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rnai vizibiia-dependenfa dc fucto.ii interni.

Modificdrile irr
Progresul
'aceste trei direc!ii sc
1,r'odrrr,
in rrrorl continrru, dar in riL-
mqr.i diferil,e. Cel mai lenL csLc
lrroccsul
sistcmat,izirii. S-ar
pulea spune <'I prin cl liutbu
lrrclrrr.reazd
irrLr-un mt-rd s1,e-
cific ceea ce clgligd prin funcIia ci onomaLologicd, rle irrvirrr-
l,ar de semne ale obiectelor realitSlii. Crlci sist,e rnatizurou
se face tot mai necesard pe miisuli ce creqtc invcnt,nlrrl rlrr
unitSli qi tipurile de sensuri care sinl, exprirnat,e ru irj rrl,or,rrl
lor.
morf ologie
In capilolul privitor ]a isLorir.rrl problemei s-a ardtat cd
in tot cursul secolului al XIX-lca progresul limbilor indo,
europene a fost apreciat, aproape cxclrrsiv, pe baza obser-
vdrii evoluliei rnorfologiei qi, in spccial, a evolufiei flexiunii
nominale. S-a doverlil, insii <.rii Ilcxirrrrou rrorninald, privit{
separat de catcgoriilc lnorfologicc 11i rlc sirrl,axil
,
nu poate
constitui rrn criteriu satisfii<rr'il,ol dc apror:icrc rr direcliei
dezvoltilrii nici nriloar in lirlrbilc flexiorrrrro.
'fendirrfele
plirrr:ipalc rlo cvo lu (,ic a s l,rrrcl,rrri i rnorfologicc.
se dezviiluic rnai grorr. l)a(,clc arlrrrrute ural,h or\ Iirnbilo so
tleosebcsc lnl,ro clc t,trl rrriri rrrrrlL srrll usJruoLrrl lnrlrfologio,
atit in ceea oo privcryl,c rrrrrrriirrrl, cll,
rsi
con{,irrrrl,rrl
,si
foruru
categoriilc'r.
Datoril,I caraolcrulrr i ubsLrur:[
ryi
sisLcrrrnIirt al rrcesl,ui scc-
tor, trS.slturilc lui calqclcrist,irc porflisl,il o vrcme foarte
indelungatd qi, de aceea, spre rlooscbirc dc vocabular, este
mai greu de gdsit un etalon al aprccierii gradului de dezvol-
tare a morfologiei in limbi cu structuri diferite. Totodat5,
materialul de, c"omparat este aici mai greu de dobindit, deoa-
rece perioada textelor.scrise este rnult prea scurtd fald de
ritmul foarte lent in care se produc
schirnbdrile.
Pentru a pul,ea desprindc rnodificdrile calitative care 6e
produc in morfologie csto neccsar si urmlrim, atit clt ne
ingdduie ma[erialul, felrrl in care iau naql,cre categoriile
lnorfologicc
;i
rallort,rrlilc Jol orr lexicul qi cu sin[axa.
Arn vIzuL cii urril,ri[,ilo I'orrcIicc sint monoplane gi q{,
evo-
lu!,ia lrrr rrol'iirrrl rlcl,crtrrirrtrl,ir direct de evolufia gindirii,
95
rn
osl,o gr'{)lr rl. sl,rrlrilir, rrrr.rrP.r'L lntre modificdrire produsc
lo rriv.lrrl f,rr.l,ir: rii r:1.11s1,1,j.1'1t lrecesitd(ilor dc cominicarc.
lrr opozil,io,,u. l,rrrl,l,ir.rr,' v9r,rr511lur"t oltinarqrc, i"- i"*"i
sPcoificc, rriv.lrrl rlrr virr(,ii ;rl vorbitorilor. iar'evolrrl,ia lrri
prr:J{lcsivri urlrrcnzii irrrlcrrpr,ol.rpe dezyoltarea girr,lir.ii.
^
Privitii sub ilctrsl, irsPcct,, rrroffblogiq arc o sil,iirrl,ic irPrrr.l,r,.
Inc{-din arLichil,at,. iat,.goriile m6rlologiir, ,i,, f',,rr,'1,,,'1',,,,,,
tate la categorii-logicc corcspunzl-rtoat'c.'i),,r,
1,,,,,,,lr,lisri
rrrr
lnseamnd dependen!d directr. Exprirrral'.. irr
'lirrrrrii
ir rrrrr,.-
goriilor logice se. poate_realiza qi iu irjut,olrrl v,.irbrrlirr,rrrrri,
fli
aceasta se qi intimpl5 in faza ini{,ialil a corrsl,il,uir.ii lor,.
Transformarea unei categorii lexicale i' oategoric gr,ar'irLi,
cald se realizeaz[ in ritm diferit in funclie ?" ,noi um]l,i
factori, intre care un rol important revine-celor structurali.
Ia
repregintS. o anumit{ organizarc a con!,inutului sernanlio
qi aceastd organizare se realizeazl sub presiunea celorlah,e
sectoare ale limbii,
_in
primuJ rind
'a
sintaxei. Categoriile
morfologiei slnt produse ale sirr [axci, care iqi creeazi] ilrsLru-
mentele necesare_ pe baza le-xicrrlui. Sc qLirr ci vocabularul
gi sintaxa apar de la crearea limbii, de-la cea mai simpll
comunicare. In cursul dezvolttrrii lirrrbii, o da[ii cu cres[erea
numdrului de cuvinte qi cu complicarea raporturilo. clirrtre
ele, funcliile sintactice pot sii irnpuntt o animitir organizarc
a materia,lului prin care cle sirrL cx|rirtale. Sinl,axa cste,
deci, cauza directd a acestei organiziiri (cauza
rrll,iruji fiind
reprezentaLd de nevoile de c,-rrrrrr',icarr'), iur vocabularrrl
qste materialul asupra cdruia ea i;i r.xcrciLii ar:{irrrrca.
Categoriile morfologice sc crecazl
jr
d ivcr.se linrbi la clruci
diferite.'Dar chiar cele mai vechi diri elc sc forrneazd ire o
treaptd relativ tirzie din istoria linrbilor', iar transformiril"
care alcdtuiescacest proces se produc foarte lent. De acecr
limbile celemai pu!in evoluate de asLrtzi sc afld abia in laz
de constituire a categoriiJor gramaticale, ceea ce permite
cercetdtorilor sI surprindd unele din cclc mai veclii ctaoe
ln constituirea morlologiei. ln acelaqi tirnp, r,iLmrrl loaril,c
lent al dezvoltirii in acesl, sector al limbii'li irrrpicdicir sir
urmdreascS. evolulia unci categorii gramaticale
-lrr
isloriir
unei sing.ure familii de limbi
"9i
ii %trligx srj ,.;.,;;i-i;
compara{ii inl,re limbi nelnrudjLe.
,
ln analiza principalelor aspecte alc
l,r,oglcsrrlrri
irr lnorfu-
logte va lr necesar, aqadar, sd urmrlrirrr Ll,rrPtirtl\ Iornrarc a
96
scnsrrrilor glanrat,icaltt, prirr spccializarea unor cetegorlr
scnritllLicc,
1i
l,rcpl,ttl,tr lot' clrrttnt:ilrtu'rl rlo lcxic,'prccurn
6i
rrvolrr(,irr rrri.j loirrrclor rla cxprirrrrrrc tr rroilor.rral,cgorii, rltl lu
folrrrtr rrrrri prr(,irr nisl,crtrttl,icc ltt rrrijlortrrrr rrrtti ttt'gttttizttl,c.
'l'ilrirrrl
r{('rrrnl tlc r:t'lc lrnil,rrl,c ttuti sltnt, t't'ttt tlisl'irr'grl ltt l,l11
slil,rrli lrt'ltlti,,,r irlc rttt,'i r'trlrr1rrlf i1 111,'t'l'olollirttr rlrtprttttlt\tt(tl
nuri lrlr,crrl,rru{,lr ;r rron(,itrul,rrltti li rlt ttt'trrlttt'i lrrx ilttlc
f
l
I'ot'lntt lrrtti ptr{'irr olgrtrrizrtl,ii tlc (rxl)r'rnrilt'{'.
In cclc cc rrt'rrtcazir vorrr irrt:ct'c:r si rlcspl'inrlclr rrrclo oorr-
cluzii privitoare la lcrrdilt[,clo tlc cvolrrl,ic ln morfologic,
cerceIind isLoria catcgoriilor glarrrirticalc nominale qi ver-
bale, procesul separdrii ptrr[,ilor dc vorbire qi direclia de
dezvoltare a paradigmelor.
Catcgoriilo gramatienlo apar irrlr o lazri rcla[iv avansa[5
a
jstoriei
lirnbii. Crearea Ior reprczitrt,ti trrt salt calitativ ln
limbd, din punctul de vedere al absl,rrrlt,izirrii ,1i, mai ales, al
sistcmatizS.rii. O vreme indelun gitl,ii cott r:c p ltr l tr cx
llrimate
de
ele (timp, aspect, numdr etc.) arr fosl, folrttrtlttt,tr t:tt rnijloaco
Iexicale. Trecerea de la lexical lit glrtrrrrrl,itrttl trorttttttltttttoztl
,
deci, nu cristalizarea in gindirc lrr fol'rrrii irri{,irrlri ll
(:orr(ro[)-
tului, ci necesitatea vorbitorilor tlc tt sisl'r)ttrttl'izlt I'ttt'trtttl'<r
categorie no!ional5, devcniti frccvott[,ii.
(]ttlrtcl,rrt'rrl rtbsl,r'ttrrl,
al cal,egoriei gramaticale se marrifostii lrr l':rPl,rrl rrii rrtt str
Irttttl,tr
ataqa la un numdr mare dc senstrri lcxittrlr'.
.Ca{;egoriile gramaLicale sirrl'
lrroprii
l,trl,ttt'or pr\r[,ilor rlrr
vorbire rro!ionale. f)in punctul rlc vc<lt,rc rt I r'olr
[,irrtt
t,rr ltr
j
lor
semanlic, ele caracterizeazit srrbslttrrl,ivrr |
1i
vrrrbul (rcflcc-
find insuqiri ale obiectelor qi proocsclor)
;
rltrr,
lrrin
acord' ele
'aparl,in
qi altor pdr{,i de vorbire. Ilxislii, rltrsigur, o diferen!5
..Intre
aspectul lexico-gramatical al cirl,cgoriilor gi aspectul
ribr
pur gramatical pi formal. Referindu-se la gen, J. I(ury-
'lowiczr
face distinc{ia.inbre genul dcictic sau genul substan-
tivului, care se raporteazd la un aspcot, al obiectului reali-
tri(,ii exprimat prin substanl,iv,
,si
gcrrrrl irtttrf,rric satt genttl
allor pIr(,i tle vorbirc, dobirrrlit,
lrrin
ilr,urtl rrl ctr strbst,itnl,ivul,
t
lV sprur.,i,t g(rL(ztl rrxl.zu.itr (r(tlttultlczn('g,,, ltt .'Sllr:twr,z'lltttiit z
czylrto*ci i posir:tlz(rrr l'olskit'j Akrrrllrrrii Urrliljtl,rroit:i",.1(rirktin', 11)it4,
faic. 10, pp. l"r 1l
,
l,ritrl. r'rtsl'i
,
irr vol.,l . l( rr r.y lo w it:2,,,O'ttlltttt{
lro Jnlnlunclurro", 1!loscttvrr, 1r.)(i',1 , 1r1r.2()(
?011 .
97
7
-
Progresul irl limtJtr
(lrrlrr rlorrr'i rtrilrltrltt rrrr lrrlilrrrrstl
Ei
l-a c,ategoria
numlrului'
rr r:rrzrtlttr, it
l){ll'r{oirllti-
l'lrrl'r:
"virlcrit
cd, din nunctul
de vedere
rrl 11r'ittrrttl,ir':rliz;ilr'
"u'li
""r'i;1ol'i
i, hoidrit6are
est'e aparil'ia i
irs;irtrtl,rrltti
rri irllltlot'tr:'
l,lst,. rl. l,{)'ri',.irl, 1,,1,f ,,t rri, itr ciud-a tlivers.ililrii.,l"]"1.].:ii:-
i
*,
j
: x lll'
i";"
J il,l ;
"
i l','J"ll; ;;i::liilTi.
fill::l
j,'J,,
if' ;l: l l i:;
de care dispun
""r""ilt,or:ii
rru pcrmib_int,ot,rl0lrilrrir
sr.i srr olr-
serve i' cc mS.surd o tut.gori.
spcoiiiri,r.r rrt:i lirrrlri rrrrtr
lrrr[,ttt
i
avansabereprezintSofazLmai-vechctlirrisLoriirtttttrirritt'o-
;;;ti";p;t!t',.in.l
"ttti
lirnbi mai evoluabe'
Dar olria. irr sLtt-
iioi-
"it"rir
ut
"unoqLitiltlot
noottrc,.sc
lccurros.
lt'isi Lttt t
;;*tl;;;i
"..igi
,r,;-r"g"t"ti
inbrc limbi alrarfirrirtd
rrrr'r
;;il;;ig:1"::1","":*;-**i:;:'ru1ffi
:"f,**li::;il;
comune se expllca pIrII IJ.uu\".'.':':"","'*"'
:*','::-^
^^^r^.";
il;d';;;;
reJie.te,'i"-gracle
tlife.i[e de anroximare'
aceleaEr
trS.sirturi
escn!ralc
-i" it"iliilti,1't9t.'1tf ii l'rin
acclca;i legi
o'
r'"T,Ti""tJJJJ,.'hi
";"1;:
iili l" II i I il'." i. s i g u r, q i tr i rc.c. -
t"."U"rrlto
*."i"nT;;i
.:I-d;j ii.
(n|.,' n It ul, persoa ua, I i rn
1r
u l.),
lii.i"^;;t"'p"rl"
';:;5$lii"
i'o"'r'.
gcri'rl' aspcr'r'rrl);
in ;
#;;;}iu:*f
l.'ff#flil'
:l*' :
ltl i T'1[,Tl :'l I ;:':l
lj
rl
'',
de factorii
interni. ija""irr"i-il'ri"
Lut,rrr.,r so p0t, tlr:slrrinrlc
;;;t;j;l;
"pro
ubrt.u.lirur. Vi
sist,r'rrrrrtizrrt'r'
-
- l'"t'tttr'
1r'ttt-
cipale'ale
evolulriei
lor progrcsrvo'.
-Gonul.
problema ;;rfijiii [",,ut,,1
:r r.,,rrsLiLrriL olricIlrr
unor studii numeroase'
fdrS a-s.e
PtrLtrrt'ajrrnq"
!,? ::l:l]j'
"^"ti*."."eptaLe'
Spre dcoscbirc
dc.^ulLc caltgot'tt
gralna-
ticale,
genul nu este o categorie
general rlspindit[:
sint
limbi care ,r.,
E'-ut'
tt"lt-g"""gtomatical'
dupS' cum sinL st
lintbi care, irr cursttl
jsLorici Io-r.' a9 rcnunial li el' $i
formele
lui cle cvolu!ie
prezintS
trits[turi
specifice
dc la-o farnilie'
dc limbi lir alta'
-.r ^-^-^
.,,,t, rn.mr
ln faza lui lcxicalI sau tlcicticl'
gcnul aparc' sub
"form'
unci arrurnit.
g.uf iii^o t"tti"t"lor
in"clase dcosebiLe
fot'rnal
pi'rtt
"tp.;t;l
;t"iti'^at"*ttltrr
clasc'' in forrne evoluate'
se
intilnesc
ir,
^n3o'it*;;;ii;biitt
itibale acl'uale' Criberiilc
qruplrii qi, deci' il;;;f
clast]o'
virriaza:
in
general' se
iorireqte
d" tu o'p"tid'mai
mult' sru trtai pulin cscnIill::]'
ili;;"t'"I";
a"rr.r*it",-
iittnx, dime'siu'c,
natura natcrra-
9B
ltilui etc. Aslfel in lirnllilc mi,rrortczicnc srrllstantivclo sc
impart in rrrrrrltoarclc olasc: tttttrtc tlc
lriir'('i
rrlc corpulrti
ryi
rnanifosl,riri I'izictt qi tttoritlt: (lrortlii, sllilrirtirrrrc ct,tr.); rtl.lftl()
rlc lrrrlrrrric; cttvirtl,tr cltl'tt itt'itl,ll lorrrrl si l,irrrpul; o
lrttr'l,rl
it tttttti
irrt,rcg sl\u un irrl,r'rrg irr t'rtyror'1, r,rr pi'ir'( ilr' (r'rirliir;irril, l't'ttltztr
111,1:.); rrttrrrrr rlc ittrlrt'licl'ilrrirrl'c, porloitlrt', rtril,r'tttttt'ttlr'; rttttttr'
tlc lrtittr:,it'ttt'i solitlc; ttttrrt(r rlc lir:lrirlrrl.
l,'ot.rttr: rlczvoll,irl,c irll cl;rsr:lot'str irrl,ilrrlsr, lrr lirrrlrrlrr ttt'11t'tr
afr'icitttc, irr spcciitl irr lirrrlrilrr lrittrl,rr. Irr lilrrlrir ztrltt, altttl'-
tinind acesLei l'arnilii, strbsLattt,ivclo sc grupcazI irr 1l] clasc,
dupl urmdtoarele crjil,elij :
a. diferenl,a de naturd a obicct,clor din realitate (oameni,
animale, plante, Jucruri cLc.)
b. rn[rirnea relativii a obitltrl,clot'
c. interac!,iunca canbit,at,ivri rlitrl,r'rr r'hirrc[,e
:
d. pozi{,ia in sliat,iu
e. critcriul viclii, al sLIlii iti'l'ivrr si
lrirsivtr2'
ln lirrrba ptllrulrL{'ici i\lrtsrri rlirr Alli,'ir rlrr.sl, rrxis[ii o clas5.
1rr:r1
Lltt Itttttitl tlt: ttlricr'1,,' Irr;rt'i
;i 1'rrl.l
tri,'tr, 1,11,', ptlttt,nr nume
io olricct,c rrrirri
1i
slltlrr''r. Irr lirrrlrrt lttttct'irrrlirtlli :l[,lrapasca
rrrrnrclrt rlrt olrirrr,l,c
lrllrl,rr
si ltrltr rlc olrir,r'l,r't'ol,tttttltl Srl itl'li"t llr
,'lrrsr',liIcli|,'4.
(it'trPrrlcrrc11vi1,1t'lot'1rr, r'llrsrrIt'r:lrrlitsii lilrlriilrr(,tllroltlrnll
rlr,,,r'glrrtizltt'rl lt rrtll irtlt'lttl'ltl'ttrlci litrrl \'{){lill)lllttt'ttl lt itl'itts tl
irrrrrrrril,i l,r'1rrrrl,:i lrtttl,il,lrl'it:r.
(ltrrlrllrrlisl'ir:i l,r'tltlrl,it'tl irlrlrrt,itltl
lrcttl't'u
,rttvini,,,l,, rlitt ltr','r'ltrti slrrtli strttlltttl ii lr :tr'r'sl'lt
ltitt'tl
si l'i I'osl, grt'itttttl rrri,ilorr tl.' or';lltttiz;tt'c lt t'o,';tlttlllrrrllrri. In
(rooiI c{)
lrlivtt;;lttctrltr
tttltivrrr'lrir,r'ilr'l ii lrlc grrr;riliiscnrarlLiCet
clc
1lot,'l'i
cu glrtrr I'rrcrtttst,il'riil,rr irr
I)r'{'zrrrrt.
Ilrrii. specialiqt,i
in lirrrbilc ncgro-africittto t,ottsitltrt'r'l cii sirrl, vcchi clasele de
cuvin[e grupa-te dupd criLeritrl
lrozil,ici
irr spa!,iu a obiectelor,
qi cel al diferen
!,ei
dc rnirrirncs.
I
J. F a rr b l6 c, Lurtgu,es t'naltttltt-pLtlyrtlll27111(t5, in vol. ,;Les
langucs du monde", I)aris, igs?,
1r.680.
,
N. \r. OhOtittA, fItn,n:;t,r1"tr1 , Mosrrovlr,'l 1)G1 ,1t. 17.
3
J. Vcn drycs, ['c lurt.14rt.lir: ,l'ltl'is,
{l}:ll,;r. 11ll'
4
II. \t. V e I I o n, ,5t{./ I't\r'rtl.u.l.iotr. l.tt.
i:t'tt.n:i
rlr'r ('rrs 0l l(s.
l)ilrtu's
4u tliscours, in
,,Bullel,irr
tlo llr I'ocitil.r! tlrr l,irrgrrisl,irltlc rlrr I'ltris", vol'
XXXIII, Iasc.2, p.219.
6
Cf .
'C.
NI c i ri lr o t, I)i.t rrl'riltl.tti.stlrrrt. I( Itsst:ttsltrutlr,on
.i.n.ilt'rcr
Ilcdeuturtg
Iiir
tlic Gcsr:lt'itltk: tlt:r ,\prttltt',,,Sr:itrtrlia", vol. X,\V, ltr'
99
7'
W. Wrrrr,ll,l rrPr0,,iir Iir lrr l}irzir clasificlrii
in clase nOrninalc
a sLuI trri(,trri,,l
g,,,,,:,',,i rrl rlilrrlrln!'ei de valori' al optizit'iei
do rnirt'itrrtl,
trltttl't[':tl'c trl't"
O lazri rtlLrrl'iorrlii
ltt ovrtltt{'irt claselor a fost' itt"tltri\ itt trltt'tt
elc au plirrriL 0it !.1(rtrilr rlisl,irrtrl,iv rtn ctlvirt[
(1ll s('lls l]{'lr|'l
l{1'
exDrilnincl
glcril s0rl)&rrt'irr:'i lrriti lulgit dirr cirrc lttr'r'
Iitt
ltr
"uitintrlrcspccl-iv'
stltl ltll
I)l'()lllllllc-
[tt
rttt'sttl ltil{rt l('l lllrrl)ll'
acesle elementc se l,ransforrni'r
irr al'ixc. lrr lirrrltilt' lrtrrrltt
;rtrr
i*"it. specific clasei numelol clc lor.rtrr'i' trsl'c
li.strlrsl'rrrtltv
;fi;ffii ;:;;;;;;;,
prefixut ctasei de.'rr.r.
tl. li.nitl. .sr,.
m{t-. care a insemnaI irri{'ial ,,&p5'",,ia-r
in lirnba
('wc s(r])st'arr-
ilii"r _
".";;i;'il;";"ir
t"ii'.n at ciasei de dinrirruLiv.2.
"-
Cfutiiit^tirul
este ,n"t"* sferei semantice
din care' lace
"J;;;;;rL.
c. ru.t"rroi a cornpar.ar n mod foarl,e plastic
irrai.li'r"" ctauiricutorii
cu chcile Sieroglifelor
chineze, care
au rolul de a distinge hierdglifele a dourl cuvtnte omonrme'
x,I"#;-
;.i"
A*tiii.*loti
"*-o
f[out din nrotive sintactice'
;i;;;^;'ai.,
,tr.n*ii"i"o
ntotaului, a transferului
lor Ia
cuvinte care expnma
""iit"i
ttgatc dc numele respecli" qtil
;;;i;il ;. iJJi' Btto d".1't"ti'p.qt
:''i,aceasta
a lost prtr'a
formd a marcarlr
-."tJ"l'ii prJdicalrrltri
sau at'r'ibutulu'i'
'"
O'a"""Je
i" upti1i""f acestdi ipo.Lcze o constituie
situalia
ain timla chinez[. Fiind limbl izolanti, c]tincza lru arO
*iif"""" i.rrroilat" at
-ntt"tn
a Bcorclrrlui '
Dar in cltinezd
"ti'."
-trl.tantiv
inso[,ib dc un ttttrnel'al prirrro;[c.
indit'elc
"i"r"i
i.
"i,l;;i;
.;;i;ii
"purf
i"r obict.Lrr'l rlt'nrrnriL. AsLfcl
numele de obiecte
""
."ptuiEtr
planf primesc clasificalorul
';i;;;,-
r;i"-ca.e ,lenu"'e'sc ob'iecie
''u
inj.er'
Pl
b.u:1".::,ti"
$;i*" de animale au clasificatorul
d7i cLt'.
St
arcr cltlsrrr-
"uto"iiti"t
la origine cuvinte nolionale care au sens gerlel'al
In limbile ,u,I"r,*rr-ucorthrl
marcat pri.n lcpctaltu
i19,i:
.oiui ao
"f
usd la verb sau la determinatrt'ii
numelut IrLl este
lncL sencral
rlsl,irrdltl-ln-iotrnu
coml'lt'lu
arol'tlrrl sc irrtil-
;;$;"t1,;'i;;iit"'t
u"1,,. Ai,,i.
',rcf
ixrrl. irrrnrclrri
srrlri.t't s. I'r'-
p.in
"i-rig,ito.
ru toaic celelilte
pdrl'i tlc propt-rzi{ic'
Ast'l'cl
50.
pp. 165- 173, in tratl' rus{ ln vul'
"Ai[rprrr'rullcltoc
tlsl'rttorrralrrro"'
M'ii'il,+:
.li,'l'"T t,
'
o!!' ,r,r,1,0,
,!r'il,,l{,
,,1/,lun,l,ll;,,1?*-#;,,
,,,
z
D. Westermann,
Plural-b.ilduttg
einigen afrikanischen
"i;;;i;":4ri'tw'
.1.'
lrr t'rrtl' rusl ln vol'
"eOiit"iit."oe
sar,rxoadaune",'Moscova,
{9(i3' I)
?2'
100
in sualrili ;ttttolo mzuri tva mgtaraltu, ameangulta,
,,acest
copil
frurnos al arallrrlui a ctizttl,"; lu plrrrrtl: w2\IoIo wnzuri wa
waaralttt.
r,t+,{zvnc.u.ttgttltrz. lrr lilrrlrrt Irgirll i nrl\lok.o ltltlrt.o ltttl/rrult:
l\iLtl?.tn nttt.ttttrttsrtttthr:lr:,,tttrtltrrlrr lirrgrrl'i rrtllttltt\l'tt.l,tt lltr vot
s.ttrt sl,rirrttl,". l't'itt t'ttPtrl,itt'rtlt rrl'ixrrlrri rlrr r:lrrrtii r{rt t'('lllizcrrzri
Ii
itrrorrlrrJ ltt ttttttt;it', t'tit:i rrxisl,i
Ir'r'lixI
rlrlr.l il,r' ltr rtttrllttltrt'
qi lrr
lrlrrt'irl. -
I,r ,rirrs,,.l isl,opici lor, lirrrlriltt t tttt' rrlttt()sc r:ltltttr tttttltittttltt
manifcsLii terrrlirrfa sirrrPlifir;lilii. ttt:trsl'ttrtt- l'ltt str rrrttlizrlitzli
Drln
gruparea Inar rnrrltor clasc lrrl,r'-ttltit singurii: se ootrto-
iresc ir"i intii clasele dc singrrlar
ryi
plural ale aceleiagi no-
iiuni,
iar apoi are loo o contolriro
1ro
baza unor criterii mai
iargi.'Aqa cum au rernarcab c.crcctiit,olii, existenla claselor
denlote otrds5.tur6 arhaic5, iar
Jrroccstrl
contopirii lor qi, deci
Ei
simplificarea acordului, sc.icttlizrrrrzii rrrai rcpcde ln lim-
bile afarlinlnd ttnor poputn[,ii ttttti ttvtlttHtrt.cr. [istc aici un
paraleiism lnt're graclril ilc <lczv,ll,itt'tt tt liviliz.{,i*i
ryi
nivelul
ii*I.rii, ascmirrrll,or arrtlltria
l)()
oilr(r I t:ottsl'ttl,;ittr irr
Pr0ccsul
dispari{,iei forrneltlr ctitttrrcl,c ittl'trt'ttrltlittt'rr ltrl'r'c sirrgrrlrrr";i
pluialr.
Acolo urrtlu cl'i[,0]'irrl rcgrrrPiir.ii(rsl,0 ir,,r:lrr irl vi{)(,ii1i
al
g.enului nal,rrr.:rl, n{t t,ror:c rlrr llr r,ltrsl lrr
;,1crr.
lrr lirlrlriltt t:ttt'tl
au"clasc rlolttilrrtl{, t,t'il,rrrirrl grrrrrrlrri ttttl,ttt'ttl nrr irrl'lltrrlryl'rl
adesea alirluri tlc tll,rt clil,rl'ii. lrr lilrrlrrl srrrrlrilirrxisl,r'i o rrlitgi"t
cle numc de fiilrl,c llttlllll(); ttl,trrrr:i trllttl, llt l)llslll(t, rrrrilttttkrl0
silL clescrigc <tit irvittrl irrsrrsipi tttttcttt'sl'i (girrtlilc, lirrrbrrj
etc.), nurnelc lol rr1llrril,ii,.i rr IoIrrl irrrlirrrlrri clttsci t:it.eitr ii
""oiii".
ul u,,,,1,, irl'.lirs.i rlr, rrrrrrrr
(1. ()lr'r()'i. ltr lilrrba
CrelO ain'Iriberia srrlrsl,urrl.ivIlr,sr.iiil1rrrIl lrr rlorrri ttla8c: una
Ientru
nume de fiin{o qi dc'olriot'l'rr Irrrrri
1i Prrlerrtice,
qi cea-
lalt[
pentru nume de obierll,tr rnitri.
Se observ[ ci, trepbal, nttntoltl tltr lttr:rttri tind sd formeze
o sinsurd clas5,'tn timp cc tltttttclc drr fiinte se grupeazd in
clase"Dobrivit
gcnului naLrrrill. lrr lilillr0 zande exist[ cinci
clasc:'oameni cle stlx mascttlitr, ttlttllctti tlrl sex feminin, oa'
meni in genere fdrii spcei[ir.irlclr s,.rirrlrri, irrriilr{rlo,1.i oh.iecte.
O clasifi6are asernllriitoltl'c s{'irrl'ilrrr';l. irt ttttt:ltt lilnbi cart-
Caziene. AStfcl irt Ittitjoli(,rrl,r'rr li,rrrlrilor t'rtttt,ttzirttlo rlrl cst
'1M.
Dcf lrf ttsstr, It:;tl,ts:"'stt,t1',r".ufrt.t'ri-rtrs,l'ur-litlt':,ritit'tt
graduelle, ln ,,llrrllrllirr
llt' t;t Sor:tr!lri rlil l,llrFrtr:;lirlttt' d'r l'ill'ls"' vul'
XXVII, laso. '1
, 1t.
fil).
2
Vezi
P.
10u.
101
(rrirlro rltr;-1lrr:Hltttlczr')
sr, irrl'iltrtlso
1r
clase nominalc' care cu-
),,'it',f
' "ii
ttttr tltt lrrii'lrrrli ryi
tlc ocupa!'ii birbtrteqti'. 1)urrr(r
(lrl
ll,llllll l' i1l' ll';;jli;"il ', lJ;li:l ;ili;i; l,xff,,lii'iiT#:;]l
lilil'i:: :i::
"i,f
,f irr li'r'bilc rrcgr',, rrlli,,rttr'.
$i
aitl irltlit'rrlc rlrr r'lrrsr'i sr'
reuotilltirll'ilrrrt;ilrr1'r'r'tli'rtl-'Aslft'l.irrlrirIlrir':i:tt'ri'r
fti'*ii.;;i;
: -r''";,r'"/e
'
lriiirr,t
,i;rrj"h
l:tl;r;''1't'''tt" t-r'
;;;;.';;;"hi,
iar,,glca"
julrttti'. ln ccItrttir
"t'tt
sittt'" (Nl)
tuo*u, iar
,,cu
silrL" (lr)
: stt!'|.l.tl'
-
"-T;;r*t"t;u..n
"torLtor
lonrlnalc irr cllrstr c,trst'it'rriltr
.prr
nim ttl*tiutr
&' i;"1' ffi:" ##J,';i
ii':'ixif'i
lll;
{l
;
fi"'."ri"-q;-i;;iii.
au fosb; la originc'
illt:l ii '']i::1"-"
I * :
g
tlll,t H' l'"ff :' *; .lf if ffi ;i'T'iJ;Tli
:.-:l Ji'Jl!
:
;;l;; f;;; i"ii*r'clasa
in care s-au contopit nume.de per-
-*"1, ar rlinld de sex masculirr, de obiecle.mari-qi
puter-
""i...
i"t femihlnut,
clasti pentru nume de fiin!'e de sex fe-
minin qi dc obiecte mici2'
Pe o rrerioaae -ai-lnaclurrgatl
cvolrr!ia gcnrrlui poalc f i
,r.*etith in isloria limbilor indo-curopcnc'
Existent,a
in tre.uf a clasclor norniiralc in numcroasc
fa'
milii de limbi i-a,l;; p" unii ce'ceLirt.ri
la trosLulat't'a
cxis-
#;j;i";";il;.
-:i i.i.-"" r"rl
",*i
i'il"1,,'ir,rut,i a p.oLolinrbii
indo-europcne.S-aincercatchiarsiiserersLabileasc5sensu^
ili;"lTf;;r*it"r"ti"rne:
nume do rudc.ie' prrli'ale cor-
"iti"r,
,ruroc de insirumenLc,
dc colecti.vc' tru-ntc
-1"-
l*::l
5i"^.;.'t"
""
misuri indicii dc clasl au tlaL nal[erc unor
-lor]ne
""*pfi""i"
a. u.orJ-"tit
g""" cle arltat'- dar,e pr.obabil cd
;i'*i;f l;.turile s-au petricut aseme'i
altor Iirnbi care cu-
nosc claie nominale.
""F;r;;;;
-oi"\r."t,L'.are
poate fi rcconstituitd
penlru ritT,!1
comunS. este aceea ln care numele de oliiecte cunosc-opozllla
;;;i;;;;;r1
oninioi
ryi
ccl inanir''at' Din puncLul dc vcdcrc
1
G. v a n B u I c h, Langucs lJnin'.;;\tooi'
"Lcs
iangucs du trtott-
^r^#S^#i'i:,i;;':i',
"r^ ',',';a,f;.,1.' ,"1",0
o',,1,,xi
1." )oii'k;'i!:' ,
tttts;i'
u 1
n3 t;
.t;,?f,l' r*
(J
rsprurg ttcr irul. gcr ntctnis cren D ettlina'
rion, Gottingen' 1947.
