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The Effect of Tsuga

heterophylla Soil Biota Extracts

on Soil Biota in Degraded Soils
By: Shelby Porter
Porter 2
Table Contents
Abstract Page !"#
Proble$Page %"%
&ypothesisPage %"%
'aterialsPage ("(
'ethods Page )"**
Data Page *2"*#
Analysis Page *%"*%
Conclusion Page *("*(
+or,s Cited Page *)"*)
Porter !
-n.asi.e species are a gro/ing concern in the 0nited States -n.asi.e species ha.e the
ability to gro/ under bad conditions and ta,e plants and alter soil biota 1apanese 2not/eed
is one of the $ost recogni3ed in.asi.e species found in !4 out of %5 states6 and is announced as
/orld7s *55 /orst in.asi.e species by -0C8 9lobal -n.asi.e Species Database -t /as first
introduced into the 0S fro$ 1apan in the late *455s 1apanese 2not/eed gro/s in dense
colonies6 and /ill gro/ bac, after being cut do/n Applying an herbicide so far to be the
only $ethod to eli$inate or reduce 1apanese 2not/eed colonies
'ost people consider soil to be predo$inately inorganic $aterial /ith a fe/ organic
debris and organis$s $ixed in Studies at the Andre/s :esearch Station suggest that soil has a
biologic co$ponent that $ay co$pose as $uch as %5; of soil This <soil biota< plays an
extre$ely i$portant role in directing nutrients to specific plants The $ost i$portant of these
$ight be fungal hypha according to Athena Crighton fro$ =S0
Co$post teas are co$$only used as fertili3ers in gardens6 and ha.e the ability to increase
soil biota A co$post tea generally consists of soil6 litter6 and /ater 1acinda Tho$as prefor$ed
a pro>ect that tested /hich soil type /ould be best in a co$post tea She concluded that &e$loc,
soil had the $ost pro$ising results 0sing her pre.ious data6 - began $y in.estigation
This study in.estigated soil biota in he$loc, soils by bre/ing litter and soil teas The
extracts fro$ the teas /ere inspected under a $icroscope to identify the types of
organis$s The co$post teas /ere poured sterile degraded soils6 and ,not/eed sites After a
/ee,6 the runoff collected /as inspected under a $icroscope Soil organis$s /ere again
identified and recorded Co$parisons /ere $ade bet/een organis$s in he$loc, soils and
Porter #
he$loc, litter tea Changes in soil organis$ di.ersity and abundance /ere graphed and
statistically analy3ed The study /as conducted for ( $onths This study indicates that the biota
in degraded soils and ,not/eed sites can be transfor$ed through the addition of he$loc, litter
and soil extract
Porter %
+ill soil biota be transfor$ed if &e$loc, litter is added to the soil? Also /ill &e$loc,
litter reduce or eli$inate in.asi.e species?
-f &e$loc, co$post tea is applied to 2not/eed sites6 and on degraded soils6 then the soil
biota /ill be transfor$ed The altered soil biota /ill allo/ for nati.e .egetati.e gro/th 'y
research see,s to identify a $ethod to rid or reduce 1apanese 2not/eed and to alter soil biota to
allo/ for nati.e .egetati.e gro/th6 and to deter$ine the affects of he$loc, litter in degraded
soils - /ill do this by selecting four controls T/o /ill be degraded soil pots6 /atered /ith tap
/ater The final controls /ill be t/o * $eter by * $eter s@uares6 outside in a colony of
2not/eed6 /atered strictly /ith rain /ater After $y controls are selected - /ill select t/o
degraded soil pots and t/o 2not/eed colonies to be /atered /ith co$post tea only one ti$e
T/o $ore degraded soil pots and 2not/eed colonies /ill be /atered /ith co$post tea once
e.ery three /ee,s Ainally an additional t/o degraded soil pots and t/o 2not/eed colonies /ill
be /atered /ith co$post tea once e.ery /ee, Each application to the outside plots /ill recei.e
* gallon of tea Each application of the degraded potting soil /ill recei.e * cup
Porter (
Slides slips
* 'icroscope * eye dropper
2 Ai.e gallon buc,ets * Sho.el
A &e$loc, 9ro/th Site A 2not/eed site
* Bottle of 'olasses +ater source
* scale * teaspoon
2 a@uariu$ pu$ps and tubing # air stones
B pots * bag of potting soil
B Popsicle stic,s * Ailter Cnet6 pillo/case6 ectD
!2 flags * Eiter $easuring cup
Tape $easure
Porter )
* Eitter Collection
2 fi.e gallon buc,ets
* sho.el
a Eocate a he$loc, gro/th site about 4 $eters off fro$ paths and roads The site
should ha.e nati.e .egetation nearby
b 0se sho.el to fill one buc,et full of soil 'a,e sure the soil is the top soil6 and
contains litter such as6 roots6 and needles
Porter B
2 Bre/ing Teas
* bottle of 'olasses
A /ater source
* scale
* teaspoon
2 a@uariu$ pu$ps and tubing
# air stones
a 0se the scale to $easure out %lbs of soil and place into e$pty buc,et Do
not pac,
b 0se liter $easuring cup to $easure out ! gallons of /ater Pour /ater into
pre.ious $entioned buc,et
c Place t/o air stones connected to an a@uariu$ pu$p into buc,et
d Turn on pu$ps and stir tea /ith stic,
e Add 2 tsp if $olasses to tea Stir again
f :epeat for second buc,et
g Eet teas bre/ for 2* hours After 2* hours turn off pu$p6 and let sit for *%
Porter 4
! Control" Potting Soils
B pots
* buc,et of bre/ed tea
* bag of potting soil
B Popsicle stic,s
* liter $easuring cup
* Ailter Cnet6 pillo/case6 ectD
a Eabel Popsicle stic,s T/o stic,s controls6 t/o stic,s once Cone /ith litter
one /ithoutD6 t/o stic,s ! /ee,s Cone /ith litter one /ithoutD6 and t/o
stic,s once per /ee, Cone /ith litter one /ithoutD
b Aill the eight pots half/ay /ith potting soil
c Place each labeled Popsicle stic, in a pot
d 'easure out and pour * cup of bre/ed tea according to the label on the
Popsicle stic,
FF To pour the tea /ithout litter6 ta,e filter and strain out the tea
Porter *5

