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PMXIVEV, RV. 6/1996, T. 8-9
3. -SR :PEH, 'SRZIVKIR'I, 'PYN-2ETSGE, )HMXYVE (EGME, 1972, T. 226
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5. )VRIWX &IVRIE, 7TE'MY, XMQT #M GEY^EPMXEXI PE TSTSVYP VSQER,
&YGYVI#XM, )HMXYVE ,YQERMXEW, 1997, T. 135
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MRGSQSHI EHVIWEXI HI >ELEVME 7RKISV^ER, &YGYVI#XM, )HMXYVE VIZMWXIM
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R WEXYP "SMQVI#XM, YRHI 'MRXMVMQYP WI E4 R ZIGMRXEXIE FMWIVMGMM,
3IGEVI WVFXSEVI R GEVI SEQIRMM ZMR PE FMWIVMG IWXI #M YR TVMPIN HI EHYGIVI-
EQMRXI #M GMRWXMVI E QSV'MPSV: 7PYNFE, HYT XMTMGYP GIP QEVI, WI TIXVIGY R
PMRM#XI #M KSWTSHEVMM MI#MV R 'MRXMVMQYP PEVK. 4I QSVQMRXI G^YWIV 4SVMPI #M
TYXVI^IEY. *IQIMPI YQFPEY, #M GYXEY QSV'MM #M PI ETVMRHIEY GERHIPI. -EV
FXVRMM, VI^IQE'M R XSMIKIPI PSV, KVMEY RGIX, TVMZMRH GYQ XVIG TIWXI
PSGE#YVMPI ZI#RMGI 3VI PYRKM #M EVKMRXMM HI QXEWIE QSV'MPSV.
%WXJIP, R ZM^MYRIE WEHSZIRMER, GMQMXMVYP, HITEVXI HI E 3 YR PSG
HI^SPERX, RHIEQR, HMQTSXVMZ, PE GEPQ VIGYPIKIVI, WYF MVM^VMPI FPRHI EPI
YRIM ^MPI HI XSEQR XV^MI.
7VFXSVMPI EY R WSGMIXEXIE EVLEMG, IZSGEX GSRWXERX HI 7EHSZIERY R
GVIE'MMPI WEPI, #M WIQRM3GE'MM TVEKQEXMGI, IPI NEPSRRH HMJIVMXI EGXMZMX'M
WTIGM3GI EGIWXIME. (I TMPH, R *VE'MM .HIVM WI TVIGM^IE^, PE YR QSQIRX HEX, G
PE 7RXMPMI, TVMWGEVMM FEX QXGMPI WPEFI #M PI WGSX JEKYVMM; R EGIIE#M PYGVEVI,
TVMRXIPI 7XVEXSRMG GEYX HSY MIVFYVM HI PIEG, SQEKYP #M JYQYP TQRXYPYM,
RXV-S WJRX ^M, EGIEWXE 3MRH ^MYE 73RXIM RP'VM. 4VIPYGVEVIE VHGMRMM HI
SQEK WX, HI EWIQIRIE, WYF TIGIXIE WEGVYPYM, EGIEWXE 3MRH FMRIGYZRXEX
#M 'MRYX RSY^IGM #M RSY HI ^MPI PE MGSERE JGXSEVI HI QMRYRM.
"M R 2ST'MPI HI 7R^MIRI WVFXSVMPI GVI#XMRI VIKPIE^ QIVWYP I\MWXIR'IM
R GSQYRMXEXIE VYVEP, EWTIGX HIWTVI GEVI ZSVFI#XI 7SJVSRMI 0IGE: (EG QM
H ZSMI QVME XE, EQ W M QVXYVMWIWG G IY R-EQ EHSTXEX GEPIRHEVYP RSY. 0E
7JRXY -PMI XVIFYMI W RJ'M#I^ PE GYVXI TTY#SM RSY HI GSTX; PE *SGE RY RM-I
RKHYMX W PYGVQ, GE W RY RM WI ETVMRH KMVI^MPI; PE 7JRXY 4ERXIPMQSR HEY
GGMYPM #M GSNSEGI WPYNMXSVMPSV PE SM #M PE ZMXI, GGM, HI#M GPHYVE I R XSM, TIRXVY IM
W-E EVXEX WIQRYP MIVRMM.
7VFXSVMPI GVI#XMRI WXVZIGLM QEVGLIE^ R GSQYRMXEXIE EVLEMG #M
HIVYPEVIE ERSXMQTYVMPSV, E GMGPYVMPSV HI ZME' EPI REXYVMM, #M EWXJIP, R GEPIRHEVYP
GVI#XMR SVXSHS\ WYGGIWMYRIE WVFXSVMPSV VI4IGX, R FYR TEVXI, QEVMPI
WGLMQFVM EPI 3VMM HMR GYVWYP YRYM ER. :IRMVIE XSEQRIM, HI I\IQTPY, IWXI
ERYR'EX HI ^MYE 8MIVMM 'ETYPYM 7JRXYPYM -SER &SXI^XSVYP R GEVI GE #M GYQ
W-EV 3 TVSHYW S GEXEWXVSJ WMQFSPMG #M RIWMQ-'MX, PYQMRE #M-E WGLMQFEX EYVYP,
EY XVIGYX TI WYF GIV RSYVM RZPQ#M'M GEVI EY WGYXYVEX FYVRM'M #M TPSM, W-EY
GMSGRMX ZVXINYVM HI ZRXYVM GSRXVEVI (4SZI#XMPI HI PE &VEHY 7XVQF).
6IQEVGQ QSHYP R GEVI EWTIGXIPI HVEQEXMGI EPI REXYVMM WYV-TVMRWI R
TVEK EYXYQREP (RSVM RZPQ#M'M, ZVXINYVM HI ZRXYVM) MRXV R VI^SRER' GY
WIQRM3GE'MMPI XVEKMGI EPI WVFXSVMM GVI#XMRI.
4IRXVY QYRXIRMM HMR STIVE WEHSZIRMER, RGITYXYP MIVRMM GSMRGMHI GY
WVFXSEVIE 73R'MPSV %VLERKLIPM, MEV WJV#MXYP IM WI MHIRXM3G GY 7JRXE RZMIVI,
GRH QYRXIPI RGITI, XVITXEX, W-#M VIKWIEWG ERMQE'ME #M TVMIXIRMM: (EV
HYT 73R'MM %VLERKLIPM, QYRXIPI I ETVSETI WMRKYV. 7XRMPI, SHMPI #M GEWIPI WI
TYWXMIWG; VQR RYQEM G'MZE TE^RMGM GY QYMIVMPI #M TVYRGMM; #M M RGLMHI MEVRE
EGSPS WYW. (I EFME PE ETVMPMI RI HYGIQ W M QEM ZIHIQ GI JEG, M RXVIFQ HI
GTVMSEVI #M GMYXI, HI GYGS#M HI QYRXI #M TWXVZM, HI PYTM, NHIVM #M V#M #-ETSM
TIXVIGIQ GY IM 7JRXE RZMIVI (4SZI#XMPI HI PE &VEHY 7XVQF), WVFXSEVI
GEVI RWS'I#XI, E#EHEV, RGITYXYP QMVEGYPSEWIM VIRE#XIVM E REXYVMM.
'LMEV #M PE RMZIPYP ZIGLMM JEQMPMM HI XMT VYVEP, IZSGEX EHIWIE HI EYXSV,
IZIRMQIRXIPI GEVI EY PSG R WRYP IM WYRX VETSVXEXI HI QIQFVMM EGIWXIME XSX PE
WVFXSVMPI VIPMKMSEWI. )HM3GEXSEVI R EGIWX WIRW IWXI JEQMPME HI SMIVM HI TI
ZEPIE 8EVGYPYM, R GEVI W-E TIVQERIRXM^EX SFMGIMYP GE WXTRYP GEWIM, 2IGLMJSV
0MTER, W TPIGI PE (SVRE TIRXVY RIKS'YP GY SM TI PE 7QIHVY #M W WI RXSEVG
PE EM WM R TVINQE WVFXSVMM 73R'MPSV %VLERKLIPM.
%HYGRH S ZM^MYRI GSQTPI\ EWYTVE WVFXSVMM, TI GEVI S I\XMRHI, HI
GIPI QEM QYPXI SVM, EWYTVE RXVIKMM 3VM, 7EHSZIERY EGSVH S EXIR'MI QMG
WVFXSVMPSV LMFIVREPI. -EV EXYRGM GRH WI STVI#XI, XSXY#M, #M EWYTVE ZVIYRIM
WVFXSVM GMVGYQWGVMWI EGIWXYM ERSXMQT, IP S TPEWIE^ RXV-S TIVWTIGXMZ
XIQTSVEP QYPX QEM EQTP, E#E GYQ TVSGIHIE^ R &EPXEKYP, GRH WI VIJIV PE
^MYE HI &SFSXIE^, R GEVI TVMRXIPI (ERMIP 1MPMI# E FMRIGYZRXEX JRXRMPI,
#M M^ZSEVIPI, #M XSEXI ETIPI; ?A THYVIE HI TI 1KYVE IVE QFVGEX R
TVSQSVSEG, GIVYP WI FSPXIE ZIVHI, VTMPI IVEY TPMRI HI XVSMIRI.
R QIRXEPMXEXIE WXVZIGLI E SEQIRMPSV EGIPSV PSGYVM, WTPIRHSEVIE PMPMEP
E REXYVMM IWXI HI FYR EYKYV TIRXVY ERYP GEVI XSGQEM RGITI, IM GVI^RH G
TVSQSVSEG R ^MYE HI &SFSXIE^ EVEX ER QFMIP#YKEX.
(IWTVI GSVIWTSRHIR'IPI XEMRMGI HMRXVI ERSXMQTYVMPI GEVI EY, HVITX
IQFPIQI, W3RXIPI WVFXSVM, 7EHSZIERY E4EWI RG HMR ERMM GSTMPVMIM: (YT
ZIGLM #XMMR'M, HEG RXV-YR ER 7JRXY 2IGYPEM RY-M TSHEV, EXYRGM ZVIQIE EWTV
RXV^MI TR PE &SFSXIE^. (I PE QEQE #XMY G:
(I PE WJRXY 8MQSJXIM 'EVGE-#M JEGI GYMFYP IM.
(EG PE 7JRXY 8MQSJXIM GET HI JIZVYEVMI RY-#M GPHI#XI GYMF, EXYRGM
GSEHE MIVRMM WI TVIPYRKI#XI. (YQRIEIM QEM GYRSE#XI G HEG-M ZEV PE
'VGMYR, ETSM ZE 3 MEVR HI 4E#XM (%RMM HI YGIRMGMI).
7IQRM3GE'MM HMR WJIVE WEGVYPYM GSRJIV 7EHSZIERY REXYVMM #M EXYRGM GRH
S IZSGE R QSQIRXI SFM#RYMXI, EHMG JV RGVGXYV VIPMKMSEW. R QYPXI
HMRXVI STIVIPI WEPI KWMQ S ZM^MYRI WTIGMEP EWYTVE REXYVMM, TVMR GEVI IP
MPYWXVIE^ GSRGITXYP HI GVI#XMRMWQ GSWQMG TVMR GEVI EGIPE GEVI P-E PERWEX,
1MVGIE )PMEHI, WMRXIXM^IE^ MHIIE G REXYVE RY QEM IWXI PYQIE TGEXYPYM, GM
IWXI STIVE PYM (YQRI^IY, QIXEQSVJS^ GEVI W-E TVSHYW HYT RXVYTEVI,
GRH PYQIE E JSWX VIWXEFMPMX R KPSVME IM MRM'MEP11.
2EXYVE HIZMRI EHIWISVM TIRXVY 7EHSZIERY YR QMNPSG HI VIPIZEVI E
QVI'MIM HMZMRI; EWIQIRIE QEVMPSV QMWXMGM, IP TIVGITI JETXYP G EGIEWXE IWXI
HEVYP PYM (YQRI^IY #M XVIFYMI W-P RXVIZIHIQ TVMR HEV TI 'IP GI
HVYMI#XI12 #M RY RXQTPXSV YRE HMRXVI GIPI QEM MQTSVXERXI PYGVVM
GSRWEGVEXI REXYVMM, &EVE HI HMRGSPS HI RIKYV, RGITI GY ZIVWIXI HMRXV-YR
TWEPQ, R GEVI (YQRI^IY IWXI TVIEQVMX TIRXVY JVYQYWI'IE ^MHMVMM 7EPI:
(SEQRI, (YQRI^IYP QIY, ^MG GLMTYVMPI #M TVMZIPM#XMPI EGIWXI, GE #M (EZMH,
VIKIPI TSIX; QEVI #M QMRYREX I#XM 8Y; GY WPEZ #M GY WXVPYGMVI QTSHSFMX;
WEY, R EGIIE#M SVHMRI HI MHIM: 'X HI QMRYREXI-W PYGVYVMPI 8EPI, (SEQRI,
XSEXI GY R'IPITGMYRI PI-EM JGYX #M I TPMR TQRXYP HI JTXYVE 8E
0YGVEVIE QIR'MSREX, EP GVIM XMXPY GSR'MRI EPY^MM PE WJIVE HMZMR, E JSWX
GSRGITYX HI 7EHSZIERY GE YR XVMFYX HI TMIXEXI 'IPYM GEVI IPMFIVIE^
RIGSRXIRMX QMRYRMPI, HI PE QVKVMXEVYP HMR WGSMGE SGIERYPYM TR PE ^QFIXYP
HIPMGEX EP YRIM JIGMSEVI HMR QYR'MM &YGSZMRIM.
4IRXVY 7EHSZIERY REXYVE IGLMZEPIE^ GY TSWMFMPMXEXIE RHITV-XVMM HI
XSEXI RMQMGRMGMMPI ZMI'MM SFM#RYMXI #M HI EXMRKIVI E TYVMX'MM. 1EM EPIW
EWGIRWMYRIE R VIKMYRMPI QSRXERI RWIEQR EHIWIE S IPMFIVEVI HI XSX GIIE
GI IWXI HIVM^SVMY: 'IP GEVI WYMI R 'PMQERM, SVM TI 6IXI^EX, SVM TI 'IELPY E
XVIGYX R ^SRE JV HI TVMLER E EPXIM PYQM, MEV R WMRKYVX'MPI HMR NYVYP
-^ZSVYPYM %PF 4VIE G WX R XGIVI HYLYP PYM (YQRI^IY #M EP QYRXIPYM (*VE'MM
.HIVM).
"M XSX EWXJIP, R EJYRHYVMPI (IPXIM, SEQIRMM WXEY JE' R JE' GY REXYVE #M
GY (YQRI^IY (&EVE HI HMRGSPS HI RIKYV). %HIWISVM R GYTVMRWYP PYGVVMM
QIR'MSREXI EYXSVYP RWY#M XVMI#XI GY MRXIRWMXEXI EGIEWX FIRI3G I\TIVMIR':
HISHEX RI-EQ WMQ'MX HIWJGY'M HI XSEXI GIPI HMR ZEPI #M RI-EQ EHESW
SEVIGYQ EPFWXVMQMPSV GYVEXI. 7MRXEKQE GY GEVI WI RGLIMI TEWENYP GMXEX IWXI
IHM3GEXSEVI TIRXVY WXEVIE HI PMRM#XI, HI GEPQ, HI WIRMR GSRXIQTPEVI.
7IQRM3GE'MM MHIRXMGI HIWPY#MQ #M R EPXI QFMRVM PI\MGEPI HMR GYTVMRWYP
EGIPIME#M PYGVVM, VIEPM^EXI GY S HISWIFMX MRKIRMS^MXEXI EWSGMEXMZ: PMRM#XMPI
W3RXI EPI PYM (YQRI^IY WEY, R 4SZI#XMPI HI PE &VEHY 7XVQF, XGIVI
PYQMRSEW.
7EHSZIERY QERMJIWX TVIHMPIG'MI TIRXVY 1YRXIPI 'IELPY, XVERWJSVQEX
R STIVE WE RXV-YR WTE'MY WEGVY, IZSGEX R TEWENI GY EQTPI VIZIVFIVE'MM
IQS'MSREPI HMR WJIVE VIPMKMSWYPYM: R EW3R'MX, GRH HIEWYTVE 'IELPYPYM WI
EVGYMI#XI RMQF HI TYVTYV #M EYV WEYTMWGYP VQEW R PYQMR RMRW, HMRGSPS
HI PYQI #M WMRKYV, GE S GPSTSXRM' E PYM (YQRI^IY (4SZI#XMPI HI PE &VEHY
7XVQF)
4EGIE HITPMR E REXYVMM, WYKIVEX TVMR ZIVFYP PE MQTIVJIGX HMR TVSTS^M'ME
%HRGYVMPI QYRXIPYM XGIEY, TIVQMXI S EHIZVEX VIKWMVI HI WMRI. -EV
ITMXIXIPI WYW, VIWTIGXMZ NSW, HMR JVEKQIRXYP YVQXSV EY RY HSEV WIQRM3GE'MM
EJIVIRXI GSRGITXYPYM HI WTE'MY, GM, QEM EPIW, ZILMGYPIE^ WIQRM3GE'MM QSVEP-
WTMVMXYEPI HMRXVI GIPI QEM IPIZEXI: 7YMRH WYW, R VIKMYRMPI GYVEXI HI PE
&VERM#XI, IY #M XSZEV#YP QIY WMQ'IEQ FYGYVMM TI GEVI SEQIRMM HI NSW PI-EY
YMXEX (:EPIE *VYQSEWIM).
R QSH WMQFSPMG, 7EHSZIERY EWSGME^, GSRWXERX, PYQMRE GY RP'MQMPI:
0SGYP RSWXVY HI WYW VHIE HI PYQMR GE YR GVMWXEP GYVEX (:EPIE *VYQSEWIM).
'LMEV #M IPIQIRXIPI EYHMXMZI, TI QWYV GI WI TVSHYGI EWGIRWMYRIE PSV TI
ZIVXMGEP, WI RGEVG HI WYFPMQ, JETX VIPMIJEX HI 7EHSZIERY TVMR EGIPIE#M
IPIQIRXI HMR TIVMQIXVYP WIQERXMG EP PYQMRMM. %WXJIP, GRXIGYPYM XYPFYVXSV EP
GMSGVPMIM TVS^EXSVYP M EWSGME^, GY SFM#RYMXE WE MRKIRMS^MXEXI, ITMXIXYP GY
ZEPSEVI QIXEJSVMG HI JSG #M, HVITX XIVQIR HI GSQTEVE'MI, S VIZVWEVI
WXVPYGMXSEVI. ('MSGVPME).
%GIWX QSH HI E TVI^IRXE EWTIGXI HMR REXYV, GEVEGXIVMWXMG PYM 1MLEMP
7EHSZIERY, IWXI R TIVJIGX GSRWSRER' GY GSRGIT'ME 6WVM-XYPYM SVXSHS\,
WMRXIXM^EX EWXJIP HI 1MVGIE :YPGRIWGY: (YQRI^IY I EVXEX #M ETVSTMEX GE
(VEKSWXI, MEV PYQIE XSEX, GY PYGVYVMPI #M GY XIQIMYVMPI IM, RY WYRX HIGX
TVSHYWIPI EGIWXIM (VEKSWXI13. RXPRMQ R STIVE WEHSZIRMER RY TY'MRI
RJ'M#VM EPI REXYVMM GEVI RI XVMQMX GY KRHYP #M GY WY4IXYP PE (YQRI^IY GIP
MYFMXSV, GVIEXSV #M 'MMXSV HMR HVEKSWXI EP PYQMM #M VWTRHMXSV HI LEV14.
