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4VSPSK 7
3VMKMRMPI QEKMIM SGGMHIRXEPI 12
'YXEVIE WIGVIXYPYM WIGVIXIPSV 16
RZ'XYVE MRM'MEXMG, 6SWE-'VYGMW #M *VERGQEWSRIVME 19
8VMYQJYP ZEPSVMPSV SGYPXI 22
1 1%6)% 86%(-&-) % +23>)- 26
+RS^E WMQSRMER 29
4VMR'MM WMWXIQYPYM KRSWXMG 32
,IVQIW 8VMWQIKMWXYW, 'IM #ETXI %VLSR'M #M VI'IXE RIQYVMVMM 37
7STLME #M JIQIMPI KRSWXMGI 41
"EVTIPI 9VSFSVSW #M SVKME VMXYEP 44
1S#XIRMVIE 'SQSVMM HI PYQMR 49
2 1-78)6)0) '%&%0)- 55
>SLEVYP 61
RGITYXYVMPI 'EFEPIM 3PSWS3GI 65
(SGXVMRE WIGSPYPYM HI EYV 69
%PJEFIXIPI GIPIWXI #M XIVIWXVI 71
(SKQE REPXIM 1EKMM 74
3VHMRYP GEFEPMWXMG EP 6SWIM-'VYGMW 79
3 %6-813>3*-% 85
1EXLIWE #M PIKMPI GEPGYPYPYM QIXE3^MG 87
7XIKERSKVE3E 96 2YQIVIPI VMXQMGI EPI -WXSVMIM 101
*MPSWS3E EFWSPYXYPYM 104
4 %0',-1-% 86-91*83%6) 109
1EVIE 3TIV #M TMEXVE 3PSWSJEP 113
%PGLMQM#XM JV ZSMI 119
'PEWMGMM PMXIVEXYVMM EPGLMQMGI 123
,MTIVGLMQME #M LMPS^SMWQYP 127
%PGLMQME R WIGSPYP EP <<-PIE 129
5 (31-2%6)% :--836909- '9 %.983690 %68)036 (-:-2%836-- 133
4VI^MGIVMPI #M TVSJI'MMPI 137
%WXVSPSKME 142
+ISQER'ME 147
*M^MSKRSQSRME 149
'LMVSQER'ME 153
1IXSTSWGSTME 157
3RMVSQER'ME 158
(MZMRE'ME GY SKPMR^M 160
'EVXSQER'ME 163
6EFHSQER'ME WEY FEKLIXE HMZMREXSVMI 168
6 1)(-'-2% )61)8-' "- 8%91%896+-% 172
6IZSPX R QIHMGMRE 6IRE#XIVMM 175
1IHMGMRE WTEKMVMG 178
1IHMGYP GIPSV XVIM 7 QTSXVMZE QIHMGYPYM EVOI-YPYM 188
8ISVME #M ETPMGEVIE QEKRIXMWQYPYM ERMQEP 193
8EYQSXYVKME #M XILRMGMPI IM 197
1IHMGMRE SGYPX QM\X #M QIXMEXVME 203
7 'SQYRMGEVIE GY MRZM^MFMPYP 209
+SI'ME 213
(YIXIPI QIHMYQRMGI 219
-PYQMREVIE 222
'PXSVMMPI I\XEXMGI 224
9VQVMVIE 0YGVYPYM 228 'EPIE MRXIVR E QEVXMRMWQYPYM 232
8ISHS\ME YRMZIVWEP 236
3GYPXMWQYP QTSXVMZE WTMVMXMWQYPYM 240
)\TIVMIR'IPI HIHYFPVMM 244
7MRXI^E ZM^MFMPYPYM #M MRZM^MFMPYPYM 247
8 1EKME WI\YEP 252
3RXSPSKME EGXYPYM WI\YEP 254
)VSXMWQYP HMEFSPMG 259
7EFEXYP 266
:VNMPI #M TSWIHEVIE 271
0MXYVKLME RIEKV 277
9RMVMPI MQEXIVMEPI 285
7ERGXM3GEVIE WI\YPYM 287
,MIVSKEQME R XMQTYVMPI QSHIVRI 291
-RHMGI EP QEI#XVMPSV SGYPXMWQYPYM 302
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GIE QEM RIGYRSWGYX, E ERXVSTSPSKMIM KIRIVEPI. 2YQVYP QEVI HI GV'M GEVI
HMWGYX HIWTVI EGIWX WYFMIGX, HI#M EXIWX MRXIVIWYP GSRWXERX EP TYFPMGYPYM
TIRXVY JIRSQIRIPI PIKEXI HI IP, QTMIHMG, GY XSX JIPYP HI GSRWMHIVE'MM
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VIWXVMGXMZ GYRSE#XIVIE TI GEVI S TYXIQ EZIE HIWTVI EGIWX WYFMIGX. )WXI
HM3GMP W RI I\TVMQQ EWYTVE PYM JV E GHIE RXV-YRE HMR GIPI HSY I\XVIQI,
GVIHYPMXEXIE WEY WGITXMGMWQYP, GEVI HYRIE^, R IKEP QWYV, SFMIGXMZMX'MM.
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WYRXIQ GETEFMPM W EZIQ HIWTVI IPI S ZIHIVI HI ERWEQFPY NYHMGMSEW #M W PI
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YR WGITXMGMWQ HI RIGPMRXMX VMWGQ W TMIVHIQ RZ'QMRXIPI TVI'MSEWI TI GEVI
PI GSR'MR HIWTVI SQ #M PYQI, W GSRWMHIVQ JIPYVMXIPI TVIVM GEVI EY EZYX S
VIEP MR4YIR' EWYTVE QSVEZYVMPSV HVITX HMZEKE'MM HI ZM^MSREVM. -EX HI GI,
T^MRHY-Q GY KVMN HI EWXJIP HI EFY^YVM HI MRXIVTVIXEVI, ZVIEY W EFSVHI^
WXYHMYP QEKMIM SGGMHIRXEPI RXV-YR WTMVMX RSY, W VIWTMRK QYP'MQIE HI
ERIGHSXI GEVI S VMHMGYPM^IE^, W 3PXVI^ GY VMKSEVI GVIHMR'IPI #M TSXIR'MEPMX'MPI
TI GEVI PI-E TYW R TVEGXMG #M W-S TVI^MRX WYF S JSVQ TI GEVI GYPXYVE
QSHIVR W-S TSEX EWMQMPE.
*SPSWIWG QEM HIKVEF XIVQIRYP HI 3PSWS3I SGYPX (R GSRWIRW GY EYXSVM
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HMWGMTPMRE) EVXRH G IWXI ZSVFE HI I\TYRIVIE YRYM ERWEQFPY HI TVMRGMTMM, HI
HSKQI #M HI QIXSHI; IP IWXI QEM TSXVMZMX HIGX XIVQIRYP SGYPXMWQ MRZIRXEX HI
)PMTLEW 0IZM TIRXVY E GVIE S QM#GEVI EREPSEK GY VSQERXMWQYP #M WSGMEPMWQYP
#M GEVI RY GSVIWTYRHI EWXJIP HIGX YRYM GYVIRX RWGYX R WIGSPYP EP <-<-PIE. 2Y
GVIH RMGM G TYXIQ ZSVFM WIVMSW HI #XMMR'I SGYPXI, HISEVIGI #XMMR'IPI TVSTVMY-
^MWI EY XVIFYMX, GE W ENYRK PE S HI^ZSPXEVI TS^MXMZ, W WI HIWTVMRH HI
MPY^MMPI KRHMVMM QEKMGI FE GLMEV, PE RIZSMI, W PI GSQFEX. %GIEWX RS'MYRI HI
3PSWS3I SGYPX IWXI GY EXX QEM TSXVMZMX GY GX 4MXEKSVE, GVYME M WI EXVMFYMI
MRZIRXEVIE GYZRXYPYM TLMPSWSTLME, E GSRGITYX IP RWY#M QTV'MVIE EGIWXIM
EVXI HI E KRHM RXV-S GYRSE#XIVI I\SXIVMG, HIWXMREX TVSJERMPSV, #M S
GYRSE#XIVI I^SXIVMG, VI^IVZEX RYQEM MRM'ME'MPSV. 1IQFVMM #GSPMM WEPI XVIFYMEY
W WI PIKI TVMR NYVQRX G ZSV TWXVE WIGVIXYP RZ'XYVMPSV PYM; GIP GEVI-P
HMZYPKE IVE GSRWMHIVEX GE QSVX #M M WI VMHMGE S WXIP JYRIVEV; EGIEWXE E JSWX
WERG'MYRIE ETPMGEX PYM ,MTTEVGLSW GRH E TVIHEX TYFPMG TMXEKSVMWQYP, R GMYHE
EZIVXMWQIRXYPYM HEX HI XSZEV#YP PYM HI RZ'XYV, 0]WMW. 3FPMKE'ME HI E TWXVE
WIGVIXYP P HISWIFIE TI 3PSWSJ HI WS3WXYP HI VRH1. 1EM XV^MY, %VMWXSXIP ZE
XVERWQMXI #M IP S RZ'XYV EGVSEQEXMG, EHMG TYV SVEP, TVIHEX WITEVEX
GIPSV QEM FYRM IPIZM EM PYM #M GY GSR'MRYX HMJIVMX HI GIP HI PE GYVWYVMPI TYFPMGI #M
HMR WGVMIVMPI WEPI. %WXJIP WI MRWXEPIE^ XVEHM'ME YRIM IPMXI HI KRHMXSVM GI EZIEY
R WIEQ S HSGXVMR WIGVIX, HI GEVI XVIFYMEY RHITVXEXI WTMVMXIPI JVMZSPI #M
GEVI VI4IGXE EWYTVE YRSV WYFMIGXI TI GEVI VIPMKME, #XMMR'E #M RZ'QRXYP PEMG
VIJY^EY W PI ETVSJYRHI^I; EGIEWX HSGXVMR RY IVE RYQEM WTIGYPEXMZ, GM ZSME
W TYR PE HMWTS^M'ME EHIT'MPSV IM QMNPSEGI WYTIVMSEVI TIRXVY E GSRHYGI
3MR'IPI #M TIRXVY E R'IPIKI PYGVYVMPI.
