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In the mid-1820s, the amateur inventor Nicphore Nipce succeeded in

photographing the courtyard of his country estate. The exposure time as

a!out eight hours"
#ommedia de$$%arte is a type of comic improvisationa$ theatre originating in
Ita$y in the 1&th century. It as usua$$y unscripted !ut uti$i'ed a set of stoc(
p$ots and characters.
) gargoy$e is a fancifu$$y carved scu$pture, usua$$y representing an anima$
or a monster. *argoy$es ere used in medieva$ architecture to disguise
donspouts that a$$o ater to drain from a roof.
It too( severa$ generations to !ui$d most of the great +uropean cathedra$s
of the ,idd$e )ges. -or examp$e, #hartres #athedra$ in -rance as !ui$t
over a!out &0 years.
)ncient +gyptian tom!s at The!es !ear re$ief carvings of cone-shaped
cand$es. The o$dest (non cand$e fragment as found in -rance and
dates from the 1st century #+.
) g$a'e, in art, is a .vitreous,. or g$assy, su!stance that is used to cover an
o!/ect, usua$$y a piece of ceramic.
*esso0usua$$y made of p$aster or cha$( mixed ith g$ue0has !een used
for hundreds of years to create a smooth, hite surface for painting. It can
a$so !e used to ma(e scu$ptures.
The Night Watch is one of the most famous or(s !y 1em!randt van 1i/n
21&0&31&&45. 1em!randt is considered to !e one of the greatest visua$
storyte$$ers in the history of art.
La Gioconda is !etter (non as Mona Lisa, a painting !y 6eonardo da