te%t"r "= the ;"rld< the =ir na$e "= all
."rn .ein)s. 3e eJists len)th;ise and %r"ss;ise> the s( t"tal "=
6thin)s7 spread "(t in "rder. 3e is the .irthless 6"= ;"ndr"(s .irths7
4ra5apati s(n) in the Vedas.
1&. 0h"( art 3e ;h" in the sa%ri=i%es the kn";ers "= !rahan ad"re
;ith Vedi% -"n)s> ="r(las and rites and the s"a 5(i%e< as the =inal
#&7
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
60r(th7 de$"id "= all adiJt(re> as the )"lden> the .est "= Veda-
kn";ers.
11. 0h"( al"ne art the ;"an> the an< a)ain 0h"( art the ."y and
the )irl. 0h"( art the "rdainer> the 'in) Var(na> the 1ear> Aryaa> the
all.
12. 60h"( art7 Mitra> the .ri)ht-=eathered 6Gar(da7> the ""n> Indra>
Var(na> R(dra> 0$astar> Vishn(> -a$itar> the l"rd "= li)ht> 0h"( Vishn(
pr"te%test all .ein)s =r" the de"nia%< the ;"rld is en%"passed .y
0hee< 0h"( the ;". "= all that is ."rn< 0h"( art the earth> the
at"sphere> the =iraent< 0h"( art the sel=-."rn< 0h"( art t(rned
t";ards all.
13. Gh"s" th(s kn";s the eternal D;eller in the %a$e 6"= the heart7>
the an%ient /"rd ;h" has .e%"e the all> the )"lden> the s(pree )"al
"= the ;ise> is ;ise. 3e stays trans%endin) all 6="rs "=7 ;isd". 0his
is the se%ret d"%trine.
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
#&+
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the Ekakshar"panishad .el"n)in) t" the 'rishna-1a5(r-
Veda.
#&,
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
3%. 4ar'ha Upanishad
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
0he ."dy is =i$e="ld in nat(re 6the =i$e eleents7> eJistin) in the =i$e>
dependin) "n the siJ 6tastes "= =""d7> %"nne%ted ;ith the siJ H(alities
6kaa et%.>7> se$en Dhat(s> three ip(rities> three 1"nis 6"= eJ%reti"n7
and ="(r kinds "= =""d.
Ghy say `Fi$e="ld in nat(re IE 0he =i$e eleents Earth> Gater> Fire>
Gind and Ether. In this ."dy> ;hate$er is hard is "= Earth> liH(id is
;ater> ;ar is =ire> ;hate$er "$es a."(t is air and spa%e-en%l"sed is
ether. 0he =(n%ti"n "= the Earth is t" s(pp"rt> ;ater is t" %"ns"lidate
6di)esti"n et%.>7. Fire is t" see> ;ind is ="r "$in)> Ether is t" )i$e
spa%e 6="r $ital =(n%ti"ns7.
#1&
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
0he eyes are (sed in seein) ="r> ears ="r s"(nd> t"n)(e ="r taste> the
skin and n"se ="r t"(%h and sell respe%ti$ely< )enital ="r pleas(re>
Apana is ="r e$a%(ati"n 6"= .";els7. 0he pers"n %")nises thr"()h the
intelle%t> ;ills ;ith the ind and speaks ;ith the t"n)(e.
0he siJ-="ld s(pp"rt is the siJ tastes 6"= =""d7@ s;eet> a%id> salty>
p(n)ent> .itter and astrin)ent.
1-7. -ad5a> Risa.ha> Gandhara> 4an%haa> Madhyaa> Dhai$ata>
*isadha ? these are the se$en a)reea.le and disa)reea.le s"(nds.
Ghite> Red> !la%k s"ke-%"l"(red> 1ell";> 0a;ny and 4ale-Ghite ?
these are the %"l"(rs "= the se$en Dhat(s 6priary 3("(rs7. Ghy I
F"r De$adatta 6any pers"n7 there sprin)s (p in his ind desire ="r
en5"yent "= ".5e%ts. Fr" relish "= =""d .l""d is ."rn> =r" it is
=lesh> then%e =at> ."nes> arr";> seen< .y the %".inati"n "= seen
and .l""d the ="et(s is ."rn.
Vital ;arth sprin)s (p in the ;". and the .elly. In the seat "= the
;arth .ile> 4rana =l";s ? at the pr"per seas"n "rdained .y the
%reat"r.