102
Irl gcrrczci, opozi[,ilr irrrirrrlrl,/ilrlrrirrrlrl, trrrr.(.ritt'il{]1,(}r lrol,irlnll
,si
rtrt osl,rr rlrros{.lrilri l.irlil,lrl.iv rl(! olrozi(iilrr cotrgl,ttl,ttl,rr lrr
iilrrlrilc r,tt r'lltstr tt,tttittltl. rl.r'il,
;rlirr
t ittltr'l't'tttl t'i Ittt'g r:tt.
pr.irrziil,0r..
(llr
tl|lll,irrr.(l,, l,,rr, irlir ,,rr rr ilr' lr
Prrl,rrl, lrirrt'r1il,
rrrrrt
,,,,,,, , ltrr
1,ir,r'tlrrl,
lrr rrllr.rlrlrl,rtrr'In in r'n(lt'rrl llrrnr'lol rrorrrt
rr11lc,;rrrlr.i,rrlrr,l {,lt 1ilil(,rrrrrr;,lrlrr.irr,r,ir rrr'o|rlulut. Nlr,rrfrrtr';'1,;,
Si irrl,lir,ilr,lr ci trrt li,,rlttl,ot't'rir
l)l'(:('ttlltll'tt(r't
lt tl,r't lttlttt cirtl it
tt,ii t,, lrirzii, ci unor. ( rrzr. rii 1i, l.
llrrrrrrrl,r.rrlr.
lrrll rtrl.viit',
itt I'irzii.
gXisLtlt(,rli tllitst,lol tlotttittillrl ltl,rl;1{,tit tl t:ttttt:ttltl,t'itl,ti
asupra subiccLrrlui cttrtl, tlrrIii
(rrrlll i'i it vr'tzttL, ili irttpriDra
-at.u
sa forrnalir Ia loaLo piir'{,iltr
lrlopozi{'iei-
Ulterior,-lns5.,
o datd cu cornplicarea raporl,trrilttr'lrl l'r'rtzir qi cu dezvoltarea
sisLemului cazual, aparc rr(r('{'si I lrl,r';r rl islingcrtt clare
-a.-su-
biectului de obicr'1, in corrdrIiilc rrrrr'i lof ici libcre. Meillet
a explicat in mod convingiil,or
lttrttl,t'tt
rrc irr limba comund.
indoleurorreanii nurnole tkt l'iin (r: irrr l'olrrrrr cir.zuale diferite
la nOmirrativ qi la. acuza[,i.v,
.$1rI'0
rlr,osclrilo rlrr rrttrnc]e de lu-
crurl. carc au o sltrglil,t'i rl()sirrr.rrIi'r: rrrrrrrclc irrrirrrate puteau
funcLiona irr Il'azi
;i
{.it strlrir', lc si
'
rt 0lrit'r'l'r, ir;11 irlt:it' lipsa
diSLiircli,,i l',,r.rrritl,,irrl.r.rr rr,rrrrirrrrl.ry l.i rrlttzltl.iv ptr[,ea CrCa
corrfuzii. I)0rio0lrrl arrrlrigrril,ii
{,ii
rrrr cx isl,ir lrrsr\ lrr tlazul nu-.
melol irtlrrtitrtitl,tr, rrirl'r, l'riir,,1,i,,ttlt,,,,l,' I'r'grrlii
,
trit o}.iecbo ale'
verbclor tritttzi['ivc, irPiilirrrI itt t',1 rlrr stti'itrtrt' Iltltttui in rnod
exCcpfiorrrrl. li-rl,r.iirrril, plirr lrri.i loirc0 llcxiortttt'0, gtlnul_dC-
virrc',', t'irLeg'r'i,i lrrorl'olirgirrii. I'll sc rrxl'irrrlrl
1rri..
acord la
c'vi'tcle ,,,i-g,,,,
.virr,iirlril,
cit.rr iqi cl.ctrzti, ir.li'il,rrri dc para-
digurc irr t.lar,t rlcsirrrrrrt,ir rrorrrirr:rl,ivrrlui csl,rr irlcntitr{ cu cea
a icuzalivrrlrri, o illLii
Pilr,irrligrrlli ,
irr r,irro r,irzul subiect are
o marcI distirrcl,ivir
ltr,oPrio.
(iii
|ilr.irrligrrrir
animatului este
mai noutr rczull[, dui'Lt
ilil'cl'ea
t't'l't'rrtii l,r'ilor, din
trecvenla
formelor cu desinen[,a iaro, ditt rroitt';irlcn{'a formalS' a mdr-
cii acuzativului cu afixul dc rttltL(rt (-m, -n)'. Acest
fapt confirml ipoleza lui Il. Ilirl. polriviL clreia neutruJ,
privenit din inanimat, reprezitrl,ri d liirniryiIir din perioada
iare ureccdI apariLia
getttr]rri.
L,dt-u faz5 irlLc;ioiu'ri tr lirrrlrii irr,l,,,,ril'{)l,,,nr', r,1,ozi(ilt
bipartil,I dc gCrr Sc Ir.rrrrsl,'r'rilrr i11 r,.1,,rzitir, lIi;rrrr'l,il,ii . ltt r.'rt'
drul atrirrrrrLriirri irr,,r'1rc sri rrlrlrni rlisl irrr'Iilr rlirrltl tttrtrrlttlitt
I
Cf. A. A. L
(l {) ll I r ,' v, lJ't,trtrtt,rt't'it:ttttt' tt ttt'l)tttttttttL(lit ttttt:
pd,asunntc JrJblttu, Mosrlttvlt, lll(;:1,
1t.
ll{)-
103
;i
l',,111irri,r. S,rl, tr:t1r.r:t,1;l l',,rmttlor animabul devine mascll'
lirr, iitl irurrrirrrrrl,rrl rlrrvirrc ttoubru, La tema rnasculirrultri
sr ;trltlugli r1l'i.rrr sPlr,irtlrr
Ptrttt,ru
marcarea Ieminintrlui.
S irr' pr'i lclr, lrr
lrrirrur
vcrlct'o, cd scindalea artitttitLtrltri irr
nrilscrlirr
ryi
l'rrrrrirrirr trt'c Lt lrazl criterii sclltallt,icrl. l)ttt'lrt
l'itzu. ltr (ir.\to
ar'(i lot; ttt:t:st,
l)I'oocs
genul dcvtltristl o lttl,cllttt'ic
11l'anrtttici-tldi,
stlbol'(lorltrI ltlgilor gl'arnaLitlIlc. r\sit
('rrrtr
rJ i\
rnai
qm[a[, defertrrittan[tr in accasl,[ prt.,.lrlt,rrr;i I'slc irlrlrliIirr
genului arlaforic. Pentru distinclia gctttrltri tritl,rrlttl lrt srrlr-
stantiv'e erau suficiente mijloacelc lexicaltl, srrlrlrrl,ivisrrrrrl
(mater
-
pater, bos
-
uq,cca) si moliunea. I)ovada rlr"r lu
iubstantivt opozi[,ia masculin
*
feminin nu cl'a rnorf olo-
gicd ne-o dI faptul cd. ea nu era marcabd nici prin t,ipul de
ieml (in latind gdsim sti'ba M
{
si'Iua F, lrcrtus M qi
/agas
F, rer'M gi ler F, erercitus M qi manus Ii
,
rneridies lI gi res
F) pi nici prin flexiune. Din punct de vedere gramatical ge-
nui unui iubstantiv indo-eurbpcan er& definit prirt acord:
bonus rer dar bona ler.
Idoea cd marca opoziliei dirttre masculin qi ferninin a apd-
rut mai intti la cuvintele cu gcn va,riabil a losI formu]a[it
adesea de cdtre indo-europeniryli. S-a corlsidcrat trllool'i oi"t
rolul pfincipal revine adjectivului dar,. rlrrPi , rrrrr
1re
l.rrtnir
dreptate obiecteaz[ A. Marl,irrcl,r,
'c
lirrgi'r rtrrr^. <1. I'ii.[,tt
de iex feminin notarea genul,ri l. a<ljo.liv. irr li l',s1,
1rlrr,-
nasticS. iar ne linS5. nume do lr.rcrtrli I'ctttirrittrrl lttljrrrrt,ivrrlrri
nu avea lici o
jusiificare sernapl,isL Nlui rrrrrl[,i .c1r.t,aL,r'i,
printre care II . Steinthal, II. I'arrl, ll. Ililt,,'A. NlrrilleL arr
considerat cd in indo-europeanl opozit,ia grarnaLicahi de
gen s-a realizat mai lntli la pronunre, dc la care ar fi fosl'
t"ransferatd. la adjective qi nume. Se remarc[ intr-adev5r cd
sint limbi care nu au gen declt la prollulne' dupd cum sint
altele (ex, engleza) in care opozitria M
,
F se pdstreazii nu-
mai la'prottume. Relulnd aceastl. problemtr, Martinel, ex-
ulicit nriorifaLea
aparifi('i gcnrrhri la protrtrttrc dirl lIc{'csi-
latca d" {r nlur{.u fUIrrral gerrul urrei fiirr!c de scx [t,tttittitt
al clrci ntlrl]c l]tl e
llrczcttt
in context. Genul ar f i fosl, rlot'aI
rnai intii la demoristrative' apoi la pronurnele personal la
I
A. M a r l, i n e L, Le genre
ftntinin
ett itttlo-curult|tnt elutttetr
l'onctionnel rlu problCnte' in,,Bullctin de la Soci6l0 dt' Lirrguistique de
Paris", vol. LiI, fasc. 1, p.9.
104
pcrso{lnlr a lll-ir ([r'or:1'(rrrl, I'ot'trr:rl,;rt' lritzrt rlcrtrorrstrtrl,ivrrlui),
la adjrrcl,ivc si lir srrlrsl,irrrl,ivr', Irr rrlr'11r'r'r'rr irr lirrrbn irrrlo-crr-
rttPoittti ir sul'ixrrlrri (/ (';r nriu'r'rr rlr'llrttnrn
l)llr'{r
sii Iijrr.
citt, tttt t'ol ilrrIot'l,rtrrl,
1rt'r'zcn(lr
rtcr';llrrt r;ttltr ltt trrrtll,r' 111;y111r tltt
liirr(,rr rlc scx lcttrirrirr. l'r'in ,ilrrlt'1'tt' ,,,',,,t,,rl.icrl,
lrlotttttttr'lr'
itt -c sr. r'itlrollcrrillr lrr rrll,r' ntrnr{'r'u rtlr'lrtrt rr'rrrr, rr;,ttt
lirrltrrl
trlLttt' f,r'rrrr' (tttrtlr'r, rrtrrrt:;
),
i.rr grlrrr ttttttltt;'tt' lottltttltj, ltt
IIunlo rlc lttr,t'ttt'i t'tt l,r'tttlt irr tl. I'r' l,rtztr trotrritrttl,rvttltti
lrr-a sc rrlcoazii itcrrzill,ivul, trPoi r,trzrrrilrr olrlir:c.
(lrrvirrl,rrlt:
cu gcn variabil rrtai lioi dolrirrrlrrsc itt:uttt t,t'tri
llaradignrc.
Este greu de stabilit pcrioadir apariliei opoziliei mascu-
lin-feminin in indo-europeanii. l)uprl Meilletr, ea s-ar fi
produs relativ tirziu, in epoca dcsprinderii ultimelor grup.e
ile limbi din trunchiul comun. Sc obscrvii c[ aceastS. opozi-
lie
nu o lntilnim tn hit,itri, lirnlri crr l,cxtc din mileniul
ql
II-lea i.e.n. Ilitita cunoaqlc rtturtiti rlisl,irrc[,irr dintre animat
gi inaninrat, dintre subiecl,trl ltt:l,iv rtl ,,tt,'1 lqrrf itlni verbale
gi obicct,ul ei pol,enlria12. Sopi\r'ltlclt lrr rrtrtscrrlirr
rsi
fcminin
csl,c realizttIir par[,ial ln ]irnbikr sil,rritl,rr lrr rrrii lrtl,rlrttlo; in
arrncarrir e prrlin dczvolLatii, in latirrii o r'cl)r'(!z{rrrl,rrl,r\ ltrrntoi
la adjcctivclo rtrs,i noi dtr doolinlrilo I
ryi
rr ll'tr, lipntrryt,rl lrr
unclc folrlrc alc pr'orrurrrclor delnorrsl,rrtt,ivo
ryi
irrl,r:rogtrl,ivtl.
lia osl,<l lrrtti trxt,irrsii irr linrllilo din ccrrt,l'rrl l,oril,olirrlrri inrlo-
clrrol)oi\n, gct'rrr{Initrtt, llitll,irtc, slavtt, gt'ttitr:l\, tltsi lttt llr ogulil
rnirsrrrri lt l,ortLc (rill,clloli ilc rtotrtittaltt.
'l'rrrrrlirr[,rr
lirrrltilol' irttltt ttut'ttltctttt it foill, llt:ttclt tltl u lrrtrlri
olrozi[,iir tlirrl,r'c rrtitst'ttlirr
ryi
I'crtrirtilr. l)rrpr\ A. Mrlillr:t,
1a1rl,rrlsg s.xplili p1i1 it(r{rsir r:ir rrlrqzi('itr itt'rt ltt ltuzii rrn t:riteriu
nol,iotralr'. Irr fapt,, trxt,itttlcl'ttlr rcalizlrrrlrr-so
,si
pe bazI de
1
A. M e i I I c t, Essai tle ckronol<tgie dcs longues ind'o'europcennes'
La thcqrie du
fcnr.-;itin,ln ,,Bulletin
de
'la
Societ-e dc Linguistique de
Paris", vol. XXXI I, fasc. 1, pp. 20- 22.
2
Existi si tcoria dupi carb-situaLia tlin hititd e nou{, reflectind
o reorganizaie a genului . Ct. L. ll j'cl ttr s I e v, Animc et inanim[,
persott"nel et ron-/rrsonnal, ln,,llssaii lilrguistirltrt's" TCLC, 1959, p.
ifO
9i
J. Itur-ylowicz ln vol. l'rurced.ittgs uf theE-ighth_Inter-.
national Congress'of Linguists, Uslo, 1958, p. 6lit. I. M. Tronski
relevd c[ ge"nul cornun lin lrititn r:eprcz.int[ sttrna Mf tr', ln timp'
ce anirnatul indo-european c o catcgorie cottr;rlexrl sub aspect sc-
marrtic, O6u.pttu,loeopottcticnue rrJLtnoaue coctnoflHue, Leningrad, 1967'
p. 60.
-
3Cf.recenzialuiA.
Meillct lulucrarealui Ir. Gerlach-
Il o y e n, I)ie nonirrulen Klussi[ikations-systeme in d'en Sprachen der
105
Criterii formale, ca tluor) la o gfripfli"e'artificiald a numelori
in.clasele numiie gert. Ilnolc limbi (romanice fdrd romiittii'
".fti.".
balLicc, nlbancza)
dcsfiin,teazd categoria nctrlrrr I rt i,
transformind
genul lntr-o cla.l,ogorie pur formald; ln [olrrrlirrri
,i ir-uaoa sirilplificarca e lrrsogibI de motivare, itt strttrttl cri
ie revine la opozi6ie anirnul,
-
i'anirnab, i' tirrrlr .o.Ht'rrll(rlt
ii ii^f it" g.r**n'ir" gi slavo co'birruI sir
'risl,t'trz.rr
rlivizirr
irea tripart'itd a genului.
---n"otirtiu
genul-ui se realizeazd in divorso_ lirlrlri
Ir'irr.r.rrij-
loace dif'eril"e' cu toate acesl'ea se obscrvri
'1i-
rtrrrr'lrr l'.rrrlirrlrr
comune. In limbile care cunosc clase nonriualc csLc cvtdcrrLd
i""ai"ta de simpliticare a numdrului lor,
-prin
grul)alea
mai multor clas^e dupl criLerii avind la bazi [rtisirturt
-iunii"
ii esenfialc ale obiectelor. O datd cu aceas[a se ob-
li"u rl 6 simpllficare a acordului. Are loc totodatd gi o. evo-
i"ii"'" miilo'acelor de marcare a claselor, de la varialia de
i"i". i"
"tixe.
Un pas inainte ln sistematizarea acestei cate-
;;;li
;; realizeazd'prin
morlologizarea ei' De la limbile cu
Elase la limbile cu gen numdrul cabegoriilor concrete se re-
;;;;.
jil
tititt""I # simplificd. 1n evolul,ia limbilor indo-
euroDene se observd
qi tendirr['a unilicdrii Lemelor dupa gen'
deoi'a stabilirii unoi tipuri de flexiunc
Pc
get'
. ,.
.Uniicercebdtoriconsiderlcdstmpltltcal'eaEldlspartlla
Eenului intr-o serie de lirnbi se explicI prin aceea cd' Irrnd o
E"t.g"rit lingvistici
fdrd legdturd cu calcgoTiilq,,"ol..".g-P-
tual6. el nu este necesar limbii qi, ca a[are' prln dlsparl.tla
lui, limba scap[ de un balasL inul'i]1'
--irir,,'*1iu
cdrespunde numai. par!ial realit[{,ii2..criteriile
a" .ta*iriiure pe
$etturi
re-pre-z.int[-concopte'
$poi' ry ":t:
de inleles de ce atiU de mul[e limbi qi-ar fi incdrcaL slsLelnul
;; ;'ffi;g;;ie
inutild- Din disculia de pini aic.i se desprinde
id";.';[
;;nul
apare, intr-o formd sau-alta, d.in. necesitatea
a. ritt.*1t\zare. Creqterea numS.rului de cuvinte impune o
;;;;tffi-;pecializare'a
temelor,pe categori.i..s.qpantig";
]iI
prefixele d'e clasl apar atunci clnd, ln condtlttle rlncl lrazc
tr;;hr.yiena,1929,
in
,,IJulIetin
de la Soci6te dc Linguistique de Paris"
'
vo!. XXXI, fasc. 3,
PP.
4-14'
'-'i
ci.-r. F o d o l, Tht origin of Grammatical Cend'er in,,Lingua"'
vol. VIll, fasc. 2, 1.959, pp. 197-198'
?05' .
'"';
ii.^'i.
-K';i't
t;'*^'i c z, L'cvollttion.d'es..ca-ttgoric^s^
gramntari'
,aZrriin vot. ;ftoniOmes
du langage", Palis, 1966, p' G3'
106
rrrli ,',rrrr1,l,'xtt rti ttll ttrtli l,opici lilrrrlrr, $() (:{rr() 111i
llrtlglant
rt,,,t',',,,',',t ttlot'tlttlttt ltrl't'rr l,ct'tttotlii ttttrli sirtt,ttgrlttl. Gr:nul
rlislrrtlrr rr,,olo tttrll
gr,
It'ttttttl'ot'trrir lrrl,r' o ctll,tlgoritt.fortlalll
,
;rlirr
rr,'1,,,1.r'ivtlltt rlttrl t'rr r'l rri plt'rrttl tlttl,ttt'ttl, irrr rliullrrril,itt
irri ,*ir,,irlil'r, rr rrlt rrr'l ttt'tt p1rrirr,,l.ir'rrliir. S1 prlttl,rt ttrltrril,rr r:tI
pl.t)zrfltl,ti srrrr ltpnrr gr,trtrlrri
11t'rrrrrrrl,ir'ttl
tttt ttl'rrr:l,trttzt'l rlrrlil,trl'otr
irrmi lirrrlril. llrrIoll.rrl, ltt tttr',,lttl
11r'ttt'l'ttl
trl rrrrr,i lirlrlri, grr-
rrrrJ nrr rrsl,c rriliil,,,.rrrrr rrrr irrrlir.l rrl rrl,rrrlirrlrri oi rlrr rrvoltr[,io,
I,'irpLtrl csl,tt cxlrlicirlril tlttrrtr ttrr glrrrlittt.,'it ttttttttri irr lot'rrrtlltr
lui'inoi;riorr[,0 g0urrl 0or0sprrrrtlo rriv0lrrlrri rlc girrtlirc.al_vtr"r-
bitoriloi; r-rltei;ior, cl esLo supus sisl,r;ttttrltt i gramatical. In
legriturl cu acest aspecL ul pi'oblt'rrrt'i,
(l-
Nlcinho[3
.q
emis
ideea tlependen[,ci g'enuhri de liprrl rrrorlologic al ]imbii:
limbile izolante.sint timf i
'fiilii
gcrr, Iirrrbile aglutinante au
clase nominale, iar limbile I'ltrxiorrtrlr, rtrr
H{)ll'
ca o faz[ mai
evoluatd a clasclor trorninalo. l)rrsigrrl rrir siLrrlr[,iit pe care o
prezinti ]inrbile e sLe nrai cotttplttxli, rllrt', lrr lirrii. lttari, cer-
cetdtorul gerlnan are tlt'tr1rl'lrl't', ltt st'1's" l cii l'i1rrr I sl'rtrcLurii
mOrfologic-e dclerrnirri-r, iir rnir|r, liliisrrr.r'i
,
rlir.rrrr[,irr
rsi
rilnttrl
evolu[,iei genrrlui.
Sprb dcrxebit'c rltl goll' lllttttrirtll itt't'its1t.r'l'r'ttltri.itstrlttltttit-
toare i1 divclst: liurlri,
(ro()il (r(r
ttlttt'trltzii ..lrtpttt'1t['ttt'
(
'l)()zl-
lia
de ntrrrtiir t:st,tl,
lrritt
(!ti()ll{,it rli, rtpozi[,it'r'otttrrtlrltltrlti,..ittr
istoria accslei r,,al,cg0r'ii lirrgvirrl,ir.rr r0llrrr.l,ri rlr,rIrrl rlo lilrr-,
pede evolu!ia progrlcsivii ir girrrlir.ii.lrr rlorrtr,rrirrl|'rrJr0rl,trril()r
iantitativc. Accst,t: l,r'iisril,rrri
l){)l'rtril,
r:r'l'rrcl,i'rl,ot'ilot', llt lttui
male InIsut'ii tlctril, lir irll,l} citl,cgttt'iirrror'l'ologitrtt, slt irt ('rtrPrc-
tezc difcrorr(,clc rlilrt,r'c lirrrlri
'irr
l'ttltttttlrtt'trtt tttttttlit'rlltri ca
treptc mai ovoltruLc sittt trliti ptl(irr rrl'olrrirl,tt, r'u formc de
exorimarc a lui rnui ut'lraicr,
"'111
v11;1i lf i-
dategoria numimlui a losI llr or'i;1irtc t'aLcgorie lexicali'
La lncdput au cxistat, nurne diftrlil,o
lrtttrt,ru
obiecte indivi-
duale qi nume colective pentrrr ut,cliraqi obiecte in grup''
..
,
:.
I
DluI nlrcr{ra urror. linqvillir:lr A. Nltillr.l,
t)..1 csperscn, Haver'
disnaritia ucnului ln,'nglr,z,ii t'sl,'o ttt:rtr:i 1'villlttl:i:l
l)rograsllllti'
Cfl
ll,'S e'i tl c l, Gibt ,'s airt
(J,'nrts
Itt'r'st)tuth'.', ,,
llrrllllirr lirrguis[it1ue"
vol. XVl, 1948, p.
(i.
2
"l'lris is rroi, l,il slry l,lrirl, Llro
Prr:sorrcc
or rlbstttttttr of grrlttlttt ltfftlr:ts
in {rny way l,lto rlttlrlil,v ol'l,lro litttgtt:t1;o, tttlrkos i(, ltel,l'tll'. t.tt worstt',
l.Ii'orlor', 0l). tLl..,
1t.
205.
s
I)ie Iin.tsit'lut.ng
Iliktit'r1t111l.r,7,l1tr4dtcl,
l]crlin, 1939.
107
f,'olrrrrr rlc rrxll'irnru'r1 (,r'{r srr;rlcl,ivistnul (tipul onL
-
poporl
col)dc
-- ltiirl
ru'r). Alcrrsl,r'i Iirzii ir Lisat urme in istoria unor
lirnbi
ryi
sc rnrri irtl,ilrrrrlil,rr si rrsl,iizi in unele dialectc l,ribuLt
aparl,inlnd lrttor rrolccl,iv i l,:i
1,i
rl irtLre cele mai ittapoiulcr.
Irapbul oi rli[clcrr{,rr rlr: trtrtttrit'c la originc o tI'iisit,rrlil srr
manl,icd rczull,ii
rsi
dirr:rcrt'ir tri, in perioadi\ <rottst,il,rrilii clrr-
selor norninale, difcrcrt('a rltl'rrrrrlril' o lllt ct'il,rrlirr rlrr it,'t'litsi
tip cu ceJelalte criterii carc difcrcn[,iazii cllrsclc. A;ir s{) ('x-
plic[ de ce numole de obieote la singrrlttt'pi rrrrlc rlrr olrit'r'l,rr
in grup aparlin unor clasc diferite. Ast,fcl irr strllrili cxisl'ri
o clasd. de nume de oarncni la singular cu prcfixul nt.- (nLl,LL
,,om'(,
m,wana,,fiu",
,,fiicrl"),
qi o clasI de nume de oarncrri in
colectiv 0u prefixul wa- (watu
,,.oanteni",
.ryana.
,,f.ii"
'
,,fiice"),
o clasS pentru numele pdr[,ilor corpului la singular
(mkono,,min5.") gi una pentru aocleafli nume la plural (mi
kono
,,mlini").
Exemple sjmilare se intilnesc in rnajoritatea
limbiior negro-africaire. ln aoest stadiu iru avem a face cu
un afix de plural propriu-zis, ci cu afixc pentru colectivc.
Varialia afiielor pentru nume de obiectc in grup e condi!'i-
onatd strict de sensul lor.
"^-
t;i.;i;;a" gtt*"titui iret i i c:rt,c goric i nurnil^r lu'] af i xul
de colbctiv devine marc5. a pluralului. Ircnonlcnttl s-a petre-
cut in istoria mai multor lirnbiqi a fost observat qi in indo-
europeand la desinen!a de ncrrLru plrrral in-4. Dovarla cri
la origine afixrrlera ntarca colcclivrrlrli c drtli de fapLul t'ii
in multe familii de limbi de pc glolt rtunrcJc de obiecle nu
au plural, iar acordul ou colectivul sc facc la singular dupl
binbcunoscuta reguld. cd (Qa rp4-aet, existenttr
;i
ln vedicl
qi avesticd. qi in multe limbi ncindo-europene. Dupd
I. M. Tronski, formele de plural a.u apdrul nai lntii la
a n ima[e2.
PlnI in prezent nu a {ost inci studiati, pe planul lingvis-
ticii gencrile, rela{,ia clintre nlrmeral.qi rtunlr. Ca partc de
vorbiie, numeralcle sc corrsl,il,uie tlrziu; mrrltir \/reIno dct,er-
minarea oarrtitaLivl a obiccLclol' s-a realizaI
lrlirr
l'or'rrro sptl-
ciale ale numclor trare dcsernrlau douh, trei sau palt'u obirltrt,rl
Asemenea nurlc aveau lorme diferit,e dupl clasele tlorttittu'
I
e. Lo u k o Lka, I*s langues papoues,ln vol.,,Les langues t
monde", Paris, 1952, p. 'J27.
1I.
M, Tronski, op.cit.,p.68.
108
(rilorrr
lc irlritr'l,incarr crrvint,olc. A;a se constituie categoriile
rlrrrlrrlrri, l,r'irrlrrlrri
;i
r;rrrrl,r'irrlulrri, carc au supravieluit tn
rrrrr[c lirrrlri I,r'ilrrrlrr rlc,lrsl,;izi. Ascrrrcrtcit forrne se intilnesc
irr lirrrlrilc rrrolrrrrczi{'no) rusl,l'rrlictrc, irr lirnlliltl polineziene
rlirr Noi lr' l lclrlirlrr, Nourr
(
lrrilrrrr, tl irr rrrlriltclrrgul Bjsmarck
1i
insrrlllc Solorrrorr. l'r' lrrir'(ilrr lirrllvisl,ir:rr lrrl,ottnrito de
W. Sr,lrrrrir.l l, zolrclr, lirrtrlr rsli( ('i
u ;rscrrrl'ttcit I'ortttt: r:ttrcslluntl
ariilol cll 1r111[11y'1q
(](]ir
nliri irrrrlroirrl,ii. Arlcscir, ca lrr limbile
aust,r'alicnc qi paprrusc, clc trJ,ttr ltr o spetril'icare a formei dc
colectiv. Pe rnlsurd ce se corrst,itrric rrrtmcralele, asemenea
forme devin inutile, iar opozi{,iir Icxical{ individual-colec-
tiv se transforrn{ in opozil,ilr grrrrrrrrt,ictrL\ abstractd singular-
plural.
'
Fprmele de dual au cottt,itttrul, irrsri rli pu'sisl'e o vreme ln-
delungatd, cu frrnc[,ia sptltriirlii rt trtlru'ii olritcl,rrlor
Jrorechi.
Se qtie cti limba ittdo-crtl'rt;t,'rtrt:t .orttttttrl ltrl,rrt'it llr rrrotl ro-
gulat drralul la rttrnttt,si vrrt'lrr'. l'l I rr rr
lrrlrrlrrrl
ltr rlirrlcr'l,rrlrr
vechi indo-iranicttc, irr sllrvrr vr,r'lrr,, irr rltrrl.r'lr,trlr, lirrrlrii
grccc;t,i (pirrI lrr fol'tttttl't'tt lirrrlrrrvrlt.vit), itt lrlttrrttti, llr llrlr'
din got,irrti
1i
it'lrtrrrlr,zrt \'('( ll(', lrr llxlr'll t.r'ltt tttrrt'rrlt
;'trrt'i
in sct:oltrl rrl X lll llrr, trrlrl rrtlll :rtttr trttrr
Itr{ttt
.lltltrr ltr
sullsLtrrrtivr', lrrljcr'livt', g,tottltrnl'irt vlllrl li tr rrrtl,lttttttl tt,lt'
$ea t){-\r'olclisrrrrrl rlirrtlt t tltrrttl t'ltttttttttt tt lt'ttttt'l.t tttlt'tlltt'
ditrrit irrl,r't' sirrgrrlrrr'
1i ;rlrrlrrl
rrt lrltrrtrl rllzr',,llfrt ll vr('lrr
'r(l
cillg
ryi
it rrivlltrlrri
llirrrlirir'
S rr ('l)'rt't\rrl trrrllr'l r':i tltttllr'l'r'lr'
gt'cttt:sl i cttlrl ttrr
lrillrlrrl
rlrrrrlrrl lrrr';r rlrtr r'lro{ lt
l)li'lrlll}l
l{ li
slrrl,;ri
ggltt
lttiti t'v6lttlrlp rtt , t,l,,sJtlttt,l t,'11'rrlltlttt't tt 1 t tvtlt-
Za!,ie lnai irrllolil,oitt'c (r'olotrirlrrr')t.I'tttttllltlrlttl lrttttiltttt, tttt
lost eviden{,ialtr
ryi
irr lirrrlrill ttgt'o lttttll st slrrtiLit,tr, ttttde
dualul a disltdlut dc Lirnprrrirr rlirt rrsit i:rtrii
ryi
cbluicii, dar
s-a pIsbrat in clialecLerlo aI'ttl)o itlt, ttrtttt't,ribrri tnai lnapo-
iate.
ln evolu!ia categoriei IIllIr)Irlrlu i st' obscrvtl Lendinla con-
stantS. spre abstractizaro qi sirrrplilit'trrrr; csl,c evjdent cd
stabilirea ollozil,iei bintrtt trltll - rr()rr rrrllt csl,c rtlzttltuttll
abstracl,iziirii glrrrlirii, rrl lt'cctrt'ii rlc lrr t'()llr'oz()rrltiri corttlt'tlt,t,'
,1lc
rrrrrIl,i1rlirril,lil,ii l;t o I{'l)r'(rz(rlrIitrc ltlrsl,t'itll,ir:.
t
.l. V
(, tt (l r y r':i, /,r' Iutt(:tti:t',I'irlis,lg2'l, p.
/r1{i
ryi
A. M o i l-
.y
1., tlltt'r1:rt d'uru' ltistoin rlr lu lungur: gn'tqtttr, l'ttris, 19:lt)' p.273.
"t
'
V. V. I v lt tt \t v, I'tutttlttntt.c t'punt,nuttnul(,c|oito cD,pola
Pycc6oeo
,ror'rtu, Moscova, 19G0, p. 4lr.
109
1{eflecLitrtl
lrtr ltspcll
''s''r'(ial
al obiecteior. rcalil'ri1ii
--
cantitatea
itt I't.rt'tttit t'i .t'rt trrlLi gcnera'lI
-
cat'egotlil
lltllllrl
r"i"i"a
"iisLaL
rlrrrlt,li vt'(rrrro tturnai tla o ca[eg.ritt,.tlrrir:l'ttrrr
'
,i""iti"e
""nrelor.,
clriirr,
'i
rr ilfara rela!,iilor lor dirr l'r'irzii . Ar;
:H;il;"J;;i;";i,;;',;
,ll"i Li"i', pri' ac,r'<l' ltr .r,lrrIi:r
;;;t;;i
"*r,"eo,'ii
fat'tr-'r'ii .xLI'itlirrg'v.isL.i.i
.j':r.i
rrtr t'l tttttt
i."oorLo"L d"ccit cei grunrirli,,uli, rrrai lrl,,s irr .r,,'ir
( r'
l,t
r\r'Llr'
conli nuLu I cal"egorici'
""^l-L;;;|"
o" uip.i**re
variazd.gi clc rl0 llr r,0Lr l11r.i1rnl0
1*rpf"ii"it-i
Ia
l',.otctlcc
sintacLii'e
(rcdulrlicur'{')'
pcttlt'tt rt
il,t#;,il,t
il";J; il:i,i'.1
iil ii,i'" i
:.#
"1";'i'
JJ
i
:
i:l i
;[
,lu"io'J.lpi""ie
qi^a" i.".", el rru. a'o o fazd lexicali, iiind
[i]l':i'$'T;?f; iTiJt.t;;lllill;?;r'if":'11'"trJ:"""'1:
;;ii;'Jt"il i"-;rririt"t.a
rcducerii sau a dispari!-iei
lui'. ca-
i"rl""-*i*ti
decit ca o categoric rnorfologica
qi'
:u
ui-n1,tl
;hi";;;'i;o.lgl'1"
el arc urt corrlinut abstract
qi o lornta de
exprimare
organizaLS'
""F;il;;
t"1e"le gerea apar i
1,i
c i accs Lc i t,aLcsnl' i i es l,e r) eocsar s t-I
fJili# *;*,i l.f
"*
I i t;:lll'
i l;, lll i;i' li
il
.) i li,:,' Ji t iiili:
analitismului
concrel,. I..raza cslJo tltlrttltttsri rlirrt,t'-o srrit,ir rlt,
""ii"lr_rXJecini
care se succctl irr ordinda id0ilor'<lc ttxPrtttritl,.
ln aceasLI
iure..rrrlii.r"-r,
tlcoscJrcsc
irrt'r'o clc rrrrrnlri sttlr
;r;;;;-l..i""f ii
sint-actic. Accas Li Lr.cir'Lit ir rrr r u I i t i srrr rr I rr i
s-a
p5.sLral, ..reE,
"u'iJ
sfarea ei
Jrut'rr'
.i
rr t'iLe r a Iinrbi tlirrLlc
|",iifi
il
tql i
ii!1.\'l l:l;;' :
"
lr;lll t i 1"
"
;' i ;
"i
r ii i: ru:l
ii*e.' A.ntt din urmS' procedeu-impttrrc
;;;;;;;iit"i'
ur
" '.iI"eniot'
tacltrul. sirrt'ncLic
ccl mai im-
uorLatt L
('ar(' a sLaL l'o nu'u tlezvolLlrii
mtirfologiei.
