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Cursul 12

Fatade
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Introducere
Anvelopa cladirii reprezinta 1020% din costul total.
Repararea sau remedierea deficientelor este mai
scumpa decat executia initiala.
Proiectarea anvelopei implica aspecte estetice, de
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Proiectarea anvelopei implica aspecte estetice, de
confort higrotermic si acustic, de rezistenta si stabilitate,
deci trebuie sa coopereze mai multe specialitati.
Istoric: de la fatade grele la fatade usoare
Inchiderile traditionale erau grele (caramida, piatra) si aveau dublu
rol: de protectie si portant.
Grosimea peretilor de inchidere era mare (40-100 cm), reprezentand
o fractiune importanta din suprafata construita.
Etapa urmatoare: inchideri din zidarie de BCA: greutate mai redusa,
grosime mai mica (25-30 cm), izolare termica mai buna, fara rol
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grosime mai mica (25-30 cm), izolare termica mai buna, fara rol
portant.
Din anii 50 apar peretii cortina: fatade usoare (40-60 kg/mp),
grosime mica (circa 10 cm), fara rol portant.
Baza normativa
NP 102-04: Normativ privind proiectarea si montajul peretilor cortina pentru
satisfacerea cerintelor de calitate prevazute de Legea nr. 10/1995", (publicat
2005)
Standarde europene si ghiduri romanesti specifice :
SR EN 13116:2002 Pereti cortina - Rezistenta la incarcarea data de vant - Exigente de
performanta
SR EN 12179:2002 Pereti cortina - Rezistenta la incarcarea data de vant - Metode de testare
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SR EN 12179:2002 Pereti cortina - Rezistenta la incarcarea data de vant - Metode de testare
SR EN 12154:2002 Pereti cortina - Impermeabilitatea la actiunea apei Clasificarea exigentelor de
performanta
SR EN 12155:2002 Pereti cortina - Impermeabilitatea la actiunea apei - Incercare de laborator la
presiunea statica
SR EN 13050:2002 Pereti cortina - Impermeabilitatea la actiunea apei - Incercari de laborator la
presiunea dinamica a aerului si la pulverizarea apei
SR EN 13051:2002 Pereti cortina - Impermeabilitatea la actiunea apei - Incercari in situ
SR EN 12153:2002 Pereti cortina - Permeabilitatea la aer - Incercari de laborator
GAT 056-95 Ghid privind agrementarea tehnica pentru pereti cortina (PROCEMA S.A.)
ST-035:2000 Specificatie tehnica privind cerinte si criterii de performanta pentru verificarea
antiseismica a fatadelor cortina (INCERC)
Baza normativa (2)
Standarde si normative complementare:
C107/1-97 Normativ privind calculul coeficientilor globali de izolare termica la
cladirile de locuit
C107/2-97 Normativ pentru calculul coeficientului global de izolare termica la
cladiri cu alta destinatie decat locuirea
C107/3-97 Normativ privind calculul termotehnic al elementelor de constructie
ale cladirilor
C107/4-97 Ghid pentru calculul performantelor termotehnice ale cladirilor de
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C107/4-97 Ghid pentru calculul performantelor termotehnice ale cladirilor de
locuit
SR EN ISO 717-1:2000 Acustica. Evaluarea izolarii acustice a cladirilor si a elementelor de
constructie. Partea 1: Izolarea la zgomot aerian
SR EN ISO 717-2:2000 Acustica. Evaluarea izolarii acustice a cladirilor si a elementelor de
constructie. Partea 2: Izolarea la zgomot de impact
SR EN 572-1:1996 Sticla in cladiri - Produse din sticla silicatica calco-sodica. Partea 1:
Definire, proprietati generale fizice si mecanice
P118-99 Normativ privind siguranta la foc a constructiilor
Baza normativa (3)
Standarde si normative complementare privind actiunile si rezistenta:
CR 0 2005 Cod de proiectare. Bazele proiectrii structurilor n construcii
NP 082 2004 Cod de proiectare. Aciunea vntului
P100-1/2006 Proiectarea structurilor la actiuni seismice
EN 1999 Proiectarea structurilor din aluminiu
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Exigente de performanta