'YQ WI JEGI SEVI G PE WJV#MXYP WIGSPYPYM EP <<-PIE, GY XSEXI TVSKVIWIPI
3^MGMM RYGPIEVI, EPI QIHMGMRIM, EPI EWXVS3^MGMM, EPI TWMLEREPM^IM WI QEM KWIWG
RG GMXMXSVM TEWMSRE'M HI PYGVVM HIWTVI QEKMI, ZVNMXSVMI, EWXJIP RGX
GERXMXEXIE XSX QEM QEVI HI VIZMWXI, HI GSRJIVMR'I, HI PYGVVM TI EGIEWX XIQ
GETX TVSTSV'MMPI YRYM JIRSQIR WSGMSPSKMG# )WXI HI TVIZ^YX G R WIGSPYP EP
<<--PIE #M GLMEV QEM XV^MY WI ZSV QEM KWM EQEXSVM GEVI W WI HIHMGI 3PSWS3IM
SGYPXI; IZSPY'ME HIWGSTIVMVMPSV #XMMR'M3GI RY ZE EZIE RMGM S MR4YIR' R EGIEWX
TVMZMR'. %GIEWX WYTVEZMI'YMVI E YRSV GVIHMR'I E#E-^MW EVLEMGI E JSWX TYW TI
WIEQE GIPSV QEM HMJIVMXI GEY^I: YRMM EY MRGVMQMREX HIGPMRYP VIPMKMMPSV #M EY
MRXIVTVIXEX VIGVYHIWGIR'E WYTIVWXM'MMPSV TSTYPEVI GE TI S GSRWIGMR' E
QEXIVMEPMWQYPYM; EP'MM EY Z^YX R IE S EWTMVE'MI MRXIPIGXYEP WTVI QMVEGYPSW, S
GVM^ HI GMZMPM^E'MI, S I\TVIWMI E RIPMRM#XMM GSPIGXMZI #M E#E QEM HITEVXI. 4IRXVY
QMRI #M EGIEWXE JSVQIE^ YRE HMR PMRMMPI HMVIGXSEVI EPI WXYHMYPYM QIY
3PSWS3E SGYPX IWXI GIVYX HI WXVYGXYVE WTMVMXYPYM YQER, GEVI GSR'MRI R QSH
MRIZMXEFMP KRHMVIE QEKMG #M KRHMVIE TVEKQEXMG. +RHMVIE QEKMG IWXI
MRIVIRX MRGSR#XMIRXYPYM, KRHMVIE TVEKQEXMG TVSZMRI HMR GSR#XMIRX. *MPSWS3E
SGYPX ETEV'MRI XYXYVSV XMQTYVMPSV TIRXVY G IE WMWXIQEXM^IE^ KRHMVIE
QEKMG TI GEVI 3IGEVI S TSEVX R WMRI, 3I G S EGGITX WEY S RIEK, G S
GYPXMZ WEY S RFY#. %GIEWX KRHMVI QEKMG WI QERMJIWX RIRKVHMX R
JEFYPE'ME GSTMMMPSV, R ZMW #M R RIZVS^. 3VMGI SQ E JSWX GSTMP, SVMGI SQ ZMWIE^
RSETXIE, SVMGI SQ E XVIGYX TVMRXV-S RIZVS^ ER\MSEW R YVQE YRYM XVEYQEXMWQ
QSVEP; SVMGI SQ IWXI HIGM WYWGITXMFMP, R 3IGEVI QSQIRX EP ZMI'MM WEPI, W
EWMWXI PE ETEVM'ME, R TWMLMGYP PYM, E YRSV TEVEHMKQI EPI QEKMIM ERGIWXVEPI.
'STMPVME, R TVMQYP VRH, IWXI S EHIZVEX #GSEP E PYQMM SGYPXI. 2Y
EZIQ HIGX W SFWIVZQ GSTMMM HMR NYVYP RSWXVY, W RI EREPM^Q TVSTVMMPI
EQMRXMVM, TIRXVY E ZIVM3GE EGIEWX TVIHMWTS^M'MI TI GEVI, HI EPXJIP, QEVM
TIHMEXVM EY GSHM3GEX-S. 1IPERMI /PIMR, WXYHMMRH TVMQMM XVIM ERM EM ZMI'MM MRJERXMPI,
E VIQEVGEX EGXI SFWIWMSREPI HI GSRXVEZVNMXSVMI, TI GEVI PI-E MHIRXM3GEX GY
S TVSXIG'MI QTSXVMZE HSVMR'IPSV VIEPI, QEM TVIGMW QTSXVMZE HSVMR'IPSV HI
QSEVXI2. (YT IE, RXV-EHIZV, MQTYPWYVMPI HMWXVYKXSEVI EPI GSTMPYPYM M
TVSZSEG JVMGE HI E 3 SQSVX HI IPI MEV IP PI RIYXVEPM^IE^ R EGIPE#M JIP R
GEVI GSQFEXI TIVMGSPIPI I\XIVMSEVI, YXMPM^RH TYXIVIE QEKMG E
I\GVIQIRXIPSV WEPI (GIIE GI I\TPMG EKVIWMZMXEXIE YVMREV E FMEXYPYM, GEVI
EWMQMPIE^ TIRMWYP GY S EVQ). (. ;. ;MRMGSXX, HIWGVMMRH I\TIVMIR'E HI
SQRMTSXIR', GRH RSY-RWGYXYP RGITI W JEG HISWIFMVIE HMRXVI IY #M RSR-
IY, EVEX G EGIP RYVWMRK GSYTPI (GYTPYP WMQFMSXMG JSVQEX HMR QEQ #M TVYRGYP
IM) EVI HINE S VIPE'MI QEKMG: RGVIHIVIE R QEQ JEGI W ETEV YR XIVIR HI
NSG MRXIVQIHMEV R GEVI #M EVI WYVWE MHIIE HI QEKMI.3 4I HI EPX TEVXI, .IER
4MEKIX E HI3RMX GIPI TEXVY KVYTI HI EG'MYRM QEKMGI PE GSTMP GX #M HMZIVWIPI
JSVQI EPI ERMQMWQYPYM MRJERXMP, GEVI GYTVMRH SFMGIMYVMPI QEKMGI HI E
GSQERHE PYGVYVMPSV. )P E HISWIFMX S TIVMSEH HI EVXM3GMEPMWQ QMXSPSKMG, R
XMQTYP GVIME SVMGI GSTMP #M I\TPMG SVMKMRIE PYQMM RXV-YR QSH JERXEWXMG #M
EXVMFYMI SFMIGXIPSV S GSR#XMMR'. 4MEKIX E HIQSRWXVEX G EGIWX GSQTSVXEQIRX
RY IWXI S VIJYKMIVI R MQEKMREV GM, HMQTSXVMZ, RGITYXYP VIEPMWQYPYM, EP
TEVXMGMTVMM PE PYQIE HMR EJEV: 'IIE GI EVI WTIGM3G WXEHMYP QEKMG, R STS^M'MI
GY WXEHMMPI YPXIVMSEVI, IWXI XSGQEM JETXYP G WMQFSPYVMPI RG QEM WYRX
GSRGITYXI GE JGRH TEVXI HMR REXYVE PYGVYVMPSV. 1EKME IWXI HIGM WXEHMYP
TVIWMQFSPMG EP KRHMVMM4.
4IRXVY MRHMZMHYP MI#MX HMR GSTMPVMI, HIZIRMX EHYPX #M HIHMGEX YRSV WEVGMRM
TVIGMWI, YRSV GEPGYPI GY I3GEGMXEXI MQIHMEX, ZMWYP RSGXYVR IWXI IZSGEVIE
GSRWXERX E ZIGLMPSV MPY^MM QEKMGI, QEM GYVRH YMXEXI HIGX ERYPEXI. R 3PQYP
MRXIVMSV EP SQYPYM GEVI HSEVQI, ZVNMXSVYP VIJYPEX R IP HI ZME'E GSXMHMER #M ME
VIZER#E, GSRZIVWIE^ GY TVMR'MM QSV'M, JEGI W ETEV JERXSQI #M JEGI QMRYRM,
#M HIWJ#SEV EVWIREPYP HI JSVQYPI ZVNMXSVI#XM #M HI WEGVM3GMM VMXYEPI TIRXVY E-
#M VI^SPZE HM3GYPX'MPI PYRXVMGI. -EX HI GI WSQRYP E ETVYX HMRXSXHIEYRE, PE
XSEXI TSTSEVIPI, GE YR GSRXEGX GY PYQIE WYTVEREXYVEP, TVMR GEVI EGIEWXE EV
HE EZIVXMWQIRXI WMFMPMRMGI. %WX^M, VIHYGRH ZMWYP PE RHITPMRMVIE YRIM HSVMR'I
MRGSR#XMIRXI GEVI WI QEWGLIE^ TIRXVY E WGTE HI GIR^YVE GSR#XMIRXYPYM,
TWMLEREPM#XMM EY PQYVMX WIQRM3GE'ME ZMWIPSV E#E-^MW TVIQSRMXSVMM. 8SXY#M,
QIGERMWQYP GSRHIRWVMM, EP HITPEWVMM, EP HVEQEXM^VMM TI GEVI TWMLEREPM^E P-E
HI^ZPYMX R QYRGE HI ZMW IWXI GIP EP EGXMZMX'MM MRGERXEXSVMM TVMQMXMZI. RWY#M
*VIYH, JGRHY-#M EYXSEREPM^E, E RSXEX ZMWI R GEVI QEXIVMEPYP WMQFSPMG IQERE
HMR XIQIVMPI WEPI WYTIVWXM'MSEWI5. (ISEVIGI HSVMR'IPI MRGSR#XMIRXI WYRX
MRHIWXVYGXMFMPI, WTMVMXYP RY WI GVIHI R WXEVI W PI HIT#IEWG HIGX TVMR
QMNPSEGI QMVEGYPSEWI. +RHMVIE QEKMG MRXV R EG'MYRI HI 3IGEVI HEX GRH
MRXIVZMRI S TVSFPIQ R JE'E GVIME KRHMVIE TVEKQEXMG IWXI RITYXMRGMSEW.