'
,
t'"L.,rj"ri,:i,"fq,l.ii
f *;
il
a intona,t,iei
ca urtice nrijloaoe
tlc
,r,;;;;;,ih,i,..ltiito,'si'l,iclice
a fosLposibilir
rturtrai itt t-'oLrtlr-
t,iile u'ei,,o',t,r,ti,,i,,'i
;fi;i;;;i;illlili""
c*
lrr!'irri
rtretrrbt'i'
pe
rnlsurJ ur, ruIorLurilc'ttiirtrt'
cuvirrtc irl prolrozi(ie se itt-
;;i;;;r-;;
," Jii"t:""iiaz5',
structu.a
e-tisbentd a-lirnbii
tru
mai corespnrto",tuiio'iJJ"tiilli'
Procedeele'noi'
capabile
# ;";;i;;n"..i"1'ti"
"ornuniclrii'
ap[r' irt cadrul struct'urtt
gramaticale
"*irtnr.,i".-sub
influcri!a'LoDi0ii
f ixe qi u func!,ici
lor sintacti".'
o ,t'it'a'
cuvi.tc l'i'lt'vti'l t' f
'losiIb
i. ace ea;i
110
furr.l,i. rir,11,rlr,rr,' l,r'r.pl,;rl,
rlr,,(,.ritl l,r'.1,'ri.rrl iri
rt"tl.l'rttiitli-
zcttzl'i lrrilt'\l)1 1,,,,,,,i,""'tlt'lttirotlrttl
1'] l.rrllltl('ltlrllll)lllll)(\(:
l,rrl irrl,olt:t(tt't
1'11 t ttr:ttrlllr ltllrrl'' lrlrl' lllt lttl
'1r
'
1r
r't'l i;11t.r1;1,
lrtrrl,1tr,,,,,,1,'*l,ttl
lt:rzct' lrr l''lttl;tlt'ltltl
ltttt tt'tlrllrtr\ Jlll\('ll!'
,,r,,', ,,y1lill irrrrl,r' l;r t:'tllt''tlll | llrllr
lrltzr'l'' l'lIr tttrltt | )r'rrtf'ttlt'tl
rrli*,11,'
( itzlritl{r ll iltl , r''''rl 11r
l't
lll :lll''
It"'
t'rtr' ltltllt'tttl't|t'
l\ir:i irtrr ttvtrl, itl \'('(ltlll'llllllllll
lllztt ll'lt 11111t vl't lttt' 1t( lr{'ll ( illl'
iii't,t',ig,t
tt,,rrri.i l,rril,.t'igirr.ir
rlirr sirrlittit rrt.l''xtr:'
l'l xl'lr.rtl'r;r
a!i"
"ili
adcrivalir ,.rrt,r'rr
I'.t'ttrrtttrtt .rtzttt il'r' l,.ttl.,
(:()rIfir-
d".at" tle unii cercci,ittori
oa l'iirrrl rrtiti vrrtrlti2''l'ranslormarca
unor cuvint"
".,
*o,t.'tJii;tt;ti
trr p'rtpozi!'ii
qi afixe cu valori
locale e abestatii in irffi o iti,,l t,,,,i I i rir lr i.,'l rr etape diverse.'. Ea
poaLe fi urrndritd
-;i;;;l;tiirrrl'il"
rrglirIirr..ie'
unde afixe-
it"lql pnttt"u"l urpo"ritl Iorrrrrr l' Asi'l'r'l lrr cst'ond teel in'
scamttd,,calc"
q,,'pnn;,-i'r Liitlrlir lil
r',rrl,'"'ittlt'r'io1"'5i.,'in'i
'
f1
iirrtb;;;g;iorelD'err,,iri';1'r'ovir"''lir'+.!tt'Irrt
' 1'r:l"irr[estin"'
:;il;;;;ff;l d.,'o ot,,mai'jos",
itr litrrlrrt lrrrIirrl'i dtstT' zosa
.j;.I;;;;;,,oa""1"i'i,-.r,rfi",f,',
irrr,siv,(r'x.
rrlrrrzsr;,,trr
{lJrir");
in timba dravidiand
i,,;;;;,;,-.i; Iixrrl rlr, 1,,,;rr,iv rrl r.sl,c irlcrrl,irr
,,,
",*r,ir,ui,,irit,,,.io"1;
. SinL
()xrrrrrPlo
1i
irr lirrrlrilc irrrl()
(ltttrt-
;;;-";;il,'irr
t,ohari0ir sufixrrl rlri irrslr.ilrn('nlirl.-r7o I)r'ov.r.n()
fitt;il;;;i"'y,
',li;'
iar ctrl do s'.iitliv'rri(ril
rlitt
1r'r'',zt['rit
Slo,, orr",,,imprertui'ii,'i
l-st'b'l'arr
t'iv rrl rtt tttl lt tltt l'L.."rrr ij l,."
,iirr'irui-iouii
vc'c1c s-* l,ransf.rrnrr(,,
irr lirrrlrilr, irrrli.rrrr
rttt-
J;;:,,;;; irrt,r-'
1,urt1,"'if
it".tr sorrsrrl"i"
t"ijl.rr" si tt1r,i itt stt-
fixrrl rltr lotlat,iv
'rttu, -rttAit'
"'Cl,]igi'n,rlcxi,,rrl,i
ir'r,lrz,rililolctt
l'ttrttr['it'. 1,r'rtlii cxlrlirrii lllarca
lor variclaLc i,r rlrvo|s,r lirrrlri. lrr rlrrr'1" lirrrlri, oil trclc ugro-
il"i_,
El
"",icar
ie,,.,,,,irr,,,,
i l* 1,.*1. . l.i t,rr i.s. un sistem foarte
dezvolbat sr ramrlrcai; i"-ttlt'rll'l:.
t." irr indo-europ"t{'
;a;i;
;; ,ingr,. caz'local' Posibilit'utca
nermanentS' a ltm-
bilor de a exprima t-iil;i;;""9i;i" ;"in
a'lverbe de Ioc a per-
iliJ't""ri*'it*bi
t'o dit""ttitii [ltrxio'a.ti
sr nu--Ei incarce
sistemul cazual ,u ruLi"
"ul
. E*t,, rl() r,0rnflrr:irt, cii dezvoltarea
|l'.
A. l) tl g l'
() r o v il ,
ll
lt't6tr'"rttt
rttt(ttt('('lltttt'ItJtr
it'lto-N'Lrut'lu-
u""on"ri'n,,rrinn
u,r,rtiu., irt vrtl.,, Il,itP't:t,t .6tl1t't'tt ll
tlilo'tll1)l'{) tll}l'l-
uool'''i'r'l"p'
T;'i";li:' l)lli;tll;,
ti,,,d
It,'i,'i' i'|t Ir(tIttIt /'i's,istrr:'r'
"l'irt-
guu,'illt'vr'rtiti;
'i'r,ll':i,t,!,1,'i,,,,'i,t,'li"',,,,("t(.'.i.(.'sof t'ttrt14uu14t:s'llclsi.ki'
1958, vol. I Ccn'crol'l'cn'dcncits' 1rp'
tJ7 u9'
11r
ctrzrrril()r lor,rtlo s(r
Ir'o(lrri
c fll)rotlpe exclusiY in,limbilc aglu-
l,ittttttl,tl, citl'o $()
Plr'7i111,|i ,
ntilr aspectul general- al.strtrct'rrrii
lor,0a irrl,urlrrr,,lirrl(} lnl,rc rrcl0 izr]lante gi cele flexiorrrrrrr. Irr
elc llosttr()z.i(,iilo
so rrt,irry0irzii uEor la tcm5, prrIirrrl ltlrrii Irri
,rn sistorir. Niv(llrrl ,l0zvrill,iir,ii limbii ln accsl, sco(ot' l,t'r'lrttirr
Cercetat asIfel rtrr srrlr ltspr'rr[,trl f ixdrii trntti ttrttttrir rtttt i ttt ir:
sau mai mare dc cazrrri i,,,,rrlc, ci su} noillit itl rllrr(,irrrtl,rrlrri,
udi"X ut varietd!ii Lipurilor dc raPolLrrI.i trx
Pt'itrr:rl'c
irr lirrr.lrrr
cu mijloacele spbcifi6e struclurii ci nror'l'ologirrl itt tttrsittrrlrltt.
Cazurile cu v;lori abstracte sinb ilnprrsc tl. t'tt1r.t't'tr.ilrr sirr-
taclice ale frazei. Originea lor sin.taclit'ii t,ri'1 ,
-
''',,',';1
lt'r'
rd.snindire
gi .conslan[5. Multd vreme subiecLulc tl{|osr'lril, rlr,
obibct
prin'topicd . El caplbd forme proprii acolo trrt(lo. s.o
creeazd^ distinblii noi la nume (genul) qi la ve.be ([rartztlr-
vitatea) gi unde se instaureaz[ o topic[ liberd'
Materialele comparative irlsuficiente nu permit sd se for-
muleze concluzii sigure cu privire Ia felul in care s-au creat
"ur"t*tt"
cazuri. E"probabi'l
r.:5 unele din ele au dezvoltab
il;;lii;;i;-potni"a''au
la valorile caz'rilor locale' ln ceea
ce rriivegte'raporturile
abribul,ive, cle s-au exprimat mult[
vreme printr-rin adjectiv tlcr.ivat <lin tema rtttrnel.t poscso-
rului. Folosirea derivdrii pctttrrt trxIrittlttn';I aParlctr.rl(cl
rr
lnbilnim in fazele vechi ald Iirnbilor itlrlo-ottt'oPe lttr. ltt
ltttJ't-
ouh" t*titt*i arhaice circularr <loncotnil'tlttI forrrrrrlo trlt
filirt's
erilis qi
filius
eri, regia tlontus
ryi
rcgis donttts' lVI iti vct:lri slnt'
formeie cu derivate"qi ut" s-ilrr
1ti\sIrrtt,
irr llr{,inii ni itt grortcii la
nume de persoane in sintagme 0a rirv'lIp.1z),eLrrv
0J-),apr,v, lroltt.
1-opy e[r, iega\"i'1, S aturnia por la
1
cd'tn p us ]lI ar tirts, Lar
fum'ilia-
lrisi.'In ii*p .e ln labinI gi greaoir a devc.iL curent.{ conslruc-
[ia cu scnitivu],
in slava vcche a prcvalat folosirca adjectivu-
iui der"ivaLz. ln iimba
lighneascl
in loc de genitiv se foloseqLe
sistematic un adjectiv derivat. Astlel aici
,,tatd"
se spun
d,ad,u, iar,,al tatdiui" d'ad,csleo (M), dudeslti (F), cu suf ix adjec-
bival otr forrne varia.bils dup{ gen. In
!iglinelt'o,
,,tritlttl
tit-
t6l;i" sc spuIIe o rltttlesll;o g.a?, iat
,,iapa
lal'irlui"
-
i tlutleslti
r
J, W ac k e r n a g e l, Vorlesungen iiber Sgtt'tur',vo1' II' Uasol'
1924,
p. 75.
---t'd.
Meille t, J. Vendrycs,
Tru'ite dcgrunuttdlre(ottl'
parde iles langues classiques, Paris, {953, p' 586'
n2
grr^:srr,i.t. lr' ,livltttr' lrrrrl,i l.x isl,ii rroirtr:irlorr[,r1 forrnalil
-.lntrei
srrIixrrl rr,l.j1r'l,iylrl
1r
rllrrittrrtt(:t rlrr,.'lrril,ivi Asl,l'gl, lrr firr6zrl
afixrrl
rlr
11,'rril,ir,' l)l'()\'tttl
rlirrlr rrrr rlrlllr rtrljrrr:l,ivttl l:ttrtt
inrlilrr
lt,rlsitlttt'tt,
itt rtt'ttttl;t rlrrrttttt'rrttt i tt
tr"'ltil'ivrrlrri
ll
al)l'()rl){' trlctrlir';r ltt littltrrrl ;rrl.;r'r'llvrrl rr1; ltr lirrrlrtl,, lrrl'rl,ri
1i
li,lr,,rilr ir,.r,lrrjr r,l,.rrrr.nl / r'rr|rrr'lr.r'tl,{,itz:i Irrlo rlorrri lot'rtttrr.
Slrrlrrlilr';r llr,\rrrnrr rr,ulrltirl,' tttttt, ltt'ltzir irr llltll)il lltl
l)llll
irrrl1l,r. l)r.
( lrlr,it {rtllnltz:1 rt. l)r':rrrl,rrli'lr, I nzutrl(, rri1l, trlrxrr
11r'ltlrrlrl,il;tlt,,lrlr:rl,r'rri.lr,:ltltl)r,(.tirlrzttl,c.(lrttltll,t't'rll
llrrtrlrll.r'trr,l,
'lrr
lrtrlrrril,c
sii crrlrlirrrlir rrrr rrrurriir'rtitt'r'tltl sttlttttil'irrrr{ii rltttlttgo
din sonsrrl lor iriil,ial. l!lc sirrl, tttticc
lttrttLru
oatogorii lnUrogi
de cuvinte. Iiolosirca lttr a
ltrrrttt
is cxlrrirnarea unor raporturi
sintactice comlllexc qi vlrriul,l.
1n cursul isiorici lirrrbii, {,vttltt ( i;r litzrrrilor se produce ln
doud tlirecfii: 1n lirrrbilo irulUl,ir[rrrl,c cilz.rrrile locale t.!i
c.onstiluie sistolntt rllttiIitritl,rr (rr:rl,fr'l Irrrtgltilrrit iqi creeazd,
aldl,rrri rlo vct,lrirrl litl,iv crtt'rt ilv{'lt rrll r{('rrfl \'{ttl, rrrlrlifercnliat,
fortntt pttttl,rtt illlrl,il',
;rt'olttl'ir',
lllltrl tr', r;ttlrlr'lrrl'iv):t; r'aztrr.ile
abst,r'nct,rl riitrtin lrr rrrirrrlll't'r'(lttrl ,
itrtlto;.';1{rrlrlrr si rlorrIirttr[ttl
cu sorrttlifir,rr['ii rroi. SPt'rl tlt:ortlltttl rl" r'ttzttt'ilc lortrtlc
tsi
tltt
1lt.c1tozil,ii,
r'irr.c, ,,r1,,.i,',irrrl riryrrrr'l,rrlr i r,inr lrr lrttzlt <:olttltrpl,tt
*1,,ri,i,,1,i, l',,,.rrr,,,r2,, sisl,r'rrr. rl,,rir'lr rrlr', ( nzr.i l. rtlrlrl,t rtr'(,rt ttlr:i-
t,iriris,, sisl,trtttI irr..ltilir'. I'oltsotttitttl
illllllll ('ilzlll'ilot', [t'rrttv.,ttl'
irf lirnlrilr.llcriottttt't',it tlt'(r':illitl,r'rtlrttr;rrrlPt'rtr:tzltl'tlit.Vrrl0rii
Ior.pr.rrr
1,r.r,P0zi{,rr
11 i
Pr.irr
irrl,r.orlrrrt|r.r,n ilrrr,i l0pi|i rrttti lixr-..
1,, ,',,,'u,,1',,r',,lut i,'r lirrilrti str tttorlil'i,,:i I'rrlror'l,rrl rlirr[,r'o rirrsi-
ttcrr(,rr si
Ir'rrlrrtzi('ii
;
rtlrrsl,r'tt rlitt ttt'ttt:i rlolrirttlcsr: r'o1rrl
lrrirrt:i-
1,;rl,',l,isiit,',i1,,,1,,,1,'r'i,,
itls()l,ll,rlill('ill{ril(('$l'()l'it,t'ttlttll0rsctttltt,
itrrsl'ir'lil,ttlrlcr,rtvirrl,,Pirrlzirrrl
l'rrrrrr{'irrgrirrrlirl'it:tllri'o.l)rolltlll-
(.t, slrtir. lrtl,.t'virr;i ,ii'trtstr
l)ro(r(ls()
I',rtet,i.tt.tl&ro-ducr mai
iluu.aur" sarr rnai l,ir,zirr, lir siricrc{,isilrrrlclrzrrrilor, la simpli-
ficarea
gi, in urrelc liirrbi, olrirtr' lir rlcsliin!'area flexiunii
norninale.' ln felul acesla au evolttttl, limbile indo-europene
I
Introtl,ucer.e in.j ting,vi.stic{t, rlrr rrrrlr:rrl0cl,iv srtb contluceroa acad.
A l. G r a u r, Itrtcrrre$ti; l ltl;5, p. l til
'
"
"
ll. V. fi n I I r: n,' ,\rtr l',tt',,itttt,,tt tltt (t''tr(, r/r's r'"r tt dr.s yarlies
d.utl.iscotrrs,.,llrrllolirr
rlri l:r S,rr'ir'rlr'r rlrr l,irrllrrisli'lllr'(lt'l):trts", vrtl'
XXXIII,1932, fasc. 2, pI).22'J \2].
3
L. I) c Itt tl, Orl thi"l,,lt,t,,,,,t l,r^t's
(i'tr'LrttinK tltt: l)q'tloprttrtl t1.[
t ongigr, ,,Act,1
liugrrist,icir Aclrrlr:rrrirrr: Sr:irttl.irtl'rrttt llrtttpEttricilrr",
vol. VI, f asc,. 1--:J, 1$5ti,
P.
121.
113
8
rlrr lrr [oltttclrr lot'vr'r'lti lrt rr,,lrr ttloderner de la sbrucbura siIIt'o-
l,icri lrr $l,r'utl,ultt trttrtlil'ir,ri. l)r'oblcma sintet,ismului qi a allir-
lit,isrrrulrri rrrr
Ir'iv,r1l,t}
rrilrr|iti flexiunea nomirralh...l)tlsP|rr
ir$rr0r;t,.,ltr .,i g,ri,,'r.irl,r Vlr li vo|ba rnai depart,c. Ntl lirrril'iirrr
:riiri lu,'t,rrsi,ii'r'rr1ii
:tsttl,trt lvolrr!iei- cazurilol"
Asa('lltll ,t,,,,,,',,lltl',,':rl,r1|rt'i;tfazulttinttr:slt',itt
:ttts;rtrllrltll
eiiotcategoricct'rrrcr'pl'rr;rlrr"l"1'rttriottLir
tlrltrivr'lrrlrl''z'r'"llrr'ir
si;dirii."Ata
r" exp'lir.i de ,,r''l)oI cxisl.rt lirrrlri ,'r','ltr:tltr lrrt:r
3"1""i ri a"'ce exisi[ limbi carc, d*'ii .. 5i 1111 rr,1tsl,it,rril, rrrr
,irir-'tt."ionqr,
pob renun{,a la cl. N.l'iilrrl lrrgirl,rr rlr:. rrrr
;;p;;; durabil al'rcalitI!,ii,'
cazurile, dtl]
:t" ",11. ']:illi::l'i'
abitract, nu sirIL stabile' Cat,egoria cazulut-c dcl)orI(l.ctILit
ai."ct de raporl,urile sintacl,ice, ea se-dezvoltS pe.rndsulir
"o-oti.ntii
ior qi dispare aLunci cind devirte un.cadrrr pl'cc
t;;;"t;t;;;iru;'le
puiuu crrprindc' Din puncLrtl de vedere al
"oitinutului
nu exist[ o difercn!d caliLal"ivl intrc. mt;loace
;;;iiti;r;; sintetice de exprirnare a rapor[urilor sintacLice.
Diferenl,a dinLre ele conslil fn modul de orgcntzaro'
'I
rcccrea
-dela'flexiunelamiiloacearraliLiccabst,rat'|cirtscamnistm-
oiifi"*r* u sistenrulrii mor.folrgic
;i
inlirLu'are a lormc]or si-
f;;;il;;i.-u"tr"luci
con[,inut" PcirLru ac.elcali cazur.i exis[i
desinente diferil,e in f uncIic rlc Lernr\
']l' itJ
ilc.cla$r
tlTp'
existS. forme omonime la cazrrri difclitc. lrt ltmbtle anallLlce
I""^.U tint mai pulin nurneroa$e si atr caracter mobivat'
;;;;;; ,i.tt mai .iqot a* rnernorat' Ilxisbd rleci progret',dnf
irrtt-ott singur asp'ect al. sisLcrrrtrlui morfologio' RitmuJ^ ql
modalitdtilil de rdalizare a accsLtti
1't'ot'cs
vaIiazii rle la o
iffi;,il;ii; i" r"."it de facLori slrricLurali. Dc aceca, ca
,si
ia-"ui"n""iu
genului, evolu( ia cazului
-
.caLcgoric
caraclg-
risticd irnui anumib tip IingvisLil qi lrncr perroade relaulv
limibate din isboria limbilor care i I reprezin Ld
-
nu consLlLure
un indice al nivelului general al limbii'
-'-lnlinatira
cvoluIiei
'categoriil'"'r
gramaLicale alc vcrbulu i
este neocsar sii se,fi*tint{i, FaLcgoriilc dobirrrlil.o
;'rirr
at'orel
(numrir.
Dcrsoltti,
ttneori gclr) dr: accl.'it t'ltt'r'it silrl
ltt'tt;tt'tt
i^lirliir,[" t",tt,,1,,i,,'r,nlili'ri'ndu-l
(aspct'!, tirrr1." ttlrrl' rlirr-
tezd). Primelc, fiind produse.alc..sirrtaxcl'
sc illLllrrcs{r.,rrl
forme similare in cclehai multc Iirrrlri
1i
au, dc. la altut't(tit
lor. o forml
gramaIicald de exprirnitrrr'
(iulegorla porsolll(rl
s-atexprimat"mulLd
vreme prin prorrutntrlt' pct'sottalc
qi sirrl
multe'limbi care au p5sirat pind as[izi u|t:sL
Pt'occdctr'
l'ro-
114
,,cs,,i ,1,' rr11lrrl,irirr,. r
1,1,,,,r,r,rr,,1,,,' lr('r,r{r}nnl.
lrr l,rrrrtrl vor.brrl,l
:t losl,
lrtts
itt ttt'trlrttt[:r irr tttttllr'ltrrrlri rlr'1rr,
!'lplr.
l'r'irrrii irrrll
rllll'{}l)(rnisl,i irrr rlrPlrlirl, irr rri r,lrl, lr'l rrr rlolurlrrl,r,l,r vollltlo rlirr
lirrrlrrr irrrlo,,1;11p1p1,1rrrii, r'rr l,olrll r.lr rrrr.r, rltrl,or.rl,ir l'rrzirrrrii,
l'ot'ttlt trrililrllr lr tlt'rltttt'ttlr.lot
lroltl.r,
lt t'r.r'orlrl rl,rrrl.rr rrrru
Fr.{tn.
l,irrrlrrlr, r:tt'r' nu nrirt rlrrl rrr;1 irr
11i.trr.r'rrI
,lr,rrrnr,rrl.r.
l)r,r'Jlorll{.
llt yr,t.lr (r'rry'11,r,,, lr.lrrrr.t,zlr, ni)1.\,r,lrllnir r,l r.
)
r.,,r,rrr lrr pr.rrl'i
.ritlclI rtlr l t;lrt l,olic ll
lrt'r
)n u rrrf l()t'
lr(,r'jr(
)llt l(!.
Irr sLtrrl i i lc vrrclr i itll l rrrrlr r t vrtt'irr l r,lr, lr rrrr rr{,c ir lrr rrr:(,irrrt i i vur-
balc erau oxlllirtrill,o lo-r it,rrl,
Prirr
vcr'lrtr ,rrr scrrsuri upropiaCe.
Gdsirn aici urra tlirr rrrorlirlil,ri{ilrr rlc cxplit;are a bogatei sino-
nimii lexicalc din l irrrb i lo t,r' i lrrr lc. l )rr pii'l'.A. Degtereva aceas-
td bcgd!,ie de cuvinl,o cu srrrrlrrri irsrrrrrirrriLoare s-ar datora
conbactului dirrtre lirnbit. llvirltrrl, cii
;i
I'lrctorii externi au
putut juca un rol, ditr nu rrsl,o rrr!c{,lllu'si-i considerdm ca
fiind hol,dritori. Sirroriirttrtlc vr,r'lrrlo lrr sr:rrsrrri apropiate,
care exprimatt fir-'ct\ro iposl,;tzc rlilr,r'rl,r,rrll trrrrlrrilrsi rrcfiuni
au losb foltlsiIrt, itt
Pttt'iotLrllt
t'otnrl,il,rrtt'tt crtl,r'!'oriilot'Hritrlr{r-
bicale, tir l'ortlttt srrlrltl,iv()
l)cnl,t'rr
r,x
1,r'itrrrrlr,rl
{r:ttgl,rtt'u. l,it
urtele vollrc lrlxtr'[,irrirrrl rrrr,'l,rttlrri l,rrr,lrrlrri
l,r'rrrcilrrrl
lcxirrttl
a$oIrI()ltoa I'ot'tttc sttlrlcl,ivc I :ttt
1r:iullrrl,
o vlr,rrrl l'otrt'l,rr ltttlrt-
Itrrtqatir, plirr l,r'rrrli{,ilt lrr:r'is;r si rrzrrl lirr;lvirrl,ir'(r:rr, tllrtxturtJrlrt,
la vcrbttl,,it I'i" lrr lirrrlrilr irrrlo lrrlopcrtrr).
Irr Iirrrltilc
lrtt[,irr
cvrrlrtitl,c r:i1l,r'1"1v1',ilrr r','r'lrrrlr slrtl, tttttttttt'ot\-
sc, tlit[,rtriLii rrl,il, I'ot'rttr,l,rl crlttplictrl,c rlr,ttlot'rl, r:il, yi rlrorlrrlrri
rrottclcl, tlc i1 r,,trrtcprr ltrr(,ittrrr'rt vr,t'llrl;i lrr Loltl,rr rlrt,rrliilrl.
$g 11if,citzi it-il,lrrl rrrzrrl rrrrrll,rrl lirrrlri rrrrrr:r'irrlir,rrr lrt r:ltt'c vt)t'-
brrl i;i rrrotlil'ir:ii Ioltnl plttl,r'rr rt itrlt,'rr pt't'solttttt, rtttttti'irtll,
gcrrul qi st,aloit sttlriccl,ulrri (rlircr'i c itt
lririoiu'(),
itfozaI Bau
cLrlcaL),
l)ro(ilrIII
si porrt'r'rr rr
Pt'trrtizrt
tlltrrli ltrrl,itttloa s-a produs
in mod inbcn!,ionai situ itt:cirlurl,irl.
'l
n crrrsul evolutibi ior,
limbile au selectat un nllrlli"lr lcrlus rlc cralegorii dintre cele
mai frecvente qi esen[,iale. CltirroLrgiit rclativd a constituirii
tccstor calegorii esbe greu rk-' tltr l,rrlnr i rt at,. DaLcle comparative
sLabilesc cu
lllccizio
doar I'i.r.pIrrl cr'i t,irlrlrrrl s-a oonstituit in
lrrrna {rsl)()(rl,rrluisi rr Ittttrlttltti, cir:i sirrl, lilrtlri rlitrrl qi asLiizi
cxplirru'i [,irrrprrl itrrlitrrrii
lrlin
lrti.j loirrc llxir:itlrl. Irr (i(](){t oo
privcsl,rr rrclclrrll,t r:lrl,r'golii, sirrl, irrrlicii ltt lttvoitt'tttl illttt,rrztli
I
IIpo(tLt,t'.tt.tt. Cttut.ll,t)0.tlt'lltlJ(, itlt(l,.4t.llu,ttIu.ttr(:r;(,?0 t:!llpotL,llifr,lfA, llt VOl.
,,
ll()lll)o(tl,l rl6tr(r'r'0 il
,rlrc'frrol'0
ilill,il(olllliilillrt", Most;ttvlt, 1960, p.15,
115
8r
dupii crrrc rrr,rrlrrril,,, rlirrl,czrrlc
ryi
aspectele au func{,ional, o
vrernc frirri rlisl,irrc[,irr clirr';i
,
irr scnsul cd nu iqi constit,uisrlll'i
sisIernc a;ralt,rr rlri ,r1,,,zi1ii. ln ]imbile ugro-finicc srrfixrrl
de conjurir.:l,iv coirrtrirlr) (rrr qlrI'ixul
deverbalivclor,
(ioo{l (ro rl
dps la concluziu <,ir cl cst,c o lot'nrd derivatir, (ial'c ir rrvul. irri
!ial
sens de irrcoativ sitrr rlczitleratir,. ln lirrrlrilc rrlrilrrrr,'
existd un conjunciiv, [rcapLir aspeclualii olrrrsri :rorisl,rrlrri si
perfectivului, care include nuarrtc ce col'olJl)lurtl corrj rrr()l,i v u -
lui, optativului qi irnpentivuluir.
Distinclii clare intre moduri qi dialczc nu iur (r.\isl,rrl, nici
in fazele mai vechi ale limbii indo-europertc2. Aici vcr:hitrl
injunctiv cumula, uedistinct, valori nrodale, aspcoLualtr
qi temporale, iar opozil,ia diatezelor continul opoziIia
dintre verbe 'active
-
verbe de slare.
Istoria limbilor consemneazir procesul delinritdrii aces-
tor categorii gi al constituirii lor in sisteme. tr4ai lesne, pentru
c5 se produce in epoca istoricii, poate fi urmdrit procesul per-
fec!,ionirii acestor sisteme, prin precizarea valorilor terme-
nilor qi reducerea distinoliilor irrrrLile. Pt:ntnr limbile indo-
europene este semnificativir cvohr{,ia distinc{,iilor Itrodale.
ln timo ce indicat,ivul o clur disLins scrrtattl,ic rlc cclrtlirlttr
moduri, conjunctivul qi optuLivrrl ili ltttpt'tlttttrLt"t rcr:i1tl'or:
nuanl,e qi se constituie gi ca tttodttli altl sttbot'rlorriirii. l,ilrsrr
unor opozilii nete intre ele a avtrt, ctl rrt'lrrirr'c lrtpl,rrl ,'r'r tttt,ttl
din moduri preia gi valorilc cr:lrriltlL, sco[lrrrlrt-l rlirr rtz- Irr
cele mai vechi texte distincIia dint,r'c opt,tt,iv
1i
rrorrjrrrrol,iv
e atestatd numai in grupul indo-i l'arr iarr
ry
i irr gt'cutrit. Sttrtsr.:ri [it
clasicd ins5. are numai optativ, pehlr-rvi
ryi
sogtliarra au rtttrttai
conjunctiv. ln poemele homerice colc dorrl urt.rtluri sirrt {olo-
site in egald misurd, dar treptat optalivul dispare. (lnNoul
Testament e intilnit numai in formule care exprimI dorin!a.)
Ncutralizarea opoziliei dintre conjunctiv qi optativ se pro-
ducc mai trrtli in propoziliile subordonate, apoi irr princi-
pule care cxpt'irrtir posibilitatea. De fapt, prin iltlirt,trl'aI'{1, llu
I
M. Dclaf r-rsse ct A.Caquot, Languesdu
'loutlurLel
de la Guinic,lrr vol. ,,Lcs
Iangqcs du monde", Paris, 1952, pp. 743--
7 44.
'
Cf.S. W. F. MargadanL, Iletnartlu'essurlescttt{gories
erammaticales dans /es langucs inrlo-europfurtnes ct sp{cialelnent en grec
"ancien,
in vol.,,Actes du deuxidme Congr'fs ilrl.l'rtuiional des lirrguis-
tes", Gen0ve, 1931, p. 201,
$i
I.:M. 'll r o trs k i c'p.cil,, pp.88
-
95.
116
triut.lrtc rroll.j rrrrr,l'ivul srrrr.r;rl,rrl,ivrrl (rlr,r:rr, r:rr for.rrro), r:i rrrl
ttttttl cllt'c. l'tttnrrrsl,c sr'rulrrr.il,i rrrrrlrr,lpr. 1i rrsl,l'r,l tilrrlfiig rrjrrlrg
lir o1ro7i(ilr lrirtrr'r'lr irrrlir.lrl,iv rrlrr irrrltrirrl rv,.
OPozi(,ii lrirrrrlc rrl rrl,rrlrilr,rrc 111 rrr.rrrrr rrrrli lrrrlr,lrrrrlfrrl,o ovo
Irrl ii si lrt rlirtl,lzr,(rrr.l ir' prrrrrr,)
yr
lrr rrrrlrr,r.l (rrrlr,,,l rriir pr,r.
lirr'l,rrrrr).
l,]vr,lrrl,iir r:rrl,r'1'r;1.;t,r
lilrrpulrri
Polrlr,lr
rrr.rruirrl,ir r.lrirrr.rlirr
pcrio.'rrlir lrIrrr.i(,ir,r. l)u1rlr {.ulr 11 il ln{rrlt.:ll,irl,,lrrl,r: o crrl,ogor.irr
le.lirl,iv tttiti ttotli. Olrl,cllrr.irr corrcr,pl,rlrlir
,
l,irrrprrls-rr 6x'r:.irtr'1,
i'"rnulLe ljr'bi
ryi
oorrl,irrrrii s,'i s. rixPrirrrc
Priir
procede'e lexi-
cale (parbicule sau verbe arrxilirrr.).