4VMR VIZVWEVIE LEVYPYM HMZMR, RXVIEKE 3VI GYRSE#XI S JVYQYWI'I
WYTVE3VIEWG, HIZIRMRH S MQIRW LMIVSJERMI; TIRXVY E S WYVTVMRHI R EGIEWX
FMRIGYZRXEX MTSWXE^, 7EHSZIERY WI XVERWJSVQ RXV-YR TSIX EP PMQTI^MQMPSV
GVMWXEPMRI #M RJ'M#IE^ TVSGIWYP QMVEGYPSW HI TYPZIVM^EVI #M HIGERXEVI E
QEXIVMIM, HI QIXEQSVJS^EVI E IM RXV-S GYVEX, SVFMXSEVI PYQMR. :IVWYP PYM
0YGMER &PEKE 0YQIE XSEX I YR WMRKYV EPF EVI YR GSVIWTSRHIRX TIVJIGX R
YVQXSVYP TEWEN WEHSZIRMER, GSRWEGVEX, HI EWIQIRIE, YRYM TIMWEN LMFIVREP, R
GEVI EPFYP HIZMRI GYPSEVIE LEPYGMRERX E MVIEPYPYM: 2SM R#MRI XVIGYVQ HMR
TGPE STEG, TVMRXV-S QMRYRI HI ZMW, RXV-S XGIVI HI ^TEH #M HI EVKMRX ?A;
TVMRXVI XVYRGLMYVMPI FXVRI, HIEWYTVE SQXYPYM, WI R3SVE S PYGMVI JYQYVMI #M
ZMSPIX GEVI GYVKIE R WYW TVMRXVI GVIRKM, GXVI Z^HYLYP PYQMM (&EVE HI
HMRGSPS HI RIKYV).
4VMRXV-S QYXE'MI TI GX HI WYVTVMR^XSEVI, TI EXX HI WTIGXEGY-PSEW,
TQRXYP IQER S PYQMR GEVI GYVKIE R WYW, JETX WIQRM3GEXMZ TIRXVY
MRXIRWMXEXIE IM RISFM#RYMX; MVM^EVIE JYQYVMI, ZMSPIX E EGIWXIME EVI S
WIQRM3GE'MI WMQMPEV.
"M R EPXI WGVMIVM WEHSZIRMIRI TPERYP GIPIWX, WEGVY, TEVI E WI GSRXSTM GY
GIP XIVIWXVY, TVSJER, MEV IPIQIRXYP HI NSRG'MYRI IWXI, HI EWIQIRIE, PYQMRE
JYPQMRERX: R EGIWX QYRXI W-EV 3 E4RH S TYRXI HI XVIGIVI RIGYRSWGYX
EPXSV THYVEVM #M ZRXSVM. )P, FXVRYP, IVE XRV GRH, HMR RXQTPEVI, E
HIWGSTIVMX XVIGIVIE #M W-E E4EX HMRXV-S HEX RXV-S WMRKYVXEXI RJVMGS#EX. )VE
EGSPS S PYQMR PMR GEVI GYVKIE HI WYW, JV W WI ZEH WSEVIPI HI RMGMIVM.
?A E#E G EGSPS WI EPGXYME YR PSG GEPH #M FPRH. (:EPIE *VYQSEWIM)
-QTVIWME HI GSTPI#MXSV IWXI WYKIVEX #M HI EGIEWX HEX HI YR ZIVF,
EZRH, WIQERXMG, S TYXIVRMG RYER' GERXMXEXMZ, GYVKIE, ZIVF GY GEVI
WYFWXERXMZYP PYQMRE MRXV RXV-S VIPE'MI WIQERXMG GY YR GSI3GMIRX VMHMGEX HI
I\TVIWMZMXEXI WXMPMWXMG. 6IQEVGQ #M WMRXEKQE PYQMR PMR R GEVI EHNIGXMZYP
GY ZEPSEVI WXMPMWXMG HI ITMXIX EGGIRXYIE^, EXX TVMR WSRSVMXEXIE WE HMEJER,
GX #M TVMR WIRW, MHIIE G RI E4Q R JE'E YRYM PSG GEPH #M FPRH. 2Y IWXI PMTWMX
HI VIPIZER' RMGM JETXYP G XMXPYP GETMXSPYPYM HMR GEVI IWXI WIPIGXEX JVEKQIRXYP
R HMWGY'MI IWXI GLMEV 6EMYP.
)\TERWMYRIE MR3RMX E WTE'MYPYM R VITVI^IRXVMPI MQEKMWXMGI
WEHSZIRMIRI, HIWGLMHIVIE EGIWXYME GXVI RIQVKMRMVI #M MRIJEFMP WI TVSHYGI
YRISVM #M TI E\E SVM^SRXEP #M EXYRGM EGIWXE WI TMIVHI RXV-S TGP XVERHE3VMI
WEY WI QMWXYMI R EPFEWXVY, GYPSEVIE RIQVKMRMVMM: 4IWXI PYRGMPI EVWI HI
FVYQ TPYXIEY JYRMKIM R PMRM#XIE ^MPIM. )VEY EXXIE RYER'I HI KEPFIR #M VS# #M
^EVIE IVE E#E HI PEVK #M XVERWTEVIRX RWTVI QYR'M, WSEVIPI VMWMTIE EXXE
QIPERGSPMI HI EYV, RGX Q WMQ'IEQ QTSZVEX HI MHIIE G XSEXI WYRX YRMGI
#M G TIWXI S GPMT XSEXI ZSV GHIE R ZI#RMGMI (&EVE HI HMRGSPS HI RIKYV).
4VMR XVERWJSVQEVIE TVS^EXSVYPYM RXV-YR WYFXMP TSIX EP PYQMRMM, GETEFMP W
I\TPSEXI^I R EGIEWX HMVIG'MI #M RYER'IPI GSPSVMWXMGI MRGERHIWGIRXI PE GEVI
ETIPIE^, EGIWXE RI JEGI MEV#M TVXE#M PE QMVEGSPYP WMRXI^IM IJIQIVYPYM GY
IXIVRYP, E 3RMXYPYM GY MR3RMXYP.
9R QSQIRX FMRIGYZRXEX TI GEVI-P XVMI#XI RXVIEKE 3VI IWXI VWVMXYP
WSEVIPYM, XSXHIEYRE QEKRM3G R TEKMRMPI WEHSZIRMIRI: 0E VWVMX GVI#XIEY
^VMPI R GYRYR HI EYV WEY TY^HIVME HI EYV E VWVM-XYPYM, MQEKMRI
QIXEJSVMG VIPYEX #M QYPXMTPMGEX: I\TPS^MM HI TY^HIVMM HI EYV (:EPIE
*VYQSEWIM). 3FWIVZQ R I\IQTPIPI HI QEM WYW VIGYVIR'E ITMXIXYPYM HI EYV,
IPSGZIRX TIRXVY MHIIE HI QVI'MI, EWSGMEX HI EYXSV VWVMXYPYM. R EPXI WMXYE'MM
7EHSZIERY M GSRWEGV MQEKMRM GSRGVIX EREPMXMGI VIHEXI KVEHEX, TVMR EQTPI
QIXEJSVI WVFXSVI#XM15 %GSPS TI HIEP, R ^EVIE HITVXEX, '#RMWIV, GE
HSY GSEVRI JERXEWXMGI, QRYRGLMYVM EVKMRXMM HI VE^I 3RI #M GLMEV TI ^EVI
PERYVM WYF'MVI HI RSYVM EVHIEY TXVYRWI GE HI YR JSG WYFXIVER. 'YVRH XSEXI
WI RIGEV RXV-S PYQMR QEVI, #M PE PMRME SVM^SRXYPYM ETVY JVYRXIE WSEVIPYM
JYPKIVRH PYQIE. (:EPIE *VYQSEWIM).
0E GETXYP EGIWXYM TEVGYVW WI MQTYRI SFWIVZE'ME, GY ZEPSEVI HI
GSRGPY^MI, G RYQMXSVYP GSQYR EP XMQTYPYM #M WTE'MYPYM TPEWEXI HI 7EHSZIERY
WYF I3KME WEGVYPYM IWXI PYQMRE, ETERENYP YRIM PYQM YRHI RXVI XVERWGIRHIRX #M
MQERIRX RY I\MWX RMGM S 3WYV SRXSPSKMG, GM HSEV TYR'M, ZQM; WI VIEPM^IE^
EWXJIP R STIVE WEHSZIRMER GIIE GI TVMRXIPI (YQMXVY 7XRMPSEI GSRWMHIVE
HVITX VIPIZEVIE 0SKSWYPYM HMZMR R REXYV GEVI JEGI TSWMFMP GSRXIQTPEVIE
PYM (YQRI^IY R REXYV, XVIETX TVIQIVKXSEVI GSRXIQTPVMM RIQMNPSGMXI16
WEY XVM-YRKLMYP (YQRI^IY, SQ #M REXYV, R MRXIVMSVYP GVYME IWXI TSWMFMP
HIT#MVIE GSRXVEVMMPSV, VIJEGIVIE EVQSRMIM HMRXVI QEXIVMI #M WTMVMX GEVI W-E
WJVQEX TVMR TGEX.17
2 3 8 )
1. %YVIP 'SHSFER, 'SRGITXYP HI WEGVY, VIZMWXE 7XIEYE, RV. 1-2/1994, T.
42
2. 'SRWXERXMR 'MSTVEKE, 1MLEMP 7EHSZIERY. *EWGMRE'ME XMTEVIPSV
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9. 'SRWXERXMR 2SMGE, 'YZRX QTVIYR HIWTVI VSWXMVIE VSQ-RIEWG,
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)HMXYVE 1EVMRIEWE, 1998, T. 189
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3. 4VMRXIPI +EPIVMY, .IVXJ #M 6WGYQTVEVI, )HMXYVE ,EVMWQE, &YGYVI#XM,
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4. %PI\ERHVY 4EPISPSKY, 8VITXIPI PYQMM WEY GEPIE GXVI WMRI E PYM 1MLEMP
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5. (YQMXVY 7XRMPSEI, 4S^M'ME HSQRYPYM 0YGMER &PEKE JE' HI GVI#XMRMWQ
#M SVXSHS\MI, )HMXYVE 4EMHIME, &YGYVI#XM, 1997, T.139
6. %VLMH. 4VSJ. -SER 2. *PSGE, (VITX GERSRMG SVXSHS\ PIKMWPE'MI #M
EHQMRMWXVE'MI FMWIVMGIEWG, :SP. --. &YGYVI#XM, )HMXYVE -RWXMXYXYPYM &MFPMG #M HI
1MWMYRI E &MWIVMGMM 3VXSHS\I 6SQRI, &YGYVI#XM, 1990, T. 182
7. 1MLEM "SVE, (MEPSKYP MRXIVMSV, )HMXYVE ,YQERMXEW, &YGYVI#XM, 1997, T.
56
8. %RHVIM 4PI#Y, 1MRMQE QSVEPME, )HMXYVE 'EVXIE 6SQRIEWG, &YGYVI#XM,
1980, T. 80
9. %RXSRMI 4PQHIEP, 8VEHM'MI #M PMFIVXEXI R WTMVMXYEPMXEXIE SVXSHS\,
)HMXYVE 4VSRSWXMG 760, GSPIG'ME %\MSW, 1995, T.86
10. %VLMQERHVMXYP 7SJVSRMI, 6YKGMYRIE I\TIVMIR'E :MI'MM :I#RMGI,
7MFMY, )HMXYVE (IMWMW, 1998, T. 71
11. (YQMXVY 7XRMPSEI, %WGIXMG #M QMWXMG GVI#XMR, )HMXYVE 'EWE 'V'MM
HI "XMMR', &YGYVI#XM, 1993, T. 310
12. +EWXSR &EGLIPEVH, *PEGVE YRIM PYQRVM, )HMXYVE %REWXEWME,
&YGYVI#XM, 1994, T. 81
13. 'SRWXERXMR 2SMGE, 4EKMRM HIWTVI WY4IXYP VSQRIWG, &YGYVI#XM,
)HMXYVE ,YQERMXEW, 1991, T. 68
14. ,IRVM 'VSY^IP, 3VMKIR I\IKIXYP SQYP HYLSZRMGIWG XISPSKYP,
7MFMY, )HMXYVE (IMWMW, 1999, T. 120
15. 1MVGIE 1YXLY, 4IVQERIR'I PMXIVEVI VSQRI#XM HMR TIVWTIGXMZ
GSQTEVEX, )HMXYVE 1MRIVZE, &YGYVI#XM, 1986, T. 154
16. 0YGMER &PEKE, 3TIVI, 9. 8VMPSKME GYPXYVMM, )HMXYVE 1MRIVZE, &YGYVI#XM,
1985, T. 306
17. -FMHIQ.
6):)6&)6%&-- %0) 7%'6909- 2 40%2 78-0-78-'.
3VMGI HIQIVW MRXIVTVIXEXMZ EZRH GE SFMIGX STIVE PMXIVEV TVIWYTYRI, R
ZMVXYXIE VIPE'MIM HI MRXIV-GSRHM'MSREVI HMR MRXIVMSVYP FMRSQYPYM GSR'MRYX-JSVQ,
#M S GSQTSRIRX WXMPMWXMG, JETX I\TVMQEX EWXJIP HI 8YHSV :MERY: 2Y I\MWX RMGM
S EPX GEPI TIRXVY E TXVYRHI R GIIE GI W-E RYQMX GSR'MRYXYP YRIM STIVI
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R'IPIKIVMM IM #XMMR'M3GI1. :SGIE PYM 8YHSV :MERY RY E JSWX YRE WMRKYPEV, IE
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RSEWXV, WIQRYP R YRMGMXEXIE WE, QMWXIVMSEW QERMJIWXEVI GSRGVIX,
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'Y TYXIVIE PYM (YQRI^IY RY RI TYXIQ TYRI.
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FMVYMQ (,ERY %RGY'IM);
1MPE PYM (YQRI^IY: %#E G, HMR QMPE PYM (YQRI^IY, WI KWI#XI GX
TSJXI#XM (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
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JIVMGM'MPSV RXVI SEQIRM, EPI#M EM PYM (YQRI^IY ('VIERKE HI EYV);
6RHYMEPE HI PE (YQRI^IY: '-E#E-M VRHYMEPE IM HI PE
(YQRI^IY (&EVE HI HMRGSPS HI RIKYV);
0IKIE PYM (YQRI^IY: %GSPS SEQIRMM WI TPIEG PIKMM PYM
(YQRI^IY ('VIERKE HI EYV);
2YQIPI PYM (YQRI^IY: TIRXVY RYQIPI PYM (YQRI^IY GVYME ZVIEY
W-M PYNIWG (*VE'MM .HIVM);
*VYQYWI'IE PWEX HI (YQRI^IY: "M HI GI WSGSXM'M E WTSVM JVYQYWI'E
PWEX HI (YQRI^IY ('VIERKE HI EYV);
,EVYP PYM (YQRI^IY: HEV LEVYP PYM (YQRI^IY RMGMSHEX RY P-E
GYRSWGYX (*VE'MM .HIVM);
4YXIVIE PYM (YQRI^IY: 4IRXVY G EMGIE RY IWXI EPXGIZE HIGX
TYXIVIE PYM (YQRI^IY (*VE'MM .HIVM);
R'IPITGMYRIE PYM (YQRI^IY: R'IPITGMYRIE PYM (YQRI^IY I
RIQVKMRMX, GE #M FYRXEXIE PYM (:EPIE *VYQSEWIM);
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WXEVI'M GY JVMGE PYM (YQRI^IY, W KWIEWG (1VME WE 4YMYP THYVMM);
6SFYP PYM (YQRI^IY: R PSGYP YRHI RI E4Q E#I^E'M RSM VSFMM PYM
(YQRI^IY, IVE, R ZVIQIE ZIGLI, TYWXMI (1VME WE TYMYP 4HYVMM);
R WEQE PYM (YQRI^IY: #M EGIE QEQ GY TYMM IM IVEY R WEQE PYM
(YQRI^IY ('VIERKE HI EYV).
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HI (YQRI^IY. 9RISVM R EGIPE#M XMT HI GSRWXVYG'MM KVEQEXMGEPI GYZRXYPYM
(YQRI^IY M WI EPXYV ZSGEFYPI GY ZEPSEVI QIXEJSVMG; #M EGIWXIE IQER
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HIWJEGI XSEXI7.
R JE'E HVIKXSVMPSV, GYRSE#XI R QEMGE WE FVE'YP PYM
(YQRI^IY ('VIERKE HI EYV);
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RHVITXEX (2IEQYP "SMQVI#XMPSV);
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HVIETX E PYM (YQRI^IY ('VIERKE HI EYV);
1VME WE ZIKLIE^ RIGPXMX PE LSXVVMPI WEPI, WYFX SGLMYP PYM
(YQRI^IY (*VE'MM .HIVM).
6IQEVGQ WTSVMVIE ZEPIR'IPSV I\TVIWMZI EPI GYZMRXIPSV GY ZEPSEVI HI
QIXEJSV, GE IJIGX EP ITMXIXIPSV GEVI PI HIXIVQMR.
(I EWIQIRIE, PI\IQYP (YQRI^IY IWXI TVI^IRX #M R TVSTS^M'MM WGYVXI,
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KEQ EJIGXMZ: HIZS'MYRI, ZIRIVE'MI:
(YQRI^IY E VRHYMX W Q TIHITWIEWG. (,ERY %RGY'IM);
4VIGYQ M-E PWEX (YQRI^IY (*VE'MM .HIVM);
0-EQ PWEX R TPEXE (SQRYPYM #M-EQ ZREX WMRKYV (4SZI#XMPI HI PE
&VEHY 7XVQF);
"M 'EVE EWXE, GRH (YQRI^IY WI QMPSWXMZI#XI EWYTVE IM, R4SVI#XI GE
S KVHMR (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
2YQEM W HIE (YQRI^IY W 3I RSVSGYP QEM TVMIXMR HIGX R
XVIGYX (2IEQYP "SMQVI#XMPSV);
*MIGEVI GY WY4IXYP PYM, E#E GYQ M-E JSWX QTV'MX HI PE
(YQRI^IY (2IEQYP "SMQVI#XMPSV);
(EV W Q JIVIEWG (YQRI^IY W GVIH YRE GE EWXE. (&EPXEKYP);
TR GI E VRHYMX (YQRI^IY YR FEGM XRV (:IGLMQI);
)#XM TVIE JIVMGMX GY WS'YP GEVI 'M P-E LV^MX (YQRI^IY (1VME WE
4YMYP THYVMM);
1YP'QIWG PYM (YQRI^IY G QM-EQ KWMX WXTRYP (4SZI#XMPI HI PE
&VEHY 7XVQF).
9RIPI GYZMRXI WEY YRMX'M JVE^ISPSKMGI HMR HMJIVMXI STIVI WEHSZIRMIRI
VI^SRIE^ TIVJIGX GY YVQXSVYP ZIVWIX HMR 8EXP RSWXVY: *EG-WI ZSME 8E, IPI
I\TVMQRH MTSWXE^E HI YQMPMXEXI R JE'E TYXIVMM HMZMRI:
% ZVIE: >MYE RE#XIVMM QIPI E ZVYX (YQRI^IY W 3I (,ERY
%RGY'IM);
% ZSM: (YQRI^IY ZSMI#XI W WI VSWXIEWG IP RWY#M ('VIERKE HI
EYV);
% FMRIZSM: 'RH (YQRI^IY E FMRIZSM W RI HIWGYVGI HI-EMGM,
TPIGQ (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
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(YQRI^IY W GEH EPIKIVIE TI EGI#XM HSM JVE'M (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
(YT ZSME PYM (YQRI^IY: %WXE I HYT ZSME PYM (YQRI^IY (:EPIE
*VYQSEWIM);
:SMR'E PYM (YQRI^IY: %GYQ WSEVIPI E GYV'MX-S #M E IPMFIVEX-S, HYT
S ZSMR' E PYM (YQRI^IY (&EPXEKYP);
&YR-ZSME PYM (YQRI^IY: (I ZE 3 FYR-ZSME PYM (YQRI^IY, GYQ E
G^YX EVMTE XYVRYPYM 2IFYMWIM, E#E ZE GHIE (*VE'MM .HIVM).