%WXJIP, ZMWYP R WXEVI HI ZIKLI, TVSTVMY GIPSV TEWMSRE'M, RIVFHXSVM HI E VIY#M,
QTVYQYX TVSGIHIIPI QMVEGYPSEWI EPI ZMWYPYM RSGXYVR. %QFM'MSWYP GEVI-#M
HSVI#XI S ZMGXSVMI, RHVKSWXMXYP EV^RH HI HSVMR'E HI E-#M QFV'M#E, R WJV#MX,
MYFMXE, GIP JVYWXVEX KRHMRH PE V^FYREVI IPMQMR ER\MIXEXIE I#IGYPYM TVMR
VIZIVMM EHIWIE EFWYVHI, GEVI JEG W HMWTEV GE TVMR JEVQIG SFWXEGSPIPI. 4R
#M SEQIRMM HI EG'MYRI TWXVIE^ S EWXJIP HI RIZSMI HI GSRXVSP MVE'MSREP EP
HIWXMRYPYM, E#E RGX P ZSQ ZIHIE TI GEVHMREPYP HI 6MGLIPMIY GSRWYPXRHY-P TI
EWXVSPSKYP .IER-&ETXMWXI 1SVMR, TI KIRIVEPYP &SRETEVXI TYRRH-S TI 1EVMI-
%RRI 0IRSVQERH W-M HIE R GV'M, TI GERGIPEVYP ,MXPIV YVQRH WJEXYVMPI
QEKYPYM FIVPMRI^ )VMG ,ERYWWIR.
R WJV#MX, R RIZVS^I #M TWMLS^I WI VIZEVW TVIE-TPMRYP KRHMVMM QEKMGI,
E#E GYQ EQ TYXYX W GSRWXEX GY VIKYPEVMXEXI TI ZVIQIE GRH, TVIKXMRH S
PYGVEVI HI HMTPSQ R TWMLSPSKME TEXSPSKMG, EWMWXEQ R 3IGEVI WTXQR PE
TVI^IRXEVIE FSPREZMPSV QMRXEPM PE WTMXEPYP 7EMRXI-%RRI. 9RYP HMRXVI IM, HI
I\IQTPY, YR GE^ HI HIPMV TEVEJVIRMG, WSWMWI PE WTMXEP GY HSY ZEPM^I, YRE GY
WIQRYP GIEPEPX GY WIQRYP +; PI GSRWMHIVE GE 3MRH GIM HSM EGYQYPEXSVM GEVI-
M EPMQIRXEY QEKRIXMWQYP GVIMIVYPYM. 0E #IHMR'E HI GLIWXMSREVI, #M-E VMHMGEX
FVYWG FVE'IPI R WYW: *GRH KIWXYP EGIWXE, RI-E I\TPMGEX IP, M SFPMK TI XS'MM
TSVYQFIMM EHYRE'M EGYQ R 4PEGI HI P'3TIVE W-#M ME ^FSVYP. R JE'E
GSRZMRKIVMM RIGPMRXMXI HMR TVMZMVIE WE, QM-EQ WTYW G WI EK'E GY HMWTIVEVI HI
MHIIE YRIM EXSXTYXIVM 3GXMZI GE W-#M GSQTIRWI^I WPFMGMYRIE RXV-S PYQI GEVI
KRHIE HYT RSVQI, GE YR GSTMP GEVI WI NSEG HI-E WXTRYP YRMZIVWYPYM
TIRXVY E WI IPMFIVE HI ERKSEWE HITIRHIR'IM JE' HI EHYP'M. R EGIPE#M JIP, R
WXEVI RSVQEP, SEQIRM GY MRXIPIGXYP FMRI SVKERM^EX VIEG'MSRIE^ QTSXVMZE
MRWXER'IPSV WYTIVMSEVI GI RY TSX 3 HI3RMXI TVMR GVIHMR'I, TVMRXV-S ETVEVI
WMQFSPMG, RGIVGRH W PI HMVMNI^I. +RHMVIE QEKMG IWXI S JYRG'MI
VITEVEXSEVI E )YPYM.
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W-M GMXMQ TI TSI'MM PE GEVI W-E VYTX, R YVQE YRIM GVM^I QSVEPI, FEVMIVE GI
WXZMPIE VIZIRHMGVMPI MRGSR#XMIRXYPYM. 2Y WXYHMMRH TVSGIWIPI HI ZVNMXSVMI ZSQ
TYXIE R'IPIKI GIP QEM FMRI QSHYP HI E KRHM EP YRYM ZVNMXSV HMR )ZYP 1IHMY
E4EX HMREMRXIE YRYM XSV'MSREV EP -RGLM^M'MIM GEVI, PE VRHYP PYM, GVIHIE R
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ETEVXI. () 4QRXYP IWXI, PE ERYQMXI SVI EPI RST'MM, R ERYQMXI ^MPI EPI
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GEQY4EX #M TI GEVI RMQIRM RY S ZIHI, HEV GEVI HMVMNIE^ IZIRMQIRXIPI.6
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HMQTSXVMZ, EGIWX HI^IGLMPMFVY, HI^ZPYMRH WXVEXYVMPI EHRGM EPI TIVWSREPMX'MM,
EVEX GX HI 3VIEWG IWXI GVIHMR'E EGIEWXE. &SPREZYP QMRXEP #M EWYQ, R
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EXVMFY'MM, 8EW OYTE, HIQSRYP SRERMWQYPYM, %KVYWMSR, HIQSRYP GEVI TVSZSGE
QSEVXIE EHSPIWGIR'MPSV, %HMQMVSR, HIQSRYP GI EZIE GYPSEVIE QMVXYPYM YH GEVI
E JGYX VY GIPYM HI EP HSMPIE XVMF EP -WVEIPYPYM IXG. >SLEVYP TSZIWXI#XI G, HYT
GI 'EMR P-E YGMW TI %FIP, %HEQ RY W QEM GYPGEX GY )ZE XMQT HI S WYX XVIM^IGM
HI ERM #M W-E YRMX GY HSM HIQSRM HI WI\ JIQMRMR GY GEVI E JGYX 3M #M 3MGI:
%GI#XM GSTMM IVEY HIQSRM #M EY RYQIPI TPKMPI SEQIRMPSV. )M WYRX GIM GEVI-P
GSVYT TI SQ; M KWI#XM RXSXHIEYRE PE Y#MPI GEWIPSV, R TY'YVM #M R PEXVMRI.130
3 EPX QEXVMGI HIQSRMG IWXI 2E'EQE, 3MGE PYM 'EMR, GEVI PM WI EVEX FVFE'MPSV
R WSQR; HSVMR'E PSV S JIGYRHIE^ #M IE TVSGVIIE^ JV RGIXEVI HIQSRM GEVI
TPYXIWG R EIV. (YT YR GEPGYP FE^EX TI 4WEPQYP 90, 7, 3IGEVI SQ EVI S QMI HI
HIQSRM PE HVIETXE WE #M ^IGI QMM PE WXRKE WE. (MR JIVMGMVI, I\MWX YR QEVI
RYQV HI RKIVM GI TSX 3 MRZSGE'M R ETVEVI, GYQ WYRX +EHMIP, RKIVYP JIVMGMVMM,
,EVE^MIP, RKIVYP JEVQIGIPSV, GI EWGYPX HI SVHMRIPI PYM %FEVOMIP (GIP GEVI
XVERWQMXI PYM (YQRI^IY KRHYVMPI QMPSWXMZI EPI SEQIRMPSV), -ILSIP, RKIVYP
GYRSE#XIVMM, 2IKVERMIP, RKIVYP JERXI^MIM IXG.131
"M #XMMR'E RYQIVIPSV WEGVI TVSHYGI GY Y#YVMR' JSVQYPI GEVI WI TYR TI
SFMIGXIPI HI FYGXVMI, TI TMGMSEVIPI TEXYPYM WY GEVI WI TSEVX EWYTVE
SEQIRMPSV: PEPYR (GYZRXYP GEVI TYRI HIQSRMM TI KSER), ELEVMWW KEHMW
(QTSXVMZE TSPY'MMPSV RSGXYVRI), PMRI[I PIOLSR (YRYP HMR GIPI YRWTVI^IGI RYQI
GEVI WI WGVMY TI S TMIPI HI GIVF GE W RY QEM EM JVMG HI RMQMG).