(iramaticilizarea
lui se
realizeazI in nrulte lir'bi.
;''irr
l,r.rrrrslormarea con]inutului
sernantic .al unor categorii cxisl,tnl,r. l)rrpI pdrerea lui M.
Brda12,. timptrl a lrrnt, r'\ryt,.r,. rlirr rrrrrl:
litrrtcctul
ar fi fost
Ia origine lrn prcz{)nL irrl,rrrrsiv, irrr.r,irl,oi.ul rr avut diverse
valori modale. Atlostrt t,irrP.l . l.y.1rrr. rlr, rrsPrr.r,. Aocsb lucru
poatc fi r:vid.rr(,ilrl, irr isl,.r.i:r lrrrrlrrl,r' ,,ri1,,,,,,r,)p,rnc.
S-a
ar{t,at, cii
(r(){\
tttiri vcrrltrr rliul,rrrr.(r{r l.(,11
1,6r.tr
l11 (lrrrrzrrrrl,-
aorist,) a fosl, irr ilrrl,-r,rrl,l,r,;r.;i rl*il,rrrr.[,rr.irr,,rlrtli.r,i.
l,ilnlrrt
conrurti'i tIV(llt urr sisl,r'rrr ruipr,r.l.rrrrl r.lrrr., (.1u.(r rt rr p:isl,t.trl,
rnai lrirrc irr
1l'r'lrr.rr
vr,r.lrr'.
(ilrlrrrrr:ri.r,
I,rrrrrii rlrr rtrlrisl,
cat'c lrol,r';rzir
1rt,r'r'srrl
v.r'lxrl irr Hurrr l'irr.r'r rrir'i o rrrrPIi,
r:ltlic. Srrrrsrrl lrri r.ir ui lils:r or.ir:;lr.ci rrrr'i r.,ri 1o1.1111q1,. l,l.n
rlrltrz:i t'ltrltr:ltrt'ttl lrrr lrllr;rit:. Artllil,li l6r'rrrrr iH6 6ltrrrrrr
l,crtlt rlrr
lrr'(,zclr
|
,
r.lrt'rr rrol,rlrz;i rl ltrr{,irrrrrr irr r:rrrs rlrr
'rllg
frilrillr|r, rri ..|rr rlr
lrrrr'lr,r'1,,
r'irr'o in(tir:ri rrrr
l)r.{){:cll
r.|rtlizrrl,.
l.ttrlrlPrrrrrl.rrIlr,r'i11i.il'ii ll l.r'rrr.l,r,trs1rr,,'l,rrrrlrr
P,irl,rr
Ii rl.-
rlrtsl'r
1rc
lt:rz:r rlxisl,rrrr[,r,i lqpl'1,,,,1,rr srr1rlcl,it,c (l,iPrrl
Prcz.
gdpoi,
itot'. iive"lxa
I l,r'r.'t
. i.,r}i.o, rror'. dgay,,v)
ryi
t
yrrlori
lor lor' lri
texl,clc ltorrrcricc.
'l'r'c|{,trl,,
irr lirnbil' ilrrlo-crrropene vechi se
introdtrc valor.i temporale; rezult,al,e adcsea din reinterpre-
tarea aspecfelor, ele s-au exprirnal prin formele acestbra,
modif icrindu-le con tinutul.
In-latin5, sistemul temporal, boga[
ryi
simetric construit,
s-a dezvoltat in cadrul temelor aspcc[rralc dc infectum pi
perfectum, mostenite din indo-europcanh.'I'crrrclc irsl,ecLrruie
.^^r^
A. M e_i I I e t, AperSu d'une histoire dc la lo.ngue6rar"qua,
paris,
1930, pp.214-276.
2
Ess ai de sCtnatttique,
paris,
1924, pp. g41-l4.g.
3
I. M. 'f r o n s l< i, op. cil., p. 95.
'"
t17
Suservil,latlxJlr.ittrrrt.r'lrl'itrtlrrtlrriryiin.lirrrbileugro.finicc.
i" li*lif" ,",riit,i,,,,
rrill'ttgttlttt ['rlItpuIuI este relal'iv nouir;
a" S tiOO
de arri
1,,,,'si,t,i'iri"i
urr sisl'em verbal dominnt'
tlrr
qp"liii"
di.rrc
,-i1":il;:;l:,
,l'ii,',',J,l,li',li ;i'ill'Jl'"1:
Ii,'1r11'lllll,ii"
de timp s-a crcal in {'
tice modernc, culn silrl itl'irrtr"tt""tt, it'dltara
1i
t'igli.rrit '
| )ttl';r
;il;;;;";idotogito.,
aPar:i{,iir t,irrrpulrri nu
lroirl.r:
li
I,rrsrr 1,r'
5;;;-";;t*tu1ii
sau a strirsLrtrt,rrlui,
tri srt rlrrl',t'r'll'{r
rrrr()t'
tendin!,e interne, ca.e mar"hcazili cvolrrIi:r glirrrl.i I ii
,
rlr' lrr
"o.t."i
la abstract, cle la jtrdctlat'a.glolralri lrr itrrrrlizrrr'
"-
f^ aur"oll,area
.at,'g'r'iti Lirn'rrlui lot'ttt.l. tlrr v i il',r' s irr I'
cele mai recont,c. lf ,,if,,i u",rttre viiboIrrl s-a cxpr'irttlrl'
PI'irr
rrr i.i -
i;;;;i;"i.;lc,
prirr complirti.i
ltt ['ctna tlc prelerll'
plirt ltt.ttttr
ffi;;i;';;;oi,'*-a*ia.*riv
s'''or,cnliat.
t,imJra i'cl'-cur.-
i'?t.?i f ?fulii::#il"iliilii\l;:
JillT' .l;'5::l;ii:,i
Ji
: *:f, t ? ?.H : 1*
l
"ln
l.:;:"1';, i; ll'ii;
il$:l iLlf {\ll ii r
i;;;;;;""se
te',xtez. In latinii viito.rl sc bazeazii'pc subjo^c-
ii.rrot i"ao-european'
rnodul voin['ci' l'irnbile indo-europetrc
"" "i.tieti
,r"ttii au foa'tc
'ut'irrr''
rr'r)r. iII
'rirnele
lor lext'c'
C;t;il;;;;ie,
vii Lo,.,l s-&. ex
lrri
Irr:t I i r r I i IIr lr i lo i rr do-cu ro
lrctt
c
prin' procedec spccifice ficcult'irr'
Fiirrd o cabegorre';;"t"pi;'i'lr".-l.irrrprtl
.sLtr rrrr irrdicc itl
"i"*i"l"ialr"oiierli
.,nei iimt,i. til rril
't't{,e
Iipsi di*
'ici
o
ttTlT;"ttJ.i,1ic
cu calcsoriilc
r'rrrritritlr',
r'rt,l:'i:l:'t.ll:,::l'b"i::
pot pd s t ra o vrcmc mai indcl u r t gu Lri t r t or I
il;,,'lJ'":.:l:'
lfi;,:ill
letid. Dupl A. MeillcL, fapt'ul se cx1rli.i,
exprim[ un proces
qi'acLsta estc
^irlLol'ileaull{l
caracterizat
orintr-o serre {le pn.ti"Jotlilii,
astfcl inciL acl'iunea verbalS
il;^;;";;;t;p;'i
niciodabr iii fo'rno' ci
pur53'
"
ti;;;;il;
;;,'b"i;;i;;
;"i siab ile,
.da
tori bri at' i r' raptu J u i
cil exprirnl
"*po.t,,.l
;t;;;;;;i(},
cit
;i
f
cgir t'rrli i rl i rr ['rc con
['
i-
nuLur.ilc
Ior'.
1
M: C O 1
g
1, Lcsysti:nlc rcrbalsCntitirlt.r't:
tl l'crl'trrssion
rl tr tr'ttt1ts'
"otjt'rr1,',rl'*t'i
,'"'/,
jluv
c n d rJ e s,
.r,r,rirt
ttr gr,rtrruir(
t,)ttt
"'Y
j;:
,1":",t:,::,:l;,:''f,i':;,,illf;,]lili,li*,i'lli,,',,
rrisr,r,irrue
ut rirr.
guistiquc-gOn6rale",
Paris, 1921, vol' I, p' 111
'
118
l,lv,rlrrf irr
Prolglcsivr'i
rt,,ttl,,,11r,t'iil,rl grlrrrrlrl,ir,itlo rlnl,tr lnnrtlttl,fi
rlc tlorrir l,r'lil;;il,rr1i itrtprrt'l'ltttl,tl: l.tt't:t'tt'tt
'1"
llt t:otttll'rrl' lrr rrlr-
Sl,t.lr|1,, irr r:0r,ir Ir,
Ir.iVIlrl,I
r'orr( rrrrrl,rrl, rir {l(. lit
jtlll)(tt:1,(l
ll(l()l'f.'ll-
rtiztrl,c ll, tttt lit'tl,,,rit, itt rrt't'tt rrr' pl l\'r'lrl(' l()l lllll l,rt'tlr,r'xl)t lttllll'l).
Sr,Po:rl,r'trttttlllill;t Ilr l,,lrl,ri ltrrrlrtlI l'\'itlttltl't', trtl l'r'trrlt('rrr
lil,r,r':rIrr, Jlil
lriil.lltl,
nuilli.to;t;t(,lr'
( ]|lIlir)t tl t rtttt tt'l.tt
lll\
{ lll(!
l(,
()l)ii{'r'v;rrrr ilt lttttlttl,'
Jrt
tttttl l\'(' lll lll ittt ltrttl tttt tlllltllll'
I'rrrlttli rlI t:ltl,t';'1;1'1t r':ttt' tl'll''r'l';t lttlitt:rtt t rlttrltl' I t'1" ttt;tt
lllltllf
I,lrlc
1i
r.tllrl,ir i111,111 1'ot'lttl.ttt'rrt tr';tltlirl,'. lrr lttltlrat tttr rtlrllct'Vii
irt
Ptlrlra.rr,irr(,ii
tlorrii r:ttt lrtl: rtr:ll(l{r tlrrttrirt rtl r:ttl'trgttt'iilot' r:ort-
cre'[e, orcqlc rtutrtiirttl cirl,r:goliilol ltlrsl't'itcl'cr'
Caiegoriile absblacLc
r:otttrlpl,tt:tlc sc. tltlzvoltd o datd cu
evolulila.
progresivir a lirrrltii;;i'rr girrrlirii.
(laIegoriile gindirii
*-a,, o*piintit ini;iut
ltt'irt
ttli.i l'r;r"' l"r i"'t1", fapt.care a ldsat
urme iri formelc suplcLiv() irrl,i l rr i l r' lrr,,rr v r rr l r.l0 cclc mal Ye0h.l.
SuplOl,ivisrnul a pirbtrt, sirt,isl';rr,r, r'r,r'rrrIr,lo,',,ttttttti<li"trii numai
inirontlit,iilc irt ,,it't: vttrli\lrttlrtt'ttl ,'tit :irit:tr:, ilrr rrotlr:cpl'cle ex-
orimaLc rrtt llpirtrittt [l'tltlvtlttl, itt cotttttlttr';rt'l
'l'l'c1rl'trb,
1nstr,
ic consl,iLrrirr sisl,r'tttrr, ll r';rl'r'l rrli'lrlllz;ll. rrr'
1tt't
l'r'r'li,lttrttz';'t
mercu. l)g rttiisrrrti 1111 1,otrIirrrrl,rrl rir':rlrtll,tttr'ltzrrttzl't ittt'l'rlrtltttltt
se constiLrric irr sisl,rrrrrr'] r'rrl,r,11o1ttlr'11t'lrrrrltl,tcltlr,
r'v,,lttcttzti
nfUlL rnifi irtccl,, i;rr rrrrr'lr, ltrip('r'1,(, lrrlrtrrr',' :rl,'lot'1rol.;rrrlttlnlr\
o vrefiIo irrrlrllrrrrll;rl'ii. Aril'tttlltrrll llr;ll)i'( lll tlllliltr:rr ttlltl' t'lrttlll't-
tuilctlr:Lcr.lrrcrrii,,,,,r1,l,,,'1i,r'ut'rrirr,,lrrrl
vrrlortutixl,otiltttiltt,trt'
UrediarO tll t,iPrrl rlrrii lrrlrri, o,.U.(l {r irtl,r,r'r.rrr'rlrtt' lttl,r'o rrirrllrrlttL
si trltt'.1. sir,i,tl ,'l,lrl,i'ttllti, ttltt'. ittr:lrrtl. vtrlt't'ilrt ttrt'.rtt-
i,iui,l,,i
1i 1,,,r,l,,,,,,rr.jrrn,.l,ivrrlili:r.
l,rrrrlrrlr Lrrrrl sr'r
ryi
sl,rrlri
lrtllscir si.s1,,i,,,,, rlrr opozi(,ii lrirrrtr',': rrrrirrrlrl./rtt;ttttttlltl,, silrgrrltr/
lrlttral. irrtlir':tl iv/tt,,t, 1,,,1 it lrl'ir', :rr'l tr'/1';t:rt r''
'
Cauza prirrriJ,,ilu,..volrr{,iri 1.r.,;gr','rri.v,,
lr r,rrl,r,gttriilor gra-
mat icale'sc aflI irr rrct;0sil,iil,r,rr lrrrrlrri rlr, lr I'risPunde intr-Un
rnclcl cit mai adcovab rrOccsil,ril,ilor corrrrrrrieilrii. un factor
i-oo.t"nl cstc qi sisletrrtrl g'irrrrrrli'':rl irr ansamblu-,. tipul
sLrircturii morfologicc, carc'o:r l.r' i rrr'u'c, anttmrtd drrecl,re
a evolu.tiei tau r,i anuntil, iit,rrr.
$i
irrl'lrrcn['a unor sisteme
lingvisLicc sLririrrg lirsi ut'rtrc, r'tr Lol, r'rtt'rtrrl,t-'t'ttl gl'otl
l)onC-
tr,rit.rit itlst,r,rrtl,ur,ii rrror'lologir,r,. A$r'nrcrrt'rr rrrllrrlrrIr';tot, tttrt;tl-
t
f I. V. V r I Ir'rt, ttrl. rtl., p. '.|05.
I
V. lf t'ii lt rl lt l, /r',; t)Jtl,tt:;tltt)tt:i lirtilrtt:;ttrlttr':;,1tt
yt';
,,1')1;';11isrIr:
linguisIitltrc gtittrirltlr:",
(lt]trt'rllr:rllil,
li]rr:1, p 4l 4tl'
119
lera sau i.birzia o cvr,lrr(,ir, :rlr,,.i.t:i cau2e ultirne se aflir irr
rir[r""t u.oi lirrrSi tl;r1,,''
ryi
irr lrtlrorIttrile acesteia cu ttcvoilo
de comunioare alt v(,r.1)il,r;r.i1,,r.,'irr.o o folosesc. S-a allil,irl, rrii
influenla slavl asrrpllr lirrrlrii |()rrtine a jrrcat utr rol tltr scitrtti
ln nd.sLrarca ncrrLr.rrlrrir si ,:i srrbsLraiul rotllilrri, ir g|ril,il
i;;;rf"";rea
limbi i bulgirr.,, irr tr-r-r lim;i urr:rli I i,':,:. Irr lo
cuirea. in limbile ufro-f irrir.r,, lr us1'crlrtltt i
JrIirr
{:rrl,('ll()r'rrl
timUuiui, Ca si sinciebismul t,uzurilot' itt rrtr,'l'' rlirr rri ('ril{'
limtri au' fost' atr.ibuite in[luen!ci linlhilttr itrtlo trttr'ol)trrr(]'
--^
f"1" p"i"eqte forrna 4e evol'!ie a,oaL0go.i i l'r' gr tr trrrtl, i.tt l*
s-ar ndrea CI, in un0le OAzuri, arO IOC O migoulrl itt ctlt'tl, tr
...roriir" la lormcle i'i{,iale. Astfel de la stadiul itt cat'c tttt
;;tJil-;; gramatical se ajunge la faza in care limbi-lc
,l.Fi
con'trulesc"un
numflr
yaria"bil i1e genuri. Ulterior, u'ele.din
oi"'o"t
pierde dislinclia grarnaticaltr a gcnului, prisfrlnd doar
sufixemo!ionalc.
De asemcrri' s-a v;izuL.t5' p9 planul t,st'.ort?c]
limbii, categoria aspecLului prccedc catcgorla tllnpulul' In
cursul istoriei limbilor irrdo-curopcne
-oPozr!'.a
.dc
asp.ect
a trecut
pe plan secundar, locul prirrcillal rcvcntttd opozlltet
temuoral'e. Tobugi unelc linrlri (r'rrsit, lloofir('flca) au revolrlL
la ripozitrii aspecbualc dorrrirrnrttr, lrr sislt'trtttl .ottJtlgfil'll.
Dac5.'se !inc seama de evolul.iu r.ott{ittttl.rrlrri
1i
rltl
.nrtld.ul
rlc
orSanizaie a formelor, exerttplt'1c rlrr lrlcsl [t'I tt't'lrttle lrlliolcB(t
;"".;;;;;;ind n" o evoluii" ltt t'c.rr'.r'i irr slri*rlri, ttrt fel rl.
;;;il a negatiei. l-ormelc us'.r'Lttltlrr
tlirr lirrrbilt' Irt'tl.t'ttrr
,"""" ."^iln|t'nou,
cle slnt oigul'ie lr'grrl,' lr, ,r',ziIii luttt-
porale.
!
Claselo de cuvinte cunosoute sub numcle dc pfrfi ils vor'
biro s-au diferen!iat funclional qi formal ln decursul unet
nerioa,le
foarlo ihdelungate. Cu cil le urmlrim ln t'recut'
[;-;ii;;,;';rrul
lor csl.c"tnai mic, iar ln lirnSile pul,in
cvo-
luuIo de asLizi $(,lr{lr,ilr'ca vocabularulu
i lrt r'lltsc l{|x tt:o-gru-
-oii.ur"
estc abia lu lrrccput. corrstfttririlc
acosl,oa ittt rltttl
in mod f ircsc la e urre'luzia'ctr, irr fazelc lui celc rlrui vc|lri,
lAl.Graur,Genulneutrutnrotntinelte,,,Lirnbarolttanl..,
vol. lII, nr. t, 195/r,
PP.33-44' -
2
S. M I a cl e n o'"i'iiJniriti
tt* butgurischen
sprache, l3erlin-
Leipzig, 1929,
PP.
(-5.
120
V(rortllrrlrrlrtl cort[,irrcrt,,l,,t,t,',,1',',lil'r'1'r'rr1ilrl,'rrrrrrrnisttlrttHlttrt:1,
s0tnillll,l(1.
lsl,olilr
lrlrt'l
ilor'
'lrl
'u'otlrit l cr;l'r' ;trrl'lll tril'ot tlr l't'o1rl'rtll't llrr
tlil'ct',,trl,i0t.i, i;tr.lrIr,lrl,
lrl'or'r.tl
:lI li,lrtr)ilt1r'r, 111 Iltz,tr tlttttltttittit
l,oltt'r irt r't'lt: rttlti rlrlllll,r'llrrrlrt rlr'lrrr
1'lr1l;,
irr lrrrrr'[;1' 111r 11lvl!
lrrl ylrlr|l,r.rtl lrl rlr,zV0ll,;rIir lilnl)il rr rlr' I tlrttl rrl,tttr'lrlr'll r'1.
l'lrr'lill rlg
y6r'lritl lt,'' lttit, lt't izt'ttztt
ltt
lrr lrr{rl trtttll,r' Ittttttll'ttt t.
li0ilS lrtXir:ttl, ltttrrrt,it,lttttl,;tr'l.tltt trt t ttlt'F'ot tt tttt,t lol,,p't,'l! ttllll'.
Oal,c
l)rin
irirlili [or.lrrrrli. l,]lc rrrr irr,lrr,,'r'rr,.lrrnlrr l,r'ris;1l,rrri
comltnu irr r:eclt lrt
It'ivrrsltr It'itrt,'1,'11o11i1 ,tlsPr'r'L_rt
ryi
se deoso-
beso rnai atcs sub aspeoLrrl tttot'l',rl,rHir'. lrr[r-adcvIr, ele re-
f lecbii accleaEi aspccLe aln rr,:tlit.iIir ('ir'l'r {'rr ('oIIt,inut nolioxel)
sau cxprim[ lrr^Irazl alllcrr;i tttp'rr'l ttti, iur din punct de
vcdele'sin[acLic intlrrIlirrr'sc itt
1'r:"1"'z' I
ir" irr gcnera]t func'
tii care aDar identi.ic r,,,, rrs,,r,i,'i ,,ii L0rr|r.
'i
rr 1,()&[e limbilel.
lnlre as1,ccl,ul lcxical, ccl sirrt'rr.l'i. 11 t .r'l rrrot'.1'oktgic ql
pdr-
1,ilor clc iorbirc exisIii
() st,r'irrsir lr,llrrlrrIrr rrr |rrlrt[,ii rlrl tlcpen-
dcnl,r-r.Asl,frl.t,orrLirrrrLrrlscrrr;\rrlicrrlurruttttvlttl,illrlrrrlisptrlO
1r",,1.,,,,,,t,,,,,,i1:i
frrrrrr['io rrittlit''l'ir';r (irr lrr;rot'l' trtt irlt:ctt tltl
'oxyrlirrrrrl,),
i111' [11rr1r[,.i, sirrl,rrr.l,r'ir ir;r'r'r'tzt'ttzti tttrttttl'tt tlrl
s,rr"s. S,,
'1i0ir1,,,
rrottsitlIt'lt t::t
l)l()(
('rlrrl rlrlIr'r'rr{'rcrii ltlrttl-
li,,,,r,l,r
,,',r,,uirrl,rrl'r' lrr.r.lrrr . rl.rl,rr. r'rt ,
'ttsl,il.ttit.tt
ft'rrz.i
t,,r,,,1,i ttrttll, rl(] rrrr rrrr,rrrlrrjrr. lrr I'rrz|1il r'r'lc ltttli v{lr'lri, r:ltrtl
lirrrlriltg{}:rllri irrslitrlirrl iTollrrrl,,$rnfluIir()l){}ztlicglrrtrlrrl,itrtrlrl
lnl,r'('!
(rttvitrl,r'rtll,rr :l{'l'l'll rlilll'rrr:l'il'ir-
( ) ttrtIlttt'trItt slttlt: str ltllll
irrt,ilr|(,;1,r, ln lirrrl,i :rtlrrl,r, irrll'rtrt rtl,ttrlttt Ioitllrr
_ltrtr;roittt.
l,r,ol,irlril lii irr;rcr,r;l lr,l lrr,lrrrir,irrlr,r'llr'ltrlr't'rltttlltllo
tlrlttstt
rlc A. S0rrrrrrcr.lrlll,
rlrrr lirrrlilr rrr.rrrrl,ir rtnrlr. (rr,)/lr lltnrlurtt.ttir,
tlttpii
gttttt,t:K1,,
,,1tt1tltl"'
ltlttl
',lt
tttt'l
l"t",
/'4
,,t'ii
irs",
,,{t
hliatt
ryi
..lu'cru LiriaL", irri'il,itrl ttsl,tr,,14ttttt'ir" stttl
,,trtlittt:",
dupI cum
e cuvjlrL dcLcrmirraI
slrtl tlt'tt'r'ttrittrtttl':-
"
til;;;i";, specializarea cuvitrt'(rlor' lrrt'r-o anumitS funclie
sintacticd a ivut drept urmnre irl,irs*rt,it la ele a unOI cate-
ll.ot,ii mor,Iologir'c st]ccili(1c. lilt'rrr('rrtrrl
Jrotiiritor in separarea
n;:,;"lii n plt,'gito. do volbilc u losl, l'uttr['irr lor irt frazrl. Carac-
;;;,l;ii,;,
drurirat,icalr-r
u r..i r:rrvlrrt,.r
(l(!.rrt'ld() Ir(rrltijlocit
I
tif. r'lisprrrrsrrrilrr rlrrl.tr rl* rrrltjot'il.ltl.lt lrltI'l,ir
i;'rrr.r.t,'i,','t,.ltl
-t'll,1l:,.:f
s:rst:1,':t
(jorl14t','s itll''lllirIiotlill;rl Irrrtlr'illtlor (l':ttt:;' l1]/'8)' llt
Il'ol)lrtlllll:
i"l'i ,,"i.itiiutt'g"r'ii r':ilt sr'r li* t:ottttltttr l'ttl'rtt.t' lirrrlril,r"
2
Lo lrnrgue ii hr sotirttl-
('urut'lln:;
'sttt
irrtt'r'
(l'utt I('t[Itt'tlr tqpt ur'
chutque, Oslr-r, 1l)lttt,
1t.
7''1 .
721'
din sensul lrri, r,i rlin I'rrrrc{,iir sintactic[1. Aceeaqi nof irrnr:
poate li exprirnal,ii prirr rlivolso pdr!i de vorbire (de cx. ntr:r.s
qi a merge), dup{ crrrr itcccitsi par'[e de vorbire poal,c tlxpt'ittrrr
obiecte, insuryiri sart itll, i tt tr i (tx. masd.,'
frurnuselc, I'rr 11ri).
P5rlile de propozi(,itt irsi rrt'trcilzS forme dc cxplirtrlrl{r
l)t{)
prii, astfel incit,-prcdioaLrrI sc sllecializcazl trit vct'1,, sttlrit,,,
tul
-
ca substantiv, atribuLrrl
*
ca adjrlrrl,ir" lrrrttr(rlirl Hirtl
pronume, iar circumstan{,ialele-ca advtlrlrtrlr.
'l'r'tlt1r(,lr
tttot'lrr
iogizdrii pdr{ilor de vorbire, a scplriirii lor. I'olrrlrlc rlplrirrrl.
nu numai de nivelul goneral al linrbii
ryi
rrl girrrlilii, r:i si rlrr
tipul structurii morfologice a limbii' Ea esLo lu ttrt rtivrrl t'ctltrs
inlimbilc izolarrt,e, in timp ce tn limbile llexicltarc ca'"0 IIIi\r-
catri irr modul cel mai clar.
Mult dezbdtutd a fost problema cronologiei pdr{,ilor de
vorbire, pus5. adesea in forrna: ce parbe de vorbire s-a creab
mai tntli? Este evident cd, in acest fel, tnsugi modul de a
pune problema este eronat. Nu putea sd. se creeze.o singurd
parte de vorbire, aqa cum nu poate sd apar5. un singur gen
iau un caz. Cdci dacd o parbe a vocabularului s-ar fi specia-
lizat ca parie de
yorbire,
rcstul ar fi devenit q-i el, prin
opozilie,-tot parte de vorbire. O ascmenea abordare_ a pro-
blemei se explici prin limitarea discu!,iei fic numai la cril,e-
rii lexicale, fie numai la cril,erii morfologice, oonfundindu-se
astfel originea pdrlilor de vorbire cu insirryi oliginea lexicului
sau cu.inceputul marcdrii formale a. unor cuvintc specializate
intr-o anumit[ func[ie.
Mulgi cercetdtori,'intre care qi NI. Br6al, au sus!inut cd
vorbirea a fost inilial alcltuit[ numai din pronume, intruciL
acestea se intilnesc in cele mai multe limbi qi reprezintd o
categorie lingvisticd atit de importantd, incit e greu de con-
cepu*t vreo fa;d a limbii fdr[ existenla lor. Pronumele s-ar fi
creat instinctiv qi ar fi fost la origine un inso{,il,or al gestu-
Iui. Ultcrior, ar fi aplruL opozilia dintre pronunrc
Ei
rcstul
lexicului3.
ln[rrrciL la o anumiL[ pcrioadir
PLor'rrrnrcl0
nrr ft
mai putut fi folosil, singttr, ln jurrrl ltri s-atr ct'rlitl, sttltsl,itrt-
1
A. A. L c o n t i c v, Boettunnaettt.Le u. ttellott(tttaJl'btLoc puJatttttu(
nau,na n. 10Cr.
t
V.'M. J i r mu nsh i,O npupo\c
qocnteii
Pc'|urLLutt;t'accul)tt'
Naquu, in vol. ,,Bonpocr't
reoplrl{
'lacreii l)o'lll
llit l\'tll'l'optlaJIc tlSIrl(olt
paBrrr{rrubrx'r'rrnol", Leningrad, 1965, pp. t 5.
-
s.Essai
de sCmantiquc, l'aris, {924,
|.
llt:1 .
L22
l,ivr., lrrl,icrrl'ivt', r'r'tlrr'. |):r' ri
Ir'ill ll()tlllllr('
sc lrl['rrlrrgc irirli
,,trl,,ir,,r'i,r {rtttt(}ltr'ttl.lt llttlt lt( ('i1l lltttttr', r'lttttl itt lottttt:ll'tli tltllll
ttliri
;rrtl,irr
Ir'olttlrlr',ll)()l,r'zil {'
FTtIj]ll,ir.
l.'t'rtlttlttt"lt'r'.or ltl'r'11r1t'tr'
1rr lt,lrrstr;ri1i,,tr1tlrl lrt trtt it ;llrlttlll rlr' lrr lrt llrllll'll lrrrrlrirjrrhrr.
l)trr.;r li1 ilr{,r,1,,1' lill} itr.r,iil 1111t,( llt,tttll r'tt l;r'tt:l tlt'ttrllt', ittttl
{il,0ltto
ltlr.
Ilr'til,trlttt,
, ttttt
1't0lr:rlrtl
.t'"t
lt Irttil'ltl, ttl'ttttIl
i,r,,,r'llir tlt'o r';tl('rI()t tr' lrrt,:tllt lrt tttt rlr'
;';rt(t
'l''
r'rttlrttr''
N'ltrl(, rrrlri ttttrttrll,rlri ltittl, i,'t't 0l;tIttt lt t:rtr' { illllll(l(ltil (]11 lil
baza vorlrilii irrr sl,lrl tltlltt(rl(! iilrrr t(rrl)lll-
(
irirtlrrtl,icri irrtliotri,
grCci Si scr1i1,i e ,)rrsirlgr.irrr lii 1l11r1rrl,cl1 pt'itttgt'tlillc alO vOr-
6irii d,., fosL riitliici*ilc vcr.brrlrr- l,rr o
'ozit,ic
asernlnltoare
s-a sil,ult lI . Schuchar:tl[,, t,rtt't,;rlit'rrr;t
'ri
rrrcmbrelc unice ale
frazei prirnil,ive au fosI tlo ttltl,trt'ri Vrrt'lrrtlrir. Sc conlunda in
ura*"ti"u tcze prediclal,ivit,ul,0ir, clcrrrcrrl
('srrrrIirrl.al vorb-irii,
cu vcrbul ca oiategorie rn<lrl'ologi,';1- 1't'tt
ltozi['ic
opusl,s-a
situaL in ant,ichiLalc N'L'l'erc,rl,itts Virlr',,, r:tt itt t'Itttr'll trrclcler-
nd w. wunclt,, carc corrsitlc1.i111
r'ii voIlrir',':r rr Iosl, rrrililrl crlrr-
sLifuitu rlitr ttutrtc.
AccsL punot clc vctlcrc a fOsl, irrrlrr.rr(ir,rrrl rir ,ll| rrl(r
,(
{'r'{ t'
b[tOri, cire it sus!,inCau orr al'gltilt(]lrlrrl r':r, irr rtrrrll,,' lirrrlrr,
Iormeie verbale sc crecazii
lltl
llltz:t lt'tttt'l.t rr.ltrlllitlr"
Pt
ttr
agluIinarea ]a ele a pronuruolot'
l].1's1)rrillr':r.
Penl,ru a in,Lelegc lelul curn s-illl
(rl('irl'
lrt
ttrtr'lr.'
Irrt{r-
rlrr
,rorbi.O trebuie'sI plrnim de lir ()lrocir irr r';tt'r' ll.r i, trl c rrl,'rrl,rril,
din cuvinbe raclicale, nedeoscbitb lttt'tttit;. |11 llrrzrr lrirtrlrrrlrlri
se opun sub aspect siutacli0
(Irvirtl,rrl r:ltt'r':ttt't'rtl
,1,' strlritrr'1,
si cil care este prcdi.at,. NlultI vr,{rr.{! ,1,,,2i(i:, rlirrl,r'rr
.trlt:.it
ttuLub ti exprimatd nurnai pl'irr irrtottttlit'
1i
LoIir:ii, ill)or
lll'lIl
iompliniri iexicale, in per,i,irrlir lrr .rr.r, r'rrl,.g,r'iiltl g.ama-
iili";; aflau la incepuLu.il. lrr,. S.rrsrrl l.xical-;i funclia
sintacticii 4iferitd a c;lor doi l,trt'rtrrrtti au avut drept con-
*..i"il
"t"ru..o,
la fieoare tlirr ci, ir.'or c*tcgorii gramati-
cale specifile.
Depcnderrt,a oriqitrar.tj lr
girl,qggr'iil,t' !-ll'ittttlrl irraltl fle func{,ia
silrt.iri'1,i,'i ,,',1,,v,',lil.:i
1,r'ill
:ti t'r'll
'':r,
itt tltrtll" lirrrlri,. ori|c'
attvltrl, r'tr lol rlr'Pr.rrrlir,lrl, rlolrirrrltslc r:ltl,r'11ot'l;t
l)ol'soll.llolt
(lilro
s. ;t.rtl,:1:r l'i llr ,i.itlirr. rt .rtl,'l"rt ir' :t
't''''lir':rl'i'rl'i{'ii
ryi
rrrr a
I
lltti,,tt ,\',-ltttlltrrll lirtrttr, l"'trt l'tttlt'ttt(l;t(ttt thr uLlgttrtt:i'ttcrt
,\7lrr,/r,r,isslrtsclt.,rlt,
rrl. I I :r, llrrllr', l1))11,
1r
:lill-
'
t
ll,. U a r. ir c
( 1., !'ltr L,tL,,ilic,t I /'.ssrtt7s, l,olrdra, 1859.