+. 0he e.ry" lyin) 6in the ;".7 ="r 6a day7 and ni)ht is a %"n=(sed
ass< a=ter se$en days it .e%"es a .(..le< a=ter a ="rtni)ht> a ass
and in a "nth> it hardens. In t;" "nths de$el"ps the re)i"n "= the
head< in three "nths> the =eet< in the ="(rth> .elly and hip< in the =i=th>
the .a%k."ne< in the siJth> n"se> eyes and ears< in the se$enth the
e.ry" H(i%kens ;ith li=e and in the ei)hth "nth> it .e%"es
%"plete.
,. !y the d"inan%e "= the =atherEs seen> the %hild .e%"es ale<
the "therEs ? =eale. Ghen eH(al> a e(n(%h. I=> at the tie "=
ipre)nati"n> the parents are a)itated> the %hild ;ill .e .lind>
%rippled> h(n%h-.a%ked "r st(nted in )r";th. I= the %"(ple ha$e $ital-
air-tr"(.le> the seen enters in t;" parts res(ltin) in t;ins.
#11
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA

1&. In the ei)hth "nth> in %"n5(n%ti"n ;ith the =i$e $ital airs the 2i$a
)ets the %apa%ity t" kn"; its past a==airs 6"= past .irths7> %"n%ei$es "=
the iperisha.le Atan as 9> thr"()h per=e%t kn";led)e and
editati"n. 3a$in) kn";n 9 he sees in the ."dy the ei)ht 4rakritis
deri$ed =r" it the =i$e eleents> ind> intelle%t and e)" and the
siJteen %han)es Ksee 4rasn"panishadL.
11. 0he ."dy .e%"es %"plete in the ninth "nth and ree.ers
the past .irth. A%ti"ns d"ne and n"t d"ne =lash t" hi and he
re%")nises the )""d and .ad nat(re "= 'ara.
12-17. `I ha$e seen th"(sands "= ;".s> eaten se$eral kinds "= =""d
and s(%ked any .reasts< ."rn and dead "=ten> I a iersed in )rie=
.(t see n" reedy. I= I %an )et "(t "= this> I ;ill res"rt t" -ankhya-
1")a ;hi%h destr"ys isery and yields li.erati"n< "r I res"rt t"
Mahesh$ara ;h" destr"ys isery. 9r I res"rt t" *arayana> ;h"
destr"ys isery. I= I did )""d and .ad deeds ="r the sake "= y
dependants> I shall ysel= .e .(rnt ="r the deeds ? the "thers ;h"
en5"yed the =r(its )" a;ay 6(na==e%ted7.
1+. 0he pers"n .ein) sH(eeCed as it ;ere .y a a%hine is t"(%hed .y
all-per$adin) air and ="r)ets pre$i"(s .irths and deeds.
1,. Ghy is the ."dy s" %alled I It has three =ires@ the '"stha)ni ripens
all that is eaten< the Darsana)ni helps "ne see %"l"(r et%.> the 2nana)ni
is the ind ;hi%h helps per="r )""d and .ad deeds.
2&. 0he Daksina)ni is in the heart< Garhapatya in the .elly and
Aha$aniya in the "(th< the intelle%t is the per="rerEs %"ns"rt>
%"ntentent is Diksha> sense "r)ans are the (tensils> head is the 5ar>
hair is the sa%red )rass> the "(th the interi"r "= the altar et%.
21. 0he heart eas(res + 4alas> t"n)(e 12> .ile is "ne 4rastha> phle)
#12
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
"ne Adhaka. -(kla is "ne '(d(pa> =at t;" 4rasthas> Urine and ala
t;" 4rasthas ea%h> dependin) "n ;hat is taken in daily.
0he s%ript(re "= li.erati"n eJp"(nded .y 4aippalada ends.
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the Gar.h"panishad .el"n)in) t" the 'rishna-1a5(r-Veda.
#13
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
4). Kaivalya Upanishad
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
1. 0hen Ash$alayana appr"a%hed the /"rd 4araesthi 6!raha7 and
said@ 0ea%h> 9 /"rd> the kn";led)e "= !rahan> the hi)hest> al;ays
%(lti$ated .y the )""d> hidden and .y ;hi%h a ;ise an dri$es a;ay
instantly all the sins and rea%hes the 4(r(sha hi)her than the hi)h.
2. And t" hi> the Grandsire 6!raha7 said> c'n"; 6this7 .y eans "=
=aith> de$"ti"n and editati"n. *"t .y ;"rk> n"r .y pr")eny> n"r .y
;ealth> .(t .y ren(n%iati"n> s"e attained i"rtality.
3. 3i)her than hea$en> seated in the %a$e 6!(ddhi7> that shines>
6;hi%h7 the sel=-%"ntr"lled attain ? the sel=-%"ntr"lled> ;h" .ein) "=
p(re inds ha$e ;ell as%ertained the Reality> .y the kn";led)e "=
Vedanta> and thr"()h -annyasa "r ren(n%iati"n. In the sphere "=
#1#
'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
!raha> at the tie "= %"si% diss"l(ti"n> they all )et li.erated =r"
the hi)hest 6apparent7 i"rtality "= the ani=ested (ni$erse.
