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Sofia Celeste E.

Sarino
Lecturer
WHAT IS TOURISM?
1. In 1941 defined by Professors Hunziker and Krapf of
Berne University in Switzerland, “as the sum of the
phenomena and relationships arising from the travel
and stay of non-residents in so far as they do not lead
to permanent residence and are not connected to any
earning activity”
2. According to Charles R. Goeldner & JR Brent Ritchie
“Tourism may be defined as the processes, activities
and outcomes arising from the relationships & the
interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host
governments, host communities & surrounding
environments that are involved in the attracting &
hosting of visitors.
WHAT IS TOURISM?
3. Definition from the Tourism Society in Britain says
“Tourism is the temporary short-term movement of
people to destinations outside the places where they
normally live and work and their activities during their
stay at these destinations.
4. Tourism in the pure sense is essentially a pleasure
activity in which money earned in ones abode is spent in
places visited. In this sense, Tourism represents a
particular form of leisure and a particular form of
recreation but does not include all uses of leisure and all
forms of recreation. It includes much travel but not all
forms of travel.
WHAT IS A
TOURIST?
1. In 1937, the League of Nations defined tourist as a
person who, visits a country other than that in which he
usually resides for a period of at least 24 hours.
2. In 1963, a United Nations Conference on International
Travel and Tourism recommended a new definition of a
“visitor” which covers two classes.
 Tourists – temporary visitors staying at least 24 hours with
purposes such as leisure, recreation, holiday, family,
business or meeting.
WHAT IS A
TOURIST?
Excursionists – temporary visitors staying less
than 24 hours in the destination visited and not
making an overnight stay, including cruise
travelers but excluding travelers in transit.
TOURIST IMAGES
TOURIST IMAGES

Tourists enjoying different leisure


activities in Boracay Island.
TOURIST IMAGES

Tourist soaking up
the sun and taking
pictures.
ELEMENTS OF
TRAVEL
1. Distance – distance traveled on a trip by the traveler.
Trip is defined as each time a person goes to a place
more than 100 miles away from home.
2. Length of stay at destination – tourists make at least
one overnight stay; excursionists do not stay overnight
in the place that they visit.
3. Residence of the traveler – origin of the visitors
4. Purpose of travel – visiting friends and relatives,
conventions and seminars, business, outdoor
recreation, entertainment, medical, funeral, wedding
and others.
NATURE OF A TOUR
Domestic Tourism
• refers to travel taken exclusively within the
national boundaries of the traveler’s country.
• no language, currency or documentation
barriers.

International Tourism
• involves the movement of people across
international boundaries.
• different language, currency and requires
documentation
NATURE OF A TOUR
Package tour or Inclusive tour – is an arrangement in
which transport and accommodation is bought by the
tourist at an all-inclusive price and the price of the
individual elements cannot be determined by the
purchaser himself.
• Independent inclusive tour (IIT) – one in which the
tourist travels to his destination individually.
• Group inclusive tour (GIT) – he travels in the com[any
of other tourists.
NATURE OF A TOUR
Independent tour – the tourist buys his
transportation and accommodation
separately.
THE TOURIST
PRODUCT
The tourist product consists of what the tourist buys.
The tourist product is a combination of what the
tourist does at the destination and the services he
uses during his stay.
Characteristics of the Tourist Product:
1.The tourist product is a service.
 It is intangible
 It cannot be inspected by the prospected purchaser.
THE TOURIST
PRODUCT
2. The tourist product is largely psychological in its attraction.
 It is the temporary use of a culture, heritage, atmosphere
and hospitality of the destination.
3. The tourist product tends to vary in standard and quality
over time.
 A tour cannot be consistently of equal standard.
4. The supply of the tourist product is fixed.
 The number of hotel rooms cannot be varied to meet the
changing demands of tourists on a particular season.
THE TOURIST
DESTINATION
Tourist Destination – is a geographical unit which the tourist
visits and where he stays. The success of a tourist
destination depends upon the interrelationship of three
basic factors : attractions, amenities or facilities and
accessibility.
1.Attractions - may be site or event attractions and natural
or man-made.
 Site attraction – the destination itself has the appeal to the
tourist. It may be a country, a geographical region, a city
or a resort such as Boracay.
THE TOURIST
DESTINATION
 Event attractions – include congresses,
exhibitions, festivals such as the Ati-atihan and
sports such as the Olympic games.
 Natural attractions – include natural formations
all over the world. It includes mountains,
beaches, climatic features such as sunshine and
pure air.
 Man-made attractions – includes buildings of
historical or architectural interest such as Fort
Santigao or theme parks.
THE TOURIST
DESTINATION
2. Amenities or Facilities – include
accommodation, food, local transport ,
communications and entertainment at the site.
However attractive the destination, its
potential for tourism will still be limited unless
the basic amenities which the tourists require
will be provided.
3. Accessibility – means having regular and
convenience of transport in terms of time and
distance to the destination from the originating
country at a reasonable price.
TOURIST SERVICES
1. Passenger transport provides the means to
reach the destination as well as the
movement at the destination.
 Domestic and International transport
 Public and Private Transport
 Land, sea and air
2. Accommodation, F&B and entertainment
HISTORY OF
TOURISM
Tourism was derived from the Hebrew word “torah” which
means studying, learning and searching.
In early times people traveled mainly for, business such as
trading and religious travels such as pilgrimages.
Since roads were crude in the ancient times, most business
and trading happened through sea travels. In effect
harbors and sea ports grew.
When the Romans improved the road networks, there
emerged the resting inns which are the forerunner of
hotels today.
HISTORY OF
TOURISM
Medieval period decreased tourism because of
rampant thieving along the roads.