123
vcrbului. Aga o
1i'osl,rizi
sit,rrrr(,ia in limbi amerindicnt,, sa-
moode etc,, urrrlrr irrlcscir rrrrrrrr'lrr predicaLiv are qi t.irng,.
ln.trucib l,ormcrrii pl',rpozi(ici sc rr[]i ln leg[turi strirrsr,, r,lrl.ir-
goriile ata;ate la ouvirrl,rrl-srrllicct, (numdr-, gerr, rrncoli pi rrrrz)
slnt transferate prin acor.rl
ryi
lu ouvintul pt'cclittrrl,, rr;,ri irr,,li,
multd vreme ei continul sii nrr se deosc-bcas,.ii l,,r.rirrrl. lrr
acelagi timp, categoriile spcci l'ice predicatu l rr i, r,rrr.c sc r:orr s l,i.
tuie,treptat,.pe mS.sure ce
qcesta igi sprrcirrlizcrrzri r.orr(i,
nul,ul semantic pentru a denunri un
l)l,t)(.r's,
n rr sirrl. I.r.lrris-
ferate asupra cuvintului-srrbiect.
ln felul acesta se rcalizeazl ,1i tlifercrrIa forrrrrlii rlirrlr,c
cuvintul-subiect, devenit numo, gi cuvintul-prcdicaL, dc-
venib vorb.
D-upl cum obseryt A.A. Potebnea, direcfia principald ln
evolu!ia propozi!iei indo-euro;rene a conitat- in iritdrirea
distincliei dintre nume
Ei
verb, prin concentrarea la verbe
a predicativitdlii1.
Opozilia nume-verb se gdseql,e, cel pulin in formele ei
incipiente, in toate limbile de pe glob, ea-constituind nini-
mul de structurd, gramaticald, intllnit qi in limbile izolante.
In cursul evolu,tiei lor, chiar in condi[iile reducerii forme]or
flexionare, limbile pdstreazd o oarccarc distinc!ie intre aceste
dou5. clase2.
Cercetdtorii au remarcaf adesea idenlitatca salr asemd-
narea unor afixe la nume qi verbe, ca dovadl a originii Ior
comune . J. Vendryes semnaleaztr yraralelismul fralianb din
arabd intre cele trei cazuri ale rrumelui (subiect
-
obiect
direct
-
obiect indirbct) qi cele trei moduri ale verbului la
aspectul imperfectiv (indicativ
-
corrjunctiv
-condi{,ional).
Existen,ta unor afixe comune nu trebuie raportatd insd in
toate
-cazurile
Ia perioada separdrii primare a numelui qi
verbului; ea se poate datora acordului, fapt carc explicd de
co se lntilneql,c mai frccvent la categoria riunrirului. f!-rcrn-
ple numeroase de acesI fc] rrc ofcrl lirnbi]c tglrrt,irrrrrrl,c (ugr,o-
finice, turco-ttil,are eLc.). ln unele dialectc Iinczc cx isl,ri rrrr
r
S. D. Kaf nelson, Ifpoepecc rLabLNa 0 notill.crul.tlu,r u.trt)o-
espo-neticmuhu,,,14orecrlrxArragerulrra HayH C C
(l
I,", rrr. iJ, lgrr0, p. 7i|.
-.
t
4.
M e i I I e-t,-,Sur lescaractdresduenrbe,lrr vol.,,l,irrgrrisl,irlrrc
histo^rique. et Iinguistique gdndralc", Paris, 11)21, vol. I,
1r.
til,
E. Sa p i r, Language, New York, 1921, p. 120.
t24
'[rr
firrrlrrr Lurrrir lr,rrr,,r'rrrrr Ltt" rlt,t'ittt,lrr
Ilrrrrtl
rvitLi.z
,,t',tt'
solo voast,r'ir", itu' .sr'r,t'l.$t/t,,l,tt irrlrlnl,i" r' lrr
Plrrlrrl
sl vttt'sittiz
,,voi
iubi!i".
Existefga genului la vct'bc str
lrottt,tt
cxplica ln unele limbi
prin acord, iir in altelc pt'irt ttttt,irrioriL{tlne Bau simultanei'
iatea constituirii genulrri gt'ttttrttl,irrtrl I'rr[,ri de. sopararea for-
mald a celor doud ptirf,i do vttrbit'c.
Opozi!ia nume-verb ser ittl,tlrtrst,rr ltt tlct'ttl''rtrl isl,oriei lim-'
bii"
-pe
mdsura consbituitii tl i vttl'rrr, lot' r'trl,l13rri i grumaticale.
Inmul,tirca rnijlotrceltir dc rl i Irrl'lrrr
['iorrr
l'ot'rrrrr lri ttsl'tr t) oonsc-
cinld h translornriirii s[,]'rirrl,rrlii rrror'lolol1ictr. tlc lt tipul
izoiant la cel aglrrfinurrt,
gi,
tltr ltirri, ltr lcl l'lcxiottttr.
Prin irrsrrrsi colt['irttrl'rrl slirr llx irrttl rrlrsl't'rrr:t' r:nlil'rtt'cn
privitiL in sirro, ilttlttPtrtttltrttl, rl0 olrir.r'1, tlrlJotll,lvrrl str. tlo-
vetieEte a l'i o
1raIl,o
rlir voIlri|t:
(:rlr(' $ ll rll.sltlirrn.r'r'lrrl,iv l,lrzirr
dilt irtrrnc, oPtlrtitttltt-t+rr sttlr$l'ttttl'ivrrlrri' l't'olrltrltttt gollozol
lui e rnai clurt"t, lrrt,r'rrrrlt, trt'tt lotl ltt trllrtrri tttttt t'otlutll,t).
1., creAreu itrijcr'l,ivrrlrri rrrr I'ol irrrlror,l,rrrrl, rrrr jrrctrt, rtln[,iilo
sintacLico ulc
-rlcl,rrr.rrrirrririi.
N4rrlt,ii vt'rtrtro, rlrrl,trrtttittttrou
urrui nurnc s-a rcirlizrrl,
lrrirr
rrpozi(.itt tttttti ttlt, ttttltttt, rlll)OrIU-
rile dintrc tlcLerlrrirrirl, si rltl,tllrrinrrrrl, r'r.ilrrirrrl rlirr ullllurareA
sensurilor lor qi a Lr-'|icii li'rrr'
(l11lrr' ttttri vtr.lri.rrdjotlt'ive slnt'
sub aspecI lexioal, aoclou trttt'tr tltrrivti rrcrrr ijlocit dintr-.un
subsLanIiv, puLind expl'ilrrit rlll rrrrrrriri srrbsIan!a, dar qi o
lnsuqire a ei. Unele din asentcltoil llltIIIo, folosite fr.eqvent
ln aceeaqi funclie, devin cuvint,o el,ulotr ale comqaraliei,.iar
ln faza in care gindirea olrrului aj urrgc sii dtrsprindd insugirea
ca o rrof ittnc aparl,e, clc iryi prtlciztlttzt't st'ttsttl. Aqadarr. ad-
.jrrrr[,iy11l,
r,r,cirl,'1rtr lruzn l'rrrir,1,irli sirrl,rrct,it:c tr rlrrt,tlrtnitrtrrii, re-
irlczirrl,r'i
l,ol,orlrri,ii l'rrzttll,irl,trlrrnprrrriLi"rl,ii
rlc rt rlrlulrrirrde lnslr-
ryili
rrlrr olrir,,,l,clrtt'
Jrc
lrttztt rroltllrttt'tt[,itli2.
I
,f . V l tt rl r
J'
{r s' L,' lungrtl4t:, l'alis, 1924,
1t'
1lr0'
I
V. V. I v lr tt o v ,
I'rutrttllttutt t'l)(t,u.MQrttatqcct;oeo clnloJa pAccnoeo
r,!t,Lt;u t Nlost:ttvlt, 1 1)(i0 ,
p. l-ril .
125
lrtri,, trfix,1,,
;,lrrlrrl lrlrrltrr
cxcrltplrl ltt:
tttt,tt i.
,,r,1
| I 1 r,1 111 1 "
tttttti !
r,('i
ltlr'r'rtt'l ti"
tttttti.si,,t'l ttt' trtlr'p1r"'
lllt'll.tst |
,,1'l
lll' lllt'l
fil'"
r,trr,,,,
ryi
v,,r'1,,r. Crlgirrrl ttici
Itrr ltr ,,
prrryl,rr"
httlttl ,,1)ttfl,t".
l f
l)rt
tt
,,tt
t'l rr tt'tt"
ltttrt
I ,,ttt'ltrtt't"
fl,r;i ,,it,,,
lrrir'[,i
,1,, r',rll,it'o, rrrJjectivul se distingc prin
tr'Isiit,uri lcx ic;rlc, sirtl,;rrl,irrc
;i
rnorfologice. Spre dcoso-
bire do srtbst,itrrl,iv, irici strrtsul lcxical propriu se forrnrlitzit
relaliv Lirzirt. Aryrt ctrttt rrttt itt'it,at, adjectivttl tt ftrttc{,iorrirl,
mult,rt trrclno prisLlirrtlu
rsi
strrrsrrl nurrtolui tlitt tlitt'tr s-lt tltrs-
prrns.
SinL qi ast.Izi lirnbi cal','rrtt art ajutts sJ-si lt'rrlzt rrrl.ir:' livr'.
Despre limba tasmanianii s-a atirrnab oit t'trrlrt irrsrr;ililc crr
ajuforul compara{ici inLrc dotti ttutttr';l !rtt'r' s'' zi''t';t
"(
ir
piatra", iar rotund,,,ca luna". lrllr-o Iirttlrli rrrr,lltrrrrzi;rrrii rlirr
lrhipelagul Bismarck numele de ctrlori $tr t't:tllttt
1rt'itt
tltrlrtt-
mirije unor obiecte purl,d[oare ale culolilor (tlc trx.
lrtlttlt'tt
negru se folose;te subsbantivul
,,corb").
AccsL pt'otlcrltltt clc
exprimare se iritilnegte gi in lazele cele mai vcclii alc urror
limbi mai evoluale.
ln timp ce separarea lexicall a adjectivului este un indice
al evoluliei giridirii, separarea lui-lormali prin afixe sau
'flexiune
bste in mare mdaur[ de
lrcndenl,[
de slrucbura rnorfo-
logic[. ln limbile izolante scpaiarca
.corrcepLuall
a adjecl,i-
vullui este inso,titl mai ales tlc artr.rrrtil,e Lrhshturi sintactice.
Astfel in iimba chinezl adiccIivrrl sc tlcostlbcqLe <ltl strbsLan-
tiv prin faptul cd poale juca rol rlc
lrlcdicaL
(avind irrsuryiri
apropiate ile cele ale'verbcl.r) ,
sc
,,irL.
irnJrirrir rtrr ..git(,itr
ba, poate crea verbe prin irnbirrtr'o
()u rrrr0ltl rn0r'l'crrr0 (cx.
do,
,,ittare",
dala
,,a
cresl,e!'), i1r rtltirrpligiLt'clt ltl'rr itirti
yltloltt't
de SUperlatiV (eX. man /ne,n,,,fon|10 irrc0l,"), irr l,irrrlr ol. t'ctltt.
plicarea la substantive are I'ol tlisl,r'ilrrrl,iv, irrI lrt vtrr'Ittr
rol inLensivr.
ln u'ele limbi aglutinanLe
l)roLios'I
rl.s'r'irrrlc'ii adj'cLi-
vului se afl[ abia in faza lui incipicrrLri. S-a obscrt'at;' astfel'
cd ln limbile bantu adjective propriu-zisc sint pulirie, iar irr
multe cazuri exprimarea calit5lii unui obiect sc realizeaz[
prin alte pl'ocodee: printr-ttn substarrt,iv allsLracL (ex' arbo-
rele estc ,idri,nt sav omul r:stc putcre),
PIirrl'r-rtrr
srrbslanLiv
cu prepozi[,ic (0mul cslc cu putcre), pr,irrtt'tttr t'rtIot'1, iLl,r'i-
b:oLtv (omul, ui.clii -. onnil viu) sau
l)ritI
ll'alIsl'orIIlitl'()il st)-
1
V. .M. Solntcv, Ilpo6neuu uactttcii l'letvu
0 NrtnQlu:Ho"tc
trsbl'e 0 pa6ontan nu*riu"^ou Kitnan,,,I3onpoct't tlsl,Ilto3llltll'a", nr' 6,
1955, p. 110.
126
mantiotr a urror verbc irle calitil
Liir.
In lintbilo aglutinante
a cilror islolic poirl,o l'i rrrrrrilil,ii
1tc
o
lrtrt'ittatlir
lrrtri llrtlclurt-
gut,ii sc ollsct'vri
I)t'()oosrll
rlc cortl,ill1l;i ;11rpltl'itt'rl rt rrrljtlrll,iv.ttltri
iru o
1l;tll,o
rlc vot'lrit'rr rllosr'lrilri. ["r'ttottttrrlrrl lr l'osl, llrrrir:riH ltt
lirrrlrilrl rrglp-l'irr i,,rl qii I'rtt'r'1 l rrl,;tt r'. I'r l rrr,l,i, l.ttt'rrii vrttrllrr
nrr cxis{,lr o rlil'r:r'rtt(lr Iot'tttrtlr'r lrrl,r'r'littlrltlttttl,ir', ltrljrrr,l,iv Hi
irrlvcrlr.
(luvirrl,r,lc
lrolirir,rrrlrtrl,i,'r',
lolorrrl,r,t.rt ltt rtttlrltl,trrrl,ivrr
1i
c;r lrrl.jcr'l,ilc, sirrl, in
1,r',.zr.rrl Irr.[
irrr,. l,] lr.girrl, r,r'r'lrr
'irr
lirnlrrr
ryi
ittl sl't'rtcl'ttt'ii ttr';ttr;llrzrrlrillrtr' lrr lrrrrlrtl. Iltltltt r:tt;tl'ttttlJttt
iatt,t s-a irrt,iilil, l,rrttrlirrl;t t t't'ltt ti rlc lrlrx('rrlIr'( rlrlrr rltljrlrrl,ivttlrl.
PersisbI insii anurrrit,0 lirrril,irr.i sr,rrr;rrrl,ioc irr cc privcryLe lrnbi-
narea ad,iecl,ivclor dert'ivttl,o r,tt rrtttttttit,tl clasc de substantive-
Asbfel oal . ott;ttt,,ittLcligrrtrl,"
rlct'ivitl, tlr: la akil
',minte",
s.e
Doate im6ina cu subst,itttl,ivc itl t,rtt',tl scrrs adrnite apest epi-
ie t (ex. adam attilti,,t)ttI irtt,rrlillr'rrl,"), rlrrt'.tttt poate fi fglosit
figui'at sau rnclal'oI'ic lirrgr"r ot'irrl Ir'l rll rrttlrsl,itttt,iv- Mai'-per-
Siiti fOlOsiroir llnOt' srrl'ixc |{)ltiltil(,
1rr,nlIrr
rrrrlrsl,itrrt,iVCle qi
adjr-'c:L ivclc tlcvtl'brt l, i vrl:r -
$i irt l'irz,,l,l vtlrrlti ltlrr
Pt'ol,oi1ltltt
t'ttl,P('\llr'1,
''ltttl
tttt llr: t:ott$l'i-
t,tri',scsl,r'rrr,l,trlit ci lltxi,irrltt';r, rtrl;,'r'1.t,''il ,11, lotttttt lttt ii o
Ittt'l,tr
tl6 V()t,lli'rt rlt'9s1lril,rr. l1(l() r,qt{rl)t,rrtlrl rr rllt rtr.' ()llll Itilr'ttl,
t:l,iItt rlc ltlor.rl lrr it t.t.i.ltn{);lil('ilt.l)luittr';t
lrrr llllt',r
1,t't'tlrttrlii
I'0lirl,iv I,irzir,.
(]rrvirrlr,lr,r'1; lrttrr'l,tl rlr'lcttttttrrrl ivit trl t'ltlt'lttl
,l,ittt
irtsrtsiri rrrt lt,'rlr'rrrtr'lrt'lttt
,1,' :,,tl,tlltrtltvl tlll l
l,l'ltllltltl'i,
rrrir:i
lrr.irr
ll('rirrrr,,. l)rrr
Ir|ll{,1,
(l(\ r,r,rl,.r'r'rr.ilr]rtll,rr', rrtljl,r,l,i-
vglc s lt1 (t('ltl,
1r1 llrz;r rrrrlrr,lor'{{tlr' r'xl)tlttl{ltt, lrr ttr,rllttiri
l,itttp, ltttlr:ll,lrrr(;r rrt,'ltltl;tlcit
Irttl';lr'lltolltll'rr.
Sl pitrrr cii prtt'i'
t,rt,lrt s,'t,t,t',iltt lot' lot'tttlrll t' lllill I ilzr,' rlr', ll lot'tttltt't:tt gt'lt-
rlclor.rlrlcotttpltt';tIir';lttlrlr'lil
lr'lirrllr'prr'llir/..r llllrilrrt'rlrll.i"rl,ot'i
cx.ist,rtrr[,lr gt,lirl.lrl rlr',.,,rrr1rrr':rl r. l:r rirrl'rl.;rrrl,tv. itt l'itzir voche
a unor'lirnlli 1,,.11;-1;111'olrcttr': rlr' ('r.
I,';r'l
ttl . v. sclrcdcr (de la
schude), zorncr (cltl lrr Zorrt)'t.
, r
D. K eli I e r -M e y ttr, Zu.r(it'rtt:ttlttyliedcs Adjbkt-ius irn Bantu,
,,Afrikanische
Studicn", llol'lirr, 11)51-r, p1r' 65 '1It, irr tlad' rusd ln vol'
..A,lrprrt,atrcrtoo
fl3btt(oslIillltrtl", Mttstlovit,
,|1){;it,
p l}15--i}21'
,
I,j. V. S t,v o r I i it lt, l( rt1t,t6.ncxt tttt(tttt'ii
I)('L(a 0 lttnpNcliur'
JLJr,Lt;d:t, ilt V0l.,,1]0rr[)o(:lJ t.l)iU\,|\Lt,t,ll,rc(]ri0l'0 c'r'1r01t", MrlStltlVlt, 1(il-15.
3 /f1.
I.
(l r tt rr i tt ,
Ilnst lll)u.tltli(LltlcrLt,lLt,( i tttto!)t;(:r:u:t; JLitLLl;(l':l'
,,llottltoct,t
JIltt,lr{oilltilltl!,1" tll'. /r,11}55,
P1r'
15ir
iil
ltrlll.
c
l. I). l(:r
I
rr tt ls. tt, llttttrtltut;tt-i
1tuilil'ilntu,cc,Itc
ttt:cLtedtt-
ouLun,'{ol. l, Moscrtva-l,cttittgt'rtrl, I949, pp. 262'-26(i.
t27
:Limba
indo-t'ttl'oprttlttti trttrttrt rtl nu cunoql,ca adjective pri-
maro atema[icc; ciist,,i trtt tlttlttt"tr redus de cuvinte cu vo'
,cal5
tematic[ tlrtro
1rol,
ii rrrrrloIi interpretate gi ca adjccl'ivtl,
,,u*. ct. copd6 .,carc
ltrio", t'r].xd6
,,care
e trastt, $ct. uardfu ,,1tt't''
tend"ent",' Sohtill
,,sLrtrl
tttril,ot". Marea majoritalc a lrrl.io|l i-
velor
propriu-zisc sirrL frirrrrtrLc cu sufixe, ccoa 0tl (tsl'0 trtt
indiciri clar al apari!,ici lor rt,luLiv Lirzii.
De altfel, limbile indo-curopene vechi
-arr
rrroyl,rr rr i l,
;
r r r (,i rrI
adiective din limba bazd. Din 320 de adjool'iv0
cttttscilttt;tl,tt
de"A. Ernout gi A. Meillet in di0{,i0n0r'rrl rrl,irrrologi0 lrr-
tin, numai apioximativ 35 au fosI irrlj..l,i'.. irt. irrrl.-
euroneanS. iar^ aproximativ 98 s-au cl'0i\l' llr litl'irrir (r{l
adieitive tlin riitlrlcini indo-eulopcne.
"ln
istoria limbilor indo-europene vechi se observi"r lcn-
dinta de separare formald a adjectivului. Un rol important
a iricat aici
genul. ln latinl adjectivul e deosebit de sub-
stintiv ournul prin 1aptul cI are gen variabilr. ln uncle limbi
el a dobindit o tlexiunefdeosebitti. lnb5rirea distincliei fald
de subs[antiv e realirdtn qi prirr gradcle de comparalie,
care devin o categorie specificli adjeelivului rii udvcrbulut'
Prin funcIia lui sinlacticrl ,
ltrtttrtrrtllttl se Ascttttti"tttt't ctt
adjectivul., deoa.e"e qi el exprirrrir o dct,crrrtitrltro tt strbgt,trt-
tiriului,
Ei'".trr-"
o dbterminare ctrrt'it'trl.i r',:i
Plt"
isi',.Jt',
t':'";
Zent nu Se Cunoaqte nici O lirrrbh tlo
ltrr
glolr {'irl'{'|
(:'|
lir' lolrrl
lipsitI de numeialO, Ceea ce csL. ittt st:rttrt itl rr.t,rrsil,iifii
aJostei categorii conceptualo
trr' viit(,it trrrrri rr'ltrtrl,iv. Irr
timp ce deter"minarea cafitativil sc poal,0 oxPI'itttit.tr.vl'trttttt tltrs
tul de indelungitd prin apozi(,iil rrrrrri rrrrttttt, tlol,trt'tltittllt'ttit
numericd trn
p|ate fi exprimatd det'iL
'r'irt
r:trvitttr: avirtd.tr
sens numb.rul] De aceea, poatc, dcsi t.t,t-Ioe pLul dc rrttmlr.csLe
abstract, el iqi afl{_exp-r.imar.ea
ltnp;vtsLtcd' proprle mal rc-
oede declt conceptul caliLdtii.
'
Din punctul de vedere al con{,inutului,
evolulia numeraltl-
Iui a c6nstat ln desprinderea sa de obiectolc 4eterrninate cu
carc inijial era giniit lmpreun[... Acest
[)rtr(lc$
l,nrliuie si^ fi
durat mii de anii. Urrnc aie slhrii ln oaro nunlofirlrrl orir gln-
r
Difcrentelc in flt-:xiune sinf cu tottrl ,Jngl ilul,ilc'
r,,Pcntru'a
numilra estb nevoie nu nurtrai <l,r obilc{,tr cal'o s(j
lr)l
numei'i. fl31
gi tlc c0pc('il,atea de a f at'r' ulrslr:tr'Lio, atuttrri t'ittrl
consideii aceste obicctc, de toal'c celclalt" firsuqiri l)e
.(
urr'. lu :tll
^Ill
afar{ de numSrul lor, iar acqas[h capacitate t'ste rczultatul uller Ill-
128
dit lmprerrnii cu nrrmcle obicctulrri dc[orminat slnt astdzi
fo;rtte pul,irrc.
Dosigrrr, csl,tt I't.rirr'lrr gr'ott rlr slrccil'ir:;rl,
Pc
c1r l,v'1111Jyl,ri n ci-
viliza[,ioi {tl)ltr'o rnrnr(l'irlrrl. Sil,rrrr(,irr rlirr lirrrlrilc l,r'ilrrrlo rrrr
csl,o scltttil'irrrrl,ivli
,
lrrl,r'rr,il,;rici rrr,:rlliirrr lorrr'lc rlr'lrru'l,r,rlo
st,itt'cit
Pl'irrrrrrri,
iirt'l,t'ilrrrlill trriri
lrrr(,irr
lvoltt;rl,r'rrrrl'r,r'ri irr
l'lrrcrr[,it ttrrot' colcr,l,ivil,;r[,i rrrrri rlcz.r,oll,irlr'. Ilrrrr rrr,r'r'r,l,ril,oli
iur ornis
Pii
l'rllcrr cii rrrrrrl.r';rlrrl u;r (rl'r,!rl, i) rlrrl,i rrrr rr;rrrlil,irr
scltitrtlrttlrrirlc lrriir'lrrli rri clr rr lttirl, r) ruur,rllzvoll,lrrrr lrr co.
leotivitir[,ito (]ilr'o rJc ()('ulriur ('u r'r'r,rl,(.r'(,:r vil,r,lorl. l,'iini lt lrr-
cerca paralelisnre sarr r:orrtlil,iorrirli rlrr irrrr'sL 1cl, sc pouIe afir-
ma totusi cI, spre deosclrilc rlrr rrll,c
lrir(,i
dc vorbire, evolu[ia
numeralului a lost irr ccir lrrri nurrc ul;isrrrir determinatd nu
de cauze lingvistice, ci rlc rrrrccsil,;'i (,ilc vic{,ii sociale. Aceastf,
evolu{ie consbil in crcry[,olri1 l,r'cpl,rrlri rr r:lrrr{il,n(,ii de numerale
si, o datI ctt accast,a, rt r'ottsl,il,rrirrir,r r pr,'r'l'lr'('iorriirji sisteme-
Ior de nrunlirii t,oirto.
Sint linrlli itt triu'c l'ot'ttri rllorrllrrl,rr rur nuln{ri
Prirrrolrt
r.ltlttd
ttutncralc, iru' pcrrl,t'u t'csl i'ji' 11
l)unr' ,,ulrrll'".
Arrrr l rril,rrrr[,iir lrt
trnelc l,r'ilrrrri rlr, irrrlilrri rlirr'l';rlrr rlo lor', r'lu(\ rrtrrllri lrrl,r'rrtr
st,trrl irr l''ttt'l,r' ;tt'ltrt i, .
l)irr rrrlrl,rlltrlt'lrr trrlrttrrtl,r'rlc lr'r'r'r'1,:rl.olt lt'tt'lr, r'il tcl ttttti
silrryllrrsisl,t'ttttlcttutnrtrrl.oiu('r'irllir(r'lu,ttl,ttzrtrlot. lttlt'ttrt
itsotncilcit si:ll,crtt lritutl r'\ till;r l()r'nr ill)r'r'utl,'
1',,tt1,1
11 ,,1111t1" tri
,.rlrtitt,
iltt'tlsl,rrl rrtttrt,'tltl,'1,,r',,1,, t',';'rrllr nrr
lrr'r'tl
tttttllt', Htt
I'olrttcttz:i pc lrltzrt lot r\rrl I'r'l irr lttttlr:r :ttrtltrtltrtttrt lrt'l\rtltt I
tt.i,ttlrt,,') lrt'tr,
'i
Itrtrrrrrrrtitttrr,
/r
Itt'rrtttrr!,'r,,. It, lirrrlrilo
l)irl)uirsc
sc rrtttnlit:r itt ;tlt'rrl, rnorl pitlr l;t , ttt, r, lrr rrll.clrr pllrii
i,,
ry,tr,',
iitt'1,cttl,t'tt tt'rtl, r'li'iil)rrtrrr.,rttttll,". lrr l'ol'rtrir lrli
lirrrii,
sisl,cutrrl bitritl sr, irrl,ilrrr'11,r'irr lirrrlri rlirr Arrsl,r'irlia, l)oli-
rrezia qi Atttct'it,rt rlc srrrl.
O datI cu crefLcroir rritttl,il,rr[,ii rlrr tttttrttrlilltt sisLcmul binar
se dovedeEte prea grcoi. 0 rttirlrr t'iispintlilc au avut sistemele
de numiirS.toare create pc b{rza r,lrlctrltrltti cu degetele
-
cel quinar si, mai ales, cei dccirrritl. lrr rnull,c lirnbi numeralul
5 esle denumit cu sllbsban(,ivrrl ,,rnirri",
10 ctt
,,tlotri
mlinitt,
iar 20 sc spune
,,onr"
sau
,,tttiitr
i
;i lrir,iolu'rr".
dclungal,o rlozvoll,ili islrit'ir:r' l):rzrl{r
l)(r
ttxlrrlri.ltl,ir", 1.'. I,l tt g o I sr
ArLt.;- l)iihrin
l:,
crl . 1 1){i(i,
1r.
rr l.
1
\,V. S c lr rrr irl 1,, l)ir' ,\'prurhfturt.ililn untl Spraclutnkreisc der
"lJrde , Ilciclclbcrg, 192(',,
1r.
:|71 .
1.29
I r Progresul in UmbI
lntr-o lirnbir
lrolirrrrzirrrrrr
rlirr Norra Guinee termenii pentru
numeralo irr<.lici l'orrr'l,rr cllrl l'clrrlcum se numdr5.. Aici t:
tarangeza
,,dcgct,rrl
rrcl rrrirr rlc la rnina stingi", 2
: ttale,
hina,d,egeLul urrrril,or"', il .
ttdginleta ldna,,deg,eLul rrrij-
lociutt,
I*:
topcu
,,iIlit,riLor"',
l;: tnand'a
,,degctr-rl
Iniu'{)",
$: gaben,,inCheicIrrra rrriirrii" cLc.1. In ]ilnbilc cscltitttosc
numeralele au o l,imologic olaril. St,uditrl c()rrl)itlrrliv rtl
limbilor esohimose volbibc irr Asia, Alasoir
ryi
(it'outtlitrtrltt
a dovedit cd numeralele s-au oroal, in pclioltrlit trrtt'c
1rt'trltrrltt
dezmembrarea Iimbii colnunc. Nurrtttt'itlclrr 1.
-1) plovirr r.lrr
la nume ale degetelor rniinii sau do lu pozi{irr lot': 1 -.
atasilt,,degetul gros al rniinii sLingi"
1
5
: tul,iuutt -< tulilt.
,,ni-
n5."
;
20
: iughtalt, provcnib din iult,,om" qi ina(lt),,1,o1,",
,,ln-
treg"z. Etimologii asemdndtoare se inttlnesc in rnulte limbi
de pc glob.
Lirnbile sernitice qi indt-r-eru'ol)elrc au, de la cele mai vechi
alestdri, iistem decimal. Irr liuba conrunli indo-europeand
sistemul de numdrS.toare era foaltc dczvoltat,. Nurneralele
2-'10 au fosl,.cuvinte cu serls cottor'oL, carc, lrltcrior, prin ab-
stracl,izarea sensului qi schimbarca lrrno!ici, atr tlevenit nu-
merale. Sensul lor originar ntr poal,c f i rcconsLil,r.rit,, dcoarcoe
func!ionau ca numerale cu rrrtrll, l,irnp irrairrt,oa tlivttt'siliolrii
lirnbii-baz53. Numeralele I-4 crarr ttd.iecl,ivc valiabilc <lupl
gen;i caz. Ele si-au pisbrat accsL oatit0t,trt'si irr Iirrrbilc irrrlo-
europene vechi. Cele de la oinci Ia zcctr sirrl, [,tttrtc trontittlrltl
lipsiie de flexiune qi tle gen. Nuntcraltlc itrLr,r 1t si 111 .t'ittt
imbindri paratacticc dintre r.r niLa[c
1i
tttttttct'alttl
,,zcc,e",
iar zecile sint imbiniri de cuvinl,e de gen Itcttt,t'tt? oillc s-alr
trartsforrnat treptab in cuvirrLe contJ)tlse, niai devrerne in
lirnbile ibalir:e, cellice, gfeaci"r, si rnai lirziu in limbile ger-
milnioc, baltice ,1i slavea. Numeralul
,,suti"
era
;i
cl subslan-
l,iv cornllus neut,ru, declinal, in sanscritii, avest,icd, vechea
r
-r\. l\. l,ctlItl,ittv, o1t.cit.,p. 109.
2 (i.
A. ff tr tt tt
5
t: i li tl v ,
tr'[a ucDt.o])uLt oSputrttrttru:t
'tttr:'r'tt'
,;;:r,,;:j:;;."tiLL./tLoccti\"rL
'nr,u;c,,,llottpool'l
trsr,rI(o3rtilrtttrt", ttt'. rr,
195(i,
' 3
I(. I) r u g III a n n, tlltrtgC de. granurtu.irt: crttttpurle dcs lutrgttr:s
indo-europCert.zes, I)aris, 1905, p. 38,2.
4
V. P. M a j i u I i s, trIn1oeoponericr;asr, ilrtrltt"rLQnbttd{1, cuotteua
quc.q,unne'nur,bta,
,,Jlottpoctr
rrgr,rlto3iIaIIl{JI", nr.
/t,
1956, 1tp. 53-59.
130
slayli, lit,rrani; lrr gr..rr.i
;i
lrrl,irri rlrrvirrrr rlrr l,irrJrr.r'irr i.va-
liabil, irr
.l,iltp
cl srrl,clc isi prrril,r.r'rrz;r l'or,tnrr rlr; irrljr.r.l,ivr..
Nrrrrt.r'ltlrrl |
()O()
r..;lr,r, r'r'i;rlrr, .r,r;r, llr|,1, r';rr.r, ,.,,r,ill,ii ,1i,,
Iot'trtclr,lrri rlr,orrr,lril,'irr,lr\r,r,:rr,lrrrrl,r r.rr rlrrr r,lirrrr,lr,1.j;1 111;11
cfrtt';i itr ttrrr,lr.rlrrr r.lr,(rlr.r'r :;l,r .':rrltrr.stirl//,,I O()()" irr(rt rlr,
.sriltrtlt
,,lor'Irr' ,
irr lrl. Itilrr;,,.rrrrrrrr.r'ori'
,
l,,lr r\ rr',r//:, r, irrr.rr
rlil, r,rr rrrl.jr,r'l ivrrl,,rrr:rlr.' r'1,
).
lJtt.l. lrrrrlri irrrl,r r,rr.r,1rr,r1r. (r'r'll,rr,r', l;rl rrr;r, lrllrlrrt,zrr)
1riur
l,t'crtzri ulnrc irlr. rrrrrrr lllllr.rrr \ rlr('r;rrrr;rl, r.r;,1r,:rl, r.ir rlirl,ot.irr-
dtr-st: ittllttcrr(,r'i lrll,or' lirrrlri (ur, irrl ilrrrl.lr. lrr lrrrsli, Iirrczi,
ose(i).