#-5. In a se%l(ded pla%e> sittin) in an easy p"st(re> p(re> ;ith a ne%k>
head> and ."dy ere%t> li$in) in the last "= the "rders "= reli)i"(s li=e>
ha$in) %"ntr"lled all the sense> sal(tin) his ";n pre%ept"r ;ith
re$eren%e> editatin) ;ithin the l"t(s "= the heart 6"n !rahan7>
(ntainted> p(re> %lear and )rie=less.
6. 6Gh" is7 (nthinka.le> (nani=est> "= endless ="rs> the )""d> the
pea%e=(l> I"rtal> the "ri)in "= the ;"rlds> ;ith"(t .e)innin)>
iddle> and end> the "nly "ne> all-per$adin)> 8"ns%i"(sness> and
!liss> the ="rless and the ;"nder=(l.
7. Meditatin) "n the hi)hest /"rd> allied t" Ua> p";er=(l> three-
eyed> .l(e-ne%ked> and tranH(il> the h"ly an rea%hes 3i ;h" is the
s"(r%e "= all> the ;itness "= all and is .ey"nd darkness 6i.e. A$idya7.
+. 3e is !raha> 3e is -hi$a> 3e is Indra> 3e is the I(ta.le> the
-(pree> the -el=-l(in"(s> 3e al"ne is Vishn(> 3e is 4rana> 3e is
0ie and Fire> 3e is the M""n.
,. 3e al"ne is all that ;as> and all that ;ill .e> the Eternal< kn";in)
3i> "ne trans%ends death< there is n" "ther ;ay t" =reed".
1&. -eein) the Atan in all .ein)s> and all .ein)s in the Atan> "ne
attains the hi)hest !rahan ? n"t .y any "ther eans.
11. Makin) the Atan the 6l";er7 Arani> and 9M the (pper Arani> .y
the repeated =ri%ti"n "= kn";led)e> a ;ise an .(rns (p the ."nd.
12. Gith his sel= th(s del(ded .y Maya "r i)n"ran%e> it is he ;h"
identi=ies hisel= ;ith the ."dy and d"es all s"rts "= thin)s. In the
;akin) state it is he 6the 2i$a7 ;h" attains satis=a%ti"n thr"()h the
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$aried ".5e%ts "= en5"yent> s(%h as ;"en> =""d> drink> et%.
13. In the drea-state that 2i$a =eels pleas(re and pain in a sphere "=
eJisten%e %reated .y his ";n Maya "r i)n"ran%e. D(rin) the state "=
pr"="(nd sleep> ;hen e$erythin) is diss"l$ed 6int" their %a(sal state7>
he is "$erp";ered .y 0as "r n"n-ani=estati"n and %"es t" eJist in
his ="r "= !liss.
1#. A)ain> thr"()h his %"nne%ti"n ;ith deeds d"ne in pre$i"(s .irths>
that $ery 2i$a ret(rns t" the drea-state> "r the ;akin) state. 0he
.ein) ;h" sp"rts in the three %ities 6$iC.> the states "= ;ake=(lness>
drea and pr"="(nd sleep7 ? =r" 3i has spr(n) (p all di$ersity. 3e
is the s(.strat(> the .liss> the indi$isi.le 8"ns%i"(sness> in ;h"
the three %ities diss"l$e thesel$es.
15. Fr" 0his sprin) (p 4rana 6Vitality7> ind> all the "r)ans> sky> air>
=ire> ;ater and the earth that s(pp"rts all.
16. 0hat ;hi%h is the -(pree !rahan> the s"(l "= all> the )reat
s(pp"rt "= the (ni$erse> s(.tler than the s(.tle> and eternal ? that is
thysel=> and th"( art 0hat.
17. c0hat ;hi%h ani=ests the phen"ena> s(%h as the states "=
;ake=(lness> drea and pr"="(nd sleep> I a that !rahanc ?
realisin) th(s "ne is li.erated =r" all ."nds.
1+. Ghat %"nstit(te the en5"ya.le> the en5"yer> and the en5"yent> in
the three a."des ? di==erent =r" the all a I> the Gitness> the 4(re
8"ns%i"(sness> the Eternal G""d.
1,. In e al"ne is e$erythin) ."rn> in e d"es e$erythin) rest> and in
e is e$erythin) diss"l$ed. I a that !rahan> the se%"ndless.