+WMQ PE 7EHSZIERY #M IZSGVM TIVMJVEWXMGI EQTPI EPI PYM (YQRI^IY,
VIEPM^EXI GY ENYXSVYP YRSV TVSTS^M'MM EXVMFYXMZI WEY TVMR GSRWXVYG'MM
ETS^M'MSREPI:
1YVQYVQ S VYKGMYRI GXV (SQRYP (YQRI^IY GEVIPI EVI KVMN HI
GVIHMRGMS#MM WM (*ERXE^MM VWVMXIRI);
GY ENYXSVYP QVMIM WEPI #M E (SQRYPYM (YQRI^IY, 'MMXSVYP GIVYPYM #M
EP TQRXYPYM, Z^YXIPSV XYXYVSV #M RIZ^YXIPSV (*VE'MM .HIVM);
R JVEKQIRXYP YVQXSV MHIRXM3GQ S 3KYV WTIGM3G VIXSVMGMM FM^ERXMRI,
EREHMTPS^E: 3 KVI#IEP WI MEVX #M HI SEQIRM, #M HI (YQRI^IY. (I
(YQRI^IY, TIRXVY G 73R'ME WE I RW#M &YRXEXIE, 1MPE, -IVXEVIE (4SZI#XMPI
HI PE &VEHY-7XVQF).
3 EPX 3KYV, WTIGM3G, HI EWIQIRIE, #M SVEXSVMIM HI EQZSR, PE GEVI
VIGYVKI 7EHSZIERY R JVEKQIRXYP HI QEM WYW, IWXI IRYQIVE'ME, TVMR EGIEWXE
SF'MRRH S ETVSJYRHEVI HI XMT EGYQYPEXMZ E WIRXMQIRXYPYM HI KVEXMXYHMRI JE'
HI HMZMRMXEXI. %GIPE#M JVEKQIRX TVSFIE^ #M VERHEQIRXYP WXMPMWXMG EP
QENYWGYPIPSV RG S QEVG E WGVMWYPYM VIPMKMSW, TVIPYEX HI 7EHSZIERY.
*MMRH YR QEVI EHQMVEXSV EP TWEPQMPSV, 7EHSZIERY VIEPM^IE^ YRISVM JVE^I
GY GEVEGXIV MQRMG HYT XMTEVYP TWEPQMG: 'EVXIE EGIEWXE I YR XVMFYX HI TMIXEXI
'IPYM GEVI IPMFIVIE^ RIGSRXIRMX QMRYRMPI, HI PE WGSMGE SGIERYPYM TR PE
^QFIXYP HIPMGEX EP YRIM JIGMSEVI (&EVE HI HMRGSPS HI RIKYV).
6IQEVGQ GSRWXVYG'ME TIVMJVEWXMG GY ZEPSEVI HI WMRSRMQ EP GYZRXYPYM
(YQRI^IY, TVIJIVEX EGIWXYME HEXSVMX FSKEXIPSV RYER'I EJIGXMZI TI GEVI PI
EHYGI R XI\X.
4VI^IR'E YRIM EWXJIP HI WMRXEKQI IWXI HITEVXI HI E VITVI^IRXE YR GE^
M^SPEX, HISEVIGI R TEKMRMPI WEHSZIRMIRI I\MWX RYQIVSEWI WMRSRMQI WMQTPI
WEY TIVMJVEWXMGI EPI GYZRXYPYM (YQRI^IY, IPI 3MRH, R QEVI TEVXI,
GSRSXEXMZI GEPMXEXMZI (WYKIVRH GEPMX'MPI PYM (YQRI-^IY)8, GYQ
HIQSRWXVIE^ (SMRE -PMEWE *VMKYV RXV-YR EQTPY WXYHMY GSRWEGVEX WXMPMWXMGMM
WMRSRMQIPSV R STIVE WEHSZIRMER. 4VMR 3SVYP PMVMG GEVI PI WXVFEXI, HEV #M TVMR
GEHIR'E WSPIQR E IRYR'YPYM R GEVI WI GSRWXMXYMI, YRIPI HMRXVI EGIWXIE TSX 3
GSRWMHIVEXI EYXIRXMGI TSIQI RXV-YR ZIVW:
'IP GEVI QTV'MMPI GE TPIEZE PI ZRXYV (*ERXE^MM VWVMXIRI);
'IP GEVI WX HIEWYTVE ZMI'MM #M E QSV'MM (*VE'MM .HIVM);
'GM XSEXI WYRX EPI 'IPYM GI GPHI#XI, TVIJEGI #M RRSMI#XI (&EVE HI
HMRGSPS HI RIKYV);
%GIP GEVIPI EVI QYPX QMP (,ERY %RGY'IM);
'IP GEVI #XMI #M ZIHI XSEXI (*VE'MM .HIVM);
7XTRYP HI ZIEG E XSEX ^MHMVIE (*VE'MM .HIVM);
HVITXEXIE 'IPYM GEVI E VRHYMX XSXYP GY R'IPITGMYRI
HIWZV#MX (:IGLMQI);
'IP GEVI-M GYQTRE PYQMM (*VE'MM .HIVM);
'IP GEVI GRXVI#XI HVITX'MPI (:ME'E PYM "XIJER GIP 1EVI);
'IP GEVI GPY^I#XI XSEXI (2MGSEV 4SVGSEZ).
3TIVE PYM 7EHSZIERY GSRWSRIE^, EWXJIP, GY RHIQRYP PYM (MSRMWMI
TWIYHS-%VISTEKMXYP: 7 WPZMQ TI 'IP GY RYQI MR3RMXI GE HSQRMRH R ZIGM #M
TI ZIGM 9, IP 3MRH XIQIPME XYXYVSV PYGVYVMPSV TI GEVI PI GYTVMRHI #M PI
QFV'M#IE^ 10.
8YPFYVXSEVI IWXI #M JVYQYWI'IE TSIXMG E YRSV TEWENI WEHSZI-RMIRI R
GEVI GYZRXYP (YQRI^IY ETEVI R EWSGMIVM QIXEJSVMGI EQTPI, GEVI GSRSXIE^
MHIIE HI WYFPMQ:
1SPHSZE I JVYQSEW, GGM I PYGVEVIE QMRMPSV PYM (YQRI^IY (*VE'MM
.HIVM);
(SQRME (YRVMM WI PYQMRIE^ MEV HI ^QFIXYP (SQRYPYM
(YQRI^IY (:IGLMQI);
ZEPIE, GE S QMRYRI E PYM (YQRI^IY (2YRXE HSQRM'IM 6Y\ERHE);
^MPI GEVI EZIEY W3R'IRME PYM (YQRI^IY (2YRXE HSQRM'IM 6Y\ERHE);
PMRM#XMPI W3RXI EPI PYM (YQRI^IY (:EPIE *VYQSEWIM);
:ME'E TWXVE TQRXIRMPSV FYGYVMMPI IM #M (SQRYP (YQRI^IY PYQMRE
WY4IXIPI GY TVMQZIVMPI WEPI (:EPIE *VYQSEWIM).
)JIGXYP TVSGIWYPYM EWSGMEXMZ GEVI E KIRIVEX EGIWXI YRMX'M PI\MGEPI,
XVERWJSVQRHY-PI R XSX EXXIE YRMX'M TSIXMGI, P GSRWXMXYMI XVERW3KYVEVIE YRSV
MQEKMRM HMR REXYV R WIRWYP GVI#XMRMWQYPYM GSWQMG HIWTVI GEVI ZSVFIE
1MVGIE )PMEHI.
3FWIVZQ #M R I\IQTPIPI HI QEM WYW, E#E GYQ WI TSEXI SFWIVZE #M R
QYPXI EPXIPI, I\TVIWME (SQRYP (YQRI^IY, GIE QEM GSRGIRXVEX JSVQ HI
I\TVMQEVI E IZPEZMIM GVI#XMRI GEVI EHIWISVM ZMFVIE^ #M R WGVMWYP WEHSZIRMER,
RY RYQEM R WY4IXIPI IVSMPSV GEVI P TSTYPIE^. 9RISVM 7EHSZIERY WYFWXMXYMI
RYQIPYM (YQRI^IY GYZRXYP (SQR, JV GE EGIWX PYGVY W HMQMRYI^I
MRXIRWMXEXIE I\XE^YPYM VIPMKMSW WYKIVEX HI EYXSV:
:SME W EMF HITPMR GVIHMR' G RY RGYVG ZVIS VRHYMEP XEMRMG E
(SQRYPYM (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
GIP GEVI ME R HI#IVX PIKIE, NMKRMRH TI (SQRYP ZMI'MM #M EP
QSV'MM ('VIERKE HI EYV);
'PSTSXIPI GRX QVMVIE (SQRYPYM ZIWXMRH R ZM VYKGMYRMPI
QSRELMPSV (4SZI#XMPI HI PE &VEHY 7XVQF).
7IQRM3GE'MM EWIQRXSEVI EY #M I\TVIWMMPI QIXEJSVMGI HI JIPYP GIPIM HMR
JVEKQIRXIPI YVQXSEVI, ETEV'MRRH VSQERYPYM *VE'MM .HIVM: 0E EGIWXI GYZMRXI
R'IPITXI, .HIV #M VMHMG JVYRXIE GXV FSPXE EPFEWXV YRHI WP#PYMI#XI
WXTRYP HMR ZIEG E XSEX ^MHMVIE #M 1VME WE 4YMYP THYVMM: "M 3IGEVI
HYQMRMG RSY W-S WIVFI^I PE JIP, SHMLRMRHY-WI GY TEGI #M GYKIXRH PE
7XTRYP Z^YXIPSV #M RIZ^YXIPSV.
'SRWXEXQ #M VIHYRHER'E QIXEJSVIM >MHMXSVYP, TVMR GEVI 7EHSZIERY
WYFWXMXYMI RYQIPI PYM (YQRI^IY, TVIGYQ #M YXMPM^EVIE ZIVFYPYM E ^MHM #M E
WYFWXERXMZYPYM ^MHMVI R HMJIVMXI VIPE'MM WMRXEGXMGI GY EGIWXE:
%Q WP#PYMX TIRXVY G HMR QMPE >MHMXSVYPYM EQ EZYX GY GI Q
RJ'M#E (2IEQYP "SMQVI#XMPSV);
XVIFYMI W EXVEKIQ PYEVIE-EQMRXI G QEVIPI >MHMXSV P-E TYW, GE R
XSEXI, R EJEV HI WYJIVMR'M #M FYGYVMM (1VME WE 4YMYP THYVMM);
(YQRI^IY P-E ^MHMX, P-E TVMZMX #M E Z^YX G-M FMRI GYQ P-E
^MHMX (4SZI#XMPI HI PE &VEHY 7XVQF);
(I PE TEVEHMWYP TVMQMXMZ, ^MHMVMPI PYM (YQRI^IY W-EY HIWJGYX,
VWTRHMRHY-WI RXV-S HMEWTSVE E HY#QRMIM (:IGLMQI).
4VMR QEVIE FSK'MI E WMRSRMQIPSV WMQTPI WEY TIVMJVEWXMGI HMR I\IQTPIPI
HI QEM WYW, WGVMWYP WEHSZIRMER TEVI RXV-YR EGSVH HITPMR GY YVQXSEVIE
EWIV'MYRI E YRYME HMRXVI GIM QEM QEVM 4VMR'M EM &MWIVMGMM 6WVMXIRI HMR ZIEGYP
RSWXVY, %VLMQERHVMXYP 7SJVSRMI: 'IP 'I R *MMR'E 7E IWXI HMRGSPS HI SVMGI
2YQI 7I HIWGSTIV TI 7MRI RWY#M 3MR'IPSV VE'MSREPI GVIEXI HI )P TVMRXV-S
QYP'MQI HI 2YQI11.
2YQIPI *MYPYM PYM (YQRI^IY ETEVI, HI EWIQIRIE, R WGVMWYP WEHSZIRMER,
HEV RY GY S EXX HI QEVI MRWMWXIR'. 2YQIPI 7Y GSQTPIX P KWMQ RXV-S
VYKGMYRI EWIQRXSEVI GY VYKGMYRI MRMQMM: -WYWI ,VMWXSEWI, QMPSWXMZI#XI-8I
HI RSM, TGXS#MM. ('VIERKE HI EYV). 4VMR VSWXMVIE 7JRXYPYM 2YQI, EZIQ R
EGIWX WGYVX TEWEN YR I\IQTPY HI VYKGMYRI GLIQXSEVI GEVI YQTPI
RXVIEKE 3MR' HI TVI^IR'E PYM (YQRI^IY; TSEVX QMRXIE TI EPXI XVQYVM;
QTVX#I#XI S TYXIVI HISWIFMX #M S ZME' RSY. 0YQMRE (YQRI^IMEWG
HIWTVI GEVI RY I Y#SV W ZSVFMQ, ZMRI S HEX GY EGIWX 2YQI12.
9XMPM^EVIE WITEVEX E GIPSV HSY GSQTSRIRXI EPI EGIWXYM RYQI HIRSX
S GYRSE#XIVI GSVIGX HMR TEVXIE EYXSVYPYM E WIQRM3GE'MIM PSV VIPMKMSEWI. %WXJIP,
ETIPRH PE I\TVIWME TVYRGYP -WYW (*VE'MM .HIVM), 7EHSZIERY JSPSWI#XI GSVIGX
RYQIPI GE 3Q EP *MYPYM PYM (YQRI^IY RXVYTEX13, R XMQT GI WMRXEKQI GE
JVE'M RXVY ,VMWXSW WEY PIKIE GIE RSY E PYM ,VMWXSW ('VIERKE HI EYV)
HSZIHIWG GYRSE#XIVIE JETXYPYM G ,VMWXSW I YR XMXPY #M VITVI^MRX
XVEHYGIVIE R KVIGI#XI E IFVEMGYPYM 1E#MEL (1IWME), RWIQRRH, GE #M EGIWXE
HMR YVQ, 'IP 9RW (HI PE ZIVFYP KVIGIWG GLVM^S, E YRKI).14
7EHSZIERY JSPSWI#XI #M XIVQIRM GSRWEGVE'M HI 7JRXE 8VEHM'MI GY ZEPSEVI
HI WMRSRMQI EPI RYQIPYM PYM ,VMWXSW, GY VIJIVMVI PE VSPYP TI GEVI EGIWXE P-E EZYX
R ZME'E SQIRMVMM: 1RXYMXSVYP (EZI'M PIQR WJRX HMR GVYGIE TI GEVI E JSWX
VWXMKRMX 1RXYMXSVYP), -^FZMXSVYP (PWRH MEV#M W WI ZEH WYF PYGMVIE
GERHIPIM XVYTYP WJRXYPYM -^FZM-XSV) WEY WMRSRMQYP TIVMJVEWXMG
6WGYQTVXSVYP TGEXYPYM SQIRIWG (*VE'MM .HIVM). (I EWIQIRIE, RXPRMQ R
>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM #M QIXEJSVE 1MIPYP PYQMM, MRWTMVEX HMR 7JRXE )ZERKLIPMI
HYT -SER: % HSYE ^M E Z^YX -SER TI -MWYW ZIRMRH GXVI IP #M E ^MW: -EX 1MIPYP
PYM (YQRI^IY, 'IP GI VMHMG TGEXYP PYQMM (1, 29); IE IWXI WIQRM3GEXMZ
TIRXVY JSRHYP QSVEP #M WTMVMXYEP PYQMRSW EP 3QYPYM -MWYW: 7I JIVMGIE GE HI S
VRHYMVI GIVIEWG #M GE HI S VWTPEX E QYRGMPSV #M E NIVXJIPSV WEPI R WPYNFE
1MIPYPYM PYQMM; EGIPIE#M GSRSXE'MM PI EVI #M ETS^M'ME HMR WMRXEKQE -WYW, (SQRYP
QMPIM ('VIERKE HI EYV): GIVRH RHVITXEVI TIRXVY HRWYP HI PE -WYW,
(SQRYP QMPIM.
2YQIVSEWI QFMRVM PI\MGEPI HMR TEKMRMPI WEHSZIRMIRI WYRX IPSGZIRXI
TIRXVY GSRWYFWXER'MEPMXEXIE *MYPYM #M 8EXPYM:
"M TVMRXIPI RSWXVY E XPQGMX EGIWX WIQR R XEMR HVITX QRMI E PYM
,VMWXSW (YQRI^IY #M FMVYMR' E GVYGMM. (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
EGIE ^M HI NEPI, GRH (YQRI^IYP PYQMRMM WI E4 GSFSVX R
QSVQRX ('VIERKE HI EYV);
'YRSE#XI'M WIQRYP HSQRMIM QIPI GEVIPI WI EVEX TIRXVY PIKIE PYM
,VMWXSW (YQRI^IY (*VE'MM .HIVM).
(YQRI^IMVIE PYM ,VMWXSW IWXI VIHEX, XSX R *VE'MM .HIVM, #M TVMR GYZMRXIPI
(SQR, QTVEX, WYKIVRH EHSVE'ME GVMWXMG:
4R EGYQ EQ WXEX GY RIPMRM#XI R PSGYP YRHI RI-E TYW QTVEXYP
RSWXVY ,VMWXSW;
1YP'QIWG YRYME -WYW, (SQR #M QTVEX, TIRXVY QMRYRIE WE;
1S#YPI, RY LYPM, P QYWXVY IY, GVIHI R TYXIVIE PYM ,VMWXSW QTVEX
(YQRI^IY
(SQRYP RSWXVY ,VMWXSW: %Q WSGSXMX G 'MM W YQFPM GY (SQRYP RSWXVY
,VMWXSW (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
#M E^M WX QTSXVMZE TKRMPSV, HIGM R WPYNFE (SQRYPYM (YQRI^IY
,VMWXSW.
(ISWIFMX HI VIPIZERX TIRXVY JSVQE QE\MQEP E XVMVMM HYLSZRM-GI#XM,
LVMWXSGIRXVMWQYP, IWXI QIXEJSVE HMR IRYR'YP 'GM -MWYW I WSEVIPI MRMQMM
PSV ('VIERKE HI EYV); GSRSXE'ME PYQMRMM HMR EGIEWX QIXEJSV EWSGMEX PYM
-MWYW IWXI R GSRGSVHER' GY EPXI ZIVWIXI HMR 7JRXE )ZERKLIPMI HYT -SER:
)Y, 0YQMR EQ ZIRMX R PYQI, GE XSX GIP GI GVIHI R 1MRI W RY VQR R
RXYRIVMG (12, 46) WEY (IGM MEV#M PI-E ZSVFMX -MWYW ^MGRH: )Y WYRX 0YQMRE
PYQMM; GIP GI QM YVQIE^ 1MI RY ZE YQFPE R RXYRIVMG, GM ZE EZIE PYQMRE
ZMI'MM (8, 12).
RXPRMQ R STIVE WEHSZIRMER GLMEV PI\IQYP PYQMR EPXYVEX RYQIPYM
HMZMR, HYT QSHIPYP FMFPMG:
1SRELMM GIM XMRIVM WYMEY HIGM GXV TI#XIV GY SFVE^YVMPI RXMWXEXI, E#E
GYQ GIVIE VRHYMEPE XEKQIM PSV TIRXVY EGIE ^M HI NEPI, GRH (YQRI^IYP
PYQMRMM WI E4E GSFSVX R QSVQRX, HEV R SGLMM PSV PYGIE PYQMRE RZMIVMM
ETVSTMEXI ('VIERKE HI EYV);
4EVXMGYPEVMXEXIE SEQIRMPSV EGIWXSVE HI EMGM I G IM WSGSXIWG V^FSMYP
GY 4KRYP GE S EJEGIVI TIVWSREP, #M RY ZH EXX HSFRHE HYT FMVYMR', TI
GX HEXSVME WEGV, TI GEVI S ZSV HITYRI R GYQTR PE (SQRYP PYQMRMM, PE
NYHIGEXE YPXMQ (*VE'MM .HIVM).
