Sunteți pe pagina 1din 34

# Analysis of Box Culvert using STAAD

AIM: Analyze the box culvert having 3.8m side length and loading is given as
Case: 1 Live load on top = 64.5 kN/m, Lateral earth load (UVL) = 22.8 kN/m,
surcharge = 19 kN/m, Live load at bottom = 79.5 kN/m.
Case: 2 Live load on top = 64.5 kN/m, water force from inside (UVL) = 14.47kN/m,
surcharge = 4 kN/m, Live load at bottom = 79.5 kN/m.
Case: 3 Live load on top = 64.5 kN/m, Lateral earth load (UVL) = 14.47kN/m,
surcharge = 19 kN/m, Live load at bottom = 79.5 kN/m
Use M20 grade concrete and Fe 415 steel materials.

Fig: Isometric view of structure with dimensions

Case: 1 Live load on top = 64.5 kN/m, Lateral earth load (UVL) = 22.8 kN/m,
surcharge = 19 kN/m, Live load at bottom = 79.5 kN/m.

START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 21-Apr-14
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 3.8 0 0; 3 0 3.8 0; 4 3.8 3.8 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2; 2 3 4; 3 1 3; 4 2 4;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
1 TO 4 PRIS YD 0.3 ZD 1
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL
SUPPORTS
1 TO 4 PINNED
2 UNI GY -64.5
1 UNI GY 79.5
3 UNI GX 19
3 LIN Y -22.8 0
4 UNI GX -19
4 LIN Y 22.8 0
3 1.0 4 1.0 1 1.0 2 1.0
PERFORM ANALYSIS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE INDIAN
FYMAIN 415000 ALL
FYSEC 415000 ALL
FC 20000 ALL
MAXMAIN 12 ALL
MAXSEC 8 ALL
MINMAIN 10 ALL
MINSEC 8 ALL
DESIGN BEAM 1 2
DESIGN COLUMN 3 4
END CONCRETE DESIGN
FINISH

Fig: Bending moment diagram of the structure for load case 1

Fig: Shear force diagram of the structure for load case 1

Fig: Deflection diagram of the structure for load case 1

Case: 2 Live load on top = 64.5 kN/m, Live load at bottom = 79.5 kN/m,
lateral earth force & water force from inside (UVL) = 14.47kN/m, surcharge = 4 kN/m.
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 21-Apr-14
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 3.8 0 0; 3 0 3.8 0; 4 3.8 3.8 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2; 2 3 4; 3 1 3; 4 2 4;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
1 TO 4 PRIS YD 0.3 ZD 1
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL
SUPPORTS
1 TO 4 PINNED
2 UNI GY -64.5
1 UNI GY 79.5
3 UNI GX 4
3 LIN Y 14.47 0
4 UNI GX -4
4 LIN Y -14.47 0
3 1.0 4 1.0 1 1.0 2 1.0
PERFORM ANALYSIS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE INDIAN
FYMAIN 415000 ALL
FYSEC 415000 ALL
FC 20000 ALL
MAXMAIN 12 ALL
MAXSEC 8 ALL
MINMAIN 10 ALL
MINSEC 8 ALL
DESIGN BEAM 1 2
DESIGN COLUMN 3 4
END CONCRETE DESIGN
FINISH

Fig: Bending moment diagram of the structure for load case 2

Fig: Shear force diagram of the structure for load case 2

Fig: Deflection diagram of the structure for load case 2

Case: 3 Live load on top = 64.5 kN/m, Lateral earth load (UVL) = 14.47kN/m,
surcharge = 19 kN/m, Live load at bottom = 79.5 kN/m
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 21-Apr-14
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 3.8 0 0; 3 0 3.8 0; 4 3.8 3.8 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2; 2 3 4; 3 1 3; 4 2 4;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
1 TO 4 PRIS YD 0.3 ZD 1
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL
SUPPORTS
1 TO 4 PINNED
2 UNI GY -64.5
1 UNI GY 79.5
3 UNI GX 19
3 LIN Y 14.47 0
4 UNI GX -19
4 LIN Y -14.47 0
3 1.0 4 1.0 1 1.0 2 1.0
PERFORM ANALYSIS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE INDIAN
FYMAIN 415000 ALL
FYSEC 415000 ALL
FC 20000 ALL
MAXMAIN 12 ALL
MAXSEC 8 ALL
MINMAIN 10 ALL
MINSEC 8 ALL
DESIGN BEAM 1 2
DESIGN COLUMN 3 4
END CONCRETE DESIGN
FINISH