2&. I a in(ter than the in(te> I a like;ise the )reatest "= all> I
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a the ani="ld (ni$erse. I a the An%ient 9ne> the 4(r(sha and the
R(ler> I a the E==(l)ent 9ne> and the All-)""d.
21. Gith"(t ars and le)s a I> "= (nthinka.le p";er< I see ;ith"(t
eyes> and I hear ;ith"(t ears. I kn"; all> and a di==erent =r" all.
*"ne %an kn"; e. I a al;ays the Intelli)en%e.
22. I al"ne a ta()ht in the $ari"(s Vedas> I a the re$ealer "= the
Vedanta "r Upanishads> and I a als" the 'n";er "= the Vedas. F"r
e there is neither erit n"r deerit> I s(==er n" destr(%ti"n> I ha$e n"
.irth> n"r any sel=-identity ;ith the ."dy and the "r)ans.
23-2#. F"r e there is neither earth> n"r ;ater> n"r =ire> n"r air> n"r
ether. 0h(s realisin) the 4araatan> ;h" lies in the %a$ity "= the
heart> ;h" is ;ith"(t parts> and ;ith"(t a se%"nd> the Gitness "= all>
.ey"nd ."th eJisten%e and n"n-eJisten%e ? "ne attains the 4(re
4araatan Itsel=.
25. 3e ;h" st(dies the -hatar(driya> is p(ri=ied as .y the Fires> is
p(ri=ied =r" the sin "= drinkin)> p(ri=ied =r" the sin "= killin) a
!rahana> =r" deeds d"ne kn";in)ly "r (na;ares. 0hr"()h this he
has his re=()e in -hi$a> the -(pree -el=. 9ne ;h" .el"n)s t" the
hi)hest "rder "= li=e sh"(ld repeat this al;ays "r "n%e 6a day7.
26. !y eans "= this> "ne attains the 'n";led)e that destr"ys the
"%ean "= -asara "r repeated transi)rati"n. 0here="re> kn";in) th(s
"ne attains the =r(it "= 'ai$alya "r li.erati"n> $erily "ne attains
li.erati"n.
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
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May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the 'ai$aly"panishad> in%l(ded in the 'rishna-1a5(r-Veda.
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41. Kala!ni 5udra Upanishad
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
9M: May !rahan pr"te%t (s 6the G(r( and -ishya7 ."th: May he
)i$e (s ."th 6en"()h7 t" en5"y: E==i%ien%y ay ;e ."th attain:
E==e%ti$e ay "(r st(dy pr"$e: May ;e n"t hate 6ea%h "ther7 at all:
9 -hanti: -hanti: -hanti:
9n%e it happened that -anat '(ara asked the eJalted 'ala)nir(dra@
A0ea%h e 9 eJalted -ir: the tr(th in respe%t t" the r(le "= the
0rip(ndra 6a se%t ark %"nsistin) "= three streaks7 and ;hat
aterial> ;hi%h pla%e> h"; (%h> "= ;hat eJtent and ;hi%h streaks>
;hi%h di$inity> ;hi%h ="r(la> ;hi%h p";ers and ;hi%h re;ard there
areIB
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0he eJalted "ne said t" hi A0he aterial sh"(ld .e the ash "= =ires.
9ne sh"(ld )rasp it ;ith the =i$e !rahan-="r(las 6-athy"5ata>
Vaade$a> A)"ra> R(dra> Eesana7. 8"nse%rate it ;ith the
="r(la AA)nir iti .hasaB et%.> 0ake "(t ;ith the ="r(la Aa nas
t"ke tanayaeB and 6a=ter %"nse%ratin)7 ;ith the ="r(la
A0raya.aka 1a5aaheB sh"(ld apply it as three lines a%r"ss "n the
head> ="rehead> .reast and sh"(lders (nder the tryay(sa ="r(las>
traya.aka ="r(las and trisakti ="r(las.
0his is the -a.h(-$";> ;hi%h is ta()ht in all the Vedas .y th"se
$ersed in the Veda. 0here="re "ne desir"(s "= li.erati"n sh"(ld
pra%tise it> s" that he is n"t ."rn a)ain. And this 9: -anat k(ara> is
its 6"= the ark7 eJtent< it stret%hes three="ld =r" the ="rehead d";n
t" the eyes and )"es =r" the %enter "= "ne eye-.r"; t" the "ther.
Its =irst line is the Grahapatya =ire> the a-s"(nd 6"= AUM7> the Ra5as
6="r%e=(l %hara%teristi%7> the terrestrial ;"rld> the eJternal atan> the
a%tin) p";er> the Ri) Veda> the "rnin) pressin) 6"= the -"a 2(i%e7>
and Mahes;ara is its di$inity.
