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Discussion Questions
1. Comment on the accuracy of the results.
2. Comment on possible experimental errors and on the practical difficulties in this method of pressure
3. Comment on the advantage of the two liquid U-tube manometers against the piezometer.
4. How do you propose to measure p
a. It is very large
b. It is very nearly atmospheric pressure
c. It is fluctuating
Discussion Answers
1. There could be errors when reading the measurements on the meter ruler with a Least Count of
1mm, and they can vary with the environmental conditions and from person to person as well.
Therefore when readings are taken by several individuals or at several environmental conditions it is
possible to have slight variations in the readings. However the average readings from the
piezometer and the U-tube manometer can be considered to be correct.


2. Experimental errors
a. Temperature can vary resulting in changing the densities, which can cause errors in
calculations. 1000kg/m
density for water is when temperature is 4
C (This is also an
approximation for 999.9720

). The density changes with the temperature. At 25
C the
density of pure water is 997.0479 kg/m
. Therefore using 1000kg/m
in calculations may not
give the most accurate pressure results.
b. Although the relative density of Kerosene is measured during the experiment, if the
temperature changes significantly during the experiment, that may also cause errors in the
calculations. This error can be reduced by taking all the readings without any longer delays.
c. Coloured water was used in the U-tube manometer to clear identify the Water/Kerosene
interface. But this increases the density of the water, which havent been amended in our
d. Kerosene in the closed tank can evaporate into the air and can cause an additional Kerosene
Vapor Pressure, which we dont consider in our calculations, which gives wrong results in
our calculations.
e. If water bubbles are present in the kerosene or water columns, it can affect the density of
the liquid resulting in wrong calculations. It is difficult to get rid of these water bubbles.
Practical difficulties
a. Meniscus on the Kerosene/Water interface couldnt be clearly viewed due to impurities in
the U-tube. There were some white residues at the interface making it difficult to take the
actual reading at the meniscus.
b. In the piezometer there is a mirror behind the glass tubes to help to reduce the Parallax
error by taking the reading perpendicular to the glass tube. However Parallax error can
occur when taking readings from the U-tube manometer.
c. The Least count of the meter ruler used to measure the heights of the liquid column is 1mm.
Therefore small variations of pressure couldnt be measured.
d. If the pressures are fluctuating these manometers cant be used as their response time is
slower. For measuring rapid pressure changes we can use electrical or mechanical sensors
with a much quicker response time.
e. Readings should be taken when the system is steady. Therefore when the pressure p
changed readings shouldnt be taken until the liquid levels become stable. When 2
individuals are takings readings one may take readings before the other system becomes
stable, which in return may cause errors in calculations.
f. If there is a leakage of air, meniscus level may change making it impossible to take the

3. Advantages of using a U-tube manometer

It is possible to compare 2 liquids and to read negative pressure measurements with U-tube
manometers, which is impossible with piezometers. And the setup of U-tube manometers is quite
easy compared with the piezometer.
a. Possible to read negative measurements
b. Can be used to compare two liquids
c. Setup of U-tube is easy compared with the piezometer

4. Measure for measuring p

a. Larger Pressure can be measured using a well-type manometer (with one end enlarged), by
applying the measuring pressure to the smaller end. So the deflection on the large end will
be smaller, but possible to read because of the large pressure.
b. Smaller pressures can be measured using inclined well-type manometers, where the
inclined limb shows a greater sensitivity to the applied measuring pressure on the vertical
c. For fluctuating pressures instead of hydraulic manometers it is better to use manometers
with electrical or mechanical sensors.

References [3/28/2014 9:56 PM]