# Experi$ental" 2not/eed
2 buc,ets of bre/ed tea
!2 flags
* liter $easuring cup
Tape $easure
a Eocate an area of ,not/eed
b 'easure /ith tape $easure eight *$ by *$ s@uares Place four flags on
each corner of the peri$eter of each s@uare
c Eabel flagsG t/o flags controls6 t/o flags once Cone /ith litter one
/ithoutD6 t/o flags ! /ee,s Cone /ith litter one /ithoutD6 and t/o flags
once per /ee, Cone /ith litter one /ithoutD
d 0se the * liter $easuring cup to $easure out one gallon of tea per s@uare
* liter H # cups
*( cupsH * gallon
Aill the liter cup up # ti$es to create one gallon of tea
e Pour tea according to the labelG use sa$e $ethod for filtering the ones
/ithout litter
Porter **
% Soil Biota
A sa$ple of bre/ed tea /ith and /ithout litter
'icroscope slides slips
* 'icroscope
* eye dropper
a 0se eye dropper to place one drop onto a slide
b slide /ith slip and place onto stage of $icroscope
c =bser.e tea sa$ple on #55 po/er
d :ecord nu$ber and type of biota obser.ed and other obser.ations
e :epeat se.eral ti$es for accuracy
Porter *2
Average Number of Soil Microbes in 21 Hours Hemloc
!itter "ea per #ield of $ision on Microscope
'agnification H #55x
8H *! slides
Porter *!
Average Number of Soil Microbes in 21 Hours Hemloc Non
!itter "ea per #ield of $ision on Microscope
8H *% slides 'agnification H #55x
Porter *#
Porter *%
- applied tea once a /ee, and once e.ery three /ee,s for six $onths Aor this - /as able
to co$pare the $acro and $icro affects the tea had on the soil =n the 2not/eed @uadrants6 the
nu$ber of ,not/eed ste$s ranged fro$ *%"25 before the application After the applications the
nu$ber .isibly decreased to )"*2 ste$s 'ean/hile the soil biota on the degraded soils and
,not/eed soils /as altered as /ell Iie/ed under a $icroscope $any &yphaes6 and Ciliates
could be seen as /ell as $ore Bacteria chains and 8e$atodes 8ati.e gro/th also began in the
potted soils The $ost significant a$ount of gro/th and $icroorganis$s occurred in the once a
/ee, application /ith litter 9raphs of the $icroorganis$s of litter and /ithout litter tea
applications can be are pictured abo.e
Porter *(
-n conclusion6 $y hypothesis6 if &e$loc, co$post tea is applied to 2not/eed sites and
on degraded soils6 then the soil biota /ill be transfor$ed /as supported Aro$ the data presented
abo.e6 $icroorganis$ added by the co$post tea altered soil biota Aro$ the control tap /ater on
degraded soil co$pared to the litter tea the a$ount of &yphaes greatly increased6 /hich is
needed for nutrient cycling6 disease suppression6 and a $a,es organic $atter easier to digest -n
applying this infor$ation in a real /orld setting6 the 2not/eed sites .isibly decreased6 and
gro/th of nati.e plants too, off in the potted soil /ith he$loc, litter The added $icroorganis$
allo/ed for this gro/th of nati.e plants -n conclusion6 this pro>ect /ould be beneficially to not
only gardeners /ho /ant to control in.asi.e species but to other en.iron$entalist /ho /ish to
reduce ,not/eed6 in a natural application
Porter *)
&ors %ited:
<BE' 8EIADAJS +A: A9A-8ST +EEDS< 0S Depart$ent of the -nterior Bureau of Eand
'anage$ent6 0SAgo.6 *4 'arch 2554 +eb * Aeb 25**
<&1 Andre/s Experi$ental Aorest< Pacific 8orth/est :esearch Station 0SDA Aorest Ser.ice6
5( =ct 2554 +eb * Aeb 25** Khttp:LL///fsfedusLpn/LexforestsLh>andre/sLN
-ngha$6 Elaine <Bre/ing Co$post Tea< Aine 9ardening Taunton Press6 2B 1an 25*5 +eb *
Aeb 25** Khttp:LL///finegardeningco$Lho/"toLarticlesLbre/ing"co$post"teaaspxN
<1apanese ,not/eed< -n.asi.eorg -n.asi.eorg6 5# 'ay 25*5 +eb * Aeb 25**
<To Tea or 8ot To Tea< +S0edu +hatco$ County 'aster Co$poster :ecycler Progra$66
nd +eb * Aeb 25** Khttp:LL/hatco$/sueduLagLco$postLco$postteaht$N
<Tsuga heterophylla< Bac,yard 9arden Centerco$ Bac,yard 9arden Center6 nd +eb 2* Aeb
25** KTsuga heterophyllaN
Oang6 SS6 S& Tsai6 &O Aan6 C2 Oang6 and +E &ung <Seasonal .ariation of $icrobial ecology
in he$loc, soil of Tatachia 'ountain6 Tai/an< Pub'edgo. 8ational Center for
Biotechnology -nfor$ation6 1nue 255( +eb * Aeb 25**
Porter *B