Evolu(ia nurncraIclor, irr lirrrlrilc irrrlo-cur,o]rcne se carac-
terizeaz[ prrin Lendirrlit corrlirrrr;r rlr.sr,l)illilr,{r ri lor ca o parte
de vorltire densebit,ii,
Plirr
I,r'rrrr;lolrrnrlr,lr lol t,reptafl in cu-
vint,e invariabilc; ace sl,
l)l'{)(
(,s rir, r,r,ir lrz,r'tt,it irr-ril.rnuli di-
Ierit,c itr f irtcarc linrllri. Irr'lirrrlrir lrr;,, r,lr, Iolrrrr.irzri o clasl-r de
cuvinl,c aparLc alrirr in sclolr,lr, \ lll \ l\/. l,)rrrrrrrr,ilrlrlca
nutrtortrlrtlrti trsl,l rrrr lci:rrll.lrl. lrl rrlrllliu l rz;rr.rr lrri ur,rrr;rrrl,icc.
Exis[,onllt lrri cl srrlrsl,rrrl iv rrrrr :rrl.;r.r'l iv rrrr r,,' rlirlor.ir lrrrrr.,
l,itti sirtl s('ttstrltri, r'i l;tlrlrrlrri ,:r rrr,,,,r'r ,l,.r'i\;r n('nri.jlo,,il, rlin
eltt. l)rrsi, t':t r-ri rrrl.i r,r'livrrl, lrlrr'lrorr,;rzrr irr Ir';rz;r lrr rlr.lll
mittitIiv, rl rru cslr,sulrlj rrrllrrr,rrlr,r ir{,()t(lrrlrri. l,lr lrr.lrurlir
ptlirl,rrsri Iir,orrl.r'ilrttil lrr l1r,, r1rrl:r l,l,:l1r, lr lrrr rrr.it*;,l il, rl.
sttlrslirrrl ir'. llrtpor'l ur'rt('
l)irr'
;l r;(, lr\ r,l.riir
;
nlr r,l (.()trrl)li
tt0sl,tl tur nuul')
('r
utr('ot t rrrrrrrr,lr,itl)iu.('t:t o lr;rr.t.rlir.ttt.c lr
rrrrtuclirIulrri.
O rllrl,ri ( tt ruul'r'irlr,ll r,tllrrlrrz:r jr lll;llrrrr,lr,rlc rtrrrrri'il'ii-
l,ttttl'tt, t'lltl isr lirrgr,l;r' lrlrzrr l;t ilrr rrrrtl rlir loltrl,lr'-
Vrllbirrrl rlr,s1,r'r'rurr{'r'irlr,rrr,irrrr lr'lclil rrurrr:ri l:r cirlrlirtalc,
0clo tllui vtrt'lri rlirtllc r'lr'. l'r, llrz;r,lrlrlrrurlr,lol s iru ct'oal, ull,e-
ritlr sis[,rttttc lcgrrlirltr rlrr rrunr'r'irll olrlirlrlrr, rlrst,r.ibut,ive qi
rrrrrlLiuIi.utivr'.
Categoria pronuntolor a
l)r'o\'o(
irl, rrrrrrrct'oirse disculii prin-
tre lingviqt,i, rnai ales irr crco{l
(:{r
ln'ii,rrs{,rr
l'clrrl irr care ele s-au
(llea[,. (la
part,e de volbilrr sptcililri]
l]t'onurrrr'lc
sc corrst,it,uie
itt ttt'trta rrttttrrrlui si rr vrrrlrrrlrri. Irr lr,
lrrivcslr,r'r'orrologiir
r.c-
Iirl,ivrl rr rlivclsclol llrlr,lSrlii 1lc prlorrurrrc, r'rri rrrrri rrrrrl{icrlr'-
lr:l,il,oli sirtl, rlr,
llircll
clr rrrri vrrr,lri sirrl rlr,rrrorrsl,r'rrl,ivrrlc,
itdttrittrllr'tio (ril iu'gunrr'nl irlil lolrrl irrrpor'Lrrrl.
Pc
cirlc llau
rrrla{,iilrr slrtrl,itrlc irr girrrlirr,tr si lirrrlrir
lrolrrrlirl,iilrrr.h'ibule ,
ciL
si rrritlclilrlr'll clirrrologir.r,r':rll irrrlir,;i irlrirr.ilitr rrntrr.
l)roJtumc
131
rt
'bersonale
ditt tIt:trrotrsl,r'trl,ivrr 1i
a posesivelol
{i1
personale'
Foate cd. e urai birr.' si s0 rrlirttt' .ii a existat inifial o catego-
rit a" cuvinl,o, o[)rlso ltttlttrrltti
1i
vcrbului, cu func('ie itt sPtl-
cial deict,i"ir, <liri citr,0 ull,r,r.i0r.,-1rlin opozi!ie., s-ftrr rLrslrIirrs
pronumelc dc trtotrs Lt'it.l, i v tt t, p t t stl tlelor persortalt:'
t
ln legll,ru,ii cu t,r'igirrcir-1,1'orrrrnrelor.s-alr
I'.r'tttttlitl, rl.rrii
uuncLe ie vedc.r: ttrr'i i ,','r'' i'lr'rLori strslirr ll-r
l)l'{)lrrrlrrt'lt'
.:rrl
fost la orgine e uyitiLc deit'Lir.rr (Z.igc.w;r'L.r'), irr ltrrrl,) r'" :rlltl
considerl'cd
ele derivi din ouvirrt,c rlcrrttttt i rr ltl, i vr' ( N c rr rrrviir'
ier).
primul puncl, de vedere * 1.s1, oxl)ts rl. l(. lliilrltrr',
E.'Cutrirar,
iI. Ja,,rrn. AccSl,a dirr rr|rrri itlit'ttt;t rrrt, ittl,t'.tt
perioadir indcpiirlaLlt a iirrrbii' vo''abttl;tt'ttl ll'lt lot ltt;rl :rllt'():t-
iu-"""i"ri" ilin purtieule deicLice, care se oat'act,crizrtrt
Plirr
'*i-bolir,,,
[orrcLiu. IJILerior., cind oamcnii au dcost'bil
.l'r''lc
ot" Ait r,nrr l c i, lc-au expri mal li rrgv ist ic
1lr'irr
rrl ijloac.'.si rrr
lr.lt''
in care de ascmt nea csLe
llerce|l,llltli
nloIlYftrea lolleLlcil
(i"to"u1ir, clurat[ etc.)1.. S'e coriSiderii cri eleme.tele deic-
bice nu avcau cara,,Lerisli,'i rrrurlologicc qi
IuLeau
inrlcplirli
func!ii sirrtacLice diferiLc. I)irrt icrrlclc dcictice s-ar l.l Lrutts-
format in pronurne clupl ce arr dohlndil flcxiune, adesea di-
feritf de cea nolninaliiz.
-
too.iu opus[ tr fost suslirrrrlii. dc A- Sorrtmcrfe-lt'
1i
dc alli
lineviit,i, dare aduc tn sf i'ilirrrtl Lczt'i l-()roxorl)plcrlirr. tl.ivelst'
ii"ini,
""ao
denronsl.ativ,rie
c.r,i1L
'c
baza ttlt,r,,ttvittl,' ttrt-
ii;;*i.-t;sens
local. E probabiI c$ ave'r a Jacc ctt trlr'.i
ilf"ait". C"i care srrs1i,,
",'i
1,,'n,r,,t,rtrlc
s* llirg rlirt ,'ttt'ittl.r' Ito-
tionale se rcfcri la o pclirtutIll I't'lul iv Lilzit" rlorltrla.('ltlllr]-
i"-1, .f"rL u-f.o,run.'"ior Lle it('cst fcl
li
s,'ttsrrl l.r's'r','i;rlizrrl,
in"limn ce cei lalLi t'ercetlLori
uu itt vt'rlr'l'r' litza ct'ir' lrritl \'('('lI('
u
".allii
pronrrrnclur'. EsL. rl.
'rcstt'rts
.i.'l'ut'ttttttele llu s-q
crcab cl inLr-oduL,r, e i irrcIo.'i tlifr:l'ilr',
Ircr-rtzitldu-st
scttsul;t
consl,il,uirtdu-si
sisteme de forlne'
"-
fVi"i mult,i'tlercel,itori
atr crrtis ipol'cza cI elcnentele
,f"i,,ii,,,, i,,if i,,t,, rrl,.irtrirrrr
','r,rrr'lri
t.tt i,'ttsttt'i
(,lrlrsIr., tlirr. r'ure
*1,t,,',1,,*l,r.ilrs
rrll.,.r'i,,r' rl,rllr,,trslt'ulit,'l'., Plt'sottitlclrr
si ird-
I
II- .l o tr s {,1t, l)itt llntrvit:liltutg dts sltru.r'lrLir'ltttt lrr:;,lrrtllis.l.iir
Raurttvt:rlttil.tr'trssrr itt ,'rri,r'i'tlJtt
j'r'"r"itil (irttrgt'ir:; ittl'trrltltl'ioltltl rlr:s litt-
guistes i la llttYtr", 1928.
'
'Cf.
K. l')." Ml'rit'iltskaia,
/i ttlrttltt'r:t'rtctt'ttLtttt -tttt'tttt)Lt'
Uentr,,tX C,ltui U Jl,JtnhUt:
l,UJtIbIfr
CItClltt-v..,li('lllrtrr'l'l
Jl:tl'll(r':tll;tlllllt"'
nr. {, 1966,
P'.
15.
732
verbolc rlc loc: rt,ccsla, cu,, ai,ci,, in,coace.
f
acela, cI, acolo, tnlr-
ttcol,ot. lnl,r'-lrrlcviir', lrr rrrai rrrrrll,c lirrrlri
lrtrrrrrrrrrrilc
<lo
l)()r'soiulir
I c lcgrrl, rlc irlcr,lr. rlc,,rr1rroir1rr:", irrr.cclcllrll,c
l)rrs(xur()
rlc irlrrc;t tlrr
,,rltr1rtu
l,c". Si lr'f ii l,rrr':r rtrlvr,r'lrr,lor rlr, lor: r'rr rlcn;orr-
sLt'itl,ivttl c vizilrilrr irr rrrrrll,r' lrrrrlrr.
I )cspt'irrz,irrrltt sr, I lr';,1,;rl, rlirr
;rrrr'l,rrrrlr,lr,
rlrrir'l,icl r.rr o r.lrrrrri
lllritt'1,t, rlt'tttotltl,t'ltl,t\'{ll{, l,l r lrrt ltr.ll, irt,1lr,11! { 1 lrilt 1tttll,6
l,r'o1rl,r, lrr lulrr'[,tr,rllrrrtl,rrlruil)clilr{]iu'rlor rlr rlr,
l)r'('(.rzrrlir
(ll,r
l,irrr(,ci. Asl,lcl irr lirrrlrrlr. rrrurrrllr (rrrrrlrrl llrrrrrrlrr.yr,r lr lrol.rlrrl
lrrdiei),
ltt'tttttttttrllt:
itl'tt I'tlt l,t'rr;tl,lrlrrlpi rlisl,rrrr[,lr,si l'1t'rrrg slrg-
ciale pri n oaro so irrrlicii rl;rr';i olrilcl,rrl ocrrpii, lrr raporI cu
subiectul, o
I'ozjtio
fronLirl,ti s:rrr lrrl,cralii, daci e vorba de o
fiintd sau un obiecL, dc rrrr lrrcnr vrrzrrl,sau nu. In alte limbi
se spe0ificii dao[ obiectulc
lrrczcrrl,
srru irllscnt, cunoscut, sau
necunosclrt. Mai importarrl,c sirrl. r;prrcil'ir:iirile distan{,ei,
intrucib ele
Iin
de trabrrra rlcrrrorrsI,r';rLrvllor'.
,[rorrnc rrurncloaso ilrr tlcrrrorrsl,r'll,ivr'lr lrr lirrrlrilc alcute
rsi
esohirlloso. Ast,l'ol itt trsclrirn,rsrr rlirr i\rri;r r;r'irrl,ilrrcgr: fortne
ca:. unl.,)il(roSLit) irli"rl,rrli rlrr r',rr'lrilor"'; i.,;ll
,,;rlcrrl,rr rrl'l:rl, lrr o
oarocitro rf isLarrfi r.lrl vol'lri,.rn'";tn(ttt(t,,ir('i'ril,r irllirl, lrr llrrlr'cj rr-
rirttit'; tt,gtt,tt,
,,;trtll
(rilr'{,
sr irrrlr'p:rr'l,r,irzrr rlr, r,ollril,or"; Irttt,rt
l,iltr1rl;1 .jos,
lirrglr lrlr:i";
7rr/r
//i/
,,ir(
r'lit irr Not'rl"
;
ttlttttt
,,ttrrcltt
oilr() s(| rtlrt'olrir.rlrr vor'lrilrtr"; ikrtrt.,,ir{'(,lir rlr,prrrl,c riri', ttrtg-
/erl
,,iltrtrlit
itr iltl,r'r'ior', rlrrIrttlc rll
t,lrrrtt"; l)tlrnn.tt. ,,itr:rrltt
llt
stfs"; /(r/lll/rt
,,;tcr'lrt
crur()ji(:ul, rllrr' ( irr'r, nu rr) vcrll"
;
ittttLtt
,rilttttIi[
(]ilr'(: Irtt srt vltlt', rlr'Pltt l,r', nt't trttttst ttl,(' 111,1r.:1. I lrrcl(t
l)r()tltlttl{l
tltltttottsl,tltl,ivrl:ttt r'l,irrrollf i1,r'lrr1ri. l'llrr
1r19r'irr
rlirr
crrvittl,o cll s{'ns lor':rl (lorrrl rlr,.j o:r, locrrl rlr lrrli ll,r.)slru clriirr
rlitt 0uvirrl,rr crr srns ruri , on, r','1, (rrrurrl.rr,
(:ill.rlr,
tttill'o ol,o.).
Iixis[ir tlrlci litttlri ctt sirrl,r'rrr'' rlli, l,ilr rrrrrll,ip[c; tlar ma-
jorit,al,ea s-arr IixuL lir sisl,r,rrrr lrirrirrr,srrrr l,r:r'rurrr). Adesea ele
au ramilica!ii. Ast,fcl irr lirrrlrrr longrr rlirr l'arrrilia bantu existd
un sisbern ternar', itt carc rrrr;r rlirr l,r'rr1rl,r: se subimparte in
trci:
A. tihontu lcll
,,itceryt,i
Lroi rlc rriri" (
'
urrrlc'sini crr)
R. tihomw lel.o,,l.c,r;sl,i lroi rlr::lcolr) " ( rrrrrlo cryti [u)
r(:f.
IL .l crrsr)r, ()/). r'rl.,
l).'17:1,
l,). llcrt vorr is l,r:, /,o
n.o.lu,rr: dcs pronortts,in vol. ,,1,'or liorrrittt ,lirkobsott", llirgir, 11)5(i, p. ii6,
2 (i.
. .l\{ r tt o
;i
r; i li, o v, Y t'rlttt.rtrr:tt,r,ttL,r,t: Jttrcctnou,^t,(nur, o
acnu,l4,occh:o"rI .,r,rr,lri;c,
,,[]otrl)o(
r,r ,riJr,ll(o3rrurr.ul",.1, 1955,
1ll).
2B'-29.
133
C.r' tihomu lctitla
',iIrrr:11,i
lroi :r"ttIo deparle"
C.i tihomw.leli4ft' ,,irrx',sl
i lroi lt'rolo foarte departe"
C.i tihomu lctitlu ,,ir'',:1f
i 1111i ;lrrolo la orizonl"
ln multe lirnbi tli. I'*r^ilia bantu treapl. <lis{,irrr(,rri rr
sugdratd prin modificiiri l0rrot,i0c (lungirea vtloltloi, ilt:trttttl,,
indl!ime).
I,,limLa
indonezia'ti bisaya, vorbit,ir irr lf iIilrirrtr, tltrttttttt-
straiivele sint organizate inbr-un sisl,cttt Iittitt','i tt tritt'rt litttritt'tr
qlembru al opozi!ici are Lt'ei brepte
l) aproape de vorbiLor 1') deparlc de volbiLor
Zi u'oto"ir" de ascult{tor 2') deparbe de ascull'5'lor
5j uitoui,u rle arnindoi 3') departe de amindoi
Analiza sistemelor pronrrmelor demonstrative in multe
tamitii de limbi l-a dus-pe I-I. Frei la coDcluzia c[ se poate
,o"ri"t* o legdturd intre^st.rctnra sistemului deictic
$\Sra-
a"l-a. civilizalie al vorbitorilor r.r.ci limbi in sensul c5.,
ln tinii mari, cu cit o limbd serveqte o sooietate mai evo-
il"t5" cu atit sistemul ei deicbic are o sLruoLur5 mai simpld
if i"".af . si. dimpobrivS, cu elt vollritolii rrrrci Iimbi se
('alac-
i;;i;;Ji'o;inftlo
civilizalie
rnai i.itpoial.ir sittt d.c tip..ar-
ir;i;,;"tit sistemul lor deicLi,, cstc tniti lomplical,(let'-
nar sau complcx)1. Aul"orul consLalil rrri rtta.lot'rt"l:"
l]t"Lil:.i
indo-europene
moderne au un sisteln clctoLtc bIlraI" t'rpur
ternar si huaLcrnar
glsindrr-sc in itl iornuri ir[lale irr irrii lu-
;;;;1" s'u,"Jirof uf,". li tirnba bazl irrdr-r-crr.o'eanii
-
limLri. u
unei. societd!i tribale
--.a
cxisLal utt stsLt'rtt lurnar carc. I l-
oirrJ *."-a
'de
multitudinea
de teme, parc sI provi'd
.di.ttr-,..t
sistem mai cornplex, ctl dcbcrmintit'r concrete'
Sistemulternar
a persisbat in vechea slav[, in lttsa veche'
armeand si celLic,r
'si
a fost rcl'rrt'rtl, ittccr|indu-se axarca
f"i^""-r"f; f.er pc.sdare, in labi.5. si
14rcar:X.
Ist,o.ia limbilor
iii"lo*r,."c ui:oLir lorrriinla conLi rirrI a rtltlttrrot'i i sis['.trtclor
ternarc.
'"'IrJi"rt
u rrgro-l'irrir,ir
r,oruuttlr au c-tislut- oPt lrrrtltr rlt'. tl{, tttUlr-
ut;ai;;
t,r,,,ii,s,rl is['riei are loc si *i.i , si.nr'Iil'i,irt''..
()
;i;;;iiJ aostut tlc olarri se intilneqte pe t.riLt.rritrl A[r'i,ii. l,irrr-
fii. ii" nord apar!i'ind familiei semil'-ltantitice
-
rrt{Ijo-
I
ll. F r a \, Systimes de c)eictiques, ,,Acl't
liirgrrisl'ica"' vol' lV'
fasc. 3, 1944, P'
LL9,
P.
725'
134
ri.batea limbi literare
*
nu sisl,()rrr() rlcict,irro Jrinllru (tu1r\ dc
vecfucaegiptolrrrri
(rllt,o irvtil rrrr sisl,crrt rlcirrl,ic tlttttl,ct'lrttt', t'lt1t[,tt
ige sisl,cirr' lrirutr,)
;
irr conl,r'u, lrr lirrrlrilc srrrlrrrrrzrr
ryi
lrrrrtl,rt Htt
l1l,llnrlryl,c rlr llrrrrrsl,rrr: rlc S'islorrrc lrirrru'r, ni l,rl'nltr'r', ltr t,ttlr;r
r,g lrr srr,l, ilt lirrtlrilc llol,crll,ol,r'si ltotlilttttttrr,
lrrrrrloltritrti
risl,trltto
lonrrrlcxc. lrr Agirr,sirilr,rrr lrirrirlttt'r, r'lrittr,ztt, itrt'ttt
()(:lllllllll
lirrrlirr irrrlorrr,zirtrri. Sirrl,r'ttrr'lrr trttlt'lltlti r,otttPlirrrrll nl lrrl'll
rtcsc itt lirrrlriltr tttttct'itttlilrrc si pitlt'o ttttittl'tct'.
l{.lilci it t't'ltritl' oxplir,il,irrtl o irlr'r' rr lrli W' Wrrttrll'r
care, stabili'rl o
Jrlrr,rrlr:lli
irrl,r'rr cirl,cgori'
_rrrrrrriirului
ti
9.cq
a
deiciicelor,'srrsPiirt'u
t'ir ttttllLi'li,'il;rl.rr rlcscmnlrii spa!iale,
ca qi existerr!,a formclot' ittl,cl'trrctliitre
-intre
singular- qt
nlural . Lrddeazl o girrtl irr' t'ttttIt't'l ;i, r'voltt( ia sprc sisteme bi-
irare Iiind un indi,'irr al absLrirrrl izilii ci. l)rrpii H' Frei, para-
leliSmul s-ar cxplica pr.irr A(,c{:il
(.i lrr rrrrrlrr,l,,,'rlzrrri,existen!a
opoziLiilor mrrliiJrlc st' dal.orr'slr, rrr'lrrrlirr(rri glrrrlirii
.de
a
;i;;nL la r,unccliLrrl rl* s1,irIi,, *,,', ,'i, rrrjrt' irr rrl'trt'it orici"trei
dtLei'min,it'i ,',rtt,ircl.c. lil lrrlrr,','t'rt'tttpl., itrl..t'r'Htrtt'l(!
('ilt'c:ll'iI1'U
'C5,
adeSea, lirnltilc cill,o illl $isl,trtrrc rlcir,l'ir,rr. <r.tttttpltrx{}
(lll-
nosc si calcgol'ii rrlr tlrrlrltll, l,r'ilrlttl rtrrl rlrrrrll'irrltrll'
Trebui0 ariit,rrl ci rrrr l,oIi rrr,r'r'rrl,irl,oIii Hirr l, tltr tl('ot'tl
(]ll
COncluzii'lc lrri l,'r,rri
lrr.iVil{}i'r',,
lrr t'1rliil:l('t'lll ttl'lttri,r ttl sin'
temelor tltritrl,irrrr
('ll ltrrri tttttll rlc rloi tttt'tttlrt'i' Ast'l'cl
E. l)r.trnltrurttt rrottsirlct'i rrlj irl lirrrlrilrr lritttl,tl sisl'trttlttlItrt'ttltt'l'tt-
Oa"riut,ir
O I'aZrj rrilri rrorrii
r
|ilr'(l tlt','ttt'gr, rlirr sislt'lttttllrittttl'll.
LrO,,,rrtt s-it trlii(,itl,a, ili.{{rntoltcit
('itzut'l lllt
(:ottl,t'rtzirl I't'zrt l'tttlrltt-
mbntalir ir lrri li|0i. sirrl lirrrlri Irr|r,, irr |]rrt'sul rrv1rl1l1irri lot"
pL1
",i
ui
t'otttlrlr'1.2. sislt'tttt'1" r'xisl.trl. r'tt..It'r'Pltr ttoi'
Lceastu'sc iltLirilPltr rrr;ri :rl,,s irr sor,ir'lri[.ilc tl'iltrrlr'('ill'() Sc
ocuDd cu vinaLrri' l)t's(:llitlll
s:lll t'l't'sltrl'ttil viltrl,t". unde
""ii'p"t'i"
insii
Ei
impurre lilrrbii('l'('lrt'c{l ttltt'r l'ot'Ille mai deta-
ii"d ,i. speciiicare. Diferenta l'irfii rl. sisLernele complexe
de f ip arhaic
(,onstii iil cal,ucLet'rr I sisl.enlal ic al nollor Ior-
r"-iii in sens,tl lor local; excrtrPlclrr ittlrtse din limbile- baq-
i" iirte c5 rrrccizS.rilc
sirit, t,ot, iir sl'rr.rr rlisl,l'(ei, spre deose-
|
l)ie ,sprathe, vol. II,1r. {r,5.
2.1lrt. (ir.,
1t1t.
122 1211 .
3
IJ. I) tl In lll iI tt lt, .l)a.s I)t:ttr'ttttslrrtti'vin lJunruSprucht:n,ZDMG'
nr. 100, f asc. 2, { 951, irr tri.rd trtsli
'irr
-
vol
' ,,Atl
ptlttatrcttoo tlsHxo-
0EaHr{e". Moscova, 1963, pp. 31l1- 31/r'
4
K. Il. Maitirrsliaia,
art.cit.,pp'24-25'
135
bire de del,crrrrirrirrilc l,iprrlil,,r' itllrrricc de deictice, itt carc
se au in rrcdot'c ilspccl,c plivirrrl olricr.rl,cle qi nu spa!,iul tlirt-
tre cle.
.
Cu toateforrnclclor: su;rlrrl,ivo,
l)t'otttllll0lo
porsorralo sirtl, trtitt
'nbi
decib dernonsh'aLivclc; rtctrtsl,ir o valabil ccl pu[,itt pcttl'l'tr
persoana a III-a care, itt rtrttIl,tt lirlrlti, a luat ltilst,tlt'tr
ltrr
ltltzrt
unui demonstral,iv.
Originea pl'onumelor personale tttt csLtl itrci sttlir,icrrl clrrli
ficatS. Ele nu alcdtuiesc rtn sisLetu LcLttl.tt', tri I'rtt'tttrrrtzii o oltrt
zi!ie binar5., explical,I dc corr'lcttil,oli irr rrrotl rlil'rrlil,. Asl'lcl
unii inleleg cd exist,ti aioi oliozil,ia eu
-
notl eu, da itcclaqi
'tip
cu opozi[,ia aceslu
-
acela, aici
-
acolo; intr-o aslfcl drr
interpreiarc prorlurnele personale sint inlelese ca delivind
nu din dernonsbrative, ci din particulele deictice din care
s-au creal, qi deinonstrativul si arivc'rbele dc loc;1
Mai numeroqi sint ccrcctiitorii oarc oplrn
l)ersoana
a III-a
primelor doud: persoane. Ea parc sii se fi creat mai [irziu,
are ebimologie rnai clard, putirrd f i ugor dedr-rsI dilt demonsl,ra-
tive (ca in limbile indo-europerrc) satt tlirr substarrtive (in
indonezian[, tibetand, samoedii etc.). E. Benveniste2 a
adus in discu!,ie elernente func{,iorralc: protrttntcle de persoana
a III-a are caracter,obiectiv, el frrnctiorrcazii ca rnijloo de
inlocuire a unui.nume sau de referirc [a un elemeiil al flazci.
Aga s-ar exp_lica
Ei
or'iginea sa din dcrttonsbrat,ive sau din srrb-
stlntive. Spre deosebire de el, prorrurncle rlc persoana L;i,
intr-o oarecare m5.sur5. qi cel de pcrsoall{r a lI-a, reprezinbii urt
complex de semne,,p1oale", cal'e nu se relelti la o rea'litate
anumit[ qi care capdt[ conlinul, rtumai irt vorJrire. servind
astfel tocmai ca mijloc de trecere a lirnbii in vorbire' Prin
lnsuqi conlinutul lor', ele par a fi rezultatul unei indelutr'
saLe munci de abstractizare a qindirii.
*
ln indo-euro1-reanJ, pronumele persorral era invariabil
(a rJrnrrs irsLfcl'irr lrilili), f lcxirrrri'a ltri s-a r,ortsl iLrrib Lir-
Z1r, cCca c(r {r.Yl)lirrri rlivcrl{{ltl(.rrlt'dirrl,rc lirrrlrilc itttltt tttt'r,-
p8nt,.
(
)p,rzil,ia
irrirrrrtrrr
rl. rrazttri a fosL ar:r'r:it rlillIl'c ttotrlittit-
tiv qi aiuzaLiv, ttxlrlioabilii prirr neccsit,itt,{)iI sirtLitol,irrii rlc rt
distingc prorttttttttlo strbicct de prorrurnclc ol.ritlrl[
;
ptlrt l,t'tl
aceasl,a s-a reours la ternc diferite: laL. egtt
f
rtt,e, slu'. uluhtr.f
1Cf.
IL Jonscrr, op.cit.,P.179.
2
Art cit., p. il6.
136
md, goL. ik
I
milt, v. sl. rtrt t,
/,*^'.
l lll,rrriol sc ct'ctt{tzii
ryi
trolrr-
lal l,c caz tr r i .
Tlr rrvoltt[,irr
lrlonttrrrrlot' l)cr']i()n'rl,'
sr'
t,,',,,,rrc ;ru(,ittt,
grrlrittt-
lriili, clc isi trrr,trl,irr llrr ittrrr,rr r(lr'rlllultrl,;r rlirl,oril,rl trrttrri lot'
l't'crl'ctt(,c irr vor'lrilc- St'1tortl,t't'tttttttt'r:;t lrrlrl,rrl r:;r tttttll,o ltrtrlrt
rlirr Asirr,
()ct':tttirr
lri Atttlt'ilir ctltroltc llt pt'otttttttrtltt
lrlt'tirttt:tlc
tltt
ltclsorrrrit
I rlorr;r Ioltttr': rtttlr rll ttrr,ltltrr'(irr lttlrr
ltln
ttttt
so ittfclcg rrrr nunriu ( r'r {'ur'(' vot'ltt'rir', tltrt' rlt rrrl,cr'lortttl,ol'rtl
ryi
al!ii) si rrll,ir rlrr r'.r','/rr,srr'(irr r:ttlrr rlrri irrsr';\tttttir ltrtttlti
,,noi
care vorl-rirn"). l,'ot'trtclr: rlc irrcltrsiv, irt oare se reuncllc
persoana I gi alte pelsotln(), sirrl,, rlrrlrii terrnirtologia Iui Brtin-
dal, forrne complexc. [,iurbikr irrrlo-ortrol)ene, semito-han]i-
tice qi ugro-firrice nll cunos(1 oJrozi{,irr rlirrl,rc inclusiv qi ex-
clusiv.
Pronumolo pososivo al)tlr tturi l,ilzirr rlcr'ltl
l,rorrurncle
per$onalc (au, in gcner{l? ltlrrttc ttliti t'r'11rrlrrl,r:)
1i,
plollrrbil,
pe baza lor. lrr multe linrbi
1rt'otttttttt'lr, 1t,'t'srtttilltr ryi
Cele poscsive au o forrnii tt tt itrri, itrr rlilr:r'rrrrlir rlrr
sens reiese din context; alll,rrri
tlc vct'lr Ittttrrliorrltrzr,i r:;t
pronume personal, iar alii.furi
(lc tltt tlttttt,' { ir pt':;t'rilr''
Astfel in limba amerilrdianL lrrlri
f{rrilt'irtri
tsr:
,,r'tt"
rtl l,tr\ttr;'
formii in posesiv ln sirrtagma se trtl.rt,,tritsit tttt':1"; itr.rtrrlottt'
ziartra vitinl ,,e1
berrnin[", iar ir,i t,ra.it.tttti .,r':trrrr
lrrr",
'[rr
,'t1i1t
teana veche meh-k:
,,tu
sittt(,i", ilr
lttr
/,
,,t:trilt
l,;r",
coincidenla existI la toal,c
lrtlt'soltrtclt'.
lrlrrrrl,il';rl,rrir rlr:
forme se lntilnesle qi iu lirnbilrl rrgro Iitrit,r'. Asl,lr'l irr li-
nez5. glsim:
kriteni
,,tniua
Inea"
kritesi
,,mina
La"
ln nraglriarri:
kalapom
,,p.{ldria
rnea'i
ryi
kalapja
,,pll[ria
lui"
irtl s(r.n.on.
,,trtt
vtlt'l)t)str
,ert71o.st.,,Lu vOrbosbit(
tr(lunt
,)eu
(il
,
o) dau"
utlja
,,el
(il, o) d5."
Ascttrirtat'cit lorrttitlri tlirrl,r'rr crrlc rlorr;i l,iprrri tlc plottume
1 l'osl, irrl,cl'plcl;itl,i tlrr ttttii rrrrl'r,tll,il,ot'i rrlt rrrr irrrlirlirr itl l'lrpbtr-
Itri t;ii, lrr irrigittc) tttt ;t rrxisl,irl, rlil'ct'rrtt[,]'i irrl,r'rr rrottsl,t'tltll,ill
rtrltttitrirlli si,rcir vrrllr;tllr sittt ittl't'rr t'ltpot'l'tll lrl,rilrrrl,iv si_ rrtll
1
A. N'l tr i I I rr l, It
ltrrtrt,trtt 1tr'rst,ttrtr'!
tl lts drtttLrt:tstrutifs, ,,M6-
rrroircs rlc lrt Socil:lri rlrr l,itrgttislirlttr: rlc I'itt'is", vol. XXIll,fasc.2,
1r1r.
l4l ltti.
137
prodicativr. l)oLrivil, ttcr'rtl,rri
Putrr:1,
tlc vedere, perioadci'lrr
care opozi!itr rttttttrt.vr'r'lr ttrr cltr clar tnalcatrl li corespt-rrrtlc
qi starea dc ncrlisl,irrclirr rlirrl,r'rr
lrrrst)nal
si posesiv.
Din pronurnolc rlcrrrrrrn;lr';rl,iv s ir (ircaL,
diu neocsil,li(,i sirr
tactice, proqunrolo rolir,l,iv. l)rrPl'i pirrerea lui M. lilrirrl rclir
tivul a luat naqbet'o dcsl,rrl rlc {,irziu, deoarcco rrprrlil,irr lrri
presupune o sinbaxi evoluitl,i. Al.a se cxplirtii rlo cr 1l trrl,ll
nim numai ln limbi dezvoll,al,c. Irr lirnbir grcrrcri rlirr prrli
oada homericd qi chiar rrrlri Lilzirt itxri ttrr cst,c
;r'ccizrrl,r'i irlc
gerea pi specializaroo rtttrri
l)roIIttIIt{)
rlcttr,rnsl,r'li,iv irr lrrrlrli;r
de relativ, desi idoct rlc rela.t,iv esL{i rrrai vcclro
ryi
prrlc sil Ii
existat inoi lrr pclioada cornuniLirLii indo-euloporr(:2.
O dezvcrlLar'o rnafo iarr in cursul
jstoriei
Iimbii pronum0lO
nohottrrite, care conLinuii si"r sc cr'cczc qi ln limbile rnoderne,
mai ales pe baza numelor (b. on,, gorm. m&n) olL\nd,. rneil
ongl. nobodA, everybody, rus5. tr,ru6ot1, 7pyeofr. etc.).
In evolulia pronumelor so oJlserlvr-r Lreptata lor speciali-
zare dup5.
'funcgii,
delimitar,';r lorr{,iriulului scmantic al
fiecdrei categorii qi orgauizarca lol irr sis[eme.