)\MWX HSY EWTIGXI MWXSVMGI JSEVXI HMJIVMXI EPI 'EFEPIM GEVI RY EY JSWX
RXSXHIEYRE FMRI HIPMQMXEXI: TVMQYP EWTIGX, TVMQYP R XSEXI TVMZMR'IPI, 'MRI
RYQEM HI MWXSVME QMWXMGMWQYPYM IZVIMIWG #M, HI EPXJIP, MWXSVMGMM GEVI WXYHME^
EGIEWX MWXSVMI RY ZSVFIWG HIWTVI GEFEPM#XMM HMR EJEVE MYHEMWQYPYM: TI HVITX
GYZRX, HISEVIGI EGI#XME HMR YVQ EY EZYX R ZIHIVI YR WGST QEM KIRIVEP
HIGX KPSVM3GEVIE VIPMKMIM -WVEIPYPYM. %P HSMPIE EWTIGX, 'MRRH IJIGXMZ HI MWXSVME
3PSWS3IM SGYPXI, WI VIJIV PE 3PSWS3M GEVI EY JSPSWMX 'EFEPE GE TI S HMWGMTPMR
HI GYRSE#XIVI, VIMRZIRXRH-S TIRXVY RIGIWMX'MPI PSV WEY MRWIVRH-S RXV-YR
WMWXIQ GEVI-M H YR WIRW QEM PEVK. 2Y XVIFYMI HIGM W JEG EMGM S ETVIGMIVI E
JSVQIPSV 'EFEPIM VIPMKMSEWI, W GRXVIWG QIVMXIPI 3IGVYME HMRXVI VEFMRMM GEVI
EY GSRGITYX-S XSX E#E GYQ RMGM WTIGMEPM#XMM GEVI EY WXYHMEX STIVIPI #GSPMPSV HMR
+IVSRE WEY HMR 7EJIH, GEVI EY IZEPYEX ETSVXYP PYM 6EFM -EGSF 2E^MV, EYXSV HMR
WIGSPYP EP <---PIE, MRWXEPEX PE 0YRIP R *VER'E, WEY EP PYM -FR 0EXMJ, QIHMG GEFEPMWX
QSVX GXVI 1290 PE -IVYWEPMQ, RY #M TVSTYR W I\TYR 'EFEPE 3PSWS3G WEY W
WI VIJIVI QGEV PE GIM QEM MPY#XVM VITVI^IRXER'M EM IM, HI PE +YMPPEYQI 4SWXIM PE
7XERMWPEW HI +YEMXE.
%Q TYXIE GVIHI G WMRKYVE EHIZVEX IWXI 'EFEPE VIPMKMSEW MEV 'EFEPE
3PSWS3G E JSWX TVEGXMGEX HI EQEXSVM GEVI RY EZIEY GSQTIXIR'E VEFMRMPSV HI
E EREPM^E XI\XIPI IFVEMGI #M E I\XVEKI HMR IPI GIPI QEM FYRI GSRGPY^MM HMR
TYRGX HI ZIHIVI MHISPSKMG. (MQTSXVMZ, HMJIVIR'E HMRXVI IPI IWXI EHIWIE R
EZERXENYP YPXMQIM, GGM 3PSWS3M EGIWXIME RY EY EZYX WTMVMXYP WIGXEVMWX, SVKSPMSW #M
JEREXMG EP XISPSKMPSV 'EFEPIM VIPMKMSEWI. 1EM QYPX, GIM GEVI I\EQMRIE^ S
TVSFPIQ HMRXV-S TIVWTIGXMZ RSY VIQEVG EWTIGXI MQTSVXERXI GEVI WGET
GIPSV SFM#RYM'M GY IE #M GEVI, XSX ETVSJYRHRH HIXEPMMPI, RY QEM WIWM^IE^
ERWEQFPYP. (MR EGIEWX TVMGMR, 'EFEPE 3PSWS3G I\TYRI KIRIVEPMX'M GI
JSPSWIWG EVXIM YRMZIVWEPI HI E XVM; IE RY GEYX W EWMKYVI TVITSRHIVIR'E
MYHEMWQYPYM, GM W I\XVEK HMRXV-S XVEHM'MI WEGV EHIZVYVM GI TSX 3 JSPSWMXSEVI
XYXYVSV. R WJV#MX, JETX XSXEP RIGYRSWGYX, 3PSWS3M GEFEPM#XM EY JSWX QEVMM
VITVI^IRXER'M EM PYTXIM QTSXVMZE ERXMWIQMXMWQYPYM, GY YR GYVEN MRXIPIGXYEP
HMRXVI GIPI QEM PYHEFMPI. -RGLM^MXSVMM, RWVGMRE'M GY NYHIGEVIE IZVIMPSV RG HI
PE WJV#MXYP WIGSPYPYM EP <----PIE, M SFPMKEY W-#M TYR TI LEMRI WIQRI GEVI W-M
HISWIFIEWG HI GVI#XMRM, PI MRXIV^MGIEY W ETEV R TYFPMG R :MRIVIE WJRXE #M
R (YQMRMGE 4E#XMPSV #M TYRIEY W 3I EVWI I\IQTPEVIPI HMR 8EPQYH. 9QERM#XMM
GEVI, FVEZRH STVSFVMYP, EY JVEXIVRM^EX GY VEFMRMM TIRXVY E WXYHME 'EFEPE, EY
JSWX HIGM RM#XI PMFIV-GYKIXXSVM GY XSXYP VIQEVGEFMPM.
-RHITIRHIRX HI EGIWXI HSY EWTIGXI MWXSVMGI EPI 'EFEPIM, XVIFYMI W
QEM PYQ R GSRWMHIVE'MI HSY EWTIGXI QIXSHSPSKMGI, GSRJSVQ GVSVE 'EFEPE
IWXI WTIGYPEXMZ WEY STIVEXMZ. 'EFEPE WTIGYPEXMZ (/EFFEPE MMYRXM.)
GSRWXVYMI#XI YR WMWXIQ GSWQSPSKMG #M IXMG. )E TSVRI#XI HI PE 2EGLQERMHI, JSWX
XEPQYHMWX, GEVI E MRXVSHYW R 'EFEP, R WIGSPYP EP <----PIE, WTMVMXYP EYWXIV EP
8EPQYHYPYM. % JSWX ETSM HI^ZSPXEX HI 1SMWI 'SVHSZIVS (1532-P570), WXEFMPMX PE
7EJIH R 4EPIWXMRE, EPI GVYM GV'M 3V =EOER (0YQMR TVI'MSEW), EREPM^ E
XYXYVSV PYGVVMPSV ERXIVMSEVI HI 'EFEP, #M 4EVHIW 6MQSQMQ (+VHMRE HMR
+VIREHE), I\TPMGE'MI E QMWXIVIPSV YRMZIVWYPYM, EY EHYW RYQIVS#M EHIT'M.
'SVHSZIVS E JSWX GSQTEVEX GY 7TMRS^E, TI GEVI, TSEXI, P-E MR4YIR'EX, HMR
GEY^E TERXIMWQYPYM PYM: HIGM 'EFEPE WTIGYPEXMZ, TYV XISVIXMG, RY EVI RMGM S
PIKXYV GY QEKME.
(MQTSXVMZ, 'EFEPE STIVEXMZ (/EFFEPE QE'EWMX), PIKRH XISVME HI
TVEGXMG, TVSGIHIE^ PE MRXIVZIR'MM XIYVKMGI TIRXVY TWXVEVIE WRX'MM WEY
TIRXVY VIY#MXE YRIM EG'MYRM. 4VMQYP IM QEVI MRM'MEXSV E JSWX )PIE^EV HMR ;SVQW,
EYXSV EP PYGVVMM 7IJIV 6E^MIM, GYPIKIVI HI WIGVIXI TI GEVI 6E^MIM, RKIVYP
QMWXIVYPYM, PI GSQYRMGEWI PYM 2SI. 8VEHYGIVMPI R PEXMR EPI EGIWXIM GV'M M-EY
RZ'EX TI EQEXSVM GYQ W-#M JEG TIRXEGPI TIRXVY E-M EPYRKE TI HIQSRMM GI-P
EWEPXIE^ TI GSTMP PE RE#XIVI, TIRXVY E WXMRKI MRGIRHMMPI, E KWM SFMIGXIPI
TMIVHYXI IXG. (EV QEIWXVYP MRIKEPEX EP 'EFEPIM STIVEXMZI E JSWX -WEEG 0YVME
(1534-P582), RYQMX %VM (0IYP), GEVI E XVMX #ETXI ERM GE IVQMX TI QEPYP 2MPYPYM
REMRXI HI E WI WXEFMPM PE 7EJIH, R 1569. )VE YR I\XVESVHMREV ZM^MSREV GEVI,
QYP'YQMX JSVQYPIPSV WEPI HI MRZSGEVI E WY4IXIPSV, ZSVFIE GY TVSJIXYP -PMI #M
GY ERYQM'M GEFEPM#XM HIGIHE'M; IP E MRZIRXEX VMXYVM TI GEVI PI GIPIFVE RXV-YR
GSWXYQ WTIGMEP. (MWGMTSPYP WY, EPGLMQMWXYP ,E]MQ :MXEP (1543-P620) M-E
GSQIRXEX RZ'XYVE R GIPI #EWI ZSPYQI EPI PYGVVMM )' ,E]YR (%VFSVIPI HI
ZME'). %V 3 RIHVITX W GVIHIQ, GE ERYQM'M EYXSVM, 132 G HSEV 'EFEPE
WTIGYPEXMZ IWXI WIVMSEW, GIEPEPX 3MRH RYQEM YR #EVPEXERMWQ; GY XSEXI
TVEGXMGMPI PYM QEKMGI, 0YVME E VIRSZEX QIXE3^MGE TVMR GSRGITXYP HI 'MQ'YQ
(VIXVEKIVI, GSRXVEG'MI), I\TPMGRH G (YQRI^IY, TIRXVY E JEGI PSG YRMZIVWYPYM
TI GEVI ZSME W-P GVII^I, W-E VIXVEW TEV'MEP R IP RWY#M, IPMFIVRH EWXJIP WTE'MYP
YQER YRHI PYQMRE W RY QEM IWXI TIVGITXMFMP.