R ZM^MYRIE PYM 7EHSZIERY, PYQMRE EYVISPIE^ #M GLMTYP PYM -MWYW ,VMWXSW
HMR MGSERI, WGVMMXSVYP VSQR HSZIHMRHY-WI YR FYR GYRSWGXSV EP WTIGM3GYPYM
MGSRSKVE3IM FM^ERXMRI, WYKIVEX R WIGZIR'I HI S QEVI JVYQYWI'I TSIXMG, GYQ
IWXI YVQXSEVIE, WIPIGXEX HMR *VE'MM .HIVM: (VITX R PYQMRE GERHIPIM, PYGIE GE
S PEGVMQ E YQFVIM JVYRXIE RGYRYREX HI WTMRM E (SQRYPYM ,VMWXSW.
6IQEVGQ R JVEKQIRXYP HI QEM WYW JVYRXIE HMPEXEX #M PYQM-RSEW,
TVMRGMTEPYP MRHMGMY EP GLMTYPYM YQER XVERW3KYVEX HI IRIVKMM HMZMRI15 EP
1RXYMXSVYPYM.
%GIIE#M MHII E WIRWYPYM WYTIVMSV TI GEVI P GSRJIV ZMI'MM XVMVIE
HYLSZRMGIEWG R #M TIRXVY ,VMWXSW ETEVI R YVQXSVYP JVEKQIRX HMR XVMPSKME
*VE'MM .HIVM: 1VME WE ZVIE W EKSRMWIEWG %HIZVYPYM, EHMG PYM ,VMWXSW; S
WIQRM3GE'MI WMQMPEV EVI #M QIXEJSVE, EWSGMEX, HI EWIQIRIE, PYM "XIJER GIP
1EVI, SWXE# EP %HIZVYPYM. (:ME'E PYM "XIJER GIP 1EVI).
1IWMERMWQYP HSQRMXSVYPYM "XIJER GIP 1EVI #M 7JRX IWXI EHQMVEFMP
WYKIVEX R EGIIE#M PYGVEVI TVMRXV-YR JVEKQIRX HMR GEVI WI HIKEN YR PMVMWQ HI
S QVIE' KVEZMXEXI: 2Y EXX ZIRMXYP ZQMPSV, RY EXX GIX'MPI 1VMM, RY
LSXEVIPI 1SPHSZIM, RY HSQRME PYM IVEY MRXIVIWEXI, GM %HIZVYP #M (VITXEXIE,
GEVI IVEY RWY#M -^FZMXSVYP ,VMWXSW. R EGIEWX GVIHMR' RJVMGS#EX, R GEVI WI
EFWSVFIE GY XSXYP, IP KWIE RIRGIXEX LVER; E#I^RH WIQRIPI HI TMEXV EPI
(YQRI^IMVMM R XSEXI GSP'YVMPI 1SPHSZIM #M TYRRHY-WI TI WMRI NIVXJ
RIGSRXIRMX (:ME'E PYM "XIJER GIP 1EVI).
R XSEXI I\IQTPIPI HI QEM WYW, EPXYVEVIE 0YQMRMM, %HIZVYPYM #M
(VITX'MM RYQIPYM PYM ,VMWXSW WI JEGI R WTMVMX XISPSKMG, EQMRXMRH, HI TMPH, YRYP
HMRXVI GSQIRXEVMMPI QEVIPYM XISPSK EP WIGSPYPYM RSWXVY, %VLMQ. .YWXMR 4STSZMGM,
PE )TMWXSPIPI 7JRXYPYM -SER 8ISPSKYP: 'IP GI IWXI RW#M :ME'E ZI#RMG E
GSFSVX HMR GIV TI TQRX, #M XSEXI GIPI GI WI RYXVIWG HMR EGIEWX ZME'
ZI#RMG EHMG %HIZVYP ZI#RMG #M 0YQMRE ZI#RMG, (VITXEXIE ZI#RMG #M
-YFMVIE ZI#RMG, R'IPITGMYRIE ZI#RMG #M XSEXI GIPIPEPXI HIWZV#MVM
HYQRI^IMI#XM ZI#RMGI PI-E EHYW HMR GIV TI TQRX, GE XSEXI EGIWXIE W
ENYRK SQIRI#XM, EPI RSEWXVI16, HSQRMXSVYP QSPHSZIER RYQVRHY-WI
TVMRXVI SEQIRMM GEVI HSVIWG W MRXVI R GSQYRMYRI GY )P #M XSEXI EPI PYM
(YQRI^IY W WI RXVY-TI^I R ZME'E #M PYQIE SEQIRMPSV17.
'YZRXYP ,VMWXSW ETEVI #M R ERKVIRENYP GSRXI\XYEP EP YRSV GSQTEVE'MM
GEVI ZM^IE^ QSQIRXI GVYGMEPI HMR ZME'E YRSV TIVWSRENI TIRXVY GEVI ,VMWXSW
EVI ZEPSEVIE YRYM VITIV SRXSPSKMG EFWSPYX:
)Y TI XMRI XI-EQ E#XITXEX GE TI (SQRYP ,VMWXSW, M #STXM 1MLY.
(2IEQYP "SMQVI#XMPSV)
(I EGYQ XI-EQ RHIQREX W Q YVQI^M, GYQ E RHIQREX ,VMWXSW TI
*MPMT (*VE'MM .HIVM);
(EXSVME RSEWXV GVI#XMRIEWG RI TSVYRGI#XI W TVMQMQ TI ETVSETIPI
RSWXVY GE TI ,VMWXSW (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
9RMM EY RGITYX W Q ZRH, GE -YHE TI -WYW ,VMWXSW (*VE'MM .HIVM);
%GIWXIE WYRX QYGIRMGMMPI QIPI, TI GEVI PI TSVX GYQ EM TYVXEX WJRXE
GVYGI TI +SPKSXE (*VE'MM .HIVM).
9R TIVWSREN FMFPMG EWYTVE GVYME 7EHSZIERY VIZMRI GY S WIQRM3GEXMZ
MRWMWXIR' IWXI *IGMSEVE 1EVME. 2YQIPI IM ETEVI R XSEXI STIVIPI WGVMWI HI
EGIWXE, 3MRH VSWXMX GY EGIIE#M ZIRIVE'MI #M RGVIHIVI HI TIVWSRENI HMRXVI GIPI
QEM HMZIVWI, QEM EPIW R GIIE GI TVMZI#XI TS^M'ME PSV WSGMEP. (I EWIQIRIE
7EHSZIERY IZSG #M EGXI GSRGVIXI GEVI WI GSRWXMXYMI RXV-YR GYPX TMSW EP
*IGMSEVIM. %WXJIP, R WIGZIR'E MRM'MEP E VSQERYPYM *VE'MM .HIVM, GVIHMXEX GY
TVIWXMKMYP QSQIRXYPYM MREYKYVEP #M GEVI GSRWXMXYMI IJIGXMZ S VEQT HI
PERWEVI WIQERXMG, YR WXEVX HI GEVI HITMRHI RXVIEKE GYVW18, "XIJER ETEVI
RGLMRRHY-WI PE MGSERE JGXSEVI HI QMRYRM HI PE QRWXMVIE 2IEQ': %WXJIP,
QVME WE E MRXVEX GY JE'E PYQMREX TI WYF FSPXE W3RXIM GIX'M, GSFSVRH PE
FMWIVMG. *V ^FEZ, RXVI GPIVMGM #M JGPMM, QVME WE XVIGY PE MGSERE JGXSEVI
HI QMRYRM E 1EMGIM (SQRYPYM, GIE ^YKVZMX HI 0YGE )ZERKLIPMWXYP #M HVYMX
WJRXYPYM PSGE# R ZVIQYVM ZIGLM HI 4EPISPSK, QTVEXYP &M^ER'YPYM. 4VIE 'YVEXE
IVE QTSHSFMX, TIRXVY EGIE ^M HI FYGYVMI, GY ZPYVM EPFI, GEVI PYGIEY, TVMR
JYQIKEVIE JGPMMPSV #M YQFVE RESWYPYM, GE 4SVM HI TVMQZEV.
-QEKMRIE EGIPIME#M MGSERI ETEVI #M R VSQERYP >SHME 'ERGIVYPYM: 7-E
EVXEX WIQR PE WJRXE MGSER E 1EMGIM (SQRYPYM HI PE QRWXMVIE 2IEQ'Y,
GIE ^YKVZMX HI 0YGE )ZERKLIPMWXYP #M HVYMX GY ZIEGYVM R YVQ PYM
%PI\ERHVY :SH &XVRYP HI GXVI -SR 4EPISPSKYP, QTVEXYP HI PE &M^ER'. %GIE
MGSER E ZHMX PEGVMQM, PE WPYNFE HI TVMZIKLIVI E %VLERKLIPMPSV, GEVI PEGVMQM PI-
EY GYPIW TVMR'MM RXV-S XMTWMI HI EVKMRX, WY4EX GY EYV, QVXYVMWMRH ETSM GY
NYVQRX QMRYRIE. (I E#E PYGVY EY^MRH RSVSHYP W-E RJVMGS#EX HRH ZIWXI
TVIXYXMRHIRM
7EHSZIERY JSPSWI#XI XSEXI ETIPEXMZIPI VIJIVMXSEVI PE EGIEWXE, TVIPYEXI
EXX HMR GV'M VIPMKMSEWI, GX #M HMR PMQFENYP SEQIRMPSV WMQTPM:
%GY PE (YQRI^IY EQ #M IY RHINHI, PE 1EMGE (SQRYPYM #M PE WJRXYP
+LISVKLI (&EPXEKYP);
%Y WGLMQFEX SPIYP PE GERHIPE HI PE MGSERE 2WGXSEVIM HI
(YQRI^IY (*VE'MM .HIVM);
TIRXVY G HMR QMPE 1EMGIM TVIGMWXI EQ EZYX GY GI Q RJ'M#E
(2IEQYP "SMQVI#XMPSV);
%Y W-'M HIMI HVYQYP #-EM W XI HYGM W-ETVMR^M JGPMM PE MGSERE
4EREKLMIM (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM).
(I QYPXI SVM, IP ETIPIE^ PE ITMXIXI WMQTPI:
R EGIE PYQMR E Z^YX TI WJRXE 1EQ E PYM (YQRI^IY (1VME WE
4YMYP THYVMM);
RHNHYMRH XSXHIEYRE R QMPE #M FYRXEXIE W3RXIM *IGMSEVI (>SHME
'ERGIVYPYM);
EZRH R JE' TI TVIE GYVEXE *IGMSEV ('VIERKE HI EYV);
GY VYKGMYRMPI QIPI #M GY QYPX QMP HI PE TVIE GYVEXE 1EMG
*IGMSEVE (*VE'MM .HIVM).
R EPXI WMXYE'MM, 7EHSZIERY I\TVMQ EXVMFYXI IWIR'MEPI EPI *IGMSEVIM
1EVME, HI S QEVI VIPIZER' 3MRH WYTIVPEXMZYP GSRWXVYMX GY TEVXMGYPE TVIE,
MQTYW HI PMQFENYP VIPMKMSW:
4VIE 'YVEXE: 9R GPYKV EHYWIWI #M S WGVMWSEVI HI PE WJRXYP
QSVQRX, EZRH TIGIXIE 4VIE 'YVEXIM (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
4VIE 7JRXE: WI TPIGE RWTVI 4VIE 7JRXE, GE RWTVI S FYR TVMIXMR
('VIERKE HI EYV).
'SRWXEXQ G R STIVE PYM 7EHSZIERY WI TVSHYGI S QEVI HMZIVWM3GEVI E
HIXIVQMRER'MPSV GEVI RWS'IWG RYQIPI 1EMGMM (SQRYPYM, EYXSVYP HSZIHMRH,
MEV#M, VIQEVGEFMPI HMWTSRMFMPMX'M EWSGMEXMZI, GYQ WI RXQTP, HMR RSY, R
'VIERKE HI EYV:
(I XVIM SVM *IVMGMXE *IGMSEV WI EVXE HYLYPYM XVIE^ #M EV^XSV EP
TVMRXIPYM 4PEXSR;
7YRX RGVIHMR'EX G TVIE PYQMREXE 1EMG E PYM (YQRI^IY 'M ZE HE YR
WJEX FYR;
HYT LSXVVIE PYM (YQRI^IY #M E RITVMLRMXIM PYM QEQI.
4IRXVY E VIPMIJE GX QEM TVIKRERX JVYQYWI'IE RXVY W3R'IRMI E
2WGXSEVIM HI (YQRI^IY, 7EHSZIERY ETIPIE^ #M PE GYQYPYP HI ITMXIXI WEY
PE GSRWXVYG'MM HI XMT ETS^M'MSREP, RXPRMXI, HI EWIQIRIE, R STIVE QIR'MSREX
QEM WYW:
>MYE EWXE, RER 'LMV, I TSVYRGMX HI :SH, HEV #M HI TVIEGYVEXE #M
PYQMREXE 1EMG E PYM (YQRI^IY (*VE'MM .HIVM);
%NYX-M, 1EMG TVIE GYVEX #M TYVYVM JIGMSEV, RXVY EWIQIRIE
M^FRH. (*VE'MM .HIVM).
'Y EGIIE#M MRKIRMS^MXEXI, 7EHSZIERY GSRWXVYMI#XI WMRXEKQI QIXEJSVMGI
HI S QEVI JSV' I\TVIWMZ, TVIGYQ:
VYKRHY-Q PE 1EMGE PYM (YQRI^IY W ME WYFX EVMTE WE GIE
QMPSWXMZ RYQEM TI GIM XMRIVM (*VE'MM .HIVM)
JIGMSVYP RSWXVY WI E4 WYF EGSTIVIQRXYP 1EMGMM (SQRYPYM (*VE'MM
.HIVM);
TVMR FYRZSMR'E (SEQRIM GIVYPYM ('VIERKE HI EYV).
R ERYQMXI WMXYE'MM, RYQIPI 1EMGMM W3RXI IWXI EWSGMEX GY GIP EP *MYPYM:
-WYW #M JIVMGMXE PYM 1EMG ('VIERKE HI EYV);
'VIH R ,VMWXSW #M R TVIEGYVEXE PYM QEMG (*VE'MM .HIVM);
%GIIE GEVI E ^QMWPMX R WMRI TI VWGYQTVXSVYP TGEXYPYM
SQIRIWG (*VE'MM .HIVM).
%GIWX HMR YVQ GMXEX TSEXI 3 GSRWMHIVEX YR I\IQTPY HI WMRSRMQMI
JVE^ISPSKMG, #M EVI GE IJIGX XVKREVIE VMXQYPYM #M, R GSRWIGMR', WYKIWXME
ZIGLMQMM TI GEVI PI EHYGI GY WMRI WMRSRMQYP TIVMJVEWXMG, TVMZMX R ERWEQFPYP
WY19, EGIWXIE 3MRH WTSVMXI HI QMVIEWQE EVLEMG E YRSV IPIQIRXI
GSQTSRIRXI, GYQ IWXI, R GE^YP HI JE', ZIVFYP.
8SEXI WMXYE'MMPI QIR'MSREXI, GVSVE PI-EQ TYXIE EHYKE RG QYPXI
EPXIPI, WYRX IHM3GEXSEVI TIRXVY EGGIRXIPI MQRMGI GEVI RWS'IWG, HI GIPI QEM
QYPXI SVM, R XI\XYP WEHSZIRMER VIJIVMVMPI PE *IGMSEVE 1EVME, GE VIZIVFIVE'MM EPI
EHSVE'MIM QMWXMGI JE' HI EGIEWXE, 7EHSZIERY YVQRH GLMEV QSHIPYP WXMPYPYM
TERIKIVMWXMG EP %GEXMWXYPYM &YRIM-:IWXMVM E 4VIE 73RXIM 2WGXSEVI HI
(YQRI^IY YRE HMRXVI GIPI QEM MQTVIWMSRERXI JSVQI HI GMRWXMVI E *IGMSEVIM
HI GXVI FMWIVMGE SVXSHS\ #M GVIHMRGMS#MM WM.
(I EWIQIRIE 7EHSZIERY EQMRXI#XI R &EPXEKYP S EPX GVXMGMG HIWTVI
*IGMSEVE 1EVME, GVIME XVEHM'ME SVXSHS\ M-E GSRJIVMX S TVI'YMVI GY XSXYP
WTIGMEP, QIR'MSRRH HIWTVI HSQRYP 8SQE: QGEV G #XME TI HI VSWX
%PM\RHVME #M :MWYP 1EMGMM (SQRYPYM QEM FMRI #M QEM JVYQSW HIGX YR GPYKV.
&YR GYRSWGXSV EP PMXIVEXYVMM VIPMKMSEWI, 7EHSZIERY JEGI R STIVE WE
RYQIVSEWI VIJIVMR'I FMFPMGI #M 3PSGEPMGI TIVWSRENI #M PSGYVM GY RYQI HI
VI^SRER' R PYQIE GVI#XMR. 6IQEVGQ YR QEVI MRXIVIW JE' HI GV'MPI W3RXI;
HI#M RYQVYP TIVWSRENIPSV WEHSZIRMIRI GEVI WI TSX FYGYVE HI WPSZE GV'MM
IWXI QMG, WI TSEXI ZSVFM, XSXY#M, HI YR EHIZVEX GYPX EP GV'MM WTIGM3G YRSV
IVSM:
'YZMSWYP MIVSQSREL 2MGSHMQ IVE S 3MR' GEVI-#M GYXE R'IPITGMYRIE
RXVY QLRMVI #M GV'MPI W3RXI (*VE'MM .HIVM);
73R'MXYP %Q3PSLMI R-E PYEX GY IP HIGX MGSRSWXEWYP #M GV'MPI
W3RXI (*VE'MM .HIVM).
7YRX QIR'MSREXI R STIVIPI PYM 7EHSZIERY QYPXI XMXPYVM HI GV'M
VIPMKMSEWI; EWXJIP, QEM EPIW R VSQERIPI MWXSVMGI, )ZERKLIPME RWS'I#XI
QSQIRXIPI HI QEVI WSPIQRMXEXI: TVMQMVIE PYM "XIJER GIP 1EVI PE QRWXMVIE
2IEQ', PE TVE^RMGYP 73RXIM RP'VM: :SH JGY WIQRYP GVI#XMRIWG #M WVYX
)ZERKLIPME, ETSM RHIQR TVMRXV-YR WIQR QMG, HMR SGLM, TI GSGSRYP WY W
WZV#IEWG EGIPE#M PYGVY (*VE'MM .HIVM) WEY RGSVSREVIE PYM 8SQ#E: 'YQ
HIWGPIG, HSQRYP #M JGY YR TEW TI WGEVE HI TMEXV, QMXVSTSPMXYP GSFSV S
XVIETX #M-M RJ'M# IZERKLIPME GY WGSEV'I R4SVMXI GY EVKMRX #M GY MGSRM'I HI
WQEP' EPFEWXVY. 'Y IZPEZMI #M VEV, 8SQ#E JGY XVIM GVYGM #M WVYX GEVXIE WJRX
GY SGLMM RGLM#M (2IEQYP "SMQVI#XMPSV).