Renaissance period during the reign of


Elizabeth I the Queen, gained back the
confidence in tourism due to the emergence
of renowned universities where young men
sought intellectual improvement. Also in this
period men sought remedies for their sickness
in “spas” or medicinal baths.
HISTORY OF
TOURISM
Industrial Revolution brought social changes where
the middle class gained more income from the
rising productivity and employment of the society.
This resulted to more opportunities for people to go
on holidays and vacation.
19th Century Tourism brought about two major things
that had a great effect on tourism.
1.Railroad networks – provided reliable and cheap
transportation. This brought tighter competition
between private companies of hotels, resorts and
entertainment facilities. Thus tourism was spread
out not only to the elites but to a larger population.
HISTORY OF
TOURISM
2. The use of steam power – provided increased
mobility to tourism. Steamers on the major
rivers provided another choice of
transportation that led to popular day trip
cruises and the growth of coastal resorts.
2oth Century tourism with World War I and World
War II paved the way for more technological
advances in areas of communication and
transportation. Air travel became more
common. Mass communication stimulated the
curiosity about other countries.
HISTORY OF
TOURISM
HISTORY OF PHIL
TOURISM
The original inhabitants roamed the country in
search for food and inter-tribe travel and
trade occurred.
The Spanish galleons came and traded with the
inhabitants. The galleons sailed between
Mexico and the Philippines.
American occupation brought forth the
seaplanes brought some regular passengers
in two weeks from China to Manila via Hong
Kong.
HISTORY OF PHIL
TOURISM
The Sikorsky S-42 seaplane was
the world’s first big luxury airliner.