Din pronume ia naq[ere si articolul, oarc csl,e una dirr cel(i
mai recenbe phr,Li dc vorbire; 0r0at, ptl baza unei oategorii cu
conlinut abstract, articolul aro scns glirmatical qi funcbioneazd
ca un morfem cramatical. Lirnba iritlo-curopcanS. comunl uu
avea articol, efs-a creab in mod irrdcpcrrderri irr ficcare lirnbii,
la date diferite, dar pe baze sirnilulc: ar[ico]ul hotlrit din-
tr-un demonstrativ, iar nehol,f iL rlirr rtttrtrcralul untt. (-a).
Categoria articolului apare tlc Lirrrpuriu in greaca veche:
ln poemele homerice 6,&,r1t isi rlrai pIs{,r'cazii valoarea de
demonstrativ anaforic, dar in tc-xLcle Iil,erare ulterioare qi lrr
inscriplii el e folosil, ca art,iool. Sprc deosebire de greac{,
latina nu qi-a fdurit arl,icol, clersi inoii din perioada arhaice
u.rlu.s, -a are in unele texbc
yaloaroa
ncdcfinitri alui qu[d,am,
iar ille
,
ipse tqi piertl sensrrl crnfrttir,r si sc loloscsc
lrcntru
in-
dicarea gra,lui,,i rlc rlrrl,crttrirta.c. lri Lex[,cLr rlc tir sl'irryitrrl
impcriului nrrnlrrr vlrloarr.a lol dernorrst,r'iLt,ivii e rrrrrll, slii-
bitI qi in rrrrolc sit,rrir{,iiajung eohivalcnl,c or] arli0olrrllrol,ri-
1(lf.
It. S w o c 1,, 'l'h,e Ilistor'g of Lottgu,agc,l,ottclra, 19:10, p. 50
ryi
A. S a u v a g c o l, Synt.u.zc etm,orphologi.dons lcs lortgurrs
fi.nno-
ougricnncs,
,,Rovrro tlos Ct,udes indo-curoprlrlrrrtes", vol. I, 1938,
pp. 281)- 29/r.
2
l\'l . l] r 0l l, Essai de sdmantiquc, ed. Vl, I)rtris, 1924, p. 211.
138
rit. Tlarrsformarca lor l' arl,irr.l sr: r'calizeaz;i ln nerioada de
lormare a lirnbilol rornanicc. lrr :rll,c 1ir1r1ri,,.,,,,,,,r,1,, rlrl rrxcrn-
plrr ttrtglczlr, rlt)rrrolrsl,r'lrl,ivrrl srr l,fiq11;i[1,1.rr1'i ilr rrrl,irrol rrlrin
la irr..P11f1;l
lr.r.irtrrl*i
rrrr:rlir. Irr rl'ir.lil, s. sl,i. r:ir'lrrl, lirrrlri
irtrl0-attt',Pcn. nr,rl.r'rr.. (rlr: r,r. r'rrsir) rrrr.r, r',rrl,irrrrir rrii l',1,
scltltr:ti rlcntolril,r'lrl,ivrrl
lrrnl,r'rr
;r rrxlrlirrrir rlcl,1,1,11,irrrrlor1.
'[rr
,rr,l,r rrr;ri vc,,lri.lorrrrc lrlr, lor', rt,r[v0r.rxrlrr rrPrrr.rro r,lnl)ur.ru
silll lirrrttrr
lr:tll,i,,rrlr,l,r',
rrrri lrllri crr l,,rlr 1or.iri, ,,,,,.,,,
1,,,,,,,ir,,,,
itlttrtit vrrt'ltitlii. I)irr'l,ir,rrlrlt rlc rrlerl, lll ,,,, ,l,il, ,,,,y1,,,,.,,, lrr
rnrrllo lirrrlli, itrlvrr'lrr'lor.1,r'irrrlrr',,. lJll,rrriol sc l,r,irrrsi'Orinl ln
adverbc divers.l. r:,rrPliiri.i .ir','rrrrrsr,.rr(,iale
ale verburui.
Ele indici, prin sLruol,trlir lor., {)l)ooa lrr care s-au creat.
Evolu!ia mijloacelor do I'orrrr;rr.c :r irrlvcrbclor poate fi
urmdriti in istoria Iirnlrilol irrrlo rrrrr.opcrrc.
Clte.ia limbi
situate in arii lateralc (irrrlo ir.;rrriirrrrr, lr'i l,il,rr qi greaca) au
p[stra.t adverbc de loc si rlc l,irrrp r];u.r! r'r:pr.czi,it,,i'i,crna purd
a unui substanl,iv ncrrl,r'rr. l,) lr. rr1r;rr.(irr
IrJ'irrrrl.i
lrr .rrrd fle-
xiunea nolni nalri irrcij rr rr,,r,,,,,,,,,rl,, l rir l,r. Asr,rncrrcrr Lcrrrc frrnc-
fionar,r
in frazii trrr tlilcrit,c lolrrli rrrrrllrr:1,ir.r,,. (l;rsilrr
rrsl,l'gl lp
v, in.d. {-,ao-ol'_,,pritrriivrrr':r"
1
t,(tnttr
,,irr p;rrlrrr.r,"
,
ttltttl,
,,z,irrr,.,
,,,in_timlttrl zi.loi", ,si'al'
,,riorlc" r;i ,, lrr riixrrc"
;
lu'tttritt,,,i.rrr'rrrr",
Lt,d,dn
,,ln_il1l'i";
irr lril,il;i lrtttrrtrtrr.
))lnorn{}rrl," 1i ,,irrrr:rli;r1,..,
in,,ga..,
trp"p ,,2i" 1i ,,in
I,irrrprrl zilci", v,'rxrr,rp
,,,,,,,,1,-
tea",
_ijvap
,,irr
vis"
;
lil,. tltr.ltrtr
,,ltclltn"
rrl,r," llllljllf itrrt,irrr rtil-
verbelor rnoqt,urr iLrr rl irr l irrr lr;r .r).r u n ii r.t1rr,z iir l,)i , forrnii
caztralii a rrurrrclrri
ryi
aplrr.(,irr rrnri r'1,oci rrrrr'i l,lrzii.
(
lclrr rrrrri
multe sirrL I'osl,c Iocrrl,ivc: skr,- rillr, gr.. ri.vrl, li l,. ttrt.te, lrrl:,.
hunt[;.lat_. ltcri, gt..
Xi).3q,
ir.l ., itt, rllu:, skr. lt.tltilL, itv. zlJo.
Procedeul accsl,a ir fosl, l', l,sil, yi rlrrlrii sriP;rr.rrr.lr iirirbilor inio-
europene. Astlel la{,ina 11 l,r.irrrulorlrrrrl, lrr irtlvcrbc forme de
insbrumental (planc, tr,alclc, cr:rte), <lc lrblal,iv (postremo,
perpetuo, paulo), de acuzaLiv (u:tcrt.r.trt, paulum,
facile),
de nominativ (aduersusl prorsusl protirtu.s) c|c.
Grupindu-sc int,r-o olasij uJ)trrl,c, rrrlvcr.lrr,lrr lDi creeazd ul-
l,crirtl ttn sist,errr
llroplirr
rlrl rlcliviu,o (rrr srr f ixc spociali-
zrrt,rr, clrrrr grisirrr in lrrl,irri pr - (i)ter (turpilrr, ktrti,ter, graui,
ltr),sr, irr
lr,'r,i,,:rrlrr
rl.zrrrr,rrrlr.r'i r,ii lirn[rii llrt,irrr,., ttt.
-trtt:rll,e,
t
l,l. Ii r, n v r, rr i s I r, (
)t itittr::; tlr, ltt
f\trtnrrtion
d,cs nonts cn indo-
ar[,'\)lttit,n, ['lrlts, I l.lil5, vo l. |
,
p. 1)5.
139
O evolu(,io nscrrriirrii l,o:u'rr lrr l'olrrrarca adverbelor a fost
observatl gi ln lirrrbilc rrgt'o.f irricc.
$i
aici adverbele prirnare,
formate din l,crrr(r rrorrrirurlc rrrr tlcsirtenfa zero, provin rl in
perioada prcflexiorrlrlii, irrr rrrlvcr'bclc creaLe ln cllotrlr is-
torici sinb forrne oazrrirlc irlc srrlrsl,rrrrLivelor sau ale rnorlrn ilor
verbale nepersonalcl. Asl,lcl lrr cstonianX tcin,o,,irsl,rzi"
e un veclli locativ, ItaugcLt,,rlu rlcpirr'[,e" p ablal,iv, riii:tr.
,,1'tttr-
te",
,,mult"
e rrn fost ct-rrniLal,iv, iitr in f inczii t,rrttrolt'llttr
,,r'1.
ternativ" con,tine sufixul gcrtrnzial -l.k:k:. In Iirnlrill rr11r'o-
finice sufixul de ablat,iv -tu s-t\ Llanslot'trtitl, ln srr l'ix rlrr rlcri-
Yare adYerbialS.
Dupii cum
I)o
brrrrir dlepbale remarcl
'l'itrr.li,
atlvcllrclc
sinb vechi in lirnbir, in ce priveqte conlinutul lor, dar rroi suLr
aspecl,ul separiirii lor ca o clas[^aparte. In evolu[ia ]ot sc
remarci roiul func{,iei sintactice. lrit,r-adevdr, clacd pornim
de lasensul lexical, functiade det,crrninare avcrbulrii ar Ii
revenit adjccl,ivului. Dar se spccitrlizcazii ca adverbe in pli-
mul rind Lernele nominale. anoi subsLanLivele cu rol de com-
plement circums[,an,Lial . Datbri Lri firrrlt,ir;i, o lorrnri cazrra]d
de acesb fel poate s5. devinl atr[utttlrrtii, sit se r'rpi de flcxiune,
iar complernenl,ul se convclLcsl,c pc plarr nolfologit' in
'adverbz. l)esigur cX. se branslornrii ln advorbc qi urrelc adicc-
l,ive, dar cele urai vechi in forrna lor subsl,artLival,ii3; rrlt'e-
rior adjcciivele devin advcrbc dc tttotl
,
rlullir ce s-arr lixat
procedee de forrnare Ia adverbcle tlc loc si rlc t,irnp.
Din adverbe au luat naEterc propozil;iilo. Originea lor lc-
centd e dovediti de specializarca lor cit dlcrncrtt,c gramat,icaler,
prin golirea de sens lexical, qi dc I'rrrrct,iir lor sirttaclicir. Itrle
slnt specifice limbilor cu o sinLaxli
qvolrral,ii, iar rtlrrnirul
lor es{e in cont,inui. creqtere. ln mtrd frccvcnt, se trarrsfonn[
in prepozi(,ii qi cuvinte flexibile; acest proces e inttlnil atlt
in lirn-bi in,care formarea prepozif iilor esfe Ia inceptrl,, cil,
qi in limbi loarl,e ovolual,c (tr. chei', sart,f, pcndttnt, gorr].
iuiiltrend, cngl . rcgurding cLc.). Prcpozi!il
,,
l'iit'i" pt'ovirtc tlitt
1
V rr I {, o r 'l'rr rt I r, 'l'lN: Sl,rrtr:tu,ru.l
'l'ntrlt'rtr'it's ,,I l,rtt .tt,ty',t,
vr.rl. I,
(.lcncru[,'l'tttd,cttr:ics,
Ilclsinki, 1958,
1r.
i4.
'
.1. I( rt r y [ 0 lv i c z, ])frir''rt'tiort lcri,ealr
(l tllritttit)tt sllttltt rt(lttt',
,,
llullt:l,irr rlc la $oci0l.C dc Lirrguist.icltttt tlc l'rtlis", vol. X\XVll,
11)i|6, fits0. 2,
1r.
90.
'3
l{. l} r' tr g lll a n n,
^'lbregd
dc grun.ttt,tirr: rt)tttl)(tt't\(i IIt's Itttt!tIt's
itulo-europkrtnr:s, P.aris, 7905, p. 172.
140
adverbul latin
foras,,afarii"
cr,eal, dc Ia fol,ma de acuzaLiv a
subsLantjv r l.ui
*
fi
trtr.,,u1i" (rl rr lr lr: l, lr I I rr i
fu
r is
).
Irt ittrlo-r,rrr.olrliutil conrunli
Ir.c1rozi(,iilo
lrrr lor,rrrirrt o clrrgii
apitll,c; irr vrrrlirlr sirrl, lolosilo i1, 1,,rrr.(.ir,Ir,r,1rozi[,rorrrrlr.i ;rrl
vttt'lttt, irr l,irtr;r cc irr
;1r'r':rr':r
lrorrr.r,ir.ir l;r, irrl,ilrrr',rrrr lrr,{,D{,-
zif,ii sPrrciirlizlrl,rr, rlltr.loPi,,lr lor.irrr,jr lrrr l lrrrrlir. lrr'lrrl,lrrrr
tltrrf .
1r..prrzi{'ii
rr'ri
Pi*rl,r'r,irzli
rrr,r*rrrlr lrrl'r,r'lrrrr lr, (:;ttsrlttt,
tltrlttt.';
1tt'r
l:t.s.rr1,r'r'llrl,ir.; rrrl irrll.() (,{)ritlr.rrr.(rr,,.lr:
,,r.i.rsr.s"lrl
ll,ont.tnut)t ttttltltrts (lrtttlluot
r,l.r'.). Ijr.rrrr. ;rlr, rrrrl,orrorrriri
1tt,c_
pozifiilor ilr lirrrbil. y,1'1
11i r;r, r,irrlr,rir:
'i
irr
lr,sibi.l
iLaLca'lor
ite a fi consLruiLc <.;rr rlorrir srrrr l,r,r,i ,.,,r,i ,.,.
Evolulia lirnbilor indo-cur.oIcn{)) (lil
si ,,r';1 a altor limbi,
e caracterizat{ prin acccrrLrr:rr,c;r rrorrl,iirrri a scpardrii ad-
verbelor dc prepLzi!.i i, plirr,,1'1,;rlr.,r.r,:rruunir'ulrriilc prepozi-
!tt
st specializarcu lor. l'rrrrr.{i,,rrrl:,.
.'C0njuncfiil0rr:ulcJ)r'{)sul)rur
osirrl,rrrrlr,r,olrr;rl,iiirHrrlrr.rrrlglij-
rlt,, se crceaziL si trlc irr
I)l.itllul
r,Por.ii irrlor.ir,r,. l,l lo rro lolrrrclzi
pe baza-lrt'ttttt.tnte'lor, rlirr',si lr rrll,or'
lrrrr'l,r
rlr: r'or.lrir.r'. l)cslrlc
procestrl folrniirii
ryi
slcr.irrliz;rlii l,r.rrr. r'rr v,r.lri lrr.rrlril,ril rrl
refcrilol la sirr l,lr xi .
_,Irt.oa1ti[tllrrl
irrrr.sl,rr lll ri ir lrllurl,'1. nrrrrrr. rlc ilrl,rrrjttcl,ii.
Elc sirrt lirnr'l,c vcr,lri irr lirrrlrrr rli lrlrrl, ;rlr,rrl,rrl,r'
1,r.,,'i,,r1,i,,
deni. Irr lirrrlrilo rrrrri
Irr[,irr
cvolrlrrlc s,,.inlilrrr,rrr: lrr rrrrrrrilr.
martl
ryi
jottcii rrlr t'ol irrrPorl,irnl, irr r.orrrunr(.1u,(,. lrr lirrrlril,,
InO(lel'll{) ttlt: stt itll;r l;r
1i,'r'ilr,t
i;r \,o(,illrullrr,rrlrri, rrvlrrrl rrrrri
ales ttrr lol l[rrcl,ir, .
_
Dit^t ucltt tlxplrrH.
lirrlr
rri.i
"r' 1y11,11,1,
lr.lrll. r..lr.lrrzrrr r:;i l,r..l,
tata lorrnarc lr
Plir'(,ilor
rlrr vor'lrilc lsl,c lr,zull,rrl,rrl rrlrsl,l.ircLi-
zdrii qi spceializrir,ii scnsului r,rrvirrlr,lor., :rl rlczvoll,iirii
func!,iilor_sintacIicc,
J)r.(]ollrfr
si irl rronsl,il,rririi cal,egoriiloi
gramaticale marcate prin
jndici
I'olrrrrrli. liile.renfie]ea lor
lexicald este cea mai vecho; rlil'rrrcrr(,ir,r,r,a frrnobionald in-
gepg o datI cu fraza bitncrrrbri, irr,,rlilclcrrl,icrca'lor morfo-
logicI sc producc rnrrll, rrrri l,ilz,irr.
In toato Iirrrbilc, cvolrrLiir pr'i r,(,ilor. rlrr 1,1r1'lyi1,,' lio cilrilof,ori-
zcaziilllirrclcfll,clcrrrlorrl,irrrrirrrrrrrrrirr'ulrrilorsi
pl.irrrrtlirrcirca
spttoializiilii lrlr I'rtrrcl,iorrlrlc; or,rlirrcir srrr.r:r'sirrrrii csl,r: aoe cu
de la prir(,i rIc vorlrir,c (ill
ulr rlorr{,irrrr[, scrrrirrr[,irt rrrlri concrct
cIL.c pirr'{ i rlc vorbit,. crr rrrr .t.rrr{,irrr.rl, tlirr 00 ilr cc rnai absbract,
nol,ionirl
ryi
irpoi lr:la!,iorral.
141
bvolul,ia corrIirrul,rrirri .sl. rlt'pcttionti cle evoiufia prti-
gresivd a gindilii, tlc l'rtt'tt,rrtt'trr clrltaciti!ii de a stabili cr-rrr-
ceptul dc-'objctrl,, ittsttsitltr, ltct,ittne. Dar acestc {;tltttrtrlrl,tr
ntis-ar fi crisbalizitt, irr prir'{i rlc vorbirc dcose}riLc, tlitcit tttt
ai fi intervcniL noctrsit,ii(,ilr: sirrl,a<tt,icrc, cal'e olr irttptts, trvrtt
telor func{,ii speciirl izirLc. Srrb aspeoLul confirtrrt,rr lrr i cx isl ;r
diferen!e Clare"inlre siLrra(,iir rrlgSl,or claStr lrlxitrg-gt'rttrt;rl,ir:rtlrr
tn limbile evoluate si irr rrtllo ilapoiato, ilt trtt'rt
(r(r
'l'l\'(:sl(l numdrul pdr{ilor de vorbiro si spct'ializlrt'cit Iol l'rrtrr'Iiorrr.r l;i.
Gradul de dilereri
!icrc
I'orrnalti a
1ri
r'l,ilot' tlc vttt'lr it't' str
realizeazd in slrinsii tlependcn!i dc t,iprrlsllrrct,rrnrl rrl lirlrbii.
Ele slnt cel mai pulin dilercntiaLe in lirrrbiJc izola.rrle
;i
cel mai net deoschite in limbile llexionare. L)ar irr loal,o Li-
purile de limbi se manifestii [endiri!a continuir a separdrii
lor cu mijloace speclfice ficcirlci limbi.
Gradul diferenl;ierii lorrnalc rttr afocteazit treapta de sepa-
rare a conl,inutuiui. AcesL lapl, c dovedit
';i
prin isto-ria
limbilor in- care sbructura tlrarlidL ioalil s inLcticir s-a l,ransfor-
mat in structurii analiticl . l)ispali{,itr flexiunii gi roducerea
unor categorii grarnaticalc al'(l (lit
ul'nlaro o apropiere for-
mald intre pdrlile de vorbirtl t.ru t.rtlrtl,ittttl, rro!iortal
,
dar ele
rdmin distincl,e conceyrl,ual si lrrrroI iorrirl.
Am urmdlit lrlril
aculrr r,v,,l tr I iit r'rr Ltlgtiriilor morlologice.
,Din
descriere a iezultat ci, tl,' I'iccitlt r[;rLri, Llalrsforrnarea urrei
categorii lexicale in categolic rrrorl'ologicii rlsl,o inso!ib5 de o
orEa-nizare a materialului. ln l'clul ucosl,a se consLituie trep-
tai microsistemele crtnoscutc slll) lttrlltclo dc paradigrne. Cate-
goriile gramaticale mai vcchi (gr:rrrrl, numerul' aspectul)
iu forme de exprimarc ln rntri lllttrc IIII"ISuTI dependente de
sensul lexical al temelor; ar:clca rnai noi (cazul, timpul) iqi
creeazd forme in funotic dc rtoilc trltrsificriri. ln l'azele nai
vechi ale lirnbii, sislcrrr11l rrroll'ol9gitr, 1rq1 r'itl ,'goriittrlrirtttttltr-
rOaSe
Ei
lOrlrc clc cxprirrrur,e vAriit[,c, ttri\ l'oiu'l,tr rrottt'lit'ltl .
Imbogd!ir.ett corrt,irruii a vocabul.ar,ulrri, irrrrrrrlliIcir IirPoIl,rr.
rilOr sintacl,icc irnprr.rr urcirlologiCi cl sisl,t'trrirl,izlrl c lrrit i l:rl i,'
nal5., ceca ce sc rnanilcsl[ prin conliltttlr t,orrdirr!i u sirrrplili-
cdrii forrnclor. Accsb fapt poal,o l'i ilrrsl|rrl,
Irirr
istot'tit
sistemului rnorlologitt indo-europtlurt.
r42
Gramatica comparirl,ii a ajrrns de mrrlt la concluzia c5.
morfologia lirnhii bltzl ttra fottrLtr trrttrtPlirrllil q1 grcoaie' cu
catogorii gratnal,it:irltt tttrtt'tritl,tr rrrrrll'iJrlrr, rrtt trtttll,tt rnrtrfctrto
sirrotrilrrr
ryi
rrlt,olo
Irolistrtrtrtrtl,ilrr.
Ar,r'sl, sisl,rrtn sIrrlits, rlosprtt
citlr) lorrrrir,[,iilrr rlrsl rtl rltr rrrttrrlrlirrttl,rr rlitt vcrlir:li r1i grrrtrr:tt
Irolrrrir':j rrrr rlrrrr o itn;t1,gtttt, ttttrolttPlrrl,ii
,
rt tt rlovlrlil,
Irrl,irr
sl,lrlril. l'll sc tllz;t;.1t'tr11;r itr Lrt:tl'rl lirrrlrill itttlo t,ttrolrottt',
ttrrrtilcsl,irrl l,r'trlirrIrr rlr' l()t'nrilt't' it ttttttl lttttl't'ttt Itttttl.,
'I'crrrlirrl,lr
sIl'rl srrrrPlrlilittrr csll rrtt tlt'rtrlr'l)ll'r! (!virlrlrrl,ii 1n
corrjtt{itrrr. l)c|:isittrl l;tzlt rrrrlrlr'l,ivir;tttttlrri, ilrrltt-rlttropean&
gi-a
creaL trrr riisl,rrrrr
ycl'lrirl irr ir;u'r: licc:rrc l,rrrrii cra_ indep-eq-
dentd, in serrsul ci"t rlc lir o tiitl;trrittit cxist,ltu mai multe posibi-
litd!,i de formarc a unoi Lcrrtc ciu'ttr'l,r'r'isl,icc unei anumite cate-
gorii; nici urta dirr lotrtrr tttt
l)r'i'r.rrl)rttr.rr..rlxisLcnla
celeilalte
sau nu se
ltul,ca
I'cuottslil'rri
1'r'
lr;tz:t ,'i.
'[
rr ltctlitsLi perioadfl
existS. teme aspcct,ttitlc, lrrrt,lltlr'. il{ ll\'(' rri tnt'rlii, rlxistil for-
ma{,i.i tcrnat,ictt
1i
itl,tltttlrl,ilr', rl('}itlrlrr{r'
1rt'ttttttt'tr
si trtltrllndare-
Ca qi irr vcrlicli
ryi
itt gt'r'ltr,ir ltrttttlt tlit, rlr' lrt o ttittl.'1111i llirllicinll
se puLcatr I'rlt'ttta stt I'tl rlrr l'ot'tttl t lt'lrtt lr'-
Sifrtplil'ictrr,rtir siSt,crrrttltti t',,r'ltrrl tttrlo (,rtt'{rl){'ltn lr tr llitrtrL
in rnai tttult,r: rliIrtrr[,ii: lttt l,rltl tt'tlttrt,'tttrtll(. rlrrr loIrrrit(,iilo
suplcbivc; lt lost, rrlitrrirrlrl, I ilrrrl llrrltr:;tl;tli'trritl rr', I ilrrl rlrrli
cai t,errrrrl,ic r';t1rr ii irt l,r, rtl
1rr't'rttril,lr
r, \'l'llltll'lrtltt lttrllltttrlltrl'ir,
Clar irr cprrr:lr islot'iclt rl,,r'rrrcrri ,'l ttr'1rt',rtltltrl 1v'1,,r'rrl
Ir'ttrcilrttl
in crlrr,iirg;lrrrr il .lrlrlil'lr t'r'r'lr"lrr ll()1, rllt ivttl'r',
'
tt Iloxittltc l'tt
grr Ii.tl,ir.
ln lirrrllilrl irrtlo r,ut'o1,,'ttc t r', lti ritr r'otttt ltlrrt,'
Pt'oPrirt
zitt
O Cttrlirrgltr'c, iil sIlrsUl Iir r;r,r'orrll{,il,rriI ttrr liit;lIttt
1,r'lrltztt
tttttli
rriditjili, ia1 rlivrrr.sr,l|} l,crlr, rlolrirtrlrrsr: 1r,11;i l rrri st'tttttrtl,itrtt
si fornale. ln lalirrii sist,r'rrrrrl vr,r.lrirl I'r.:r rrrrri rigirl rlctriI lrr
greacd. Construitir ptl ctlltr rlrtttit {'lrttrr lrtrrtlittrrclrt,&lc aspec-
]Cuale
-
irifecturrr qi perl'ocl,rrrrr - ('()lr.illHirltrr latind-se. ca-
racterizeazil prin intrt-rducel'oil trtttti sisl,cttr temporal. sime-
tric qi clar. I)ar verbrrl llt,irr tttiti pr'i slrlrrzri rtrmdqile ale
stadiulrriarhaic,careavoiulsrir
iil r'lirrrirrrrlc irr I,ol, crrlsll istO-
riei salo. Ast,fcl atl.it:trl,ivrrl Vtrt'lr;tl itr '1rr
'
irri{,irrl l,rrtrrli ilt-
depcrttlcrrt,ii (t'l'. l,irtt
f
i.it'lru
),
r: I t'rrPl,itl, rrlr|oPilr.l, tlo t'ottttl
pei'foclrrlui;l'it['i'i tlrr rrrrtll'iPlrrlrr I'oIlrrir(iilrlc
lrcr'l'rlr'l'tlui
(u;4ul
I
parce
143
des
l\{ e i I Ir l, ,[. Vl rl rl r yo s, 'l'rait,'. da gro.nl)tlolrc cottl
Ia.n.gucs cl.asii.tlllts,ltaris, 1.1.)i):t,
1t.
77i} .
egi, linquof liqu,i, t:ttttttf cu:i.rr,i,, dicof diri, amof antaui), se
rdspindeEte pcrfccl,rrl sigrrrirl,i<;
ryi,
mai aleS, perfectul in -2.
Pierd treptat tcrcn ccurjrrgrlr'ilc a III-a si a II-a, carc con[i-
neau multe velbc nclcy4ulirl,c sau delective,'qi ciry[igri l,rlr.olr
conjugarea I, fornrahi llr cca rrrai mare parte dill vclbc rlc-
nominative regulate, si r:orrjrrgarca a IV-a, orglrnizrrl,ii rlrrpri
rnodelul ei.
Tendinlra de reg-rrlarizaro a conjugirrii corrl,irrrri qi lrr
limbile romanice. In limba ronrCnii rijrrrin llorrii conjrrgiiri
productive, a IV-a qi I-a, accasta dil rrlrnii I'iirrrl rrrai pro-
ductiyl ln cpoca nrodcrnil.
O evolu!ie similall se observ[ qi in dccJinurc. llormcle
flcxionare cele mai vec,hi pS.streazI alternarrta consonanticH
ln tefnd, rrimXqilri din perioada in care nrr ic cous[ituiserl
desirrenle (aqa-numita declipare heteroclitl de tip Iat. 1[.
fenrur
G.
ferninis,
gr. N.
In*p,
G. {paloq, skr. N. yakyt, G.
yakneilt, hit. N: watarl G. wctenai); se constiluie ulterior mai
multo tipuri dc decliniri, irr frrrrctie de aspectul forrnal al
temei; categoriile gramaticale se cxprimau cu ajutorul al-
ternan[ei si a] desincn.telor. Simplil'icarca decliniriis-a fi.cut
prin eliminarea formelor dc dual, reducerea numirului de
declindri, sincretismul cazurilor. Ilr limba latind se unificd
formele flexiunii consonanticc qi vocalice la declinarea a
III-a, are loc o apropiere reciproctr intre llexiunea nominald
si pronominal5. Declindrile neproducLivc, a V-a qi IV-a, se
disloc5, substantivele rcspcclivc l,rccfurd lu declinlrile pu-
ternice, I-a qi a II.a. Se elirrrind Lrept,at; subsl,antivele cu
flexiune neregulatd.
Tendinla reducerii numirrului de paradigrne nominale
gi verbale se manifestd
Ei
ln alte fanrilii de limbi.
Sistemele morfologice se lntlrcsc conlinuu prin elimina-
rea forma{,iilor neregulate. No(,iunca de element nelegulat
e relativ{, variilrd lrr func{,ie de ccca cc rcprczinl,I norma
lntr-o ctapi drrtir a is{,orici limbii. Cccu rir irrt,t'-o anumil,ii
cpocl al)aro oa rrorrni'i, ln clrocile ulrrtll,oat'o sc t,t'trrrs-forrnr'i
,
prirr oprizil,irl crr rrot'rrra cxistent[, in lornte arrortrrrlc. ln frtzrr
ceil rnai vochc a sis;bcnului morlologio irrdo-curttpcitrr, tlo-
minant,c crau lorrnele supletive. Ulterior, procetlcul prin<,ilrul
t
Al. O r a u r, Eoolulia roijugarif tn ront.d,niita,,,Sl,utlii qi ccrcc-
tirri lirrgvisLico", vol. XIII, f asc. 2, pp. 153-160.
r44
de marcare a ftrnc[,iilol gramaticale dovine alterqanla.con.
sonantic[
[i
vocalici, iar formele de t,iprrl
ferol
tuli dsvin
noyrrodurrl,ivc; irr crrlsttl isl,olici linrllilor irt<lo-ttrtroponb, olq-
l,igri t,rrrorr rrrot'l'curclc ttIixttltr, ittl fttt'rlt(r.lc t:tt ttll,orttt\rrl,11 so
piirill'citzi'i ln ttturriil't'crltts ltt rtttviltl,o rlirr lirrrrlrrl
;rl'irrtliprrl.
lrr lirrrlrrr ctrlllrrzii
(ilrt)1,
rlitt vct'lttrlrr lrtri tttt [onl, ilrlotlttit,o trtt
f<llrrrc lr,llrtlttlt'. 1,, ,,,''st,l isloli,'i lilrrlrilor itttlo trttt'o;rtttltt
rrorlct'nc rtt
Irrl,ttl,
ttPrrt't'tr sPot'tttlitt trt,i I'ot'tttri ttrrt'lrgttlttl,o
(trx. r'rrrrr. r.ott, lrtiirtt
'nl,.
ltuttrt) ttlttt l'ttl'ttttt srllllrrl'ivrr
(lr'. vtti.sf u.l.lntnl it'tr.i), r'rrt'(t l'{lpr'r!zirrl,ii trcr:irlrrrrl,rl. Nllrtttirul
forrnttlor t'ttgttlttl,tr t:r'r'sl,tt ltt ttrotl trlrsolrrl,
ryi
nllativ ln tob
cursul isLorici.
DupI considera!,iile lcfot'i l,ottt'r ll rltrzvoltarea categoriilor
rnorfologicc este ne0csal' ootun sr'i lrrrilrr In discutie transfor.
rnS.rile structr,rrii morfologir:rt lrt ttttt'tlttttlrlrr, modalitdlile
9i
direc!iile ei tle evolu(,irr.
S-a viizul, cii lirrgviql,ii rlr, lrr lrtrr'pttl,trl sccttlttlrri trecut
lirnitau
llroblcrna I)r()gt'(rHlrlrri
lilrrlrii lrr t;
Jrl'rrrtirrri
l'olirri.l,gtpg
la inegaiiLut,ea tralit,irl'ivii sirrIr'orrir:ii rt l,iIrrlilol'rlo lirrrbi
(izolari[, aglrrt,irritrrl,, l'lrrx iorrtrt'), lrrro(,il,rr rLr rrorrrirlorrt(,ii
a$UIJIa ctlnsccitrlr'lril'Pt'0tltt$tt tltr l,t'ttrrtrt't,tt tlrt ltl tttt l,ip ltr0r'-
fologi,'lit lrllrrl. llll,rrriior', trct'r:ct,iit'iltr s tttt trottt:trtll'l'ttl' tlHlll)l'll
anaiizci crtrttpttt'ttl,ivo tt ttt,l'tttrl'trrii sittl,trl,ir:o
ryi
rrrrrrlil'ir:o tt
linrbilor irrrltt-ctrt'opcttc t,ttt:lri
ryi
lttorlcrrro. lltrztr[,i lll]t'olll)(!
exclrrsiv
Ptr
tttitl'trl:itt Lr
1rl'ivil'irtrt'o
lrr l'lrrx irrtrctt tttttttitrttltl'
lilrgvirsl,ii]arr ir.i rrrrs' lir rlisl,rrrrfri tll t:ll'lvtt tllr''r'ttii, lt1 r:otrrrlltzii
dirc<;t, o1,itst,. Asl,l'rrl lrr rrrijloorrl srrr,olttltri rlorrrirrii.;rlirlr-
rea 0ir [,t'Arrsl'ttrtttttt'rir til,t'trcl,ttt'i i I'lrr.x ittttttt'tt o1i11l,11l,ir:lr lrr
structuni arurlil,icii rruu.r:lr(rirzii rlrrcrrrlr,rr{,rr rurrri lirrrlli. lrr
forrna cea rnai
Pr,0{rrrrrr
l,ii rrccrrnt,ii irlrlr: csl,c rrx prrHfi lrr lrrr:rii-
rile lui Schleiihcr. AcIivit,irt,t:rt tttrogl'tttttrtl,iciL.r avca sd
schimbe perspectivele ccroohilii, iur lir lflrqi[ul. secolu]ui
Jespersen'aiunse la concluzii tlottl,l'itttr nt:tllora ale lui Schlei-
"n"i'.