4VMR IVSMM WM, 7EHSZIERY EQMRXI#XI HMJIVMXI GETMXSPI EPI &MFPMIM, EWYTVE
YRSVE VIZIRMRH HI QEM QYPXI SVM, GY MRWMWXIR' GLMEV, GYQ IWXI GE^YP YPXMQYPYM
GETMXSP EP 2SYPYM 8IWXEQIRX. 4IRXVY HSQRMXSVYP "XIJER, XPGYMVIE %TSGEPMTWIM
HI GXVI MIVSQSRELYP 2MGSHMQ IWXI HI QEVI RWIQRXEXI, IP MHIRXM3GRHY-WI
GY HSQRMM TQRXYPYM GLIQE'M W PYTXI RXVY TVMKSRMVIE 3EVIM GEVI W-E
VMHMGEX EWYTVE WIQMR'MMPSV. (YFPE VETSVXEVI PE EGIWX GETMXSP FMFPMG, TVMR GMXEVIE
YRSV JVEKQIRXI R GEVI IWXI VIHEX EGIP KPEW GEVI E KVMX R ZIHIRME 8ISPSKYPYM
PE GET. 19, TI HI S TEVXI, #M TVMR GSQIRXEVIE EGIWXSVE HI GXVI TVMRXIPI
2MGSHMQ, TI HI EPX TEVXI, RI TPEWIE^ R JE'E YRYM TVSGIHIY EP TVS^IM
QSHIVRI, MRXIVXI\XYEPMXEXIE; JVEKQIRXYP HMR VSQERYP *VE'MM .HIVM QIR'MSREX
QEM WYW GSRWSRIE^ TIVJIGX GY HI3RM'ME HEX HI +IVEVH +IRIXXI MRXIV-
XI\XYEPMX'MM, GE VIPE'MI HI GSTVI^IR' RXVI HSY WEY QEM QYPXI XI\XI, IMHIXMG
#M GIP QEM EHIWIE TVMR TVI^IR'E IJIGXMZ E YRYM XI\X R GIPPEPX (GMXEX, TPEKMEX,
EPY^ME)20.
(EV, R QSH MRHYFMXEFMP, TEVXIE HMR 7JRXE 7GVMTXYV HI GEVI, GIP TY'MR
WGVMMXSVYP 1MLEMP 7EHSZIERY, HEG RY #M SQYP, E JSWX EXVEW R GIP QEM REPX KVEH,
E JSWX GIE GSRWEGVEX TWEPQMPSV. 8VEHYGRH S TEVXI HMR TWEPQM #M
XVERWTYRRHY-M R ZIVWYVM, 7EHSZIERY MRWIVIE^ G'MZE HMRXVI EGI#XME R &EVE
HI HMRGSPS HI RIKYV #M R *VE'MM .HIVM; IWXI ZSVFE HIWTVI 4WEPQYP 103, 4WEPQYP
9, HEV #M EP'MM, EP GVSV RYQV 7EHSZIERY RY P QIR'MSRIE^; HI GIPI QEM QYPXI
SVM, EGI#XM TWEPQM WYRX WTY#M G-YR KPEW FPRH HI %Q3PSLMI "IRHVIE, HIWTVI
GEVI EYXSVYP QIR'MSRIE^ G WI SWXIRMWI EPXHEX PE :EXSTIHM E-M XPQGM HI
TI WGVMTXYVMPI IPMRI R PMQFE QSPHSZIRIEWG; R JETX, IWXI ZSVFE HIWTVI
TVSTVMMPI XVEHYGIVM JGYXI HI 7EHSZIERY, TIRXVY G GIM QEM QYP'M TWEPQM HMR
GIPI HSY PYGVVM, #M QEM EPIW HMR *VE'MM .HIVM, R GEVI RYQVYP PSV I QEM QEVI,
WIEQR WEY GLMEV GSMRGMH GY TWEPQM MRGPY#M HI -. 3TVM#ER RXV-YR ZSPYQ
WTIGMEP GSRWEGVEX EGIWXYM HSQIRMY EP WGVMWYPYM WEHSZIRMER.
3VMKMREPMXEXIE XVEHYGIVMPSV JGYXI HI 7EHSZIERY QIVKI, R YRIPI WMXYE'MM,
EXX HI HITEVXI, RGX KVIY QEM TSEXI 3 MHIRXM3GEX TYRGXYP HI TPIGEVI,
7EHSZIERY VIEPM^RH TVSTVMMPI WEPI GVIE'MM R QERMIV TWEPQMG, GYQ IWXI
GE^YP E GIIE GI IP RYQI#XI TWEPQYP EP RSPIE, MQTVIWMSRERX TVMR TEXIXMWQYP
XVMVMM I\TVMQEXI, EGYQ, HI TSIXYP 7EHSZIERY: (SQRYP IWXI QTVEX R ZIGMM
ZIGMPSV!
7 TMEV TKRMM HMR TQRXYP PYM!
%WGYPX, (SEQRI, HSVMR'E WQIVM'MPSV #M RXVI#XI MRMQE PSV, 4PIEG
YVIGLIE XE #M J HVITXEXI SVJERYPYM #M RIGNMXYPYM, 'E SQYP GIP HI PYX W RY QEM
QTV#XMI KVSE^ TI TQRX (*VE'MM .HIVM).
9R EPX GETMXSP FMFPMG PE GEVI 7EHSZIERY ETIPIE^ EHIWISVM R STIVE WE
IWXI )GPIWMEWXYP, QYP'M HMRXVI IVSMM WM I\TVMQRH MHIIE GEVEGXIVYPYM IJIQIV EP
XYXYVSV GIPSV SQIRI#XM: )GPIWMEWXYP Q-E RZ'EX G XSEXI EPI PYQMM #M ZMI'MM WYRX
HI#IVXGMYRI #M ZREVI HI ZRX; HIGM PITH FSK'ME #M QVMVIE, #M TYXIVIE.
'GM, HIGX IPI, R'IPITGMYRIE I QEM TVIWYW (4SZI#XMPI HI PE &VEHY
7XVQF).
1SRELYP GVYME M ETEV'MR EGIWXI GYZMRXI E R'IPIW WIQRM3GE'ME 3REPYPYM
)GPIWMEWXYPYM, E#E GYQ S ZE VIPIZE QYPX QEM XV^MY #M YR EPX QTXMQMX HI
GV'MPI W3RXI, 4IXVY 'VI'ME: RGLIMIVMPI )GPI^MEWXYPYM YQTPY WGVMIVIE PYM RY GY
YQFV, GM GY S PYQMR XEVI #M EQEV GEVI PYQMRIE^ XSX, #M XVMWXI'IE QEVMPSV
TVMRGMTMM, #M FYGYVME. % #XMYX W WTYR EHIZVYP JV PEQIRXE'MI, JV V^ZVXMVI
#M JV HI^RHINHI. *V GSRWSPVM JEGMPI, JV WIRXMQIRXI QMGM, GY YR JIP HI
WIRMRXEXI GEVI IWXI EGIIE E YRIM I\TIVMIR'I GSQTPIXI #M E YRIM ZMKYVSEWI
VI^MPMIR'I E WTMVMXYPYM. )GPI^MEWXYP RY WI JIVI#XI W QERMJIWXI YR RSFMP SVKSPMY EP
MRXIPIGXYPYM, S NYFMPE'MI E FYRIM JYRG'MSRVM E QMR'MM, MRHITIRHIRX HI VI^YPXEXYP
GIVGIXVMPSV IM. )P GVIHI RXV-S EVMWXSGVE'MI MRXIPIGXYEP E SQIRMVMM TI GEVI S
WYFR'IPIKI #M, YRISVM, GLMEV S TVSGPEQ21.
7EHSZIERY QIR'MSRIE^ R WGVMIVMPI WEPI #M EPXI GV'M GY GEVEGXIV
VIPMKMSW:
'E^ERME: (EV PE 'E^ERMI, MIVSQSRELYP I RXVY XSEX TYXIVIE #M WPEZE
#M R#MV TSZI#XMPI W3R'MPSV HSQSP #M GY VRHYMEP (2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ);
:ME'E W3R'MPSV: 4YWI TI &VPHIERY W VRHYMEWG TEXYP #M W E#I^I
PYGVYVMPI PE PSGYVMPI PSV: QWY'E WYFX MGSERI, WGEYRYP PRK JIVIEWXV, #-YR XSQ
HMR :MI'MPI W3R'MPSV R VEJX (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
'IEWPSZYP: 4I QWY'E HI PE JIVIWXVYMG, WXE YR GIEWPSZ, GEPMKVE3EX GY
R4SVMXYVM. %WYTVE EGIWXYM GIEWPSZ, TI JSEME WGSV-'SEW HMR YVQ, WXE ETPIGEX
GYZMSWYP 2MGSHMQ. (*VE'MM .HIVM).
R 2ST'MPI HI 7R^MIRI, 7EHSZIERY EHYGI YR IPSKMY GV'MM W3RXI,
EWSGMMRHY-M S QIXEJSV VIPIZERX TIRXVY IJIGXYP EGIWXIME EWYTVE YRYM WY4IX
XVEYQEXM^EX: GSQSEVE PMRM#XMM; IWXI IHM3GEXSEVI, R EGIWX WIRW, #M ERXMXI^E
RXVI WXEVIE HI HMWTIVEVI E PYM 4IGIRIEKE, GEVI E VQEW WMRKYV, VGRMRH #M
WYHYMRH TI QTVE'M #M TI (YQRI^IY #M WXEVIE HI QTGEVI GY WMRI, GY PYQIE
#M GY (YQRI^IY, WYVZIRMX HYT GI YR GYZMSW TVMRXI HI PE WJRXE QRWXMVI
2IEQ'Y M-E HEX S GEVXI, #M RXV-EGIIE 4IGIRIEKE #M-E GIXMX KVI#EPIPI #M E R'IPIW
G EGSPS YRHI M-E VRHYMX (YQRI^IY TI GIM HVEKM, I QEM FMRI HIGX EMGM, TI
TQRX.
RXPRMQ R STIVE PYM 7EHSZIERY RYQIVSEWI WMXYE'MM R GEVI HMJIVMXI
TIVWSRENI FMFPMGI WEY 3PSGEPMGI WI GSRWXMXYMI R VITIVI TIRXVY YRMM IVSM #M, R
GSRWIGMR', IWXI JSEVXI QEVI R XI\XYP WEHSZIRMER RYQVYP GSQTE-VE'MMPSV R
GEVI EP HSMPIE XIVQIR P VITVI^MRX YR EWXJIP HI TIVWSREN:
TIRXVY G EQ JSWX NYHIGE'M GY HVITXEXI. 4EVG EQ 3 R JE'E
R'IPITXYPYM 7SPSQSR (*VE'MM .HIVM);
-EV GY TSVYRGE EWXE RHNHYMIWG W PSZIWG GY XSMEKYP GE %VSR (*VE'MM
.HIVM);
%M W 3M QEVI ZRXSV REMRXIE PYM (YQRI^IY, GE #M 2IQVSH, ^MWI
HSEQRE +IRSZIZE (1VME WE 4YMYP THYVMM);
2Y-M FVFEX GEVI W RY WTYMI YRIM QYMIVM GI RY XVIFYMI, GE 7EQWSR
HMR &MFPMI (*VE'MM .HIVM);
0I-E TVMQMX #M TSMIREVYP GIP FXVR GY TPIXI EPFI GE WJRXY 4IXVY HMR
MGSER (4SZI#XMPI HI PE &VEHY 7XVQF).
)\MWX #M EPXI WMXYE'MM R GEVI 7EHSZIERY YXMPM^IE^ RYQI HI TIVWSERI GY
VI^SRER' WEGV, YRISVM GLMEV #M R EWSGMIVM QIXEJSVMGI:
(I 1EVIRRI IVE RW TVIE QYP'YQMX G (YQRI^IY M-E RKHYMX W
ENYRK TR PE EGIEWX EVG E PYM 2SI (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
EJEV I TSXSTYP TVMRXIPYM 2SI GIP GY GSVEFME (2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ);
GGM TVMRXIPI 2MGSHMQ WPYNIE GY S MRMQ HI WEQEVMRIER (*VE'MM
.HIVM);
4WEPQMWXYP GIP HMR ZIEGYVM E WTYW JVYQSW (&EVE HI HMRGSPS HI
RIKYV);
%#E E FMRIZSMX (YQRI^IY W-QM TVMQIEWG SWRHE #M EQ HIZIRMX
GLMRSZMX HYT VRHYMEPE WJRXYPYM :EWMPI (1VME WE 4YMYP THYVMM);
GPMRHEVYP GIP ZIGLM HI PE RGITYXYP PYQMM TI GEVIPI (SQRYP
(YQRI^IY P-E HEX PYM %HEQ (&EPXEKYP);
(YQRI^IY E RQYP'MX RIEQYP )ZIM (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
W QYP'YQMQ GY YQMPMR' 'IPYM TI GEVI-P MRZSGE VIKIPI TWEPQMWX HI
HIQYPX (&EVE HI HMRGSPS HI RIKYV).
0E JIP HI RYQIVSEWI #M PE JIP HI I3GMIRXI, HMR TYRGX HI ZIHIVI EP
I\TVIWMZMX'MM EVXMWXMGI, WYRX #M RYQIPI HI PSGYVM GY WIQRM3GE'MI WEGV:
'M RYQEM FSMIVMM GPSRGERM #M-EY KWMX 'EREERYP #M TI RSM, ME, RYQEM
E#E, RI HEY PE S TEVXI GY WEFME (2MGSEV 4SVGSEZ);
'YZMS#ME WE 2MGSHMQ W-EV 3 TYWXMMX RXVY XSXYP PYM XSX PE 8IZEMHE, WYF
WSEVIPI IKMTXIER (EV (SQRYP (YQRI^IY E FMRIZSMX E TYRI R JTXYVE
TVMRXIPYM 2MGSHMQ S XVMI QEM QMG HIGX WXRGE HI PE QYRXIPI 7MREM (*VE'MM
.HIVM);
%MGM, R EGIEWX 8IFEMH E EPXSV ZIEGYVM, R WMRKYVXEXIE GSHVMPSV HI
FVEH, KWI#XM HMR PSG R PSG TSMIRM (4SZI#XMPI HI PE &VEHY 7XVQF);
(I XVIM SVM, PE XVIM &SFSXI^I, NYTRIEWE -PMWEJXE GSQMWSEME E TSJXMX W
EMF, RXV-S WXMGP ZIVHI E HSQRMIM WEPI, EKLMEWQ HI PE -SVHERYP W3RXIM
QRWXMVM 2IEQ'Y (*VE'MM .HIVM);
9R GPYKV EHYWIWI #-S WGVMWSEVI HI PE WJRXYP QSVQRX HMR 6YWEPMQ,
KWMX WYF TMEXV HI EPXEV #M EZRH MWGPMXYVE #M TIGIXIE 4VIE-'YVEXIM,
RHIQRRH PYQIE PE TSGMR'E HMR YVQ (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM).
1MLEMP 7EHSZIERY WI HSZIHI#XI #M YR JSEVXI FYR GYRSWGXSV EP
GEPIRHEVYPYM GVI#XMR; R STIVE WE WYRX JSEVXI RYQIVSEWI VIJIVMVMPI PE QEVMPI
WVFXSVM GVI#XMRI HI TIWXI ER, IP JSPSWMRH QEM EPIW HIRYQMVMPI PSV TSTYPEVI:
7RXQVME HI XSEQR, 7RTIXVY, 7R^MIRI, 7QIHVY, 7RXMPMI, 7RXQVME,
9WTIRME, 7JRXYP -SR HI ZEV, 6YWEPMMPI, 73RXIPI 4E#XM, 7JRXYP 2IGYPEM GIP
&SKEX, &SFSXIE^E; RY PMTWIWG RW RMGM HIRYQMVMPI GSRWEGVEXI HI FMWIVMG:
8MIVIE 'ETYPYM 7JRXYPYM -SER &SXI^XSVYP, >MYE 'VYGMM, 7JRXE 2E#XIVI, 7JRXE
RZMIVI, 7JRXE RP'EVI, 7JRXYP "XIJER, 7JRXYP %RHVIM, 7JRXYP :EWMPI, 7JRXYP
1EVI 1YGIRMG (MQMXVMI, 73R'MM QTVE'M 'SRWXERXMR #M )PIRE, 7GLMQFEVIE PE
*E', &YRE :IWXMVI, 73R'MM %VLERKLIPM 1MLEMP #M +EZVMP.
1YPXI TVIGM^VM TI GEVI PI JEGI 7EHSZIERY R PIKXYV GY EPXI ^MPI HMR
GEPIRHEVYP GVI#XMR WYRX IHM3GEXSEVI TIRXVY IVYHM'ME WE R EGIWX HSQIRMY:
6 SGXSQFVMI ^M HI WVFXSEVI E WJRXYPYM ETSWXSP 8SQE (*VE'MM .HIVM);
14 SGXSQFVMI WVFXSEVI RXVY GMRWXMVIE QEMGMM RSEWXVI 4EVEWGLMZE
(>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
7JRXE )GEXIVMRE, E GVIM ^M GEHI PE 25 RSMIQFVMI (:IGLMQI);
7JRXYP 1IVGYVMI, GY TVE^RMG E TEXVE ^M HI PE 4E#XM (:IGLMQI);
21 MERYEVMI TVE^RMGYP GYZMSWYPYM 8MQSXIM (2IEQYP "SMQVI#XMPSV);
27 JIZVYEVMI TVE^RMGYP GYZMSWYPYM RSWXVY 4VSGSTMI (&EPXEKYP);
9 QEVXMI GIM TEXVY^IGM HI W3R'M QYGIRMGM HMR 7IZEWXE (&EPXEKYP);
7VFXSEVIE WJRXYPYM +VMKSVMI XISPSKYP (2IEQYP "SMQ-VI#XMPSV);
R STX ^MPI EPI PYRMM QEVXMI WJRXYP TVMRXI 8IS3PEGX (>SHME
'ERGIVYPYM);
GLMTYP W3R'MPSV TVMR'M QYGIRMGM YGM#M R QYRXIPI 7MREM, E GVSV
TV^RYMVI GEHI XSGQEM R ^MYE HI 14 E PYRMM MERYEVMI (*VE'MM .HIVM);
73R'MM HSJXSVM JV HI EVKMR'M (QMER #M 'S^QE, TI GEVI M TV^RYMQ
E^M (*VE'MM .HIVM).
*SEVXI HIW IWXI EQMRXMX R STIVIPI WEHSZIRMIRI #M RYQIPI EPXSV W3R'M
GEVI WI FYGYV HI YR GYPX WTIGMEP R WTE'MYP GVI#XMR GMVGYQWGVMW 1SPHSZIM:
7JRXYP +LISVKLI: %GY PE (YQRI^IY EQ #M IY RHINHI, PE 1EMGE (SQRYPYP #M
PE 7JRXYP +LISVKLI. 8I-M VYKE TIRXVY QMRI #M Q-SV M^FZM (&EPXEKYP).
(I S QEVI TVI'YMVI WI FYGYV 7JRXYP +LISVKLI HMR TEVXIE HSQRMXSVYPYM
"XIJER GIP 1EVI, GEVI P GSRWMHIV QEVIPI WY SGVSXMXSV R XMQTYP FXPMMPSV TI
GEVI PI TSEVX: #M XSX R PEXYVIE WXRK E RESWYPYM YR WJRXY +LISVKLI
WXVTYRKRH FEPEYVYP, ^YKVZMX ERYQI TI YR TVETSV TIRXVY QVME WE. %GIP
TVETSV, WYF GEVI YQFPE XSXHIEYRE "XIJER :SH R FXPMI, WI E4E E#I^EX R
EGIPE#M PSG W3R'MX, GY GERHIP ETVMRW R TVIENQE PYM (*VE'MM .HIVM).
(I S EXIR'MI HISWIFMX WI FYGYV #M WJRXE %RE, E GVIM MGSER HI PE
QRWXMVIE &MWXVM'E EXVEKI QYP'M SEQIRM RIGNM'M, GEVI-#M TYR WTIVER'E R
QMPSWXIRME EGIWXIM W3RXI, GYQ IWXI #M GE^YP :MXSVMIM 0MTER; REMRXI HI E TPIGE R
GYXEVIE WS'YPYM WY, :MXSVME JEGI YR TIPIVMREN PE MGSERE W3RXIM %RE, TVIGIHEX
HI S TIVMSEH HI TSWX EWTVY: 8VIGY PE WJI#RMGI #M E#I^ JGPMSEVIPI HI GIEV
TI GEVI PI EHYWIWI HI EGEW RZPMXI R RJVEQ. 'Y RJVEQE EGIIE FXYX R
4YXYVM HI EYV XVIGY PE MGSERE GIE QEM QEVI #M QEM HI GTIXIRMI E QRWXMVMM,
GXV GEVI EZIE E-#M WTYRI IE RGE^YP RHISWIFM. 7JRXE %RE S TVMZM HMRXV-S
HEX TVMR JYQ HI PYQRVM, #M QYRXIERGE RKIRYRGLI #M M WVYX QRE - WI
HHY W3RXIM GY XSEX 3MR'E, GE S NIVXJ VRMX, #M PW W GEH TI RJVEQ
PEGVMQM (&EPXEKYP).