After 59 hours, 48 minutes of flying


across the Pacific Ocean from San
Francisco with stops at Honolulu,
Midway, Wake, and Guam, the Pan
American China Clipper berths at
Manila on November 29, 1935.
HISTORY OF PHIL
TOURISM
In the 1930s informal tours were conducted by
entrepreneurs for visitors from US, China, Japan
and Europe using their unregistered private
vehicles and coaches called colorum.
It was only in 1947 when regular steamships and
airlines began to service the Philippines from
other countries.
In 1952 PTTA Philippine Tourist and Travel
Association was organized which was the first
tourism association in the country.
HISTORY OF PHIL
TOURISM
A tourist boom happened in the Philippines during the 70’s.
To add, former first lady Imelda Marcos supported projects
related to our culture and arts. These productions always
took pride of our heritage to all the foreign tourists
watching. She had beautification projects through out
Manila before they were deposed.
Tourism in the Philippines today has gone a long way.
Anyone can now afford to ride an airplane. Anywhere you
go you can see travel agencies. Modes of payment are
flexible like “fly now, pay later”.
HISTORY OF PHIL
TOURISM
But all these improvements are not yet enough
because we are still in the tail-end of our
neighboring Asian countries when it comes to
tourist arrivals and spending.
CHARACTERISTICS OF
TOURISM
Tourism has special characteristics which make it
different from other industries.
1.In tourism, the product is not brought to the
consumer , rather the consumer has to travel and go
to the product to purchase it. In other industries, an
item manufactured in a factory is brought to the
wholesaler and retailer and ultimately to the
consumer.
2.The products of tourism are not used up; thus, they
do not exhaust the country’s natural resources. The
products of other industries have a limited life and at
the end of it are either junked or replaced with new ones.
3. Tourism is a labor-intensive industry. It requires more man
power than other industries.
4. Tourism is people oriented. It is primary concerned with
people. One of the most important motivations of tourists
is to meet other people and see how other people live.
5. Tourism is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. It is
dependent on many and varied activities which are
separate but inter-dependent.
6. The tourist industry is seasonal. During vacation seasons,
million of tourist travel which result in
increased revenues for several tourism
agencies but when vacation are over, these
companies experience a big decline in
dollars earned.
7. The industry is dynamic. It is characterized
by changing ideas and attitude of its
customers and therefore must be always
prepared and willing to adjust to these
changes.
IMPORTANCE OF
TOURISM
Tourism has become one of the world’s major
industries. Both developing and highly developed
nations are now taking a closer look at the potential
benefits from tourism:
1.Contribution to the balance of payments – Tourism
can help correct the balance of payments deficit of
many countries by earning the much needed
currency in international trade. Example of countries
in which the tourist industry has helped to reduced
the deficits are: Spain, Mexico, Philippines, Thailand,
Hong Kong, and Singapore.
2. Dispersion of development – International
tourism is the best means to spread wealth
among countries thus, bridging the economic
gap between the rich and poor nations.
3. Effects on general economic development –
Expenditures by tourists can have beneficial
effects on all economic sectors and lead to the
development of different industries and other
economic activities.
4. Employment opportunities – Tourism is a
source of employment. It is a service industry
which could have significant effect on those
countries which surplus labor such as the
Philippines.
5. Social Benefits – social exchanges take place when
tourists come in contact with the inhabitants of the
places they visit. Their social background and their
presence affect the social structure and the way of
life of the local residents. In the same way, tourists
are also affected by the experience so that they
often carry with them new habits and a new outlook
on life when they return home.
6. Cultural enrichment – tourism emphasizes a sharing
and appreciation of cultures rather than the lack of
trust brought about by isolation. Through tourism we
can appreciate the rich human and cultural diversity
that the world offers; evolve a mutual trust and
respect for another and the dignity of life on earth.
7. Educational Significance – tourism enhances
one’s education. International conferences,
seminars, and study trips held each year
enable people of all nations to exchange
ideas, propose solutions to problems and
share their concerns.
8. A vital force for peace – tourism properly
designed and developed can help bridge the
psychological and cultural distances that
separate people of different races, colors,
religions and stages of social and economic
development.
INTRNT’L TRAVEL
PATTERNS
Major travel flows occur between the United States
and Western Europe.
Secondary regional patterns exist between South
America, the Caribbean, Africa, The Near East and
the Far East.
The heaviest flow of air traffic into Europe is
between New York and London.
Within Europe, the major flows are between
London and Paris, London and Frankfurt, Milan and
Rome.
INTRNT’L TRAVEL
PATTERNS
The cities in Europe most frequently visited by
tourists are London, Paris, Frankfurt,
Amsterdam, Brussels, Zurich, Geneva, Madrid,
Copenhagen, Vienna, Milan, Rome and
Munich.
The top 50 countries in world tourism
rankings. Please see bookmark page.
FACTORS FOR GROWTH OF
TOURISM
1. Rising disposable income for large sections of
the population - in general, more money
means more travel. At present the two
income family is widespread.
2. Growth in the number of retired persons who
have the desire and energy to travel – life
expectancy is increasing. There are fewer
deaths now than before which is the result of
more health consciousness.
3. Increase in discretionary time – shorter work
weeks and longer vacations.
FACTORS FOR GROWTH OF
TOURISM
4. Greater mobility of the population – People became
more accustomed to travel because of the increase in
travel opportunities and the desire to escape from the
stress and pressures of modern life.
5. Growth in the number of singles – people living alone
have more free time than couples so they want to
socialize through travel.
6. Greater credit availability through credit cards and bank
loans – “Travel now, pay later” stimulates travel.
FACTORS FOR GROWTH OF
TOURISM
7. Higher educational levels – since millions of
students attend colleges and universities, they tend
to become more interested in foreign cultures.
8. The growth of cities – city residents travel more
than people living in rural areas to escape from
congested urban environment.
9. Simplification of travel through the package tour –
everything planned, arranged and included in one
piece are more important to the older traveler, new
traveler and the less sophisticated traveler.
FACTORS FOR GROWTH OF
TOURISM
10. Growth of multinational business – worldwide
business interests increase both the need and
habit of travel.
11. Modern transportation technology –
technological advances in transportation have
made long distance travel faster, less expensive
and more comfortable.
12. Shift in values – some people give more value to
experience more than material possessions.
FACTORS FOR GROWTH OF
TOURISM
13. Advances in communication – television and
movies enlarge the travel perspective. The
world is brought to the living room through
the television.
14. Smaller families and changing roles –
American and European birthrates have
declined giving the adults more free time to
get away from family responsibilities.