Its se%"nd line is the Dakshina =ire> the (-s"(nd> the -att$a 6pea%e=(l
%hara%teristi%7> the at"sphere> the inner Atan> the ;illin) p";er>
the 1a5(r Veda> the idday pressin) "= the -"a and -adasi$a is its
di$inity.
Its third line is the Aha$aniya =ire> the -s"(nd> the 0aas 6laCy
%hara%teristi%7> the hea$en> the hi)hest Atan> the per%ei$in) p";er>
the -aaVeda> the e$enin) pressin) "= the -"a and -i$a is its
di$inity.
0here="re he akes the 0rip(ndra =r" the ashes. 3e ;h" kn";s
this> ;hether he .e a !rahan-st(dent> a h"(se h"lder> a ="rest-
resident "r an as%eti%> he is there.y p(ri=ied "= all the a5"r sins and
in"r sins. 0here.y all the )"ds are editated (p"n .y hi> he is
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kn";n .y all the )"ds> .e%"es "ne ;h" has .athed in all the h"ly
.athin) pla%es> "ne ;h" has all the tie (ttered the R(dra prayer.
And a=ter en5"yin) all the pleas(res he enters> )i$in) (p the ."dy> int"
(ni"n ;ith -i$a and d"es n"t ret(rn ? and d"es n"t ret(rn.
0h(s sp"ke the eJalted 'ala)ni R(dra. 9ne ;h" re%ites it here> he
als" attains t" a siilar state. 9 -atya. ? 0h(s reads the
Upanishad.
9M: May !rahan pr"te%t (s 6the G(r( and -ishya7 ."th: May he
)i$e (s ."th 6en"()h7 t" en5"y: E==i%ien%y ay ;e ."th attain:
E==e%ti$e ay "(r st(dy pr"$e: May ;e n"t hate 6ea%h "ther7 at all:
9 -hanti: -hanti: -hanti:
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the 'ala)ni-R(dr"panishad .el"n)in) t" the 'rishna-1a5(r-
Veda.
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42. Kali &antarana Upanishad
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ari 9 : At the end "= D$apara-1()a> *arada ;ent t" !raha and
addressed hi th(s@ c9 /"rd> h"; shall I> r"ain) "$er the earth> .e
a.le t" a%r"ss 'ali Ic 0" ;hi%h !raha th(s replied@ cGell asked.
3earken t" that ;hi%h all -hr(tis 6the Vedas7 keep se%ret and hidden>
thr"()h ;hi%h "ne ay %r"ss the -asara 6(ndane eJisten%e7 "=
'ali. 3e shakes "== 6the e$il e==e%ts "=7 'ali thr"()h the ere (tterin)
"= the nae "= the /"rd *arayana> ;h" is the prie$al 4(r(shac.
A)ain *arada asked !raha@ cGhat is the nae Ic 0" ;hi%h
3iranya)ar.ha 6!raha7 replied th(s@
1. 3are Raa 3are Raa Raa Raa 3are 3are
3are 'rishna 3are 'rishna 'rishna 'rishna 3are 3are
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2. 0hese siJteen naes 6;"rds7 are destr(%ti$e "= the e$il e==e%ts "=
'ali. *" .etter eans than this is t" .e seen in all the Vedas.
0hese 6siJteen naes7 destr"y the A$arana 6"r the %entripetal ="r%e
;hi%h pr"d(%es the sense "= indi$id(ality7 "= 2i$a s(rr"(nded .y the
siJteen 'alas 6rays7. 0hen like the sphere "= the s(n ;hi%h shines =(lly
a=ter the %l"(ds 6s%reenin) it7 disperse> 4ara.rahan 6al"ne7 shines.c
*arada asked@ `9 /"rd> ;hat are the r(les t" .e ".ser$ed ;ith
re=eren%e t" it Ic 0" ;hi%h !raha replied that there ;ere n" r(les ="r
it. Gh"e$er in a p(re "r an ip(re state> (tters these al;ays> attains
the sae ;"rld "=> "r pr"Jiity ;ith> "r the sae ="r "=> "r
a.s"rpti"n int" !raha.
Gh"e$er (tters three and a hal= 8r"res 6"r thirty-=i$e illi"ns7 ties
this Mantra %"p"sed "= siJteen naes 6"r ;"rds7 %r"sses the sin "=
the (rder "= a !rahana. 3e .e%"es p(ri=ied =r" the sin "= the
the=t "= )"ld. 3e .e%"es p(ri=ied =r" the sin "= %"ha.itati"n ;ith a
;"an "= l"; %aste. 3e is p(ri=ied =r" the sins "= ;r"n) d"ne t"
4itris> De$as and en. 3a$in) )i$en (p all Dharas> he .e%"es
=reed at "n%e =r" all sins. 3e is at "n%e released =r" all ."nda)e.