:SQ KWM #M R 'EFEPE VIPMKMSEW, GE #M R 'EFEPE 3PSWS3G, WTIGYPEXSVM
(%KVMTTE, 6IYGLPMR, 4S#XIM), GEVI JSPSWIWG KLIQEXVME, RSXEVMGSRYP #M XIQYV
TIRXVY E KWM RSM MRJSVQE'MM HIWTVI 7JRXE 7GVMTXYV; STIVEXSVM, GEVI MRXVSHYG
HMZIVWIPI XILRMGM GEFEPMWXMGI R QIHMGMR WEY R I\TPSVEVIE MRZM^MFMPYPYM
(4EVEGIPWYW, 6SFIVX *PYHH, :ER ,IPQSRX) #M, R WJV#MX, R WIGSPYP EP <-<-PIE,
GSRGMPMEXSVMM (*EFVI H'3PMZIX, )PMTLEW 0IZM, 7XERMWPEW HI +YEMXE) GEVI WI WXVHYMI
W TYR R QSH HI3RMXMZ HI EGSVH XISVME #M TVEGXMG.
>SLEVYP.
'EVXIE WEGV E 'EFEPIM E JSWX 7IJIV LE->SLEV ('EVXIE 7XVPYGMVMM) HMR GEVI
W-EY MRWTMVEX EXX 3PSWS3M SGYP'M GX #M QMWXMGMM IZVIM. 2Y I S PYGVEVI RGLIKEX,
GM YR ERWEQFPY HI XVEXEXI GEVI VIHEY HMWGYVWYVMPI, QE\MQIPI, HMWGY'MMPI
SFM#RYMXI EPI YRYM QEIWXVY XIREMX HMR WIGSPYP EP ---PIE, 6EFM 7MQISR FIR =SLEM
(TI GEVI 8EPQYHYP P GMXE HINE, GE I\IQTPY), GYTVMRWI R GSRZIVWE'MMPI TI GEVI
PI EZIE EGIWXE GY 3YP WY, 6EFM )PIE^EV, #M GY HMWGMTSPMM WM. 'YQ 6EFM 7MQISR
RY WGVMWIWI RMQMG, QYP'YQMRHY-WI W HIE S RZ'XYV SVEP, GE 7SGVEXI,
>SLEVYP E XVIGYX HIGM HVITX YR QIWEN EYXIRXMG, GYPIW HI YR EYHMXSVMY ^IPSW, EP
EGIWXYM VEFMR ZM^MSREV HMR 4EPIWXMRE GEVI, GSRHEQREX PE QSEVXI HI VSQERM,
XVIFYMWI W WI EWGYRH ERM RXVIKM RXV-S TI#XIV HMR +EHEVE. 9RMM GEFEPM#XM EY
GVI^YX G IP RWY#M P HMGXEWI GIPSV ETVSTME'M, PYGVY HI^QMR'MX HI EREGVSRMWQIPI
HMR QEM QYPXI WIG'MYRM R GEVI ETEV HSGXSVM R 0IKI GEVI EY XVMX GY HSY
WIGSPI QEM XV^MY.
>SLEVYP E ETVYX GXVI 1290, 3MRH JGYX GYRSWGYX HI 1SMWI FIR "IQXSZ
HI 0ISR (1250-P305), YR VEFMR TSPMKVEJ GEVI E XVMX QYPX ZVIQI PE
+YEHEPENEVE, R 'EWXMPME, HYT GEVI W-E MRWXEPEX PE %ZMPE. -QIHMEX, W-E TYW
TVSFPIQE EYXIRXMGMX'MM GV'MM #M -WEEG HI %GGS, HYGRHY-WI, R 1305, PE 1SMWI
HI 0ISR GE W-P MRXIVSKLI^I R EGIWX WIRW, P-E FRYMX HI E 3 JGYX IP >SLEVYP
GY XSX WSMYP HI HSGYQIRXI EHYREXI. %GIWXE IWXI WGVMW ETVSETI R RXVIKMQI R
EVEQEMG (WEY GEPHIER), HEV R QEM QYPXI HMEPIGXI EQIWXIGEXI; GIP QEM
JSPSWMX IWXI GIP EP E#E-RYQMXIPSV XEVKYQ (ZIVWMYRIE EVEQEMG E &MFPMIM #M E
8EPQYHYPYM), HEV R ITMWSHYP 4WXSVYP GVIHMRGMSW QEM KWMQ #M S EVEQEMG
EVXM3GMEP. 3 WIG'MYRI, 'SQIRXEVMY HIWTVI )XIVRMXEXI, JSPSWI#XI IFVEMGE HMR
PIKIRHI (IFVEMGE LEKKEHMG). -EX HI GI .IER HI 4EYP], EHITX EP MTSXI^IM
ZIGLMQMM >SLEVYPYM, ZIHI R IP S GSQTMPE'MI HI PYGVVM HMJIVMXI VIHEGXEXI HI
EYXSVM HMJIVM'M R ITSGM HMJIVMXI.133 )P E VIQEVGEX G EGIPIE#M TSZIWXMVM WI
VITIXEY YRISVM HI TEXVY WEY HI GMRGM SVM, PYGVY TI GEVI YR WMRKYV EYXSV EV 3
IZMXEX W-P JEG; HEV E VIGYRSWGYX #M GSRXVEHMG'MM: 2YQIVSEWI TEWENI VIHEY
GYZMRXIPI 8EREM'MPSV, RW RXV-YR HMEPIGX ZSVFMX RYQEM R XMQTYP %QSVEMQ-
MPSV.134 7GLSPIQ E JGYX EREPM^E PMRKZMWXMG E >SLEVYPYM #M E HIWGSTIVMX G,
'MRRH WIEQE HI TEVXMGYPEVMX'MPI PSV KVEQEXMGEPI, STXWTVI^IGI XVEXEXI
ETEV'MRIEY EGIPYME#M EYXSV: R XSEXI EGIWXI WGVMIVM, XVERWTEVI, HMRGSPS HI
JSVQE EVEQEMG, WTMVMXYP IFVEMGMM QIHMIZEPI HMR WIGSPYP EP <----PIE.135 %PXIPI,
HI TVSZIRMIR' RIWMKYV, RY ETEV'MRIEY ITSGMM PYM 6EFM 7MQISR, GM VI4IGXEY
TVISGYTVMPI 'EFEPIM WTERMSPI, EWGYRWI R TEWXM#I. 4I WGYVX, IP E HIQSRWXVEX
G 1SMWI HI 0ISR WGVMWIWI GIE QEM QEVI TEVXI E >SLEVYPYM, TYRRH R
IZMHIR' WMQMPMXYHMRMPI HI WXMP GY GV'MPI WGVMWI HI EGIWXE REMRXI HI E TYRI
>SLEVYP R GMVGYPE'MI.
3VMGYQ EV WXE PYGVYVMPI, >SLEVYP VQRI, GYQ E WTYW /EVTTI, GSVSERE
EVFSVIPYM QMWXMG EP MYHEMWQYPYM136 #M, RG HMR WIGSPYP EP <-:-PIE, IP E JSWX
GSRWMHIVEX YR XI\X GERSRMG. % JSWX IHMXEX PE 1ERXYE R XVIM ZSPYQI, RXVI 1558
#M 1560, #M PE 'VIQSRE, RXV-YR WMRKYV ZSPYQ HI JSVQEX QEVI, R EGIIE#M
TIVMSEH; HMR TVMGMRE JSVQEXYPYM, IHM'ME HI PE 1ERXYE E JSWX RYQMX 1MGYP
>SLEV (>SLEV ,EOEXER) MEV GIE HI PE 'VIQSRE, 1EVIPI >SLEV (>SLEV ,EKEHSP).
% JSWX XVEHYW R QEM QYPXI PMQFM, TVMRXVI GEVI #M JVERGI^, HEXSVMX PYM .IER HI
4EYP], GEVI E JSWX TIRXVY >SLEV GIIE GI GSRXIQTSVERYP WY, HV. 1EVHVYW, E
JSWX TIRXVY 3 QMI #M YRE HI RST'M: YR XVEHYGXSV MRWTMVEX, TYRRH R ZEPSEVI
EXX WTMVMXYP GX #M PMXIV. 0E 18 WITXIQFVMI 1900, 4EYP] WGVME YRYME HMRXVI
GSVIWTSRHIR'MM WM: 2MGMSHEX RE JSWX ZVIS XVEHYGIVI QEM TVIGMW, QEM 3HIP
#M QEM I\EGX. *MIGEVI JVE^ #M GLMEV 3IGEVI GYZRX WYJIV WYXI HI STIVE'MM
QIRXEPI REMRXI HI E 3 HI3RMXMZ 3\EX TI LVXMI #M, WXVHYMRHY-Q W WGVMY RXV-
S JVERGI^ GPEV WEY GIP TY'MR MRXIPMKMFMP, RY JEG HIGX W MQMX TI GX TSWMFMP
XI\XYP >SLEVYPYM 'MXMRH XVEHYGIVIE, GMXM'M SVMKMREPYP RXV-EXX IWXI HI QEVI
EWIQREVIE HI WXMP.137 -EV PE 15 QEVXMI 1903, 4EYP] EHYKE: %Q ERYQMXI
QSXMZI W GVIH G WYRX WMRKYVYP SQ HMR PYQI GETEFMP W XVEHYG >SLEVYP
GSRJSVQ EHIZVYPYM. (I GI WMRKYVYP# %GIWXE IWXI WIGVIXYP QIY #M-P ZSM HYGI GY
QMRI R QSVQRX.