Din
"r,urictrrl
slrr rlc vlrlr,t't', nlt'tttrlttr& analiticd a
limbilor mo<lerno cste strIcriottt'ri, strlt l,ottl'tr ttsltotltcle, stru-c-
turj i sintcl,ice a lirrrbilor irlrrsi0r,; lolilrrrlr. rrrr rlrrv(}rril, nrai ab-
SLraCtc
ryi
rnai sis[,ttrnrrt,irrrr, glrrrrrrrl,ir:rr lrr ttrrsttrttllltr rt rlrlvtlnit
m&i olirrii
ryi
rrrlti tts,rot'rltr irrvi(rrl,.
Avanta,jtrlo st,t'rttrl,ttrii lrrrirlit,ico tttr losl, tlvirltllr(,illtc r1-i llo
al!i lingviqt,i dc lrr slilriil'rrl.slrtroltrltti. I'rrrtrtrl,. Anl,[cl M.I]16ul
consideiia tiir l,rootrrcrl rlri ln sinIol,iun lu alrulitisnr oorospundo
745
10
necesite[,ii dc t:]ari l,l.rLo si l,rrrrrlin(,oi vot'bitorilor de a roaliza
inlelegelea'dint,rc r,i lrr r'[or,l,ur,i t'it, mai reduser. Ba a sim-
plificab sisLr,rnrrl,
1'r.irr
inlir lrrlirr.r,rr lormelor sinorrimc. rr,,r.-
miIind o .xIf i11,r,,'tr
Irecisii
Hi .liIliciLI a celor. rlrui r.orrrl,li-
cate raporlru,i sirrlirt.l ir.e .
Lingvi,ltii din sccolul rrus[,r.rr oar,L] a. rcluat, a.rrrgl,ii rrr'.
blemd sint preoc'pa[,i ilr rrrrri r*icrr nriisrrrii rrc ir rr'irrr,irtirr
avantajele si dczavantajolo rutrri Lill rlc sl,r.rrr.l,rrlrr srrrr rrl
celuilalt; atenlia l_or se indr.aPtli rnai rrrrrll, sIr'. rrri
lrri.rrl.u
cauzelor carc duc la trarrslolniarea Liprr lrr i rrrirrfologic.
Referiri la accirsLi"r problorn[ sc intiLrcst.r irr rurr.lt,c sludii
ale lui A. Nleillct. Dirr e,le sc desprinde concluzia ctr. din
punotul sdu de vetlere, trecerea la itructura analiticd sb da-
lore;te
unor factori complecsi,,,xtralingvistici gi lingvis-
tici. Intr-unul din studiil-e salc, lingvistuti francez'rorr*id"r"
cd trebuie sd vedem in accasll't.arilforrnare in primul
rind
o problemd de mentalitate, inlrrrclt prin disparilia flexiunii
nominale se creeazd in limbilo rnodclrre posibilitatea pre-
zentirii no!iunii'in sine, in afara oricillci dctermindri. El
sus{,inea cd.in linrbile indo-errrot)olro vr:chi, cu flexiune bo-
ga1,d, nonrinaLivrrl lu el'a o l'orrrui arrl,,rrorrri,r,i un t.az lntre
celelalte. cazuri, iar cuvirrl,ul avcrl rrrr cor.i\r:Lcr. concret, pur-
tlnd obligatoriu malca gerrrrlrr i, rrurrrilrrlrri qi cazului. Dar
la aceasta s-a rdspurrs cI, pc rlrr o pirr.l,c,pi in lirnbilc arlali,
tice, in cadrul vorbirii, cuvin l,rrlc silr L intol,deauna deler-
rlinalg (cu alticol, prel'ozil.io rrlr'.)
;i, 1rc
de alth parte, cd
qi in limbile vcchi rrominirtivrrl av0l, iirLrc alte func!,ii, gi
pe aceea de a denruni notirrnca?.
Tot Nteillet a suslinut cit lrr srrbstantiv formele analitice
s-au oreat in condiLiilo in t;irru rlcsilcnlele polisemantice
nu mai pul,earr satisface singrrrc cerin{ele conrirnicdrii: Slnt
qi cazuli in carc (ca lir gradelt'rlt'cornpitra(,io
alc adjectivelor
sau Ia fornrelrl vurbalrt corrrprrsc) corrsl,rrrc(,iilt, irrrrilil,icc tlrr
apirrrt, d in rrc.ttsit,al,cir rrnoi lot'rnrr liri mlr i
Ilitst,irro 1i
nrai
exprosivc, iur'[r'ttrrvolr(a folosiri i a gralnal,itralizirl, asrrrrrrrnca
irnbini'ili, irrt,rotlucintlrr-lc in sistcnr:1.
t
ltssai. tk: s(.ttLarr.liclu.e
, 1t1t.
12-24.
_ . :4.M
c
I
l,.l e L, Lr: caractire concretd,u nrct, irr vol.
,,t,inguist,iquo
historirlue_ct,. lingrris{,iqrre gdn6rale", vol. II, I,aris, 11):16,
1rii.9--i3.
3
L' tvo lution d,es
fornts
granrntaticales, ib idcttr, vol. I,
1rp.'l3F-,
136.
146
Pcrrtru A.Nlull,irrel, l,r'(rcclur rlc ltr s[r'rtr:l,uru
girrl,cl,icll
tt
lirrrlrii lirIiirrr lu r,cir lrrrrlil,ir:i rr lirrrlrilot' t'tlttitttir:o rctlcr:l,ri
nrrrrcsilrrl,clr lr.or'11:rrriziilii lirrrlrii irr lorrrliIiilrr lrr r:rl't', Httlr
Plrtsirrrrcrr
rtrrrcnil,ir{,ilol rlrr r'()r}ruriclrt'r', lrrrrr'[,iilr'lirrrlrii lrrr
tlcvlrtil, rrrrri nlrlr{'r'():riit\ lri tttiri r'otrrlrllrr'1.
l'rr lrtr'lT ltrt rlilrr:rtlir lr('r'jl1l,l
;,tolrllttlr
lrr ltltrt'tttt'tt lltrltt r'l
l,rrl,ii rr f ui V.'l'rrrrli, ,\'trrtr'lttrrrl
'l't'tttlr'rr,'i,'::
rtl'lttrrlirrrt;1t's. Att
Lot'rtl lr ltrlrl, irr r,olrliitlt:trt(rr'l,r'rrrlrrr(,r'll rlc lvolrrItt'ttlc ttiltl.t'
IIIclot tnot'l'ologicl lrr lrtrrl,i lrlrlrr'Irnir(l rnlrt ttttrllot' lrrrrrili.i.
BazaL
l)0
llr) tttttl,ct'itrl lolrrlr'lro11;r1,, r'l tt ;ti'rrl, rt,ltct'sptlcLivii
mai largd, caro i-a ptrt rrrirl r;:r rrjtttr;1rr l;r corrrlttzii f undarnen-
tato.
Spro deosebire de rnulfi lirrgviryl,i,'l'rrrrli priveqte sintetis-
mul qi analitisnrul nu Irtrllriricir l,r'rrtlrttIr'r'rtt'tr i;i iau reciproc
locul in evolu[,ia ]itrr.lrilor'lllriorrttt'c, r'r lri r';t l,trnrlinte care
coexisti irr yrorrttattcrr(,ri, irr lilrrlri irlrrrr'l irrirrr,l l,trl,ttt'ol tipuli-
lor struct,trt'alc. Sirrl, I'crrrlirrtr'
(,1)rti'ir', ('rr ( itttzrt rlilclil,c si a
ct\ror
lrontlcr'o
rio st'lrilrrltii itt ltrt'sttI islolili lirrrlrri. l)rrpri
plrcrea lrri V.'l'rttrli l,rrrrrlirrltr s;rt'r'ttrrrrlil'it;ltt trsl,c ittrlrttsl\
-de
ccrirr{r,lc oonllrrricllii.
'irrll
rrrlt't'irt', rttrttlizit trlrrl'ii rrii r':t
OonsIr'1 irr gl'iutral,it ltlizrttlit ttttot itttlrtrrrili lcxicltlc ;rlritt'trl,rr
4i1 vlglrcsit,if i sPorilt' tlc t'otrrttttit itlt', irr t otrtliIiilc cltlilii
sist,cttnrlui grlrrrrrtl,icttl, srttt rlin <lol'irrIir lx1,l'irrril'ii rrrtti
ltltts-
ticc
;i
rrrai
1rt'r'r'istt,
irr cottrliliill irr ltttl sisl,t:tttrrl cxisl,rrrrl,
1r0atc lrlorItr('r'r'r,lrlrrzii
slrtt lrtt itt'(' rrri.jlotr, r'srrl'ilirllrl, tlc tlx-
plesivi'. lrrl,irir',':r Irrrrtlirr{r'i r\l)r'{r itttirlil,isrrr srr tttltltilcsli
prirr t:r'O;l,trlolt tttttttrit'trltri rlrt (rttvin{t'ltttxililtt'rr,
Pl'ilt .i
trl,l'otltt-
cerea urrci Lopitti fixr:,
1rl'irr
srtrrplilillrlllr :ttlot'rlttlrri o rllrl,li
cu reduccrca tttlot' citl,r'gol'ii gllrttrlrlir';rlrr.
'l'rrtrrlirr(ir
slrltl sirt-
teti.sm are cu lot,ul lrlt,rr
('itlrz('. l'lit sc rlltl,otrrsl'tr cltritt:t,crului
liniar al vorbirii, liirrrl irr pt'itttttl I'irrrl o t,otrtlirr!L foneticti
;il;;";i
in
"i
aoitca rirrtl t,rrrrrlirrl,ii s.rrtitrrLicir. lri condiliile
unei Lopici fixe, cuvinLelc trtttttlrttstr pol, ;t'i
so transforme in
dcrivate, prcpozitiilc si post'1tozi(,iilt: sc rrglrrl,ineazl trans-
fornriurltt-sc irr itl'ixtt,
ltrottttrtttrltt lttrt'sottltlc
srl itt,arycazii la
t,r'rrxr vellruli si tlrlvirr dttsittcttLc ttl,tr.
l)rrrrlorrrirritcir, irr l'ictritt'c cl,rtlrii isLr-rlicI, it untlia $itu a cc-
lcilall,c Iunrlirrl,c csl,c corrrl i{,iorritLii de numeroqi facl,ori.
Avarrlajclo licr'trt'r-ri t,ip sl,rrrcLul'al nu pot fi apreciate in ab-
I
tl l,'u,rrt:(iorLul l/ ies oI Lun.guage, p. 138.
747
l0*
stract; stadiul stnrol,rrrii rrrorfologice a unei anumite limbi,
lntr-o etapl dalr'i u isl,orici sirlc, yroatc fi judecat numai in
compara!i0 crr rrlalllr prcccrlrrrrl,ii tlirr istoria acelciaryi lirnbi.
In felul acesta se dovurlc;t,c r:ii prrncl,cle de vederc cxt,r't:rrr isl,c
qi exclusiviste sint glcryit,c. I)ur:ri sinLctisnrul (rlrrp,i rrrrii)
sau analitisrnul (dupir rll,ii)
lrlczirrLl
rrumai incorrvcnir,rrlc
nu este de inleles de ec o lirrrlli irr tlezvolLarc [,r'occ r.lr' lrr rrrr
tip de structurd la celilalL. f)rrpii curn s-i\ irril,irl,, r:clc rlorr:i
tendin.te coexistente au oauzo difcrit,r:, 11111'1r r1r'[,ioncrrzij irr
permanen!d. Se poate spurlc cir oorrsl,l'rrr:Iiilc rrrrirlil,i,'rr sc
transfounl cll vrcmea in forrne sirrLetioe slrrr t:l'i rrIc lcrrlczirrLi
o fazi in dezvoll,area forrnelor sintetice
,
dar rrr-r cI lonrrolc
sintetice se [ransforml in analitice; ele sint in]ocuite de
forme analitice, care se creeazJ. lncleu pc baza lcxicului si
care pot cleveni' predominante uLurrr:i r-,incl structura sirrt6-
ticd existenti se dovedeqte insulioierrti pcntru redarea [u-
turor nuanlelor sau prea conrplical,ir
;i
grcoaie. Aparilia
formelor analitice, rdspunzirid urrol rrccesitir!i ale comuni-
ctrrii, aduce limbii avantaje
lrrin
in{,rodrrcol'ca de tlonst,r'ut.r-
lii
rnai pulin nuureroaso, cu oalacl,er ruai ruol,ivtrt, dcoi rnai
uqor dc memoral. F5.rI a rte ralia lu punc[ul'dc vederc ex-
tremist al lui Jespersen, nu prrl,orn f ido iroord rrici crr
llirre-
rea lui R.A.13udagov1) care srrst,ine cI evcilu{,iir sl)roallalil,isrn
nu reprezint,I prin ea insiisi url
l)r()gles,
in[,rucil, ea I]u tc-
flectd modificlri in con[,inutrrl lirnbii, it ceeu cc ex])riIIIii,
ci numai in t,ehnica rnijloacolor dc f orntrrlarc a urrci idei,
in rnodul cu,nl se exprinr[. l,irnba ttu csl,e nu[Iai con!irrut,
ea are forne de exprimare a con!,irtrrtului orgarrizate intr-un
anumit grad, iar progre^sul ei sc vitdeste si in pcrfec!ionarea
acestui sistem formal . In at'elu;i tirnp se poate admite qi cI
transformarea tiprrlrri analitic t:orrcrct, legat ncmijlocit de
imbinlrile lexicale din care dcrivir, in stI'uctrrrl agltrl,inan[d
qi flexionarr-t a irtscrrrrtttt, lu faza respectivii, ur
l)I'o!{r'r's J)r'n-
tru limbir, <riici a irrclrcgtrt sisLcrtrul, a irrt,rorlrls itr trz ltl'ixttltr
-
morfcnlr) abst,t'itc[,tr si slrtrtrializat0
-
si, itr lltzttl lirrrlrilor'
flexionurc, a lo.alizaL trcuttonrie dc rrrat,ct'ial
lrt'irr
lrrtttrittit
mai multdl'valori irr i:onfirrutul urrui sirrgrrl Ittotl'cttt.
Asa cunr s-il rcnlitr(iilL trtlcsca in ourstrl istolirri lirrgvist,ir'ii,
lir unelc cuzuri sc obscn'I o altel'I)aro dc t:rtttst,r'ttlliisilrlr'-
t
Iloe0ttt,ur: t tL,illt;tl () JL,] .t,.tt,
148
tice qi analil,ice irr r:xprimarea ar;elei:rrsi categorii verbale:
inl,r-o firzii lrlltaici :r lirnbii lrrl,irrc l;r conjrrgririlc I
ryi
:r TI-a vi-
il,rrlrrl s it cxln'itttltl,
lrtt'iIt':rsl,ir,,
rtr ir.i trlol'rrl vcl'lrrrlui*ltlu,u -l
ltlt.tt.- ,,it I'i";
lrlilr
;rglrrl,irr:rlr,;r lrri lrr l,r,rnir vcrlr;rlrj, sc
ct'rrlrtzii lolrrrr'lrr rlr' l,ilrrrI trttt,rlt,r, rtttttrr,lt,t. lrr
Ir'r'iorrrlrr
l,irzir' rr
lirrrlrii lttl,ttrt clr: r;irrl, rlttlrr;l,tlrrrlr.rlr,Iotrrrlr(,ti trrrrrltl,icc lrr
Ittt.l,r'rt tt:rtt ttttlll'lr, lrtrrl,rll t{)nrrurill rll ilIuri rlur n:ttllt't't',
Ic
itct'tttil,tr llrlr', ttot lolrrr,' :;t11li'l tr'r,: tl. tttrtl('r'!t, Ir. tlttttt.lt't'tti.
ftt its,,r,,,,,,,rrr lrrzuri lrrr lrrl'vrrilr vor'lrr,irc rlc tvolu(,ic ltr
0crttr, itt [,ittt;r r,rr ltl(,tt cotritrllr':r ( ir t'r'Ir'1,;ttlir
lt'orttltlr:ttlui
rtu
insearnnii qi irlcrrl,il,rrl,c rr corrIirrrrl,rrlrrr
1i
cir l'iecare forme
trebuie aprecialii irr carll rr I sislcrrrrr lu i rlirr care face parte;
funcliile nefiind acclcirryi, nu sc
lrorrl,r'
r.'orbi despre evolulie
in cerc2.
Ctr al,it rnai ptr{,irr st:
lrorrlc
vor'lri rlrsplrr cvolrr[,iu lrt cerc
a st,r'uclurii
jrr
itrrsrunlrlu: rll l;r lrrr;rlillirrrrrl corrclr'1, lit sLrttc-
1,ura sintt'l,it,i
li
tlt, lir ircrrslir lrr irrr;rlrlisrrrul rrlrsllrrll, irl lilrr-
bilor rnotlcl'n{r nu sc
1n'orlrrlr'o
ct'oltr{,il irr (:('r'r', (:i ln spi-
I'tt.lii, rt I'orrtri'i it rrcgiil ii rrcgir(ili. Sirrl,r'lisrrrrrl rrr rrrrrrlrlisrrrrrl
tiy;1, rrtri rloi
lroli
irrl,r'c ( iu'(, irll,r'r'rrr';rz:i rrvolrr(i;r lirrrlrri, ilrr'
subst,i{,rrilcir urror' Iolrrrc rlc r';rl,r'r lrll,r'lr', r'rrrrzrrl,ir rll lr.r'rrr{.r:lt
oornurrit:it'ii, sr:1rt'orltrlr irr srlrrsr'r l
l)r'()l{t'csulrri
lirrrlrrr.
llvoltr (,iir st lrrll rrt i i rrr.ot'lololjicrr it l irrrlri lol s(' r:{,r l iz,crz;i irr
lihnrrli l'orrt'l,r'irrr,g;rlr'. Irr rlr,r'rrls rlrr r'llrrvrr lrrikrrrii lirrrlrrr irr
do-crrrtilrcltrrij rt l,r't'r'rrl, rlr lrr l'itzrr rtrrroll'ii (r'ccorrsl,ilrrilrilr'i
lrtirr
rrrot,orlir lclorrsl,r'rrr'(ici irrl,clrrr),
lrrin
irglrrl,irrlur', lrr lrrzir
Ilc-riorritt'iisirrl,cl,irir,(rr'oilrl,insl'orlrrrrlrrcr'lcrrrlirrrrrrrr,r'oirscsi
cortrplir:at,c irr it.i rrnrrltlr'zrnt'rtrlrr';ilii irrrlo-r:rrt'opcrrci; irr r:ulr;rrl
istoliei lirubilol irrtl,r crrloutrrc. sirrl,rrl,isrrrrrl ti srrlrsl,it,rril, irr
gradcdifcritrrrli't,orrsllrrr'{iirrrrirlil,ilr',,';rlrrocrrlrir lor,rrllrlcporr-
derent in struol,ura trrror lirrrbi irrdo-clu'oJ)(ilro rnodcrue. Intr-o
perioadir de relaLiv aoccasi inLintlclc, o scrie de limbi qi-au
modificat sl,ructura morlologicri irr prolror{,ii mult mai re-
,duse. Est,c cazul lirnbilor aglrrl,irrirrr{,c rrgro-f inice qi turco-
t,i{,arc. Slahj.l it,rrt,ca morfolotirli lr accsl,or lilrrbi sc explicd
t
ll. Nl ii I I rr l' rtil,lrl, rlc ().
,l rr s
l)
c r s r'. tt, I'ntgn:ss in Lunguugc,
[.,ortrlrrr Ne lv Yolli 1lt1]4,
1r.
tl5; cl'.
;i
V. 'l' a u I i, 'I'rend of
Sl,rt.t,r:lttra.L
(:lL(ni:c
t'I l,u.ttlitr,rti4ts, ,,()r'lris", vol. XlI, fasc. 1, p. 6.
, (lI. (i.
S. li rr lr lr r:, ( )5 ont,v,u.pilluur lJxeucHtnoo cmqpoeo
,;d.1t.e0lt,du. n.l)u.
lttt..touutr(
tt. tl (.v..ilt.nluttcct;oi'.(, cm.poJt Jlau,fia,
,r13onpocrt
nobrr(oarritnrrrr", rrr. 1, J95il,
11.
87.
149
rnai ales prin faobori sl,rttr:t,ttt'uli, dint,t'e care mai importan{,i
sint doi: lipsa iurpi.r(,irii pe clasc a strbstari{,ivelor
fi
topica
fix5. de terrn iuant
-
dct,clrrrirra[1.
In acestc limbi cxisLri o silgulii dcttliltare, iar ri"r<lircirr,it,
lipsitn de irrdicatori tlc olasii, rllvitttl la nomirl:rtiv trtrltlt'ttl
oiganizator al tleclinlrii, curo al'o o sLl'u(1Lurl axiiilir rrlrrrr'i .
hiasemettea condiLii nu sc (11'ceilzl ('{rllze ittlclttt: irltt l,t'ittrs'
formirii: morlcrlclc rltnin clal tltllirrrit,aIc, iitr itrtttortiit t'tt-
calicI opreql,c orcarea de variqnLe alrl af ixr:lor.
'l'ol,rtrlrtl,ri,
datoriti-bopicii regresive, s-au dezvoltttt, tttttl[, r:ottsl,r'rrr:(iilrr
participiale, s-iIu creal, pu{,ine
})ropozi{,ii
sctrrrrttlllro,,
lrris-
irindu-se dc socolc aoceaqi sl,rucLr-rrI a lrazci.
rI)ezvolLarea
strucl,urii aglrrLinanLe s-a- realizat prin creqterca nurnilrului
'de
postpozi!,ii, rezcrva principall a afixelor oazuale, qi-prin
crearea a nurneroase construot,ii analiLice Yerbalc pe baza
parbicip ii lor.
-
O evblulie specificd au qi lirubilc izokittt,c, care iqi perfcc-
lioneazd
siruciura existenLl fiirir a-i rnotljfica tipul furrda-
inental. Structura amorld a lirnbilol rlin strd-cstul Asiei,
al c5.ror prototip este chincza, se tnctr.!irrc tle mii de ani.
AceastS.
-structurii
amorfl nu sc [,rage diltlcL tlirl tipul izolant
primar, ci reprezintd o forrnS. ttvolualir lr arltllilisnrtlltti, cu
r.umetoate cuvinte auxiliarc absLt'aclc, in tlale iorma(,iile
aglubilrart[c apar cxLrem dc rar'.
"Rezultl
de iici ci un faotor irnpot'LarrL c:rrc cotrdi[,iorteazd
ritmul modific{rilor in sisferttul nrol'l'r.rlogio esLe tlol sLruc-
tural. Aldturi de el act,ioneazri lacLorrrl geJgrrttic. Sc verifici
-
Leza c[limbile situabe'in ariilc cenlralc ale globului au evo-
luat rnai repede, in l,imp ce acclea situaLe in ariile laterale
(limbi
austialienc, lirnbile paleo-asiaLice) ou strtrcl,urii pri-
iisitrteti.l; ca qi limbile din alijlc izolante (basca, lirnbile
oaucaziene) arl pirstrat, slructtrri oonlplical,c, arhaice. Se rnai
adaugii qi inllucn!a lactorului istoric' nrigri.r.[,iile s.i
,
lcgat dc
ele, c"ont,aol,ul irrt,r'c lirribi. stt prcsrrpun0 cit li]1rbilc izolftrrLe
din srrcl-esLul Asici qi-arr sirripiificaL sisLcrutrl (aglul,inturt
sau flexionar') din carrzir 0t"r s-arr tlczr.ulLal p0 rrrr t,eritoriu
cu numeroasc llrig|al,ii. Nlui cviderrl,S. tl Lrltrrslol'lllal'ct\ sLruc-
turii'sinl,cLi,,c rr'
jirrl
bii l,iltcl,anc si n lirrrlril,rt' ntortqrrlc
f
i
manciuro-tunsuse ln ttt'ma contacbului cu limbl chinezdr-
Si transforrrriiiilc sbt'tttrlttrii lilnbii irtrlo-trttroPcne l,rclll.ric sii
ii losL rrt.cclr,r,irl,o tlc cxl,irrrlclctr ci prr irrl,irrsc l,cril,oriirlrr lirrrlri'i
st,r'irinii
ryi
rlrt irrl'lrtottl'r'lc sttlrsl,t'lllrrlrri.
'l'ol'rtrlrrl,ii
rr vizilrili
irrogillil,lit,oir Iil,rrrrrlrri rrVolrr(i{.i irr lirrrlrilr'lil,r'trrt'l| I'rr['rr rl{'
r,gltt r:ltt,rr lll tttt :i1t'itlt't,. Nlt'tttlt ltlt ili;i 1r;11 lttl,rltlt'ittttltt t tttt
sttl'vttl,ttttt'tt. Slrccirrlill,ii irr lirrrlrrlr' ;tttt''t ltttlit'tttr ;ttt t't'l.t';tl'
t.upitlir l,r,ttrrslirr.rrrrtlr, rr irr.rlrl,or. lrrrrl,i, r.itr.{, rlrr,.r, rrrrrrolr lrr
Ilcrcctlll()tI{l,tlt ttit lr:g1tr I rt t' i lol'
;1r'
t t l' I t lr'.
Am discrrtrtL irir,i rllrr ptc o rilt it' rlc l:rr'lot i t ltlt:
1rol,
I'i oorr-
sidera'!i toL a[iLca t:orrtl il ii rt lr' tttorlil il,irIr i sl,r'rrol,urii morfo-
logice. Cauza principalir ir l,l':tttrrlot'ttril'ii ei progresive' se
af]d in creqterea nccesil,r"r{,ilrtt' tlt' t ottttttrit'ilt'o o datd cu dez-
voltarea. civiliza(,ici2- Nttltriti ( irrirrrl s('irrtril tlrr trcest factor
putern stl ne expli,rr'irrt rlc trtt t'\'olrrl,iir
1,r'.1i.r'sivii
ir sistemului
rlor[ologic 1l rrrr6r, lirrrlli lrllirl,r, irr rrlrr',rr irrr:rl,ir, ;r,'llgitrsi tlolt-
ditii gecigrafit'o
f
i traritcl'ct'iztrlr'
Ir'irr
rt.r'lr':trri llrls:il'rrli. sl'r'ttc-
-turalJ
se-r.aliztrrrzli irr gr.rrrlrr rlilr,r.ilr,. ,\r'r,sl. lirlrl, r' rlovCrlil
de inc!]alitirl,cir irt rltrzvollill'(' il tlll{rl lrtrrl,r ir' r'll(lt'lll llrlrrilit'i
iltdo-etrlolrt)ttc, ltirltti!,o srrtttil ilc r;.rr.
' A rcztrll,irt, tlitt t,ttltt o\l)ltlil irr ilrr'lil llrIilol
(ril) slll'('
dcoscl,ir',' tlr' \o, ttlrttlttt', ,'rr,ltt(tlr
Ilrrl'lt"rt\':r
il ltl'll,l'1';1'l
af.e fOl'IIt(t rlg ItlttrillSlirlt' r'lrt i:rlt', tltl('r)t l ctt itriltt'r'll'
( ()ll-
truro. Itt lt,'rrsl, strr:lrtt ltl lirrrlrii, r,r'illlirll llrrrl'il'irl'i'u rlc
Alrrcr,ir'l'rl ltt r'sl,r' ti''trtttllr,:rl ii. rllrli'll lrlrll,il'l ilr' llll l'r'
flir:l,ir lritL'r,ir
'1;rlr'r
ir
1rr.r.r,sr'l,r'l-ri 1rrl,
r'lrirr. rti lrrir:lttt{l:l
esen!u lottotltt,'ttttlrri Nlollologilt csl'rr lrlr';il'ttil'ri
(litt r:ll'tl'lt
microsistcrtrc 1i
iLlcsl,t'il lrll sc tlrorlililli itt ltcccltlii rlit'rrr'-
!ie;i
in acclali lit'rrr. S-lr lrt'iil,ltl,, rlc t'xtrtttlrltt, t'ii i'l
tirop'"u limba llrrlgit|ir a sirrrlrlil'iIirl' trttrll' sisl,crrrul caztlal
(fa!ri de slava corllt.lrrt-l cill'(l ilv(ril 7,'irzrlri Ia singular,
d la plural
;i
1r'
l. dtrlrl
-
Srrlplal'it it,r'tt 2 I'.t'trttr cazuale la.sin-
gular: qi un' la
lrlrr.lrl),
tllt. rl
ltiisl,r'irl,
itt trti\t'tr
1rit.l,c
sistem'l
Volbal slav. lirnlrir r,rrsi c ( ()lts(,tvltloltt't' itt r,rl
Pt'ivtlll,c
f ltl-
r
V. 'l'lr rr I i, 'l'rtntl. ol ,\'lrtrr'ltr.rrrl
vol. XII, fastr. 1, 1l)till,
1r.
l:l
( | lr.rt rt i:r,I
l,a.tt.1it.t'rt
1lt:s,,,(
)rbis"
grirnrrrui t,iclrl cat,cgories
sl trrtt'jlt' itt I ltrr l:tttgttuges
, 39.
'1
B, 1. l1 rlr,Ol)f OlttrikOV, O rt.1ttt.,r.tttt.rr,.t: tl(:ttt,t)it.tt.ttoott)t.u,
aeertnrnult"antu(.tt,o2o
(:tlt
l)oJL,
ibident' nr' 1 ,
19t;:t,
1r1r.
46 56.
150
r
,,'fhe
l,cttrlt:tltly Lort'ltt'rls lrtss ol (11)ll(ll'{)l(l
atrd sirrtlrlif ir,:tlirrlt rtf Itlr,l'l'lr'll.H) is ill llt'll.l':r
I
of tnor,r lriglrly civiliTr'rl p''')l'l"s'( , ilti'ltttr,
1'
151
..
l.rl^
rrogresul I n sinfaxi
\
\
\
r,xiunea noniinald
(are 6 cazuri la singular
ryi
6 pazuri la plu-
:'
r&l;, dar a introdus multo inqvafii.ln conjugarer'.
S; pog.te spune cd. singurolo tcndinfe comune tuturor ltm-
bilor it.,t
""6t.u
de abst"ractizaro a cohlinutului categoriilor
-
reflectlnd evolu[ia necontortitd a gindirii
-
Ei
de sistc-
;
matizare a lor, ca'manifostalc a realizdrii esentci accstut
nivel al limbii, nd.scut, cum s-a ardtat, din neccsitu[ca do
'
orsanizare a miterialului lexical utilizat cu fu'ctii divcrse.
3-" v5.zut, de:asemenea, c5. evolu!ia progresivd-u rrrorfo-
logiei, mai ales ln ceea cq priveqte ritmul
9i
forrnclc
9g
tlo-
"l?"ttl".,
este condilionita de'ma! mul.!i factori'
'l'i'lnd
. ,qeamq7 de aceste luciuri, vom tnlelege de
.ce
progrcsul ln
'
morfolosie
poate fi demonstrat rnai ales prin compararea a
aoue faie din istoria aceleiaqi 1imbi. Cdci nu e posibil ca 1n
I
istoria a doud limbi
-
chiar inrudite
-
sd se repete'condr-
.
liile
interne qi externe care, lntr-o formd sau. alta, i$l pun
. pecetea asrrpta,evoluliei acestui sector lingvistic'
'
,
,.' F o d o r,
'The
Rate of Ling.uistic Change, p' 50'
Evoluli-a sintaxci
|rczirrtr\
r'rclc aspectc comune cu aceea
a vocabularului. Expli.*!iu [r'.buic- ciutatd in rapt"t. ce
yin,taxa.formcazl, irnprcuirir t:u vocabularut, p""iui-"*."1
!ial5_ a_limbii, lcgatri mai direcL dc formele
siirdi"ii. Cu ;i
vocabularul, sinLaxa aparr-. de Ia rrrr:rrfrut'rile
"vorbirii.
fiinh
un elemenl indispensabil oricirrci t,oinrrnicdri.
O.p".ia""ia
drrectd. a raporl,rrrilor si'ba.lir:o dc logit:rt a.e cd. ,r.maie
faptul cd, dincolo dc varioLat,ou rnnl,o'ialrrlui sonor. limbile
prezintri, 1n gcrrc.al, uccltra$i sr,adii in evolutia
"hituiito" lor srnbacbice. Direii dirr prrrrcIrrl rlc vrrdelc il sra*aiicii
' comparativc-istorico
ao'asr,ir trirsirtrrrd h si^rraxei prezinid
dezavantaje_
-
crici ...I)c'rr)itc str s. distirrg[ il
"ili-;i;; elementele [ransmise dirr ]ir'ba-bazd de celc care au fost rm,
prumutate sau c'eabo irrdepo'derrt ln liocure din limbile tnru-
dite-- din punctul de vcderc al sIudiilor aa lincvisticU-se-
neralS, ca este dc folcls, lrrl,rrrcll, fnc' posibild
*comparaiea
unor unitdti identice 1' lirtbi .elcgar,e
'gcnetiq.
ln 6erceta-
rea progresului ln sirrl,axd ct-rrr.luziilc t,c'so desprind ne baza
materialului din Iimbile irrdt-r-orrr,ol')c1]o vor pirtea ti asttei
gg."f-ir1ltg
.si
completate. cu ajuLor,irl dulclor"clin alte fami.
Iii de limbi.
:--
-
,Evolufia
progresivd a sinLaxci cx;rrimr\, r:u mijloace spe_
crlrc tlngvtstrc-e, necontenita r:rcrsLcro u g.adrrlui de abstrhc-
t-rzare qr complexrtat,e a glndirii, dcterminatl, la rlndul ei.
de concr'ua dezvoltare a viclii rnat,eriale qi spirituale. a vor-
bitorilor. Fdrd a ajurrge Ia'simplificdri'gi'vulgarizdri,'se
poate spune totugi, cd, ln esenllf nivelul
seneral-de'dezvol-.
tq,re a sinbaxei unei limbi (ca qi cel al
"vocabrrlarului
ei),
153