0hat he is at "n%e released =r" all ."nda)e is the Upanishad.
3ari 9 0at -at :
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether< ay 3e n"(rish (s ."th
t")ether<
May ;e ;"rk %"n5"intly ;ith )reat ener)y>
May "(r st(dy .e $i)"r"(s and e==e%ti$e<
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May ;e n"t (t(ally disp(te 6"r ay ;e n"t hate any7.
9 : /et there .e 4ea%e in e :
/et there .e 4ea%e in y en$ir"nent :
/et there .e 4ea%e in the ="r%es that a%t "n e :
3ere ends the 'alisantarana Upanishad .el"n)in) t" the 'rishna-
1a5(r-Veda.
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43. Katha Upanishad
9 : May 3e pr"te%t (s ."th t")ether 6.y ill(inin) the nat(re "=
kn";led)e7.
May 3e s(stain (s ."th 6.y ens(rin) the =r(its "= kn";led)e7.
May ;e attain the $i)"(r 6"= kn";led)e7 t")ether.
/et ;hat ;e learn enli)hten (s.
/et (s n"t hate ea%h "ther.
9 : 4ea%e : 4ea%e : 4ea%e :
1-I-1. 9(t "= desire> s" )"es the st"ry> the s"n "= Va5asra$a )a$e a;ay
all his ;ealth. 3e had a s"n naed *a%hiketas.
1-I-2. 0h"()h y"(n)> =aith p"ssessed hi as presents ;ere .ein)
.r"()ht< he th"()ht@
1-I-3. Gater has .een dr(nk 6="r the last tie .y these %";s7> )rass
has .een eaten 6="r the last tie7< they ha$e yielded all their ilk> and
are de$"id "= 6the p";er "=7 the "r)ans. 0h"se ;"rlds are indeed
5"yless ;here he )"es ;h" "==ers these.
1-I-#. 3e then said t" his parent> c=ather> t" ;h" ;ilt th"( )i$e eIc
A se%"nd tie and a third tie 6he said it7. 0" hi he 6the =ather7 said>
c0" Death I )i$e thee.c
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1-I-5. 9= any I )" the =irst< "= any I )" the iddle "st. Ghat
p(rp"se "= 1aa %"(ld there .e ;hi%h 6y =ather7 ;ill )et
a%%"plished t"day thr"()h eI
1-I-6. 0hink h"; y"(r an%est"rs .eha$ed< .eh"ld h"; "thers n";
.eha$e. /ike %"rn an de%ays> and like %"rn he is ."rn a)ain.
1-I-7. /ike Vais$anara 6=ire7> a !rahana )(est enters the h"(ses. Men
"==er this t" pr"pitiate hi. 9 Vai$as$ata 61aa7@ =et%h ;ater 6="r
hi7.
1-I-+. 3"pe> eJpe%tati"n> ass"%iati"n ;ith the e==e%ts 6"= these t;"7>
pleasant dis%"(rse> sa%ri=i%e> a%ts "= pi"(s li.erality> s"ns and %attle ?
all these are destr"yed in the %ase "= the an "= little intelle%t in
;h"se h"(se a !rahana d;ells ;ith"(t =""d.
1-I-,. 9 !rahana> sin%e th"(> a ;"rship=(l )(est> hast d;elt in y
h"(se ="r three ni)hts ;ith"(t =""d> let e ake sal(tati"n t" thee. 9
!rahana> ay pea%e .e ;ith e. 0here="re> ask ="r three .""ns in
ret(rn.
1-I-1&. 9 Death> let Ga(taa 6y =ather7 .e relie$ed "= the anJiety> let
hi .e%"e %al in ind and =ree =r" an)er 6t";ards e7> and let
hi re%")nise e and talk t" e ;hen li.erated .y thee. 9= the three
.""ns> this is the =irst I %h""se.
1-I-11. 9(ddalaki> the s"n "= Ar(na> ;ill re%")nise thee as .e="re and
;ill> ;ith y perissi"n> sleep pea%e=(lly d(rin) ni)hts and "n seein)
thee released =r" the 5a;s "= Death> he ;ill .e =ree =r" an)er.
1-I-12. 0here is n" =ear in hea$en< n"r art th"( there< n"r is there any
=ear =r" "ld a)e. 0rans%endin) ."th h(n)er and thirst and risin)
a."$e )rie=> an re5"i%es in hea$en.
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1-I-13. 9 Death> th"( kn";est the Fire that leads t" hea$en. Instr(%t
e> ;h" a end";ed ;ith =aith> a."(t that 6Fire7 .y ;hi%h th"se ;h"
d;ell in hea$en attain i"rtality. 0his I %h""se ="r y se%"nd .""n.