Peretele cortina trebuie sa satisfaca criteriile de perfomanta prevazute in
standardele si normativele relevante privind:
Rezistenta si stabilitate la : presiunea vantului, deformatii impuse (din vant seism sau variatii
de temperatura), impact din interior
Izolare termica
Izolare acustica
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Izolare acustica
Etanseitate (apa, praf, aer)
Iluminare naturala/ protectie impotriva radiatiei solare directe
Valori ale conductivitatii termice
Valori ale conductivitatii termice
Element de constructie Grosime
U-Wert in
W/(mK)
Auenwand aus Beton ohne Wrmedmmung 25 cm 3,3
Auenwand aus Mauerziegeln 24 cm ca. 1,5
36,5 cm ca. 0,8
Auenwand aus Mauerziegeln mit
Wrmedmmverbundsystem (PUR) (17,5 cm)
30 cm ca. 0,32
Auenwand aus hochporsem Hochlochziegel, unverputzt 50 cm 0,170,23
Auenwand Holzrahmenbau, wohnungstypischer Aufbau 25 cm 0,150,20
Auenwand aus Massivholz (ohne Wrmedmmung) 20,5 cm 0,5
Auenwand aus Porenbeton 36,5 cm 0,1830,230
40 cm 0,1630,210 40 cm 0,1630,210
50 cm 0,1250,146
Innenwand aus Mauerziegeln 11,5 cm 3,0
Innenwand aus Porenbeton 28 cm ca. 0,6
Auentr aus Holz oder Kunststoff - 3,49
Acrylglas (Plexiglas) 5 mm 5,3
Einfachfenster 4 mm 5,9
Doppelfenster - 3,0
Fenster mit Isolierverglasung 2,4 cm 2,83,0
Fenster mit Wrmeschutzverglasung 2,4 cm ca. 1,3
Fenster gesamt Anforderung Energienachweis Schweiz
(2011)
- 1,3
Lichtbauelement aus Polycarbonat 5 cm ca. 0,83
Fenster im Passivhausstandard - 0,50,8
Sticla
Sticla este un material fragil, cu comportare liniara pana la rupere.
Ruperea este initiata acolo unde exista o imperfectiune (de ex.
zgarietura).
Procedee de obtinere si prelucrare:
float: se obtine o foaie plana care pluteste pe o baie de cositor topit.
Prin acest procedeu imperfectiunile de pe suprafata sunt inlaturate.
prin calire (annealing), adica incalzire urmata de o racire lenta, se
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prin calire (annealing), adica incalzire urmata de o racire lenta, se
detensioneaza materialul (se inlatura eforurile reziduale). Se obtine o
rezistenta de circa 25 MPa.
prin temperare, adica incalzire pana aproape de punctul de topire si
racire rapida se introduce o stare de eforturi de compresiune in stratul
superficial. Sticla complet temperata se rupe la circa 70 MPa.
sticla laminata: mai multe foi de sticla cu o pelicula de elastomer intre
ele. Rezistenta depinde de rezistenta la forfecare a peliculei dintre foi.
Tipuri de pereti cortina: Stick curtain wall (pereti cortina lipiti)
A stick curtain wall requires installation
of individual framing members to form
the support grid for glazing of the infill
panes. It can be divided into three types
namely Concealed framing, semi-
concealed framing and exposed
framing. Glass panes are fixed with
either a pressure plate or a hook-on
profile.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: Unitized system (Panouri)
Unitized panels are assembled in the factory,
with high degree of precision.
Fast installation efficiency, short construction
period, easy to protect finished product.
That can be simultaneously constructed with
major structural of civi work, greatly shortens
the construction period for whole building.
Structure adopts pressure equalization
principle, with drainage system inside, good
anti- rainwater leakage and anti-air penetration
quality.
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quality.
Joint location of panels is sealed with special
weather resistance rubber strip, that ensures
self-cleaning function of curtain wall , and
lowers the degree of pollution on the surface.
Socket joint mode is adopted between the
plates, with strong earthquake resistance
property.
Tipuri de pereti cortina: Perete dublu
Peretii cortina dubli cu economisirea energiei( thermal shaft curtain
wall), pot fi clasificati dupa modul de ventilare, in sisteme cu
ventilare naturala sau cu ventilare fortata, si anume in sisteme cu
circulatie exterioara sau sisteme cu circulatie interioara.