Fig: Bending moment diagram of the structure for load case 3

Fig: Shear force diagram of the structure for load case 3

Fig: Deflection diagram of the structure for load case 3

Analysis of G+2 Building Using STAAD
AIM: Design a critical beam and column for the given G+2 building for factored load.
Wall load of 12 kN/m excluding self weight

START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 21-Apr-14
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 4 0 0; 3 0 2 0; 4 4 2 0; 5 0 5 0; 6 4 5 0; 7 0 8 0; 8 4 8 0;
9 0 11 0; 10 4 11 0; 11 0 0 3; 12 4 0 3; 13 0 2 3; 14 4 2 3; 15 0 5 3;
16 4 5 3; 17 0 8 3; 18 4 8 3; 19 0 11 3; 20 4 11 3; 21 0 0 4.8; 22 4 0 4.8;
23 0 2 4.8; 24 4 2 4.8; 25 0 5 4.8; 26 4 5 4.8; 27 0 8 4.8; 28 4 8 4.8;
29 0 11 4.8; 30 4 11 4.8;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 3 4; 2 5 6; 3 7 8; 4 9 10; 5 1 3; 6 2 4; 7 3 5; 8 4 6; 9 5 7; 10 6 8; 11 7 9;
12 8 10; 13 13 14; 14 15 16; 15 17 18; 16 19 20; 17 11 13; 18 12 14; 19 13 15;
20 14 16; 21 15 17; 22 16 18; 23 17 19; 24 18 20; 25 23 24; 26 25 26; 27 27 28;
28 29 30; 29 21 23; 30 22 24; 31 23 25; 32 24 26; 33 25 27; 34 26 28; 35 27 29;
36 28 30; 37 3 13; 38 4 14; 39 5 15; 40 6 16; 41 7 17; 42 8 18; 43 9 19;
44 10 20; 45 13 23; 46 14 24; 47 15 25; 48 16 26; 49 17 27; 50 18 28; 51 19 29;
52 20 30;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
29 TO 36 PRIS YD 0.23
1 TO 28 37 TO 52 PRIS YD 0.45 ZD 0.23
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL
SUPPORTS
1 2 11 12 21 22 FIXED
SELFWEIGHT Y -1 LIST 1 TO 52
1 TO 3 13 TO 15 37 TO 42 UNI GY -12
YRANGE 5 11 FLOAD -6 GY
1 1.0 2 1.0 3 1.0
1 1.5 2 1.5 3 1.5
PERFORM ANALYSIS
PRINT ALL
START CONCRETE
DESIGN
CODE INDIAN
CLEAR 0.025 ALL
FYMAIN 415000 ALL
FYSEC 415000 ALL
MAXMAIN 20 ALL
MAXSEC 10 ALL
MINMAIN 12 ALL
MINSEC 8 ALL
FC 20000 ALL
DESIGN BEAM 1 TO 4 13
TO 16 25 TO 28 37 TO 52
DESIGN COLUMN 5 TO
12 17 TO 24 29 TO 36
CONCRETE TAKE
END CONCRETE
DESIGN
FINISH

Fig: G+2 building with dimensions

Fig: Wall load on ground floor of G+2 building

Fig: Bending moment diagram of second floor of G+2 building

Fig: Shear force diagram of second floor of G+2 building

Fig: Deflection diagram of second floor of G+2 building

B E A M N O. 49 D E S I G N R E S U L T S
M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)
LENGTH: 1800.0 mm SIZE: 230.0 mm X 450.0 mm COVER: 25.0 mm
SUMMARY OF REINF. AREA (Sq.mm)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION 0.0 mm 450.0 mm 900.0 mm 1350.0 mm 1800.0 mm
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOP 197.38 197.38 197.38 197.38 197.38
REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm)
BOTTOM 0.00 197.38 197.38 197.38 0.00
REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SUMMARY OF PROVIDED REINF. AREA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION 0.0 mm 450.0 mm 900.0 mm 1350.0 mm 1800.0 mm
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOP 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12
REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s)
BOTTOM 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12
REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s)
SHEAR 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8
REINF. @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT DISTANCE d (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROM FACE OF
THE SUPPORT
SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 530.0 mm AWAY FROM START SUPPORT
VY = 5.04 MX = 0.77 LD= 5
Provide 2 Legged 8 @ 140 mm c/c
SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 415.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT
VY = -3.40 MX = 0.77 LD= 5
Provide 2 Legged 8 @ 140 mm c/c