1-I-1#. I ;ill tea%h thee ;ell< listen t" e and (nderstand> 9
*a%hiketas> I kn"; the Fire that leads t" hea$en. 'n"; that Fire
;hi%h is the eans ="r the attainent "= hea$en and ;hi%h is the
s(pp"rt 6"= the (ni$erse7 and l"%ated in the %a$ity.
1-I-15. Death t"ld hi "= the Fire> the s"(r%e "= the ;"rlds> the s"rt "=
.ri%ks 6="r raisin) the sa%ri=i%ial altar7> h"; any> and h"; 6t" kindle
the =ire7 and he 6*a%hiketas7 t"" repeated it as it ;as t"ld. 0hen Death>
.e%"in) deli)hted "$er it> said a)ain@
1-I-16. 0he eJalted "ne> .ein) pleased> said t" hi@ cI )rant thee a)ain
an"ther .""n n";. !y thy nae itsel= shall this =ire .e kn";n< and
a%%ept th"( this ne%kla%e "= ani="ld ="rsc.
1-I-17. Gh"s" kindles the *a%hiketas =ire thri%e and .e%"es (nited
;ith the three and d"es the three-="ld kara> trans%ends .irth and
death. 'n";in) the "nis%ient "ne> ."rn "= !raha> .ri)ht and
ad"ra.le> and realiCin) it> he attains t" s(rpassin) pea%e.
1-I-1+. 3e ;h"> kn";in) the three 6="r "= .ri%k et%.>7> piles (p the
*a%hiketa Fire ;ith this kn";led)e> thr";s "== the %hains "= death
e$en .e="re 6the ."dy =alls "==7> and risin) "$er )rie=> re5"i%es in
hea$en.
1-I-1,. 0his is the Fire> 9 *a%hiketas> ;hi%h leads t" hea$en and
;hi%h th"( hast %h"sen ="r the se%"nd .""n. 9= this Fire> pe"ple ;ill
speak as thine indeed. 9 *a%hiketas> %h""se the third .""n.
1-I-2&. 0his d"(.t as t" ;hat happens t" a an a=ter death ? s"e say
he is> and s"e "thers say he is n"t> ? I shall kn"; .ein) ta()ht .y
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'RI-3*A-1A2UR-VEDA
thee. 9= the .""ns> this is the third .""n.
1-I-21. E$en .y the )"ds this d"(.t ;as entertained in days "= y"re.
0his t"pi%> .ein) s(.tle> is n"t easy t" %"prehend. Ask ="r s"e
"ther .""n> 9 *a%hiketas. D"nEt press e< )i$e (p this 6.""n7 ="r e.
1-I-22. 6*a%hiketas said@7 -in%e e$en .y the )"ds ;as d"(.t
entertained in this re)ard and 6sin%e7 th"( sayest> 9 Death> that this is
n"t easily %"prehended> n" "ther pre%ept"r like thee %an .e had t"
instr(%t "n this n"r is there any "ther .""n eH(al t" this.
1-I-23. Ask ="r s"ns and )rands"ns ;h" ;ill li$e a h(ndred years. Ask
="r herds "= %attle> elephants )"ld and h"rses> as als" ="r a $ast eJtent
"= earth and thysel= li$e ="r as any a(t(ns as th"( desirest.
1-I-2#. I= th"( thinkest any "ther .""n t" .e eH(al t" this> ask ="r
;ealth and l"n)e$ity. !e th"( the r(ler "$er a $ast %"(ntry> 9
*a%hiketas< I shall ake thee en5"y all thy l"n)in)s.
1-I-25. Ghat all thin)s there are in the h(an ;"rld ;hi%h are
desira.le> .(t hard t" ;in> pray ="r all th"se desira.le thin)s a%%"rdin)
t" thy pleas(re. 3ere are these dasels ;ith the %hari"ts and l(tes> the
like "= ;h" %an ne$er .e had .y en. !y the> )i$en .y e> )et thy
ser$i%es rendered> 9 *a%hiketas> d" n"t ask a."(t death.
1-I-26. 0hese> 9 Death> are epheeral and they tend t" ;ear "(t the
$i)"(r "= all the senses "= an. E$en the ;h"le li=e is sh"rt indeed. !e
thine al"ne the %hari"ts< .e thine the dan%e and (si%.
1-I-27. Man %ann"t .e satis=ied ;ith ;ealth. I= ;e need ;ealth> ;e
shall )et it i= ;e "nly see thee. Ge shall li$e (ntil s(%h tie as th"(
;ilt r(le. !(t the .""n t" .e asked ="r 6.y e7 is that al"ne.