R >SHME 'ERGIVYPYM, 7EHSZIERY JEGI S EQTP IZSGEVI E WVFXSVMM RXVY
GMRWXMVIE W3RXIM RSEWXVI QEMGI 4EVEWGLMZE, PE QRWXMVIE 8VMWJIXMXIPSV HMR -E#M,
YRHI WI E4 QSE#XIPI W3RXIM, EGIWXIE EXVKRH YR QEVI RYQV HI
GVIHMRGMS#M: % HSYE ^M, R 14 EPI PYRMM PYM SGXSQFVMI, IVE WVFXSEVI GY QEVI
WPEZ PIKEX RG HMR HSQRME PYM :EWMPI :SH 0YTY, RXVY GMRWXMVIE W3RXIM
RSEWXVI QEMGI 4EVEWGLMZE. 4VMR'MM QSRELM HIWGLMWIWIV WMGVMYP GY QSE#XIPI
E#I^RHY-WI GY VFHEVI #M GY XVMI HI WXVEN, GE W TVMZIKLI^I XVIGIVIE R
FYR VRHYMEP E RGLMRXSVMPSV #M W TVMQIEWG HERMMPI. 8SEX RSETXIE HI
TVMZI-KLIVI #M XSEX ^MYE YVQXSEVI EZIE E GYVKI RSVSHYP JV RXVI-VYTIVI,
ZMMRH 3IGEVI GY TPEX #M GY NEPSF TIRXVY JIPYVMXI RIZSM.
3 QEVI TSRHIVI HI'MR R WIGXSVYP PI\MGYPYM WEHSZIRMER GSRWEGVEX XVMVMM
VIPMKMSEWI XIVQIRMM GEVI WI VIJIV PE IPIQIRXI EJIVIRXI WTE'MYPYM FMWIVMGIWG #M
QSRELEP. )WXI MQTVIWMSRERX HI QEVI RYQVYP W3RXIPSV PGE#YVM TI GEVI
7EHSZIERY PI IZSG WEY HSEV PI EQMRXI#XI R STIVE WE, HI PE GIPI QEM
QSHIWXI, PE GIPI QEM QVI'I; XIVQIRM GE: WJRX FMWIVMG, WJRX QRWXMVI,
WJRX GLMRSZMI, PEZV, WJRX WGLMX, GXMXSVMI WJRX, WJRX PSGE#, PSG WJRX,
PSGE#YVMPI PYM (YQRI^IY, PGE#YVMPI PYM ,VMWXSW, GEWE PYM (YQRI^IY VIZMR R
TEKMRMPI WEHSZIRMIRI GY S JVIGZIR' HIPSG RXQTPXSEVI. %QMRXI#XI, HI EWI-
QIRIE, PSGYVM HI GIE QEM QEVI RWIQRXEXI HMR WTE'MYP TERSVXSHS\: WJRXE
4EXVMEVLMI HI PE &EVMKVEH, 1YRXIPI %XSR WEY 1YRXIPI 7JRX.
7EHSZIERY QERMJIWX S TVIHMPIG'MI ETEVXI TIRXVY ZIXVIPI QSRELEPI
VSQRI#XM, EGIWX PYGVY GSRWXMXYMRHY-WI RXV-S GSRWXERX E WGVMWYPYM WY; R
GE^YP WTE'MYPYM KISKVE3G QSPHSZIRIWG, TVI^IRXEVIE WEY WMQTPE PSV
QIR'MSREVI XMRHI E 3 I\LEYWXMZ, JV E 3 RW MKRSVEXI #M EPXI VIKMYRM
VSQRI#XM:
1RWXMVM:
4YXRE, 2IEQ', HEV #M :EVXSTIHM, >SVSKVEJY R *VE'MM .HIVM;
&MWXVM'E R &EPXEKYP;
'LIME, +SPME, 8VMWJIXMXIPSV R >SHME 'ERGIVYPYM;
4SFVEXE, RYQMX #M QRWXMVIE HMR TYWXMI R 2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ;
(VEKSQMVRE, 7IGY, 4SMERE 1VYPYM R *ERXE^MM 6WVMXIRI;
'E#MR R 2YRXE HSQRM'IM 6Y\ERHE;
%KETME, :EVEXMG R 4SZI#XMPI HI PE &VEHY 7XVQF;
6#GE, QRWXMVIE +VIGMPSV R &EVE HI HMRGSPS HI RIKYV;
7GLMXYVM:
:SZMHIRME R &EVE HI HMRGSPS HI RIKYV;
4RKVE'M, (YVYMXSEVIM, (YVY, &MWIVMGERM, 2IKYVE, 7MLWXVME R *VE'MM
.HIVM.
'Y S KVMN HISWIFMX TIRXVY HIXEPMM HIWGVMI 7EHSZIERY EVLM-XIGXYVE #M
MRXIVMSEVIPI FMWIVMGMPSV WEY QRWXMVMPSV, JSPSWMRH GY QYPX ETPSQF XIVQIRMM HI
WTIGMEPMXEXI GSVIWTYR^XSVM: %VLMQERHVMXYP 4EMWMI W-E RGLMREX #M E HYW TI
EGIP SQ EPIW GY HYLYP HYT E WE R'IPIKIVI HI SEQIRM R FMWIVMGE QR-
WXMVMM, R PYQMRE RESWYPYM, PE GRXVMPI WSFSVYPYM. 2MGSEV W-E STVMX WYF
TSPMGERHIPSR #M #M-E JGYX TPIGGMYRIE RWTVI GIPI TEXVY TV'M EPI REZIM W3RXI
GY WIQRYP GEVI EVEX G RY-M TKR RHEX TVIE-GYZMSWYP, T#MRH GXV
RJ'M#EVIE HI ZSMIZSH, #M-E HYW HVIETXE TR PE PIWTI^MPI HI TMEXV, YQMPMR-HY-
WI QEM EHRG #M P-E TSJXMX R WXVERE GIE QEVI (2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ).
R RYQIVSEWI EPXI TEWENI, 7EHSZIERY YXMPM^IE^ #M EPXI GYZMRXI HMR
EGIIE#M EVMI WIQERXMG: TVMHZSV, TVSRESW, RESW, MGSRSWXEW, W3RXI MGSERI,
^YKVZIEP WJRX, TVETSV, JGPMM, GERHIPI XSEXI EGIWXIE HIWIQRRH
IPIQIRXI GEVEGXIVMWXMGI YRIM FMWIVMGM:
WI REP' WYF FSPXE W3RXIM QMXVSTSPMM GRXVM HI FYGYVMI #M HI
WPEZ (SEQRE 1EVME E XVIGYX TVMRXVI GIM HI JE', GY TEW QVYRX, (MR RESW E
MI#MX R TVSRESW, WEPYXRH. RWJV#MX E HEX R TVMHZSV 'XV XS'M W-E RGLMREX
HMR RSY, 'MRRH R QR JGPMMPI (*VE'MM .HIVM), HEV #M WXVI'MI, TEVEGPMW, GLMPMI,
XVETI^, EVLSRHEVMG, EREPSKLMSR, XSEG XIVQIRM GEVI HIRYQIWG IPIQIRXI
GEVEGXIVMWXMGI WTE'MYPYM QSRELEP:
7EQSMP #M 3RSJVIM WI Z^YV GY W3EP R YQFVE KERKYVMPSV #M
TXVYRWIV HYT W3R'ME WE RXV-S GLMPMI R GEVI WSEVIPI V^FXIE JSEVXI
QTY'MREX TVMRXVI ^FVIPI, PYQMRRH RXV-YR GSP' YR MGSRSWXEW GY GERHIPE
ETVMRW (*VE'MM .HIVM);
73R'MXYP %Q3PSLMI XVIGY R TEVEGPMW #M RHITPMRM WMRKYV XVIFYVMPI HI
VRH EPI IGPIWMEVLYPYM, ETVMR^RH PYQMRMPI R JE'E GLMTYVMPSV W3RXI, HYT EGIIE
WI E#I^ R EREPSKLMSR, PRK WXVERE (SQRMIM (*VE'MM .HIVM).
'Y S GSRWXERX IZPEZMI, WYKIVEX TVMR VIMXIVEVIE ITMXIXYPYM WJRX,
7EHSZIERY VIH #M S QYP'MQI HI IPIQIRXI GI 'MR HI GYPXYP GVI#XMR: WJRXYP
TSXMV, WIQRYP W3RXIM GVYGM, W3RXI SHSEVI, WJRXE REJYV, ET W3R'MX, QMV,
YRXHIPIQR W3R'MX, XEMR WJRX, WJRXE GYRYRMI, WJRXYP FSXI^:
%GIWX RYQI M-P VSWXMWIV TVISXYP #M RRE#MM PE WJRXYP FSXI^, GRH P
PYQMREWIV GY EKLME^Q #M GY QMV RXVY GVIHMR'E GIE EHIZVEX (&EPXEKYP).
%QMRXI#XI, HI EWIQIRIE, W3RXIPI WPYNFI: WJRXE PIXYVKLMI, ZIGIVRME,
YXVIRME, TVSWGSQMHME, TVSLSH, EGEXMWX, W3R'MVIE ETIPSV, WJRXYP FSXI^, WJRXE
GYRYRMI, TVIGYQ #M IPIQIRXI GEVI 'MR HI GSR'M-RYXYP EGIWXSVE: WXMLYVM W3RXI,
ZSVFI W3RXI, E\MSR, SQMPMI, QSPMXZI: 0I-EY TYW R FMWIVMG PE 7JRXY--SR #M
TVIS'MM PI-EY GIXMX QSPMXZIPI. 0M W-E VRHYMX TSQIRMVI #M TVE^RMGI (*VE'MM .HIVM).
7YRX RYQIVSEWI #M EWTIGXIPI EJIVIRXI XVMVMM PMXYVKMGI, 7EHSZIERY
VIHRH GLMEV #M QSQIRXYP WYTVIQ EP EGIWXIME, WJRXE IYLEVMWXMI: :MXSVME
HYWIWI GY +LISVKLM' JVYQSEWI HEVYVM PE FMWIVMG: GSPEGM, GSPMZ, YRXHIPIQR #M
ZMR. %WYTVE PSV ETVMRWIWI GY QRE IM JGPMM. 4I YVQ WI RGLMREWI PE XSEXI
MGSERIPI #M WI STVMWI R TVIENQE EPXEVYPYM. 4VMRXIPI (ERMMP M-E HEX WJRXE
QTVX#ERMI. % RGLMW SGLMM, WMQ'MRH S VGSVIEP HI VSY R GIVYP KYVMM #M-R
XSEX 3MR'E, #M E RKIRYRGLMEX. 2MQIRM, HMRXVI TSTSVRMM HI JE', RY GYRS#XIE
R'IPIWYP EGIPIM QTVX#ERMM. 7I GYV'MWI HI SVMGI KRHYVM, HSVMR'I #M HSVYVM R
EJEV HI WGSTY-M RIGPMRXMX. 1YVQYVIPI #M GRXVMPI WPYNFIM M ENYRKIEY GE ZEPYVM
PMRI PE YVIGLM (&EPXEKYP).
7EHSZIERY TVSFIE^ HMR RSY GETEGMXEXIE WE HI E WYVTVMRHI I\XE^YP
VIPMKMSW, KIRIVEX, R EGIEWX WMXYE'MI, HI TVX#IRME PE YRE HMRXVI GIPI #ETXI
XEMRI EPI FMWIVMGMM SVXSHS\I. "M R EPXI STIVI EPI WEPI, EYXSVYP EQMRXI#XI
EGIEWX XEMR: % TVMQMX XVYTYP #M WRKIPI PYM ,VMWXSW, TVIGM^IE^ IP HIWTVI YR
TIVWSREN HMR >SHME 'ERGIVYPYM WEY TYRI R KYVE YRYM EPX TIVWSREN, HI HEXE
EGIEWXE HMR 4SZI#XMPI HI PE &VEHY 7XVQF, GYZMRXIPI: 1-EQ WTSZIHMX PE
RGITYXYP QFYRX'MVMM QIPI.
%GSVHRH S EXIR'MI EXX HI QEVI VIEPMX'MPSV FMWIVMGI#XM #M QSRE-LEPI,
7EHSZIERY RY-M TYXIE MKRSVE TI EGIME R NYVYP GVSVE WI GSRWXMXYMI RYGPIIPI HI
ZME' GVI#XMR: GPIVMGM, JI'I FMWIVMGI#XM, GRXVI'M GPIVMGM, WSFSV, GMRYP TVIS'MIM HI
QMV, XEKQE QSRELMGIEWG. )WXI JSEVXI QEVI RYQVYP EGIPSVE GEVI TWXSVIWG
WEY GEVI W-EY RIZSMX SVM W-EY WMLWXVMX R STIVIPI WEHSZIRMIRI. *VETIE^
I\EGXMXEXIE GY GEVI EYXSVYP TVIGM-^IE^ VERKYP EGIWXSV TIVWSRENI, IXEPRH S
JEQMPMEVM^EVI GY MIVEVLME FMWIVMGIEWG WEY QSRELEP; R EGIIE#M QWYV RI
WYVTVMRHI EGYQY-PEVIE HI ERXVSTSRMQI GY YR VIQEVGEFMP TSXIR'MEP WSRSV22,
WIPIGXEXI HMR PYQIE QSRELEP:
4VIEW3R'MXYP :MWEVMSR R &EPXEKYP;
4VMRXIPI ITMWGST -RSGLIRXMI, TVMRXIPI )QMPMER IGPIWMEVLYP, TVMRXIPI
%KETMI, TVIE W3R'MXYP 8EVEWMI, JVEXIPI +LIVEWMQ, GYZMSWYP 8MQSJXIM, GYZMS#ME WE,
TVMRXIPI 7XVEXSRMG, W3R'MXYP ZPHMG 8EVEWMI, IKYQIRYP -SWMJ, TVMRXIPI
MIVSQSREL 2MGSHMQ, TVMRXIPI EVLMQERHVMX -JVMQ, REPX TVIE-W3R'MXYP QMXVSTSPMX
+LISVKMI, TVMRXIPI QMXVSTSPMX 8ISGXMWX, W3R'MXYP :EVPEEQ R *VE'MM .HIVM;
'YZMSWYP %KEXERKLIP, TVIEGYZMSWYP WXEVI' 4EMWMI, TVIE-W3R'MXYP TVMRXI
-WXEXMI R 2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ;
'YZMSWYP WXEVI' 8ISJER, REPX TVIE W3R'ME WE (SWSJXIM QMXVSTSPMX,
2IGXEVMI EVLMQERHVMXYP R >SHME 'ERGIVYPYM;
REPX TVIEW3R'MXYP :EVPEEQ, QSRELYP *MPEVIX R 2YRXE HSQRM'IM
6Y\ERHE;
*VEXIPI -SR, YGIRMGYP 4EVEQSR, %XEREWMI WGLMZRMGYP, GPYKVYP :EPIVMI,
TVMRXIPI (ERMMP R (IQSRYP XMRIVI'MM;
7JRXY %RXSRMI, TYWXRMGYP GIP FXVR R &EVE HI HMRGSPS HI RIKYV;
4VMRXIPI MIVSQSREL -SMP R :EPIE *VYQSEWIM;
4VIEW3R'MXYP 2EVGMW, YRGLMYP MIVSQSREL 7MPZER R *ERXE^MM VWVMXIRI;
'YZMSEWE QSRELMI 1EVME R 2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ;
1SRELME 3PMQFMEHE R *VE'MM .HIVM.
"M R EGIEWX MQTVIWMSRERX R#MVYMVI SFWIVZQ VIHYRHER'E GYZRXYPYM
W3R'MX WEY E JSVQIM TVIE-W3R'MX, IP GSRWMXYMRHY-WI, GE #M WJRX, RXV-YR GIRXVY
HI KVIYXEXI I\TVIWMZ ((SMRE *PSVIE). R YRIPI WMRXEKQI, EGIWXE HMR YVQ
HIZMRI GLMEV QEVG TSIXMG E WYTIVPEXMZYPYM: WJRX HSVMR', WJRX EHIZV,
WIRWYVMPI WEPI I\GIHRH ^SRE WEGVYPYM: %GIWXE I GIP QEM WJRX
EHIZV (2IEQYP "SMQVI#XMPSV). R EGIEWX SVHMRI HI MHIM IWXI IPSGZIRX #M
YVQXSEVIE SFWIVZE'MI E PYM 1MVGIE :YPGRIWGY: 73R'IRME GLMEV ETEVI, #M IE,
SEVIGYQ MQERIRX. )E WXVFEXI XSXYP ?A 8SX GI I PE PSGYP PYM #M PE XMQTYP PYM, R
SVHMRI, GY VSWX, I WJRX23.
RXPRMQ #M WMXYE'MM R GEVI PI\IQYP WJRX IWXI WYFWXMXYMX GY WMRSRMQI,
YRIPI HIWXYP HI RHITVXEXI, GE WIRW, GYQ WI RXQTP R YVQXSEVIPI
I\TVIWMM: GYZMS#M TVMR'M, PYQMREXYP FSXI^, SHSV FMWI-VMGIWG, WXVPYGMXE RP'EVI,
VRHYMVI GIVIEWG, GEWE PYM (YQRI^IY, PGE#YVMPI PYM (YQRI^IY, PGE#YP PYM
,VMWXSW, PYQMREX ^M, 7EHSZIERY HSZIHMRH, HMR RSY, VIQEVGEFMPI HMWTSRMFMPMX'M
EWSGMEXMZI.
*ETXYP G R STIVE PYM 7EHSZIERY HMQIRWMYRIE VIPMKMSEW E I\MWXIR'IM
IWXI HSQMRERX R GE^YP QYPXSV IVSM EM WM WI VWJVRKI #M EWYTVE PMQFENYPYM
EGIWXSVE, GSRJIVMRHY-M GEVEGXIV GIVIQSRMSW, GYGIVRMG #M QFSK'MRHY-P GY
RYQIVSEWI I\TVIWMM GEVI HIWGMRH HMR PMQFENYP FMWIVMGIWG. 6IZIPEXSV, R EGIWX
WIRW, IWXI QSHYP HI I\TVMQEVI EP QYPXSV IVSM HMR VSQERYP *VE'MM .HIVM:
0E TEXVY TE#M, (SEQRIPI TPRKIEY #M WI RGLMREY RKIRYR-GLIEXI,
GIVRH RHYVEVI (SQRYPYM (YQRI^IY TIRXVY EGIP WY4IX TGXSW;
"M HI-EXYRGM "XIJER :SH E ETYGEX WEFME #M E FXYX V^FSM GY TKRMM;
%WXE-M JETX GVI#XMRIEWG, W RY PE#M W WI TVTHIEWG, E#E, YR WY4IX
HI GVI#XMR;
W-E HIWJGYX HI QRWXMVIE YRHI #M PYEWI QIXERME.
%WXJIP HI GPM#II PMRKZMWXMGI #M PI\MGEPI (1EVGY 1MLEM (IPIERY) RXPRMQ
#M REPXI STIVI WEHSZIRMIRI:
TR PE NYHIGEXE GIE HMR YVQ E PYM (YQRI^IY (,ERY %RGY'IM);
"M WJRXE %RE EVI W TYMI GYZRX PE WGEYRYP QTV'MIM GIPIM
QEVM (&EPXEKYP);
SQ GEVI E PITHEX GIPI TQRXI#XM (:EPIE *VYQSEWIM);
(VITX-GVIHMRGMS#M, TVIE GMRWXM'MPSV HVITX-GVIHMRGMS#M (4SZI#XMPI HI PE
&VEHY 7XVQF);
1EMG-QIE Q FSGIE #M HHIE PIXYVKLMM PE TSTE 2EWXEW (,ERY
%RGY'IM).