'LMEV HEG >SLEVYP E JSWX R TEVXI VIHEGXEX HI YR VEFMR HMR WIGSPYP EP
<----PIE, GEVI E EHYREX XSEXI XVEHM'MMPI TVMZMXSEVI PE 'EFEP, IP VQRI YR
QSRYQIRX QIXE3^MG, RHVITX'MRH JETXYP G EHQMVEXSVMM WM P-EY RYQMX 'LIME
'IVYPYM. )WXI, HI EWIQIRIE, S QMR HI MRJSVQE'MM TVMZMRH GYRS#XMR'IPI
TVMQMPSV GEFEPM#XM. 'MXMRHY-P GSRWXEXQ GY WXYTIJEG'MI G IM HIWGSTIVMWIV GY
QYPXI WIGSPI REMRXIE EWXVSRSQMPSV G 4QRXYP IWXI VSXYRH #M G WI RZVXI R
NYVYP 7SEVIPYM: "M R GEVXIE PYM 6EFM ,EQQIRYRE GIP &XVR W-E I\TPMGEX
RHIPYRK G RXVIK TQRXYP PSGYMX WI RZVXI R NYV GE RXV-YR GIVG. 9RMM WI E4
NSW, EP'MM WYW -EX HI GI EXYRGM GRH VIKMYRIE YRSVE IWXI PYQMREX, VIKMYRIE
GIPSVPEP'M WI E4 R RXYRIVMG. 0E YRMM I ^M, MEV PE GIMPEP'M RSETXI -EV EGIWX
QMWXIV E JSWX RGVIHMR'EX QEI#XVMPSV R'IPITGMYRMM #M RY KISKVE3PSV, HISEVIGI
IWXI YRYP HMR QMWXIVIPI TVSJYRHI EPI 0IKMM.138%Q TYXIE HIGM, TI FYR
HVITXEXI, W RI RXVIFQ HEG +EPMPIY IVE GEFEPMWX #M HEG >SLEVYP P-E MRWTMVEX
R GIVGIXVMPI WEPI.
'SR'MRYXYP >SLEVYPYM IWXI EPGXYMX HMR GSQIRXEVMM QMWXMGI HIWTVI :IGLMYP
8IWXEQIRX; MRXIVPSGYXSVMM #M NYWXM3G I\TPMGE'MMPI TVMR ZM^MYRM #M MPYQMRVM. %WXJIP,
6EFM 7MQISR TSZIWXI#XI G TVSJIXYP -PMI M-E ETVYX PE QEPYP QVMM GE W-M WTYR:
'RH 1MWXIVYP XYXYVSV 1MWXIVIPSV E ZSMX W WI EVEXI, IP E GVIEX QEM RXM YR
TYRGX GEVI E HIZIRMX +RHMVIE HMZMR. *EGIVIE RY W-E TIXVIGYX HIGX HYT
EGIIE: 'YZRXYP >SLEV HIWIQRIE^ WGRXIME TI GEVI 1MWXIVMSWYP E JGYX-S W
'#RIEWG R QSQIRXYP GRH E PSZMX ZMHYP #M IE IWXI SVMKMRIE YRMZIVWYPYM. %PX
HEX, 6EFM 7MQISR #M 3YP WY EY MI#MX EJEV GRH GIVYP W-E RXYRIGEX HISHEX #M
EY RXPRMX YR RKIV YVME# GX YR QYRXI E GVYM KYV EVYRGE XVIM NIVFI HI JSG.
)P M-E ZIWXMX G EZIE W HMWXVYK PYQIE TIRXVY G RY I\MWXEY XVIM^IGM HI (VIT'M
R KIRIVE'ME EGXYEP. 6EFM 7MQISR M-E VWTYRW: 2SM HSM, IY #M GY 3YP QIY,
WYRXIQ HI ENYRW GE W ETVQ PYQIE TIRXVY G E#E IWXI WGVMW: 3VMGI GYZRX
(HEFEV) WI ZE FE^E TI HITS^M'ME E HSM QEVXSVM. 3V, HEFEV RWIEQR PYQIE,
E#E GYQ IWXI WGVMW: 4VMR GYZRXYP (HEFEV) (SQRYPYM, W-EY JGYX GIVYVMPI. "M
HEG RY I\MWX HSM (VIT'M, EHMG HEG *MYP QIY RY-M HI-ENYRW, ZE 3
RXSXHIEYRE YRYP #M EGIPE WYRX IY; SV, YRYP WMRKYV I HI-ENYRW, E#E GYQ IWXI
WGVMW: "M GIP (VITX IWXI XIQIPME PYQMM. R EGIP QSQIRX S ZSGI GIVIEWG E
JGYX W WI EYH EGIWXI GYZMRXI: *IVMGMX. 7-'M 3I WSEVXE, 6EFM 7MQISR, XY
GEVI EM TYXIVIE W WYTVMQM EMGM TI TQRX HIGVIXIPI 7JRXYPYM, FMRIGYZRXEX
3I IP. 139 3 MRXIVTVIXEVI GEFEPMWXMG E &MFPMIM E TIVQMW GE HMWXVYKIVIE PYQMM
W 3I IZMXEX.
>ELVYP RY ZSVFI#XI HI 'EFEPE STIVEXMZ, HISEVIGI IE EVEX GI TYXIVI
EVI WTIGYPE'ME. +WMQ XSXY#M MRHMGE'MM HI JIPYP EGIWXE: 3 QMI TEXVY WYXI GMRGM
JIPYVM HI MQTYVMX'M WYRX PIKEXI HI QYVHVME GEVI WI EHYR WYF YRKLMM. 4IRXVY
GE YRKLMMPI W RY TSEX WIVZM ZVNMPSV QEKMGMIRMPSV, IWXI FMRI W PI EVYRGQ R
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WGLMQFI S WYX HI TV'M HI QIVGYV R EYV WEY EVKMRX.
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PE HIQRMXEXIE HI EYV VE'MYRIE HI E 3 E PYGVYVMPSV GVIEXI, PIKMPI WIGVIXI EPI
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YRYM 1IWME, )PMI %VXMWXI, GEVI ZE WEPZE PYQIE RYQEM TVMR QMNPSEGI EPGLMQMGI.
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E GSQTPIXE TSVXVIXYP EGIWXYM YQERMWX, W EHYKQ G E ZSVFMX HI TPERXIPI
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QIQFVY EP 4EVXMHYPYM WSGMEPMWX, E EHYW R EGIWX TEVXMH S XIRHMR' HI GSQYRMWQ
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GEVI E PYGVEX MRGSKRMXS XSEX ZME'E #M E GVYM MHIRXMXEXI E JSWX QYPX ZVIQI S
IRMKQ TIRXVY EQEXSVM. (EXSVMX GIVGIXVMPSV PYM 6SFIVX %QFIPEMR, WI #XMI
EGYQ G *YPGERIPPM IVE YR JSWX IPIZ EP "GSPMM HI %VXI *VYQSEWI HMR 4EVMW, .IER-
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PIE #M EP <:----PIE, HYT GI GTXEWI TEXMRE ERMPSV.338 % EZYX TVMQYP WY
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GY GEVI XVIFYME W JEGM S JYQMKE'MI TI ^M. 7I QRHVIE G #XMI W JEFVMGI EYV R
#EWI PYRM #M TYVXE, TI MRIPEVYP HVITX, S #IZEPMIV QEVI GVIEX HMR QEXIVME
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WIQRI^I, TIRXVY E HMWTVIE XSXEP HMRGSPS HI STIVE PYM. %GIWXI HSY PYGVVM
VIQEVGEFMPI, HIHMGEXI *VE'MPSV HMR ,IPMSTSPMW (WSGMIXEXI WIGVIX MRZIRXEX),
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WY *YPGERIPPM RWIQRE 3IVEV EP WSEVIPYM #M E JSWX HI EPXJIP MRZIRXEX R
EGIWX GLMT, TVMR GSRXVEG'ME GYZMRXIPSV :YPGER #M ,IPMSW. %QMRXMRH G YR ZIGLM
EYXSV HIVMZE EPGLMQME HMR ,EQ, 3YP PYM 2SI, #M WGVME HIGM EPGLEQME, IP ZIHIE,
HMQTSXVMZ, R EGIWX GYZRX S HIVMZE'MI E GYZRXYPYM KVIG GLYQIME, GLIYQE,
GIIE GI GYVKI, #MVSMI#XI, WI TVIPMRKI, #M WTYRIE: 2YQIPI #M PYGVYP WYRX
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1948, GSQTEV TMEXVE 3PSWSJEP GY S VITVI^IRXEVI E PYM ,VMWXSW, E#E GYQ S
JGYWI #M /LYRVEXL. (EV GIIE GI E GSRWXMXYMX ETSKIYP PYGVVMPSV PYM HIWTVI
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TWMLSPSKMIM EFMWEPI346.
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6 1IHMGMRE IVQIXMG #M XEYQEXYVKME.
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TI WIEQE FVFMIVMPSV.
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#M %REXSQMEI EQ-TLMXIEXVYQ (1623), R GEVI QTV'IE EREXSQME R QMWXMG #M
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XYVERX, MR3RMX #M KPSVMSEW. RXV-S GEVXI TSWXYQ, 4LMPSWSTLM-GE QSWEMGE
(1638), E VIGYRSWGYX XVIM TVMRGMTMM EPI 'VIE'MIM: 8IRIFVIPI (QEXIVME TVMQ), %TE
(QEXIVME WIGYRH) #M 0YQMR HMZMR (IWIR'E #M M^ZSVYP ZMI'MM). 1IHMGYP EGIWXE E
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8SX R %RKPME, /IRIPQ (MKF] (1603-P665), GERGIPEV EP VIKMRIM %RRE, GEVI
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YR QEM FYR SFWIVZEXSV; YR TSPIQMWX ZMSPIRX, HEV QYPX QEM KIRIVSW;506 'E W
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+IVEVH )RGEYWWI, ^MW 4ETYW, RWGYX R 1865 PE 'SVYR (7TERME). )VE 3YP
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HMR 1EHVMH TIRXVY E RPIWRM EFWSVF'ME GYXEREX E QIHMGEQIRXIPSV; IVE ZSVFE
HI S GYZ R GEVI TEGMIRXYP, EZRH RYQEM GETYP EJEV, IVE WYTYW YRSV FM HI
E-FYVM HI XIVIFIRXMR (GEVI ZMRHIGEY VIYQEXMWQIPI, EVXVMXE #M WGMEXMGE) WEY
YRSV FM HI EFYVM HI MSHYV HI TSXEWMY (QTSXVMZE EJIG'MYRMPSV SEWIPSV WEY EPI
WMWXIQYPYM PMQJEXMG). REMRXI HI XSEXI, 4ETYW EZIE XIQTIVEQIRXYP YRYM SQ
RWGYX W 3I SVKERM^EXSV: R XMQTYP WXYHMMPSV, PE GSPIKMYP 6SPPMR HMR 4EVMW, E
R3MR'EX TVMQYP WY ^MEV; PE *EGYPXEXIE HI QIHMGMR E JSWX QIQFVY JSRHEXSV EP
%WSGME'MIM 7XYHIR'MPSV.