1-I-2+. 3a$in) )ained %"nta%t ;ith the (nde%ayin) and the i"rtal>
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;hat de%ayin) "rtal d;ellin) "n the earth .el"; ;h" kn";s the
hi)her )"al> ;ill deli)ht in l"n) li=e> a=ter .e%"in) a;are "= the
6transit"riness "=7 .ea(ty 6Varian7 and sp"rt 6rati7 and the 5"y
6pra"da7 there"=.
1-I-2,. 9 Death> tell (s "= that> "= the )reat !ey"nd> a."(t ;hi%h an
entertain d"(.t. *a%hiketas d"es n"t pray ="r any "ther .""n than this
;hi%h enters int" the se%ret that is hidden.
1-II-1. Di==erent is 6that ;hi%h is7 pre=era.le< and di==erent> indeed> is
the pleas(ra.le. 0hese t;">
ser$in) di==erent p(rp"ses> .lind an. G""d a%%r(es t" hi ;h"> "=
these t;"> %h""ses the pre=era.le. 3e ;h" %h""ses the pleas(ra.le
=alls =r" the )"al.
1-II-2. 0he pre=era.le and the pleas(ra.le appr"a%h an. 0he
intelli)ent "ne eJaines ."th and separates the. 1ea> the intelli)ent
"ne pre=ers the pre=era.le t" the pleas(ra.le> 6;hereas7 the i)n"rant
"ne sele%ts the pleas(ra.le ="r the sake "= y")a 6attainent "= that
;hi%h is n"t already p"ssessed7 and kshea 6the preser$ati"n "= that
;hi%h is already in p"ssessi"n7.
1-II-3. 0h"( hast relinH(ished> 9 *a%hiketas> all ".5e%ts "= desire>
dear and "= %"$eta.le nat(re> p"nderin) "$er their ;"rthlessness.
0h"( hast n"t a%%epted the path "= ;ealth in ;hi%h perish any a
"rtal.
1-II-#. Ghat is kn";n as i)n"ran%e and ;hat is kn";n as kn";led)e
are hi)hly "pp"sed 6t" ea%h "ther7> and lead t" di==erent ;ays. I
%"nsider *a%hiketas t" .e aspirin) a=ter kn";led)e> ="r desires>
n(er"(s th"()h they .e> did n"t tear thee a;ay.
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1-II-5. /i$in) in the idst "= i)n"ran%e and deein) thesel$es
intelli)ent and enli)htened> the i)n"rant )" r"(nd and r"(nd
sta))erin) in %r""ked paths> like the .lind led .y the .lind.
1-II-6. 0he eans "= attainin) the "ther ;"rld d"es n"t .e%"e
re$ealed t" the n"n-dis%riinatin) "ne ;h"> del(ded .y ;ealth> has
.e%"e ne)li)ent. 3e ;h" thinks> `this ;"rld al"ne is and n"ne elseE
%"es t" y thrald" a)ain and a)ain.
1-II-7. 9= the -el= any are n"t e$en a.le t" hear< 3i any> th"()h
they hear> d" n"t %"prehend. G"nder=(l is the eJp"(nder "= the -el=
and attainer> pr"=i%ient. 0he kn";er 6"= the -el=7 ta()ht .y an a.le
pre%ept"r is ;"nder=(l.
1-II-+. 0his 6-el=7> i= ta()ht .y an in=eri"r pers"n> is n"t easily
%"prehended> ="r It is $ari"(sly th"()ht "=. Unless ta()ht .y an"ther
6;h" is a per%ei$er "= n"n-di==eren%e7 there is n" ;ay 6"=
%"prehendin) It7> ="r It is n"t ar)(a.le and is s(.tler than s(.tlety.
1-II-,. 0his 6kn";led)e "= the -el=7 attained .y thee %ann"t .e had
thr"()h ar)(entati"n. 9 dearest> this d"%trine> "nly i= ta()ht .y
s"e tea%her 6"ther than a l")i%ian7> leads t" ri)ht kn";led)e. 9> th"(
art r""ted in tr(th. May a H(esti"ner .e e$er like thee> 9 *a%hiketas.
1-II-1&. I kn"; that the treas(re is iperanent> ="r that ;hi%h is
%"nstant %ann"t .e rea%hed .y thin)s ;hi%h are n"t %"nstant.
0here="re> has the *a%hiketa Fire .een kindled .y e ;ith
iperanent thin)s> and I ha$e attained the eternal.
1-II-11. 0he =(l=ilent "= all desires> the s(pp"rt "= the (ni$erse> the
endless =r(its "= sa%ri=i%e> the "ther sh"re "= =earlessness> the eJtensi$e
path ;hi%h is praise;"r