B E A M N O. 50 D E S I G N R E S U L T S
M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)
LENGTH: 1800.0 mm SIZE: 230.0 mm X 450.0 mm COVER: 25.0 mm
SUMMARY OF REINF. AREA (Sq.mm)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION 0.0 mm 450.0 mm 900.0 mm 1350.0 mm 1800.0 mm
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOP 197.38 197.38 197.38 197.38 197.38
REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm)
BOTTOM 0.00 197.38 197.38 197.38 0.00
REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm)

SUMMARY OF PROVIDED REINF. AREA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION 0.0 mm 450.0 mm 900.0 mm 1350.0 mm 1800.0 mm
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOP 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12
REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s)

BOTTOM 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12
REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s)
SHEAR 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8
REINF. @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT DISTANCE d (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROM FACE OF
THE SUPPORT
SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 530.0 mm AWAY FROM START SUPPORT
VY = 5.04 MX = -0.77 LD= 5
Provide 2 Legged 8 @ 140 mm c/c
SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 415.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT
VY = -3.40 MX = -0.77 LD= 5
Provide 2 Legged 8 @ 140 mm c/c

B E A M N O. 51 D E S I G N R E S U L T S
M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)
LENGTH: 1800.0 mm SIZE: 230.0 mm X 450.0 mm COVER: 25.0 mm
SUMMARY OF REINF. AREA (Sq.mm)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION 0.0 mm 450.0 mm 900.0 mm 1350.0 mm 1800.0 mm
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOP 197.38 197.38 0.00 197.38 197.38
REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm)
BOTTOM 197.38 197.38 197.38 197.38 197.38
REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm)

SUMMARY OF PROVIDED REINF. AREA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION 0.0 mm 450.0 mm 900.0 mm 1350.0 mm 1800.0 mm
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOP 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12
REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s)
BOTTOM 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12
REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s)
SHEAR 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8
REINF. @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT DISTANCE d (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROM FACE OF
THE SUPPORT
SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 530.0 mm AWAY FROM START SUPPORT
VY = 2.49 MX = 1.37 LD= 5
Provide 2 Legged 8 @ 140 mm c/c
SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 415.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT
VY = -5.95 MX = 1.37 LD= 5
Provide 2 Legged 8 @ 140 mm c/c

B E A M N O. 52 D E S I G N R E S U L T S
M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)
LENGTH: 1800.0 mm SIZE: 230.0 mm X 450.0 mm COVER: 25.0 mm
SUMMARY OF REINF. AREA (Sq.mm)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION 0.0 mm 450.0 mm 900.0 mm 1350.0 mm 1800.0 mm
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOP 197.38 197.38 0.00 197.38 197.38
REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm)
BOTTOM 197.38 197.38 197.38 197.38 197.38
REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm)

SUMMARY OF PROVIDED REINF. AREA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION 0.0 mm 450.0 mm 900.0 mm 1350.0 mm 1800.0 mm
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOP 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12
REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s)
BOTTOM 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12
REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s)
SHEAR 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8
REINF. @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c @ 140 mm c/c
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT DISTANCE d (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROM FACE OF
THE SUPPORT
SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 530.0 mm AWAY FROM START SUPPORT
VY = 2.49 MX = -1.37 LD= 5
Provide 2 Legged 8 @ 140 mm c/c
SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 415.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT
VY = -5.95 MX = -1.37 LD= 5
Provide 2 Legged 8 @ 140 mm c/c
********************END OF BEAM DESIGN RESULTS********************

C O L U M N N O. 5 D E S I G N R E S U L T S
M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)
LENGTH: 2000.0 mm CROSS SECTION: 230.0 mm X 450.0 mm COVER: 40.0 mm
** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5 END JOINT: 1 SHORT COLUMN
REQD. STEEL AREA : 321.90 Sq.mm.
REQD. CONCRETE AREA: 103178.10 Sq.mm.
MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 - 12 dia. (0.87%, 904.78 Sq.mm.) (Equally
distributed)
TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 190 mm c/c
SECTION CAPACITY BASED ON REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED (KNS-MET)
----------------------------------------------------------
Puz : 1028.80 Muz1 : 63.22 Muy1 : 30.25
INTERACTION RATIO: 0.23 (as per Cl. 39.6, IS456:2000)
SECTION CAPACITY BASED ON REINFORCEMENT PROVIDED (KNS-MET)
----------------------------------------------------------
END JOINT: 3 Puz : 1204.97 Muz : 90.89 Muy : 40.23 IR: 0.22