R 1882, R XMQTYP I\XIVREXYPYM, RIQYP'YQMX HI RZ'QRXYP
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IVQIXMG PE &MFPMSXIGE RE'MSREP. % G^YX TI#XI 0E 1-HMGMRI RSYZIPPI E PYM
0SYMW 0YGEW, YR GLMQMWX HMR 2SVQERHME, GEVI TPIGRH HI PE S VI4IG'MI HIWTVI
TVMRGMTMYP HI ZME' #M MPYW-XVRHY-#M HIQSRWXVE'ME GY I\TIVMIR'I 3^MGS-
GLMQMGI, EVXE GYQ EGIWX TVMRGMTMY IVE HIXIVQMREX HI IRSVQSR, GSRHIRWEVI
ZMXEP E QM#GVMM, TI GEVI IP P HI3RIE GE 3MRH YR WTIGXVY SVKERMG EREPSK
WTIGXVIPSV PYQMRSEWI #M GEPSVMGI, EZRH S XIRWMYRI GI TSVRIE HI PE GIRXVY
WTVI TIVMJIVMI. 7IHMYP EGIWXYM IRSVQSR (RS'MYRI LM-TSGVEXMG GVIME 0YGEW M
HHIE YR WIRW TIVWSREP) ZEVME R JYRG'MI HI MRHMZM^M #M WI KWIE, R KIRIVEP,
ETVSETI HI GET PE GSTMP, GSFSVRH RW GXVI TMITX #M TRXIGI TI QWYV GI
SQYP QF-XVRIE. 8IVETIYXMGE GSRWXE R E TVSGYVE IRSVQSRYPYM I\XIRWSEVI
WEY HIXIRWSEVI GGM HI IP HITMRHIEY VIEG'MMPI HI GSRXVEG'MI #M HI HMPEXE'MI, HI
IVIXMWQ*536 #M HI HIWXMRHIVI HMR RXVIK SVKERMWQYP.537 0YM 4ETYW M W-EY TVYX
EGIWXI ZIHIVM GYVMSEWI #M W-E HIGPEVEX HMWGMTSP HMVIGX EP PYM 0SYMW 0YGEW, QSVX
R 1863, REMRXI HI E-#M 3 XIVQMREX PYGVVMPI.
7XYHMMRH #M EPXI GV'M #M QEM ZIGLM, 4ETYW ME I\TPMGEX PYM 'E-QMPPI
*PEQQEVMSR: RZ'EQ W QRYMIWG EGIEWX QMRYREX QIXSH EREPSKMG, EXX
HI TY'MR GYRSWGYX HI 3PSWS3M QSHIVRM, #M GEVI TIVQMXI KVYTEVIE XYXYVSV
#XMMR'IPSV RXV-S WMRXI^ GSQYR. %PGLMQME RY M TVIE G HMJIV HI #XMMR'E
GSRXIQTSVER HIGX TVMR PMQFEN, QEM WTYRIE IP EGIPYME#M *PEQQEVMSR: %GSPS
YRHI RSM WGVMIQ ,'P, EPGLMQM#XMM HIWIREY YR PIY ZIVHI MEV YRHI RSM WGVMIQ
2,'P + *I *I'P2 + 2,, EPGLMQM#XMM HIWIREY YR V^FSMRMG (1EVXI, *MIVYP)
HIZSVEX HI YR PIY ZIVHI (EGMHYP). -RM'MMRHY-WI R QEVXMRMWQ GY ENYXSVYP PYM
,IRVM (IPEEKI, EPIKQHY-#M TWIYHSRMQYP HI 4ETYW HMR 2YGXIQIVSRYP PYM
%TSPPSRMYW HMR 8]ERE (YRHI 4ETYW IWXI, HMRXVI GIPI #ETXI KIRMM HI PE
RGITYXYVM, KIRMYP QI-HMGMRIM), XRVYP W EPXYVEX PYM 7XERMWPEW HI +YEMXE #M E
MRXVEX R 'SRWMPMYP WYTVIQ EP 6SWIM-'VYGMW GEFEPMWXI.
(I PE 1888 PE 1891, GLMEV #M R XMQTYP WIVZMGMYPYM QMPMXEV, 4ETYW E HYW S
MRXIRW EGXMZMXEXI HI SGYPXMWX. % GVIEX, R 1889, +VYTYP MRHITIRHIRX HI 7XYHMM
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PE 4EVMW, RYQMXI 7TLMR\, ,IVQERYFMW, :IPPIHE #M 7TLMRKI. 6IZMWXE PYREV, 0'-RM-
XMEXXSR, R3MR'EX R SGXSQFVMI 1888, ^MEVYP LIFHSQEHEV 0I :SXXI H'-WMW,
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SGGYPXI JVERGEMWI HMR 0]SR. 4ETYW E GYRSWGYX TVMQYP WY WYGGIW GE EYXSV GY
PYGVEVIE 0I 8EVSX HIW &SLI-QMIRW (1889) R GEVI ZSVFIE RY RYQEM HI XEVSG, GM
#M HI 'EFEP, HI EVXIPI HMZMREXSVMM, HIWTVI WMQFSPMWQ. %REXSPI *VERGI M-E GIVYX
YR MRXIVZMY, TI GEVI P-E TYFPMGEX PE 15 JIFVYEVMI 1890 R 0E 6IZYI MPLMWXVI: 0-
EQ Z^YX: IWXI JSEVXI XRV, GY SGLMM ZMM, XIRYP TVSEWTX, SFVE^YP VSXYRH, FEVFE
3R. %VI QEM HIKVEF EIVYP Y-RYM WXYHIRX PE QIHMGMR HIGX EP YRYM 1EK. -EV
PE 1 MYRMI EP EGIPYME#M ER, ZSVFMRH HIWTVI 'SPPIKI HI *VERGI R 0I 8IQTW, EGIWX
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S GEXIHV HI QEKMI TIRXVY HP 4ETYW. R ERYP YVQXSV, 4ETYW TYFPMG )WWEM HI
TL]WMSPSKMI W]RXLXMUYI (1891) #M PYGVEVIE WE GETMXEP, 8VIMXI QMXLSHMUYI HI
WGMIRGI SGGYPXI (1891), YR ZSPYQ MR-SGXEZS HI 1092 HI TEKMRM TI GEVI P-E
GSQTPIXEX GY 8VMXI IPQIRXEPVI HI QEKMI TVEXMUYI (1893), R EGIPE#M JSVQEX,
EZRH 560 HI TEKMRM.
'RH 4ETYW #M-E WYW'MRYX, R 1894, XI^E HI HSGXSVEX MRXMXYPEX
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(SQRYPI )RGEYWWI, RY WYRXI'M YR WXYHIRX SFM#RYMX 7YRX QRHVY W 3Y
GSRHYGXSVYP XI^IM HYQRIEZSEWXV HI HSGXSVEX. %REXSQME 3PSWS3G, WGYQT
PYM +SIXLI #M SGYPXM#XMPSV, GSRWX R GSQTEVEVIE HMJIVMXIPSV SVKERI EPI YRYM
MRHMZMH TIRXVY E HIXIVQMRE GEVI HMRXVI IPI TVI^MRX EREPSKMM; IE E WXEFMPMX, HI
I\IQTPY, G I\MWX TYRGXI HI WMQMPMXYHMRI LMWXSPSKMG RXVI XVELIIE-EVXIV #M
ZI^MG, PEVMRKI #M YXIV (WEY TVSWXEX), S SQSPSKMI RXVI TPQRM #M VMRMGLM. 8I^E
PYM 4ETYW, VIPYRH PYGVVMPI VIGIRXI EPI PYM 'EQMPPI &IVXVERH #M EPI HV %HVMIR
4IPEHER 3YP, TVSTYRIE S GPEWM3GEVI E EGIWXIM #XMMR'I. (IZIRMX #IJ HI PEFSVEXSV
EP HV 0Y]W PE ,STMXP HI PE 'LEVMXI, 4ETYW E RXVITVMRW GY EGIWXE I\TIVMIR'I HI
LMTRS^ HMJIVMXI HI GIPI HI PE WTMXEPYP 7EPTIXVMIVI; IM XVERWJIVEY HI PE HMWXER'
WXVMPI RIZVSTEXMGI EPI YRYM WYFMIGX R WXEVI HI ZIKLI EWYTVE YRYM WYFMIGX
LMTRSXM^EX E4EX RXV-S GEQIV RZIGMREX, GY ENYXSVYP YRIM GSVSERI
QEKRIXM^EXI TYW EPXIVREXMZ TI GETIXIPI GIPSV HSM.