Sistemul consista dintr-un perete cortina exterior, un perete cortina
interior, dispozitive pentru umbrire, dispozitive pentru introducerea
aerului, dispozitive pentru iesirea aerului. Scopul proiectarii este sa
se economiseasca energie, sa se protejeze mediul si sa se asigure
un mediu placut pentru munca sau locuire.
Principul sistemului
Prin adoptarea modului de ventilare compus, tirajul natural si
ventilarea mecanica pot lucra alternativ in functie de conditiile
existente. Iesirea de aer este deschisa vara si lasa ce mai mare
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existente. Iesirea de aer este deschisa vara si lasa ce mai mare
parte a aerului dintre cei doi pereti sa iasa afara. Iarna iesirea de aer
este inchisa si prin folosirea efectului de sera se incalzeste aerul
dintre pereti, crescand temperatura peretelui interior si economisind
astfel energie.
Structura sistemuluiintregul sistem are structura de panou
(unitized), peretele exterior este tip sticla termopan etans, peretele
interior este dintr-un singur strat de sticla cu ferestre pivotante,
jaluzelele pentru reglarea luminii sunt la mijloc.
Capacitatea de pastrare a calduriifoarte bune proprietati
izolatoare, k mediu 1.15W/m
2
K.
Capacitate de izolare fonicafoarte buna, izolare fonica
RW>42dB.
Ventilare mixtase poate regla singur prin ventilare naturala, fara
a se baza pe sistemul de aer conditionat al cladirii.
Tipuri de pereti cortina: Pereti dubli
Pereti cortina dubli cu circulatie exterioara
Special features :
1.According to air thermal compression principle and chimney effect, the fresh air is let indoor, the
fouled air is exhausted to outdoor, this can effectively prevent the dust from entering into the
indoor.
2.Preeminent winter heat preservation and summer heat insulation function.
3.Reasonable lighting function, according to the needs of user, the light adjustment can be
changed, and the lighting environment can be ameliorated.
4.Preeminent sound insulation and acoustic function, creating a serene working and living
environment for the user.
Pereti cortina dubli cu circulatie interioara
System principle
Shutting down air conduit to indoor in summer, let most of hot air inside the double layer sealed
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Shutting down air conduit to indoor in summer, let most of hot air inside the double layer sealed
thermal shaft area vent into outdoor.
In winter, the greenhouse effect heat--retaining air will be heated by conduit loop system and
passed to indoor, reaching energy-saving effect.
System structure--whole system adopts unitized structure, outer layer adopts sealed insulation
glass, inner layer adopts single glass pivot-hung window, shading louver is installed between the
two walls; The outlet is joined with building air-conditioning system.
Performance
Heat-insulating property--with admirable heat preservation, heat-insulating property, k value of
average heat transmission coefficient can reach to 0.96W/m
2
K.
Sound insulation property--admirable sound insulation performance, weighted noise insulation
factor can reach to RW>45dB.
Mechanical ventilation--by assorting of curtain wall, heating and ventilation and air-conditioning
system, that provides fresh air and realizes energy recovery, the specific discharge, according to
different use location, can maximally reach to 100m
3
/h.
Comfortable degree--enough light indoor, favorable temperature.
Tipuri de pereti cortina: point fixing curtain wall
According to supporting structure, it can be divided into
1. Art steel structure supported point fixing glass curtain wall system
2. Space tensile cable supported point fixing glass curtain wall system
3. Self-balancing tensile cable supported point fixing glass curtain wall system
4. Single cable supported point fixing glass curtain wall system
Decorative surface glass must be handled by toughening treatment, and can adopt with
Point fixing glass curtain wall consists of
decorative surface glass, connection component
and supporting structure.
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Decorative surface glass must be handled by toughening treatment, and can adopt with
single-glass, insulation glass or laminated glass.
Special features of products
Transparent effect makes natural and harmonious scene between indoor space
and outdoor environment.
Exquisite structural member and aesthetic structure realize delicate combination of metal
structure and glass decoration art.
All kinds of supporting structure satisfy the requirements of building structure and
decorative effect.