1SHYP HI I\TVMQEVI MQTYW HI FMWIVMG GSRXEQMRIE^ PMQFE HVITX-
QVMXSVMPSV GVI#XMRM, JETX GEVI WI VIWMQXI #M R WMXYE'MM HI GSQYRM-GEVI JV S
3REPMXEXI VIPMKMSEW:
QM-E WGVMW HSQRM'E 'EXVMRE GEVXI HIWTVI QYGIRMGME ZMI'MM
WEPI (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
EPGXYMEY S MGSER E ZIGLMM 1SPHSZI (2IEQYP "SMQ-VI#XMPSV);
RXM E PYEX GVIHMR' #M HYT EGIIE E RXMRW GYTE (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
P MWTMXM QI^MRYP (*VE'MM .HIVM);
*PSVMPI GHIPRM'EY TVIXYXMRHIRM QMVIWQI ('VIERKE HI EYV);
E XVIGYX R ^SRE JV HI TVMLER E EPXIM PYQM (&EVE HI HMRGSPS HI
RIKYV)
6IQEVGQ GLMEV #M 3KYVM HI WXMP VIEPM^EXI GY ENYXSVYP YRSV XIVQIRM HMR
PMQFENYP FMWIVMGIWG, GYQ WI RXQTP R GSQTEVE'MMPI HI QEM NSW, GEVI EY HVITX
WYTSVX YR EWXJIP HI XIVQIR, QIRMX W TPEWXMGM^I^I I\TVMQEVIE:
SGLMM RGP^M'M GE HI S VYKGMYRI (4SZI#XMPI HI PE &VEHY 7XVQF);
% TVMQMX GEVXIE HSQRMIM GE TI S EREJSV (*VE'MM .HIVM).
*MPSRYP VIPMKMSW EP STIVIM WEHSZIRMIRI EVI VITIVGYWMYRM #M EWYTVE
WXVEXYPYM KVEQEXMGEP. (MR TYRGX HI ZIHIVI QSVJSPSKMG, GSRWXEXQ I\MWXIR'E
QYPXSV GYZMRXI HMR WIGXSEVIPI ZIGLM EPI PMQFMM, QEM EPIW WYFWXERXMZI,
ETEV'MRRH ZSGEFYPEVYPYM VIPMKMSW:
8IVJIPSK: % HIWGLMW XIVJIPSKYP, E TYW R IP GVYGIE QMG HI PIQR HI
GLMTEVSW, EHYRRH S TEVXI E XIVJIPSKYPYM GY EPXE, #M E TVMRW E QYVQYVE GY
KVFMVI VYKGMYRMPI GIPI HI SF#XI (2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ);
'YQTRIEP: HYT GYQTRIEPE PYM (YQRI^IY (*VE'MM .HIVM);
1YGIRMG: 1EM FMRI JEGI'M-Q QYGIRMG HIGX TVSGPIX (2MGSEV
4SXGSEZ);
4VEZSWPEZRMG: "XMY #M IY, WPZMXI LEXQERI, G PE 29 EYKYWX
TVEZSWPEZRMGMM TV^RYMIWG XMIVIE GMRWXMXYPYM GET EP PYM -SR TVSVSGYP (2MGSEV
4SXGSEZ);
-WT#MVI: HVYQ HI MWT#MVI PE 7JRXYP 1YRXI (*VE'MM .HIVM);
3WVHMI: SWVHME PSV GXV (YQRI^IY (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
4ERELMH: R EGIE ^M WI VMHMG PE 4VEKYVM TERELMH HI TSQIRMVI E
ZSMIZSHYPYM -SR (2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ);
3WRH: 7I RXVIFE GI-E KVI#MX REMRXIE PYM (YQRI^IY, HI-M RGITI
MEV#M SWRHE (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM).
(I EWIQIRIE, 7EHSZIERY TVIME HMR PMQFENYP VIPMKMSW, QYPX QEM
GSRWIVZEXSV HIGX GIP PEMG, QYPXI WYFWXERXMZI JSPSWMXI GY JSVQE PSV ZIGLI,
TVSFEFMP MREGXYEP GLMEV #M R TIVMSEHE R GEVI IP #M IPEFSVE STIVE:
1MPSWVHMI: #M EGYQ, HMR QMPSWVHME PYM (YQRI^IY SVM VYX'MPI
SEQIRMPSV, RY WI QEM E4 TVMRXVI RSM (2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ);
4GXS#IRMI: W-E PITHEX HI TGXS#IRMI (*VE'MM .HIVM);
6YK: 7I RHVITX VQRRH R KIRYRGLM #M WXXY GY JVYRXIE TPIGEX,
QYVQYVRH S VYK (*VE'MM .HIVM).
9RIPI WYFWXERXMZI EY R XI\XIPI WEHSZIRMIRI WIRWYVM ZIGLM, HMJIVMXI HI
GIPI TI GEVI PI EY R PMQFE VSQR GSRXIQTSVER:
4IXVIGIVI: (IGM E ZIRMX QSRELYP #M Q-E R#XMMR'EX PE %XSR G WSV-
QIE 3ERE Q HSVI#XI, RIQEMEZRH QYPX ZVIQI HI TIXVIGIVI R EGIEWX
PYQI (*VE'MM .HIVM);
0IKI: 'GM WYRXIQ HI-EGIIE#M PIKI (2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ).
3FWIVZQ #M YXMPM^EVIE YRSV PSGY'MYRM WYFWXERXMZEPI, GSRWEGVEXI XSX R
GSRXI\X VIPMKMSW: GYV'ME HI MRMQ (*VE'MM .HIVM), NYHI'YP GIP HMR ZIEG (2MGSEV
4SXGSEZ).
8SX HI WYFWXERXMZ WI PIEK #M YRE HMRXVI TEVXMGYPEVMX'MPI GIPI QEM
TVIKRERXI EPI WXMPYPYM VIPMKMSW, TVI^IRX #M R WGVMWYP WEHSZIRMER: JSVQE
WTIGMEP HI ZSGEXMZ E WYFWXERXMZYPYM (SQR, EXYRGM GRH EGIWXE WI VIJIV PE
(YQRI^IY:
%NYX-M, (SEQRI, RXVY EWIQIRIE M^FRH (*VE'MM .HIVM).
R GIIE GI TVMZI#XI EHNIGXMZYP, 7EHSZIERY ETIPIE^ JVIGZIRX PE GYZMRXI
GEVI HIRYQIWG XVWXYVM HMR WJIVE WEGVEPMX'MM: WJRX, GYZMSW, GYGIVRMG,
TVI^IRXI R RYQIVSEWI I\IQTPI GMXEXI ERXIVMSV; XSXSHEX, KWMQ R WGVMIVMPI
WEPI #M ERXSRMQI EPI EGIWXSVE, GIP QEM JVIGZIRX 3MRH XMGPSW: 'GM EGIWX
XMGPSW XVYT WI HIWJXIE^ YRISVM RXVY FI'MI (*VE'MM .HIVM).
(EV GIE QEM MQTSVXERX QEVG WXMPMWXMG E EHNIGXMZYPYM R VIKMWXVY VIPMKMSW
IWXI WYTIVPEXMZYP EFWSPYX GSRWXVYMX GY TEVXMGYPE TVIE, EP GVYM KVEH HI
VIHYRHER' IWXI JSEVXI VMHMGEX #M R STIVE PYM 7EHSZIERY, GYQ EQ HIQSRWXVEX
TVMR TVI^IR'E EGIWXIM JSVQI HI WYTIVPEXMZ R QYPXI HMRXVI JVEKQIRXIPI HMR
XI\XI WEHSZIRMIRI GMXEXI TR EGYQ. 8SX HI WSVKMRXI VIPMKMSEW IWXI
WYTIVPEXMZYP VIHEX TVMR TIVMJVE^I EQTPI:
RXVY XSXYP ZIWXMX #M PYHEX MGSER (*VE'MM .HIVM);
XEMR GI WX QEM WYW HIGX TYXIVMPI TQRXI#XM (*VE'MM .HIVM).
R ERYQMXI WMRXEKQI TYXIQ GSRWXEXE TVI^IR'E YRSV PSGY'MYRM
EHNIGXMZEPI GEVI ZILMGYPIE^ WIQRM3GE'MM HI REXYV VIPMKMSEW, GE EGIWXIE:
FVFEX GY JVMGE HI (YQRI^IY, SEQIRM JV TVMLER, JIVMGMX WVEG GY HYLYP
WIPIGXEXI HMR *VE'MM .HIVM: 4VMRXIPI 2MGSHMQ W-E YMXEX PE IP #M P-E GYRSWGYX HYT
GYZRXYP 7GVMTXYVMM, G I YR JIVMGMX WVEG GY HYLYP (*VE'MM .HIVM).
*SEVXI VMHMGEX IWXI #M VERHEQIRXYP WXMPMWXMG EP ZIVFYPYM R VIKMWXVYP
WEGVYPYM. %WIQIRIE WYFWXERXMZYPYM, ZIVFYP WI QERMJIWX R TEKMRMPI
WEHSZIRMIRI #M TVMR JSVQI GY M^ HI WXVZIGLI GEVXI FMWIVMGIEWG, GY TEKMRM
RKPFIRMXI HI ZVIQI:
% WI WTSZHYM: %VI TSVYRG HI PE QVME WE W WI HYG PE 3IGEVI
ZMRIVM PE WJRXE QRWXMVI 2IEQ'Y, W WI WTSZHYMEWG PE TVMRXIPI
2MGSHMQ (*VE'MM .HIVM);
% WI RIZSM: %GSPS Q RIZSMIWG GY JVE'MM QIM RXVY TYWXMIXEXI (,ERY
%RGY'IM);
% WI TVMWXZM: 7XEVI'YP W-E TVMWXZMX #M P-EY EWXVYGEX
QSRELMM (4SZI#XMPI HI PE &VEHY 7XVQF);
% ^QMWPM: %GIIE GEVI E ^QMWPMX R WMRI TI VWGYQTVXSVYP
TGEXYPYM SQIRIWG (*VE'MM .HIVM).
9RIPI ZIVFI ETEV R ZEVMERXE PSV JSRIXMG WEY PI\MGEP EVLEMG:
7 WI TPMRIEWG ZSME PYM (YQRI^IY (2IEQYP "SMQVI#XMPSV);
%GYQ TSEXI W Q WPSFSEH 'IP HI 7YW GGM EQ ENYRW >MYE RXVY GEVI
EQ RHNHYMX (2IEQYP "SMQVI#XMPSV).
7I TSEXI GSRWXEXE #M VIGYVIR'E QEM QYPXSV ZIVFI GY VI^SRER' FMFPMG
WEY PMXYVKMG:
% TVMZIKLIE: 2SETXIE EGIIE E TVMZIKLIEX RXV-S SHM' HI PE
WXVI'MI (&EPXEKYP);
% TYVGIHI: 'RH EY TYVGIW, PYGIE WSEVIPI R ME^YP GIP RXMRW,
WGYVQRH GYMFEVI HI JSG (2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ);
% WI PITHE: %HIZVYP IWXI G W-E PITHEX HI TGXS#IRME PYM (*VE'MM
.HIVM);
% WI QMPSWXMZM: (YQRI^IY W WI QMPSWXMZIEWG HI WY4IXYP
QIY (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
% FPEKSWPSZM: 4VMRXIPI FPEKSWPSZM TRIE EPF (*VE'MM .HIVM);
% QVXYVMWM: TEXMQE TI GEVI EZIE W-S QVXYVMWIEWG (*VE'MM .HIVM);
% FMRIGYZRXE: 4VMRXIPI (ERMMP 1MPMI# E FMRIGYZRXEX JRXRMPI, #M
M^ZSEVIPI #M XSEXI ETIPI (&EPXEKYP);
% RKHYM: QSRELM GEVI ZMI'YMIWG JV TVMLER GX RKHYMWI
(YQRI^IY (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM).
RVIKMWXVQ #M I\TVIWMM ZIVFEPI GY WIQRM3GE'MM HMR EGIIE#M ^SR
WIQERXMG:
% HE HIWPIKEVI: 'M HEY IY HIWPIKEVI W ZSVFI#XM. (*VE'MM .HIVM);
% JEGI WPYNF: .SM, R 9 QEVXMI, TVMRXIPI (ERMMP E JGYX JVYQSEW
WPYNF PE FMWIVMG (&EPXEKYP);
% JEGI WIQRYP GVYGMM: :SMIZSHYP #M JGY WIQRYP GVYGMM #M VQEWI GY
GETYP HIWGSTIVMX (*VE'MM .HIVM);
% TWXVE VRHYMEPE XGIVMM: 4VIWZMXIVE ENYRE TR PE EW3R'MXYP WSEVIPYM
#M TWXVE VRHYMEPE XGIVMM (2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ);
% FEXI QIXERMI: &XY QIXERMI WYF GERHIP #M-#M YQMPM JVYRXIE,
PSZMRH-S HI TEVHSWIEPE GLMPMIM (*VE'MM .HIVM).
8SX HYT QSHIPYP PMQFMM ZIGLM, GSRWIVZEX HI GV'MPI FMWIVMGI#XM,
RVIKMWXVQ PE 7EHSZIERY S QYPX QEM QEVI ZEVMIXEXI HI JSVQI 4I\MSREVI EPI
ZIVFYPYM, GSQTEVEXMZ GY PMQFE VSQR PMXIVEV; EWXJIP, WYRX RYQIVSEWI
TVSTS^M'MMPI R GEVI TVIHMGEXYP WI E4 PE HMJIVMXI ZEVMERXI EPI ZMMXSVYPYM TSTYPEV:
NYHIGEXE GI ZE W 3I (*VE'MM .HIVM);
GY ENYXSVYP 1EMGMM (SQRYPYM, EVI W-M XVIEG (*VE'MM .HIVM);
'EPIE (YQRI^IY EVI W RI-S VRHYMEWG (2IEQYP "SMQVI#XMPSV);
#M (YQRI^IY P-E TVMZIKLIE GE W ENYRK WYF FVE'YP TVMRXIPYM
WY (*VE'MM .HIVM).
RXPRMQ #M QSHYPE'MM EPI ZIVFYPYM, TSWMFMPI, KVEQEXMGEP, TVMR GIIE GI
2SMGE RYQI#XI MWGYWMVMPI ZIVFYPYM E 3, EWXJIP RGX QSHYVMPI WY4IXYPYM, E#EHEV
GIPIPEPXI QSHYVM HIGX MRHMGEXMZYP XYXYVSV WMKYVER'IPSV, W-#M HIWJ#SEVI PMFIV
GYXVMPI, ETVS\MQE'MMPI, E#XITXVMPI PSV24.
%GSPS EV 3 XVMRH YR WGLMQRMG (*VE'MM .HIVM);
(SQRYP (YQRI^IY #M ZE 3 RXSGQMX NYHI'YP RSVSEHIPSV (4SZI#XMPI
HI PE &VEHY 7XVQF);
(YT GYQ EQ QEM JSWX NYVYMX, W HYVQ YR WGLMX #M W TIXVIGIQ ^MPIPI
GEVI RI QEM VQR R TSWX #M VYKGMYRI (*VE'MM .HIVM).
-R4YIR'E WXMPYPYM VIPMKMSW EWYTVE WGVMWYPYM WEHSZIRMER WI GSRGVIXM^IE^ #M
TVMR WYFWXMXYMVIE MQTIVEXMZYPYM, QSH GEVI HI SFMGIM I\TVMQ ZSMR'E
GSRWXVRKXSEVI E TIVWSERIM -, GY GSRNYRGXMZYP, R WMXYE'MM GSQYRMGE'MSREPI HI
MQTPSVEVI E HMZMRMX'MM, EGIWX PYGVY HSFRHMRH #M S VIPIZER' WXMPMWXMG TVMR
WYKIVEVIE TMS#IRMIM:
(YQRI^IY W WI QMPSWXMZIEWG HI WY4IXYP QIY (*VE'MM .HIVM);
7 WI TPMRIEWG ZSME PYM (YQRI^IY (2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ).
R GE^YP TV'MPSV HI ZSVFMVI RI4I\MFMPI, TIGIXIE PMQFENYPYM FMWIVMGIWG
EWYTVE WGVMWYPYM WEHSZIRMER #M JEGI WMQ'MX TVI^IR'E TVMR EGIPIE#M JSVQI
ZIGLM, GEVI EFYRH R *VE'MM .HIVM:
%HZIVFI:
#M GRH P-E HEX PYQMM GY HYVIVI, R-E #XMYX RMQI, JVHIGX 'IP GEVI
#XMI #M ZIHI XSEXI;
RXPRMVIE EGIPSV JVE'M IVE WGVMW HI QEM REMRXI, HI QTVINYVVM, HI
ZSMR'E SEQIRMPSV #M HI GIIE GI RYQMQ HIWXMR, EHMG HI R'IPITGMYRIE R ZIGM
RITXVYRW E PYM (YQRI^IY, TYW HI-E TYVYVM R ^MHMVIE WE;
%PXJIP RY WI TSEXI, TVIGYQ M-E PWEX (YQRI^IY;
4VITS^M'MM:
JKHYMR'E QIE GXV (SQRYP;
KRHYP E JSWX HMRXVY RGITYX WXEXSVRMG;
(YQRI^IY, GEVI EVI XSEX KVMNE EWYTVE JTXYVMPSV WEPI;
#M-#M TYVXE GIM TEXVY^IGM HI GYZMS#M TVMR'M WYTX EWGYPXEVIE WE, GE
YR GTMXER (>SHME 'ERGIVYPYM);
^SRE JV HI TVMLER E EPXIM PYQM (&EVE HI HMRGSPS HI RIKYV).
3 QIR'MYRI WTIGMEP WI MQTYRI R GE^YP TVITS^M'MIM EVLEM^ERXI RXVY, E
GVIM JVIGZIR' IWXI JSEVXI QEVI R TEKMRMPI WEHSZIRMIRI, GE YR JIP HI
EVKYQIRX ERXMGMTEX EP TVSTYRIVMM HI QEM XV^MY E PYM 'SRWXERXMR 2SMGE HI E 3
YRYP HMRXVI GYZMRXIPI VSQRI#XM VI'MRYXI HI 92)7'3 HEXSVMX E GIIE GI IP
GSRWMHIV IGLMZSGYP MRXMQ, RHV^RIEPE #M XMQMHMXEXIE, XVME HI-E TXVYRHI R,
HEV #M HMWGVI'ME HI-E VQRI PE25:
'GM EGIWX GYKIX WX XVIE^, RXVY PYGVEVIE PYM (YQRI^IY (*VE'MM .HIVM);
%#I^RH QVME XE E#E PIKI R 'EV, RXVY WPYNFE PYM ,VMWXSW (*VE'MM
.HIVM);
3IGEVI #M TSEXI KWM 8IFEMHE, RXVY GEVI W-#M E#I^I WY4IXYP
WY (2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ);
-E #M GMRWXI#XI RXVY TSQIRMVIE GIPSV GEVI W-EY HYW #M Q-EY PWEX
WMRKYV TI PYQI. (2ST'MPI HI 7R^MIRI).
6IWYVWI I\TVIWMZI I\MWX R XI\XIPI WEHSZIRMIRI GY WYFWXVEX VIPMKMSW #M
PE RMZIPYP WMRXEGXMG, EGIWXIE EZRH, GE TYRGX HI GSRZIVKIR', IPSGZIR'E WEGV.
R GIIE GI TVMZI#XI TVSTS^M'ME, WI HIXE#IE^ RYQVYP QEVI HI TVSTS^M'MM
IPMTXMGI GY WIRW I\GPEQEXMZ, R GEVI RXV-YR WYFWXERXMZ WI GSRHIRWIE^ S
TVSTS^M'MI GEVI EV EZIE, HVITX TVIHMGEX, YR ZIVF HMR EGIIE#M JEQMPMI
WIQERXMG:
7PEZ (SQRYPYM! (2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ);
1VMVI PYM (YQRI^IY! (*VE'MM .HIVM);
1EVI TIHIETW HI PE (YQRI^IY! (*VE'MM .HIVM);
9QMPMX QYP'QMVI PYM (YQRI^IY! (*VE'MM .HIVM).