C O L U M N N O. 6 D E S I G N R E S U L T S
M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)
LENGTH: 2000.0 mm CROSS SECTION: 230.0 mm X 450.0 mm COVER: 40.0 mm

** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5 END JOINT: 2 SHORT COLUMN
REQD. STEEL AREA : 321.90 Sq.mm.
REQD. CONCRETE AREA: 103178.10 Sq.mm.
MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 - 12 dia. (0.87%, 904.78 Sq.mm.) (Equally
distributed)
TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 190 mm c/c
SECTION CAPACITY BASED ON REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED (KNS-MET)
----------------------------------------------------------
Puz : 1028.80 Muz1 : 63.22 Muy1 : 30.25
INTERACTION RATIO: 0.23 (as per Cl. 39.6, IS456:2000)
SECTION CAPACITY BASED ON REINFORCEMENT PROVIDED (KNS-MET)
----------------------------------------------------------
END JOINT: 4 Puz : 1204.97 Muz : 90.89 Muy : 40.23 IR: 0.22

C O L U M N N O. 7 D E S I G N R E S U L T S
M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)
LENGTH: 3000.0 mm CROSS SECTION: 230.0 mm X 450.0 mm COVER: 40.0 mm
** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5 SHORT(Z) /BRACED LONG(Y)
REQD. STEEL AREA : 248.45 Sq.mm.
REQD. CONCRETE AREA: 103251.55 Sq.mm.
MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 - 12 dia. (0.87%, 904.78 Sq.mm.) (Equally
distributed)
TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 190 mm c/c
SECTION CAPACITY BASED ON REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED (KNS-MET)
----------------------------------------------------------
Puz : 1006.59 Muz1 : 55.54 Muy1 : 26.97
INTERACTION RATIO: 0.64 (as per Cl. 39.6, IS456:2000)

C O L U M N N O. 8 D E S I G N R E S U L T S
M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)
LENGTH: 3000.0 mm CROSS SECTION: 230.0 mm X 450.0 mm COVER: 40.0 mm
** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5 SHORT(Z) /BRACED LONG(Y)
REQD. STEEL AREA : 248.45 Sq.mm.
REQD. CONCRETE AREA: 103251.55 Sq.mm.
MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 - 12 dia. (0.87%, 904.78 Sq.mm.) (Equally
distributed)
TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 190 mm c/c
SECTION CAPACITY BASED ON REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED (KNS-MET)
----------------------------------------------------------
Puz : 1006.59 Muz1 : 55.54 Muy1 : 26.97
INTERACTION RATIO: 0.64 (as per Cl. 39.6, IS456:2000)

C O L U M N N O. 9 D E S I G N R E S U L T S
M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)
LENGTH: 3000.0 mm CROSS SECTION: 230.0 mm X 450.0 mm COVER: 40.0 mm
** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5 SHORT(Z) /BRACED LONG(Y)
REQD. STEEL AREA : 147.63 Sq.mm.
REQD. CONCRETE AREA: 103352.38 Sq.mm.
MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 - 12 dia. (0.87%, 904.78 Sq.mm.) (Equally
distributed)
TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 190 mm c/c
SECTION CAPACITY BASED ON REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED (KNS-MET)
----------------------------------------------------------
Puz : 976.12 Muz1 : 38.80 Muy1 : 19.14
INTERACTION RATIO: 0.88 (as per Cl. 39.6, IS456:2000)

C O L U M N N O. 10 D E S I G N R E S U L T S
M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)
LENGTH: 3000.0 mm CROSS SECTION: 230.0 mm X 450.0 mm COVER: 40.0 mm
** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5 SHORT(Z) /BRACED LONG(Y)
REQD. STEEL AREA : 147.63 Sq.mm.
REQD. CONCRETE AREA: 103352.38 Sq.mm.
MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 - 12 dia. (0.87%, 904.78 Sq.mm.) (Equally
distributed)
TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 190 mm c/c
SECTION CAPACITY BASED ON REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED (KNS-MET)
----------------------------------------------------------
Puz : 976.12 Muz1 : 38.80 Muy1 : 19.14
INTERACTION RATIO: 0.88 (as per Cl. 39.6, IS456:2000)