Glass and connection claw adopt ball pivot linkage , with comparatively strong capacity in
absorbing deformation.
Tipuri de pereti cortina: point fixing curtain wall
Art steel structure supported point fixing glass curtain wall
Structural system--the composite structure system is composed of curved
face steel pipe lattice shell system and curved face cable nets system. Lattice
shell system withstand exterior load action, the stability within plane is assumed
by cable nets system.
Special features of linkage--the universal hinged spherical insert-type joint is
adopted between the steel pipe structural members.
Art feature--the combination of flexibility system, rigidity system and glass
perfectly embodies true modern art of industry.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: point fixing curtain wall
Art steel structure supported point fixing glass curtain wall
Structural system --fish-belly type plane pipe truss system is adopted, the structure is both
reasonable and economy.
Special features of linkage--the weld joint type is adopted between the steel pipes, with
smooth lines and exquisite joint point.
Art feature--fish-belly truss is disposed in parallel type, with decent and transparent effect.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: point fixing curtain wall
Art steel structure supported point fixing glass curtain wall
Structural system--space truss structure system, the large arm acts as the part of space
unit, as well as the principal connection member.
Material features--organic combination of stainless steel and carbon steel.
Shape esthetics--the force and beauty are incarnated incisively and vividly by combining the
bow type shape of large claw arm and point supporting of glass.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: point fixing curtain wall
Space tensile cable supported point fixing glass curtain wall
Structural system--the composite structure system is composed of curved face steel pipe
lattice shell system and curved face cable nets system. The lattice shell system can withstand
exterior load action, the stability within plane is assumed by cable nets system.
Special features of linkage--the universal hinged spherical insert-type joint is adopted
between the steel pipe structural members.
Art feature--the combination of flexibility system, rigidity system and glass perfectly
embodies true modern art of industry.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: point fixing curtain wall
Space tensile cable supported point fixing glass curtain wall
Structural system--the structure adopts transverse plane cable rod truss to withstand the
exterior load action, the vertical cable rod plays the stabilizing action
outside the plane and also withstand self weight load of glass, which is the system of
geometrical nonlinearity and flexibility for prestress.
Range of application--that is mostly suitable for the opening between the storey with large
aspect ratio, and more economically utilizes the stress mechanism of structure.
Architectural effect--curtain wall enjoys the effect of transparent, brightness and legerity.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: point fixing curtain wall
Self-balancing supported point fixing glass curtain wall
Structural system--the structure consists of pulling cable, draw rod and steel structure, which
is self-balancing system of prestress.
Structural feature--draw rod and pulling cable adopt pre-stretching system for prestress, by
relying on itself structural balance, under the outside load action, the
prestress greatly decreases the load transferred to the major structure.
Architectural effect--simplicity, liveliness and coherence. That fully embodies the beauty,
both rigidity of steel and gentleness of cable rod.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: point fixing curtain wall
Single cable supported point fixing glass curtain wall
Structure system - - supported by concave soft cable network supporting system composed
by large-scale hanging cable and the single layer wire crossing network pointsystem.
Product characteristic - - large-scale hanging single cable network system forms different in
concave fold curtain wall by advanced form finding technology.
Earthquake resistance ability - - the waving machine between single cable anchored damper
and hanging cable make the machine have superior anti earthquake capability.
Construction effect - - magnificent boundless, grand, visual shocks.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: Full glass curtain wall
Structure features--glass rib and glass board is connected by structure rubber; the top of
glass rib uses hangs to connect with node, the base uses the slip joint.
Construction effect --the light alternately shining between glass rib and surface glass leaves
you the infinite dreams.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: Metal Curtain Wall
The metal curtain wall decoration effect is diverse, colorful and anti-
corrosive.
The metal curtain wall could be divided into:
1. Aluminum single curtain wall
2. Aluminum composite panel curtain wall
3. Honeycomb panel curtain wall
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3. Honeycomb panel curtain wall
4. Stainless steel plate curtain wall
Tipuri de pereti cortina: Metal Curtain Wall
Aluminum single curtain wall
Material characteristics--good ductility, easy to bend processing and the complex curved
surface forming, easy to adapt construction decoration request. Corrosion resistance and
weather proofing.