R YRIPI WMXYE'MM WI TVSHYGI #M JIRSQIRYP GSRXVEV, EP HMPEXVMM TVSTS^M'MMPSV
TVMR GSQTPIQIRXI JEWXYSEWI #M WYTVEEKPSQIVEXI, IPI RWIPI FSKEX
HIXIVQMREXI #M GEVI RY EWGYRH MRXIR'ME QSRYQIRXEPYPYM26: 9RYP HMRXVI GIM
GEVI EY WXEX EMGM, R EPX XSEQR, RY QEM IWXI #M RY WI ZE QEM RGP^M RMGMSHEX,
PE RMGM YR JSG HI TI PYQIE EWXE #M HI TI EGIWX TQRX (:IGLMQI).
:EPIR'I I\TVIWMZI EY R WGVMIVMPI WEHSZIRMIRI #M MRZIVWMYRMPI, VITIXM'MMPI,
EGIWXIE EGGIRXYRH TEXIXMWQYP TI GEVI P HIKEN: (SEQRI, WXVMKE WY4IXYP
:SMIZSHYPYM, KVI#MX-EQ GXV XMRI, GGM RY EQ RHITPMRMX GI RHNHYMEQ. +VI#MX-
EQ, GGM Q-EQ WIQI'MX, GVI^RH TVIE QYPX R TYXIVMPI QIPI. (:ME'E PYM "XIJER
GIP 1EVI).
9R TVSGIHIY WMRXEGXMG GI-#M EVI, HI EWIQIRIE, SFV#ME R XI\XIPI
VIPMKMSEWI #M TI GEVI 7EHSZIERY P JSPSWI#XI JVIGZIRX IWXI ERXITYRIVIE
GSQTPIQIRXYPYM:
'EPIE (YQRI^IY EVI W RI-S SVRHYMEWG (2IEQYP "SMQVI#XMPSV);
&MIP#YKYP ZMI'MM RMQMG RY RWEQR (*VE'MM .HIVM).
3FWIVZE'MM TIVXMRIRXI R PIKXYV GY IJIGXYP I\TVIWMZ EP MRZIVWMYRMM R
STIVE PYM 7EHSZIERY JEGI (SMRE *PSVIE: 8IRHMR'E HI E ERXMGMTE IPIQIRXIPI
GIPI QEM I\TVIWMZI EPI GSQYRMGVMM IWXI #M YR TVSGIHIY GY RYQIVSEWI ZEPIR'I
VMXQMGI #M QIPSHMGI, QIR'MRRH PMVMWQYP XI\XYPYM.27 %HIWISVM HS^EVIE VMXQMG,
SVKERM^EVIE #M GYVWMZMXEXIE QIPSHMG E JVE^IPSV XVERWJSVQ XI\XYP WEHSZIRMER
R ZIVMXEFMPI TSIQI R TVS^, GYQ IWXI YVQXSVYP, EZRH PE FE^ GIPIFVYP
QSXMZ FMFPMG ZERMXEW ZERMXEXYQ: 'GM RYQEM (SQRYP (YQRI^IY WX, MEV
SEQIRMM XVIG R RMQMGYP HI YRHI EY MI#MX; GGM REMRXIE 3GLMPSV 'IPYM IXIVR QME
HI ERM I GE ^MYE HI MIVM #M GE S WXVEN HI RSETXI.
"M ZME'E QYVMXSVMPSV I GE YR ZMW, GE MEVFE GI VWEVI HMQMRIE'E #M
R4SVI#XI, MEV WIEVE WI XEMI #M WI YWYG

(:ME'E PYM "XIJER GIP 1EVI)
0E JIP HI FMRI MPYWXVIE^ 7EHSZIERY #M PE RMZIPYP JVE^IM WTIGM3GYP
SVEXSVMIM HI EQZSR TVMR VIGYVIR'E YRSV TVSGIHII GEVI JEG TEVXI HMR VIGY^MXE
EGIWXIME, QEM HIW RXPRMX 3MRH VITIXM'ME HI XMT WMQIXVMG, EGIEWXE HRH JVE^IM
S XYVRYV EQTP, WSPIQR: 'Y GX Q RGVIHMR'I^ G GVI#XI TYXIVIE
PYQMR'MIM WEPI WXTRYP QIY, GY EXXE Q VGSVIWG R TSNEVYP EQVGMYRMM
QIPI; GY GX ZIHIEQ ZVIHRMGME XE WTSVMRH, GY EXXE RHNHYMEQ RG YR EHESW
TYXIVMM WXTRYPYM QIY (*VE'MM .HIVM)
8SX PYM %Q3PSLMI "IRHVIE, TIVWSRENYP GVYME M ETEV'MR GYZMRXIPI HI QEM
WYW, 7EHSZIERY M EXVMFYMI JVE^I MRXIVSKEXMZI RXV-S WYGGIWMYRI GEVI GSRJIV
HMWGYVWYPYM S QEVI JSV' TIVWYEWMZ: 3EVI (YQRI^IY W-E RXVYTEX #M W-E
VWXMKRMX GE W RI YQ4Q RSM RXVY QFMIP#YKEVI# (YQRI^IY #M WXTR E XSEXI
3MRH, HI GI W-E NIVX3X# %Y R-E'M EY^MX HSQRMMPI ZSEWXVI G -IVYWEPMQYP I WTYVGEX
HI MWQEMPMXIRM# %Y RY #XM'M G 'IXEXIE QTV'MIM WX WYF WEFME TKRYPYM#
7YRX JSEVXI TVIKRERXI R EGIWX JVEKQIRX #M IGSYVMPI GMGIVSRMIRI HMR
GIPIFVIPI 'EXMPMREVI.
9R EPX IPIQIRX GEVI GSRJIV TEXIXMWQ HMWGYVWYPYM SVEXSVMG EP
EVLMQERHVMXYPYM, 4YMHM^RHY-P, IWXI TVIHMPIG'ME TIRXVY #M REVEXMZ WEY GSTYPEXMZ,
GE R I\IQTPYP YVQXSV.
3 XYPFYVXSEVI PMXERMI: %Q GYRSWGYX &EVMKVEHYP, HIWJXEVIE PYQMM, #M
EQ RZ'EX PE GYVXIE GIE ZIGLI E QTV'MIM, PE :PELIVRI, #M PE 7JRXE
4EXVMEVLMI. %Q TVMZMX QMRYRMPI PYQMM FMWIVMGMPI QTVXI#XM #M RY PI-EQ YMXEX. "M
EQ TPRW R EGIWXI W3RXI PGE#YVM, QTVIYR GY JVE'MM #M GYZMS#MM TVMR'M,
7JRXYP 1SVQRX GSXVSTMX HI PMQFM TKRI #M EQ ZMWEX M^FZMXSVM GE EGIM GEVI
EY QEM JSWX SHEX. (*VE'MM .HIVM).
9R M^FZMXSV IWXI RWY#M 7EHSZIERY, RYQEM G IP E M^FZMX HI PE
RIHVIETXE YMXEVI WEY MKRSVEVI WPSZE WJRX GYZRX FXVR, EP YRIM PYQM GEVI
E QFXVRMX R'IPITX ('SRWXERXMR 2SMGE).
4VSGIWYP HI TPMIVI E WXVYGXYVMPSV PMQFMM TI GEPMXEXIE I\TIVMIR'IPSV
WYFMIGXMZI28, EXX HI WTIGM3G WGVMWYPYM WEHSZIRMER, IWXI IZMHIRX #M PE RMZIP
JSRIXMG; KVE'MI WMQ'YPYM MRJEMPMFMP EP PMQFMM, TI GEVI P TSWIH R GIP QEM REPX
KVEH, 7EHSZIERY EXMRKI TIVJSVQER'E VIQEVGEFMP HI WIQERXM^EVI E XI\XYVMM
WSRSVI TVMRXV-S MQTVIWMSRERX VI'IE HI VIGYVIR'I #M WMQIXVMM JSRMGI29.
%GIWXI EWIV'MYRM #M QIR'MR RXVY XSXYP ZEPEFMPMXEXIE #M R GE^YP WIRXMQIRXYPYM
VIPMKMSW GEVI ERMQ TEKMRMPI WEPI, IP VIZIVFIVRH EHIWISVM R VIKMWXVY WSRSV.
%WXJIP, IPIZE'ME I\EPXVMM HI REXYV VIPMKMSEW HIXIVQMR R QYPXI WMXYE'MM
VIPYEVIE IYJSRMG E ZSGEPIM E RXV-YR HIWIR QIPSHMG HMEJER, R VIEPM^EVIE
GVYME YR VSP MQTSVXERX VIZMRI HI QYPXI SVM GPEYWYPIPSV GQTYVM VMXQMGI R
GYTVMRWYP GVSVE WI HMWXMRK ZVJYVM HI EGGIRXYEVI30 GEVI EHIWIE GSMRGMH GY
ZSGEPE E, GE R YVQXSEVIPI I\IQTPI:
/M RM QE/GY VE X/#M PY /QM RE X/ (*VE'MM .HIVM) WTSRHIY
EQ3FVEL MEQF EQ3FVEL
4S ME RE/6E MY PYM/ (:EPIE *VYQSEWIM) EQ3FVEL HEGXMP
/VE MY VM PI/HI S HM RM/SE V/ (4SZI#XMPI HI PE TISR TISR XVSLIY
&VEHY 7XVQF)
/E RE /JS VE HMR/#XIV KE VI/GY VE XI/ (*VE'MM MEQF WTSRHIY
EQ3FVEL EQ3FVEL .HIVM)
6R HY ME PE/WY 4I XIEW G/WYF PY QM RE/GVIHMR'IM/ (*VE'MM
.HIVM)
4PEWEVIE WYF EGGIRX E ZSGEPIM GY QE\MQ ETIVXYV HIXIVQMR S
XSREPMXEXI PYQMRSEW, GEVI RXVIKI#XI R QSH JIVMGMX TSXIR'MEPMXEXIE I\TVIWMZ
E VIWTIGXMZIPSV WMRXEKQI, QFSK'MRHY-PI GSRSXE'MMPI HMR WJIVE WIQERXMG E
PYQMRMM, GE VITVI^IRXEVI MQEKMWXMG WMQFSPMG E WIRXMQIRXYPYM VIPMKMSW.
8VERWKVIWME IPERYPYM VIPMKMSW R TPER EGYWXMG KIRIVIE^ PE 7EHSZIERY S
EVLMXIGXYV WSRSV WTIGMEP, R GEVI HSQMRERXI WYRX XSRYVMPI XVERWTEVIRXI, GY
PYQMRS^MX'M HI JVIWG.
R EPXI WMXYE'MM GSR3KYVE'ME JSRMG E GYZMRXIPSV GSRJIV XI\XYPYM
WEHSZIRMER S XSREPMXEXI KVEZ, EWSGMEX WYRIXYPYM GPSTSXIPSV GEVI R QSH
JVIGZIRX RWS'I#XI, R VIKMWXVY EYHMXMZ, VITVI^IRXVMPI HI REXYV VIPMKMSEW.
7EHSZIERY SF'MRI VIQEVGEFMPI IJIGXI JSRMGI EPXIVRRH EPMXIVE'ME ZSGEPIPSV
RGLMWI Y #M S GY EPMXIVE'ME GSRWSERIPSV PMGLMHI, RE^EPI #M ZMFVEXMPI: P, Q, R, V, Z;
IP SF'MRI TI EGIEWX GEPI QSHYPE'MM WSPIQRI, HI S WIZIV JVYQYWI'I: 2YQEM
GIPI HMR YVQ ZMFVVM EPI YRYM GPSTSX XVIQYVEY TI YRHIPI ZRXYPYM ("SMQMM)
'PSTSXIPI RGITYV E FEXI TVIXYXMRHIRM, R XSEXI XYVRYVMPI FMWIVMGMPSV
7YGIZMM (*VE'MM .HIVM) 'PSTSXIPI GRX QVMVIE (SQRYPYM, :IWXMRH R ZM
VYKGMYRMPI QSRELMPSV

(4SZI#XMPI HI PE &VEHY 7XVQF) (YT GI EY WXEX GPSTSXIPI EGIPIE, EQ
EY^MX EPXIPI, HI PE FMWIVMGMPI EPXSV WEXI, #M TMGYVEY HITVXEXI #M WXRWI: TEVG
FXIEY R MRMQE QIE

(,ERY %RGY'IM)
)JIGXI I\TVIWMZI HISWIFMXI VIEPM^IE^ 7EHSZIERY R JVEKQIR-XIPI
QIR'MSREXI #M TVMR VIHYRHER'E ZIVFIPSV PE QSHYP KIVYR^MY WEY PE XMQTYP
MQTIVJIGX, GEXIKSVMM KVEQEXMGEPI GY ZMVXY'M EGYWXMGI-IZSGEXSEVI EHIWISVM
ZEPSVM3GEXI WXMPMWXMG HI WGVMMXSVM TIRXVY E GSRJIVM IRYR'YVMPSV R GEVI WYRX
TPEWEXI S VI^SRER' IQS'MSREP KVEZ.
7EHSZIERY RVIKMWXVIE^ GY EGIIE#M WIRWMFMPMXEXI EYHMXMZ #M EPXI
IPIQIRXI HI REXYV WSRSV HMR TIVMQIXVYP WEGVYPYM, IPI 3MRH RWS'MXI, HMR RSY,
HI YR EYXIRXMG 3SV PMVMG: 1YVQYVIPI #M GRXVMPI WPYNFIM M ENYRKIEY GE ZEPYVM
PMRI PE YVIGLM (&EPXEKYP)
"M R EGIWX TEWEN HI S XYPFYVXSEVI GERXEFMPMXEXI, 7EHSZIERY SF'MRI
IJIGXI HISWIFMXI TI FE^E VERHEQIRXYPYM WXMPMWXMG EP GSRWSERIPSV RE^EPI,
PMGLMHI #M ZMFVEXMPI, YXMPM^EXI GY S WIQRM3GEXMZ MRWMWXIR', QFMREXI EVQSRMG GY
ZSGEPI HI S XSREPMXEXI HMWGVIX, R GSRWIRW GY XVMVIE VIPMKMSEW GEVI EFWSEVFI
3MR'E IVSMRIM, XVERW3KYVRHY-M YRMZIVWYP MRXIVMSV.
0E GETXYP EGIWXYM XVEWIY MRXIVTVIXEXMZ EQ EPIW, R PSG HI GSRGPY^MI,
TEWENYP GEVI, TSEXI HIPSG RXQTPXSV, GSMRGMHI GY 3REPYP YPXMQIM GETSHSTIVI
WEHSZIRMIRI, VSQERYP 2MGSEV 4SXGSEZ, TEWEN RXVY XSXYP WIQRM3GEXMZ #M
TIRXVY HIWXMRYP WGVMMXSVYPYM 1MLEMP 7EHSZIERY, GE TEXVMEVL EP PMXIVEXYVMM VSQRI:
(MR HYLYP WY GEVI RY WI WXMRKI RI-SQ ETVMRHI RSM #M EP'MM HI HYT RSM, GYQ
WI ETVMRHI PYQMRE HMR PYQMR.
7*6"-8
1. 8YHSV :MERY, 7XMPMWXMGE PMXIVEV #M PMRKZMWXMGE. 4VSFPIQIPI QIXEJSVIM #M
EPXI WXYHMM HI WXMPMWXMG, &YGYVI#XM, )740%, 1957, T. 130
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3. +L. 'LMZY, 3 ZEVMERX MKRSVEX E VSQRIM PMXIVEVI QSHIVRI PMQFENYP
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4. 1EVGY 1MLEMP (IPIERY, 7XYHMM HI WXMPMWXMG, 6I#M'E, )HMXYVE 8MQTYP,
1999, T. 14
5. -PIERE 3ERGIE, 7IQMSWXMPMWXMGE, 8MQM#SEVE, )HMXYVE )\GIPWMSV, 1998, T.
77
6. 4EYP 'SVRIE, -RXVSHYGIVI R XISVME PIGXYVMM, &YGYVI#XM, )HMXYVE 1MRIVZE,
1988, T. 195
7. 1MVGIE :YPGRIWGY, (YQRI^IY, R 4IRXVY S RSY WTMVMXYEPMXEXI
3PSWS3G, ZSP. -, &YGYVI#XM, )HMXYVE )QMRIWGY, 1976, T. 162
8. (SMRE -PMEWE-*VMKYV, 7XMPMWXMGE WMRSRMQIPSV R STIVE PYM 1MLEMP
7EHSZIERY, &YGYVI#XM, )HMXYVE 0MXIVE, 1980, T. 103
9. (MSRMWMI TWIYHS-%VISTEKMXYP, (IWTVI 2YQIPI HMZMRI. 8ISPSKME QMWXMG,
-E#M, -RWXMXYXYP )YVSTIER, 1993, T. 139
10. -FMHIQ, T. 136
11. %VLMQERHVMXYP 7SJVSRMI, 6YKGMYRIE I\TIVMIR'E :MI'MM :I#RMGI,
7MFMY, )HMXYVE (IMWMW, 1998, T. 116
12. -FMHIQ, T. 119
13. 4VISX TVSJ. :EWMPI 1MLSG, 'STMPVME #M XMRIVI'IE 1RXYMXSVYPYM -MWYW
,VMWXSW R %PQEREL -MWYW &MVYMXSVYP, 7MFMY, )HMXYVE 3EWXIE (SQRYPYM, 2000,
T. 94
14. -FMHIQ
15. 3PMZMIV 'PIQIRX, 4YXIVIE GVIHMR'IM, 8VKSZM#XI, )HMXYVE 4ERHSVE,
1999, T. 172
16. %VLMQ. .YWXMR 4STSZMGM, )TMWXSPIPI 7JRXYPYM -SER 8ISPSKYP, &YGYVI#XM,
)HMXYVE &M^ERXMR, 1998, T. 15
17. -FMHIQ
18. 4EYP 'SVRIE, MHIQ, T. 221
19. +. -. 8SLRIERY, %VXE IZSGVMM PE 7EHSZIERY, 8MQM#SEVE, )HMXYVE
*EGPE, 1979, T. 106
20. +VEVH +IRIXXI, ETYH 4EYP 'SVRIE, MHIQ, T. 92
21. )GPI^MEWXYP XVEHYW #M GSQIRXEX HI 4IXVY 'VI'ME, &YGYVI#XM, )HMXYVE
,YQERMXEW, 1995, T. 115
22. (SMRE *PSVIE, 1MLEMP 7EHSZIERY WEY QEKME VSWXMVMM, &YGYVI#XM,
)HMXYVE 'EVXIE 6SQRIEWG, 1986, T. 48
23. 1MVGIE :YPGRIWGY, (MQIRWMYRIE VSQRIEWG E I\MWXIR'IM R 4IRXVY
S RSY WTMVMXYEPMXEXI 3PSWS3G, &YGYVI#XM, )HMXYVE )QMRIWGY, 1996, T. 176
24. 'SRWXERXMR 2SMGE, 'YZRX QTVIYR HIWTVI VSWXMVIE VSQ-RIEWG,
&YGYVI#XM, )HMXYVE )QMRIWGY, 1987, T. 317
25. -FMHIQ, T. 266
26. )YKIR 2IKVMGM, %RXMQ, PSKSW, TIVWSREPMXEXI, &YGYVI#XM, )HMXYVE
1MRIVZE, 1971, T. 218
27. (SMRE *PSVIE, MHIQ, T. 76
28. -PIERE 3ERGIE, MHIQ, T. 77
29. -FMHIQ, T. 120
30. +. -. 8SLRIERY, (MRGSPS HI GYZRX, &YGYVI#XM, )HMXYVE "XMMR'M3G #M
)RGMGPSTIHMG, 1976, T. 2