'Y XSEX EHQMVETE WE TIRXVY 1EIWXVYP 4LMPMTTI, 4ETYW RY JGIE TI
XEYQEXYVKYP. )VE YR GIVGIXXSV HMRXVI GIM QEM WIVMS#M GEVI E TVMQMX QIHEPME HI
FVSR^ E %WMWXIR'IM TYFPMGI TIRXVY GEVMIVE WE WTMXEPMGIEWG #M EP GVYM GEFMRIX
HI GSRWYPXE'MI, HI TI &YPIZEVHYP HI 'PMGL], RYQVYP 60, IVE EWEPXEX HI S
GPMIRXIP GEVI E#XITXE TR #M TI WGEV. *MYP WY RI WTYRI: )P GSRWMHIVE G
HMR TYRGX HI ZIHIVI I^SXIVMG GSVTYP SQIRIWG IWXI GSQTYW HMR QMM HI GIPYPI
ZMM GEVI EY, XSEXI, GSR#XMMR'E PSV MRHMZMHYEP, WTMVMXYP PSV 6SPYP WTMVMXYPYM
QIHMGEQIRXYPYM WEY EP 4YMHYPYM QEKRIXMG IWXI HI E ZSVFM GY EGIWXI 4MRXI
QMGM, HI E PI XVI^M IRIVKME, HI E PI EVXE PSGYP HMR REXYV YRHI ZSV TYXIE
WMRKYVI W-#M KWIEWG ZMRHIGEVIE. 'Y GX ZE 3 HIGM QEM TYXIVRMG WTMVMXYP YRIM
WYFWXER'I MRXVSHYWI R GSVT, GY EXX QEM VITIHI ZE 3 SF'MRYX ZMRHIGEVIE.
%GIEWX PIKI IWXI, HYT 4ETYW, GLIME ZMRHIGVMPSV LSQISTEXMGI, QEKRIXMGI
WEY GLMEV XIYVKMGI.538
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WE, 4ETYW EVEX G 4MRXE SQIRIEWG WI GSQTYRI HMR XVIM TVMRGMTMM, GSVTYP 3^MG,
GSVTYP EWXVEP (WEY QIHMEXSVYP TPEWXMG) #M WTMVMXYP GSR#XMIRX. 'SVTYP 3^MG (WGLIPIX,
QY#GLM, SVKERI HMKIWXMZI) WYTSVX XSEXI IPIQIRXIPI GI EPGXYMIWG SQYP
RXVYTEX #M #M EVI GIRXVYP HI EG'MYRI R EFHSQIR; GSVTYP EWXVEP PI ERMQ, IWXI
TVMRGMTMYP PSV HI GSI^MYRI, EG'MSRRH TVMR SVKERIPI HI VIWTMVE'MI #M HI
GMVGYPE'MI MEV GIRXVYP PYM HI EG'MYRI WI E4 R TMITX; R WJV#MX, WTMVMXYP QM#G
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MRJIVMSEV E GETYPYM. 7I TSEXI ZSVFM HI HSY GSVTYVM, HISEVIGI GSVTYP EWXVEP
IWXI HYFPYP TIVJIGX EP GSVTYPYM 3^MG. )P GSRWXMXYMI S VIEPMXEXI SVKERMG.539 R
EPX TEVXI, 4ETYW ZE WTYRI G 3MR'E SQIRIEWG, HMR TYRGX HI ZIHIVI
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MRJIVMSEVI, Y^MRE EFHSQMREP #M Y^MR XSVEGMG. *SV'E RIVZSEW, HIVMZRH HMVIGX
HMR EG'MYRIE WRKIPYM EWYTVE GIVIFIPYPYM, IWXI S YRIEPX R WIVZMGMYP WTMVMXYPYM.
4ETYW IVE MRXIVIWEX GY TVIGHIVI HI GSVTYP EWXVEP GVYME M HEXSVQ
TWXVEVIE #M RXVI'MRIVIE JSVQIPSV SVKERMWQYPYM #M TVEGXMGE WMQYPXER XVIM JIPYVM
HI QIHMGMR: EPSTEXMG, LSQISTEXMG #M QIHMGMR QMRXEP. RXV-EHIZV, IP
HISWIFIE FSPMPI TYV 3^MGI GEVI WI ZMRHIGEY TVMR GSRXVEVMM (EPSTEXME); FSPMPI
EWXVEPYPYM GEVI WI XVEXEY GY VIQIHMM EWIQRXSEVI PSV (LSQISTEXME); #M FSPMPI
WTMVMXYPYM GEVI RY TSX 3 ZMRHIGEXI HIGX TVMR XIYVKMI #M VYKGMYRI. 4ETYW GYXE
RXSXHIEYRE W-#M HIE WIEQE HEG WXEVIE TEGMIRXYPYM RY TVSZIRIE HMRXV-S
XYPFYVEVI E WMWXIQYPYM WY HI ZMFVE'MM EWXVEPI: 9RISVM, TIRXVY E WXEFMPM YR
HMEKRSWXMG, WGVYXE QEM RXM EWXVEPYP FSPREZYPYM, ETSM P ZMRHIGE R QSH
QMWXIVMSW JGRH ETIP PE JSV'E ZMXEP QEQ, PE TSXIR'MEPYP WIGVIX, WYVW HI
IGLMPMFVY.540 4VMRXVI EGIWXI GE^YVM HI ZMRHIGEVI QM\X (TVMR VYKGMYRI #M GY
YR QIHMGEQIRX EPGLMQMG) WI GMXIE^ GIP EP YRYM GSTMP FSPREZ HI S PI^MYRI PE
TMGMSV.
4ETYW YXMPM^E VIQIHMM TVSTVMM, RIGYRSWGYXI HI 'SHI\. % GVIEX S PMGSEVI
ERXMLSPIVMG #M E TYW PE TYRGX, QTVIYR GY JEVQEGMWXYP (IFSYHEYH, YR IPM\MV,
E GVYM JSVQYP E JSWX HEX HI 3YP WY (XMRGXYV HI LEQEQIPMW, HI GETWMGYQ,
HI L]HVEWXMW, HI ZM-FYVRYQ, I\XVEW 4YMH HI GWGEV WEKVEHE IXG.) TI GEVI-P
TVIWGVME R HS^I HI HSY PMRKYVM TI ^M. 4ETYW E JSPSWMX XSX JIPYP HI TVSGIHII
TIRXVY E ZMRHIGE FSPMPI RIVZSEWI, GY QEKRI'M #M GSVSERI QEKRIXMGI,
XVEXEQIRXI HMIXIXMGI, LMTRSXMWQ, WYKIWXMI #M XVERWJIV.541 % MRZIRXEX YR WTYR
SVKERMG, WTYRYP ZIVHI EP EQMVEPYPYM, TI FE^ HI 3IVI, TIRXVY E RPXYVE HMR
GSVTYP SQIRIWG PMTSQY-VMPI (FYPI HI KVWMQI), FVFME HYFP, TERXEPSRYP HI
GPVMI*542, TVSZSGRH VIKVIWYP GIPYPIPSV EHMTSEWI JV RGVI'MXYVM EPI TMIPMM
WEY VMHYVM.543 R 1898, E JGYX I\TIVMIR'I PE WTMXEPYP 7EMRX-.EGUYIW TI GSFEM
GVSVE PM WI MRSGYPEWI GYPXYV TYV HI XYFIVGYPS^ GE W RGIVGI YR WIV
ERXMXYFIVGYPSW GSQTYW HMR HIVMZEXI IGXSHIVQMGI.544
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RYQVYP 4, EM GVIM IPIZM IVEY HIWXMRE'M W MRXVI, HYT I\EQIRI, R PSNMPI
QEVXMRMWXI; 4ETYW E 'MRYX EGSPS, GY VIKYPEVMXEXI, GYVWYVM GEVI, R 1898, WI
MRXMXYPEY 4VIQMIVW IPIQIRXIW HI GLMVSQERGMI, 4VIQMIVW (XPQIRXW HI PIGXYVI
HI PERKYI WERWGVMXI (GEVEGXVIW HIZEREKEVM). 'IMPEP'M TVSJIWSVM EM EGIWXIM #GSPM
IVEY SGYPXM#XM GSRWMHIVE'M HI IP GE 3MRH TVMRXVI GIM QEM GSQTIXIR'M, GE .SPPMZIX-
'EWXIPSX, GEVI TVIHE PIG'MM HI EPGLMQMI, WEY 7IHMV (EREKVEQ E PYM (I#MV #M
TWIYHSRMQ EP PYM =ZSR 0IPSYT), GEVI TVIHE MWXSVME QEVXMRMWQYPYM.
R 1901, 4ETYW W-E HYW PE 7EROX-4IXIVWFYVK, PE 2MGSPEI EP ,-PIE, #M E
PYTXEX QTSXVMZE MR4YIR'IM PYM 6EWTYXMR PE GYVXIE 6YWMIM. R SGXSQFVMI 1905,
'EVYP P-E GSRZSGEX PE &EVOSMI 7IPS TIRXVY S #IHMR' HI RIGVSQER'MI TI GEVI E
TSZIWXMX-S 1EYVMGI 4EPISPSKYI, EQFEWEHSV EP *VER'IM: 4VMRXV-S GSRHIRWEVI
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%PI\ERHVY EP ----PIE; WIQRI MRHYFMXEFMPI EY EXIWXEX TVI^IR'E WTIGXVYPYM
MRZM^MFMP. 2MGSPEI EP ---PIE E TYW S RXVIFEVI JERXSQIM XEXPYM WY GEVI P-E
RHIQREX PE JIVQMXEXI. (SM HMWGMTSPM EM PYM 4ETYW EY HI^QMR'MX EGIEWX
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2ISFSWMX, 4ETYW HHIE GSRJIVMR'I I^SXIVMGI, TYFPMGE PYGVVM GE 4VIQMIVW
6PIQIRXW H'EWXVSWSTLMI (1910). 'RH E M^FYGRMX TVMQYP V^FSM QSRHMEP, IP E
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YR ERXEKSRMWQ RXVI TVEGXMGE S3GMEP #M TVSTVME WE HMWGMTPMR: 1IXMEXVME,
GYRSWGYX QEM FMRI, ZE 3 GSQTPIQIRXYP MRHMWTIRWEFMP EP QIHMGMRIM. (ISEVIGI
QIXMEXVME WI SGYT RYQEM HI MRGYVEFMPM, HI GIM TI GEVI QIHMGMRE ME
TVWMX.545 % QTMRW STXMQMWQYP TR PE E TVSTYRI YR WXEXYX EP QIXMEXVYPYM
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