Connection characteristics--floating-type pressing joint structure, with dislodgement absorb
and earthquake resistance ability.
The construction effect--fluorocarbon spray coating technology bring the elevation more
colorful.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: Metal Curtain Wall
Stainless steel plate curtain wall
Material characteristics--artistic and smooth surface and diverse utilization; good
performance of anti-corrosive; high temperature proofing and oxidation intensity,
be of fire protection performance.
Structure features--panel floating link and strong dislodges absorbing ability and anti
earthquake capability.
Decoration effect --different processing methods lead to different decoration effect.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: Metal Curtain Wall
Aluminum composite panel curtain wall
Material characteristics--light weight, simple processing craft. The surface is dealt with
fluorine carbon coating processing, with anti-corrosive, anti-ultraviolet
radiation etc merits. Compared with the aluminum single plate, it has good sound insulation
and thermal performance.
Installation structure--localization installment, could be three dimensional adjusted with
strong dislodgement absorbing capability.
Construction effect--metal sense of reality, rich color, smooth surface and lines.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: Metal Curtain Wall
Honeycomb panel curtain wall
Material characteristics--superior thermal and heat insulation performance;
high rigidity and light weight with high intensity and the anti-avulsion and smooth surface.
Installation structure--pressing type connection enriches products with high security.
Construction effect--metal sense of reality and rich color, smooth lines and bright sense of
depth.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: Stone curtain wall
Divided into:
1. Back bolt stone curtain wall
2. Splint stone curtain wall
3. Continuous groove stone curtain wall
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: Stone curtain wall
Back bolt stone curtain wall
Connection form--use stainless steel expanding non-stressing anchor connection, safe and
reliable.
Installation structure--suspension flexible connection will bring high anti earthquake
performance. It is adjustable in multi-directions, and of smooth and neat surface.
Construction effect--noble stone material and bright sense of quality display its grave natural
and noble luxurious.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: Stone curtain wall
Splint stone curtain wall
The connection form-- aluminum alloy carrier connection, the cementation completed in the
factory, the quality is reliable.
Installation structure --hanging style structure allows to be three dimensional adjusted.
Elastic cushions installation may achieved and provide flexible connection and the
earthquake resistance performance.
Construction effect--noble stone material and bright sense of quality display the buildings
grave and noble luxurious.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: Stone curtain wall
Continuous groove stone curtain wall
Connection form -- enhance system safety and the intensity effectively by adopting
continuous aluminum alloy molding.
Installation structure -- structure installation may realize three dimensional adjustment,
making sure the curtain wall surface smooth and neat.
Construction effect -- noble stone and bright sense of quality display the building's grave and
noble luxurious nature.
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Tipuri de pereti cortina: Tile curtain wall
Installment structure--adopt stainless steel pressed spring to form flexible connection to
reduce noise. Dry installation.
yield no pollution and easy to be installed.
Material features--tile is green environment protection product with no color difference and
could be self-cleaned.
Artistic effect--special color for tile material make buildings more traditional and modern.
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Sisteme de umbrire
Shading systems
Large fixing shading system
Structure features--shading panel as permanent connection, adjust the angle of incidence
according to
different regions when install. In this way, it may fully make use of natural light.
Construction effect--artistic appearance to be consistent with glass curtain wall levation.
Use maintenance--simple structure, easy installment and high security.
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Sisteme de umbrire
Large scale electric horizontal
turning shading system
Structure features--aluminum alloy shading
system may apply in the entire glass curtain
wall shading elevation.
Biological modeling--the streamline design
of fish abdomen type vane has air disperse
and light refraction effect.
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and light refraction effect.
Intelligent light adjustment--intelligent control
to adjust the whole vanes angle to achieve
the purpose of adjusting indoor light.
Construction effect-- various colors on vane
surface may be easy to express the
construction connotation
Sisteme de umbrire
Large scale electric vertical
turning shading system
Structure features--perforate metal plate
may effectively prevent strong
and direct light and introduce natural light,
especially suitable for east and west side
light.
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light.
Intelligent control--connected with
construction intelligent management system
to automatically adjust vane angle for
shading.
Construction effect--the vane turns vertically,
and its various material may be easy to
express construction connotation
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